WorldWideScience

Sample records for national olympic memorial

  1. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  2. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  3. System planning of Nagano Olympic Memorial Arena; Naganoshi Olympic kinen arena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Kume Sekkei Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hayakawa, M.; Kondo, J. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Daidan Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Yosoyama, Y. [Suga Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-05

    Nagano Olympic Memorial Arena, well known as hosting the Speed Skate Competition in 1998 Winter Olympic Game, is the first multi-purpose facility with 400 m long ice-skate rink in Japan. The superior system for saving energy and resources is the main concept of the arena. This system covers not only the Olympic Game but also multi-functional general usage. The world records and the variety of use are the proof of the accomplishment. (author)

  4. Lieux de mémoire / sites of memories and the Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, research about collective memories of groups or nations has increased decisively. At the same time, ‘lieux de mémoire’ have become an issue of heated debates and controversies about the ‘right memories’, which may support political claims or even wars. Sports provide excellent...... as the politics and processes of remembering are discussed. The theoretical insights are transferred to the field of sport, in particular to the Olympic Games. Not only the competitions but also the buildings, rituals and ceremonies, the athletes and teams, and the audiences have been used to construct, change...... opportunities for the representation of groups and nations and for the construction of collective memories which are intertwined with political myths and anchored in cultural values and ideologies. In this article, theoretical approaches to sites of memories, collective symbols, and political myths as well...

  5. Volunteer Motivations at a National Special Olympics Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28…

  6. Russia and the olympic movement : a study of Russian national identity as described in the newspaper Sovetskij Sport during the winter olympic games of 1988, 1992, 1994, and in the future winter olympic games of 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The topic of the thesis deals with Russia and the Olympic Movement, studying Russian national identity as it is described in the newspaper Sovetskij Sport during three past Winter Olympic Games (1988, 1992, 1994) and the upcoming Winter Olympic Games that take place in Sochi 2014 in the framework of international politics. The research task is to analyze, what kinds of discourses do the writings of Russian Olympic Committee’s leading sports journal Sovetskij Sport use in times of the above me...

  7. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  8. 76 FR 68429 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... applications for the following vacant seats on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... in the area affected by the sanctuary. Applicants who are chosen as members should expect to serve...

  9. 77 FR 16813 - Availability of Seat for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... applications for the following vacant seat on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected by the sanctuary. Applicants who are...

  10. 75 FR 66064 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... applications for the following vacant seats on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... in the area affected by the sanctuary. Applicants who are chosen as members should expect to serve...

  11. Evaluation of fisher restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2013 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia J. Happe; Kurt J. Jenkins; Michael K. Schwartz; Jeffrey C. Lewis; Keith B. Aubry

    2014-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers [Pekania pennanti (formerly Martes pennanti)] from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008-2010, the National Park Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to...

  12. Going the distance: Service delivery for the Danish National swimming team during the Olympics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    In this presentation I will outline the service delivery for the Danish National swimming team and provide an example of my work based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with an individual swimmer during the Olympics. Being part of the Olympics involves a range of stressors...... and distractions such as a tight packed swimming schedule (up to 12 starts across seven days), a lot of media attention, social media, others and own expectations. In my service delivery during the Olympics I tried to create an awareness of these stressors and distractions. On a normal day at the Olympics I had...

  13. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart O of... - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. O, App. A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922...

  14. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2014 annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–5 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2014, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-square-kilometer hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2014, federal, state, tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three baited motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 80 hexes; 69 in the targeted area 11 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 5 of the 80 hexagons, and identified 5 different fishers through a combination of microsatellite DNA analyses and camera detections. All fisher detections were in the target area

  15. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2015 final annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristie; Schwartz, Michael K; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service (NPS) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–8 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2015, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-km2 hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2015, Federal, State, Tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three Distributioned motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 87 hexes; 75 in the targeted area and 12 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 7 of the 87 hexagons. Four fishers were identified through microsatellite DNA analyses. The 4 identified fishers included 1 of the original founding population of 90

  16. The Beijing Olympics and the art of nation-state maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.; Pak Lei Chong, G.; Liu, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article maps out how different actors are involved in the promotion and mediation of the Olympics. It looks at the roles of, first, the nation-state, through an analysis of the promotional materials; second, the art world and global companies, through an analysis of the touring exhibition

  17. Abundance and population characteristics of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Erran Seaman

    1997-01-01

    We monitored the threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park from 1992 through 1996. We used a stratified random sampling scheme to survey 35 plots totaling 236 km?, approximately 10 percent of the forested area of the park.

  18. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204a - Survey footprint for area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2002, approximately 42 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  19. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204c - Survey footprint of area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2003, approximately 49 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  20. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204b - Survey footprint of area 110_0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2003, approximately 49 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  1. Coverage hab108_0201 -- Habitat polygons for HMPR-108-2002-01 survey in Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS).ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  2. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204c - Habitat polygons for survey area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  3. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab122_0702 - Habitat polygons for HMPR-122-2007-02 survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected side scan sonar, multibeam...

  4. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204b - Habitat polygons for survey area 0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  5. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204a - Habitat polygons for area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  6. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  7. Mount Rainier National Park and Olympic National Park Elk Monitoring Program Annual Report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul; Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Reid, Mason; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Tirhi, Michelle; McCorquodale, Scott; Miller, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal year 2010 was the third year of gathering data needed for protocol development while simultaneously implementing what is expected to be the elk monitoring protocol at Mount Rainier (MORA) and Olympic (OLYM) national parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN). Elk monitoring in these large wilderness parks relies on aerial surveys from a helicopter. Summer surveys are planned for both parks and are intended to provide quantitative estimates of abundance, sex and age composition, and distribution of migratory elk in high elevation trend count areas. Spring surveys are planned at Olympic National Park and are intended to provide quantitative estimates of abundance of resident and migratory elk on low-elevation winter ranges within surveyed trend count areas. An unknown number of elk is not detected during surveys. The protocol under development aims to estimate the number of missed elk by applying a model that accounts for detection bias. Detection bias in elk surveys in MORA will be estimated using a double-observer sightability model that was developed based on data from surveys conducted in 2008-2010. The model was developed using elk that were previously equipped with radio collars by cooperating tribes. That model is currently in peer review. At the onset of protocol development in OLYM there were no existing radio- collars on elk. Consequently double-observer sightability models have not yet been developed for elk surveys in OLYM; the majority of the effort in OLYM has been focused on capturing and radio collaring elk to permit the development of sightability models for application in OLYM. As a result, no estimates of abundance or composition are included in this annual report, only raw counts of the numbers of elk seen in surveys. At MORA each of the two trend count areas (North Rainier herd, and South Rainier herd) were surveyed twice. 290 and 380 elk were counted on the two replicates in the North Rainier herd, and 621 and 327 elk counted on

  8. Olympic citizenship and the (un)specialness of the national vest: rethinking the links between sport and citizenship law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostakopoulou, D.; Schrauwen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing mobility of athletes prompts a reconsideration of the presumed connection between allegiance, identity and nationality. Olympic citizenship challenges traditional understandings of community membership by calling into question the privileged status of birthright citizenship and by

  9. Strength and Conditioning Training by the Danish National Handball Team Before an Olympic Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvorning, Thue; Hansen, Mikkel R B; Jensen, Kurt

    2017-07-01

    Kvorning, T, Hansen, MRB, and Jensen, K. Strength and conditioning training by the Danish national handball team before an Olympic tournament. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1759-1765, 2017-The physical demands imposed on national team handball teams during the Olympics imply significant physical preparation to improve performance and reduce incidence of injuries. The purpose of this case report was to describe and analyze the strength and conditioning (S&C) training performed by the Danish national handball team before the Beijing Olympic Games. Eight weeks of S&C was divided into 5 weeks emphasizing muscle hypertrophy and long-interval running followed by 3 weeks emphasizing strength, power, and short-interval running. Body mass increased by 1.6% (p 0.05). Agility performance was evaluated by a T-test and improved by 2.5% (p handball teams preparing for competition. Detailed and periodized S&C training programs for 8 weeks are provided and can be used by teams ranging from moderately to highly trained.

  10. National and ethnic identification, intergroup attitudes, and sport participation in the context of the London Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Virginia L; Corson, Eliza-Jane

    2013-11-01

    In the run-up to the 2012 London Olympics, the sense of national identity was salient. We tested children (N = 401) aged 5-15 years living near the Olympic site on national (British) and ethnic identification, national ingroup and outgroup attitudes, and sport participation. It was found that the strength of British identification peaked at age 9 years, but the strength of ethnic identification remained stable with age. Both liking for, and stereotyping of, different national groups diverged from age 9 years, but whilst stereotyping remained diverged liking converged by 15 years. The in group was one of the most liked, but one of the least positively stereotyped groups. Sport participation declined with age and was higher among boys, whilst the lowest socio-economic group showed the greatest discrepancy between normal and recent reported participation. The strength of British identification was associated with liking for, and stereotyping of, the British as well as sport participation, but the degree of associations varied between different groups of children. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Strength and Conditioning Training by the Danish National Handball Team Before an Olympic Tournament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Hansen, Mikkel R B; Jensen, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    preparation to improve performance and reduce incidence of injuries. The purpose of this case report was to describe and analyze the strength and conditioning (S&C) training performed by the Danish national handball team before the Beijing Olympic Games. Eight weeks of S&C was divided into 5 weeks emphasizing...... muscle hypertrophy and long-interval running followed by 3 weeks emphasizing strength, power, and short-interval running. Body mass increased by 1.6% (p 0.05). Agility...... performance was evaluated by a T-test and improved by 2.5% (p Running performance was tested by the Yo-Yo intermittent...

  12. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for

  13. hab118_0503b -- Habitat polygons for HMPR-118-2005-03b survey in Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS).ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  14. hab113_0401q -- Habitat polygons for HMPR-113-2004-01q survey in Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS).ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  15. hab119_0601d -- Habitat polygons for HMPR-119-2006-01d survey in Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS).ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  16. hab115_0403 - Habitat polygons for Cape Flattery and Makah Bay area. Results from HMPR-115-2004-03 acoustic survey in Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS). ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  17. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a compl...... to yacht types, and reviews the existing knowledge on physical requirements in modern Olympic sailing. Finally, recommendations for future research in sailing are given.......Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female......) in a complete national Olympic delegation. The yachts have different requirements with respect to handling, and moreover, each sailor plays a specific role when sailing. Therefore physical demands remain heterogeneous for Olympic sailors. Previous studies have mainly examined sailors where 'hiking' (the task...

  18. Nationalism and diversity: the Esquenta and the Opening Ceremony of the Rio 2016 Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda da Mota Rocha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2017v16n35p159 The article seeks to present an analysis about the current forms of articulation between nationalism and diversity in Brazilian culture, taking as objects Esquenta!, a TV program from Globo TV, and the Opening Ceremony of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. They both have in common an alternation between moments of unity and fragmentation which indicate the impasses and the solutions found to speak about “Brazil” in a political and cultural context of criticism to the assimilation of the “other” by the dominant discourse. The participation of Regina Casé in the ceremony is much more than casual. Casé has been in the spotlight for years. She is a TV personality. At the same time that she is seen as the “ambassador of the periphery on TV”, she is an important link in the network of artists and intellectuals who emerged on the Brazilian cultural scene from the 1980s, in theater, Video, Cinema and Television shows. The directors of the opening ceremony are also part of the first generation of artists and intellectuals formed after the consolidation of a cultural industry in Brazil, which had repercussions on their path and which TV and advertising were important spaces for professional socialization. In this same way, starting in 1980, they were influenced by the criticism of nationalism for its association with the Military Regime and by the increasing value given to diversity. In this analytical approach, we start by examining the Núcleo Guel Arraes (from Globo TV, a meeting place for many artists of this generation, all the way until the arrival of the Esquenta! program, as the definitive expression of the value of diversity through an aesthetic-political project of visibility of the periphery. Furthermore, this paper identifies echoes of this project at the opening ceremony, trying to demonstrate that the ceremony also outlined a similar solution in order to achieve

  19. Physical Drivers Vs. Effects of the Wolf-Elk Trophic Cascade on Fluvial Channel Planform, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, A. E.; Jenkins, K. J.; Happe, P. J.; Bountry, J.; Beechie, T. J.; Mastin, M. C.; Sankey, J. B.; Randle, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes to channel evolution remains a substantial challenge in fluvial geomorphology. We use a 74-year aerial photographic record of the Hoh, Queets, Quinault, and Elwha Rivers, Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A., to investigate whether physical or trophic-cascade-driven ecological factors—excessive elk impacts after wolves were extirpated a century ago—are the dominant controls on channel planform of these gravel-bed rivers. We find that channel width and braiding show strong relationships with recent flood history; all four rivers have widened significantly in recent decades, consistent with increased flood activity since the 1970s. Channel planform also reflects sediment-supply changes, shown, for example, by the response of the Elwha River to a landslide. We surmise that the Hoh River, which shows a multi-decadal trend toward greater braiding, is adjusting to increased sediment supply associated with rapid glacial retreat. These rivers demonstrate rapid transmission of climatic signals through relatively short sediment-routing systems that lack substantial buffering by sediment storage. We infer no correspondence between channel evolution and elk abundance, suggesting that in this system effects of the wolf-driven trophic cascade are subsidiary to physical controls on channel morphology. Our examinations of stage-discharge history, historical maps, photographs, and descriptions, and empirical geomorphic thresholds do not support a previous conceptual model that these rivers underwent a fundamental geomorphic transition (widening, and a shift from single-thread to braided) resulting from large elk populations in the early 20th century. These findings differ from previous interpretations of Olympic National Park river dynamics, and also contrast with previous findings in Yellowstone National Park, where legacy effects of abundant elk nearly a century ago apparently still affect

  20. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  1. Route of the Olympic flame: Beijing as a guardian of the antique cult of the European nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    were once created, attacked fiercely those same notions. How are we to understand these contradictory images? How it came about that China experience itself as heiress of the Olympic tradition and how it happened that the pride of the Chinese nation concentrated in the flame, be hurt by the attempts of the European demonstrators to put it out? Modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, presented itself as one of the echoes of centuries' long fascination of the Antique era experienced by the Westerners. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a new redefinition of the European past and civilization ranging from abandoning Biblical story and gradual building of the secular one which we came to call modern history. In that modern history, Ancient Greece and Rome became the two main references about origin. The same process has lead to formation of national states, which, besides making their own national history, had in common the perceived joint origin in the Ancient Greece. Of course, Gauls, Franks or Germanics had very little in common with the ancient Greeks; the common characteristics of the modern European nations are precisely the invention of the Antique images and a firm belief in it as a source of the cultural identity. For instance, the French and British have believed, at the end of the 18th century, they could trace their origin back to the Ancient Greece; in addition, they have managed to successfully 'sell' the story to the modern Greeks and afterward to the rest of the world. In this sense, it is not possible not to see the parallel with the modern China. Adopting the Western model in almost everything, from communist ideology as its first phase of westernization, to liberal economy, and finally to Olympic Games, China implicitly adopts the European story on origin. Critiques however, do not clearly see the range of this discrepancy that the country with such rich tradition has made in the last several decades toward the West. An arrogant

  2. [Sports injuries and illnesses during the 2008 Olympic Games and 2013 China National Games in Shenyang Division].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhe; Chen, Zhian; Pan, Shinong; Liao, Wei; Zhan, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqiang; Wang, Yitong; Lu, Chunxue; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liang, Hongjun; Guo, Qiyong

    2015-05-05

    To retrospectively analyse the medical imaging examination results of the injuries and illnesses during the 2008 Olympic Games and 2013 China National Games in Shenyang Divison. Collected and analyzed the health information and medical imaging examination results from Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University during the two games. There was 9 cases of sports injuries in the 2008 Olympic Games, mainly for knee, ankle ligament injury and muscle sprain, 36 cases of sports injuries in the 2013 China National Games, mainly for head traumas (9 cases), knee injuries (7 cases), ankle injuries (7 cases), shoulder injures (4 cases). Competitions of high risk of being injured were wrestling (10 cases), track and field (8 cases), American football (6 cases). The most common cause of illness were respiratory system (60 cases) and the digestive system (27 cases) in the total 233 cases illnesses in the China National Games. Different sports have different characteristic, regularity and mechanism of injury. Medical imaging examination has important value in the diagnosis of injury during large games. The respiratory system and digestive system are the most common illnesses and affect the athletes training and competition as important as injuries. So illness is the focus on the medical care assurance of the large games.

  3. Relationship Between Change of Direction, Speed and Power in Male and Female National Olympic Team Handball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas A; Nimphius, Sophia; Kobal, Ronaldo; Kitamura, Katia; Turisco, Luiz A L; Orsi, Rita C; Cal Abad, César Cs; Loturco, Irineu

    2018-02-22

    The aims of this study were to (1) assess the relationship between selected speed-power related abilities (determined by 20-m sprint, unloaded countermovement and squat jumps [CMJ and SJ] and loaded jump squat [JS]) and performance in two distinct change of direction (COD) protocols (Zigzag and T-Test), and (2) determine the magnitude of difference between female and male Brazilian National Olympic Team handball athletes. Fifteen male and twenty-three female elite handball athletes volunteered to perform the following assessments: SJ and CMJ; Zigzag and T-Test; 20-m sprint with 5-, 10-, and 20-m splits, and mean propulsive power (MPP) in JS. Pearson product moment correlation (Phandball athletes.

  4. A new species of in the Rhyacophila vagrita group (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) from Olympic National Park, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan J; Giersch, J. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Rhyacophila vagrita Milne, 1936 was described from specimens collected in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. Ross (1950), while examining R. vagrita paratypes from Alberta, discovered four males that did not fi t the R. vagrita description. These he described and named R. milnei Ross, 1950. Ross (1956) established the R. vagrita group for R. vagrita and R. milnei based primarily on the synapomorphies of the “curious dorsal projections of both ninth and tenth tergites”, a very small simple aedeagus, and “a curious development of the apical band and anal sclerite”. Schmid (1970) indicated that males of the vagrita group have genitalia that are among the most unique in all of the species of Rhyacophila. While collecting in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA, we discovered an undescribed Rhyacophila species, most similar to R. milnei, with structures as remarkable as those described for R. vagrita and R. milnei

  5. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Self, Nation, and Generational Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss/Bøss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory........A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory.....

  7. The legacy of the Olympics: economic burden or boon?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Lowell R.; Wolla, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Competition, sportsmanship, and national pride are the foundations of the Olympics, but how much do the Olympics cost the host city and country? What are some of the economic benefits and costs? Is the investment in the Olympics worth it in the end? Read about previous host experiences with the economic side of the Olympics in this month's Page One Economics Newsletter “The Legacy of the Olympics: Economic Burden or Boon?” (see related graph: "Olympics-Related Temporary Increase in Employment...

  8. Olympic Games Bids

    OpenAIRE

    Dichter, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Hosting international sport events, from world championships for a single sport to mega-events such as the Olympic Games or the FIFA World Cup, have become big business over the past few decades. These events have grown tremendously since their early incarnations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The popularity and appeal of sport make hosting sporting events desirable for both local politicians and national sport leaders who work together to convince the public and the i...

  9. Mythscapes: memory, mythology, and national identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Duncan

    2003-03-01

    In this paper I seek to challenge the dominant modes of conceiving the relationship between memory and national identity, and in so doing offer analysts of nationalism an improved understanding of the dynamics of national identity formation. The concept of collective memory is invoked regularly in attempts to explain the pervasiveness and power of nationalism. I argue that the concept is misused routinely in this context, and instead I employ a 'social agency' approach to theorizing, whereby memory is conceived in a more limited and cogent manner. I argue that it is important to distinguish clearly between memory and mythology, both of which are essential to understanding national identity, for not only are the two concepts distinct, they can also act in opposition to each other. Following from this I introduce the notion of a 'mythscape', the temporally and spatially extended discursive realm in which the myths of the nation are forged, transmitted, negotiated, and reconstructed constantly. Through employing the idea of a mythscape we can relate memory and mythology to each other in a theoretically profitable way.

  10. Use of topographic and climatological models in a geographical data base to improve Landsat MSS classification for Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, William G.; Nyquist, Maurice O.

    1987-01-01

    An unsupervised computer classification of vegetation/landcover of Olympic National Park and surrounding environs was initially carried out using four bands of Landsat MSS data. The primary objective of the project was to derive a level of landcover classifications useful for park management applications while maintaining an acceptably high level of classification accuracy. Initially, nine generalized vegetation/landcover classes were derived. Overall classification accuracy was 91.7 percent. In an attempt to refine the level of classification, a geographic information system (GIS) approach was employed. Topographic data and watershed boundaries (inferred precipitation/temperature) data were registered with the Landsat MSS data. The resultant boolean operations yielded 21 vegetation/landcover classes while maintaining the same level of classification accuracy. The final classification provided much better identification and location of the major forest types within the park at the same high level of accuracy, and these met the project objective. This classification could now become inputs into a GIS system to help provide answers to park management coupled with other ancillary data programs such as fire management.

  11. NATIONAL HISTORICAL EVENTS IN IRANIAN COLLECTIVE MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ebadollahi Chanzanagh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate presence of nationalhistorical events in Iraniancollective memory. According to social theorists remembering is a socialphenomenon which occurs in social cadres. In Iranian social context, ethnicity,generation, religion and education are important social cadres of memory. 384national samples from three different ethnicities,Azeri, Gilaki and Kurd, werechosen by quota sampling. Results of survey indicated three social cadres ofgeneration, religion and education explained remembering national historicalevents and Iranian collective memory is basically rooted in national historicalevents rather than ethnic one. ‘The 1979 Islamic revolution’, ‘Iran’s oilnationalization and the following 1953 Iranian coupd’état’ from the last centuryevents and ‘Iranian constitutional revolution’, ‘Russo-Persian wars’ from prior tothe last century events are the most important national events remembered byIranian.

  12. H11086: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, Washington, 2001-10-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. How to Influence National Pride? The Olympic Medal Index as a Unifying Narrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hilvoorde, I.M.; Elling, A.; Stokvis, R.

    2010-01-01

    Elite sport is often regarded as one of the main vehicles for articulating national pride and stimulating national cohesion. In this article, we explore a variety of different notions of pride and nationality as related to success in elite sport. We present the results of a public survey, which

  14. Olympic Broadcast Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Žižka, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Title: Olympic Broadcast Rights Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to analyse the revenue derived from the sale of the broadcasting rights to the Olympics by Olympic Movement. In the thesis are analysed the total sum of revenue, selected territory and compared the proportion that belongs to the International Olympic Committee and the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games. The secondary objective is to adapt and calculation of the conversion mechanism for the transfer of amou...

  15. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Fradkin, Steven C.

    2016-05-31

    Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake. Natural abundance ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) measured in plant tissue growing in nearshore areas of the lake indicate that the major source of nitrogen used by these primary producing plants is derived mainly from atmospherically fixed nitrogen in an undeveloped forested ecosystem. Exceptions to this pattern occurred in the Barnes Point area where elevated δ15N ratios indicate that effluent from septic systems also contribute nitrogen to filamentous-periphytic algae growing in the littoral zone of that area. Near the Lyre River outlet of Lake Crescent, the δ15N of filamentous-periphytic algae growing in close proximity to the spawning areas of a unique species of trout show little evidence of elevated δ15N indicating that nitrogen from on-site septic systems is not a substantial source of nitrogen for these plants. The δ15N data corroborate estimates that nitrogen input to Lake Crescent from septic sources is comparatively small relative to input from motor vehicle exhaust and vegetative sources in undeveloped forests, including litterfall, pollen, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees (Alnus rubra). Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources.

  16. Sources and sinks of nitrogen and phosphorus to a deep, oligotrophic lake, Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.W.; Cox, S.E.; Embrey, S.S.; Huffman, R.L.; Olsen, T.D.; Fradkin, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Crescent, in Olympic National Park in the northwest corner of Washington State is a deep-water lake renowned for its pristine water quality and oligotrophic nature. To examine the major sources and sinks of nutrients (as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved nitrate), a study was conducted in the Lake Crescent watershed. The study involved measuring five major inflow streams, the Lyre River as the major outflow, recording weather and climatic data, coring lake bed sediment, and analyzing nutrient chemistry in several relevant media over 14 months. Water samples for total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved nitrate from the five inflow streams, the outlet Lyre River, and two stations in the lake were collected monthly from May 2006 through May 2007. Periodic samples of shallow water from temporary sampling wells were collected at numerous locations around the lake. Concentrations of nutrients detected in Lake Crescent and tributaries were then applied to the water budget estimates to arrive at monthly and annual loads from various environmental components within the watershed. Other sources, such as leaf litter, pollen, or automobile exhaust were estimated from annual values obtained from various literature sources. This information then was used to construct a nutrient budget for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The nitrogen budget generally highlights vehicle traffic-diesel trucks in particular-along U.S. Highway 101 as a potential major anthropogenic source of nitrogen compounds in the lake. In contrast, contribution of nitrogen compounds from onsite septic systems appears to be relatively minor related to the other sources identified.

  17. SPORTS AND TURIST OPPORTUNITIES OF THE NATIONAL PARK AND THE OLYMPIC MOUNTAIN AS THE WAYS OF ORGANIZATION OF THE ACTIVITIES IN THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milomir Trivun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of the study is to defi ne the opportunities of the organization of the activities in the country the students of Faculty of Physical Education at University of East Sarajevo, all that in the locality of National Park Sutjeska and Olympic Mountain Jahorina, that are sports and turist destinations. Besides the edukation of the students of Faculty of Phisical Education during the activities in the country, the aim of the study is to stimulate the population to take part in sports and recreation without distinction of sex and age

  18. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    ... in preparation for the international event. China anticipates that the 2008 Olympics will provide both short-term and long-term direct and indirect benefits to its economy, as well as enhance the nation's global image...

  19. Box-ticking and Olympic high jumping - Physicians' perceptions and acceptance of national physician validation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlbach, Carolin; Govaerts, Marjan J B; Mitchell, Sharon; Rohde, Gernot G U; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Driessen, Erik W

    2018-05-24

    National physician validation systems aim to ensure lifelong learning through periodic appraisals of physicians' competence. Their effectiveness is determined by physicians' acceptance of and commitment to the system. This study, therefore, sought to explore physicians' perceptions and self-reported acceptance of validation across three different physician validation systems in Europe. Using a constructivist grounded-theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 32 respiratory specialists from three countries with markedly different validation systems: Germany, which has a mandatory, credit-based system oriented to continuing professional development; Denmark, with mandatory annual dialogs and ensuing, non-compulsory activities; and the UK, with a mandatory, portfolio-based revalidation system. We analyzed interview data with a view to identifying factors influencing physicians' perceptions and acceptance. Factors that influenced acceptance were the assessment's authenticity and alignment of its requirements with clinical practice, physicians' beliefs about learning, perceived autonomy, and organizational support. Users' acceptance levels determine any system's effectiveness. To support lifelong learning effectively, national physician validation systems must be carefully designed and integrated into daily practice. Involving physicians in their design may render systems more authentic and improve alignment between individual ambitions and the systems' goals, thereby promoting acceptance.

  20. Olympic territorialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Dansero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les méga-événements tels que les jeux olympiques attirent de plus en plusl’attention dans le débat relatif aux transformations urbaines. Leurs dimensions sont multiples ; leurs plus importants impacts sont sans doute ceux de nature spatiale. Ils sont l’occasion d’entreprendre une transformation urbaine extraordinaire en termes de structure interne, d’image et de compétitivité externe. À partir de l’expérience des Jeux de 2006 organisés à Turin, cet article propose une approche théorique pour l’étude de la territorialisation de méga-événements et du défi problématique leur legs.Mega-events, as the Olympic Games, receive an increasing attention in the debate about urban transformations. They have multiple dimensions but surely one of the most important impacts are the spatial ones. They are an occasion of extraordinary urban transformation, in its inside structure, in its image and in its external competitiveness. Moving from Torino 2006, this paper present a theoretical approach to study the territorialization of mega-events and the problematic challenge of the legacy.

  1. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  2. Predicting spread of invasive exotic plants into de-watered reservoirs following dam removal on the Elwha River, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Torgersen, Christian E.; Chenoweth, Joshua; Beirne, Katherine; Acker, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service is planning to start the restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem in Olympic National Park by removing two high head dams beginning in 2011. The potential for dispersal of exotic plants into dewatered reservoirs following dam removal, which would inhibit restoration of native vegetation, is of great concern. We focused on predicting long-distance dispersal of invasive exotic plants rather than diffusive spread because local sources of invasive species have been surveyed. We included the long-distance dispersal vectors: wind, water, birds, beavers, ungulates, and users of roads and trails. Using information about the current distribution of invasive species from two surveys, various geographic information system techniques and models, and statistical methods, we identified high-priority areas for Park staff to treat prior to dam removal, and areas of the dewatered reservoirs at risk after dam removal.

  3. Channel-planform evolution in four rivers of Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A.: The roles of physical drivers and trophic cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Sankey, Joel B.; Randle, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes to channel evolution remains a substantial challenge in fluvial geomorphology. We use a 74-year aerial photographic record of the Hoh, Queets, Quinault, and Elwha Rivers, Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A., to investigate whether physical or trophic-cascade-driven ecological factors—excessive elk impacts after wolves were extirpated a century ago—are the dominant controls on channel planform of these gravel-bed rivers. We find that channel width and braiding show strong relationships with recent flood history. All four rivers have widened significantly in recent decades, consistent with increased flood activity since the 1970s. Channel planform also reflects sediment-supply changes, evident from landslide response on the Elwha River. We surmise that the Hoh River, which shows a multi-decadal trend toward greater braiding, is adjusting to increased sediment supply associated with rapid glacial retreat. In this sediment-routing system with high connectivity, such climate-driven signals appear to propagate downstream without being buffered substantially by sediment storage. Legacy effects of anthropogenic modification likely also affect the Quinault River planform. We infer no correspondence between channel geomorphic evolution and elk abundance, suggesting that trophic-cascade effects in this setting are subsidiary to physical controls on channel morphology. Our findings differ from previous interpretations of Olympic National Park fluvial dynamics and contrast with the classic example of Yellowstone National Park, where legacy effects of elk overuse are apparent in channel morphology; we attribute these differences to hydrologic regime and large-wood availability.

  4. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  5. Who wins olympic bids?

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of hosting the Olympic Games is attractive to many cities around the world. This article examines 147 variables’ potential to discriminate successful from unsuccessful Olympic bids. Our stepwise, rank-ordered logistic regression model includes 10 determinants supporting the contention that economic, political and sports/Olympic factors are important for winning the host city election. IOC members favor cities if more than 2/3 of the population support the bid, but disfavor biddin...

  6. May a unitary autonomic index help assess autonomic cardiac regulation in elite athletes? Preliminary observations on the national Italian Olympic committee team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Roberto; Malacarne, Mara; Tosi, Fabio; Benzi, Manuela; Solaro, Nadia; Tamorri, Stefano; Spataro, Antonio; Pagani, Massimo; Lucini, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    Long term endurance training, as occurring in elite athletes, is associated to cardiac neural remodeling in favor of cardioprotective vagal mechanisms, resulting in resting bradycardia and augmented contribution of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic assessment can be performed by way of heart rate variability. This technique however provides multiple indices, and there is not yet complete agreement on their specific significance. Purpose of the study was to assess whether a rank transformation and radar plot could provide a unitary autonomic index, capable to show a correlation between intensity of individual work and quality of autonomic regulation. We studied 711 (23.6±6.2 years) elite athletes that took part in the selection procedure for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games for the National Italian Olympic Committee (CONI). Indices from Heart Rate Variability HRV obtained at rest, during standing up and during recovery from an exercise test were used to compute a percent ranked unitary autonomic index for sport (ANSIs), taken as proxy of quality of autonomic regulation. Within the observed wide range of energy expenditure, the unitary autonomic index ANSIs appears significantly correlated to individual and discipline specific training workloads (r=0.25, P<0.001 and r=0.78, P<0.001, respectively), correcting for possible age and gender bias. ANSIs also positively correlates to lipid profile. Estimated intensity of physical activity correlates with quality of cardiac autonomic regulation, as expressed by a novel unitary index of cardiac autonomic regulation. ANSIs could provide a novel and convenient approach to individual autonomic evaluation in athletes.

  7. Mapping the Discipline of the Olympic Games An Author- Cocitation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Warning; Ching Ju Mae Rosie; Kristine Toohey

    2008-01-01

    When most people think about the Olympic Games it is usually in terms of athletic performance. Clearly they are more than that (see Toohey & Veal, 1990). Even the mass media does not confine itself to covering only the sporting angle. For example, symbolism, economic factors, nationalism and politics routinely appear in mass media articles relating to the Olympic Games. There are scholarly journals that are devoted exclusively to the Olympic Games, such as Olympika and the Journal of Olympic ...

  8. Post-Olympism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    been faced by crises that have threatened the spirit of Olympism and even the Games themselves. Given the many changes that have occurred in the Olympic Games during the past century it seems reasonable to ask if this global event has a future and, if so, what form it might take. Whit this larger issue...

  9. Art Casting of China and 2008 Beijing Olympic Sculptures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, a major international multi-sport event, took place in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. It has well shown the Chinese people's dream and passion about the Games. Hosting an Olympic Games has been a century-old dream for the Chinese nation.

  10. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  11. A view of politics and boycotts in modern Olympic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Güven Karahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to display and discuss the politics events and boycotts in modern Olympic Games. According to the literature, the events in the Olympic Games were discussed under the religious, racialist, ideological, politics and boycotts headlines. Methods: It was used historical research method in this study. Literature was reviewed and findings were discussed for this purpose. Results: Baron Pierre de Coubertin remanufactured the Ancient Greek Olympic games to modern. He didn’t approach the Olympic Games just international sport computations, he also purposed to educate the younger generations with spirit of friendship and comprehension by the Olympic Games. He had wanted to further to be sited more good and conciliatory world. Olympic Games is the biggest and the best social event in the world. Therefore, it was used by some countries for profits. These profits revelations variously like religious, racialist, ideological and politics events after a while. Conclusion: As a conclusion, it can be said that, It is necessary to rescue from politic events and sustain the games depending on Olympic philosophy. For this purpose, national and international Olympic committees must be necessary to be a sensitive and conscientious. Separately, countries education systems must be teach the olympism philosophy.

  12. Tribulations and achievements: the early history of Olympism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C R

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century, modern sport had enchanted the people of Argentina. At that time the nation enjoyed a remarkable degree of economic prosperity and embarked on increasing political democratization. These circumstances, along with the fact that the nation was represented from the beginning, in 1894, on the International Olympic Committee seemed to favour Argentina as the spearhead of the diffusion of Olympism throughout South America. However, the country only enjoyed its first official Olympic participation in the Paris Games of 1924 - a few months after the establishment of the Argentine Olympic Committee. This essay explores the reception and diffusion of Olympism in Argentina. It reveals a process of gradual adoption including conflicting views on the relationship between the state and sport, several attempts at institutionalization, international misunderstandings and the role of politics and class.

  13. Relationships between the National Adult Reading Test and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andreas; Wahlin, Tarja-Brita Robins; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between performance on the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and retrospective, concurrent, and prospective memory functioning, as well as between the NART and change in memory functioning over time. NART administered in 2005 was used as a predictor for memory functioning in 2001, 2005, and 2008, and change in memory functioning from 2001 to 2008. Outcome measures were Logical Memory II, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Spatial Span from the Wechsler Memory Scale. Participants were 319 healthy women aged 40-79 years at baseline (2001). Significant correlations were found between the number of errors on the NART and memory measures in 2001, 2005, and 2008; Logical Memory II (r = -.41, -.38, -.39, respectively), Letter-Number Sequencing (r = -.38, -.35, -.36, respectively) and Spatial Span (r = -.23, -.22, -.19, respectively; all p values memory, after controlling for age, level of education and socioeconomic status. NART also significantly added to predictions of change in Logical Memory II and Letter-Number Sequencing over a 7-year period. The results indicate that the NART is correlated with episodic and working memory, and that the NART added to predictions of change in verbal episodic and working memory. Although the relationships are only moderate at best, the NART may be used in conjunction with demographic information and clinical reasoning to estimate premorbid memory functioning.

  14. The Olympic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose; Mark M. Spiegel

    2009-01-01

    Economists are skeptical about the economic benefits of hosting "mega-events" such as the Olympic Games or the World Cup, since such activities have considerable cost and seem to yield few tangible benefits. These doubts are rarely shared by policy-makers and the population, who are typically quite enthusiastic about such spectacles. In this paper, we reconcile these positions by examining the economic impact of hosting mega-events like the Olympics; we focus on trade. Using a variety of trad...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South China Sea from 2012-05-13 to 2012-08-26 (NCEI Accession 0144304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144304 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South...

  16. 2013-2014 USGS Lidar: Olympic Peninsula (WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS Olympic Peninsula Washington LIDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD00849...

  17. Importance of the First and the Second Russian Olympic Games for development of sports and Olympic movement in the Russian Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Лях-Породько, Олексій

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals and analyses external and internal (nation-wide and regional) factors which have affected the holding of the First Russian Olympic Games of 1913 in Kiev and the Second Russian Olympic Games of 1914 in Riga are analyzed. It was determined that sports activity in the state was considerably stirred up during 1913–1914 years. It was found that the first Russian Olympic Games directly affected development of governmental-public structure of physical training and sports, creatio...

  18. Olympic Education and Beyond: Olympism and Value Legacies from the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia

    2012-01-01

    This article starts with a discussion on the links between Olympism and education as presented in the early years of the modern Olympic Movement and the ideological vision of its founder, Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Questions about whether that vision can remain as an ideological platform for the Olympic and Paralympic Games are debated in the…

  19. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - mos122_0702.tif - Side scan sonar mosaic from survey effort 122_0702.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor (15-35 m water depths) was mosaiced from acoustic data collected in 2007 aboard the R/V Tatoosh. A Klein System 3000...

  20. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - mos120_0602b - Side scan sonar mosaic from survey effort 120_0602

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor (70-90 m water depths) was mosaiced from acoustic data collected in 2006 aboard the R/V Tatoosh. A Klein System 3000...

  1. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - mos120_0602a - Side scan sonar mosaic from survey effort 120_0602

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor (35-55 m water depths) was mosaiced from acoustic data collected in 2006 aboard the R/V Tatoosh. A Klein System 3000...

  2. Isaac Newton Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Presents the Isaac Newton Olympics in which students complete a hands-on activity at seven stations and evaluate what they have learned in the activity and how it is related to real life. Includes both student and teacher instructions for three of the activities. (YDS)

  3. Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Norman, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue focuses on an economic understanding of the 1984 Olympiad, held in Los Angeles, California. The theme article provides a conceptual introduction focused on the role of scarcity in the giving of awards, allocation mechanisms, competition, consumption versus investment, and private and external benefits of the Olympics. Four instructional…

  4. Contribution of Sport Policy to Sport Legacy Development : Case of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of hosting the Olympic Games on a host city/nation are significant, and therefore how to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positive effect has been an issue for the event owner, the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC aims to leave so-called ‘legacy,’ which are to be long-term positive effects, in host cities and nations. The legacy issues captured Olympic stakeholders and researchers, after the IOC Olympic Study Centre and Autonomous University of Barcelon...

  5. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Coronado National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Swann, Don E.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted inventories for amphibians and reptiles, birds, and mammals; and summarized past inventories for vascular plants at Coronado National Memorial (NM) in Arizona. We used our data as well as data from previous research to compile species lists for the memorial, assess inventory completeness, and make suggestions on future monitoring efforts. There have been 940 species of plants and vertebrates recorded at Coronado NM (Table 1), of which 46 (5%) are non-native. The species richness of the memorial is one of the highest in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units, third only to park units that are two and one-half (Chiricahua National Monument), 19 (Saguaro National Park) and 70 (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument) times larger in area. The high species diversities are due to the large elevational gradient, overlap of bigeographical regions, wide range of geology and soils, and diverse vegetation communities present at the memorial. Changes in species composition have occurred at the memorial over the last 20 years in all major taxonomic groups. These changes are likely due to increases in grassy plant species (both native and non-native) at the lower elevations of the memorial. We suspect that grassy plant cover has increased because of changes in grazing intensity, introduction of some non-native species, and a recent fire. All recent vertebrate inventories have yielded grassland obligate species not previously recorded at the memorial. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa, except bats, is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will likely be added with additional survey effort.

  6. Framing Openness. The Digital Circulation of Israel's National Photographic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Casemajor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1948, the Government Press Office of Israel has been collecting and producing an extensive archive of photographs representing the birth and development of the Israeli nation state. Digitized and published online, this archive functions as a visual memorial of Israel, an example of what Jan Assman calls “bonding memory”, a form of memory that connects individuals to a political body, and which acts to frame a collective national identity. In 2011, the copyright terms of this archive were changed to encourage the circulation and reuse of images. This decision echoes a broader trend towards the “opening” of large data sets on the Web (“open data”, “open archives”, “open government”. At the same time, the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict and the existence of contesting narratives of the creation of Israel threaten the integrity of the official national memory. In this context, what are the conditions and limits of “opening” the national photographic archive? Examining contemporary ideology of the “open” in new media discourses and the free culture movement, this paper investigates the conditions of circulation and appropriation of memory and the role of copyright as a potential tool to control freedom of expression.

  7. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  8. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  9. Constructivist Pedagogies for Olympism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpan, Ian; McBain, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Olympism as a philosophical concept has been highly contested and challenged for its relevancy in a contemporary world. Some scholars argue that Olympism is simply a relic of the modern age and has little educative and/or social legitimacy. Others argue that despite the criticism and its contested nature it remains one of the most coherent and…

  10. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  11. What Does Olympic Games Bring to Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In 1984, Ubeross, a wizard in the U.S.business circle, creatively combined the Olympic Games with commerce,thus made the Los Angeles Olympic Games of that year become "the Olympic Games which makes money for the first time". Since then, the original Olympic Games which "sustain losses in the sports propaganda" has possessed an ultra ability that "makes the golden-rimmed paper turn into money" Thus, the concept "Olympic economy" appeared.

  12. International sports organization in governance and development of Olympic sports [Mezhdunarodnye sportivnye organizacii v upravlenii i razvitii olimpijskikh vidov sporta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of development of physical culture and Olympic types of sport are considered from positions of approach of the systems. The structure of the socio-economic system is presented: global, international, national level of administrative mechanism. The basic going is investigational near management. The role of international organizations is certain in a management development of Olympic types of sport. The role of the National Olympic committees which regulate the processes of management development of physical culture and sport a sphere at state level is exposed. The tendencies of bringing in of off-budget facilities Olympic organizations of the separate European countries are marked.

  13. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel; Fang, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry's involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand. A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry's interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals. The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC's commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees.

  14. Libraries within the system of the institutions of national memory of Ukraine and national cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrovina L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, libraries, archives and museums are explored as the constituents of social institutes realizing state policy of social, historical and national memory The institutes organize deposition of memory sources, conduct scientific inquiry and identification, study the origins of documents, museum exhibits and collections, the history of documental heritage. Their main functions are preservation and study of historical and cultural sources, sharing unbiased information and scientifically grounded knowledge concerning the documental cultural heritage and the sources’ use in contemporary information analysis, memorial, socio-political, cultural-educational and other events, aimed at the formation and consolidation of national memory. It is believed, that through the abovementioned actions these social institutions contribute to the informational safety of a country, its integration into the world humanitarian space. The institutions activity provides governmental figures, educators, scientists and cultural figures with unbiased information, conduces countermeasures against the tendentious interpretation of historical process and the deformation of memorial senses of the past and modernity, the manipulation of historical facts and socio-cultural factors sense

  15. Using public health scenarios to predict the utility of a national syndromic surveillance programme during the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbey, R A; Elliot, A J; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Verlander, N Q; Leach, S; Hall, I; Barrass, I; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Said, B; Walsh, A; Pebody, R; Smith, G E

    2014-05-01

    During 2012 real-time syndromic surveillance formed a key part of the daily public health surveillance for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. It was vital that these systems were evaluated prior to the Games; in particular what types and scales of incidents could and could not be detected. Different public health scenarios were created covering a range of potential incidents that the Health Protection Agency would require syndromic surveillance to rapidly detect and monitor. For the scenarios considered it is now possible to determine what is likely to be detectable and how incidents are likely to present using the different syndromic systems. Small localized incidents involving food poisoning are most likely to be detected the next day via emergency department surveillance, while a new strain of influenza is more likely to be detected via GP or telephone helpline surveillance, several weeks after the first seed case is introduced.

  16. Olympic Dam Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit in South Australia was discovered in 1975. The Mine is located 520 kilometres NNW of Adelaide, in South Australia. Following a six year period of intensive investigation and assessment of all the aspects required for the development of the deposit, the Joint Venturers decided in December, 1985, to proceed with the project. Milling of ore commenced in June 1988 and final products are cathode copper, uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake), and refined gold and silver. Anticipated production, from treating approximately 1.5 million tonnes of ore, in normal production years, is expected to be 45,000 tonnes of copper, 1,600 tonnes of yellow cake (1350 tonnes of Uranium), 25,000 ounces of gold and 500,000 ounces of silver. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.; Middleton, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation work on areas denuded of vegetation during the exploration phase of the Olympic Dam project was used to test various methods for regeneration of vegetation cover in the arid zone. The test work carried out on drill pads and access tracks has indicated that, with adequate site preparation, natural regeneration is the most economical and effective method to ensure post-operational stability of the affected land-forms. An on-going monitoring regime, utilising a computer data base, has been set up to allow year-to-year comparison of rehabilitation effectiveness. The database also provides a catalogue of initial colonising plants and a measure of variations in species diversity with time

  18. Political influence on sportsmen’s training system in olympic sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Yessentayev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the place of Olympic sports in modern world; to analyze dynamic of its political, economic and social significance progress. Material: publications on the topic of this article were used as sources of information. Results: we characterized influence of Olympic sports on transformation of views and practical functioning in sphere of elite sportsmen’s training. Main stages of modern Olympic sports’ formation have been regarded. Strategy of elite sports’ development in historical aspect has been presented. Changes in attitude of political leaders, state figures and general population to Olympic Games have been shown. Directions of development and perfection of elite sportsmen’s training national systems have been outlined. Conclusions: recent years, potential of Olympic sports have being reflected in foreign and home policy of many countries. It resulted in drastic changes in spheres of organization, management, financing, material technical and personnel provisioning of sportsmen’s training.

  19. OLYMPIC AND SPORTS MOVEMENT IN POLAND (1918–1939)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilchkovski, Eduard; Pasichnyk, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    After gaining Poland’s independence in 1918 the government of the country began an active work on the establishment of a national system of physical education for children and youth. Among important aspects of reforming this area was the implementation of an important task – the development of mass sports in the country. In 1919 the Polish Olympic Committee was set up whose task was to popularize the Olympic movement in the country, the representation of Polish sports in Europe and the word, ...

  20. Legacy, resource mobilisation and the olympic movement | Girginov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a growing interest in legacies of the Olympic Games focusing on external tangible outcomes, such as the number of sport competitions, participants and jobs created. Little is still known about the equally valuable internal benefits to individuals and organisational capacities of national sport systems.

  1. The Olympic movement and the sport of peacemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Sport and peacemaking have evolved. It is no longer the case that the Olympic Games and war games exist in isolation from each other. Increasingly, policymakers, peacekeepers, athletes, development workers, presidents of nations and others combine forces in an "integrated" approach towards peace.

  2. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  3. Guidelines and Requirements for Review and Acceptance of Memorials at National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This documents provides guidance on the appropriate design, size, and procedures for the acceptance of donations of memorials to the National Cemetery Administration

  4. China Mobile's SWOT for the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ling

    2008-01-01

    @@ This is the first time the Olympic Games held in China. The Beijing Olympics are a golden opportunity for Chinese companies to promote their products around the world. On the other hand,it is also a great challenge. Take ChinaMobile, the mobilecommunication partner for the XXIX Olympics, as an example. His marketing performance in this Olympic feast could be analyzed by S.W.O.T.

  5. American Women: Early Pursuit for Olympic Laurels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paula

    Women were not considered in preliminary discussions concerning the events, designation of participants, competitive attire, and problems relating to amateurism in the first Olympic games. Golf was the first sport in which women participated in the Olympics, and the first woman to achieve Olympic recognition for the United States did so by winning…

  6. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We analyze the decision to participate and Olympic performance at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over 24 editions of the Olympic Summer Games. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic explanations of Olympic participation and

  7. LHC Olympics flex physicists' brains

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Physicists from around the world met at CERN to strengthen their data-deciphering skills at the second LHC Olympics workshop. Physicists gather for the second LHC Olympics workshop. Coinciding with the kick-off of the winter Olympics in Turin, more than 70 physicists gathered at CERN from across the globe for the second LHC Olympics workshop on 9-10 February. Their challenge, however, involved brains rather than brawn. As the switch-on date for the LHC draws near, scientists excited by the project want to test and improve their ability to decipher the unprecedented amount of data that the world's biggest and most powerful particle accelerator is expected to generate. The LHC Olympics is a coordinated effort to do just that, minus the gold, silver and bronze of the athletics competition. 'In some ways, the LHC is not a precision instrument. It gives you the information that something is there but it's hard to untangle and interpret what it is,' said University of Michigan physicist Gordy Kane, who organiz...

  8. Memory Policy in Modern Tajikistan: from Empire to National State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Skiperskikh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we are talking about the accents of the cultural policy pursued by the authorities in modern Tajikistan. The purpose of this article is to study the process of formation and development of a new state in Tajikistan, for its conditionality due to cultural and ideological content. During periods of political transformation, the emerging cultural vacuum, as a rule, is filled with national content. The power very often use national texts in political legitimation. The process of legitimation the political elite since the recognition of Tajikistan's independence is closely related to a new cultural design, the accents of which are objectively associated with various subjects of national culture and appeals to the heroic past. Thus, culture becomes an instrument of the modern policy of the Tajik elite, providing its legitimating strategies. At the same time, the emphasis on national texts in the cultural policy of Tajikistan is not entirely clear due to the presence in the cultural space of various forms of memory referring to the imperial experience of the USSR. In modern Tajikistan, the Soviet cultural heritage is still visible, the parting with which looks inevitable and painful for the public that is nostalgic for the times of the USSR. There is no doubt that this process is a matter of time, because it directly relates to the legitimacy of the current political elite. The author gives a number of examples of how the Soviet imperial text and the new national text correlate in the cultural space of modern Tajikistan. Thus, the author comes to the conclusion that a rather complimentary attitude on the part of Tajikistan towards the Soviet and Russian culture, in view of the deep integration of the economies of the two states, can allow the painful process of cultural transformation to be stymied in time.

  9. 76 FR 36176 - Pricing for National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal. Introductory pricing will be $56.95, and regular pricing...

  10. The athlete as a problem in the olympic movement and the approaches to solve it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voropay Sergej Nikolaevich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic problems which pursue a sportsman in olympic sport are considered. Over 30 informative sources of domestic and foreign authors are analysed. The analysis of modern scientific, scientifically-methodical literature and informative information allowed to outline basic problems which appear before modern an olympian: social, psychological, economic, moral, technological. Basic directions and measures of overcoming problems are offered as within the limits of international olympic motion so at regional and national levels.

  11. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  12. Eclipses and the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  13. Historical Development of the Olympic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Šiljak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Movement is a term that covers all areas related to the phenomenon of Olympism. From its creation, the Olympic Movement has had to follow and to respond to numerous challenges and changes of the 20th and 21st century. The successful work of the International Olympic Committee (IOC on the implementation of their projects related to world peace, the education of youth, equal inclusion of women in every aspect of the Movement, the establishment of the Women’s Commission, the Sport for All Commission, and the Sports and the Environment Commission are facts indicating that the IOC has a significant impact on the values of the Olympic Movement. In addition to equal participation of all athletes, today, the Olympic Movement provides Olympic solidarity, education and other programs. The basic method that was used in this study was the historical method, which includes heuristic, empirical and theoretical study of the origin and development of the IOC and its operation as part of the Olympic Movement. Research results indicate that the management of the IOCas a sporting organization that manages this Movement is directed at achieving the goal to contribute to building a more peaceful and better world by educating young people through sports, and in accordance with the Olympic values. With proper management, the IOChas improved sports and has grown into an organization that is at the head of the Olympic Movement.

  14. Olympic games in Sochi, comparison and forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Kudrina, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Title: Olympic Games in Sochi, comparison and prediction Goals: Based on a research of the Olympic Games in Sochi to create a forecast of future economic effects on the territorium Method: The prediction is based on the analogic situation in other countries that held the Olympic Games in the past. Induction method of representing the thought process, during which the individual facts formulate more general assertions and theories; deduction method, which are derived from the general conclusio...

  15. The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McMurdie, Lynn A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama; Schwaller, Mathew R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Baccus, William [Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, Washington; Lundquist, Jessica D. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Mass, Clifford F. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Nijssen, Bart [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Hudak, David R. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, King City, Ontario, Canada; Tanelli, Simone [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; Mace, Gerald G. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Poellot, Michael R. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Zagrodnik, Joseph P. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rowe, Angela K. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; DeHart, Jennifer C. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Madaus, Luke E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Barnes, Hannah C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-10-01

    the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015-2016 fall-winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S./Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching "atmospheric river" status, warm and cold frontal systems, and postfrontal convection

  16. Environmental monitoring at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The environmental management and protection program at the Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project, Roxby Downs, South Australia, monitors eight major environmental parameters - meteorology, vegetation, mine site rehabilitation, fauna, terrain, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well fields. It came into effect with the approval of the South Australian Government in March 1987. The Great Artesian Basin, one of the world's greatest artesian basins, is the source of the water supply for the project

  17. The Olympic effect: A reply

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Richter, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Rose & Spiegel (2011) find that Olympic Games host countries experience significant positive and lasting effects on exports. They interpret their results as an indication that countries use the hosting of such an event as a signal of their (new) openness and competitiveness. We challenge these empirical findings on the grounds that the comparison of structurally different and non-matching groups might suffer from a selection bias. We demonstrate that with an appropriately applied matching and...

  18. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - mos110_0204c.tif - Multibeam backscatter mosaic from survey area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multibeam backscatter image (0-35 m water depths) mosaiced from hydrographic data collected during a August/September 2003seafloor survey. A Reson 8101 multibeam...

  19. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - mos110_0204a.tif - Multibeam backscatter mosaic from survey area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multibeam backscatter image (0-35 m water depths) mosaiced from hydrographic data collected during a July/August 2002seafloor survey. A Reson 8101 multibeam...

  20. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - stil120_0602a - Point coverage of locations of still frames extracted from video imagery which depict sediment types at various locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during September 2006. Video data...

  1. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - stil110_0204c - Still frame shots of sediment extracted from video for survey area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfit with video equipment, lasers and lights was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during the month of September 2006 and...

  2. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - vid120_0602a - Point coverage of locations of video imagery depicting sediment types at various locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during September 2006. Video data...

  3. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - stil110_0204a - Still frame shots of sediment extracted from video for survey area 110_0204a.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfit with video equipment, lasers and lights was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during the month of September 2006 and...

  4. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - mos110_0204b.tif - Multibeam backscatter mosaic from survey area 110_0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multibeam backscatter image (0-35 m water depths) mosaiced from hydrographic data collected during a August/September 2003seafloor survey. A Reson 8101 multibeam...

  5. The revival and preservation of historical memory: national and regional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Svitlenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the urgency of the problems of revitalization and preservation of historical memory in the national and regional contexts at different stages of the past and in the present. It is shown that the historical memory of our region, like most other regions of the country, reflected the five main periods, in particular Russian, Cossack, Imperial, Soviet, modern Ukrainian. Noted that the heterogeneity of the historical memory caused rather substantial differences in the individual and collective media, despite the fact that the inhabitants of the region were a territorial community which were distinguishable features: social, ethnic, political, religious, linguistic, cultural, professional, age, sex, etc. are Focused on those key features, which caused quite stable signs of historical memory inherent in our region in different historical periods. Value is defined revival and preservation of historical memory in the development of modern national identity, the modern historical consciousness and thinking.

  6. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.

  7. mos114_0402b.tif -- Side scan sonar image from survey effort HMPR-114-2004-02b in the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar image of the sea floor was mosaiced from data collected in August 2004 onboard the NOAA vesselTatoosh. An EG&G 272 side scan system was used...

  8. mos119_0601c.tif-- Side scan sonar image from survey effort HMPR-119-2006-01c in the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor (120-210 m water depths) was mosaiced from acoustic data collected in April 2006 aboard the NOAA ship McArthurII. A...

  9. mos113_0401d.tif -- Side scan sonar image from survey effort HMPR-113-2004-01d in the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor (120-350 m water depths) was mosaiced from acoustic data collected in 2004 aboard the NOAA ship McArthurII. A Klein...

  10. mos113_0401r.tif -- Side scan sonar image from survey effort HMPR-113-2004-01r in the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor (50-80 m water depths) was mosaiced from acoustic data collected in 2004 aboard the NOAA ship McArthurII.A Klein System...

  11. mos118_0503a.tif -- Side scan sonar image from survey effort HMPR-118-2005-03a in the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor (140-350 m water depths) was mosaiced from acoustic data collected in 2005 aboard the NOAA ship McArthurII. A Klein...

  12. hab108_0201_east.tif -- Side scan sonar image (East mosaic) from survey effort HMPR-108-2002-01 in the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar image of the sea floor (120-350 m water depths) was mosaiced from data collected in 2002.An Edgetech DF1000 side scan system was used for...

  13. mos119_0601a.tif-- Side scan sonar image from survey effort HMPR-119-2006-01a in the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor (90-270 m water depths) was mosaiced from acoustic data collected in April 2006 aboard the NOAA ship McArthurII.A Klein...

  14. The Special Olympics: Sporting or Social Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; McDonald, Meghan L.

    2008-01-01

    Storey (2008), in his eloquent and timely critique of the Special Olympics and his call to close it down, focuses on the failure of the Special Olympics to achieve the goal of social integration and sustained social interaction among people with intellectual disabilities and their peers without a disability label. The authors wholeheartedly agree…

  15. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Fritzdorf, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games.......To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games....

  16. People’s Olympics? (Beijing 2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, G.P.L.; de Kloet, J.; Zeng, G.; Bajc, V.

    2016-01-01

    Granted, the question mark was not included in this main slogan of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The Beijing Olympics generated heated debates worldwide on China’s authoritarian governance, environmental pollution, human rights situation, alleged indulgence of humanitarian disaster in Darfur in

  17. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  18. Talent identification and promotion programmes of Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, Roel; Güllich, Arne; Warr, Chelsea R; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2009-11-01

    The start of a new Olympic cycle offers a fresh chance for individuals and nations to excel at the highest level in sport. Most countries attempt to develop systematic structures to identify gifted athletes and to promote their development in a certain sport. However, forecasting years in advance the next generation of sporting experts and stimulating their development remains problematic. In this article, we discuss issues related to the identification and preparation of Olympic athletes. We provide field-based data suggesting that an earlier onset and a higher volume of discipline-specific training and competition, and an extended involvement in institutional talent promotion programmes, during adolescence need not necessarily be associated with greater success in senior international elite sport. Next, we consider some of the promising methods that have been (recently) presented in the literature and applied in the field. Finally, implications for talent identification and promotion and directions for future research are highlighted.

  19. The nutrition and health profile of the Turkish female national weightlifting team who attended to pre-camp of Beijing Olympics- Pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunay Ozdemir; Gülgün Ersoy

    2010-01-01

    In this study, National Turkish weightlifter female team who joined preparation camp before 2008 Beijing Olympiads nutrition habits, food intake, using of nutritional ergogenic aids, anthropometric measures and biochemical findings have been evaluated. Nine athletes who have been taken the camp participated to this study. The information were collected about their anthropometric (height, body weight, waist-hip circumference, waist / height ratio, body fat values) and biochemical measures, nut...

  20. Sports injuries during the Summer Olympic Games 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo L; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per A F H; Aubry, Mark John; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-11-01

    Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Descriptive epidemiology study. The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standardized injury report form. In addition, injuries were reported daily by the physicians at the medical stations at the different Olympic venues and at the polyclinic in the Olympic Village. Physicians and/or therapists of 92 national teams covering 88% of the 10,977 registered athletes took part in the study. In total, 1055 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 96.1 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Half of the injuries (49.6%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. The most prevalent diagnoses were ankle sprains and thigh strains. The majority (72.5%) of injuries were incurred in competition. One third of the injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by overuse (22%) and noncontact incidences (20%). Injuries were reported from all sports, but their incidence and characteristics varied substantially. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in soccer, taekwondo, hockey, handball, weightlifting, and boxing (all >or=15% of the athletes) and lowest for sailing, canoeing/kayaking, rowing, synchronized swimming, diving, fencing, and swimming. The data indicate that the injury surveillance system covered almost all of the participating athletes, and the results highlight areas of high risk for sport injury such as the in-competition period, the ankle and thigh, and specific sports. The identification of these factors should stimulate future research and subsequent policy change to prevent injury in

  1. Public memory and national recreation. Politics of memory and cultural practices in republican Barcelona (1931-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez-Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse speeches and commemorative practices in Barcelona during the Second Republic (1931-1936. For this purpose, it uses a wide range of contemporary newspaper and administrative sources as well as national and international bibliography. The author understands that the «public memory» forms part of the «public sphere» in the Habermassian sense, that is to say of the area in which the community discovers and defines itself. With this aim in mind, the author dissects commemorative narratives and praxis so as to identify the ideologically implicit concepts that underlie or are made explicit within them. The concept of «public memory» is defined as a category of sociohistorical analysis. The text analyses the dominant speeches of memory and their links with the prevailing liberal-working class nationalism. It studies the coincidences and differences between these verbal and visual accounts and renaixentista Catalan historiography. At the same time, it is argued that the fundamental tenets of the Catalan historical mind-set, as well as the wish to «redeem the past», enable us to interpret the political behaviour of leaders in this period. The article also makes reference to the importance of citizen-led initiatives for the symbolic configuration of the new tapestry of urban memory.

  2. Olympic Diplomacy and the Emerging States: Striving for Influence in the Multipolar World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luša Đana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The world of sports is a reflection of the world of politics. It is becoming increasingly multipolar with the emerging states hosting mega sporting events. Firstly, the article problematizes the concept of multipolarity and, secondly, globalisation by questioning whether the Olympic Games reinforce national identities and promote national interests by using Olympic diplomacy as a soft power tool. In doing so, the article explores the correlation between the changes in international affairs and the hosting of and participation at the Olympic Games by emerging states such as Brazil, China and Russia. The analysis distinguishes globalisation from the role of the nation-state, by highlighting the evident differences between emerging states in terms of hosting the Games, but also takes into consideration geopolitical and geo-economic parameters.

  3. The Suitability of Adaptive Reuse Practices on Historic Residential Buildings to National Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahila Ab Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the life of the old buildings in the country through building conservation practices, there is a tendency by the government to acquire and reuse Malaysian leadership figures’ residential buildings as memorials. However, it raises the question of whether there is any adaptive reuse guidelines to reuse historic residential buildings in Malaysia as national memorials in maintaining those buildings as an exhibition space on the history of their leadership. The absence of guidelines raises questions about how to implement the process accordingly. The objective of this research is to find the best formula for reusing historic residential buildings as national memorials based on that issue by reviewing and identify the principles of adaptive reuse practices of historic residential buildings as national memorials that implemented in Malaysia. The case studies were conducted on three samples of historic residential buildings that reused as national memorials and those buildings were selected based on a list of the study population, which are Rumah Kelahiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Birthplace of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Rumah Merdeka (Freedom House and Memorial Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba (The Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial. The sample may be determined by the sampling method and evaluated using the checklist provided. Based on the results of the case studies that were analyzed and discussed, it can be concluded that aspects of building code (local requirements as well as environmental and conservation requirements are not met in implementing adaptive reuse process on historic residential buildings to national memorials which needs suggestions for improvement.

  4. Olympic Dam - the first decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, A.W.; Wilson, M.A.; Harris, J.

    1988-01-01

    Most aspects of the pre-production phase of the Olympic Dam Project, from commencement of exploration in May 1975 through to commitment to development in December 1985 are documented here. The discovery by Western Mining Corporation Ltd of copper mineralisation on Roxby Downs Station in July 1975 has led to one of the more intensive base-metal exploration programmes undertaken in Australia. Comprehensive exploration, evaluation and feasibility studies between 1975 and 1985 have delineated a probable 450 million tonnes of higher grade ore containing 2.5% copper, 0.8 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 6.0 g/t silver. The total resource is estimated at 2 billion tonnes containing 1.6% copper, 0.6 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 3.5 g/t silver. At 31 December 1985, over 540 km of surface and underground drilling had been completed, comprising over 700 surface drillholes totalling 234 km of core and 218 km of open-hole drilling, and about 900 underground diamond-drillholes totalling 90 km. The Whenan Shaft had been sunk to 500 m and driving on three levels totalled almost 10 km. More than one million tonnes of ore and mullock were raised during development. A pilot treatment plant commissioned on site produced concentrates, matte and blister copper, and ammonium diuranate. Following a technical study of the Olympic Dam Project, completed in March 1985, and a subsequent economic feasibility study, it was announced on 11 June 1985 that the initial project was considered to be commercially viable. On 8 December 1985, the joint venturers, Western Mining Corporation Holdings Ltd (51%) and the BP Group (49%), announced their commitment to the Project. An appendix lists the important events that occurred between January 1986 and December 1987 in bringing Olympic Dam to the production state. 26 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs., ills

  5. Atmospheric deposition, water-quality, and sediment data for selected lakes in Mount Rainer, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Foreman, James R.; Moran, Patrick W.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effect from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to high-elevation lakes, the U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the National Park Service to develop a "critical load" of nitrogen for sediment diatoms. A critical load is defined as the level of a given pollutant (in this case, nitrogen) at which detrimental effects to a target endpoint (sediment diatoms) result. Because sediment diatoms are considered one of the "first responders" to ecosystem changes from nitrogen, they are a sensitive indicator for nitrogen deposition changes in natural areas. This report presents atmospheric deposition, water quality, sediment geochronology, and sediment diatom data collected from July 2008 through August 2010 in support of this effort.

  6. The War in the Historical Memory of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj V. Pavlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the most important event of the 20th century was a joint victory of the united front of peoples and states over German fascism. For some that was the victory in the Second World War. For the Russians - the victory in the Great Patriotic War which cost the Soviet Union incredible efforts, enormous sacrifices and material losses. Now when we celebrate the 70thyear since that epoch-making date we turn our attention once more to the lessons of history because the memory of the war has been imprinted deeply on our gene level of Russians and Germans. This is because every family from both sides sustained heavy losses. This memory is alive in literature, in movies and plays, songs, in memorials, biographies and historical dates. The Russian and German descendants of those who fought against each other are doing an important work searching for the killed, looking after the burial places, compensating the damage to the victims of this inhuman massacre, trying to understand critically our common and controversial past. What was the 9th of May for the Germans and the Russians in the perception of Germans and Russians? Was it a victory, a defeat or liberation? This is what the author of the article reflects on, convinced that we are anyway dealing with the greatest event of the 20th century, at least because it prevented the end of civilization.

  7. Dietary inflammatory index and memory function: population-based national sample of elderly Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Shivappa, Nitin; Mann, Joshua R; Hébert, James R; Wirth, Michael D; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary inflammatory potential and memory and cognitive functioning among a representative sample of the US older adult population. Cross-sectional data from the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were utilised to identify an aggregate sample of adults 60-85 years of age (n 1723). Dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores were calculated using 24-h dietary recall interviews. Three memory-related assessments were employed, including the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) Word Learning subset, the Animal Fluency test and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Inverse associations were observed between DII scores and the different memory parameters. Episodic memory (CERAD) (b adjusted=-0·39; 95 % CI -0·79, 0·00), semantic-based memory (Animal Fluency Test) (b adjusted=-1·18; 95 % CI -2·17, -0·20) and executive function and working-memory (DSST) (b adjusted=-2·80; 95 % CI -5·58, -0·02) performances were lowest among those with the highest mean DII score. Though inverse relationships were observed between DII scores and memory and cognitive functioning, future work is needed to further explore the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the complex relationship between inflammation-related dietary behaviour and memory and cognition.

  8. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  9. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  10. Mortality in former Olympic athletes: retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, R; Zantvoord, F W A; van Bodegom, D; van der Ouderaa, F J G; Westendorp, R G J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the mortality risk in subsequent years (adjusted for year of birth, nationality, and sex) of former Olympic athletes from disciplines with different levels of exercise intensity. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Former Olympic athletes. Participants 9889 athletes (with a known age at death) who participated in the Olympic Games between 1896 and 1936, representing 43 types of disciplines with different levels of cardiovascular, static, and dynamic intensity exercise; high or low risk of bodily collision; and different levels of physical contact. Main outcome measure All cause mortality. Results Hazard ratios for mortality among athletes from disciplines with moderate cardiovascular intensity (1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.07) or high cardiovascular intensity (0.98, 0.92 to 1.04) were similar to those in athletes from disciplines with low cardiovascular intensity. The underlying static and dynamic components in exercise intensity showed similar non-significant results. Increased mortality was seen among athletes from disciplines with a high risk of bodily collision (hazard ratio 1.11, 1.06 to 1.15) and with high levels of physical contact (1.16, 1.11 to 1.22). In a multivariate analysis, the effect of high cardiovascular intensity remained similar (hazard ratio 1.05, 0.89 to 1.25); the increased mortality associated with high physical contact persisted (hazard ratio 1.13, 1.06 to 1.21), but that for bodily collision became non-significant (1.03, 0.98 to 1.09) as a consequence of its close relation with physical contact. Conclusions Among former Olympic athletes, engagement in disciplines with high intensity exercise did not bring a survival benefit compared with disciplines with low intensity exercise. Those who engaged in disciplines with high levels of physical contact had higher mortality than other Olympians later in life. PMID:23241269

  11. Strategies for improving performance during long duration Olympic events : the example of Olympic distance Triathlon

    OpenAIRE

    Hausswirth , Christophe; Brisswalter , Jeanick

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This review focuses on strategic aspects which may affect performance during a long duration Olympic event: the Olympic distance Triathlon. Given the variety of races during Olympic games, Strategic aspects include as well improving technological features as energetical factors affecting the overall triathlon performance.. During the last decade, a lot of studies have attempted to identify factors reducing the metabolic load associated or not with the development of fa...

  12. From Patrimonial Relics to Materialized Memories in the National Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carolina Pulido Chaparro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following paper comes from an ethnographic work in the National Museum of Colombia, and it aims to analyze the objects exhibited in its halls and the store in order to understand the connection between patrimony and consumption. In this sense, the representation of the National Museum consolidates in the creation of a national identity based on the official history of the national heroes and their descendants, which is expressed in most of the objects displayed in the exhibit halls. On the other hand, another narrative guided by the neoliberal economy is constructed in the museum store. It takes afro, indigenous and rural representations that have been marginalized in most of the museum halls, strenghtened by the ethnic economy and promoted by tourism and advertising. This duality leads the museum visitors to consume both representations: the ones built by the State as well as the ones positioned by companies and multinationals.

  13. Gymnastics injury incidence during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games: analysis of prospectively collected surveillance data from 963 registered gymnasts during Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Steffen, Kathrin; Junge, Astrid; Leglise, Michel; Soligard, Torbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-04-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of injuries in female and male gymnastics disciplines (artistic, rhythmic and trampoline) during three Olympic Games with a view to ultimately improving injury prevention. The National Olympic Committee's head physicians and the medical teams of the Local Organising Committee of the Olympic Games reported daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries in artistic, rhythmic and trampoline gymnastics on a standardised report form during the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympic Games. During the three Olympic Games, 81 injuries were reported in a total of 963 registered gymnasts, corresponding to an incidence of 84 injuries (95% CI 67 to 102) per 1000 registered gymnasts, with no difference in injury incidence between female and male gymnasts. Thirty-eight per cent of injuries led to time-loss from sport. The most frequent injury location and injury type were the ankle (22%) and sprain (35%), respectively. The most common diagnosis was ankle sprain (14% of all injuries and 23% of time-loss injuries). The injury incidence was highest in female (107±35) and male artistic gymnastics (83±32), followed by female rhythmic gymnastics (73±30), and lower in male (63±69) and female (43±43) trampoline gymnastics. Research should focus on preventing injuries in artistic gymnastics and of the condition of ankle sprain. Injury surveillance studies should be continued during major championships and throughout the entire competitive season as the Olympic Games provides only a snapshot (although an important one). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    China will host the 2008 Olympic Summer Games from August 8 to 24, 2008. Most of the events will be held in the vicinity of Beijing, with selected competitions held in Hong Kong, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin...

  15. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    OpenAIRE

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the decision to participate and performance at the Modern Olympic Summer Games at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over all 24 editions of the Summer Games since 1896. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic determinants of Olympic participation and success. We estimate the impact of income per capita, population size, home advantage, and some fixed country factors on participation and success rates. We present separate r...

  16. IMPACTS OF OLYMPICS ON EXPORTS AND TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Wonho Song

    2010-01-01

    There have been debates on the effects of Olympics on economy. Previous studies estimated the direct benefits and costs of Olympic Games, and concluded that the net effects were positive or negative depending on specific assumptions used for evaluations. Recent studies turn attentions to indirect benefits. For example, signaling model by Rose and Spiegel (2010) argues that mega events are the signals of liberalization the country sends, and that the hosting of mega events spurs exports. This ...

  17. Blood doping at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to review our knowledge of athletes who have, are believed to have or have attempted to engage in blood doping to enhance their performance at an Olympic Games. The paper focused on the Games from Munich 1972 to London 2012 and the author had a medical role at each of the Olympics that is discussed. The study revealed that Olympic athletes have benefitted from manipulating their blood by re-infusion of autologous or infusion of homologous blood and by administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents, notably the three generations of erythropoietins. Fifty seven athletes have been sanctioned with 12 athletes forfeiting 17 Olympic medals including 12 gold medals because of blood doping. Until 1986, the infusion of blood was not prohibited in sport but considered unethical. Erythropoietin was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee's Medical Commission in 1990. There has been a change as to how Olympic athletes have enhanced performance by blood doping, commencing with blood infusion and later administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents and significant advances have occurred in detecting such misuse. Currently, the hematological component of World Anti-Doping Agency's athlete biological passport is an important but not infallible mechanism to identify athletes who cheat by blood doping.

  18. Psychological issues of the russian sport (towards the 31st Summer Olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Morozov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the psychological issues of the Russian sport in general (including internal and external, objective and subjective ones. The attitudes of the most authoritative sports experts are analyzed. Various media discuss the performance of Russians in the Olympics of the third Millennium, the role and importance of psychology in modern sport and also in preparation of elite sport athletes for such important tournaments as the Olympic Games. The paper discusses fundamental differences of psychological preparation of the Russian and foreign athletes, comparative analysis of national team performances of Russia in the summer Olympics and Paralympic Games over the past 20 years, i.e. in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. The paper analyses the strongest team performances on the global level in the latest Summer Olympic games and the probabilistic prediction of the performance results in the Summer Olympics in Brazil in reference with November doping scandal in the Russian Athletics Federation associated with charges of the Russian athletes in the mass doping followed by a loud dismissal of a number of sports officials and coaches, with two Russian athletes to be disqualified and stripped of their medals of London Olympics-2012, and also a RAF member in the IAAF to be suspended, which puts into question the possibility of Russian national athletics team participating in the next Olympics. The paper outlines current problematic issues the solution of which is urgent for the 21st Summer Olympics 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and should contribute to a fundamental change in the psychological, spiritual, moral atmosphere not only of an individual athlete, but for all Russian sport in general.

  19. Methodological aspects of a GIS-based environmental health inspection program used in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kolonia, Virginia; Falagas, Matthew E; Pantelopoulos, Efstathios; Panagakos, Georgios; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Kremastinou, Jeni

    2005-09-02

    The use of geographical information system (GIS) technologies in public health surveillance is gradually gaining momentum around the world and many applications have already been reported in the literature. In this study, GIS technology was used to help county departments of Public Health to implement environmental health surveillance for the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. In order to assess the workload in each Olympic county, 19 registry forms and 17 standardized inspection forms were developed to register and inspect environmental health items requiring inspection (Hotels, restaurants, swimming pools, water supply system etc), respectively. Furthermore, related databases were created using Epi Info 2002 and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to implement an integrated Environmental Health inspection program. The project was conducted in Athens by the Olympic Planning Unit (OPU) of the National School of Public Health, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and the corresponding departments of Public Health in all municipalities that were scheduled to host events during the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games. A total of 44,741 premises of environmental health interest were geocoded into GIS databases and several electronic maps were developed. Using such maps in association with specific criteria, we first identified the maximum workload required to execute environmental health inspections in all premises within the eleven Olympic County Departments of Public Health. Six different scenarios were created for each county, based on devised algorithms in order to design the most effective and realistic inspection program using the available inspectors from each municipality. Furthermore, GIS applications were used to organize the daily inspection program for the Olympic games, provide coloured displays of the inspection results and link those results with the public health surveillance of specific

  20. Methodological aspects of a GIS-based environmental health inspection program used in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelopoulos Efstathios

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of geographical information system (GIS technologies in public health surveillance is gradually gaining momentum around the world and many applications have already been reported in the literature. In this study, GIS technology was used to help county departments of Public Health to implement environmental health surveillance for the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. Methods In order to assess the workload in each Olympic county, 19 registry forms and 17 standardized inspection forms were developed to register and inspect environmental health items requiring inspection (Hotels, restaurants, swimming pools, water supply system etc, respectively. Furthermore, related databases were created using Epi Info 2002 and a geographical information system (GIS were used to implement an integrated Environmental Health inspection program. The project was conducted in Athens by the Olympic Planning Unit (OPU of the National School of Public Health, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and the corresponding departments of Public Health in all municipalities that were scheduled to host events during the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games. Results A total of 44,741 premises of environmental health interest were geocoded into GIS databases and several electronic maps were developed. Using such maps in association with specific criteria, we first identified the maximum workload required to execute environmental health inspections in all premises within the eleven Olympic County Departments of Public Health. Six different scenarios were created for each county, based on devised algorithms in order to design the most effective and realistic inspection program using the available inspectors from each municipality. Furthermore, GIS applications were used to organize the daily inspection program for the Olympic games, provide coloured displays of the inspection results and link those

  1. Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

  2. Analytical progresses of the International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency Olympic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Costas; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    The Summer Olympic Games constitute the biggest concentration of human sports and activities in a particular place and time since 776 BCE, when the written history of the Olympic Games in Olympia began. Summer and Winter Olympic anti-doping laboratories, accredited by the International Olympic Committee in the past and the World Anti-Doping Agency in the present times, acquire worldwide interest to apply all new analytical advancements in the fight against doping in sports, hoping that this major human event will not become dirty by association with this negative phenomenon. This article summarizes the new analytical progresses, technologies and knowledge used by the Olympic laboratories, which for the vast majority of them are, eventually, incorporated into routine anti-doping analysis.

  3. In the Zone--Bringing Science to the Olympic Games for Students in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leah; Atkinson, Melissa; Schofield, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust is running a national engagement and education initiative inspired by the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. "In the Zone" involves sending practical science kits to every UK school and college. Here, we discuss the development of the school activities and how the feedback from pilot schools helped to shape the…

  4. Medical services at the first Winter Youth Olympic Games 2012 in Innsbruck/Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Cornelia; Schamasch, Patrick; Engebretsen, Lars; Haslinger, Simon; Ruedl, Gerhard; Fink, Christian; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) are a new format designed by the International Olympic Committee. So far no reference data are available regarding the organisation or implementation of the medical services that were needed for the Winter Youth Olympic Games that took place for the first time in Innsbruck 9-24 January 2012. (1) To provide insight into what is needed to prepare for such a complex high level sporting event from a medical perspective, (2) to provide data on medical services for future organising committees and (3) to provide information on different National Olympic Committee (NOC) delegation structures and the consequences of registering a National Olympic Committee Team Physician. A medical information system in the form of a patient data-management system was developed with all involved parties to standardise data collection. All medical encounters occurring at any IYOGOC medical service centre (including physiotherapy and psychology facilities) were tracked and collected in daily reports. Data evaluation was prepared based on different interest groups (Athletes, National Olympic Committees, Workforce, International Olympic Committee and Media) and analysed. 327 medical encounters (42.8% athletes; out of these, 57.9% were accounted to athletes with own NOC team physician) were seen during the YOG 2012. The total number of hospital transports was 27.3%, of which 8.9% were hospitalised with an average length of 1.9 nights. Physiotherapy usage was low with only 19 medical encounters resulting in a referral to physiotherapy accounting for 67 treatments during the entire YOG. Psychological care service was not used at all. The main reason for illnesses was disorders of the respiratory system (28.8%), injuries mostly affected upper extremities (49.6%) and were mostly diagnosed with lacerations and contusions (26.2%). Injury (70.7%) and illness (29.3%) incidences in athletes were slightly lower than previous studies showed. 40.0% of NOC delegations

  5. Blazing the trail: Official Report : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The official report of the 1st Youth Olympic Games, “Blazing the trail: Official Report: Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games” consisted of one volume, published in French and English. The French version was published only in electronic form

  6. OUT Success Stories: Renewable Energy at the Olympics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    2000-01-01

    Many energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies were featured at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Most of the projects that contributed to the Olympics continue to provide a meaningful demonstration and learning experience for the people of Atlanta

  7. Systematic review of team Nigeria's performance in olympic games ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systematic review of team Nigeria's performance in olympic games: Causes, concerns, and remediation strategies. ... Participation and winning medals in Olympic Games have become a veritable avenue ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. National Seminar. Acceptation and Commerce of Irradiated Foods. Memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The foods availability is a worldwide problem at present, it looks two paradoxical aspects at first appearance. The malnutrition grade and the great losses by rottenness after the harvest time. An alternative to reduce these losses is the use of modern technologies such as food irradiation, which is a recognized process as like as secure and efficient how a conservation process by the FAO, the WHO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. At present this process is accepted in 40 countries. Since 1986 the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico offers irradiation services to the dried foods enterprises. This work contains magistral conferences dictated by international experts, reflecting the situation of this technology at the present time, the consumer position about the acceptance of irradiated foods, as well as regulations and standards applied in different continents. In the process part there are the installations would be required and the control to carry out. (Author)

  9. Lessons from the Olympics : participants' perceptions of the 2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of South African athletes at the Olympic Games and to identify the possible factors that could have affected their performances. A sample of 44 participants at the 2000 Olympic Games completed a post-Olympic questionnaire. Although most athletes believed that ...

  10. CPAFFC Holds Activities to Greet Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Olympic Games are com-ing and really coming! We have been looking forward to this day for 100 years. At last, the Beijing Olympic Games will begin tomorrow with the attention of the whole world. To celebrate the one-day countdown to the Beijing Olympic Games, on the morning

  11. The Didactic Engineering for the Math Olympics Teaching: Olympic Situations with Geogebra’s Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves Santos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we intend to present a partial cut of a master's research, in which we describe, in a specific way, two phases determined by Didactic Engineering - ED in the context of the Mathematical Olympiads. Thus, we have the stages of preliminary analyzes and the construction of Olympic situations/a priori analysis. We emphasize in an Olympic situation that is described/structured with the support of GeoGebra software. Intervention through the proper exploitation of software provides the learner with opportunities to overcome certain difficulties/obstacles to an understanding or even conceptual construction in geometry. In this sense, the mentioned Olympic situation was experienced by students of the ninth year of elementary education II, from a private school in the state of Ceara, Brazil. The Olympic situation described proposes the possibility of the construction of metric relations in the triangle rectangle, content referring to the area of plane geometry. The ED is presented in this research, as a vision of complementarity that uses the theory of didactic situations - TSD. In this way, the described Olympic situation represents an alternative to classes directed to the math Olympics, their indication and structure, describes elements related to didactic mediation during the teaching and learning process, which emphasize details that make it possible to control and predict the possible student’s actions, as well as, to provide the experience of more significant didactic situations for geometry study in the Olympic context.

  12. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.……

  13. Maximizing the use of Special Olympics International's Healthy Athletes database: A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; Foley, John T; Temple, Viviene A

    2018-02-01

    There is a critical need for high-quality population-level data related to the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. For more than 15 years Special Olympics International has been conducting free Healthy Athletes screenings at local, national and international events. The Healthy Athletes database is the largest known international database specifically on the health of people with intellectual disabilities; however, it is relatively under-utilized by the research community. A consensus meeting with two dozen North American researchers, stakeholders, clinicians and policymakers took place in Toronto, Canada. The purpose of the meeting was to: 1) establish the perceived utility of the database, and 2) to identify and prioritize 3-5 specific priorities related to using the Healthy Athletes database to promote the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. There was unanimous agreement from the meeting participants that this database represents an immense opportunity both from the data already collected, and data that will be collected in the future. The 3 top priorities for the database were deemed to be: 1) establish the representativeness of data collected on Special Olympics athletes compared to the general population with intellectual disabilities, 2) create a scientific advisory group for Special Olympics International, and 3) use the data to improve Special Olympics programs around the world. The Special Olympics Healthy Athletes database includes data not found in any other source and should be used, in partnership with Special Olympics International, by researchers to significantly increase our knowledge and understanding of the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Museums, Memory, and the Just Nation in Post-Civil War El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin DeLugan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 El Salvador ended a 12-year civil war infamous in part for the high level of state violence against innocent civilians. A United Nations Truth Commission report, which detailed these and other excesses, recommended that state and society commemorate the war and its violence to advance the establishment of a more just nation. The postwar government did construct an impressive new National Museum of Anthropology to actively promote national culture, history, and identity. However, this important museum remains silent about the civil war. In contrast, new public—though not official - museums and monuments are finally bringing attention to the civil war and past state violence. This paper explores the social memory work of non-official museums, arguing that by combating silence and forgetting, their truth-telling aims to shape ideas about the nation and improve state-society dynamics.

  15. National Identity, International Visitors: Narration and Translation of the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Li Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many museums nowadays provide multilingual services, translations in museums have not received enough attention from researchers. The issue of how ideology is embedded in museum texts is translated is particularly underresearched. Since museums are often important sites for tourists to learn about a nation, translation plays a pivotal role in mediating how international visitors construct the host nation’s identity. The translation of national identity is even more important when sensitive topics are dealt with, such as exhibitions of the past in memorial museums. This paper takes the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum as a case study to examine how Taiwanese identity is formatted in the Chinese text and reframed in the English translation. The current study found inconsistent historical perspectives embedded in both texts, particularly in the English translation. We argue that, without awareness of ideological assumptions embedded in translations, museums run the risk of sending unintended messages to international visitors.

  16. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Darren McHugh

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the net benefit to Canada of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Two particular classes of problems in Olympic CBA are studied in detail. The first is the unique nature of project dependency in an Olympic Games, and this is surmounted by the classification of Olympic-related costs and benefits as "Event-related" or "Infrastructure-related", with rules for handing each in the context of a CBA for an Olympic Games. The second is the estimation of net benefit...

  17. Sociodemographic profile of an Olympic team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D W

    2017-07-01

    To document the distribution of sociodemographic markers (race and relative access to wealth) in athletes participating at the summer and Winter Olympic Games (OGs). Cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study. Sociodemographic data were collected from publically available resources for all athletes representing four countries (Canada, United States of America, Great Britain and Australia) at the 2014 Sochi Winter OGs and 2016 Rio Summer OGs. The prevalence of white and privately educated athletes were identified for each sport, country, and team with consideration and comparison to the general population. Access indices (i.e. the combined race socio-economic access index [CAI]) were developed to describe the relative distribution of white and privately educated athletes representing each sport, country and team compared to the respective general population. A total of 568 winter and 1643 summer athletes were included in this study. Privately educated athletes constituted 30.3% and 32.7% of winter and summer athletes, respectively; while 94.9% of winter and 81.7% of summer athletes were white. The CAIs of the Canadian, American, British and Australian winter Olympic teams were 0.52, 0.42, 0.61 and 0.45, respectively. The CAIs, for the Canadian, American, British and Australian summer Olympic teams were 0.89, 1.13, 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. Summer and winter sports with the greatest and least racial and socio-economic biases were identified. Racial and socio-economic biases were identified in both summer and winter Olympic sports; predominantly favouring white and privately educated Olympic athletes. These findings prompt further inquiry into barriers for sport-specific participation and advancement, in addition to the practice of providing substantial public resources in support for Olympic sports and athletes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Individualization in swimming and a way of preparation for Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Kopchikova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the high-end training swimmers who specialize in complex navigation. Material : Ukraine national team members from different years of training, swimmers high class of 50 people. A review of questionnaires and coaches of the national team of Ukraine to the XXVIII Olympic Games in Athens. Results found that athletes training and competitive activities differ in structure and content compared to previous preparation for the Olympic Games. In the 2004 Olympic champion set, the largest amount of work is 2520 km with the largest number of events in that year. It is indicated that the athlete in the first 4 years of preparation for his first Olympics gradually increasing annual volume and intensity of training loads. Over the next 4 years - the number of competitions, including commercial. An important factor in this stage is moral and strong-willed and psychological preparation. Conclusions : preparing athletes for major competitions at the stage of conservation achievements is narrowly focused specialized nature, depending on the age of the athlete, his specialization, gender, duration of phase conservation achievements.

  19. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  20. Official opening of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the text of an address given on November 5, 1988 to mark the commencement of production of copper, uranium, gold and silver from the first stage of the Olympic Dam project at Roxby Downs, South Australia. The huge deposit was discovered in 1975 and years of exploration, underground development, metallurgical testing, planning and establishing the infrastructure followed, at a cost of $750 million. 740 people are now employed at Olympic Dam. The first shipment of copper and uranium oxide left for Sweden at the end of November 1988. The deposit is able to support a much higher production rate as the market for the products, particularly uranium, improves

  1. Economic impact of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Peng

    2009-01-01

    It has been one year since Beijing successfully hosts the 2008 Olympic Games. It needs to stress the economic impacts of the city as the Olympic effect could boost economy of Beijing a long and lasting growth. In this paper, a large number of academic articles are reviewed given a general view of these impacts and put insights into the economic impacts of previous host cities. Both positive and negative effects are mentioned with rich discussions. Based on the statistical data, growth trend o...

  2. Kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    2012-04-01

    Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using pvolleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. The

  3. Unification types of housing during Sochi Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Babaev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the statement of the unification problem of housing accommodation of participants, spectators, staff, committee during the Winter Olympics in Sochi. We give a mathematical formalization of the problem, where the unknown variables are theelements of the combination of types of accommodation sorted by the level of comfortand representation.

  4. Olympic - Eesti esimene maailmavallutaja? / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Olympic on väga tugeva juhiga, ambitsioonikas ettevõte, mille aktsia hind on kukkunud tasemele, mida võiks pikaajaline investor tasapisi hakata võtma kui head ostukohta. Vt. samas: Tugevad näitajad sisendavad kindlust. Diagramm: Olympicu aktsia

  5. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  6. Sports Medicine Concerns in Special Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Leslie J.; Sherrill, Claudine

    1988-01-01

    The article provides information on medical problems (including seizures, nutrition, atlantoaxia instability, and congenital heart disorders), and guidelines for training (including weight management, acclimation, heat related problems, and warm-up) for volunteers working with mentally retarded participants in Special Olympics. (DB)

  7. Olympic Values Education: Evolution of a Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by the twentieth century hermeneutic idea that application co-determines understanding, this paper explores the conversations between theory and application that evolved during the implementation of three Olympic-related curriculum projects. Each of these projects was informed by specific fields of then-current educational theory, and…

  8. Softball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven instructional units on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents suggestions for coaching softball for mentally retarded persons. An overview section provides information on teaching suggestions, followed by a list of program goals, objectives, and benefits. Sports skill assessments measure athletes'…

  9. Lessons from 2012: What the NHS Can Learn from Britain's Olympic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Edward J; Blake, Alastair M

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games were widely regarded as an organisational and sporting success for the United Kingdom. Therefore, it is prudent to consider what other large, public endeavours might learn from the Games' success. Team GB worked to develop a positive team culture based around shared values. This is something the National Health Service (NHS) could learn from, as an organisation which can appear to lack this culture. The NHS should also work harder to adopt evidence-based practices, and to adopt them quickly, as is often the case in sport. Sport is the ultimate example of transparent results reporting, and the NHS ought to consider systematic reporting of risk-adjusted performance data, which may drive improved performance. The NHS should pay attention to the experiences of successful Olympic sports with centralised centres of excellence, and to medical data which suggests that better outcomes result from centres of excellence. The NHS and wider government should look to Olympic athletes and place more emphasis on prevention of disease by encouraging positive lifestyle choices. Finally, the NHS should develop private sector partnerships carefully. We must look to gather knowledge and ideas from every area of life in pursuit of excellence in the NHS. Experience of the Olympics offers a number of instructive lessons.

  10. Testimony, Memory and Solidarity across National Borders: Paul Ricoeur and Transnational Feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Purcell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many ways, globalization created the problem of representation for feminist solidarity across the borders of the nation state. This problem is one of presenting a cohesive identity for representation in the transnational public sphere. This paper proposes a solution to this problem of a cohesive identity for women’s representation by drawing on the work of Paul Ricœur. What these women seem to have in common are shared political aims, but they have no basis for those aims. This paper provides a basis for these aims by turning to Ricœur’s work on collective memory from Memory, History, Forgetting. The paper concludes that it is the shared testimony through narrative hospitality, which can provide a foundation for a social bond for those with common political aims. More specifically, this common knowledge provides a justification for the representation of women and their allies in the transnational public sphere.

  11. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  12. European-enlightenment and national-romanticist sources of cultural memory: Reflections in contemporary debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Each society is marked by a selective cultural memory which, beside events and traditions whose importance is emphasized, is also constituted by its parts and contents whose influence is either diminished or forgotten. Our society, too is marked by such kind of memory, with obvious reduction, value opposition and, in sum, general duality within the reception of cultural memory, which is always more complex than it appears in political speeches mother-tongue reading books or history textbooks. For this reason, an examination of construction and reception of cultural memory, with an emphasis on traditions of Enlightenment and Romanticism, stems from a necessity to answer a set of questions regarding the contemporary relation to the past, the way "distance" or "proximity" to the latter is constituted, and especially the way in which contemporary practices mark, change and make use of cultural history. Starting from the assumptions that shaping cultural history, its heritage and "memory" is closely connected to the beginnings of nation-building and that cultural memory is a never-ending political process it is my intention in this research project to examine the rivalry juxtapositions, "interruptions" and new foundations of traditions, focusing on the interdependent relation of Enlightenment and Romanticist strands, and particularly on their unmarked, empty spots. Just as cultural memory is a result of two opposed processes - foregrounding and oblivion - so this research is similarly devoted to a double and apparently paradoxical task. On one hand, the accent is on the resurrection and reinforcement of integrative segments of these traditions which, at the time of their emergence as well as in subsequent interpretations, were mostly neglected. On the other hand there is the need to keep pace with what is required by the current "acceleration of time", which amounts to nothing else but the necessity to forget. Briefly put, the aim is to point to

  13. Adapting to climate change at Olympic National Forest and Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson; Kathy A. O’Halloran; Catherine Hawkins Hoffman

    2011-01-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge to natural resource managers both because of the magnitude of potential effects of climate change on ecosystem structure, processes, and function, and because of the uncertainty associated with those potential ecological effects. Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the...

  14. Tangible and Intangible Legacy of the 19th Century Zappas Olympics and their Implications for Contemporary Sport Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaritis George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As has been shown in the article, the Zappas Olympics generously contributed to the revival of the Olympic Games in the nineteenth century. The course of these competitions has been described, and a brief summary of Zappas’s work, which does not often attract a lot of attention in, for example, Polish academics, has also been made. The fact that the Zappas Olympics mainly enhanced the national identity of the Greeks following Turkish captivity has also been highlighted. The Zappas Olympics allowed the Greeks to become more familiar with sports and fair play. The knowledge that the Greeks acquired from the organization of this event was useful for the organization of the first modern Olympic Games in Athens. These days, material remains of this event serve touristic and cultural functions. The significance of such facilities as the Zappeion and the Panathenaic Stadium have also been underlined. For example, the Zappeion and the Panathenaic Stadium host cultural events and welcome tourists interested in sports history or Greek culture. These are the authorities responsible for touristic policy in Greece and they may decide whether such historic sites and sporting facilities will be included in thematic routes for tourists. According to the authors of the present paper, these sites may effectively compete with mass and recreational attractions in Greece.

  15. The Interference of Politics in the Olympic Games, and How the U.S. Media Contribute to It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Moretti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2014, Russia will host the Olympic Games for only the second time in its history. Once again, the Olympic spirit—as defined and espoused by the International Olympic Committee—will clash with the political interests that overshadow the Games. This paper examines the political undertones of the 1980 Summer Olympics, hosted by Moscow and which took place during an ice-cold period of the Cold War, and asks whether similar undertones will be on display next year. The 1980 Games were a phenomenal success for Soviet athletes and their Eastern European colleagues. However, in the absence of the United States and more than 50 other nations, the political frame from a Western context was that of athletes from a corrupt system competing alongside their comrades. The boycott of these Games demonstrated the power of the White House and the often lapdog quality of the American media. Now as the Games return to Russia, the issue of whether a Cold War-like mentality will influence U.S. media reporting of the 2014 Sochi Olympics must be asked. The conflicting images in Western news media discourse of Russian president Vladimir Putin and his “Communist past” combined with a tepid diplomatic relationship between his government and the Obama administration provide evidence that a negative portrayal of Russia and therefore its athletes will be displayed in February 2014. And yet there is no impetus for a boycott next year. This paper explores why.

  16. Sport Tourism and its History and Contribution of Olympic Games to Touristic Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Y I L D I Z

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector is one of the sectors that gain momentum and importance with the globalization. One of the important sub branches of the tourism that attracts attention with 1 - 1 - 5 billion people and approximately 2 trillion world incomes is sport tourism. The first tourism movement is the start of Olympics in Ancient Greek and movement of people who want to watch these games. Due to the fact that this tourism type that emerges thanks to the sports activities, contributes the economic and social structure of that region, states carry out significant lobbying activities to host Olympics. The mass of the number of the sportsmen to attend to the sport activity and audience that come to watch these games and more importantly live s treams from the place of the games contribute significantly to the promotion of that region. While eating and drinking, traveling, souvenirs expenses are direct incomes; it significantly contributes to the transportation and carriage sector. The appearance of before and after of the Olympic regions show great difference. One of the most important examples is the province of Mersin that hosts the latest Mediterranean games. While infrastructure and supra structure investments made for the preparation of city to the games in a brief time change the appearance of the city, national and international promotions significantly change the province. Olympic causes important development beyond measure. The objective of this study is to specify social and economic con tributions of tourism type emerged by the sport activities on the region and raise awareness for its contribution to country promotion. The study bases significantly on the literature review. The study will have a solid structure by making use of the dome stic and international statistical data. The scope of the study is Olympics in general and Mediterranean games in Mersin Province in particular.

  17. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Meghan R. Busse

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  18. Environmental impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan, Cao; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Beijing organized the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, and the main goal of the Chinese government regarding this event was to hold a Green Olympics. A difference-in-differences approach was used to estimate the environmental impact the Olympic Games on air quality improvement in Beijing, compared to improvements in other areas in China. The results indicate that compared to other regions, air quality in Beijing improved for a short period of time. These improvements were largely due to the impleme...

  19. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.

  20. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  1. Population Muscle Strength Predicts Olympic Medal Tallies: Evidence from 20 Countries in the PURE Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl P Leong

    Full Text Available National sporting achievement at the Olympic Games is important for national pride and prestige, and to promote participation in sport. Summer Olympic Games medal tallies have been associated with national wealth, and also social development and healthcare expenditure. It is uncertain however, how these socioeconomic factors translate into Olympic success. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between population muscle strength and Olympic medal tallies.This study of handgrip strength represents a cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, which is an ongoing population cohort study of individuals from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Within participating countries, households from both urban and rural communities were invited to participate using a sampling strategy intended to yield a sample that was representative of the community. Households were eligible if at least one member was aged 35-70 years and if they intended living at the same address for a further four years. A total of 152,610 participants from these households, located in 21 countries, were included in this analysis. Handgrip strength was measured using a Jamar dynanometer. Olympic medal tallies were made over the five most recent Summer Games. There was a significant positive association between national population grip strength (GS and medal tally that persisted after adjustment for sex, age, height, average daily caloric intake and GDP (total and per capita. For every 1kg increase in population GS, the medal tally increased by 36% (95% CI 13-65%, p = 0.001 after adjustment. Among countries that won at least one medal over the four most recent Summer Olympic Games, there was a close linear relationship between adjusted GS and the natural logarithm of the per capita medal tally (adjusted r = 0.74, p = 0.002.Population muscle strength may be an important determinant of Summer Olympic Games medal

  2. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  3. [A follow-up study on the degree of satisfaction regarding environment, life style and the coming Olympic events in the inhabitants living in the typical communities of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Ma, Jun; Song, Yi; Li, Yan; Zong, Shu-ting; Xiao, Feng; Chen, Bo-wen

    2008-08-01

    To measure the degree of satisfaction on various environmental and health components and to discuss the impact of Olympic Games among the residents so as to make relative policy suggestions. In 2006, permanent residents over 15 years old lived in the Asian Games Village Community (where the 29th Olympic Games to be held) were selected to conduct a household's survey, while 1610 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire included demographic information, degrees of satisfaction on various health-related environmental components, living condition and on Olympic events. The top 4 aspects with the highest satisfaction rates were "overall rates of satisfaction on current life" "green space", "housing conditions" and "water quality", which were 50.43%, 48.59%, 38.95%, 37.08%, respectively. Residents' satisfaction on "impact of hosting the Olympic Games on China's international image", "China's economic development level", "living conditions" and "personal life" were 65.53%, 56.09%, 47.27%, 46.40%, respectively. Data from partial correlation analysis showed that the total scores of satisfaction on environment and life had positive correlation with the total scores of Olympic satisfaction (P Olympic event through factor analysis showed that 10 entries of the Olympic impact could be reflected by two factors--the influence of image to the nation and impact on personal income. Logistic regression showed that the impact of Olympic Games on personal income, the impact of Olympic Games on the image of the nation and standard of living, gender, education level were independent influencing factors of the total scores of environment and life satisfaction (P Olympic Games to the country's image, the country's economic development level, the environment and personal standard of living.

  4. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  5. The patellar tendon in junior elite volleyball players and an Olympic elite weightlifter

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The principal aim of the present thesis was to prospectively follow (clinical status and ultrasound + Doppler findings) the patellar tendons in the young elite volleyball players at the Swedish National Centre for high school volleyball in Falköping. In an Olympic weightlifter with chronic painful jumper´s knee, the effects of treatment with sclerosing injections followed by early instituted very heavy weightlifting training, was also evaluated. First, in a prevalence study, we demonstrated t...

  6. Robert Burns and the Re-making of National Memory in Contemporary Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Dougal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Burns, the eighteenth-century Scottish poet and song writer, continues to maintain a substantial cultural ‘afterlife’ in the twenty first century, both within Scotland and beyond. Achieving cult status in the nineteenth century, the power of Burns as a popular cultural icon remains undiminished. Where the appropriation of Burns as national icon in the nineteenth century was made manifest in statuary, commemorative objects, and painted portraits, the twenty-first century has been marked by the proliferation of the image of Burns in new forms and technologies, with Burns as product and brand logo, museum and heritage attraction, and tourism industry selling point. This recent flourishing of interest and engagement raises questions about why and how an eighteenth-century poet continues to be the object of such extensive cultural elaboration at this time. In approaching this question, some fruitful lines of enquiry are being suggested in recent discussions that have looked at the nineteenth-century Burns as a ‘mobilizing agent in collective memory production’ (Rigney 2011, 81. One such appraisal points to how the construction of Burns in the nineteenth century as an iconic figure of Scottish cultural memory has the potential to ‘be resignified as necessary in subsequent chronological and geographical sites’ (Davis 2010, 14. It is this potential for the resignification of Burns as a symbolic site for the nation’s memory that this paper explores. In pointing to Burns’ representation in a variety of popular forms and in public discourse, the paper examines how a writer comes to be invested and reinvested as the voice and persona of the nation.

  7. development and creation of a professional discipline under special consideration of the Summer Olympics in 1936 in Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Ristau, Jörn-Arne

    2013-01-01

    The present paper shows in three chapters the creation of the sport and the development of the sports medicine in Germany of the years from 1933 to 1945, lights up their value and meaning under the influence of the national-socialist dictatorship. To indicate the relation of medicine and sport in that period, the Summer Olympics of 1936 in Berlin are especially considered .

  8. National narration and Politics of Memory in post-socialist Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundua Salome

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to analyse the politics of so called “historical memory” during the state-building and nation-building process in post-socialist Georgia After the Rose Revolution 2003, the new government that aimed at building the “new Georgia,” implementing radical changes in many key spheres, including institutions, readdressing the totalitarian past, faced number of problematic manifestations in political and cultural life in this post-Soviet country. The “politics of memory” became one of the key factors of reconstructing of “new, democratic, western Georgia”. This process can be evaluated as leading toward state nationalism. Analyzing the politics of memory, symbolism is the most notable attitude and that is why former President Mikheil Saakashvili used commemorative ceremonies continuously. The authors argue in favour of approach, that the so called “memory politics” is the integral part of one’s legitimacy building, but at the same time, it can be used as tool for reconsidering of Polity’s future and mobilization of population under the “citizenship” umbrella towards the strong loyalty to the actual and future state-building.

  9. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  10. Memory and Forgetting on the National Periphery: Marseilles and the Regicide of 1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The assassination of the King of Yugoslavia, Alexander Ist by Croatian terrorists during a state visit to Marseilles on 9 October 1934 is commemorated by a modest plaque on the Canebière and a little known monument outside the Préfecture. Although the histories of the period cite the event in passing, it is treated as a footnote in the political history of France and has been all but erased from the memory of the city. While there are good reasons for forgetting the episode – regicide does no favours for the reputation of a host nation or city and the French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou was accidentally shot by the French police – the double killing had multiple ramifications for France's interior and foreign affairs during the rise of fascism in Europe. It advanced the career of future Vichy Prime Minister Pierre Laval, who replaced Barthou as Foreign Minister, while French efforts to contain the threat of German expansionism by forging alliances with the Central European powers died with Barthou; King Alexander Ist's successor moved Yugoslavia into the camp of the Axis powers. Geopolitically, the system of collective security forged at Versailles collapsed in the wake the assassination. The incident in Marseilles highlights political tensions in France in the troubled inter-war years leading up to the emergence of the Front Populaire. It reveals the memorial agencies of core and periphery engaged in a struggle over the rights to remembrance. Above all, it poses the problem of the preservation of peripheral and traumatic episodes in collective memory and suggests that political violence constitutes a social periphery of its own, contributing to Marseille's "mauvaise réputation" as the French capital's negative, meridional 'other'.

  11. Delivering the International Olympic Committee's mandate on Youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is currently planning the historic Youth Olympic Games (YOG), an international mul ti-sport event that will be inaugurated in Singapore in 2010. On the 6t h of July 2007, the establishment of the YOG was approved and will feature 14 to 18 year-old athletes. The purpose of the YOG ...

  12. Go for the Gold by Utilizing the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests ways to incorporate legal issues related to the Olympic Games into a business law or legal environment course. As demonstrated in previous issues of this journal and elsewhere, material related to sports law can serve as an engaging supplement to traditional legal subjects. Topics that can be related to the Olympics include…

  13. Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future.

  14. Changing Roles of Women: Participation in Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyonov, Moshe

    1981-01-01

    Investigates whether a country's socioeconomic characteristics influence female participation in the Olympics and other athletics. The author reviews data on women's participation in Olympic teams and in the labor forces worldwide. Economic development and industrialization support women's rising economic status as well as their participation in…

  15. Terminology Management at the National Language Service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Terminology Services (NTS) and State Language Services (SLS) of .... as CD-ROM and online (i.e. the National Termbank and, in future, the Inter- ... cal Engineering, Education, Olympic Games, Mammals, Dietetics, Frail Care,.

  16. Dietary supplementation patterns of Korean olympic athletes participating in the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kang, Seung-ki; Jung, Han-sang; Chun, Yoon-suck; Trilk, Jennifer; Jung, Seung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Athletes report frequent use of various dietary supplements (DSs). However, no study has examined DS use and antidoping knowledge in Korean Olympians. The objectives of this study were to obtain information about Korean Olympians' DS use during the training period for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games and immediately before their Olympic events, to obtain DS-intake reasons and DS providers, and to obtain information on athletes' doping education, knowledge, and educators. Korean Olympians completed 2 questionnaires 1 wk before the opening and within 1 wk after the closing of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Results showed that 79% of male and 82% of female Olympians take more than 1 DS during the training period and that vitamins and Oriental supplements are the 2 top-ranked DSs. Reasons for DS use were to improve recovery ability (66%) and muscle performance (22%), and sources of obtaining DSs were parents (36%) and coaches (35%). Furthermore, 79% of Korean Olympians reported receiving regular education on antidoping regulations from Olympic-sponsored education classes (64%) and coaches (15%). In conclusion, this study was the first to examine DS use and antidoping-related information in Korean Olympians. Because some herbal products contain substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, athletes should be cautious in using mixed Oriental supplements.

  17. The Promotion and Perception of the Youth Olympic Games: A Korean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Lee, Don; Surber, Karin; Bellar, David; Petersen, Jeffrey; Ivan, Emese; Kim, Hyeon Jung

    2013-01-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) was launched in part to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of increasingly overweight and inactive adolescents. But since the initial announcement of the YOG by the International Olympic Committee in 2007, this new third addition to the Olympic family of events has provoked response from…

  18. A national survey of memory clinics in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Suzanne; Pierce, Maria; Moore, Vanessa

    2014-04-01

    This national survey investigates the location, resourcing, staff composition, treatments, waiting time, and numbers of patients attending memory clinics (MCs) in the Republic of Ireland. It also explores Directors' attitudes to future service development including their views about the advantages and disadvantages of quality standards for MCs. An audio-taped telephone interview was conducted with the Directors. A total of 14 MCs were identified across the Republic of Ireland, ten of which are hospital-based and most of which offer diagnostic services and are located in Dublin. Nine MCs are medical consultant led and operate under the direction of either Old Age Psychiatrists or Geriatricians. Results show wide variation regarding the location, team size, service availability, and numbers of patients attending. The average number of patients attending in 2011 was 126. Only six clinics employ dedicated Allied Health Professionals. Less than half of the clinics are research active. Whilst most Directors welcomed the availability of national standards, several expressed concern that standards might, in the absence of funding, result in the closure of the most poorly resourced services. This survey provides valuable data on the main characteristics of all of the 14 MCs delivering services in the Republic of Ireland and raises critical and fundamental questions about the goals and outcomes of MC services. The survey data collected can be used by other countries for cross-national comparison.

  19. A PROFILE OF OLYMPIC TAEKWONDO COMPETITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the profile of the Olympic champions and the other competitors who were involved in the Games. The information on each of the athletes was obtained from the "Official Site of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, www.olympics.com/eng/sports/TK" and included weight category, weight, height, age, points obtained, warnings, deduction point, defensive/offensive kicks and punches. One hundred and two athletes competed (54 males and 48 females in the Games. The mean average age and BMI (Body Mass Index of 16 male winners was 24.4 ± 3.3 years and 21.9 ± 2.4 respectively compared to 25.2 ± 4.3 years and 22.8 ± 3.3 for the 38 male non-winners. The mean average age and BMI of the 16 female winners was 23.1 ± 3.9 years and 20.8 ± 2.3 respectively compared to 24.9 ± 4.7 years and 21.3 ± 2.7 for the 32 female non-winners. For all four types of athletes, offensive kicks accounted for at least 52% of the techniques to score a point. Ninety-eight percent of all techniques used to score were kicks. Although not statistically significant, winners overall tended to be younger in age and taller with slightly lower BMI than their weight category average. Taking into account the literature cited in this article, future studies should be designed to examine the relationship between performance and functional variables such as muscle power, muscle endurance, reaction time and aerobic capacity.

  20. Environmental design of the Olympic Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental Design of The Olympic Dam Operations has been required to take into account the Environmental Management Programme as approved by the South Australian Government and radiological protection standards as determined by the Commonwealth of Australia's Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores 1987. The article describes the natural environment, project assessment and infrastructure relating to the environmental design. The radiological standards refer to the control of exposure to radiation above naturally occurring background levels both for employees and for members of the public. 2 tabs., maps

  1. The environment of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project at Roxby Downs, South Australia, has a harsh environment with high summer temperatures, low rainfall and poor quality soils. There are no natural water courses. The vegetation is dominated by annual grasses in summer and wildflowers in winter. Red kangaroos are the most commonly sighted native mammals. The Fat-tailed Dunnart a nocturnal carniverous marsupial, is found. Eighty three bird species have been recorded. Reptiles are numerous and one amphibian occurs. A vermin eradication program aimed at rabbit control is conducted. ills

  2. Social networking and the Olympic Movement: social media analysis, opportunities and trends : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Peña, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Table of contents : 1: Introduction. - 2 : Sociodemographic data of social networking sites. - 3 : The Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games on Facebook, Twitter and Orkut. - 4 : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games communication strategies on Facebook and Twitter. - 5 : Sport organizations social networking strategies : case study analysis. - 6 : Olympic athletes and social media use during a non olympic-period. - 7. The Olympic Games, NBA and FC Barcelona on Facebook : content and fan participa...

  3. Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2001-02-01

    We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance.

  4. Imaging Correlates of Memory and Concussion History in Retired National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Jeremy F; Womack, Kyle B; Didehbani, Nyaz; Spence, Jeffrey S; Conover, Heather; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2015-07-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an association between concussion, cognition, and anatomical structural brain changes across the age spectrum in former National Football League athletes. To assess the relationship of hippocampal volume, memory performance, and the influence of concussion history in retired National Football League athletes with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This retrospective cohort study assessed differences between groups, mean hippocampal volumes, and memory performance by computing age quintiles based on group-specific linear regression models corrected for multiple comparisons for both athletes and control participants. The study was conducted starting in November 2010 and is ongoing at a research center in the northern region of Texas. This current analysis was conducted from October 9, 2013, to August 21, 2014. Participants included 28 retired National Football League athletes, 8 of whom had MCI and a history of concussion, 21 cognitively healthy control participants, and 6 control participants with MCI without concussion. Hippocampal volume, age, California Verbal Learning Test scores, and the number of grade 3 (G3) concussions. In addition, the number of games played was examined as an objective variable pertaining to football history. The mean (SD) age was 58.1 (13) years for the 28 former athletes and 59.0 (12) years for the 27 control participants. Retired athletes with concussion history but without cognitive impairment had normal but significantly lower California Verbal Learning Test scores compared with control participants (mean [SD], 52.5 [8] vs 60.24 [7]; P = .002); those with a concussion history and MCI performed worse (mean [SD], 37 [8.62]) compared with both control participants (P history of G3 concussion were more likely to have MCI (7 of 7) compared with retired athletes without a history of G3 concussion (1 of 5) older than 63 years (P = .01). In addition, the left hippocampal

  5. Survey report of NOAA Ship McArthur II cruises AR-04-04, AR-05-05 and AR-06-03: habitat classification of side scan sonar imagery in support of deep-sea coral/sponge explorations at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intelmann, Steven S.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Bowlby, C. Edward; Brancato, Mary Sue; Hyland, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Habitat mapping and characterization has been defined as a high-priority management issue for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS), especially for poorly known deep-sea habitats that may be sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. As a result, a team of scientists from OCNMS, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), and other partnering institutions initiated a series of surveys to assess the distribution of deep-sea coral/sponge assemblages within the sanctuary and to look for evidence of potential anthropogenic impacts in these critical habitats. Initial results indicated that remotely delineating areas of hard bottom substrate through acoustic sensing could be a useful tool to increase the efficiency and success of subsequent ROV-based surveys of the associated deep-sea fauna. Accordingly, side scan sonar surveys were conducted in May 2004, June 2005, and April 2006 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur II to: (1) obtain additional imagery of the seafloor for broader habitat-mapping coverage of sanctuary waters, and (2) help delineate suitable deep-sea coral-sponge habitat, in areas of both high and low commercial-fishing activities, to serve as sites for surveying-in more detail using an ROV on subsequent cruises, Several regions of the sea floor throughout the OCNMS were surveyed and mosaicked at 1-meter pixel resolution. Imagery from the side scan sonar mapping efforts was integrated with other complementary data from a towed camera sled, ROVs, sedentary samples, and bathymetry records to describe geological and biological (where possible) aspects of habitat. Using a hierarchical deep-water marine benthic classification scheme (Greene et al. 1999), we created a preliminary map of various habitat polygon features for use in a geographical information system (GIS). This report provides a description of the mapping and groundtruthing efforts as well as results of the image classification procedure for each of the areas surveyed.

  6. Can Cold Water Immersion Enhance Recovery in Elite Olympic Weightlifters? An Individualized Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpchen, Jan; Wagner, Maximilian; Ferrauti, Alexander; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Meyer, Tim

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether cold water immersion (CWI) after intensive training sessions can enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters, taking into account each athlete's individual response pattern. The entire German male Olympic weightlifting national team participated in the study (n = 7), ensuring collection of data from elite athletes only. Using a randomized cross-over design, the athletes went through 2 high-intensity training microcycles consisting of 5 training sessions that were either followed by a CWI or passive recovery. Barbell speed in a snatch pull movement, blood parameters, and subjective ratings of general fatigue and recovery were assessed throughout the study. Physical performance at 2 snatch pull intensities (85% one repetition maximum [1RM]: -0.15% vs. -0.22%, p = 0.94; 90% 1RM: -0.7% vs. +1.23%, p = 0.25) did not differ significantly (condition × time). Although questionnaires revealed a significant decline in the ratings of overall recovery (p creatine kinase: p = 0.53; urea: p = 0.43; cortisol: p = 0.59; testosterone: p = 0.53; testosterone:cortisol ratio: p = 0.69). In general, CWI did not prove to be an effective tool to enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters over a 3-day intensive training period. However, even though the group was rather homogeneous with regard to performance, there were considerable intersubject differences in their response to CWI. It seems that athletes are best advised on a case-by-case basis.

  7. Sports medicine and drug control programs of the U.S. Olympic Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K S

    1984-05-01

    The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 reconstituted the U.S. Olympic Committee ( USOC ), giving it new responsibilities and opportunities as a unifying force in amateur sports, including sports medicine. Sports medicine is the sum of attentions that promote and protect the health of the active person. Olympic sports medicine includes attention to the needs of both the elite athlete and the developing athlete. In some instances the attentions are the same; in others they are not. Those in Olympic sports medicine must thereby reduce the increasing array of general concepts and issues to the applicable specifics of the respective occasion, sport, and individual. The USOC Sports Medicine Program is guided by a 15-person volunteer Sports Medicine Council and implemented by a core Sports Medicine Division staff. Services are provided at the Olympic training centers in Colorado Springs and Lake Placid and extended through a budding network of colleagues in the field to clusters of athletes across the nations. Organizationally , the Division is composed of departments of biomechanics, sports physiology, clinical services, and educational services. Special projects are developed as warranted to provide focal attention to sports psychology, nutrition, chronobiology, vision enhancement, and drug control. The USOC Drug Control Program was born at the 1983 Pan American Games in Caracas after a long gestation period. Drug education in sports has been a frequent activity for the past 20 yr. sometimes focusing on illicit drugs (e.g., marijuana and cocaine) and sometimes on sports performance drugs (e.g., amphetamines and anabolic steroids).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Cardiovascular screening of Olympic athletes reported by chief medical officers of the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresdahl, Brett G; Asif, Irfan M; Rodeo, Scott A; Ling, Daphne I; Chang, Cindy J

    2018-05-24

    The IOC recommends periodic cardiovascular screening of athletes, but the adoption of these recommendations is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate and compare cardiovascular screening practices of countries participating in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. A list of chief medical officers (CMOs) was compiled by the IOC during the 2016 Olympic Games. CMOs were requested to complete an online survey about cardiovascular screening of their countries' Olympic athletes. Comparisons of screening practices were made by categorising countries by continent, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and size of athlete delegation. CMOs for 117/207 (56.5%) countries participating in the 2016 Olympic Games were identified. 94/117 countries (80.3%) completed the survey, representing 45.4% of all countries and 8805/11 358 (77.5%) of all 2016 Olympic athletes. Most of the countries surveyed (70.2%) perform annual cardiovascular screening. Among the survey respondents, all or most athletes from each country were screened at least once with the following components: personal history (86.2% of countries), family history (85.1%), physical examination (87.2%), resting ECG (74.5%), echocardiogram (31.9%) and stress test (30.8%). Athletes were more likely to be screened with ECG in countries with relatively larger athlete delegation (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.80, p=0.023) and with higher GDP per capita (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.57, p=0.014). Most of the responding countries perform annual cardiovascular screening of Olympic athletes, but there are differences in the components used. Athletes from countries with larger athlete delegations and higher GDP per capita were more likely to be screened with ECG. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. What can Bilfinger teach Olympic sponsors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilfinger SE (Bilfinger is a leading international engineering and services group (Bilfinger.com, 2015, and was a local sponsor of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The company is accused of paying bribes through its subsidiary company, Mauell, (dw. com, 2015 to public officials in Brazil for contracts related to the 2014 World Cup (Cassin, 2015. The corruption allegations relate to orders to equip security command centers at twelve host cities during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil (dw.com, 2015. Because Brazil hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup and will host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, companies need to consider the risks of many international anti-corruption laws, such as Brazil’s anti-corruption law commonly referred as The Clean Companies Act and other applicable anticorruption law like the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Rogers, et. al, 2014. This paper will analyze the Bilfinger case involving corruption activity at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and offer insights for sponsors of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

  10. Estimating the economic impact of the Sydney Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, John; Crowe, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    This paper employs a multiregional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to examine the effects on the New South Wales and Australian economies of the 2000 Olympics. The Olympics are modelled over a 12-year period from 1994 to 2005, divided into three phases: (i) the Pre-Event phase, 1994 to 1999; (ii) the Event Year, 2000; and (iii) the Post-Event phase, 2001-2005. Construction of the Olympics venues and associated infrastructure is modelled as occurring in the first phase, while the op...

  11. Nuclear security and radiological preparedness for the olympic games, athens 2004: lessons learned for organizing major public events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panayiotis; Hourdakis, Constantine J; Maltezos, Antonios; Matikas, Theodore; Potiriadis, Constantinos; Camarinopoulos, Leonidas

    2006-10-01

    In light of the exceptional circumstances that arose from hosting the Olympic Games in Athens in 2004 and from recent terrorist events internationally, Greece attributes the highest priority to security issues. According to its statutory role, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for emergency preparedness and response in case of nuclear and radiological events, and advises the Government on the measures and interventions necessary to protect the public. In this context, the Commission participated in the Nuclear, Radiological, Biological, and Chemical Threat National Emergency Plan, specially developed for the Olympic Games, and coordinated by the Olympic Games Security Division. The objective of this paper is to share the experience gained during the organization of the Olympic Games and to present the nuclear security program implemented prior to, during, and beyond the Games, in order to prevent, detect, assess, and respond to the threat of nuclear terrorism. This program adopted a multi-area coverage of nuclear security, including physical protection of nuclear and radiological facilities, prevention of smuggling of radioactive materials through borders, prevention of dispersion of these materials into the Olympic venues, enhancement of emergency preparedness and response to radiological events, upgrading of the technical infrastructure, establishment of new procedures for assessing the threat and responding to radiological incidents, and training personnel belonging to several organizations involved in the National Emergency Response Plan. Finally, the close cooperation of Greek Authorities with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, under the coordination of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, is also discussed.

  12. Perception of special olympics coaches on safety in their training of their special olympics athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Kum Loy

    2009-01-01

    A sport coach, besides providing training to improve an athlete's performance in his/her chosen sport, is also tasked for ensuring that the training and/or competition take place in a safe environment. This ability to factor safe practices is a challenge to any sport coach, especially when the people being coached have intellectual disability (ID). This study aims to explore the perceptions of Special Olympics (SO) sport coaches towards risk factors for injuries and safety issues when they co...

  13. mos115_0403.TIF -- Multibeam backscatter sonar image for the nearshore Cape Flattery area: Data from survey effort HMPR-115-2004-03 in the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This multibeam backscatter sonar image of the sea floor (0-200 m water depths) was mosaiced from data collected fromvarious mapping efforts each October from...

  14. Sustainable Remediation of Legacy Mine Drainage: A Case Study of the Flight 93 National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Pizarchik, Joseph; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2016-03-01

    Pollution from mining activities is a global environmental concern, not limited to areas of current resource extraction, but including a broader geographic area of historic (legacy) and abandoned mines. The pollution of surface waters from acid mine drainage is a persistent problem and requires a holistic and sustainable approach to addressing the spatial and temporal complexity of mining-specific problems. In this paper, we focus on the environmental, socio-economic, and legal challenges associated with the concurrent activities to remediate a coal mine site and to develop a national memorial following a catastrophic event. We provide a conceptual construct of a socio-ecological system defined at several spatial, temporal, and organizational scales and a critical synthesis of the technical and social learning processes necessary to achieving sustainable environmental remediation. Our case study is an example of a multi-disciplinary management approach, whereby collaborative interaction of stakeholders, the emergence of functional linkages for information exchange, and mediation led to scientifically informed decision making, creative management solutions, and ultimately environmental policy change.

  15. Some Case Studies on How Media Constructs Olympic Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lennartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During the entire history of the modern Olympic Games, from their renaissance in 1896, when the firsth edition had been heldin Athens and until the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936, the present paper makes an analyse of the real facts and of thelegends created around them. The sports journal and the other publications are important factors in the distorsion of the realityand keeping the legend. From the athletes heros like Spiridon Louis, the first winner of the marathon and the myth buildaround the way of winning this race , to the story of the 100m won by Jesse Owens at 36 Olympic Games who have been heldin Berlin and the fact that Hitler refused to shake the hand of the Olympic champion, the purpose of this paper is to combat themyths developed since. The facts are substantiated by using the chronological datas, using the notes and minutes of meetings,as well using photographic means.

  16. prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games. ... This article examines the opportunities and challenges that a South African city willing to bid for and host the Games is likely to face. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Strategic prospects of non-Olympic sports in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Leonov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify strategic prospects for the development of non-Olympic sports in Ukraine. Materials and Methods: the analysis of literary sources and documents, systems analysis, organizational analysis, marketing tools, SWOT – analysis, organizational modeling, methods of mathematical statistics. 57 representatives of the regional federations of non-Olympic sports participated in the survey. Results: the model of sustainable development of non-Olympic sports is proposed. Objective necessity of the implementation of the results obtained in the practice to the state, branch and regional management in the sphere of physical culture and sports is proven. Conclusions: the livelihoods and development of non-Olympic sport involves the development and application of organizational projects, management of technology, "integrators" of local resources, the study of internal resource of sport movement, the development program funding.

  18. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  19. Asthma in United States olympic athletes who participated in the 1998 olympic winter games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, J M; Ryan, E J

    2000-08-01

    About one of every 5 athletes who participated in the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta had a past history of asthma, had symptoms that suggested asthma, or took asthma medications. No previous study has determined the prevalence of asthma in all US athletes who participated in an Olympic Winter Games. We sought to determine how many US athletes who participated in the 1998 Olympic Winter Games had a past history of asthma, had symptoms that suggested asthma, or indicated taking a medication used to treat asthma. We evaluated responses to questions that asked about allergic and respiratory diseases in the United States Olympic Committee Medical History Questionnaire that was completed by all 196 athletes who represented the United States at the 1998 Olympic Winter Games in Nagano, Japan. Forty-three (21.9%) of the 196 athletes had a previous diagnosis of asthma, and 36 (18. 4%) recorded use of an asthma medication at some time in the past. Forty-four (22.4%) reported use of an asthma medication, a diagnosis of asthma, or both (our basis for the diagnosis of asthma). Thirty-four (17.4%) of the athletes were currently taking an asthma medication at the time that they completed the questionnaire or indicated that they took these medications on a permanent or semipermanent basis and were considered to have active asthma. Athletes who participated in Nordic combined, cross-country, and short track events had the highest prevalence of having been told that they had asthma or had taken an asthma medication in the past (60.7%) in contrast with only one (2.8%) of the 36 athletes who participated in bobsled, biathlon, luge, and ski jumping. Eighteen (24%) of 75 athletes who participated in alpine, long track, figure skating, snow boarding, and curling had a previous diagnosis of asthma or recorded use of an asthma medication. We conclude that asthma appeared to have been more common in athletes who participated in the 1998 Winter Games than in athletes who participated in

  20. Olympic and world sport: making transnational society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Brownell, Susan

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces the special issue of the British Journal of Sociology on the subject of the transnational aspects of Olympic and world sport. The special issue is underpinned by the perspective that because sport provides a space for the forging of transnational connections and global consciousness, it is increasingly significant within contemporary processes of globalization and the making of transnational society. In this article, we examine in turn eight social scientific themes or problems that are prominent within the special issue: globalization, glocalization, neo-liberal ideologies and policies, transnational society, securitization, global civil society, transnational/global public sphere, and fantasy/imagination. We conclude by highlighting five 'circles' of future research inquiry within world sport that should be explored by social scientists. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  1. Olympic Dam project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Olympic Dam deposit, South Australia, is estimated to contain at least 2,000 million tonnes of mineralized material, with an average grade of about 1.6% copper, 0.6 Kg/t of uranium oxide and 0.6 g/t of gold. The objective of the project is to extract and process the ore for the production and sale of copper, uranium oxide and the associated gold and silver. Facilities required are an underground mine, an on-site processing plant, associated facilities including a tailings retention system, a town to accommodate up to 9,000 people and other infrastructure. Chapters in the draft E.I.S. contain information on the environment, land use, aboriginal environment, geology, tailings retention system, radiation assessment, project infrastructure, social effects and economic effects

  2. The physical demands of Olympic yacht racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, H; Sanders, R; Legg, S

    1999-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the up wards forces of the feet on the hiking strap and the forces in the mainsheet of four Olympic classes of racing dinghies (Europe, Laser. Finn and 470) during realistic on-water sailing in varying wind conditions. The secondary aim of the study was to measure the joint angles adopted by the sailors and boat heel angles. The tertiary aim was to identify events and sailing conditions associated with large or patterned force production. Forces in the hiking strap and mainsheet of four classes of Olympic sailing dinghies were measured on eleven New Zealand sailors during simulated on-water racing in a range of wind conditions. Up-wind hiking strap forces reached an average of 73-87% of predicted maximal voluntary contraction (pred MVC), with peak forces exceeding 100% pred MVC. Mainsheet forces reached 25-35% pred MVC, with peak forces reaching 40-50% pred MVC. Off-wind hiking strap and mainsheet forces were considerably lower than up-wind forces. Ankle and hip joint angles increased and knee joint angles decreased with increasing wind speed during up-wind sailing. Large forces occurred in the hiking strap and mainsheet when boats reached the tops of wave during up-wind sailing in high wind speeds and when a gust of wind hit the boat. During off-wind sailing large forces were observed in the mainsheet when surfing down waves. It is recommended that the intensities and joint angles found in this study be used as a basis for the development of class specific off-water physical conditioning programmes.

  3. Unsteady Sail Dynamics in Olympic Class Sailboats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charles; Schutt, Riley

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady sailing techniques have evolved in competitive sailboat fleets, in cases where the relative weight of the sailor is sufficient to impart unsteady motions to the boat and sails. We will discuss three types of motion that are used by athletes to propel their boats on an Olympic race course faster than using the wind alone. In all of our cases, body weight movements induce unsteady sail motion, increasing driving force and speed through the water. In this research, we explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and a 6-GoPro camera array. We shall briefly discuss "sail flicking", whereby the helmsman periodically rolls the sail into the apparent wind, at an angle which is distinct from classical heave (in our case, the oscillations are not normal to the apparent flow). We also demonstrate "roll tacking", where there are considerable advantages to rolling the boat during such a maneuver, especially in light wind. In both of the above examples from on-the-water studies, corresponding experiments using a towing tank exhibit increases in the driving force, associated with the formation of strong vortex pairs into the flow. Finally, we focus on a technique known as "S-curving" in the case where the boat sails downwind. In contrast to the previous cases, it is drag force rather than lift force that the sailor is trying to maximise as the boat follows a zig-zag trajectory. The augmented apparent wind strength due to the oscillatory sail motion, and the growth of strong synchronised low-pressure wake vortices on the low-pressure side of the sail, contribute to the increase in driving force, and velocity-made-good downwind.

  4. The Olympic Mountains Experiment for GPM (OLYMPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houze, R.; McMurdie, L. A.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2016-12-01

    The GPM satellite has made it possible to observe the amount and nature of precipitation in remote areas of midlatitudes, including oceans and mountain ranges. OLYMPEX conducted over the Olympic Mountains on the northwest coast of Washington State was designed to provide the means for evaluating the physical basis of the algorithms used to convert GPM satellite measurements to determine the amount and nature of precipitation in midlatitude extratropical cyclones. Microphysical processes producing precipitation are highly sensitive to the vertical profile of temperature. In the tropics, the domain of the TRMM satellite, the temperature profile varies only slightly. GPM algorithms, however, must account for the strong horizontal variation of temperature profiles in baroclinic storms systems of midlatitudes and for the variations of precipitation mechanisms caused by passage of these storms over mountains. The OLYMPEX scientific strategy was: 1) collect a statistically robust set of measurements in midlatitude cyclones upstream of, over, and downstream of a midlatitude mountain range that can be used to improve GPM satellite algorithms; 2) determine how the physics and dynamics of the mechanisms affecting precipitation formation in relation to storm structure and terrain. To accomplish these goals 3 aircraft, 4 scanning dual polarization Doppler radars, supplemental soundings, and sophisticated surface instruments were deployed on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, where Pacific frontal systems produce seasonal precipitation of 2000-4000 mm. 13 storms were observed. 3 of these were atmospheric rivers. The NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft overflew the storms with instruments similar to those on GPM. The U. North Dakota Citation sampled hydrometeors in situ. Preliminary analysis indicates that one of the primary modes of orographic enhancement is low-level moist flow rising over the lower windward slopes and producing many very small drops. Ice-phase processes producing

  5. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob F; Fritzdorf, Stephen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (three gold and two bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games. From the age of 19 to 40 yr, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), peak HR, blood lactate, and rowing ergometer performance were assessed annually. During the first years of his elite career (from age 19 to 24), VO2 max increased from 5.5 to approximately 5.9 L · min(-1) (78 mL · min(-1) · kg(-1)) and his average power during 6-min maximal rowing increased from 420 to approximately 460 W. Although his HRmax declined by approximately 20 bpm during the 20-yr period, maximal aerobic power, evaluated both as VO2 max and 6-min test performance, was maintained until the age of 40. Furthermore, peak lactate levels remained unchanged and average power outputs during 10-s, 60-s, and 60-min ergometer tests were all maintained at approximately 800 W, approximately 700 W, and approximately 350 W, respectively, indicating that he was able to preserve both aerobic and anaerobic exercise performances. Echocardiographic analyses revealed a left ventricular mass of 198 g and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of 5.8 cm. This longitudinal case indicates that until the age of 40 yr, a steady increase in the oxygen pulse may have compensated for the significant decline in the maximal heart frequency. Furthermore, the maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities allowed this Olympic athlete to compete at the highest level for almost two decades.

  6. An Investigation into the Familiarity of Physical Education Experts with Historical, Social and Cultural Aspects of Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Sardar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to survey an investigation into the familiarity of physical education experts with historical, social and cultural aspects of Olympic Games. 120 of the physical education experts (the members of physical education, the managers of the Ministry of Sport and Youth, the managers of physical education in the Ministry of Education answered to a researcher made questionnaire on familiarity with different aspects of Olympic Games in order to determine their familiarity with historical, cultural and social aspects of Olympic. The mentioned questionnaire (15 social questions, 14 historical questions, 11 cultural questions was constructed through a guide study and making subsequent revisions and editions. The opinions of the scope of experts were used in order to determine face and content validity and chronbach’s a was used in order to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. Appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA one- way, MANOVA and the Scheffe Hoc test were used. The findings demonstrated that the viewpoints of the members of the physical education were significantly different from those of the other two groups. The Scheffe Hoc test also demonstrated a significant difference between the ideas of the physical education members and those of the other two groups. The superiority of the physical education members in social part consisting of questions involving nationalism, Doping, professional sport, advertisement, commercialism, multimedia and communications was not due to their knowledge of Olympic chart but their involvement with these subjects in the society. Their superiority in historical questions was owing to the role of multimedia in covering the news and increasing the knowledge of the people in this respect. One of the reasons for the superiority of the physical education members in cultural section was that the addressees of multimedia got information on medals more than the cultural

  7. Comparative analysis of prestart condition of students girls in Olympic and non-Olympic kinds of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Ivaskiene

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was studied prestart condition of students girls in Olympic and non-Olympic martial arts. With the help of SAN test and Spielberg-Chanin scale during the Championship in Lithuania among students of year 2011 was conducted 54 judo and 48 sambo athletes students girls (n = 102 aged 20.8 + 2.4 years, their sporting career 5.2 + 1.7 years. The hypothesis is not proved that before competition state of representatives of Olympic (judo and non-Olympic (sambo kinds of sport. Getting indexes shown that emotional state of the most of sambo and judo athletes students girls have high level of feeling of well-being, activity and mood. The most of the athletes (72.2% of judo and 64.0% sambo athletes have very low level of situational anxiety.

  8. Transition to non-toxic gunshot use in Olympic shooting: policy implications for IOC and UNEP in resolving an environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George; Guitart, Raimon

    2013-10-01

    Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a formal Olympic partner on environmental protection, has no stated policy on contamination from lead ammunition, despite having declared lead a Priority Area for remedial action, and is pressing to remove lead from the global human environment. The IOC Sport and Environment Commission and UNEP could examine the continued use of lead shot ammunition and advise the IOC Executive Board on appropriate changes in policy and rules that could halt the massive lead shot contamination of shooting range environments world-wide.

  9. Do the Youth Olympic Games promote Olympism? Analysing a mission (im)possible from a local youth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Martin; Walde, Janette; Scheiber, Sabrina; Nagiller, Roman; Tappeiner, Gottfried

    2018-04-23

    On the basis of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), we assess if and how the youth in the communities of the YOG host cities have been influenced concerning their perception of the Olympic values (OV) and the Olympic movement (OM). Special attention of the study is paid to the analysis of intervention mechanisms which the local youth underwent (e.g. attending the YOG on-site, participating in school programmes). Our study was conducted among 1004 adolescents living in the host region three years after the Innsbruck 2012 YOG had been staged. Our analyses extend the corresponding literature by (1) showing that the YOG and the involvement of the local youth in such an event have the power of creating an interest in the OM and its events, but do not have the power to influence the young citizens' perception of the OV significantly; (2) illustrating that the perception adolescents have of the OV depend mainly on their socio-demographic background, their a priori interest in sports events, social capital (norms, institutional trust) and the extent to which the youngsters follow the event in the different media; and (3) corroborating the hypothesis that intervention programmes (e.g. school programmes) for promoting (Olympic) values and ideals should not be single, obligatory and isolated activities. We conclude that it is not surprising that the International Olympic Committee has reformulated the goals for the YOG in the Olympic Agenda 2020, as some goals relating to the promotion of the OV might have been a mission impossible.

  10. Shaping national memory: The beginning of memorizing Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac in Serbian music (1919-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization of musical life of Belgrade as the capital of the newly founded Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was characterized by efforts towards a material, economic and cultural consolidation of the city after a war disaster; thus the mapping of continuity with pre-war traditions acquired a special significance. The first joint performance of Belgrade choirs in peacetime conditions, organised by the Belgrade Choral Society (1919 and dedicated exclusively to Mokranjac’s output testified to that effect. Soon there followed four similar events (1922- 1923, and then a manifestation of the transfer of Mokranjac’s remains from Skopje to Belgrade (1923. The aim of this article is to examine these events as the first, though belated (due to war circumstances cases of memorizing Mokranjac after his death in 1914. This research has taken into account the processes of canonization of Mokranjac that had begun even during his lifetime, and the critical examination of the canon is complemented by theoretical elements from memory studies, because these events are about a (reinterpretation of the canon of national art music through strategies of memorialization. Concerts and narratives that are directly related to them are marked as artistic memorials to Mokranjac; afterwards, I analyzed the commemoration ceremony itself. Considering the results of the analysis, I concluded that these were two types of memorizing Mokranjac, one of which was in the domain of the professional music elite, while the other one acquired the proportions of the national-state event. Accordingly, they also offered two kinds of national memory. On the one hand, the version presented by the representatives of the elite contributed to the canonization of Mokranjac and the creation of national memory within the dominant group in the field of music which, through its narrative about Mokranjac, expressed its own aesthetic orientation and reinforced its social positions. On

  11. Row for Your Life: A Century of Mortality Follow-Up of French Olympic Rowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Desgorces, François Deni; Dor, Frédéric; Sedeaud, Adrien; Haïda, Amal; LeVan, Philippe; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Strenuous endurance training required to participate in the highest sports level has been associated with deleterious effects on elite athletes' health and cardiac abnormalities. We aimed to describe overall mortality and main causes of deaths of male French rowers participating in at least one Olympic Game (OG) from 1912 to 2012 in comparison with the French general population. Methods Identity information and vital status of French Olympic rowers were validated by National sources from 1912 to 2013 (study's endpoint) among 203 rowers; 52 out of 255 (20.3%) were excluded because their vital statuses could not be confirmed. Main causes of deaths were obtained from the National registry from 1968 up to 2012. Overall and disease-specific mortalities were calculated through standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with its 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall mortality was calculated for the whole rowers' cohort (PT) and for two periods apart: (P1) including rowers from 1912 to 1936 OG, a cohort in which all rowers have deceased and (P2) considering rowers from 1948 to 2012 OG. Results Among the 203 rowers analysed, 46 died before the study's endpoint, mainly from neoplasms (33%), cardiovascular diseases (21%) and external causes (18%). PT demonstrates a significant 42% lower overall mortality (SMR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43–0.78, pOlympic rowers benefit of lower overall mortality compared with the French general population. Among rowers' main causes of death, cardiovascular diseases are reduced in relation to their compatriots. Analytical studies with larger samples are needed to understand the reasons for such reductions. PMID:25402483

  12. Regional Income and Employment Effects of the 1972 Munich Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Jasmand; Wolfgang Maennig

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Olympic Games may have impacts on income and employment in the host city, but no ex post study has been carried out for European Olympic host cities to date. The present study closes this gap using the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. The data period examined in this study allows for analysis of long-term effects. In addition, the methodology avoids overestimating the significance of the effects. Finally, we report results for all possible combinations of pre- and post-Olympic p...

  13. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education

    OpenAIRE

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  14. The economic impact of Olympic tourism: When, who and how much?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    No Olympics could do without exact measuring. In the 100 m sprint race, milliseconds separate winners from losers. But when it comes to measuring the economic benefits of Olympic tourism, figures vary by several billion. How can we get a grip on the economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympics?

  15. Determination of Career Planning Profiles of Turkish Athletes Who Are Ranked in the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulya, Bingol; Cemal, Gundogdu; Sukru, Bingol

    2012-01-01

    This study researched in the level of career planning of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics during the time they were active in sports and after they retired. This study which aimed to determine the career planning efficiency of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics based on the viewpoints of the athletes holding Olympic degree is scanning…

  16. Doping in olympic sport: crisis and ways to overcome it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platonov Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the modern history of the spread of doping in Olympic sports, the IOC’s fight against this negative phenomenon and activities of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA established in 1999 and designed to eradicate doping. It is shown that, despite the ever-increasing financial and human resources and legal capabilities, intensive propaganda efforts, increased volume of testing, severe sanctions, and support from reputable international organizations (UN, UNESCO, Council of Europe, the Agency's multi-year activities is not only brought Olympic sport closer to solving the problem, but also dramatically aggravated and made it dangerous for the credibility and the well-being of the Olympic movement. It is not only and not so much about the competition in elite sport that dramatically increased in recent years along with socio-political and commercial attractiveness of success at the Olympics, but about fundamentally misguided methodology underlying the WADA activities and based on the neglect of the achievements of biological, medical, and sports sciences and the realities of the modern high performance sport, and drawn up on the ideas of lawyers, economists, and «universal managers». The paper outlines in detail outcomes of the activities of the WADA and anti-doping laboratories accredited by the Agency, which manifested themselves in many crisis phenomena moved far beyond the limits of the Olympic sport. Furthermore, the prospects of coming out of the grave crisis developed in this area are delineated.

  17. Olympic Dam operations - environmental management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This is the 3rd Annual Report pertaining to the Olympic Dam Operations Environmental Management Programme and covers the period 1st March, 1989 to 28th February, 1990. The monitoring programe has provided detailed assessment of meteorological data, vegetation, fauna, soil stability, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well-fields both inside and outside the operations area. Mine site rehabilitation is considered to be progressing satisfactorily. Out of the 851 drill pad sites 72% have been rehabilitated to the stage where natural soil stability and plant cover has been achieved. Drill pad sites that have received good rainfall within one year of being ripped have rehabilitated very succesfully. Sites that receive no significant rainfall for more than two years, particularly on dune slopes may require re-ripping before successful regeneration can occur. To improve the drill pad site rehabilitation monitoring programme it is recommended that 200 drill sites be analysed each year. Air emission and solid waste data are also presented. This program is considered to be particularly successful in relation to SO 2 assessment. 90 tabs., 63 figs., ills

  18. Sports injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Schnitzer, M; Kirschner, W; Spiegel, R; Platzgummer, H; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Pocecco, E

    2016-05-01

    The prevention of injury and illness remains an important issue among young elite athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses during multi-sport events might provide a valuable basis to develop preventive measures, focusing especially on adequate information for youth athletes. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival (W-EYOF). All National Olympic Committees were asked to report daily the occurrence or non-occurrence of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. Among the 899 registered athletes (37% female) with a mean age of 17.1±0.8 years, a total of 38 injuries and 34 illnesses during the 5 competition days of the W-EYOF were reported, resulting in an incidence of 42.3 injuries and 37.8 illnesses per 1000 athletes, respectively. Injury frequency was highest in snowboard cross (11%), Nordic combined (9%), alpine skiing (6%), and ice hockey (6%), taking into account the respective number of registered athletes. In snowboard cross, females showed a significant higher injury frequency compared to males (22% vs 4%, p=0.033). The lower back (16%), the pelvis (13%), the knee (11%), and the face (11%) were the most common injury locations. About 58% of injuries occurred in competition and about 42% in training. In total, 42% of injuries resulted in an absence of training or competition. The prevalence of illness was highest in figure skating (10%) and Nordic combined (9%), and the respiratory system was affected most often (53%). Four per cent of the athletes suffered from an injury and 4% from illnesses during the 2015 W-EYOF, which is about twofold lower compared to the first Winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Sports injuries and illnesses in the Lillehammer 2016 Youth Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kathrin; Moseid, Christine Holm; Engebretsen, Lars; Søberg, Pia K; Amundsen, Olav; Holm, Kristian; Moger, Thomas; Soligard, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Injury and illness surveillance during high-level youth sports events is an important first step in health prevention and caretaking of the young elite athletes. To analyse injuries and illnesses that occurred during the 10 days 2nd Youth Olympic Winter Games (YOG), held in Lillehammer 2016. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses through the reporting of (1) all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) the polyclinic and medical venues by the Lillehammer Organising Committee (LYOCOG) medical staff. In total, 1083 athletes (48 double-starters), 46% (n=502) of them females, from 70 NOCs were registered in the study. NOCs and LYOCOG reported 108 injuries and 81 illnesses, equalling to 9.5 injuries and 7.2 illnesses per 100 athletes. The percentage of injured athletes was highest in the snowboard and ski slopestyle and cross disciplines, alpine skiing and skeleton, and lowest in the Nordic skiing disciplines. Approximately, two-thirds of the injuries (n=71, 65.7%) prevented the athlete from training or competition, while 10 injuries (9.3%) were registered with an estimated absence from sport for >7 days. The rate of illness was highest in curling and the Nordic skiing disciplines with most of them being respiratory tract infections (81.5%). Overall, 9% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 7% an illness, which is similar to the first YOG in Innsbruck 2012 and slightly lower compared with previous Winter Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Sports injuries and illnesses in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Aubry, Mark; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the XXII Olympic Winter Games, held in Sochi in 2014. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Sochi 2014 medical staff. NOC and Sochi 2014 medical staff reported 391 injuries and 249 illnesses among 2780 athletes from 88 NOCs, equalling incidences of 14 injuries and 8.9 illnesses per 100 athletes over an 18-day period of time. Altogether, 12% and 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The percentage of athletes injured was highest in aerial skiing, snowboard slopestyle, snowboard cross, slopestyle skiing, halfpipe skiing, moguls skiing, alpine skiing, and snowboard halfpipe. Thirty-nine per cent of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. Women suffered 50% more illnesses than men. The rate of illness was highest in skeleton, short track, curling, cross-country skiing, figure skating, bobsleigh and aerial skiing. A total of 159 illnesses (64%) affected the respiratory system, and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=145, 58%). Overall, 12% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 8% an illness, which is similar to prior Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Sports injuries and illnesses during the London Summer Olympic Games 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A

    2013-05-01

    The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the

  2. Preparedness of general practitioners in Australia for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Seelan, S Thava

    2002-01-01

    The modern Olympic Games have been conducted only once every 4 years since 1900. They were held in Sydney, Australia, from September 15 to October 1, 2000, with approximately 35 competition venues, 5 villages, 100 training venues, a media center, and sponsor hospitality areas. Roughly 300 events for 28 sports involved 10,300 athletes from 200 countries, 5,100 team officials, 50,000 volunteers, 15,000 media, a worldwide audience of around 3.5 billion viewers and listeners, and up to several hundred thousand spectators at any one time. The Paralympic Games were also held in Sydney after the Olympic Games, from October 18 to October 29, 2000, with more than 4,000 athletes competing. A report detailing possible health advice and requirements for travelers attending the games has been published previously. Good systems of public and private health care operate in Australia, but health care is not free. Australian taxpayers contribute to a national public health system, Medicare, and even this does not necessarily cover all the costs of treatment. Section 3.5 of the Medicare Benefit Scheme refers to "Reciprocal Health Care Agreements," which exist for immediately necessary medical care ("emergency care"). Agreements with Australia cover New Zealand, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Italy, Malta, and Ireland. Benefits for Italy and Malta may only be available for the first 6 months of a stay. The Australian government covered much of the costs of medical treatment for most team members competing or involved in the Olympic and Paralympic Games, when the Games Village was open. This did not however extend to other visitors, and public hospitals in Australia are not generally geared and staffed to provide timely general practice services.

  3. Olympic education in all Greek schools: adoption and abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Mountakis

    2016-12-01

    Their main activity was in producing a programme of teaching materials, and the centralized nature of the educational system enabled the programme to be introduced in a very short time. The programme continued to be implemented in schools after the Olympic Games in the primary sector, and also as an option at the secondary level, under the name of ‘Kallipatira’. The programme lasted after the Olympic Games and up to the 2007–2008 school year. During the 2008–2009 school year, however, it was removed from the curriculum. This paper presents an account of the way in which the programme was introduced into schools, which may be used as a model or guide for any other country organizing the Olympic Games.

  4. Mortality and causes of death among Croatian male Olympic medalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonić, Vedran; Kozmar, Damir; Počanić, Darko; Jerkić, Helena; Bohaček, Ivan; Letilović, Tomislav

    2017-08-31

    To compare the overall and disease-specific mortality of Croatian male athletes who won one or more Olympic medals representing Yugoslavia from 1948 to 1988 or Croatia from 1992 to 2016, and the general Croatian male population standardized by age and time period. All 233 Croatian male Olympic medalists were included in the study. Information on life duration and cause of death for the Olympic medalists who died before January 1, 2017, was acquired from their families and acquaintances. We asked the families and acquaintances to present medical documentation for the deceased. Data about the overall and disease-specific mortality of the Croatian male population standardized by age and time period were obtained from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Overall and disease-specific standard mortality ratios (SMR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare the mortality rates of athletes and general population. Among 233 Olympic medalists, 57 died before the study endpoint. The main causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (33.3%), neoplasms (26.3%), and external causes (17.6%). The overall mortality of the Olympic medalists was significantly lower than that of general population (SMR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94, P=0.013). Regarding specific causes of death, athletes' mortality from cardiovascular diseases was significantly reduced (SMR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38-0.93, P=0.021). Croatian male Olympic medalists benefit from lower overall and cardiovascular mortality rates in comparison to the general Croatian male population.

  5. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  6. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  7. Polities and Olympics: Marking the Milestones and Clarifying the Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak HERGUNER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical overview of how dominant polities have fundamentally shaped the social functions of Olympic Games since the ancient times. Dominant polities’ role in identifying social roles of the Games is explored in light of four polity types. The paper is a historical process research, and findings are reported in a case - oriented historical narrative format based on secondary sources. The paper concludes that different meanings and roles attributed to the same event – ie. Olympics in the study – compliant with the dominant polity type of the era are the evidence for the social construction of the reality.

  8. Television and the construction of identity : Barcelona, Olympic host

    OpenAIRE

    Moragas Spà, Miquel de,

    1995-01-01

    This document, originally published as part of the book The Keys of success: the social, sporting, economic and communications impact of Barcelona’92, comes from a larger study that looked at all aspects of television in the Olympics and can be found in its original version, in Miquel de Moragas Spà, Nancy K. Rivenburgh and James F. Larson (1996). Television in the Olympics. London: John Libbey. Aquest document, originalment publicat com a part del llibre Les claus de l'èxit: impactes s...

  9. The IOC's Midas Touch: Summer Olympics and City Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Nitsch; Nicolai Wendland

    2013-01-01

    Hosting a mega-event is a costly activity of short duration. Still, cities frequently compete to become host of all types of events. This paper examines the effect of staging the largest and most important sporting event in the world, the Summer Olympic Games, on the host city. Applying a difference-in-differences methodology, we analyze the rates of population growth of Olympic cities, candidate cities and other large cities in host and candidate countries over the period from 1860 to 2010. ...

  10. Value of nuclear energy echoes with Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Australia's newest uranium mine, Olympic Dam contains 450 million tonnes of economic ore. It has the capacity to annually produce 45,000 tonnes of uranium oxide, 27,000 ounces of gold and 555,000 ounces of silver. The orebody composition and the deposit-wide mineral zonation pattern represents the end product of a complex evolution of a large breccia pipe system. A brief account is given of the mining and metallurgical operations, along with a list of the long term contracts which cover about 50% of Olympic Dam's initial uranium production. 1 tab., ills

  11. Olympic dam expansion - a clear future for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.

    2008-01-01

    After BHP Billiton's acquisition of Olympic Dam in northern South Australia in 2005, an important early decision was to undertake a major drilling campaign to better define the resource. Between 2005 and 2007, the drilling almost doubled the resource. BHP Billiton's 2007 annual report indicated the Olympic Dam mineral resource estimate is 7.855 B dry metric tonnes at metal grades of 0.86% Copper, 0.29 kg per tonne Uranium Oxide, 0.3 g/t Gold and 1.6 g/t Silver.

  12. The Olympic Games broadcasted as Interactive Television - New Media new Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    or delayed video coverage of the Olympic Games. The Torino Olympic Broadcasting was the first to be filmed entirely in High Definition Television. In the future the use of digital video processing, computer vision, 3D-visualisation and animation techniques allow viewers to watch sports events almost......The Olympic Games is the world´s largest media event and television is the engine that has driven the growth of the Olympic Movement. Increases in broadcast revenue over the past two decades have provided the Olympic Movement with a huge financial base. More networks than ever before broadcast...... the Olympic Games to more countries and territories, with a record number of hours, a significant rise in the total viewing hours, and dramatic increases in live and prime-time coverage. Over 300 channels transmitted 35.000 hours of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. The future of television is digital, which...

  13. The Association between Working Memory and Educational Attainment as Measured in Different Mathematical Subtopics in the Swedish National Assessment: Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance measured by the national curriculum assessment in third-grade children (n = 40). The national tests concerned six subareas within mathematics. One-way ANOVA, two-tailed Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were…

  14. Planning for a major expansion of the olympic dam copper/uranium resource in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The polymetallic Olympic Dam deposit in northern South Australia contains the world's largest known economic uranium resource. The current resource estimate is 3,970 million tones at 0.4 kg/t U308. Uranium is a co-product of an existing operation that also produces copper, gold and silver. Production began in 1998. Ore mined in 2006 is expected to be close to 10 million tones to produce 4,500 tonnes of uranium oxide and 220,000 tonnes of copper cathode. BHP Billiton is undertaking a pre-feasibility study into expanding annual production capacity to about 15,000 tonnes of uranium and 500,000 tonnes copper. Subject to successful completion of the pre-feasibility study and a final feasibility study, construction of the expansion could begin by early 2009, with the expanded production capacity being commissioned in 2013. The resource estimate has been significantly increased by drilling of the so-far undeveloped southern section of the orebody. Current planning indicates that this section could be mined by open pit. Ore is at depth and extends from 350 metres to about 1000 metres below surface. The existing operations facilities at Olympic Dam comprise an underground mine, and a mineral processing plant and associated infrastructure which would be expanded to support expanded mining. Major items of infrastructure could include a new powerline, water pipeline and associated coastal desalination plant, a rail link to Olympic Dam from the existing national network and further development of the Roxby Downs township (current population 4,000). The operation is regulated by an Indenture Agreement with the South Australian Government. To enable the expansion to proceed, the Indenture Agreement will be renegotiated. The operation is also regulated by the Federal Government. An Environmental Impact Statement is being developed to secure the necessary State and Federal approvals. A land access agreement is being negotiated with indigenous groups. Plans for

  15. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  16. The national spirit reflection in the memory of language and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this research focuses on a dialectic interrelation between language and culture perceived as existential manifestations of the national spirit. Identity of the national linguistic world perception is defined by its social-historic development, geographic and climatic conditions of living and distinctiveness of the national linguo-cultural heritage.

  17. 76 FR 67348 - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Regulations Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... ships; clarify the language referring to consideration of the objectives of the governing bodies of.... The final rule language further clarifies that the governing body of the tribe must certify the tribal... language prohibiting ``drilling into, dredging or otherwise altering the seabed of the sanctuary'' (59 FR...

  18. 76 FR 2611 - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Regulations Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ...-based sewage. They may introduce disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens), such as bacteria, [[Page... or bait used in or resulting from lawful fishing operations in the Sanctuary; (B) Biodegradable...

  19. Comparison and assessment of the participation of Polish swimmers at the Olympic and Paralympic Games in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Seidel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to assess and analyze the results of the Polish national team swimmers (Olympic and Paralympic at the XIV Summer Games 2012 in London (UK . Material : Score Polish swimmers start in London was carried out on the basis of medals won, participation in the finals. London also comparing the results with respect to the personal life record. The studies used the method of improving the outcome of the relative percentages - RPG% (relative performance gain %. It is based on the equation of RPG% = start time - end time / start time x 100. Material was to analyze and develop the results obtained by the Polish swimmers at the XIV Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012 in London. Results : the basic criterion for evaluating the training and participation of Polish swimmers at the games in London was the number of medals won. By this criterion, the Poles showed a rather weak result. Healthy athletes do not receive medals. Thus, they confirmed their poor showing four years ago. Athletes with disabilities unable to get on the podium three times. In relation to the previous games (they won 10 medals the result was rather weak. Conclusions : in terms of participation in the Olympic finals and improve individual life records, the results were slightly better swimmers with disabilities.

  20. Italian Catholic Sports, from the end of the 2nd World War to the Olympics of 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Palandri

    2015-10-01

    This research has as a target the inquiry about the contribution of the organization of catholic sport to help the development of the national sport system. From the privileged relation given by the Pope Pacelli to the catholic sporting people, working out with his speeches a conception of «Christianly and healthily intense» sport, able to guide and direct them in facing this phenomenon in continuous expansion. To the introduction of Luigi Gedda’s character, the president of the ISC from 1944, the year of its foundation, until 1960, the year of the XVII Olympiad in Rome, who represents the union link between the ecclesiastical hierarchy, the ISC and the sport. To the activity of the ISC in the 50s, when a substantial development of its pledge and its activities has been seen in front of the sporting youth, made concrete through a higher number of federated ones. But specially to the working behavior developed before by this catholic organization facing the Olympic Games of Rome in 1960, with the preparation of the Olympic Journey designed by the INOC for spreading the Olympic spirit among population in all places of Italy and for requesting the development of a critical awareness in front of the Italians’ high motive illiteracy.

  1. The subjective content of historical memory in autobiographical narratives of representatives of titular ethnic group and national diaspora (based on the example of the Volga Germans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmatulina D.V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available the article contains a justification of the research approach to the detection of subjective content of historical memory among groups of respondents from different ethnic background; presents the results of a study of two groups of respondents, who are descendants of the Volga Germans and the representatives of the titular nation (Russian; establishes the main cultural and historical events of life of the peoples that make up the historical memory.

  2. The Effect of Special Olympics Programs on Down Syndrome People\\'s Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Momeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Literature survey has shown that participation in social programs can promote the mental and social health among intellectually disabled individuals. One of these programs is the Special Olympics (SO and the programs related to it. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SO programs on self-efficacy among Iranian Special Olympians with Down Syndrome (DS. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental research, forty DS members of Iran's SO national team were selected as the intervention group and 37 DS non-athletes were selected as the control group. The SO group participated in 9 months of SO specific sport programs. The “Wheeler and Ladd's Children’s Self-Efficacy for Peer Interactions Scale” was used to collect data from the two groups before and after the 9-month long athletic programs. Data were analyzed by kolmogroff-Smirnoff, paired T and independent T tests. Results: The results showed that SO programs had significant effects on the self- efficacy of the experimental group. The SO athletes were significantly (P&le0.001 better than the control group in all sub-scales of self-efficacy. Conclusion: It seems that participation in social-sport aspects of the Special Olympics programs can promote self-efficacy among this population. Generalizing such programs for DS people can help them show their abilities and provide them with self-efficacy which is necessary for living independently.

  3. Establishing an emergency department syndromic surveillance system to support the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Hughes, Thomas C; Locker, Thomas E; Shannon, Tony; Heyworth, John; Wapling, Andy; Catchpole, Mike; Ibbotson, Sue; McCloskey, Brian; Smith, Gillian E

    2012-12-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is a mass gathering event that will present a major public health challenge. The Health Protection Agency, in collaboration with the College of Emergency Medicine, has established the Emergency Department Sentinel Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) to support the public health surveillance requirements of the Games. This feasibility study assesses the usefulness of EDSSS in monitoring indicators of disease in the community. Daily counts of anonymised attendance data from six emergency departments across England were analysed by patient demographics (age, gender, partial postcode), triage coding and diagnosis codes. Generic and specific syndromic indicators were developed using aggregations of diagnosis codes recorded during each attendance. Over 339,000 attendances were recorded (26 July 2010 to 25 July 2011). The highest attendances recorded on weekdays between 10:00 and 11:00 and on weekends between 12:00 and 13:00. The mean daily attendance per emergency department was 257 (range 38-435). Syndromic indicators were developed including: respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiac, acute respiratory infection, gastroenteritis and myocardial ischaemia. Respiratory and acute respiratory infection indicators peaked during December 2010, concomitant with national influenza activity, as monitored through other influenza surveillance systems. The EDSSS has been established to provide an enhanced surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympics. Further validation of the data will be required; however, the results from this initial descriptive study demonstrate the potential for identifying unusual and/or severe outbreaks of infectious disease, or other incidents with public health impact, within the community.

  4. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance.

  5. Olympic seljatas oodatud käibe / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Olympic Entertainment Groupi 2007. aasta neljanda kvartali käive oli 799 miljonit krooni. Tänu tugevale aasta lõpule edestas ettevõte nii enda korrigeeritud aastaprognoosi kui ka analüütikute ootusi. Diagramm: Käive. Kommenteerib Indrek Kuivallik

  6. Preparing for the Olympic Games: Training adaptation in endurance sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, G.J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the

  7. The Phenomenon of the Olympic Games. Women in the Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen M., Ed.; Fritz, Harry, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of articles is offered that examines the history and current status of women in the Olympic Games. Included is a brief historical account of women's participation, criteria for adding sports, examination of women's status, and an explanation of rhythmic gymnastics which was recently added for women. (DF)

  8. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN, WORLD, AND OLYMPIC BMX CYCLING RACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo-March

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were 1 to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E, world championship competitions tracks (W, and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O; and 2 to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48 during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years. A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times. The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p < 0.001, pedaling cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p < 0.05, and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p < 0.01. In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in

  9. Sustainability as an Input for the Design of Olympic Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu DORALP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, hosting the Olympic Games has been seen as an opportunity to create urban development. The post-Games use of sport venues, the fulfillment of a city’s housing needs by using Olympic Village buildings and the renewal of transport and other infrastructure that accompanies hosting of the Games may be considered indicators for the success of the International Olympic Games. But the city and its citizen do not benefit from these investments in the design of new structures if that design is not carried out in the light of wellplanned urban development projecting. Local and international studies on sustainability, particularly since the 1980s, have shown that sustainable urbanization is only achievable with sustainable development planning. Therefore economic, social and environmental development needs to be provided. If the last Olympic cities are examined in relation to this aspect, it will be seen that an understanding of such factors is reflected in their development. Throughout the history of the modern Games host cities have considered them as an opportunity for development, but cities are now heading towards the implementation of more sensitive actions for the future generation, social and environmental values with the improvement in the approach of sustainable development.

  10. 78 FR 10595 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Outreach for new RAC Replacement members. SUMMARY: Interested citizens are... information, please contact Donna Nemeth at 360-956-2274 or Bill Shelmerdine at 360-956- 2282. Dated: February...

  11. 77 FR 65359 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Outreach for new RAC members. SUMMARY: Interested citizens are invited to... information, please contact Donna Nemeth at 360-956-2274 or Bill Shelmerdine at 360-956- 2282. Dated: October...

  12. Ice Skating: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven booklets on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents teaching suggestions for ice skating coaches working with mentally retarded persons. An overview section introduces the sport and considers ideas for effective teaching. Goals, objectives, and benefits are considered along with information on…

  13. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  14. Dental data of the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vougiouklakis, G; Tzoutzas, J; Farmakis, E-T; Farmakis, E-E; Antoniadou, M; Mitsea, A

    2008-11-01

    The Athens University, School of Dentistry, accepted the challenge to organize the Dental Health Services in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games in order to provide the best quality of oral health services to the athletes, coaches, escort members and Olympic Village personnel. Data from the whole activity protocol of the Athens 2004 Games Dental Health Services - the reception, admission and treatment protocols, the facilities and the infrastructure, the number of cases treated per specialty and the experience gained - were recorded. During the Olympic Games, there were more than 1400 dental cases in more than 650 patients, elite athletes, escort members, coaches and staff of the Olympic Village. Among them 313 fillings, 100 root canal therapies, 57 mouthguards and 9 dental trauma cases were treated. During the Paralympic Games, there were more than 240 dental cases in more than 220 patients. Among them 73 fillings, 12 root canal therapies, 21 extractions and 3 dental trauma cases were treated. In such events, highly trained dentists are needed and if possible, specialized in operative dentistry or endodontics. The role of team dentist seems to be of great importance.

  15. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  16. 75 FR 1406 - National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Notice of Availability of an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Washington, DC. The National Mall Plan is a long-range management plan that focuses on the use and... Spain, Project Executive. Before including your address, phone number, e-mail address, or other personal... Impact Statement. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Spain, Project Executive, National Mall Plan at...

  17. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...... in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. It contributes to the understanding of processes of memory transmission and negotiation across borders and cultures in Europe, emphasizing the interconnectedness of memory with emotions, mediation and politics....... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions...

  18. 76 FR 75559 - Notice of Meeting, National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ....gov for specific information regarding sites under consideration. (3) Review of H.R. 3278, a bill to... 7, 2011. Stephen E. Whitesell, Regional Director, National Capital Region. [FR Doc. 2011-31042 Filed...

  19. Interrogating Europe’s Voids of Memory: Trauma Theory and Holocaust Remembrance between the National and the Transnational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Allwork

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the research process for Holocaust Remembrance between the National and the Transnational (HRNT, which explores and analyzes the significance of the European and global politics of the commemoration of the Holocaust and Nazi-era crimes in the late 1990s and 2000s, this article will consider the influence of the intellectual context of trauma theory for this book. It will offer a response to the increasing critique of Eurocentric trauma theory which developed during the period spent researching the Stockholm International Forum (SIF 2000 and the first decade of the Task Force for International Co-operation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research (ITF, now the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, IHRA. This article will discuss how a revised trauma theory, along the lines suggested by scholars such as Joshua Pederson, continues to offer important possibilities for European studies of the histories and memories of the Holocaust in singular and comparative terms

  20. Development approaches the formation of management development olympic sports in the region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered and grounded priority directions of perfection of control the system by modern olympic sport. Expert estimations are resulted on the problems of management the olympic types of sport and his influence on a modern economy. Practice of introduction of foreign experience is investigational in a management olympic sport. Problems, impedimental development of olympic sport in a region, are exposed. It is set that the basic obstacles of eleemosynary activity in Ukraine it is been absence of economic stimuli for encouragement of sponsors and sportsmen. Also absence of standards of eleemosynary and sponsor activity. The necessity of effective support of olympic sport is grounded from the side of local-authority. It is set that the most essential directions of development of olympic motion in a region is development: economic basis, sporting infrastructure, transport infrastructure. Also medical service of sportsmen.

  1. The origins of the Olympic Village: Los Angeles 1932 and Berlin 1936.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bortolotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the transformations produced by the housing projects for the Olympic Games, the construction and following reuse of the Olympic Villages is an interesting studying matter. During the hundred-year-old history of the modern Olympics the realization of the Olympic Village, which finds reference in the de Coubertin’s writings, and the town planning transformations, to this correlated, have revealed in different ways. The essay mainly concerns the origins of the Olympic Village and the first settlements which characterized the Games in the thirties: Los Angeles 1932 and Berlin 1936. In these two cities, even though with different motivations, politico-economical stimulus and different images, the prototypes of the modern Olympic sport facilities, which find in the village an in the stadium the symbol of the event, were born.

  2. Cultural Memory Inscribed in the Skin: Symbols of Nation as Tattoo Art in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand there is a strand of cultural memory popularly known as 'kiwiana'. The term embraces everyday popular cultural practices - beach activities in summer, food rituals  - as well as an array of vintage artefacts.  The latter are locally manufactured items originating mainly in the 1940s-50s, when import restrictions limited the availability of household goods.  Local makers created products for the domestic market, for instance grocery items (and their logo-bearing containers, household crockery and toys. Those items, intrinsically representations of white (pakeha culture, are fondly recalled by the baby boomers, and have become popular collectibles.  Images of the same items have now become prevalent as decorative motifs on home wares and clothing.Recently a further celebratory strand of kiwiana has now appeared: the inscription of its motifs as extensive permanent skin tattoos. While Maori have always practiced meaningful skin tattoo, and whilst body tattoos in general have joined the realm of fashion, this is something new.  Here we see a recasting of the kiwiana images of popular cultural memory, now drawn onto the body.  One wearer of such a tattoo, a 26 year old plumber, said 'I love New Zealand. I am very proud of who we are and I wouldn't change being a kiwi for the world'. His design, a map of New Zealand on his back in filled with kiwiana items, shows his personal subscription to the populist representations that are utilised as apolitical definition of kiwi­ ness.  Kiwiana tattoo as a growing everyday practice is the focus of this paper.

  3. The impact of the 2004 Olympic Games on the Greek economy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Staging the 2004 Olympic Games in Greece, the birthplace of the Olympics, and earning global acclaim for successfully carrying out the event, were significant achievements for the country. The efforts of the management and the employees of the Organising Committee of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games were crucial for this success, as were the efforts of the officers and staff of the Civil Service and of the private sector companies involved in building the supporting infrastructure, along with th...

  4. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  5. Evaluation of the Health Protection Event-Based Surveillance for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, E; Kitching, A; Crook, P

    2014-06-19

    The Health Protection Agency (HPA) (currently Public Health England) implemented the Health Protection Event-Based Surveillance (EBS) to provide additional national epidemic intelligence for the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games). We describe EBS and evaluate the system attributes. EBS aimed at identifying, assessing and reporting to the HPA Olympic Coordination Centre (OCC) possible national infectious disease threats that may significantly impact the Games. EBS reported events in England from 2 July to 12 September 2012. EBS sourced events from reports from local health protection units and from screening an electronic application 'HPZone Dashboard' (DB). During this period, 147 new events were reported to EBS, mostly food-borne and vaccine-preventable diseases: 79 from regional units, 144 from DB (76 from both). EBS reported 61 events to the OCC: 21 of these were reported onwards. EBS sensitivity was 95.2%; positive predictive value was 32.8%; reports were timely (median one day; 10th percentile: 0 days - same day; 90th percentile: 3.6 days); completeness was 99.7%; stability was 100%; EBS simplicity was assessed as good; the daily time per regional or national unit dedicated to EBS was approximately 4 hours (weekdays) and 3 hours (weekends). OCC directors judged EBS as efficient, fast and responsive. EBS provided reliable, reassuring, timely, simple and stable national epidemic intelligence for the Games.

  6. The itinerary of a non-medal olympic athlete: Willy Seewald (*1900 +1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Zarpellon Mazo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the Willy Seewald Olympic sports journey, since the time he started playing sports, through their participation in the Olympic Games in 1924, until the end of his sporting career in the late 1920s. The sources used in this study were interviews, newspapers, magazines, official documents and Seewald family personnel collection. The information extracted and interpreted by document analysis, revealed that Willy Seewald, in addition to practicing a wide range of sports, achieved high performance in Olympic sport Javelin Throw and has shown by his conduct that the Olympic values were incorporated in its habitus.

  7. The level of Olympic knowledge's of schoolboys and young sportsmen of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiev A.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of Olympic knowledge of young sportsmen of Crimea is explored and it is set that it does not differ from the levels of schoolboys, which do not go in for sports. In experiment took part 642 schoolchildren from 20 educational establishments of Crimea. Creation of the separate system of Olympic education, which would provide the high level of knowledge about Olympic movement, motivation, fixing of types, standards, models of conduct of young sportsmen's, in accordance with Olympic ideals is recommended.

  8. Russia and Its International Image: From Sochi Olympic Games to Annexing Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the change of the Russian Federation’s international image in the light of two significant events: the Olympic Winter Games in 2014 in Sochi and the annexation of Crimea. According to the first hypothesis, one of the main aims for hosting the Olympic Games was to improve the international prestige of Russia. Shortly after the Olympics Russia increased its activity in Eastern Ukraine, which resulted in the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula. Therefore the article is also aimed to investigate whether by annexing Crimea Russia squandered the possible positive effects of hosting the Olympics in terms of its international image.

  9. Infectious disease surveillance for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, E; Heinsbroek, E; Watson, C; Catchpole, M

    2012-08-02

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games will be one of the largest mass gathering events in British history. In order to minimise potential infectious disease threats related to the event, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has set up a suite of robust and multisource surveillance systems. These include enhancements of already established systems (notification of infectious diseases, local and regional reporting,laboratory surveillance, mortality surveillance, international surveillance, and syndromic surveillance in primary care), as well as new systems created for the Games (syndromic surveillance in emergency departments and out-of-hours/unscheduled care,undiagnosed serious infectious illness surveillance).Enhanced existing and newly established surveillance systems will continue after the Games or will be ready for future reactivation should the need arise. In addition to the direct improvements to surveillance, the strengthening of relationships with national and international stakeholders will constitute a major post-Games legacy for the HPA.

  10. 77 FR 14419 - Notice of Meeting, National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... (the Commission) will meet at the National Building Museum, Room 312, 401 F Street NW., Washington, DC..., Room 312, 401 F Street NW., Washington, DC 20001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Nancy Young... Commission. Chairman, Commission of Fine Arts. Mayor of the District of Columbia. Architect of the Capitol...

  11. LHC Olympics Workshop and String Phenomenology 2006 Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gross

    2006-10-01

    This is the final report of the organizers of the String Phenomenolgy program of which the LHC Olympics and the String Phenomenolgy conference were a part. In addition, it includes the list of talks from our website which comprise the online proceedings. The KITP no longer publishes conferences proceedings but rather makes recordings and visuals of all talks available on its website at www.kitp.ucsb.edu Program talks are available at http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/strings06/ Conference talks are are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/strings_c06/ and LHC Olympics talks are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/lhco_c06/. These talks constitute the proceedings of these meetings.

  12. Olympic Dam project: assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    The assessment report on the Environmental Impact Statement produced for the Olympic Dam project is intended to provide the South Australian Government with a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impact of the proposal and to make recommendations concerning the project to be negotiated with the Joint Venturers prior to approval of the EIS. The project involves the mining, processing and sale of products from the copper-uranium ore body at Olympic Dam on the Roxby Downs Station, South Australia. The report includes a description of the proposal, a description of the environment likely to be affected, a discussion of the potential impacts on that environment, a discussion of the adequacy of information presented in the EIS and a discussion of the acceptability of the environmental impacts. The Department has concluded that the pre-design proposal is acceptable on environmental grounds

  13. Injuries and medical issues in synchronized Olympic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Margo

    2009-01-01

    Spectators of the Olympic Games can enjoy a wide variety of sports, including strength, team, timed, endurance, and artistic sports. In the Olympic program, there are two synchronized events: synchronized diving and synchronized swimming. The precision of the synchronization of the athlete's movements and skills is an added feature of entertainment. Synchronized athletes have additional training requirements to perfect the synchronization of their skills. The physical demands on the athlete from the repetition of training required for the perfection of synchronization result in injuries unique to these sports. Although both traumatic and overuse injuries occur, overuse injuries are more common. As these disciplines are artistic, judged sports, these athletes also are susceptible to eating disorders and the female athlete triad. This article reviews the training regimen of these athletes and outlines the injuries and health concerns that are common in the synchronized sports.

  14. Management of environmental and radiation data - the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    In terms of data management the Olympic Dam Project is in a process of transition from investigative studies to operational monitoring. The data management requirements for investigative studies are quite different requirements and indicates the progress taken in this transition, as well as the directions being taken to complete this transition. The environmental and radiation management programs for the Olympic Dam Project have already stored 70 megabytes of data on computer. With the comprehensive monitoring requirements which have been, or are in the process of being established for production operations, the volume of data is increasing. There are six main areas involving environmental and radiation data management: project area environmental monitoring; monitoring of the impact pathway from groundwater extraction for water supply to possible effects on mound springs; radiation levels in the environment; radiation exposures to designated employees; other occupational exposures in the mine; medical records relevant to occupational health

  15. Does Love Influence Athletic Performance? The Perspectives of Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Hosseini, Cheyenne; Myers, Kelly; Calub, Nina

    2016-06-01

    In this brief report, we provide an initial account of the association between love and athletic performance from the perspective of Olympic athletes. We posit that Romantic Passionate Love (RPL) and athletic performance may both involve the reward-motivation system of the brain. Based on this premise, we explored whether activation in one domain (love) might influence the other (sport). Our investigation was framed using Sternberg's triangular theory of love. Twenty Olympic athletes representing different sports were interviewed at the Games. Most athletes (n = 15) reported that their performance was better while in love; however, qualitative responses suggested that the benefits were correlated with rather than resulting from RPL. Although the athletes were provided with a definition of RPL and affirmed that their relationship met the criteria, interview responses reflected companionate rather than passionate love, suggesting that RPL may be differentially conceptualized across cultures. The study provides preliminary data that may be used to inform and refine future work on this topic.

  16. RESULTING EFFICACY OF MID-TRACK RACE IN MODERN OLYMPISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosta Goranović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research problem was analysis of resulting efficacy of mid-track race in 1500m discipline, males, in the time period belonging to modern olympism. Analysis of trend results was compared to changes in approach to sport preparation and training in certain time series. The aim of the research was to assume potential influences of novelties in sports preparation on sports achievements in the analyzed athletic discipline. Results of this speculative research indicated that in different time series different trend of improving resulting efficacy in the period of modern olympism is present. Quantitative values of results’ growth are higher in the first part of the period, quite lower at the beginning of the second half and they experience plateau at the end of the second half. It is possible to assume that improvement of resulting efficacy, except of individual potentials, is also influenced by factors related to modification of training technology

  17. Exports and olympic games: Is there a signal effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Richter, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Rose & Spiegel (2011) find that Olympic Games host countries experience significant positive, lasting effects on exports. They interpret their results as an indication that countries use the hosting of such events to signal openness and competitiveness. We challenge these empirical findings on the grounds that a comparison of structurally different and non-matching groups of countries might suffer from a selection bias. We demonstrate that with an appropriate matching and treatment methodolog...

  18. Can Memory Assessment Services (MAS) in England be categorized? A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysanthaki, T; Fernandes, B; Smith, S; Black, N

    2017-12-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of memory assessment services (MASs) is unknown. Our aim was to determine if a typology can be constructed, based on shared structural and process characteristics, as a basis for a non-randomized evaluation of their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Survey of random sample of 73 MASs in 2015; comparison of characteristics and investigation of inter-correlation. It was not possible to group characteristics to form the basis of a typology of MASs. However, there was considerable variation in staff numbers (20-fold), new patients per whole-time equivalent (WTE) staff (20-fold), skill mix and the nurse:doctor ratio (1-10). The operational performance also varied: first appointments (50-120 minutes); time for first follow-up (2-12 weeks); frequency of follow-up in first year (1-5). These differences were not associated with the number of new patients per WTE staff or the accreditation status of the MAS. Post diagnosis, all MASs provided pharmacological treatment but the availability of non-pharmacological support varied, with half providing none or only one intervention while others providing four or more. In the absence of any clear typology, evaluation of MASs will need to focus on the impact of individual structural and process characteristics on outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Chinese response to allergy and asthma in Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Lu, Y; Huang, K; Wang, C; Lu, J; Zhang, C; Zhong, N

    2008-08-01

    China is going to host the Games of the XXIX Olympiad from 8-24 August 2008 in Beijing. The number of athletes and accompanying individuals expected to arrive at China for the Beijing Olympics is estimated at over 10 000 and among them at least 2 000 (20%) are suspected to suffer from respiratory allergies. It is important to monitor the pollen counts and improve air quality in Beijing because Olympic athletes would be exposed to airborne allergens and pollutants during competitions which could hinder peak performance. The main pollen and spore families in Beijing are Artemisia, Ambrosia, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae. They can reach around 307 000 grains of pollen/1000 m(3) of air in August. Economic development in China is usually linked with worsening of air quality. Due to the adoption of various control measures, the ambient air quality in a number of areas in Beijing has actually improved. The ambient air TSP and SO(2) levels in Beijing have been decreasing in the last decade. However, ambient air NO(x) level has been increasing due to the increased number of motor vehicles. Nevertheless, dedicated medical facilities in Beijing will provide medical services to athletes and delegations from all over the world during the Beijing Olympic Games.

  20. Life in the shadow of the 2012 olympics: an ethnography of the host borough of the London games

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Iain

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. On 6th July 2005 the London Olympic bidding committee won the right to host the 2012 Olympic Games. Some seven years later London’s Olympic venues were built on time, Team GB accumulated an unprecedented medal haul and no significant security incidents occurred. These outcomes facilitated an understandable positive evaluation of the 2012 Games. It would be churlish not to be positive; Olympic...

  1. Challenges to natural resource monitoring in a small border park: terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Don E.; Bucci, Melanie; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Alberti, Barbara N.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to meet National Park Service and other important public goals. Terrestrial mammals are often proposed for monitoring because large mammals are of interest to visitors and small mammals are important as prey. However, traditional monitoring strategies for mammals are often too expensive and complex to sustain for long periods, particularly in small parks. To evaluate potential strategies for long-term monitoring in small parks, we conducted an intensive one-year inventory of terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, located in Arizona on the U.S.-Mexico international border, then continued less-intensive monitoring at the site for 7 additional years. During 1996-2003 we confirmed 44 species of terrestrial mammals. Most species (40) were detected in the intensive first year of the study, but we continued to detect new species in later years. Mark-recapture data on small mammals indicated large inter-annual fluctuations in population size, but no significant trend over the 7-year period. Issues associated with the international border affected monitoring efforts and increased sampling costs. Our study confirms that sustained annual monitoring of mammals is probably not feasible in small park units like Coronado. However, comparisons of our data with past studies provide insight into important changes in the mammal community since the 1970s, including an increase in abundance and diversity of grassland rodents. Our results suggest that intensive inventories every 10-20 years may be a valuable and cost-effective approach for detecting long-term trends in terrestrial mammal communities in small natural areas.

  2. Nowcasting in the FROST-2014 Sochi Olympic project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Benedikt; Wang, Yong; Joe, Paul; Isaac, George; Kiktev, Dmitry; Bocharnikov, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    FROST (Forecast and Research: the Olympic Sochi Testbed) 2014 is a WMO WWRP international project aimed at development, implementation, and demonstration of capabilities of short-range numerical weather prediction and nowcasting technologies for mountainous terrain in winter season. Sharp weather contrasts and high spatial and temporal variability are typical for the region of the Sochi-2014 Olympics. Steep mountainous terrain and an intricate mixture of maritime sub-tropical and Alpine environments make weather forecasting in this region extremely challenging. Goals of the FROST-2014 project: • To develop a comprehensive information resource of Alpine winter weather observations; • To improve and exploit: o Nowcasting systems of high impact weather phenomena (precipitation type and intensity, snow levels, visibility, wind speed, direction and gusts) in complex terrain; o High-resolution deterministic and ensemble mesoscale forecasts in winter complex terrain environment; • To improve the understanding of physics of high impact weather phenomena in the region; • To deliver forecasts (Nowcasts) to Olympic weather forecasters and decision makers and assess benefits of forecast improvement. 46 Automatic Meteorological Stations (AMS) were installed in the Olympic region by Roshydromet, by owners of sport venues and by the Megafon corporation, provider of mobile communication services. The time resolution of AMS observations does not exceed 10 minutes. For a subset of the stations it is even equal to 1 min. Data flow from the new dual polarization Doppler weather radar WRM200 in Sochi was organized at the end of 2012. Temperature/humidity and wind profilers and two Micro Rain Radars (MRR) will supplement the network. Nowcasting potential of NWP models participating in the project (COSMO, GEM, WRF, AROME, HARMONIE) is to be assessed for direct and post-processed (e.g. Kalman filter, 1-D model, MOS) model forecasts. Besides the meso-scale models, the specialized

  3. Tenth Daniel C. Baker, Jr., memorial lecture. The physician's contribution to national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiatt, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear weapons make possible the ultimate epidemic. Since their use would lead to human and material damage orders of magnitude more extensive than anything ever known, and since the medical community would be impotent to respond in any meaningful way, all efforts must be directed to the prevention of nuclear war. By ensuring that the medical realities are known to decision-makers and the people of the world, the medical community can help focus attention on the critical need for an effective prescription for prevention and thereby can contribute in an important fashion to national security

  4. Olympic Casino - meelelahutustööstus, kus kehtib sõjaväekord / Tiina Drui ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drui, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Olympic Casino personalijuht Tiina Drui ettevõtte personalipoliitikast, töötajate värbamisest ja koolitamisest. Lisad: Olympic Casino põhimõtted; Küsimused, mille abil mõõta töökoha kvaliteeti. Vt. samas: Olympic Casino - 10 aastat täis

  5. Impactful times memories of 60 years of shock wave research at Sandia National Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Asay, James R; Lawrence, R Jeffery; Sweeney, Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a history of shock compression science, including development of experimental, material modeling, and hydrodynamics code technologies over the past six decades at Sandia National Laboratories. The book is organized into a discussion of major accomplishments by decade with over 900 references, followed by a unique collection of 45 personal recollections detailing the trials, tribulations, and successes of building a world-class organization in the field. It explains some of the challenges researchers faced and the gratification they experienced when a discovery was made. Several visionary researchers made pioneering advances that integrated these three technologies into a cohesive capability to solve complex scientific and engineering problems. What approaches worked, which ones did not, and the applications of the research are described. Notable applications include the turret explosion aboard the USS Iowa and the Shoemaker-Levy comet impact on Jupiter. The personal anecdotes and recollec...

  6. Olympic tõotab jätkuvat tõusu / Armin Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Armin, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Olympic Casino suuromanik Armin Karu vastab aripaev.ee lugejate küsimustele. Vt. samas: Raivo Sormunen. Olympicust võib saada kalleim börsifirma. Diagramm: Olympic liigub turuväärtuselt juba Tallinna börsi kalliduselt teise firma kannul

  7. The Olympic 500-m speed skating; the inner-outer lane difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    In 1998, the International Skating Union and the International Olympic Committee decided to skate the 500-m twice during World Single Distances Championships, Olympic Games, and World Cups. The decision was based on a study by the Norwegian statistician N. L. Hjort, who showed that in the period

  8. Aligning Olympic Education with the Liberal Arts: A Curriculum Blueprint from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Hong Leo; Kohe, Geoffery Zain

    2015-01-01

    Background: For some time the Olympics have enjoyed a relatively cosy, and quite unsurprising, relationship with Physical Education and its practitioners. Yet, as academics continue their critiques of all matters Olympic, this seemingly symbiotic partnership is being placed under much closer scrutiny. The debates are typically orientated around…

  9. The Olympic 500-m speed skating; the inner-outer lane difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard

    In 1998, the International Skating Union and the International Olympic Committee decided to skate the 500-m twice during World Single Distances Championships, Olympic Games, and World Cups. The decision was based on a study by the Norwegian statistician N. L. Hjort, who showed that in the period

  10. London 2012 and beyond: concluding reflections on peacemaking, sport and the Olympic movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games have reinvigorated the debate on Olympic legacies for peace and development. Addressing this debate and building on the articles in this collection, this epilogue argues that the theoretical-conceptual understanding of peace and peacemaking remains poorly

  11. Human Integration through Olympism Education: A Pragmatic Engagement of Youths in a War-Torn Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper delineates the findings of a mixed methods study that investigated how Olympism education could strengthen competencies of human integration through delivery of physical, social, and critical literacy and conflict resolution literacy. The study introduced a curriculum model integrating Olympism values and conflict resolution strategies…

  12. Have the Olympic Games become more migratory? : A comparative historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jansen (Joost); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIt is often believed that the Olympic Games have become more migratory. The number of Olympic athletes representing countries in which they weren’t born is thought to be on the rise. It should, however, be noted that migration in the context of sports is hardly a new phenomenon. In

  13. Evaluation of the NMC regional ensemble prediction system during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Tian, Hua; Deng, Guo

    2011-10-01

    Based on the B08RDP (Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Mesoscale Ensemble Prediction Research and Development Project) that was launched by the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) in 2004, a regional ensemble prediction system (REPS) at a 15-km horizontal resolution was developed at the National Meteorological Center (NMC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). Supplementing to the forecasters' subjective affirmation on the promising performance of the REPS during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games (BOG), this paper focuses on the objective verification of the REPS for precipitation forecasts during the BOG period. By use of a set of advanced probabilistic verification scores, the value of the REPS compared to the quasi-operational global ensemble prediction system (GEPS) is assessed for a 36-day period (21 July-24 August 2008). The evaluation here involves different aspects of the REPS and GEPS, including their general forecast skills, specific attributes (reliability and resolution), and related economic values. The results indicate that the REPS generally performs significantly better for the short-range precipitation forecasts than the GEPS, and for light to heavy rainfall events, the REPS provides more skillful forecasts for accumulated 6- and 24-h precipitation. By further identifying the performance of the REPS through the attribute-focused measures, it is found that the advantages of the REPS over the GEPS come from better reliability (smaller biases and better dispersion) and increased resolution. Also, evaluation of a decision-making score reveals that a much larger group of users benefits from using the REPS forecasts than using the single model (the control run) forecasts, especially for the heavy rainfall events.

  14. No lasting legacy: no change in reporting of women's sports in the British print media with the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Geh, D J; Goulden, O W; Jordan, A M; Withers, G K; Wagstaff, A J; Bellwood, R A; Binmore, C L; Webster, C L

    2015-03-01

    The proportion of media sports coverage devoted to women is reported at between 1 and 6%. Our survey examines and compares reporting patterns before and after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. We collected data on sports coverage in six national newspapers on 3 weekend days in February and March 2012, and in February 2013; ∼5 months before the opening of the 2012 Olympic Games and 5 months after the closing of the Paralympic Games. In 2012, 39 of 876 articles in national newspapers (4.5%) related to women's sports, compared with 22 of 755 (2.9%) in 2013; a non-significant reduction in coverage [difference 1.54%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.28 to 3.36). In 2012, 24 of 647 pictures (3.7%) related to women's activities, compared with 10 of 738 (1.4%) in 2013; a significant reduction in coverage (difference 2.35%; 95% CI 0.68-4.03). The median area per article was significantly greater for men in both years. We found a continuing bias towards men's sport in the media analysed and no evidence of improvement either before or after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. Increased support of women's sport in the print media could benefit individuals and influence the health of the population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  15. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... and inductively content analyzed. Trustworthiness was reached through credibility activities (i.e., member checking and peer debriefing). The participants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges Before...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...

  16. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content...... analyzed. The results show that consultants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges before the Olympics (e.g. negotiating your role) and Challenges during the Olympics (e.g. dealing with the media......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  17. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-07-01

    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  18. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  19. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  20. Career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers: benchmarks for talent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sian V; Vandenbogaerde, Tom J; Hopkins, William G

    2014-01-01

    The age-related progression of elite athletes to their career-best performances can provide benchmarks for talent development. The purpose of this study was to model career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers to develop these benchmarks. We searched the Web for annual best times of swimmers who were top 16 in pool events at the 2008 or 2012 Olympics, from each swimmer's earliest available competitive performance through to 2012. There were 6959 times in the 13 events for each sex, for 683 swimmers, with 10 ± 3 performances per swimmer (mean ± s). Progression to peak performance was tracked with individual quadratic trajectories derived using a mixed linear model that included adjustments for better performance in Olympic years and for the use of full-body polyurethane swimsuits in 2009. Analysis of residuals revealed appropriate fit of quadratic trends to the data. The trajectories provided estimates of age of peak performance and the duration of the age window of trivial improvement and decline around the peak. Men achieved peak performance later than women (24.2 ± 2.1 vs. 22.5 ± 2.4 years), while peak performance occurred at later ages for the shorter distances for both sexes (∼1.5-2.0 years between sprint and distance-event groups). Men and women had a similar duration in the peak-performance window (2.6 ± 1.5 years) and similar progressions to peak performance over four years (2.4 ± 1.2%) and eight years (9.5 ± 4.8%). These data provide performance targets for swimmers aiming to achieve elite-level performance.

  1. The economic impact of the Olympic Dam development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.H.; Trengove, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    The copper-uranium-gold deposit at Olympic Dam on the Roxby Downs Station, South Australia, was discovered in July 1975. Production technology, safety during mining and processing and the nature and extent of government involvement are discussed. Factors influencing the optimal scale of the project are considered and indicative calculations are made of project costs under a range of assumptions. Social issues raised by the project include lease allocation, taxation, infrastructure and the use of indenture agreements. An analysis is undertaken of the project's expected employment and production effects in South Australia using input/output modelling techniques

  2. Evidence of Aerosol's Influence on Climate from Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Fu, Q.; Huang, J.; Ge, J.; Su, J.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution is a difficult problem during the process of industrialization in most developing countries. In China, the main air pollutants are inhaled aerosol particles. Because of the extremely high loading and rapid development, Beijing became a heavily polluted city, with a population of more than 16 million. The 2008 Olympic Summer Games provided a unique opportunity for the study of climate effects of aerosols due to many measurements taken to fight pollution caused by industrialization and economic growth.Surface temperature is the most intuitive meteorological factor and easy to get. Therefore, aerosol’s radiative effects on regional climate can be known by studying the relationship between aerosols and surface temperature in Beijing city in August 2008. However, many factors can affect the surface temperature and cloud is considered as a very important meteorological element in radiation balance. In order to remove the impact of clouds on surface temperature, here the ground temperature in clear sky days (when cloud cover is less than 2) are selected. Aerosol data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua shows that aerosol concentration decreased significantly in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008. Meanwhile, the ground-based observation data shows the surface temperature during the day (14LT) and night (02LT) in August 2008 is higher and lower than the mean temperature in August from 2002 to 2008, respectively. It is discovered that the distribution of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical Depth (AOD) in the whole area of Beijing in August of 2003 and 2004 is similar to that in 2008. We chosen four meteorological stations to analyze surface temperature and found that the diurnal changes of surface temperature are consistent with that in August of 2003, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, the decrease of AOD in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008 leads to the increase of precipitation

  3. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2002-01-01

    A recent $2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200 000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850 000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction, and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  4. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2000-01-01

    A recent $A2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200,000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4,500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850,000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  5. Gender differences in the relative age effect among US olympic development program youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John; Glamser, Francis D

    2006-04-01

    A large body of research has shown that a disproportionate number of elite youth male soccer players competing in age-segmented competition are born early in the selection year. The advantage of being born early in a cohort has been termed the "relative age effect". Although there has been an exponential growth in women's soccer, few studies have examined the relative age effect in female youth soccer. This study compared the relative age effect of 1,344 female and male youth soccer players considered by the US Olympic Development Program (ODP), in 2001, to be the most talented soccer players born in 1984. The birth dates were taken from the women's state and regional ODP, and national team rosters, and were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results revealed only a marginal relative age effect for female ODP regional and national team players and no relative age effect for female ODP state team players. In comparison, a strong relative age effect was found in male state, regional and national team players. The results suggest that there are gender differences in the relative age effect of 17-year-old elite female and male soccer players. The gender differences may be explained by a complex interaction of biological and maturational differences with socialization influences.

  6. Sports injury and illness epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. An Olympic Legacy? Did the Urban Regeneration Associated With the London 2012 Olympic Games Influence Adolescent Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Smuk, Melanie; Cummins, Steven; Eldridge, Sandra; Fahy, Amanda; Lewis, Daniel; Moore, Derek G; Smith, Neil; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    Public expenditure on large events such as the London 2012 Olympic Games is often justified by the potential legacy of urban regeneration and its associated health and well-being benefits for local communities. In the Olympic Regeneration in East London Study, we examined whether there was an association between urban regeneration related to the 2012 Games and improved mental health in young people. Adolescents aged 11-12 years attending schools in the Olympic host borough of Newham in London or in 3 adjacent comparison London boroughs completed a survey before the 2012 Games and 6 and 18 months after the Games (in 2013 and 2014, respectively). Changes in depressive symptoms and well-being between baseline and each follow-up were examined. A total of 2,254 adolescents from 25 randomly selected schools participated. Adolescents from Newham were more likely to have remained depressed between baseline and the 6- and 18-month follow-up surveys (for 6-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.83; for 18-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.70) than adolescents from the comparison boroughs. No differences in well-being were observed. There was little evidence that urban regeneration had any positive influence on adolescent mental health and some suggestion that regeneration may have been associated with maintenance of depressive symptoms. Such programs may have limited short-term impact on the mental health of adolescents.

  8. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez-Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling.  Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.

  9. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez-Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling. Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.

  10. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Black

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. METHODS: We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. FINDINGS: We identified five key themes: (1 Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2 Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3 Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4 Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5 Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. INTERPRETATION: Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  11. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  12. Healthcare Planning for the Olympics in London: A Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. Methods We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. Findings We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Interpretation Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential. PMID:24647613

  13. Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit was discovered in July 1975. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide on Roxby Downs Station in South Australia. The first diamond drill hole, RD1, intersected 38 m of 1.05% copper. A further eight holes were drilled with only marginal encouragement to November 1976, when RD10 cored 170 m of 2.12% copper and 0.06% of uranium oxide, thus confirming an economic discovery. The discovery of Olympic Dam is an excellent example applying broad-scale, scientifically based conceptual studies to area selection. Exploration management supported its exploration scientists in testing their ideas with stratigraphic drilling. Geologic modeling, supported by geophysical interpretations and tectonic studies, was used to site the first hole. The discovery also illustrates the persistence required in mineral exploration. The deposit appears to be a new type of stratabound sediment-hosted ore. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. It is estimated to contain more than 2000 million MT of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6% copper, 0.06% uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/MT gold. The deposit occurs in middle Proterozoic basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat upper Proterozoic sediments. The sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias controlled by a northwest-trending graben

  14. Sexual Orientation, Human Rights, and Corporate Sponsorship of the Sochi Olympic Games: Rethinking the Voluntary Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Van Detta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-national enterprises (MNEs have provided substantial sponsorship for the Sochi Winter Olympic Games despite a host-country government that has recently enacted stunningly harsh legislation aimed at the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI communities within Russia. This is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR problem. Should Europe address it through voluntary corporate compliance, Europe’s historically preferred mode of promoting CSR? Or should Europe reconsider whether it can more effectively promote CSR compliance legislatively – and if so, by what kind of legislation? To honor the explicit and increased protections of human rights against sexual orientation discrimination in the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Charter of Fundamental Human Rights, more than voluntary, good intentions are needed. Particularly since the United States has effectively bowed out of enforcing CSR through the American federal courts, there now exists a regulatory lacuna that the European Commission is best situated to fill through the precision offered by judicious rulemaking. The article ultimately proposes an approach that combines the public-pressure engine that fuels voluntary CSR with public disclosures mandated by law to optimize the information and mobilization of public opinion and pressure – factors particularly noteworthy given the powerful “branding” benefits that MNEs seek through Olympic sponsorship.

  15. Global Initiative of the Special Olympics Movement for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myśliwiec Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33 of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include:

  16. The Impact of Staging Olympic Games on Real Estate Price in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Xuebing; Yao Yongling

    2012-01-01

    The price of the real estate in many cities of China has been rising up rapidly since a couple of years ago. Particularly, the increasing period is coinciding with the period of economic rising in Beijing. Therefore, many people thank that the higher price is mostly made by holding Olympic Game in 2008. In order to separate Olympic factor and non-Olympic factors, which were supposed to impact the price of real estate in Beijing, Differences-in-Differences (DD) method will be adopted in this p...

  17. Staging Encounters with Estranged Pasts: Radu Jude’s The Dead Nation (2017 and the Cinematic Face of Public Memory of the Holocaust in Present-Day Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana I. Popescu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a close analysis of Radu Jude’s The Dead Nation (2017, a documentary essay that brings together authentic archival sources documenting the persecution and murder of Jews in World War II. The sources include a little-known diary of Emil Dorian, a Jewish medical doctor and writer from Bucharest, a collection of photographs depicting scenes from Romanian daily life in the 1930s and 1940s, and recordings of political speeches and propaganda songs of a Fascist nature. Through a careful framing of this film in relation to Romanian public memory of World War II, and in connection to the popular new wave cinema, I will contend that Jude’s work acts, perhaps unwittingly, to intervene in public memory and invites the Romanian public to face up to and acknowledge the nation’s perpetrator past. This filmic intervention further offers an important platform for public debate on Romania’s Holocaust memory and is of significance for European public memory, as it proposes the film happening as a distinct and innovative practice of public engagement with history.

  18. Health risks and precautions for visitors to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sachiko; Wada, Koji; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Smith, Derek R

    2018-02-02

    In 2020, Japan will host the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020 (Tokyo 2020) which will involve a large population influx from various countries to Tokyo, the most populated city in Japan. We summarize the potential health risks for visitors to Tokyo 2020, related to communicable disease risks and other health threats, based on recent national and local surveillance reports. We reviewed up-to-date surveillance reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Tokyo Metropolitan Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Communicable disease risks for vaccine-preventable illnesses such as measles and rubella, as well as food and waterborne diseases represent the most likely risks. The risk of acquiring vector-borne diseases is considered low in Japan. On the other hand, however, heat-related illness represents a potential risk, as Tokyo 2020 is scheduled during the hottest season in Japan, with temperatures generally expected to exceed 30 °C. Maintaining an up-to-date routine vaccination schedule is highly recommended for visitors attending the Tokyo 2020 and appropriate hygiene measures for food and waterborne diseases as well as health promotion for heat-related illness. It may also be useful to increase the number of multilingual triage clinicians whom can be placed within emergency departments during the Tokyo 2020 to provide first contact services and coordination of emergency care among non-Japanese speaking visitors to Tokyo. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Kristjan Lepik : Olympic puhul on käive olulisem kui kasum / Enn Tosso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tosso, Enn, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Kasiinoketi Olympic Entertainment Group esimese poolaasta kasum oli 97,4 miljonit krooni, mis on 48,4 protsenti vähem kui mullu samal perioodil. Käive kasvas aastaga rohkem kui kolmandiku. Lisa: Tulemused

  20. Importance of ice for the «White Olympics»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Renkel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organization of any winter Olympic game, often called as «White Olympics», requires interfacing between sports, technology and glaciology. History of the Olympic winter games and the Norwegian figure skater Sonia Henie, first and the only three-time Olympic champion (1928, 1932, 1936 in ladies figure skating, is presented in the article. Leaving the amateurish sport, Henie became a Hollywood star of the ballet on ice. She was introduced to the inventor Frank Zamboni, who created the ice re-surfacer (the ice-cleaning combine to restore the ice on skating rinks. Using the combine by Henie during her tours in the United States served to advertise this machine, and the name Zamboni had become a trademark for machines «Zamboni».

  1. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  2. Olympic Casino trügib pokkeriga jõuliselt turismiturule / Eric Katskowski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katskowski, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Olympic Casino rahvusvahelisel pokkeriturniiril oli osalejate hulk varasemast märgatavalt suurem. Hasartmängude korraldajate liidu tegevdirektori Tõnis Rüütli hinnangul on tekkinud uus turisminishsh, mida võib nimetada pokkeriturismiks. Diagrammid

  3. The Introduction of the Antiochene Olympics: A Proposal for a New Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Remijsen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Malalas' account of games at Antioch, the confusions and doublets reflect his simplification of diverse festivals; the first Olympics there should be dated to A.D. 212 rather than earlier.

  4. Geoethnopolitical Aspect of the Caucasus Development in terms of Sochi Preparation for Winter Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Petrova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with geopolitical problems within the Caucasus Region in terms of modern regional processes, indicates major features of the region and their impact on Sochi preparation for Winter Olympic Games.

  5. Legal Regulation of Trade Activity during Sochi Preparation of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ivneva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topical issues of legal regulation of social trade relations in the Russian Federation during Sochi preparation and hosting of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games.

  6. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez #, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. Material and Methods A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual Special Olympics events held in 49 countries, from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was analysed descriptively, with One-Way ANOVA test and Chi-Square test. Results The level of significance was predetermined at a p value disability, Special Olympics. PMID:26241452

  7. Olympic opening ceremony was a vibrant feast of fun and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Linda

    2012-08-08

    If director Danny Boyle's intention at the Olympic opening ceremony was to provide a snapshot of Britain today, he succeeded. It was an inspired feast of energy, colour and vibrancy - as well as being great fun.

  8. Application software GeoniCS when designing the olympic ski runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin N. Makarov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GeoniCS implementation for Olympic mountain skiing routes designing is considered an international standard. This program allows optimizing plan and profiling development. Besides, the author adapted the program for lines engineering protection with special metal mesh.

  9. Olympics in Berlin in 1936 thougth the eyes of czech and german newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Nevšímalová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis aims to introduce the reader to the difference between Czech and German journalism and the manner of informing about sport events during the eleventh Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936. These Olympic Games were the first games in their modern history used for the purposes of propaganda. The thesis compares three significant Czech periodicals (Lidové noviny, České slovo and Venkov), with the German ones - Fehrbelliner Zeitung, Schwedter Tageblatt, Prager Tagblatt, and Deutsch-...

  10. Superpowers on the olympic basketball court: The United States versus China through four nationalistic lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Billings, Andrew C.; MacArthur, Paul J.; Wu, Dan; Ličen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Media renderings of the Olympics continue to offer opportunities for hypernationalism. This study analyzes the same basketball game (U.S. vs. Chinain men's basketball at the 2008 Summer Olympics) through the lens of 4 different telecasts in the United States, China, Slovenia, and Canada. Results illuminate us/them and collectivist/individualist dichotomies, differing themes of redemption and expectation, and stark contrasts in network style and content in game coverage. Ramifications for theo...

  11. Journalists and Olympic athletes: a Norwegian case study of ambivalent relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Elsa; Hanstad, Dag Vidar

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Human Kinetics This case study explores the relationship between media and sport. More specifically, it examines the association (i.e., the contact and communication) between Norwegian journalists and athletes during the 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. Ten athletes and three journalists were interviewed about their relationship. To regulate and improve the journalist–athlete relationship during special events like the Olympics, media rules have been formulated. In re...

  12. MEMBERSHIP PROCESS OF ISTANBUL IN 2020 OLYMPIC GAMES AND ECONOMIC INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTAFA YILDIZ

    2014-01-01

    The Olympic Game is an expensive and costly sport organization with the participation of athletes, journalists, broadcasters and sportsmen and audiences. This cost can be born only by developed countries and this enables introduction of home countries, increase of tourism activities and acquisition of sports facilities. Membership of Istanbul for 2020 Olympic Games is the first sport organization membership officially announced by prime minister of Turkish government. Therefore the support wa...

  13. Public support for hosting the Olympic Summer Games in Germany: The CVM approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Wicker; John C. Whitehead; Daniel S. Mason; Bruce K. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Cities throughout the world continue to weigh the merits of hosting major sport events, including the Olympic Games. These events are considered desirable due to a range of benefits, including economic and/or tourism development. In addition, previous research has shown that hosting the Olympics may confer intangible benefits for cities and their residents. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation method estimate of the monetary value of intangible benefits to Germans of host...

  14. Sex Trafficking and State Intervention: Conflicts and Contradictions during the 2012 London Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Jelbert, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the British human trafficking prevention policies adopted for the 2012 London Olympics using mixed methods including participation-observation, qualitative interviews, theoretical analysis and policy evaluation. I was invited to observe the Human Trafficking Network and London 2012, the Mayor of London’s official response to the claim that human trafficking would increase at the London Olympics. My presence enabled me to witness first-hand the key policy debates su...

  15. For an Olive Wreath? Olympic Games and Anticipation Effects in Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Brückner, Markus; Pappa, Evi

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects that hosting and bidding for the Olympic Games has on macroeconomic outcomes in a panel of 184 countries spanning the period 1950-2006. Actual hosting of the Games generates positive investment, consumption, and output responses before, during, and after hosting. We detect anticipation effects: (i) bidding for the Olympic Games generates positive investment, consumption, and output responses at the time of the bidding; (ii) bidding for the Games has a transitory level e...

  16. Which countries bid for the Olympic Games? Economic, political, and social factors and chances of winning

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyzes 132 factors on their potential to discriminate countries bidding for hosting the Olympic Games from non-bidding countries. Our binary, clustered model using generalized estimating equations (GEE) shows that countries recording long-term economic growth and pursuing a liberalization and globalization policy will consider an Olympic bid. In addition, countries with an urban population above 10 million, with stable election results and an improvement in health standard...

  17. News shocks in the data: Olympic Games and their macroeconomic effects - Reply

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Viktoria C. E.; Maennig, Wolfgang; Richter, Felix J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent analyses relate increases in the growth rate of countries to anticipation effects caused by bidding for the Olympic Games, so called news shocks. We argue that these findings should be interpreted cautiously. First, these analyses may suffer from an omitted variable bias because they neglect key determinants of economic growth. Second, these analyses compare the bidders for the Olympic Games to all other countries in the world, which constitutes a comparison between groups that show la...

  18. developing of antique olympic plays in a roman period at board of different emperors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko O.G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Researched the questions of development the Ancient Olympic Games, after the capture Greece territory by the Roman army. This condition and development in future fully depended on the social and political phenomena in Roman society preferring more aggressive types of «spectacles». The direction of quickly changing emperors was represented on status of the competitions. Positive relation authorities to competitions brought to achievement the second «bloom» of the Olympic Games in the Roman period.

  19. Migration effects of Olympic siting: A pooled time series cross-sectional analysis of host regions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn D. Thilmany; Travis J. Lybbert

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable opposition to the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in the Salt Lake City metro area. This opposition stems primarily from fears of increased population growth due to the international attention. Proponents maintain that the Games will enhance the quality and quantity of jobs in the local economy, mitigating any undesirable impacts. This paper analyzes the experiences of past North American Olympic host regions, rather than the single case of Salt Lake City, to dete...

  20. Olympic athletes’ job market entry strategies. A typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vilanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a typology of job market entry strategies among Olympic athletes. Guided by rational choice theory and social reproduction theory, we conducted a telephone survey among 94 athletes (68 men and 26 women. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct groups, which we called parallel life strategists, freelance strategists, lifetime athletes, and non-strategists: it’s a job. The results show that athletes from families with greater economic and cultural capital implement career transition strategies further in advance and achieve greater career success and satisfaction. These findings can be used to develop support programs tailored to the needs of athletes according to their profile.

  1. Personal dose estimations for Olympic Dam's first year of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonter, M.; Hondros, J.

    1989-01-01

    Underground development activities have been underway at Olympic Dam since 1983; commercial ore extraction commenced in early 1988; and the metallurgical treatment plant commenced operation in mid 1988. Detailed and extensive radiation monitoring programs have been in place since commencement of activities and have enabled detailed individual assessment of personal doses. Results are shown, in histogram form, of doses to full and part-time underground mine workers pre-1988 and for calendar 1988; and projected annual doses to treatment plant workers for the period July 1988 to July 1989. Comments are included on the dose calculation assumptions applying in mine and mill and on the degree of conservatism of these assumptions. The doses presented show compliance with the limits quoted in the Australian code of practice; they compare well with other underground uranium mines, and they indicate effective pursuit of the 'alara' principle. 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  3. Preparation and accreditation of anti-doping laboratories for the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrè, Francesco; Wu, Moutian; Boghosian, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    This article outlines the process of preparation of an anti-doping laboratory in view of the activities to be performed on the occasion of the Olympic Games, focusing in particular on the accreditation requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and ISO/IEC 17025, as well as on the additional obligations required by the International Olympic Committee, which is the testing authority responsible for the anti-doping activities at the Olympics. Due to the elevated workload expected on the occasion of the Olympic Games, the designated anti-doping laboratory needs to increase its analytical capacity (samples processed/time) and capability by increasing the laboratory's resources in terms of space, instrumentation and personnel. Two representative cases, one related to the Winter Olympic Games (Torino 2006) and one related to the Summer Olympic Games (Beijing 2008), are presented in detail, in order to discuss the main aspects of compliance with both the WADA and ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation requirements.

  4. Resident Perceptions of the 2006 Torino Olympic Games, 2002-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO CHITO GUALA,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous Olympic Games research has been primarily on economic impacts, tourists, and destination image with most being one-off assessments of the Summer Games. Other than Ritchie's landmark study of the Calgary Winter Olympic Games, relatively few research studies on the Winter Olympic Games have been published, and fewer still concerning resident attitudes throughout the full lifecycle of the event, from bidding, preparation, operation, and legacy stages. Residents are in a unique position to evaluate an event's legacy as taxpayers, daily consumers of infrastructure, and as possible leisure consumers of Olympic sport venues. The purpose of this study was to examine Torino residents' perceptions of their city as host of the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games from 2002-2007. Results from telephone interviews with Torino residents (n = 900 interviews per year; N = 5,400 are presented to reflect the attitudes of the population toward the 2006 Winter Olympic Games over time. Residents experienced a "rollercoaster" of emotions during the event lifecycle ranging from euphoria once the Games were awarded, to concern over escalating production costs, irritation with inconveniences due to construction, and ultimately pride immediately following the Games. Implications of study findings for event and destination managers are discussed.

  5. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri

    2006-04-01

    Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.

  6. Sports injury and illness incidence in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic Summer Games: A prospective study of 11274 athletes from 207 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer, Debbie; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Lopes, Alexandre Dias; Dvorak, Jiri; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Salmina, Natalia; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2017-09-01

    To describe the pattern of injuries and illnesses sustained during the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, hosted by Rio de Janeiro from 5 to 21 August 2016. We recorded the daily incidence of athlete injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Rio 2016 medical staff. In total, 11 274 athletes (5089 women, 45%; 6185 men, 55%) from 207 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and Rio 2016 medical staff reported 1101 injuries and 651 illnesses, equalling 9.8 injuries and 5.4 illnesses per 100 athletes over the 17-day period. Altogether, 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury and 5% at least one illness. The injury incidence was highest in BMX cycling (38% of the athletes injured), boxing (30%), mountain bike cycling (24%), taekwondo (24%), water polo (19%) and rugby (19%), and lowest in canoe slalom, rowing, shooting, archery, swimming, golf and table tennis (0%-3%). Of the 1101 injuries recorded, 40% and 20% were estimated to lead to ≥1 and >7 days of absence from sport, respectively. Women suffered 40% more illnesses than men. Illness was generally less common than injury, with the highest incidence recorded in diving (12%), open-water marathon (12%), sailing (12%), canoe slalom (11%), equestrian (11%) and synchronised swimming (10%). Illnesses were also less severe; 18% were expected to result in time loss. Of the illnesses, 47% affected the respiratory system and 21% the gastrointestinal system. The anticipated problem of infections in the Rio Olympic Games did not materialise, as the proportion of athletes with infectious diseases mirrored that of recent Olympic Games (3%). Overall, 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the Olympic Games, and 5% an illness, which is slightly lower than in the Olympic Summer Games of 2008 and 2012. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  7. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  8. Is Hosting the Games Enough to Win? A predictive economic model of medal wins at 2014 Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2012-01-01

    An econometric model which has first been estimated on medal wins at Summer Olympics and has predicted 88% of medal distribution at Beijing Games 2008, is revisited for Winter Olympics. After changing some variables to take into account the winter sports specificity, the model is estimated again on all Winter Games since 1964.Then it is used to predict (forecast) the medal distribution per country at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

  9. Motion and landscape : Otl Aicher, Günther Grzimek and the graphic and garden designs of the 1972 Munich Olympics.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, Kay; Young, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Otl Aicher's design and Günther Grzimek's garden architecture for the 1972 Munich Olympics. We argue that the functionalist aesthetics of the Munich Olympic site should be interpreted as a translation into graphic and landscape design of 1960s progressivism in West German society and democracy. In the process Aicher and Grzimek somewhat paradoxically drew on the tradition of the Olympic Gesamtkunstwerk inaugurated in Berlin in 1936.

  10. Slippery Slope? Assessing the Economic Impact of the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Baade; Robert Baumann; Victor Matheson

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical examination of the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. Our analysis of taxable sales in the counties in which Olympic events took place finds that some sectors such as hotels and restaurants prospered while other retailers such as general merchandisers and department stores suffered. Overall the gains in the hospitality industry are lower than the losses experienced by other sectors in the economy. Given the experience of Utah, potential Olympic...

  11. [Observation on atmospheric pollution in Xianghe during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue-Peng; Wang, Yue-Si; Hu, Bo; Liu, Quan; Wang, Ying-Hong; Nan, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    There is a concern that much of the atmospheric pollution experienced in Beijing is regional in nature and not attributable to local sources. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of sources outside Beijing to atmospheric pollution levels during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The observations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were conducted from June 1 to September 30, 2008 in Xianghe, a rural site about 70 km southeast of Beijing. Sources and transportation of atmospheric pollution during the experiment were discussed with surface meteorology data and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The results showed that the daily average maximum (mean +/- standard deviation) concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5, and PM10 during observation reached 84.4(13.4 +/- 15.2), 43.3 (15.9 +/- 9.1), 230 (82 +/- 38), 184 (76 +/- 42) and 248 (113 +/- 52) microg x m(-3), respectively. In particular, during the pollution episodes from July 20 to August 12, the hourly average concentration of O3 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II for 46 h (9%), and the daily average concentration of PM10 exceeded the Standard for 11 d (46%); PM2.5 exceeded the US EPA Standard for 18 d (75%). The daily average concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 decreased from 27.7, 18.6, 96, 90, 127 microg x m(-3) in June-July to 5.8, 13.2, 80, 60, 106 microg x m(-3) during Olympic Games (August-September), respectively. The typical diurnal variations of NO(x), PM2.5 and PM10 were similar, peaking at 07:00 and 20:00, while the maximum of O3 occurred between 14:00 to 16:00 local time. The findings also suggested that the atmospheric pollution in Xianghe is related to local emission, regional transport as well as the meteorological conditions. Northerly wind and precipitation are favorable for diffusion and wet deposition of pollutants, while sustained south flows make the atmospheric pollution more serious. The lead-lag correlation analysis during the

  12. Landscape, historic memory and national identity in the beginnings of the policy nature conservation in Spain: from Covadonga to San Juan de la Peña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo García Álvarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the concept of “national landscape” and on the importance of identity symbolic values in the beginning of landscape and nature conservation policy in Spain. The emblematic case of the Montaña de Covadonga (the first National Park created in Spain is examined in more detail. The paper is divided into three main sections. The first one raises some theoretical and general considerations on the role of identity symbolic values within the first steps of nature conservation policies in Spain and other national contexts. Secondly, the cultural-historic processes and discourses which converted the Montaña de Covadonga landscape into a Spanish national symbol and into a site of memory, leading to its declaration as a National Park in 1918, are reviewed. The third section examines the ideological identity disputes and controversies concerning the creation of that National Park, some of which led to the declaration of the Sitio Nacional del Monte de San Juan de la Peña in 1920. The article approaches the creation of the first Spanish Natural Parks as a part of the nationalization policies inspired by the concerns of the “Regeneracionismo”. More precisely, the beginning of natural conservation policy in Spain may be considered as part of the efforts carried out by certain intellectual and political leaders in order to institutionalize new spaces of collective identity grounded in landscape and nature (and, more particularly, in some natural landscapes endowed with a strong historic symbolic meaning as regards to the “birth of the nation”. According to the research conclusions, the ideological controversies raised around the first Spanish Natural Parks can be understood as a reflection of the plurality of competing national conceptions existing in Spain, as well as of the difficulties in reaching a consensus on the country’s national symbols.

  13. Developing a physical activity legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: a policy-led systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Mike; Coren, Esther; Fiore, Jo; Wellard, Ian; Mansfield, Louise; Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia; Dowse, Suzanne

    2012-03-01

    There is no evidence that previous Olympic Games have raised physical activity levels in adult populations. However, it may be premature to assume that this lack of previous evidence for an inherent effect is an indication that there is no potential to proactively harness the Games to generate a physical activity or sport legacy. Given that the political goal of achieving a physical activity legacy had already been set, the policy-led aim of this systematic review was to examine the processes by which the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games might deliver a physical activity (as opposed to sport) legacy. Searches were conducted on five databases: SPORTS DISCUS, CINAHL, PsychLNFO, MEDLINE and Web of Knowledge. There are two key findings: first, that communities that are not positively engaged with hosting the 2012 Games in London are likely to be beyond the reach of any initiatives seeking to harness the Games to develop legacies in any area; second, major events such as London 2012 can, if promoted in the right way, generate a 'festival effect' that may have the potential to be harnessed to promote physical activity among the least active. The 'festival effect' derives from the promotion of the 2012 Games as a national festival that is bigger than and beyond sport, but that is also rooted in the lives of local and cultural communities, thus creating a strong desire to participate in some way in an event that is both nationally significant and locally or culturally relevant. Physical activity policy makers and professionals should seek to satisfy this desire to participate through providing physical activity (rather than sport) opportunities presented as fun community events or programmes. The key to generating a physical activity legacy among the least active adults through this process is to de-emphasise the sporting element of the 2012 Games and promote the festival element.

  14. Smoking ban in public places in Japan - adverse legacy of the 2020 Olympic Paralympic Games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Katanoda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Although Japan is a nation where the world first epidemiological evidence on the health effect of secondhand smoke was produced, no indoor smoking ban was realized on a national level. In 2013, Tokyo was selected as the city of 2020 Olympic Paralympic Games, since when the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW and various concerned parties have been working to realize smoking ban in public places. However, as of July, 2017, the legislation has been unsuccessful. We chronologically reviewed the related events to clarify underlying obstacles to the legislation. Methods Events related to the movement of the national smoking ban in Japan were extracted from the internet and public available data sources. The concerned bodies were classified into five categories (academic/medical, administration, politics, industry, and advocacy, and chronological relations were analyzed. Results Academic/medical and administrative bodies closely collaborated and effectively released scientific rationale of smoking ban in 2016. The MHLW's draft policy released in Mar. 2017 included an exception of smoking ban for restaurants and bars (allowing designated smoking rooms. However, even this partial banning policy was faced with fierce objections from the allied industry including restaurant, hotel businesses and tobacco industry. Diet members in the ruling Liberal Democratic Party acted in a coordinated manner; reportedly 90% of the Diet members attending the party committee on health, labour and welfare objected to the MHLW's draft policy. The allied industry spread a signature collecting activity earlier and much more organizationally than academic/medical and advocacy groups. The party committee of the LDP was held only twice. Although the MHLW proposed a temporary amendment, the committee failed to reach an agreement. Conclusions The series of events suggest that the tobacco lobbies are more powerful in the policy-making process in Japan

  15. Competing Victimizations or Multidirectional Soli-daties? Politics of Collective Memory and Solidarity in the Post-National Socialist and Post-Colonial Austrian Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Edthofer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I illustrate “competing victimizations” and propose possible “multidirectional solidarities” regarding inner-left debates about the Middle East conflict, anti-Semitism and racism in Viennese left-wing contexts. The illustrated conflict is specific for radical left-wing politics in a post-National Socialist and post-colonial setting. Debates initially revolve around Israel versus Palestine solidarity. In the wake of the Second Intifada and the September 11 attacks they partly divide anti-fascist and anti-racist political stances. While the pro-Israeli camp focuses on the Holocaust, Austrian guilt-deflection and current anti-Semitism, the pro-Palestinian side condemns the Israeli occupation and fights growing anti-Muslim racism. In this context, opposing perspectives on the relation of new anti-Semitism and anti-Muslim racism are articulated. Such competing dynamics and their interrelation with Austrian memory politics and global politics are illustrated.  Subsequently, they are discussed as being related to conflicting memories and interrelated competing victimizations in migrant societies with a National Socialist history, such as in Austria and Germany. Concluding, the concept of “multidirectional solidarity” is proposed as an alternative approach, transcending competitive views on past and current victimizations.

  16. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  17. History and meaning of the Accounting Olympics. First Accounting Olympics held by the Accounting department of the University of Economics - Varna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamena Nedyalkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show the significance of the accounting Olympics for high school students. They can be use not only to test the level in which the students have mastered the accounting knowledge but as well to ensure they’re much more smooth transition from the high school to the university.

  18. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Martínez-Abellán, Alberto; López-Gullón, José María; Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating) are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling) was determined using five separate techniques: i) urine osmolality (UOSM), ii) urine specific gravity (USG), iii) urine color (UCOL), iv) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and v) thirst perception scale (TPS). All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)). We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000), although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000). UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000) and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000) but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398). TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to detect hypohydration at official weight

  19. Anthropometrical, physiological, and tracked power profiles of elite taekwondo athletes 9 weeks before the Olympic competition phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nick; Nolan, Emily; Wheeler, Keane

    2011-10-01

    Physiological, anthropometric, and power profiling data were retrospectively analyzed from 4 elite taekwondo athletes from the Australian National Olympic team 9 weeks from Olympic departure. Power profiling data were collected weekly throughout the 9-week period. Anthropometric skinfolds generated a lean mass index (LMI). Physiological tests included a squat jump and bench throw power profile, bleep test, 20-m sprint test, running VO2max test, and bench press and squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) strength tests. After this, the athletes power, velocity, and acceleration profile during unweighted squat jumps and single-leg jumps were tracked using a linear position transducer. Increases in power, velocity, and acceleration between weeks and bilateral comparisons were analyzed. Athletes had an LMI of 37.1 ± 0.4 and were 173.9 ± 0.2 m and 67 ± 1.1 kg. Relatively weaker upper body (56 ± 11.97 kg 3RM bench press) compared to lower body strength (88 ± 2.89 kg 3RM squat) was shown alongside a VO2max of 53.29 ml(-1)·min(-1)·kg, and a 20-m sprint time of 3.37 seconds. Increases in all power variables for single-leg squat and squat jumps were found from the first session to the last. Absolute peak power in single-leg squat jumps increased by 13.4-16% for the left and right legs with a 12.9% increase in squat jump peak power. Allometrically scaled peak power showed greater increases for single-leg (right leg: 18.55%; left: 23.49%) and squat jump (14.49%). The athlete's weight did not change significantly throughout the 9-week mesocycle. Progressions in power increases throughout the weeks were undulating and can be related to the intensity of the prior week's training and athlete injury. This analysis has shown that a 9-week mesocycle before Olympic departure that focuses on core lifts has the ability to improve power considerably.

  20. Nuclear security at the summer 2004 Olympic Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today announced an unprecedented joint action plan to help ensure a high level of nuclear security at the 2004 Olympic Games. Cooperation between the IAEA, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission and the Greek Olympics Games Security Division to provide expert advice and technical assistance followed a request for assistance from the two Greek authorities to the IAEA last summer. The action plan is designed to protect facilities and materials, to detect illicit trafficking and malicious use of radioactive materials, and to ensure that emergency response forces are effective and efficient. Much of the work in Greece has been undertaken in co-operation with some IAEA Member States - with substantial support provided by the United States and France in the fields of equipment, training and technical advice. The physical protection of the Demokritos nuclear research reactor, in a suburb of Athens, has been upgraded and the security of radioactive sources used at medical and industrial facilities in six Greek cities has been tightened. Radiation detection equipment has been installed at borders and other entry points into Greece, and mobile detection equipment will be deployed elsewhere. Hand-held radiation monitors are being distributed amongst the thousands of security personnel and customs officials who are involved in the security for the Games. The equipment is being deployed to detect radioactive materials that might be used as a weapon by terrorists in a radiological dispersal device, a so-called 'dirty bomb'. Detailed information on the steps that have been taken cannot be disclosed for reasons of security. 'There has been good cooperation with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission and with the other international partners in developing and implementing this work' said Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'We are collectively striving for a high measure of security and the work being undertaken should

  1. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  2. Impacts of pollution controls on air quality in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianlin; Tang, Aohan; Liu, Xuejun; Kopsch, Jenny; Fangmeier, Andreas; Goulding, Keith; Zhang, Fusuo

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the main environmental concerns in China since the 1980s due to China's rapid economic growth and resultant pollution. However, it is difficult to directly evaluate the anthropogenic contribution to air pollution in China. The 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing provided a unique opportunity for testing the contribution of anthropogenic pollution because of the clean-up controls on air quality in Beijing enforced over the period of the Games. In this case study, we monitored the concentrations of major air pollutants before, during, and after the Olympics at a suburban site in Beijing. Atmospheric concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NH3, NO2, SO2, and the particulate ions NH4+, NO3-, SO4(2-) Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ all decreased during the Olympic period because of strict emission controls, compared with the same period from 2005 to 2007. For example, the average PM10 concentration (61 microg m(-3)) during the Olympics was only 37% of that (166 microg m(-3)) in the same month (August) from 2005 to 2007. However, just 1 mo and 1 yr after the Games had ended, mean concentrations of these pollutants had increased significantly again. This rapid "recovery' of air pollutant concentrations after the Olympics suggests that China needs to implement long-lasting decreases in its air pollution in Beijing and other major cities.

  3. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jisong; Zhang Yongjie

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO 2 emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO 2 using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy

  4. Preventing heat illness in the anticipated hot climate of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R; Endo, Shota; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-19

    Amid the effects of global warming, Tokyo has become an increasingly hot city, especially during the summertime. To prepare for the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo, all participants, including the athletes, staff, and spectators, will need to familiarize themselves with Tokyo's hot and humid summer conditions. This paper uses the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which estimates the risk of heat illness, to compare climate conditions of sports events in Tokyo with the conditions of the past three Summer Olympics (held in Rio de Janeiro, London, and Beijing) and to subsequently detail the need for establishing appropriate countermeasures. We compared WBGT results from the past three Summer Olympics with the same time periods in Tokyo during 2016. There was almost no time zone where a low risk of heat illness could be expected during the time frame of the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics. We also found that Tokyo had a higher WBGT than any of those previous host cities and is poorly suited for outdoor sporting events. Combined efforts by the official organizers, government, various related organizations, and the participants will be necessary to deal with these challenging conditions and to allow athletes to perform their best, as well as to prevent heat illnesses among staff and spectators. The sporting committees, as well as the Olympic organizing committee, should consider WBGT measurements in determining the venues and timing of the events to better avoid heat illness and facilitate maximum athletic performance.

  5. Doping in olympic sport: signs of the crisis and ways to overcome it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Platonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of modern history of the spread of doping in Olympic sport, the IOC’s fight against this negative phenomenon and activities of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA established in 1999 and designed to eradicate doping. It is shown that, despite ever-increasing financial and human resources along with expanded legal capabilities, intensive propaganda efforts, increased volume of testing, severe sanctions, support from reputable international organizations (UN, UNESCO, Council of Europe, the Agency's multi-year activities is not only brought the Olympic sport closer to solving the problem, but also dramatically aggravated and made it dangerous for the credibility and the well-being of the Olympic movement. It is not only and not so much about the competition in elite sport, which has dramatically increased recent years, and socio-political and commercial attractiveness of success at the Olympics, but about fundamentally misguided methodology underlying WADA’s activities, based on neglect of biological, medical and sports sciences’ achievements, and realities of modern elite sports, and drawn up on the ideas of lawyers, economists and “universal managers". The paper outlines in detail outcomes of WADA activities and anti-doping laboratories accredited by the Agency, which manifested themselves in many crisis phenomena moved far beyond the limits of the Olympic sport. Furthermore, the prospects of coming out of the grave crisis developed in this area are delineated.

  6. RADIATION CONTROL DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OLYMPIC FACILITIES IN SOCHI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the organization and results of the provision of the radiation safety in the period of preparation for the Winter Olympic and Paralympic games in Sochi, 2014. The following topics are overviewed in the paper: allocation of land plots for construction of the Olympic facilities; organization of the sanitary surveillance of the imported equipment, construction materials and designs for the construction of the Olympic facilities; putting the Olympic venues into operation. Dose rate of gamma radiation at all land plots, which were allocated for the construction of the Olympic facilities, conformed to the requirements of sanitary regulations. The average dose rate of gamma radiation was 0.11 μSv h-1 in the Coastal cluster and 0.14 μSv h-1 in the Mountain cluster. The radon fluence rate from the ground surface exceeded the prescribed limit of 80 mBq m-2 s-1 only at the land plot allocated for construction of the «House of receiving official delegations «Achipse» and the «House of receiving official delegations «Psekhako» in the Mountain cluster. The maximal value of 188 mBq m-2 s -1 was registered here. The buildings projects for this area included using radon protection measures, which were implemented during the construction.

  7. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

  8. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

  9. Team Performance Indicators Explain Outcome during Women’s Basketball Matches at the Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Leicht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games is the pinnacle international sporting competition with team sport coaches interested in key performance indicators to assist the development of match strategies for success. This study examined the relationship between team performance indicators and match outcome during the women’s basketball tournament at the Olympic Games. Team performance indicators were collated from all women’s basketball matches during the 2004–2016 Olympic Games (n = 156 and analyzed via linear (binary logistic regression and non-linear (conditional interference (CI classification tree statistical techniques. The most parsimonious linear model retained “defensive rebounds”, “field-goal percentage”, “offensive rebounds”, “fouls”, “steals”, and “turnovers” with a classification accuracy of 85.6%. The CI classification tree retained four performance indicators with a classification accuracy of 86.2%. The combination of “field-goal percentage”, “defensive rebounds”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of winning (91.1%, while a combination of “field-goal percentage”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of losing (96.7%. Shooting proficiency and defensive actions were identified as key team performance indicators for Olympic female basketball success. The development of key defensive strategies and/or the selection of athletes highly proficient in defensive actions may strengthen Olympic match success. Incorporation of non-linear analyses may provide teams with superior/practical approaches for elite sporting success.

  10. A reappraisal of success factors for Olympic cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    Cross-country (XC) skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic XC-ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, 10 of the 12 current Olympic competitions in XC skiing involve mass starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today's world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and "tactical flexibility." The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in XC skiing requires skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different subtechniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past 4 decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014, XC skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically performing strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

  11. The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Dall; Christiansen, Ask Vest; Henriksen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the ―most important competition of their athletic careers‖ and ―the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.‖ This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes....

  12. Therapist responses to recovered and never-forgotten memories of child sex abuse. A national survey of licensed psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, B G; Pope, K S

    1997-08-01

    The credibility of recovered memories of child sexual abuse following a long period of repression remains controversial in the mental health field. Some have argued that recovered memories are the work of overzealous therapists who implant such material. To learn more about the steps clinicians follow when they encounter such reports, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 female and 300 male licensed psychologists randomly selected from the 1994 American Psychological Association Membership Register. The survey included 1 of 4 versions of a vignette in which a 14-year-old girl suddenly remembers (or always remembered and just decided to disclose) sexual abuse that occurred at age 2 or 8 years. Survey forms were returned by 49% (144 females and 140 males). Only 1 therapist reached a firm conclusion about the validity of the abuse report based on the vignette alone; the rest indicated a need for further information, disputing claims that therapists respond to allegations of abuse with reflexive certainty. Reports were more likely to be believed when the age at abuse was 8 years rather than 2 years, by younger therapists (45 years and under), and by women who were nonpsychoanalytically oriented. Whether the abuse memory had been repressed did not significantly affect beliefs about its likely occurrence. Respondents also were given a list of 12 possible responses to an abuse disclosure and asked to check those they were most likely to follow. The most commonly cited responses were: discuss the allegations further in the next session (80%), consult with other clinicians (52%), file a child abuse report (40%), consult with an attorney about legal responsibilities (36%), schedule a session with all family members (30%), and schedule psychological testing (28%). The finding that less than 50% of therapists would file a mandated report of suspected child abuse indicates a need for states to more clearly define the criteria for filing such reports.

  13. Modelling study of boundary-layer ozone over northern China - Part II: Responses to emission reductions during the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guiqian; Zhu, Xiaowan; Xin, Jinyuan; Hu, Bo; Song, Tao; Sun, Yang; Wang, Lili; Wu, Fangkun; Sun, Jie; Cheng, Mengtian; Chao, Na; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of emission reduction measures during the Olympics provided a valuable opportunity to study regional photochemical pollution over northern China. In this study, the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model system was applied to conduct two sets of modelling analyses of the period from July 20 to September 20, 2008, to illustrate the influences of emission reduction measures on regional photochemical pollution over northern China during the Beijing Olympics. The results indicated that the implementation of emission control measures decreased the concentrations of ozone (O3) precursors, namely nitrogen oxide (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), throughout the boundary layer. The concentrations of these compounds were reduced by 45% in the central urban area of Beijing at the ground level. Although the average O3 concentration in the central urban area increased by more than 8 ppbv, the total oxidant concentration decreased significantly by more than 5 ppbv. Greater O3 concentrations mainly occurred during periods with weak photochemical reactions. During periods of strong photochemical production, the O3 concentration decreased significantly due to a weakening vertical circulation between the lower and upper boundary layer. Consequently, the number of days when the O3 concentration exceeded 100 ppbv decreased by 25% in Beijing. The emission control measures altered the sensitivity of the regional O3 production. The coordinated control region of NOx and VOCs expanded, and the control region of VOCs decreased in size. The reduction of non-point-source emissions, such as fugitive VOCs and vehicles, was more useful for controlling regional photochemical pollution over northern China.

  14. Energy diagnosis in industry: case of SAP Olympic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandouidi, Ziwendtaore Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The control of the energy consumption became a crucial problem in the production facilities in Burkina Faso. Energy efficiency is a fact that cannot be ignored in the industrial sector because of the rise unceasingly in the prices of the petroleum. Current reality makes it possible to note the extent of the cost of electricity in our country. The economic pressures in all the sectors of the economic activity, unrestrained competitiveness, the removal of the tariff barriers in the UEMAO member countries caused many difficulties for several companies. SAP Olympic, potential consumer of electrical energy, has difficulties in control and optimize its energy consumption. The importance of this consumption of energy is the subject of great debates at this African Company of Tire. The performances of the old installations of energy are often distant from those obtained with the new installations. If it is relatively easy to carry out new powerful installations, the improvement of the energy consumption of the existing installations requires a study on a case-by-case basis, and it is not always possible to find a solution ensuring the same performances as a new installation. It is necessary to set up rigorous methods of follow-up of the calorific and electric consumption of the equipment in order to have a sufficiently precise energy assessment. The energy diagnosis indeed carries out the most relevant choices for our actions of energy saving [fr

  15. Ground reaction forces of Olympic and World Championship race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    Race walking is an Olympic event where no visible loss of contact should occur and the knee must be straightened until midstance. The purpose of this study was to analyse ground reaction forces of world-class race walkers and associate them with key spatiotemporal variables. Nineteen athletes race walked along an indoor track and made contact with two force plates (1000 Hz) while being filmed using high-speed videography (100 Hz). Race walking speed was correlated with flight time (r = .46, p = .049) and flight distance (r = .69, p = .001). The knee's movement from hyperextension to flexion during late stance meant the vertical push-off force that followed midstance was smaller than the earlier loading peak (p push-off forces (r = .60, p = .011). Lower fluctuations in speed during stance were associated with higher stride frequencies (r = .69, p = .001), and highlighted the importance of avoiding too much braking in early stance. The flattened trajectory and consequential decrease in vertical propulsion might help the race walker avoid visible loss of contact (although non-visible flight times were useful in increasing stride length), while a narrow stride width was important in reducing peak forces in all three directions and could improve movement efficiency.

  16. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. The broadcast day was defined as the Olympic men's gold medal ice hockey game final. The control days were defined as the 6 Sundays before and after the broadcast day. A total of 99 447 visits occurred over the 7 Sundays, of which 13 990 occurred on the broadcast day. Comparing the broadcast day with control days, we found no significant difference in the hourly rate of visits before the broadcast (544 vs 537, p = 0.41) or after the broadcast (647 vs 639, p = 0.55). In contrast, we observed a significant reduction in hourly rate of visits during the broadcast (647 vs 783, p television broadcasts can influence patient preferences and thereby lead to a decrease in emergency department visits.

  17. Introduction into the Virtual Olympic Games Framework for online communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the design of the Virtual Olympic Games Framework (VOGF), a computer application designated for athletics, health care, general well-being, nutrition and fitness, which offers multiple benefits for its participants. A special interest in starting the design of the framework was in exploring how people can connect and participate together using existing computer technologies (i.e. gaming consoles, exercise equipment with computer interfaces, devices of measuring health, speed, force and distance and Web 2.0 applications). A stationary bike set-up offering information to users about their individual health and athletic performances has been considered as a starting model. While this model is in the design stage, some preliminary findings are encouraging, suggesting the potential for various fields: sports, medicine, theories of learning, technologies and cybercultural studies. First, this framework would allow participants to perform a variety of sports and improve their health. Second, this would involve creating an online environment able to store health information and sport performances correlated with accessing multi-media data and research about performing sports. Third, participants could share experiences with other athletes, coaches and researchers. Fourth, this framework also provides support for the research community in their future investigations.

  18. Weather Support for the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing Competitions (referred to as OPSC hereafter were held at Qingdao during August 9–23 and September 7–13 2008, respectively. The Qingdao Meteorological Bureau was the official provider of weather support for the OPSC. Three-dimensional real-time information with high spatial-temporal resolution was obtained by the comprehensive observation system during the OPSC, which included weather radars, wind profile radars, buoys, automated weather stations, and other conventional observations. The refined forecasting system based on MM5, WRF, and statistical modules provided point-specific hourly wind forecasts for the five venues, and the severe weather monitoring and forecasting system was used in short-term forecasts and nowcasts for rainstorms, gales, and hailstones. Moreover, latest forecasting products, warnings, and weather information were communicated conveniently and timely through a synthetic, speedy, and digitalized network system to different customers. Daily weather information briefings, notice boards, websites, and community short messages were the main approaches for regatta organizers, athletes, and coaches to receive weather service products at 8:00 PM of each day and whenever new updates were available. During the period of OPSC, almost one hundred people were involved in the weather service with innovative service concept, and the weather support was found to be successful and helpful to the OPSC.

  19. FCJ-163 Olympic Trolls: Mainstream Memes and Digital Discord?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tama Leaver

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the mainstream press have often used the accusation of trolling to cover almost any form of online abuse, the term itself has a long and changing history. In scholarly work, trolling has morphed from a description of newsgroup and discussion board commentators who appeared genuine but were actually just provocateurs, through to contemporary analyses which focus on the anonymity, memes and abusive comments most clearly represented by users of the iconic online image board 4chan, and, at times, the related Anonymous political movement. To explore more mainstream examples of what might appear to be trolling at first glance, this paper analyses the Channel Nine Fail (Ch9Fail Facebook group which formed in protest against the quality of the publicly broadcast Olympic Games coverage in Australia in 2012. While utilising many tools of trolling, such as the use of memes, deliberately provocative humour and language, targeting celebrities, and attempting to provoke media attention, this paper argues that the Ch9Fail group actually demonstrates the increasingly mainstream nature of many online communication strategies once associated with trolls. The mainstreaming of certain activities which have typified trolling highlight these techniques as part of a more banal everyday digital discourse; despite mainstream media presenting trolls are extremist provocateurs, many who partake in trolling techniques are simply ordinary citizens expressing themselves online.

  20. Histoire, mémoire et identité nationale History, memory and national identity. A German triptych confronted by present-day social evolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Rambour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La responsabilité morale et politique à l’égard du passé est toujours sous-jacente dans la culture politique allemande. Toute tentative destinée à penser l’identité nationale, à mettre à jour ses principales caractéristiques, se trouve confrontée à la prégnance d’une mémoire collective particulièrement lourde de sens et de conséquences. De récentes polémiques sur l’attitude à adopter face à l’histoire et à l’idée nationale montrent combien cet héritage est structurant dans la réflexion sur la problématique identitaire. Si l’histoire, la mémoire et l’identité semblent indissociables dans ce contexte spécifique, des aspirations à une certaine « normalité » se manifestent quant à la manière de vivre ce passé et de s’exprimer au présent. La chute du Mur de Berlin et la réunification ont replacé le thème de l’identité nationale au centre des débats, réactivant ainsi une forme de dilemme entre un sentiment de culpabilité devant l’histoire et le désir d’un rapport « normalisé » à la nation allemande. Les transformations dont l’Allemagne est le théâtre depuis la dernière décennie rendent toutefois nécessaire le maintien d’une vigilante attention. Une situation d’insécurité économique et sociale, associée au temps qui risque d’atténuer la vivacité de souvenirs pourtant lourds, rappellent que la mémoire conditionne aussi la manière dont une nation réunifiée se projette dans l’avenir et y vit son identité.The moral and political responsibility regarding the past always underlies German political culture. Any attempt to conceive national identity, to update its main features, is faced with the vividness of a meaningful, collective memory, fraught with consequences. Recent controversies about the way to deal with history and the national idea show the extent to which this heritage structures the reflection on identity problems. Though history, memory and

  1. Promoting a skills-based agenda in Olympic sports: the role of skill-acquisition specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2009-11-01

    We highlight the importance of promoting a skills-based agenda in the development and preparation of Olympic athletes. The role that specialists with a background in skill acquisition can play is illustrated and the need to move towards a culture where evidence-based practice permeates all aspects of this process reiterated. We provide examples from contemporary research to illustrate how skill-acquisition theory and practice can help inform and guide practitioners, coaches, and administrators in their quest to develop Olympic athletes. Although the acquisition and refinement of skills are essential to performance in most Olympic sports, paradoxically the area of skill acquisition has not impacted in a concerted and meaningful way on this agenda. Skill-acquisition specialists need to be more proactive in forging links with elite sport, whereas practitioners, coaches, and administrators need to appreciate the important role that sports scientists with a background in this area can play in helping to develop future generations of podium athletes.

  2. U.S. National forests adapt to climate change through science-management partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Littell; David L. Peterson; Constance I. Millar; Kathy A. O' Halloran

    2011-01-01

    Developing appropriate management options for adapting to climate change is a new challenge for land managers, and integration of climate change concepts into operational management and planning on United States national forests is just starting. We established science-management partnerships on the Olympic National Forest (Washington) and Tahoe National Forest (...

  3. Memory architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  4. Impact of the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games on physical activity of rheumatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müther, Michael; Williamson, Marie; Williamson, Lyn

    2014-10-01

    Lack of physical activity in the general population is one of the biggest health challenges we face. For rheumatology patients, and other patients with chronic disease, exercise is an essential part of disease management. However, very few patients exercise effectively.One of the aspirations of the London 2012 Olympic/Paralympic Games was to catalyze people into long-term physical activity. We surveyed our rheumatology patients at 3 high-profile times in the year after the Olympics. Two hundred fifty-three patients were enrolled within the study; the largest diagnosis subgroup being rheumatoid arthritis (36%). Ninety-five percent of our patients regard exercise as beneficial; 36% still think it does harm. Most common barriers to exercise were pain (53%), tiredness (44%), and lack of time (36%). Forty-five percent exercise daily, mostly just walking. Twnety-seven patients (16%) were motivated by the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games toward physical activity. They were mostly motivated by athletics' individual stories (67%), taking part in a big sports festival (11%) and demonstration of top sporting levels (4%). Eighteen patients in total (7%) increased their amount of exercise in response to the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. There was no difference between patient diagnostic groups. Only a small minority of patients increased their amount of exercise in response to the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The message about the importance of physical exercise to health needs to be clear, unambiguous, and consistent, because a significant number of patients still think that physical activity does harm. Big sporting events such as the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games can be used as an opportunity to remind patients that physical activity does good and is not harmful. Athletes' individual stories could be used in future as part of a strategy to encourage exercise for all patients.

  5. “Let me go back and recreate what I don’t know”: Locating Trans-national Memory Work in Contemporary Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Frances Bond

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What are the narrative implications of working through aspects of an identity heritage that may have been partially or wholly lost through a family history of migration or diaspora? How do subjects access dislocated parts of their identity, and which strategies do they employ to (re-create them within their stories? To explore such instances of what I term ‘by proxy’ diasporic experiences, I offer a comparative case study of three novels written by authors with family heritage from the Horn of Africa (Ubah Cristina Ali Farah, Dinaw Mengestu and Nadifa Mohamed, who are now active in different nations and languages. Highlighting the narrative strategies used to bridge the gap between past, present and future in the articulation of identity allows us to grasp the trans-national impact of diaspora mobility on memory work and privileges an awareness of the co-existence of different ‘pasts’ within national contexts.This article is published under a CC-BY license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  6. The Financing of the London Olympics 2012 and its economic effects on the U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Mohak

    2010-01-01

    The Olympics are being seen as an event that can turn an ordinary city into a world city. The past has shown that hosting the games can make a country have enormous profits or, on the other hand, go into deep losses, and the enormous amounts of money invested in them are evidence of this. This paper aims to examine The United Kingdom’s preparations for the 2012 Olympic Games by focussing on the various costs that are incurred, in particular on the plans for a positive economic legacy, and fin...

  7. Revisiting the Salt Lake City Olympic scandal: Would the outcome be different today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many international sport organizations face bribery scandals resulting from its event bidding process. The International Olympic Committee (IOC faced this type of scandal with the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Two members of the Salt Lake City Organizing Committee (SLOC faced 15 criminal charges from providing more than US$1.2 million in cash and gifts to entice IOC members to support its bid. Ultimately both SLOC members were acquitted of all charges. Can a new interpretation of the United States’ anti-bribery law, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA, be effective in preventing similar sport scandals?

  8. Reductions of NO2 detected from space during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Boersma, K. F.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Smedt, I.; Kelder, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    During the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Beijing (from 8 August to 17 September), local authorities enforced strong measures to reduce air pollution during the events. To evaluate the direct effect of these measures, we use the tropospheric NO2 column observations from the satellite instruments GOME-2 and OMI. We interpret these data against simulations from the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE, based on a 2006 emission inventory, and find a reduction of NO2 concentrations of approximately 60% above Beijing during the Olympic period. The air quality measures were especially effective in the Beijing area, but also noticeable in surrounding cities of Tianjin (30% reduction) and Shijiazhuang (20% reduction).

  9. Sochi the winner in the battle for the Olympic Games 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Barabanova, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Games provide a powerful impetus to the economic and socio-cultural development of the country, but also contribute to its standing in the international arena. For ENGsia, the Olympics will not only become a milestone in terms of image, but also will greatly increase the status of the city of Sochi and the country, will have a powerful impact on the development of the Krasnodar region and the economy as a whole, attract a lot of sponsors to collaborate, both domestic and foreign. ...

  10. Social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games: a lecturers' and students' perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantaki, Maria; Faculty of Business at Akdeniz University; School of Sport, Leisure and Travel at Buckinghamshire New University

    2009-01-01

    Hosting the Olympic Games is often viewed as a means of raising a nation’s sporting profile as well as a tool for economic development, social regeneration and cultural integration. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of lecturers and students in higher education on the social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games. A purposive sample of one hundred respondents (lecturers, n=30; students, n=70) was used. 73.5 per cent of respondents were male and 32.5 per ce...

  11. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon

    2016-04-01

    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  12. Psychosocial impact of involvement in the Special Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Clare; Burns, Jan; Fernie, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that people with intellectual disabilities are vulnerable to low self-esteem leading to additional psychosocial issues such as social exclusion and stress. Previous research into the involvement of Special Olympics (SO) of people with intellectual disabilities has indicted positive psychosocial outcomes. Involvement in sport is known generally to have psychological and social benefits. This study aimed to compare the psychosocial impact of involvement in sport through the SO to no or limited sports involvement, for a sample of people with intellectual disabilities. A cross sectional design was employed comparing three groups, SO, Mencap Sports, and Mencap No Sports on the variables: Self-esteem, quality of life, stress levels and social networks. One hundred and one participants were recruited either through the SO or Mencap. Data were collected through the completion of validated questionnaires by one to one interviews with the participants. Analysis revealed that self-esteem, quality of life, and stress were all significantly associated with SO involvement. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether scores on these variables were able to predict group membership. Self-esteem was found to be a significant predictor of group membership, those in the SO having the highest self-esteem. The findings provide further evidence of a positive association between sport involvement and increased psychological wellbeing, especially for those involved in the SO. The implications of these findings for practice and future research into the relationship between sport and psychological wellbeing within the learning disabled population are considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight Management Practices of Australian Olympic Combat Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-09-05

    Combat sport athletes undertake chronic and rapid weight loss (RWL) practices to qualify for weight divisions lower than their training weight. Variation between sports in the prevalence, methods, and magnitude of weight loss as well as recovery practices may be influenced by factors including competition level and culture. Differences in methodologies of previous research in combat sports make direct comparisons difficult, thus this study aimed to examine weight loss practices among all Olympic combat sports in Australia, using standardised methodology. High calibre competitors in wrestling, boxing, judo and taekwondo (n=260) at Australian competitions were surveyed using a validated tool which provides quantification of how extreme an athlete's weight loss practices are; the RWL score (RWLS). Additional qualitative and quantitative survey data were also collected. Neither sport, sex or weight division group had an effect on RWLS however a significant effect of athlete calibre was detected [F (2,215) = 4.953, MSE = 4.757, p = 0.00792]. Differences between sports were also evident for: most weight ever lost in order to compete [H = 19.92, p = 0.0002), age at which weight cutting began (H = 16.34, p = 0.001) and selected methods/patterns of RWL (p < 0.001). Weight cycling between competitions was common among all sports as were influences on athlete's behaviours. While many similarities in weight loss practices and experiences exist between combat sports, specific differences were evident. Nuanced, context/culturally specific guidelines should be devised to assist fighters' in optimising performance while minimising health implications.

  14. National Narratives and the Invention of Ethnic Identities: Revisiting Cultural Memory and the Decolonized State in Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karrouche, N.F.F.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Karrouche focuses on the construction of a national narrative and identity in Morocco from independence onwards until the present day by investigating history textbooks. She explores, in particular, the tension between regional and local identities of Berber populations on the one

  15. Performance evaluation and ranking of participation Asian countries in 2012 London Olympic Games through Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shirouyehzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games ranking is done through lexicographic multi criteria method in each period. According to this method, the country receiving the most gold medals will have the highest score, and in case of having equal silver medals, comparison will be done according to bronze ones. The problem of this method is to pay the most attention merely to gold medals. Using data envelopment analysis, some studies have recently suggested various ranking for the Olympic Games. The present research uses DEA to rank the participating Asian countries in London Olympic that have at least won one medal. As an output-oriented BCC model, this one considers the number of male and female athletes, received medals in two previous Olympic as well as the number of their presence in the Olympic games as the inputs. Gold, silver and bronze medals are the only output of the model. This model is solved in two forms of female and male athlete combination and their separation. Solving this model makes this opportunity to present a new rankings model for participating Asian countries in the Olympic Games that can be compared with the ranking used by Olympic committee.

  16. Low temperature nickel titanium iron shape memory alloys: Actuator engineering and investigation of deformation mechanisms using in situ neutron diffraction at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vinu B.

    Shape memory alloys are incorporated as actuator elements due to their inherent ability to sense a change in temperature and actuate against external loads by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. The cubic so-called austenite to the trigonal so-called R-phase transformation in NiTiFe shape memory alloys offers a practical temperature range for actuator operation at low temperatures, as it exhibits a narrow temperature-hysteresis with a desirable fatigue response. Overall, this work is an investigation of selected science and engineering aspects of low temperature NiTiFe shape memory alloys. The scientific study was performed using in situ neutron diffraction measurements at the newly developed low temperature loading capability on the Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress (SMARTS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory and encompasses three aspects of the behavior of Ni46.8Ti50Fe3.2 at 92 K (the lowest steady state temperature attainable with the capability). First, in order to study deformation mechanisms in the R-phase in NiTiFe, measurements were performed at a constant temperature of 92 K under external loading. Second, with the objective of examining NiTiFe in one-time, high-stroke, actuator applications (such as in safety valves), a NiTiFe sample was strained to approximately 5% (the R-phase was transformed to B19' phase in the process) at 92 K and subsequently heated to full strain recovery under a load. Third, with the objective of examining NiTiFe in cyclic, low-stroke, actuator applications (such as in cryogenic thermal switches), a NiTiFe sample was strained to 1% at 92 K and subsequently heated to full strain recovery under load. Neutron diffraction spectra were recorded at selected time and stress intervals during these experiments. The spectra were subsequently used to obtain quantitative information related to the phase-specific strain, texture and phase fraction evolution using the

  17. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Olympic—Intelligence Centre: Lessons Learned from Working with the Olympic Sponsors and the Private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wilkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflective discussion that critically describes the role of the Olympic Intelligence Centre (OIC played in the delivery of a safe and secure London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In particular, it examines how the OIC worked with the Olympic Sponsors and the wider private sector to provide them with the classified intelligence and information they needed to play their role in the safety and security operation effectively. Issues discussed include the cultural, statutory and systemic challenges that had to be overcome; how relationships were built to allay concerns and build trust and confidence; and the process that was put into place to allow the exchange of classified intelligence that supported the Sponsors and private sector in their operation. It details how the OIC worked with Sponsors to allow them in turn to exchange intelligence they held in their systems with the OIC, thus completing the intelligence cycle, enhancing the security operation. The article concludes with an outline of the lessons learned that were deduced through a reflective process and are offered to practitioners for consideration in future intelligence work involving the private sector.

  18. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  19. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vaitsi, Vasiliki; Kapoula, Christina; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Kalivitis, Isidiros; Chervoni, Julia; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Vasilogiannakopoulos, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis D; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2006-12-18

    Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p quality tests (r = 0.39, p restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event. Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  20. Confidence, Concentration, and Competitive Performance of Elite Athletes: A Natural Experiment in Olympic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Burke D.; Taylor, Patricia A.; Weiner, Jay

    2002-01-01

    During the women's all-around gymnastics final at the 2000 Olympics, the vault was inadvertently set 5 cm too low for a random half of the gymnasts. The error was widely viewed as undermining their confidence and subsequent performance. However, data from pretest and posttest scores on the vault, bars, beam, and floor indicated that the vault…

  1. Decision-making on olympic urban development - multi-actor decision support tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    Subject of study is the possible organisation of the Olympic Games of 2028 in the Netherlands, as seen from an urban development viewpoint. The project focuses on the decision-making process in the initiative phase. Aim of the project is the development of a decision support tool for the complex,

  2. Chinese Attitudes towards Varieties of English: A Pre-Olympic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Yu; Case, Rod E.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on findings of an investigation into Chinese students' attitudes towards varieties of English before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. One hundred and eight college students in mainland China evaluated six English speeches by two American English speakers, two British English speakers, and two Chinese English speakers for social…

  3. Change of Landscape Structure before and after Winter Olympic Games in Nagano City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshio; Takeda, Toshiharu

    Recently it is desirable to realize the conservation of biodiversity and to create the city with symbiosis with nature even in local city. In this study, we chose Nagano City which was the site of the Winter Olympic Games as the subject of study, investigated the change of land cover by using Landsat TM data of the year 1985 and 1999 which were before and after the Winter Olympic Games, and grasped the change of landscape structure quantitatively by using landscape indices. As a result, we obtained the following conclusions. The expansion of urban area proceeded rapidly before and after the Winter Olympic Games. The area of artificial land cover in the city planning area has increased by 57%. In the meantime the areas of upland field and paddy field have decreased by 45% and 50% respectively. Therefore, agricultural land changed into urban area remarkably. It was found that the shape of paches of paddy field and upland field especially became small and the inequality of the paches decreased before and after the Winter Olympic Games. It became clear that the fragmentation has occurred in agricultural land such as paddy field, upland field and orchard.

  4. Residents' Perceived Social-Economic Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mark; Chen, Li; Lei, Ouyang; Malone, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether the Olympic Games was a catalyst for changes to Beijing residents' quality of life based on social-economic perspectives and how these changes affected their continuous support for the Games. Residents who lived in Beijing 18 months or longer were invited to participate in this survey research (N = 412)…

  5. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  6. News Magazine and Network Television News Coverage of the Munich Olympic Crisis, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    cafes on the Leopoldstrasse a spirit of happy-go-lucky internationalism permeated the tables. As part of the conscious exercise to expiate thoughts...in view of the fact that "because of its exclusive Olympic franchise , ABC had its rivals badly outgunned. To counter the well equipped ABC forces, CBS

  7. Understanding Special Olympics Experiences from the Athlete Perspectives Using Photo-Elicitation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Burnham Riosa, Priscilla; Robinson, Suzanne; Ryan, Stephanie; Tint, Ami; Viecili, Michelle; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Shine, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities experience challenges to participating in organized sport, despite its known benefits. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of participating in sport (Special Olympics) from the perspectives of athletes with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Five…

  8. Retention at Olympic College: A Statistical Report, Fall 1986-Winter 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaker, Jolene

    A study was conducted at Olympic College (OC) in the State of Washington, to investigate the personal and academic characteristics of student dropouts and their reasons for leaving the college. Questionnaires were sent to 500 fall 1986 students who completely withdrew from OC during the term or received all F's, W's, or other unproductive grades…

  9. Italian Women's Television Coverage and Audience during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Cortis, Cristina; Casella, Rita; Camilleri, Enrica; Pesce, Caterina

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the amount of Italian television coverage dedicated to men's and women's sport and the number of male and female viewers during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games. AUDITEL-AGB Nielsen Media Research Italia provided the TV airtime data for the sport events broadcast, which were classified into three categories: men-only,…

  10. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-01-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly under-reported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French,…

  11. Cracking the code for maintaining quality training in Olympic distance triathlon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Hansen, Tobias; Holm Beck, Anders

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High-quality training is a key determinant of performance in the Olympic distance triathlon and is potentially influenced by a unique array of context-specific biopsychosocial factors. Our objective was to explore and describe these factors among squad members of a university-based, el...

  12. Inner-Outer Lane Advantage in Olympic 1000 Meter Speed Skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard; Talsma, Bertus G.

    During the Olympic Games and the World Championships Single Distances the 1000m is skated by every skater only one time. However, there may be a difference in skating a 1000m race with a start in the inner and the outer lane that introduces an externality that introduces unfairness. We show that

  13. An Experimental High-Resolution Forecast System During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, J.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Giguère, A.; McTaggart-Cowan, R.; Erfani, A.; Denis, B.; Glazer, A.; Vallée, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environment Canada ran an experimental numerical weather prediction (NWP) system during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, consisting of nested high-resolution (down to 1-km horizontal grid-spacing) configurations of the GEM-LAM model, with improved geophysical fields, cloud microphysics and radiative transfer schemes, and several new diagnostic products such as density of falling snow, visibility, and peak wind gust strength. The performance of this experimental NWP system has been evaluated in these winter conditions over complex terrain using the enhanced mesoscale observing network in place during the Olympics. As compared to the forecasts from the operational regional 15-km GEM model, objective verification generally indicated significant added value of the higher-resolution models for near-surface meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) with the 1-km model providing the best forecast accuracy. Appreciable errors were noted in all models for the forecasts of wind direction and humidity near the surface. Subjective assessment of several cases also indicated that the experimental Olympic system was skillful at forecasting meteorological phenomena at high-resolution, both spatially and temporally, and provided enhanced guidance to the Olympic forecasters in terms of better timing of precipitation phase change, squall line passage, wind flow channeling, and visibility reduction due to fog and snow.

  14. Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games event study, 1996. Final report, July 1996--August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodei, R.; Bard, E.; Brong, B.; Cahoon, F.; Jasper, K.

    1998-11-01

    The Atlanta metropolitan region was the location of one of the most ambitious Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployments in the United States. This deployment included several individual projects--a Central Transportation Management Center (TMC), six Traffic Control Centers (TCCs), one Transit Information Center (TIC), The Travel Information Showcase (TIS), and the extension of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Rail network and the new high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-85 and I-75. The 1996 Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games created a focus for these projects. All of these systems were to be brought on-line in time for the Olympic Games. This report presents the findings of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games Events Study--a compilation of findings of system performance, the benefits realized, and the lessons learned during their operations over the event period. The study assessed the performance of the various Travel Demand Management (TDM) plans employed for Olympic Games traffic management.

  15. Disease distribution and medical resources during the Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Ya; Lan, Ling; Chen, Wei-Na; Zhang, Ai-Ping; Lü, Chao-Ying; Lü, Yan-Wei; Dai, Jian-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Appropriate planning and staffing for medical services at large-scale athletic events is essential to provide for a safe and successful competition. There are few well-documented accounts describing the demand for such services. The present study provided the data from the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics, with a view to provide the guidance for planning future events. A total of 22 029 and 8046 patients, who received medical care from a physician at an Olympic or Paralympic medical station, were included. The patient proportion among different personnel, various disease proportions at different kinds of venues, and the disease spectrum at specified venues at the Olympics and Paralympics were analyzed. At both games, the patient proportion varied by accreditation status. The staff accounted for the largest number of visits at the Olympics (44.83%) and Paralympics (36.95%), with respiratory diseases the most common. Various disease spectrums were discovered at the different kinds of venues. Surgical diseases were the most frequently listed reason for visits, both at competition and non-competition venues, especially during the Paralympics. The sport-related injuries accounted for a majority of the surgical cases during both games. At training venues, ear nose and throat diseases accounted for the greatest number of visits during both games. During both games, people contracted different diseases at different venues. Adequate surgeons should be designated to offer assistance mostly in trauma situations. Appropriate numbers of physicians in respiratory diseases and otorhinolaryngology is of great importance.

  16. Sonography in the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen; Xiang, Dong-ying; Dai, Jian-ping

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of sonography at the polyclinic of the Olympic/Paralympic village during the Olympic/Paralympic Games. We retrospectively reviewed 759 consecutive patients who underwent sonography at the ultrasound division of the polyclinic in the Olympic/Paralympic village from July 20, 2008, to September 20, 2008. Prevalence of emergency sonography after sports injury and non-sports-related urgent conditions during the games was analyzed. The benefit of sonographic services in large sporting events was discussed. There were 759 patients (484 athletes, 101 coaches, 88 team officials, and 86 volunteers; 462 men and 297 women) in the ultrasound division at the polyclinic. The indications for sonography included abdominal pain (315 cases, 41.50%), muskuloskeletal disorders (228 cases, 30.04%), gynecology related (104 cases, 13.70%), cardiac conditions (49 cases, 6.46%), small parts (29 cases, 3.82%), and vascular problems (34 cases, 4.48%). The rates of positive findings on sonography were 46.03% in the abdomen, 70.17% in musculoskeleton, 41.34% in gynecology, 10.20% in the heart, 75.86% in small parts, and 38.24% in vessels, respectively. Sonography plays an important role in the medical services at the polyclinic in the Olympic/Paralympic village. The benefits of sonography in such large sporting events are accuracy, fast result, portability, and noninvasiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for improving performance in long duration events: Olympic distance triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on strategic aspects that may affect performance in a long-duration Olympic event, the Olympic distance triathlon. Given the variety of races during the Olympic Games triathlon, strategic aspects include improving technological features as well as energetics factors affecting overall triathlon performance. During the last decade, many studies have attempted to identify factors reducing the metabolic load associated (or not) with the development of fatigue process by analysing the relationship between metabolic and biomechanical factors with exercise duration. To date, a consensus exists about the benefit of adopting a drafting position during the swimming or the cycling part of the triathlon. Other potential strategic factors, such as the production of power output or the selection of cadence during the cycling or the running leg, are likely to affect the overall triathlon performance. Within this approach, pacing strategies are observed by elite athletes who swim or cycle in a sheltered position, inducing several changes of pace, intensity or stochastic shifts in the amplitude of the physiological responses. The analysis of these parameters appears to arouse some experimental and practical interest from researchers and coachers, especially for long-distance Olympic events.

  18. Exercise Tiger: assessing the BCM impact of the 2012 Olympics on Canary Wharf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games will see huge opportunity for businesses in London, and across Europe, but not without cost. Canary Wharf lies in the heart of London's Docklands and less than three miles from the Olympic Park at Stratford. Purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working population of 95,000 people, is home to some of the world's leading brands and has a vibrant retail complex of over 200 shops, bars and restaurants. This business community is preparing for every aspect of the Olympics and, in particular, the disruption the Games will bring. As a private estate, the community resilience approach fostered here is both better defined and finite in terms of those it includes as a result. Preparing together with joint exercises, forums and open communications in a network of trusted partners is yielding collective benefits and lending a stronger voice in the call for more information from official agencies. This paper outlines the benefits of collective planning and reports on the success of Canary Wharf's annual estate-wide business continuity exercise - the first major collective Olympics planning exercise in London.

  19. Mapping human environment connections on the Olympic Peninsula: an atlas of landscape values

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McLain; L. Cerveny; Paul M. Montesano; André Beaudoin; Guoqing Sun; Hans-Erik Andersen; Michael A. Wulder; S. Rohdy

    2015-01-01

    The advent of computerized mapping has greatly expanded the ability of land managers to map many aspects of ecological systems, such as tree species, soil types, wildlife habitat, air quality, and water conditions. Mapping the social and cultural aspects of ecological systems, however, has proved much more challenging. This atlas uses the Olympic Peninsula in western...

  20. Government Documents Relating to the 1980 Olympic Games Boycott. A Contents Analysis and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ray L.

    This study gives a brief history of the United States' 1980 boycott of the Summer Olympic Games in Moscow, but focuses mainly on the government publications that grew out of that event. Section 1 provides a short history of the boycott, while section 2 centers on President Jimmy Carter and his role in the boycott, citing information gathered from…

  1. Pacing in Olympic track races: competitive tactics versus best performance strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Christian; Foster, Carl; Banzer, Winfried; De Koning, Jos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe pacing strategies in the 800 to 10,000-m Olympic finals. We asked 1) if Olympic finals differed from World Records, 2) how variable the pace was, 3) whether runners faced catastrophic events, and 4) for the winning strategy. Publically available data from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games gathered by four transponder antennae under the 400-m track were analysed to extract descriptors of pacing strategies. Individual pacing patterns of 133 finalists were visualised using speed by distance plots. Six of eight plots differed from the patterns reported for World Records. The coefficient of running speed variation was 3.6-11.4%. In the long distance finals, runners varied their pace every 100 m by a mean 1.6-2.7%. Runners who were 'dropped' from the field achieved a stable running speed and displayed an endspurt. Top contenders used variable pacing strategies to separate themselves from the field. All races were decided during the final lap. Olympic track finalists employ pacing strategies which are different from World Record patterns. The observed micro- and macro-variations of pace may have implications for training programmes. Dropping off the pace of the leading group is an active step, and the result of interactive psychophysiological decision making.

  2. Explaining Match Outcome During The Men’s Basketball Tournament at The Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Anthony S.; Gómez, Miguel A.; Woods, Carl T.

    2017-01-01

    In preparation for the Olympics, there is a limited opportunity for coaches and athletes to interact regularly with team performance indicators providing important guidance to coaches for enhanced match success at the elite level. This study examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicators during men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games. Twelve team performance indicators were collated from all men’s teams and matches during the basketball tournament of the 2004-2016 Olympic Games (n = 156). Linear and non-linear analyses examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicator characteristics; namely, binary logistic regression and a conditional interference (CI) classification tree. The most parsimonious logistic regression model retained ‘assists’, ‘defensive rebounds’, ‘field-goal percentage’, ‘fouls’, ‘fouls against’, ‘steals’ and ‘turnovers’ (delta AIC winning (93.2%). Match outcome during the men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games was identified by a unique combination of performance indicators. Despite the average model accuracy being marginally higher for the logistic regression analysis, the CI classification tree offered a greater practical utility for coaches through its resolution of non-linear phenomena to guide team success. Key points A unique combination of team performance indicators explained 93.2% of winning observations in men’s basketball at the Olympics. Monitoring of these team performance indicators may provide coaches with the capability to devise multiple game plans or strategies to enhance their likelihood of winning. Incorporation of machine learning techniques with team performance indicators may provide a valuable and strategic approach to explain patterns within multivariate datasets in sport science. PMID:29238245

  3. SOCHI 2014 OLYMPICS LEGACY: SOCIAL STEREOTYPES WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Tumanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a part of the results of the overall study which took place in 2009–2015 and was devoted to the examination of the public attitudes towards 2014 Sochi Olympics and Olympism on the whole. In the course of the monitoring conducted throughout the whole period of Sochi Olympics project implementation there have been formed sets of statistical evaluation results of the “Olympic region” most important daily living activities spheres conditions and development, with a system of key indicators being used. The original data structured in the united time series give a possibility of a variable comparison of the results attained on a great number of indicators and finally enable to evaluate the degree of implementation of the tasks defined by the IOC. The research program was based on methodological and procedural approaches widely introduced in the works of contemporary Russian and foreign scholars. A benchmarking analysis of the current values system and the region residents’ behavior within the framework of sustainable development is presented in different topic blocks. Empirical data collected through a six-year period show dynamics in Sochi and Krasnodar region population commitment to a healthy lifestyle, vicious habits proliferation and environment friendly daily living activities. Certain communities monitoring results prove a principal thesis which states that lifestyle is a result of the internal and external factors longstanding interaction where the internal ones are determining. It is they that provide such quality characteristics of a lifestyle as continuity and stability. Being a large-scale event Olympic games can boost some particular positive changes in the lifestyle of the dwellers of the city which became the event capital but the games are not able to provide the changes’ sustainment. To prevent reversibility of the positive changes the local authorities and civil society institutions in the city should

  4. Torino 2006. XX Olympic and IX Paralympic Winter Games: the ENT experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Crosetti, E; Mattiazzo, A; Riontino, E; Massazza, G

    2008-06-01

    A total of 27 competition days, more than 3000 athletes, over 10,000 components of the Olympic family, 3,500 workers, 2,500 volunteers, an overall business of more than 2 billion Euros. These, in a nutshell, are just a few of the data concerning the XX Olympic and the IX Paralympic Winter Games, Torino, Italy, 2006. Such a huge event, obviously required a meticulously organized medical service to cope with the healthcare of the athletes, official workers and the Olympic family, distributed over a geographic area of approximately 80 km in diameter. An ENT service was organized within the medical service, which was divided between 3 Polyclinics, in which 12 ENT Specialists were on duty. The present report gives an account of the final data concerning the service involved, together with a description of the approach used in the actual organization, with a view to providing useful information for colleagues who will be called upon, for a similar service, in future Olympic Winter Games. The ENT healthcare offered was confirmed to be proportional to the requirements, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. All the ENT specialists involved, reported having gained an immense store of human experience from having lived the Olympic atmosphere as a volunteer exerting one's own profession. The facilities available in the Polyclinics, which were at a considerable distance from the Hospital, were found to be more than adequate with respect to the pathological conditions and service requested, particularly in 17% of the cases which would otherwise have been sent to a Hospital Outpatient Unit at least 80 km away.

  5. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  6. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  7. Patrimônio Imaterial Nacional: preservando memórias ou construindo histórias? Intangible Heritage National: preserving memories or building histories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Lopes da Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo tecer algumas reflexões sobre a atribuição do título de Patrimônio Nacional Imaterial aos saberes, modos de fazer e viver de alguns grupos localizados em diferentes regiões do Brasil. O objeto de discussão são os bens imateriais já patrimonializados e considerados de relevância nacional para a construção da memória, da identidade e da formação da sociedade brasileira. Na tentativa de contribuir para a discussão, defendemos que a patrimonialização de bens imateriais não diz respeito somente ao registro e a preservação dos costumes, dos modos de fazer e saber de um grupo ou comunidade, mas significa uma intervenção em todo um conjunto de relações concreta e imediatamente vividas por esses grupos e comunidades. Enquanto saberes locais, costumes, modos de viver e fazer dos grupos, se enraízam e se reconstroem nos espaços a que pertencem, nas relações afetivas, nas experiências vivenciadas e nas memórias dos grupos que as mantém.This text aims to make some reflections on the award of the title of National Intangible Heritage of knowledge, ways of living and making to a few groups located in different regions of Brazil. The object of discussion are the intangible assets already patrimonializated and considered of national importance for the construction of memory, identity and the formation of Brazilian society. In an effort to contribute to the discussion that advocate patrimonialization of intangible assets not only relates to the registration and preservation of customs, ways of doing and knowing of a group or community, but it means an intervention in a whole set of relationships concrete and immediately lived by those groups and communities. As local knowledge, customs, ways of living and making of the groups, they anchor and are being rebuilt in the spaces to which they belong, in affective relations, in lived experiences and in the memories of the groups that keep them alive.

  8. National Seminar. Acceptation and Commerce of Irradiated Foods. Memories; Seminario Nacional. Aceptacion y Comercio de Alimentos Irradiados. Memorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan-American Health Organization

    1998-12-31

    The foods availability is a worldwide problem at present, it looks two paradoxical aspects at first appearance. The malnutrition grade and the great losses by rottenness after the harvest time. An alternative to reduce these losses is the use of modern technologies such as food irradiation, which is a recognized process as like as secure and efficient how a conservation process by the FAO, the WHO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. At present this process is accepted in 40 countries. Since 1986 the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico offers irradiation services to the dried foods enterprises. This work contains magistral conferences dictated by international experts, reflecting the situation of this technology at the present time, the consumer position about the acceptance of irradiated foods, as well as regulations and standards applied in different continents. In the process part there are the installations would be required and the control to carry out. (Author)

  9. National Seminar. Acceptation and Commerce of Irradiated Foods. Memories; Seminario Nacional. Aceptacion y Comercio de Alimentos Irradiados. Memorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan-American Health Organization

    1999-12-31

    The foods availability is a worldwide problem at present, it looks two paradoxical aspects at first appearance. The malnutrition grade and the great losses by rottenness after the harvest time. An alternative to reduce these losses is the use of modern technologies such as food irradiation, which is a recognized process as like as secure and efficient how a conservation process by the FAO, the WHO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. At present this process is accepted in 40 countries. Since 1986 the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico offers irradiation services to the dried foods enterprises. This work contains magistral conferences dictated by international experts, reflecting the situation of this technology at the present time, the consumer position about the acceptance of irradiated foods, as well as regulations and standards applied in different continents. In the process part there are the installations would be required and the control to carry out. (Author)

  10. Participation in Armed Forces, National, and International Sports Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-09

    American Games , Olympic Games , and other authorized national and international sports competitions (to include qualifying and preparatory events) as long...concerning the participation of Armed Forces personnel in Armed Forces, national, and international sports competitions ; establishes a Senior Military Sports ...program is to ensure that the U.S. Armed Forces are appropriately represented in national and international sports competitions . 3. The purpose of this

  11. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Based Model Output Statistics (MOS) During the 2002 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hart, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The skill of a mesoscale model based Model Output Statistics (MOS) system that provided hourly forecasts for 18 sites over northern Utah during the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games is evaluated...

  12. Quick-Reaction Report on DoD Support for the 1996 Paralympics and Centennial Olympic Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    This audit report is the first in a series of reports that will be issued in response to a request from the Director, Office of Special Events regarding DoD support of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games...

  13. Sponzorský projekt McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls na podporu mladých sportovců.

    OpenAIRE

    Adamec, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls sponsorship project. The first two parts include theoretical essentials for elaboration and the terms concerning marketing. Explanation of terms related to marketing communication and commercial communications is also included in this section. The third part is focused on sponsorship, its types and evaluation of sponsorship projects. The application part describes the history of the McDonald's Olympic Hopefuls project. Evaluation of th...

  14. The influence of the program of Olympic education on the level of somatic health and physical training of secondary schools scholars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navtykov A.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the program of Olympic education on the level of Olympic knowledge, somatic health and motive preparedness of schoolboys of middle ages was studied. In research 70 students took part 7 classes. The program of course of Olympic education was computer-integrated in extracurricular work of schoolboys. The program is counted on 26 hours. It contained the leadthrough of lectures (12 hours, seminar employments (4 hours, video of lessons (4 hours, спортивно-массовых measures on Olympic subject (3 hours, visit of sporting competitions and meeting with prominent sportsmen. It is set that introduction in the educational process of the program of Olympic education allows considerably to promote the level of knowledge, motivation and practical skills to operate in accordance with ideals and values of olympism. It results in the substantial improvement of physical health and motive preparedness of children.

  15. STUDY ON THE ORGANIZATION AND HABITAT OF THE HUMAN POTENTIAL IN PERFORMANCE JUDO INSIDE ROMANIA, WITH A VIEW TO PREPARYING THE NEXT OLYMPIC CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosu Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study underlines the strategic approaches used by the Romanian sportive units with a viewto sustaining the basic high performance competition pattern at the beginning of an Olympic cycle (2009-2012,as well as the geographical diffusion of the potential human resources, with the purpose of improving theorganization of the representative Romanian judo lots.The strategic approaches used for the last past years inside the Romanian sportive units had thetendency of encouraging more and more numerous collaborations. In 2009 the Romanian junior, teens and seniorjudoka participated in the Individual National Championship, by reuniting groups of 1-4 sections sometimesquite geographically distant. This approach characteristic to the entire Romanian sport system started about 5-6years ago, but begins to show uncontrolled dimensions. Our research emphasizes the fact that strategicapproaches based on the collaboration of sportive units is at this very moment a “necessary evil”, but thephenomenon must be controlled or standardized at the level of each sport federation. As far as judo is concerned,the collaborations between different sportive units show a decrease of the section representation efficiency, oncethe number of participant increases, also suggesting other hidden anomalies.The statistic calculus of the results registered by the sport structures involved in the Romanianperformance sport, shows that the combined sportive structures generally obtain the most medals. There arehowever individual sections that register high performances, and the comparison between the individual sportivestructures and the combined ones can only lead to useful and objective conclusions.This paper also underlines the differences between the best performances of the most efficient sportivestructures opting for the collaboration, if compared to the best individual results. Thus, one notices theimportance of the statistic calculus of the sportive structures

  16. EVOLUTIONS OF THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHANGES ON THE WORLD POLITICAL MAP IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile GRAMA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of sports and politics has had both positive and negative implications over history. Sports competitions or activities have had the intention to bring about change in certain cases. Nationalistic fervor is sometimes linked to victories or losses to some sport on sports fields. Also, new independent countries need to be recognized on international arena, so participating at the Olympic Games, they become more visible and marginalization is broken. National feelings are boosted by some of the finest sports performances. The interwar period took politics to the sporting arena; when governments decided to control the sport and politics became more authoritative and states went on to find new ways to dominate the thinking process and imagination of their citizens. Fascist regimes developed techniques that allowed them to use achievements made in sporting arena to inspire people within their geographical boundaries and impress those beyond these boundaries. A fanatic love with sports was developed and through it, symbols of nationalist socialism were entrenched.

  17. The design of a dynamic security system at the XXIII Summer Olympics at Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The security requirements of the XXIII Summer Olympic Games at Los Angeles provided a challenge unparalleled in the history of the modern games. This paper discusses the dynamics involved and suggests that the principles used are applicable to many of today's security environments. The success of the Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) employed at each of the three Olympic villages and at the Piper Technical Center is a known fact. How it was accomplished is addressed in a straightforward, systematic way. The paper also recognizes the contributions made by the security community, law enforcement agencies, the government, military, the security industry and RandD organizations. It was a team effort that reflected the spirit of the games and the American ''can-do'' attitude

  18. Temporal specificity of training: intra-day effects on biochemical responses and Olympic-Weightlifting performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Khaled; Padulo, Johnny; Turki, Mouna; El Abed, Kais; Hoekelmann, Anitta; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Olympic-Weightlifting session training at three times of the day on the performance related to biochemical responses. Nine weightlifters (21 ± 0.5 years) performed, in randomised order, on three Olympic-Weightlifting training (snatch, clean and jerk) sessions (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p. m., 06:00 p. m.). Blood samples were collected: before, 3 min and 48 h after each training session. Haematological parameters and markers of muscle injury were assessed. Resting oral temperature and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also assessed during each session. ANOVA showed that the performance was better (P weightlifters. Therefore, coaches and weightlifters should be advised to schedule their training session in the afternoon hour.

  19. Ideologies in the Thematic Slogans of the 1984 – 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cuihua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper spotlights the twelve slogans of the Olympic Games in order to critically analyze the ideologies underlying the discourse. By taking the principles of critical discourse analysis (CDA and Halliday’s (1994 systemic-functional grammar (SFG as analytical tools, the paper endeavours to reveal the ideology that predominates in the ruling class and that may impinge on the ways in which the slogans are constructed and elucidated. Furthermore, the images of the host countries manifested in the slogans and their attitude towards and enthusiasm for the Olympic Games are construed. Last but not least, with the rapid development of political and economic globalization, the enhanced call for friendliness and harmony is clearly shown in the linguistic structures of these slogans by analyzing them diachronically.

  20. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  1. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  2. Air Quality Measurements from Satellites during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Gleason, J.; Krotkov, N.; Gille, J.; Pickering, K.; Livesey, N.

    2009-05-01

    In preparation for the Olympic and Paralympic games in August and September 2008 in Beijing, China, the Chinese government imposed strict controls on industrial emissions and motor vehicle traffic in and around the city and vicinity before and during the events to improve the air quality for the competitors and visitors. To test the efficacy of these measures, we used satellite data from NASA's Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) over Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic and Paralympic period. The satellite instruments recorded significant reductions in nitrogen dioxide of up to 50%, up to 10% in tropospheric column ozone, 20-40% in boundary layer sulfur dioxide, and 10-20% reductions in carbon monoxide concentrations below 700 hPa.

  3. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

  4. The development of an ore reserve methodology for the Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    At the Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit in South Australia, evolution in the understanding of the controls on mineralisation coupled with the changing demands of the project have led to changes in the approach to reserve estimation. The project has moved into a phase where detailed stope mining reserves are now required as distinct from global ore reserves. To enable the selective manipulation of geological and assay information and its characterisation, a relational database has been developed. For reserve calculations themselves, initial computations were based on a system derived from that used for the Kambalda nickel orebodies. The Olympic Dam system differed mainly in the use of statistical analyses in the estimation of grade instead of the previous polygonal area of influence weighting method. Three dimensional weighting techniques are now being used for local reserve estimates

  5. Evaluation of spine MRIs in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael S; Guermazi, Ali; Jarraya, Mohamed; Engbretsen, Lars; AbdelKader, Mohamad; Roemer, Frank W; Hayashi, Daichi; Crema, Michel D; Mian, Asim Z

    2018-01-01

    In high-level Olympic athletes, many spinal pathologies arise from overuse, while others are the result of acute injury. Our aim is to analyse the epidemiology of spinal pathologies detected on MRI in athletes participating in the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Summer Olympics. In this retrospective study, all spine MRIs performed during the 2016 Rio Games were analysed. Descriptive data from the MRIs were tabulated and analysed for disc degeneration, spinal canal and/or neural foraminal narrowing, and acute/chronic fractures. Data were analysed by sport, continent of origin, age and sex. Of 11 274 athletes participating in the Olympic games, 100 received spine MRI. Fifty-two of the 100 (52%) athletes who received cervical, thoracic and/or lumbar spine MRI showed moderate to severe spinal disease. The highest sport-specific incidence of moderate to severe spine disease was seen in aquatic diving athletes (67%, 3 per 100 divers). Weightlifting had the second highest sport-specific incidence of spine disease (67%, 1.5 per 100 weightlifters). Athletics used the most spine MRIs (31 of 107 MRIs, 29%). European athletes had more spine MRIs than all other continents combined (55 of 107 MRIs, 51%). Athletes over 30 years old had the highest rate of moderate to severe spine disease on MRI (24 of 37 athletes >30 years old, 65%). A high number of the world's premier athletes demonstrated moderate to severe spine disease on MRI during the 2016 Summer Olympics, including moderate/severe degenerative disc changes with varying degrees of disc bulges and herniations.

  6. IAEA to Cooperate with Japan on Nuclear Security at 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Government of Japan signed an agreement today aimed at enhancing nuclear security measures for the summer Olympic Games and Paralympic Games in Tokyo in 2020. The agreement follows previous IAEA support to major public events, including the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the 2012 European soccer championship in Poland and Ukraine. IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano and Japanese Foreign Minister Taro Kono presided over the signing ceremony at the Agency’s headquarters in Vienna. Practical Arrangements outlining the planned cooperation were signed by IAEA Deputy Director General Juan Carlos Lentijo, head of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, and H.E. Mitsuru Kitano, Japan’s Ambassador to the International Organizations in Vienna. “The IAEA has extensive experience in supporting Member States on nuclear security for major public events,” Amano said at the ceremony. “The Agency welcomes the cooperation to support the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Tokyo, and is already cooperating with Japan by sharing the experiences of Member States which previously hosted the Olympics.” The details of the cooperation will be decided in due course, but the possible areas of cooperation include the IAEA offering Japanese authorities training courses, workshops, technical visits and exercises related to nuclear security, hosting preparatory technical meetings and lending supplementary radiation detection equipment. The IAEA and Japan may also exchange information related to nuclear security events as appropriate and through the cooperation, the IAEA will also benefit from Japan’s good practices on nuclear security.

  7. Balding goes trolling? Cross-media amplification of controversy at the 2012 Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Billur; Dennis, James William; O'Loughlin, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Victory by Chinese swimmer Ye Shiwen in the 400 metre individual medley at the London Olympic Games provoked instant and controversial reactions. BBC presenter Clare Balding immediately linked Shiwen to doping. If ‘trolling’ online is the deliberate upsetting of audiences to trigger debate and reflection, was Balding trolling? Her comments triggered trajectories of affective engagement across social and mainstream media, in Britain and internationally, which fed back into BBC coverage. We tra...

  8. Explaining Match Outcome During The Men’s Basketball Tournament at The Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Leicht, Miguel A. Gómez, Carl T. Woods

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for the Olympics, there is a limited opportunity for coaches and athletes to interact regularly with team performance indicators providing important guidance to coaches for enhanced match success at the elite level. This study examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicators during men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games. Twelve team performance indicators were collated from all men’s teams and matches during the basketball tournament of the 2004-2016 Olympic Games (n = 156. Linear and non-linear analyses examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicator characteristics; namely, binary logistic regression and a conditional interference (CI classification tree. The most parsimonious logistic regression model retained ‘assists’, ‘defensive rebounds’, ‘field-goal percentage’, ‘fouls’, ‘fouls against’, ‘steals’ and ‘turnovers’ (delta AIC <0.01; Akaike weight = 0.28 with a classification accuracy of 85.5%. Conversely, four performance indicators were retained with the CI classification tree with an average classification accuracy of 81.4%. However, it was the combination of ‘field-goal percentage’ and ‘defensive rebounds’ that provided the greatest probability of winning (93.2%. Match outcome during the men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games was identified by a unique combination of performance indicators. Despite the average model accuracy being marginally higher for the logistic regression analysis, the CI classification tree offered a greater practical utility for coaches through its resolution of non-linear phenomena to guide team success.

  9. DoD Physical Security Technical Support at the 1980 Winter Olympics Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-02

    support were provided to the 1980 Winter Olympic Games were: (1) Physical Security, (2) Communications- Electronics , and (3) Medical via the New York Army...vibration-based Fence Pro- tection System (FPS), manufactured by General Telephone and Electronics (GT& E ) and installed for the Federal Bureau of Prisons...CM (Mr. Woomert) DRSXY-GB (Mr. R. E . Cam) Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 Commander US Army Communications and Electronics Material Readiness

  10. To the Slimmer Go the Spoils: Heterogeneous Responses to Bodyweight Incentives in Olympic Weightlifting Tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew W Nutting

    2008-01-01

    When competitive weightlifters tie — a fairly frequent occurrence at the international level — the higher final rank is awarded to the lifter with the lower official bodyweight. Since winning a tiebreaker is more beneficial at higher ordinal ranks, tournament theory suggests a negative relationship between ability and bodyweight. Analysis from 58 Olympic tournaments shows evidence of a significantly negative relationship between ability and bodyweight except in heavier weight-classes. Cross-c...

  11. Air quality in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games observed by satellites and ground monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.; He, K.; Chen, L.; Wang, Z.; Koutrakis, P.; Christiani, D.

    2008-12-01

    Beijing's severe air pollution has been a major concern for hosting the 29th Olympic Games and Special Olympic Games from August 8 to August 24, 2008. It was generally expected that its air quality in 2008, at least around the period of Olympic Games, would be significantly improved through aggressive government control measures However, it is also expected that the improvement of air quality will not be sustainable due to high economic costs. Thus, the massive temporary improvement of air quality in Beijing metropolitan area induced by direct government intervention will serve as an extremely rare "natural experiment", generating a great contrast in air pollution levels in a short period of time. A ground measurement campaign was conducted to evaluate the variation of airborne particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) levels in Beijing from late July to early September of 2008. Satellite aerosol remote sensing data from MISR, MODIS, and OMI during this period were also analyzed to evaluate the spatial distribution of particles in Beijing and surrounding areas. Preliminary analysis indicated that city-wide ground PM10 level in August was 30% lower than that in 2007. During the Olympic Games, PM10 level was nearly 50% lower than the same period in 2007. There are a total of 14 days with daily PM10 concentrations below 50 micrograms per cubic meter, longest since the ground monitoring network was established in 2001. PM2.5 concentrations measured from three research sites showed a similar reduction. Satellite remote sensing data are limited during the Games due to extensive cloud cover. However, existing data in August and September show a substantial regional reduction of aerosol optical depth. In conclusion, the pollution control measures effectively improved the air quality in Beijing and provided insight on how the Chinese government may mitigate air pollution in many of its large cities.

  12. Three new Psammothidium species from lakes of Olympic and Cascade Mountains in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Mihaela D.; Potapova, Marina; Sheibley, Rich; Moran, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Populations of several Psammothidium species were found in core sediments from nine remote, high elevation, ultraoligotrophic and oligotrophic, Olympic and Cascade Mountain lakes. Three of these species, P. lacustre, P. alpinum, and P. nivale, are described here as new. The morphology of the silica frustules of these species was documented using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the similarities and differences with previously described Psammothidium species.

  13. The Labor Market Effects of the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Baumann; Bryan Engelhardt; Victor Matheson

    2010-01-01

    The local, state, and federal governments, along with the Salt Lake City Organizing Committee, spent roughly $1.9 billion in direct costs related to planning and hosting the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. In this paper, we investigate whether these expenditures increased employment. At the state level, we find strong evidence it increased employment in leisure related industries in the short run and potentially in the long run. However, the results indicate it had no long term impact on employmen...

  14. Special Olympics un medio para la justicia social en la India rural

    OpenAIRE

    Pans Sancho, Miquel Àngel; Romaguera, Enric; Diaz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    El siguiente Poster muestra el trabajo realizado por la Fundación Vicente Ferrer en su proyecto de deporte y discapacidad, en el Estado de Andhra Pradesh (India), donde las personas con diversidad funcional están totalmente estigmatizadas socialmente. Este programa desarrollado desde 2010 de Special Olympics (SO) ha contribuido a promover la igualdad de condiciones, derechos y oportunidades de las personas con discapacidad intelectual. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar y confir...

  15. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Taikjin; Lee, Hyuk-jae

    2014-01-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics

  16. Security for Show? The Militarisation of Public Space in Light of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica F. Azzi

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to analyse the increasing militarisation of public space in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, particularly on the eve of the 2016 Olympics. To this end, I briefly discuss how the concept of militarisation has been historically approached in the International Relations literature, namely within the security field. In the first section, I address the nature of the domestic security challenges Brazil faces as a developing country. In the second section, I show that the public security challenge of organised crime in Rio was securitised and confronted by increasing militarisation over the years as a result of a specific model of neo-liberal social control carried out by the country. I then analyse Brazil’s Olympics security scheme carried out in order to portray Rio as a safe city to the world. In the last section, I highlight the contradictions between accounts on the collapse in domestic security vis-à-vis official government statements to the international media to assure that ‘nothing would go wrong’ during the mega sports event. The idea is to show how the militarisation of public security, rather than mere governmental efforts to signal stability to the international community during the Olympics, is a trend likely to outlast the event that implies not only, but mainly, the perpetuation of insecurity.

  17. Global initiative of the special olympics movement for people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Damentko, Mariusz

    2015-03-29

    The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33) of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include: Coaching excellence and the coaching modelPartnerships with international (regional) sports federationsSports Resources Teams (SRT)Extended quota for high level athletesAthletes Leadership Program (ALPS)Young Athletes ProgramYouth volunteer initiativesUnified Sports ProgramMotor Activity Training ProgramHealthy Athletes Program These initiatives fulfill and expand the existing program, which was launched in 1968 and is the largest sports organization for people with disabilities worldwide, with very important new social, marketing, and developmental aspects of life, going far beyond activities met in other sports organizations.

  18. CSF-biomarkers in Olympic boxing: diagnosis and effects of repetitive head trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Neselius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sports-related head trauma is common but still there is no established laboratory test used in the diagnostics of minimal or mild traumatic brain injuries. Further the effects of recurrent head trauma on brain injury markers are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Olympic (amateur boxing and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF brain injury biomarkers. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Thirty Olympic boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in the study. CSF samples were collected by lumbar puncture 1-6 days after a bout and after a rest period for at least 14 days. The controls were tested once. Biomarkers for acute and chronic brain injury were analysed. RESULTS: NFL (mean ± SD, 532±553 vs 135±51 ng/L p = 0.001, GFAP (496±238 vs 247±147 ng/L p80% of the boxers demonstrate that both the acute and the cumulative effect of head trauma in Olympic boxing may induce CSF biomarker changes that suggest minor central nervous injuries. The lack of normalization of NFL and GFAP after the rest period in a subgroup of boxers may indicate ongoing degeneration. The recurrent head trauma in boxing may be associated with increased risk of chronic traumatic brain injury.

  19. Vancouver Olympic rings powered by fuel cell and IESO records winning goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The fuel cell system that provided power to the 30-foot tall floating Olympic Rings in Vancouver's harbour during the 2010 Winter Olympic Games was developed and manufactured by IdaTech in Bend, Oregon. The power source altered between a biodiesel generator and IdaTech's ElectraGen H2 zero emission hydrogen fuel cell system. The technology was chosen as a source of reliable, clean energy for applications in remote locations. The ElectraGen H2 is a hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system that emits only water vapour and heat, without any greenhouse gases. These solid state electric generators combine the best features of generators and batteries. IdaTech has sold over 400 of these fuel cell units to India and Asia to provide backup power to telecommunications networks. The 2010 Winter Olympic Games also provided an opportunity for Ontario's Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) to track electricity consumption as people turned on their televisions to watch the Men's hockey final between Canada and the United States. An increase in electricity use of 300 MW occurred just before the game started and a similar increase occurred during the intermissions as viewers prepared snacks. Electricity consumption dropped considerably after overtime began and then climbed in the final stages of the game after the winning goal was scored. 2 figs.

  20. Global Initiative of the Special Olympics Movement for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Damentko, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33) of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include: Coaching excellence and the coaching modelPartnerships with international (regional) sports federationsSports Resources Teams (SRT)Extended quota for high level athletesAthletes Leadership Program (ALPS)Young Athletes ProgramYouth volunteer initiativesUnified Sports ProgramMotor Activity Training ProgramHealthy Athletes Program These initiatives fulfill and expand the existing program, which was launched in 1968 and is the largest sports organization for people with disabilities worldwide, with very important new social, marketing, and developmental aspects of life, going far beyond activities met in other sports organizations. PMID:25964828