WorldWideScience

Sample records for national low-level radioactive

  1. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  2. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  3. Development of a low-level radioactive waste shipper model. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    During 1982, Inter/Face Associates, Inc., conducted a low-level radioactive waste management survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in Massachusetts for the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program. In the process of conducting the survey, a model was developed, based on existing NRC license classification systems, that would identify licensees who ship low-level waste for disposal. This report presents the model and documents the procedures used in developing and testing it. After the model was tested, several modifications were developed with the goal of determining the model's ability to identify waste shippers under different parameters. The report includes a discussion of the modifications

  4. Commission administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report is one in a series of commission option documents prepared for the US Department of Energy, designed to assist regional low-level waste compact commissions in their organization, administration and efforts to effectively manage waste within their regions. In particular, this report addresses topics related to commission administrative procedures, personnel, procurement and finance

  5. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  6. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made towards siting national, purpose-built facilities for Australian radioactive waste. In 2001, after an eight year search, a preferred site and two alternatives were identified in central-north South Australia for a near-surface repository for Australian low level (low level and short-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste. Site 52a at Everts Field West on the Woomera Prohibited Area was selected as the preferred site as it performs best against the selection criteria, particularly with respect to geology, ground water, transport and security. Two alternative sites, Site 45a and Site 40a, east of the Woomera-Roxby Downs Road, were also found to be highly suitable for the siting of the national repository. A project has commenced to site a national store for intermediate (long-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste on Commonwealth land for waste produced by Commonwealth agencies. Public input has been sought on relevant selection criteria

  7. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  8. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office

    1993-03-01

    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste management at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.M.; Shearer, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the low-level radioactive waste management practices and treatment systems at Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E). It addresses the systems, processes, types of waste treated, and the status and performance of the systems. ANL-E is a Department of Energy laboratory that is engaged in a variety of research projects, some of which generate radioactive waste, in addition a significant amount of radioactive waste remains from previous projects and decontamination and decommissioning of facilities where this work was performed

  10. The management of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The management of low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is complicated because of several factors: (1) some of the waste that had been disposed previously does not meet current acceptance criteria; (2) waste is presently being generated both because of ongoing operations as well as the remediation of former disposal sites; and (3) low-level radioactive waste streams that also contain chemically toxic species (mixed wastes) are involved. As a consequence, the waste management activities at ORNL range from the application of standard practices to the development of new technologies to address the various waste management problems. Considerable quantities of low-level radioactive wastes had been disposed in trenches at the ORNL site, and the trenches subsequently covered with landfill. Because the vadose zone is not very extensive in the waste burial area, many of these trenches were located partially or totally within the saturated zone. As a result, considerable amounts of radioactive cesium have been leached from the wastes and have entered the groundwater system. Efforts are currently underway to remediate the problem by excluding groundwater transport through the burial site. A number of waste streams have also been generated that not only contain low levels of radioactive species, but chemically noxious species as well. These ''mixed wastes'' are currently subject to storage and disposal restrictions imposed on both low-level radioactive materials and on substances subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Technologies currently under development at ORNL to treat these mixed wastes are directed toward separating the RCRA components from the radioactive species, either through destruction of the organic component using chemical or biochemical processes, or the application of solvent extraction or precipitation techniques to effect separation into dependent waste forms. 8 refs., 3 figs

  11. Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) from various activities: research and development, sampling and storage of TRU wastes, decommissioning and decontamination of facilities, and from LANL's major role in stockpile stewardship. The Laboratory has its own active LLW disposal facility located at Technical Area 54, Area G. This paper will identify the current operations of the facility and the issues pertaining to operating a disposal facility in today's compliance and cost-effective environment

  12. Evaluating public involvement in the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Department of Energy contracted with the Keystone Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program's public-involvement efforts. The Center chose six evaluators with diverse training and experience related to low-level waste management and public-participation programs. Keystone's evaluation was based on (a) observations by the evaluators who attended the National Program-sponsored strategy review meetings and fairs; (b) interviews with low-level waste generators, local government officials, state legislators, public-interest groups, and members of the general public; and (c) observations of the final National Program strategy task force meeting. The evaluators concluded that, overall, the public-participation processes yielded some very positive results - for policy development and for DOE and the EG and G staff. They judged the strategy document to be complete, concise, and helpful to public dialogue on low-level waste issues. They also made specific recommendations for improvements to the public-participation program

  13. Commercial disposal options for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.L.; Widmayer, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated site. Significant quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been generated and disposed of onsite at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The INEL expects to continue generating LLW while performing its mission and as aging facilities are decommissioned. An on-going Performance Assessment process for the RWMC underscores the potential for reduced or limited LLW disposal capacity at the existing onsite facility. In order to properly manage the anticipated amount of LLW, the INEL is investigating various disposal options. These options include building a new facility, disposing the LLW at other DOE sites, using commercial disposal facilities, or seeking a combination of options. This evaluation reports on the feasibility of using commercial disposal facilities

  14. 1989 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites: National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1990-12-01

    The National Low-Level Waste Management Program has published eleven annual state-by-state assessment reports. These reports provide both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1989 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1985 through 1989; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1989. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that handled by an intermediary. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  15. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T.

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ''National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.'' The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities

  16. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  17. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  18. Evaluating public involvement in the national low-level radioactive-waste-management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An extensive public involvement approach has been developed to obtain the views and assistance of state and local governments, citizen groups, industry, professional societies and other organizations in the preparation and review of a national strategy document on low-level radioactive wastes. Six evaluators who have a wide diversity of backgrounds were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. This final report presents findings discussed under the headings: Introduction to the Recent History of Low-level Waste Policy Development (LLWMP) and the Role of Public Participation; Public Participation Mechanisms Employed in Preparing the National Strategy Document; the Keystone's Evaluation Process; and Findings. The overall evaluation of the process was very positive. It was clear that the LLWMP staff was seriously committed to building a credible public participation process. The evaluation team was provided rough cost figures for the various components of the LLWMP effort and concluded that, in its opinion, the public participation process provided benefits to the federal government that exceeded its costs. Moreover, the costs of the individual components were not out of line with each one's usefulness and contribution to the overall effort

  19. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  20. Development of threshold guidance: National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The current study has been conducted to provide DOE with a technical basis for the development of threshold guidance. The objective of the study was to develop the necessary background information and recommendations to assist the DOE in implementing the threshold limit concept for the disposal of DOE wastes at DOE facilities. The nature of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) varies greatly in both form and radionuclide content. While some low-level waste streams can contain substantial quantities of radioactive constituents, a potentially significant fraction of low-level waste is contaminated either very slightly or not at all. There is a strong likelihood that managing wastes with extremely low levels of radioactivity as nonradioactive waste would pose no significant safety problems and could result in substantial cost savings relative to its handling as LLW. Since all materials, including waste products, contain some radioactivity, it is necessary to distinguish between those wastes that would require disposal as LLW and those that have sufficiently low levels of radiological content to be managed according to their nonradiological properties. 131 refs., 9 figs., 24 tabs

  1. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Use of compensation and incentives in siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This document was prepared to increase understanding of compensation and incentives as they pertain to the siting of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Compensation and incentives are discussed as methods to facilitate siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facilities. Compensations may be in the form of grants to enable host communities to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed facility. Compensations may also include reimbursements to the host community for costs incurred during facility construction, operation and closure. These may include required improvements to local roads, new equipment, and payments for revenue losses in local property taxes when disposal sites are removed from the tax base. Incentives provide benefits to the community beyond the costs directly related to the operation of the facility. Greater local control over waste facilities can be a powerful incentive. Local officials may be more willing to accept a facility if they have some control over the operation and monitoring associated with the facility. Failure to secure new disposal sites may cause such problems as illegal dumping which would create public health hazards. Also, lack of disposal capacity may restrict research and medical use of radioactive materials. The use of compensation and incentives may increase acceptance of communities for hosting a low-level waste disposal facility

  2. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  3. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  4. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  5. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  6. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  7. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites

  8. A review of low-level radioactive waste compacts on a national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenneman, F.N.

    1985-01-01

    Since the 1950s, increased quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been produced in the United States as a result of the use of radioactive materials in medical diagnoses and treatment, research, industrial processes, and electrical power generation by nuclear plants. With increasing volumes of commercially generated waste, the private sector was encouraged to develop LLW disposal facilities, to be licensed by the AEC or by AEC Agreement states. In 1962, the commercially operated Beaty, Nevada low-level waste facility was opened. During the ensuing nine years, five additional low-level waste disposal facilities opened, resulting, although not planned, in a regional distribution of such facilities. A number of technical and regulatory issues were raised over a period of two years by states and federal agencies, and, for the most part, were resolved. The NRC, DOE, and DOT reviewed and commented on the compacts throughout the drafting of compact language. Comments addressed the scope of the compacts (''management'' vs. ''disposal''), inspection of NRC licensees, regulatory roles of compact commissions, and regulatory requirements inconsistent with federal regulations, to name a few. Among those unresolved issues in some compacts is the definition of LLW, which varies among the compacts. Those in PL96-573 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 were both used, with and without variations. The definition of transuranic waste and those concentrations allowable at the disposal facilities are not uniform in the compacts

  9. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This is the sixth update of ''Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration.'' It completely replaces the fifth update (15 September 1984). The updated report covers low-level radioactive waste compacts, and the administration, the legislature and the laws related to radioactive waste management in each of the fifty states. The report is organized by low-level waste compact regions. Each section begins with a description of the low-level waste compact, followed by reports on each state within the region. There are also sections for states which have made plans to dispose of waste independently of a compact, and for those states which have not yet declared their intentions. The report on each compact is divided into four sections: Cover Page, Chair Organization, State Delegations, and Compact

  10. Solid low-level radioactive waste volume projections at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, K.; Minton-Hughes, J.; Peper, C.

    1995-01-01

    In response to regulatory requirements, the current economic environment, and diminishing on-site low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal capacity, LANL needed to develop a system to collect data on future LLW generation that would comply with DOE Order 5820. 2A and be an effective facility planning tool. The LANL Volume Projections Project (VPP) was created to meet these needs. This paper describes objectives, scope, and components of the VPP that will provide information essential to future facility planning and development

  11. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  12. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Mangement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This is the first quarterly update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. Because states have been very active on waste management issues, the whole report is being reissued in this update. It covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. The administrative section provides information on the governor, lead agencies, other involved administrative agencies, relevant commissions, boards and councils and various contacts. The Legislative section provides general information on the legislature and lists legislative leaders, the relevant committees and their chairs and a legislative contact. In the section covering Applicable Legislation, laws related to radiation protection, low-level waste and high-level waste have been summarized. Hazardous waste siting laws are included for states that do not have a siting law covering radioactive waste. The section also contains summaries of relevant bills introduced in 1982 and 1983 legislative sessions and their disposition. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 15 April 1983

  13. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  14. Low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    During dismantling operations of nuclear facilities radioctive and non radioactive wastes are produced. The distinction between both kinds of wastes is not easy. In each dismantling operation special care and rules are defined for the separation of wastes. Each case must be separately studied. The volume and the surface activites are analyzed. Part of the wastes had been disposed in a public environment. The regulations, the international recommendations, thetheoretical and experimental investigations in this field are presented. A regulation principle and examples of radioactivity limits, on the basis of international recommendations, are provided. Those limits are calculated from individual radiation dose that may reach human beings [fr

  15. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorries, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  16. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood.

  17. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Banks, C.J.; Humphreys, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This updated report covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 31 August 1984

  19. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  20. The low-level radioactive waste crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author, the goals of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act have not been met. That act stipulated that regional disposal sites were to be established by 1986. To date, no new sites have been established and none are anywhere near the construction phase. Congress, responding to existing impasse, has extended the deadline to the end of 1992 with the passage of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. The reasons for the impasse are no mystery: local intransigence regarding waste of any kind, public fears of radiation hazards, and politicians' anxieties about their constituents' fears. The focus of this paper is the viability of ongoing attempts to overcome public intransigence in the case of disposal siting for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW)

  1. IEN Low-level-radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The control, treatment and disposal of the low-level radioactive waste produced in the units of IEN-CNEN, in Brazil are presented, in details. These wastes are generated from a particle accelerator (CV-28 cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). (Author) [pt

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  3. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  4. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  5. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  6. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

  7. Environmental restoration and management of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Management of radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) must address several major challenges. First, contaminants from some disposed wastes are leaching into the groundwater and these disposal sites must be remediated. Second, some of these ''legacy'' wastes, as well as currently generated radioactive wastes, are also contaminated with chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, and metals (i.e., mixed waste). Third, wastes containing long-lived radionuclides in concentrations above established limits have been determined unsuited for disposal on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Reflecting these challenges, ORNL's strategy for managing its radioactive wastes continues to evolve with the development of improved technologies and site-specific adaptation of some standard technologies

  8. Operational and engineering developments in the management of low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, E.W.; McKinney, J.D.; Wehmann, G.

    1979-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a site for shallow land disposal and storage of solid radioactive waste. It is currently operated for ERDA by EG and G Idaho, Inc. The facility has accepted radioactive waste since July 1952. Both transuranic and non-transuranic wastes are handled at the complex. This document describes the operational and engineering developments in waste handling and storage practices that have been developed during the 25 years of waste handling operations. Emphasis is placed on above-ground transuranic waste storage, subsurface transuranic waste retrieval, and beta/gamma compaction disposal. The proposed future programs for the RWMC including a Molten Salt Combustion Facility and Production Scale Retrieval Project are described

  9. Environmental restoration and management of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1994-03-01

    Management of radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) must address several major challenges. First, contaminants from some disposed wastes are leaching into the groundwater and these disposal sites must be remediated. Second, some of these ``legacy`` wastes, as well as currently generated radioactive wastes, are also contaminated with chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, and metals (i.e., mixed waste). Third, wastes containing long-lived radionuclides in concentrations above established limits have been determined unsuited for disposal on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Reflecting these challenges, ORNL`s strategy for managing its radioactive wastes continues to evolve with the development of improved technologies and site-specific adaptation of some standard technologies.

  10. Low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    In the development and utilization of nuclear energy, variety of radioactive wastes arise. A largest part is low level radioactive wastes. In Japan, they are concentrated and solidified, and stored in drums. However, no low level wastes have yet been finally disposed of; there are now about 260,000 drums of such wastes stored on the sites. In Japan, the land is narrow, and its structure is geologically unstable, so that the sea disposal is sought. On the other hand, the development of technology for the ground disposal has lagged behind the sea disposal until recently because of the law concerned. The following matters are described: for the sea disposal, preparatory technology studies, environment safety assessment, administrative measures, and international control; for the ground disposal, experiments, surveys, disposal site selection, and the concept of island repositories.

  11. Multi-method characterization of low-level radioactive waste at two Sandia National Laboratories environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E. Jr.; Galloway, R.B.; Dotson, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of multiple characterization methods to radioactive wastes generated by the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Environmental Restoration (ER) Project during the excavation of buried materials at the Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF) and the Radioactive Waste Landfill (RWL). These waste streams include nuclear weapon components and other refuse that are surface contaminated or contain sealed radioactive sources with unknown radioactivity content. Characterization of radioactive constituents in RWL and CWLF waste has been problematic, due primarily to the lack of documented characterization data prior to burial. A second difficulty derives from the limited information that ER project personnel have about weapons component design and testing that was conducted in the early days of the Cold War. To reduce the uncertainties and achieve the best possible waste characterization, the ER Project has applied both project-specific and industry-standard characterization methods that, in combination, serve to define the types and quantities of radionuclide constituents in the waste. The resulting characterization data have been used to develop waste profiles for meeting disposal site waste acceptance criteria

  12. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  13. IEN low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-09-01

    The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). In the Cyclotron unit, all water flow from hot labs as well as from the decontamination laundry is retained in special tank with homogenizing system and a remote control, that signalizes when the tank gets a pre-specified level. Samples homogenized from the tank are colected for previous analysis. (Author) [pt

  14. Discussion on the methods for calculation release limits for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fengbo; Liu Xiaochao

    2012-01-01

    The release request for low-level radioactive waste are briefly described in this paper. Associating with the conditions of low-level radioactive waste of some radioactive waste processing station, the methods and gist for calculating release limits for low-level radioactive waste with national release limits and annual effective dose limit for the public or the occupation are discussed. Then release limits for the low-level radioactive waste are also proposed. (authors)

  15. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  16. Report on the evaluation under the Act No 24/2006 of Coll. Environmental Impact Assessment Law Extension of National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal low-level radioactive waste and construction of very low-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanusik, V.; Moravek, J.; Kusovska, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The report elaborated assessment of the environmental impact of extension of the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Within this repository also the premises for very low level radioactive waste deposition should be built. The assessment report was prepared according to the Act no. 24/2006 Coll, as amended 'On the assessment of environmental impacts' Annex No. 11 upon The scope of assessment issued by the competent authority on the basis of assessment of Intent for this action. The report was prepared in VUJE, Inc. Trnava for Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, Inc. Bratislava (JAVYS).

  17. Inheritance from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Inoue, Tomio; Komoda, Fumio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    A benefit born as an inheritance from low-level radioactive waste is considered. In the present study, a direct economic scale of application of radiation in Japanese industry, agriculture and medicine is taken as parameter for quantifying the size of benefit. In 2006, the economic scale is about 21 billion dollars (b$) for industry, 2.5b$ for agriculture and 14b$ for medicine. Economic scale covered the all fields is totaled 37b$. Due to those benefit, one can drive a car and play an internet, pleasure the dinning food. Diagnosis and treatment by nuclear medicine can possible to survive the millions of lives and resulting in improving the quality of life, decreasing pain and suffering. However, most Japanese (80%>) may not aware those benefits to date. This report is prepared for aiming at disseminating those benefits to our peoples. (author)

  18. Management of very low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapalain, E.; Damoy, J.; Joly, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This document comprises 3 articles. The first article presents the concern of very low-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear installations, the second article describes the management of the wastes issued from the dismantling operations of the ALS (linear accelerator of Saclay) and of the Saturn synchrotron both located in Saclay Cea's center. The last article presents the storage facility which is specifically dedicated to very low-level radioactive wastes. This storage facility, which is located at Morvilliers, near the 'Centre de l Aube' (used to store the low-, and medium-level, short-lived radioactive wastes), will receive the first packages next summer. Like the other storage facilities, it will be managed by ANDRA (national radioactive waste management agency)

  19. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  20. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series: Low-level radioactive waste management in medical and biomedical research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Development of this handbook began in 1982 at the request of the Radhealth Branch of the California Department of Health Services. California Assembly Bill 1513 directed the DHS to ''evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of (1) reducing the volume, reactivity, and chemical and radioactive hazard of (low-level radioactive) waste and (2) substituting nonradioactive or short-lived radioactive materials for those radionuclides which require long-term isolation from the environment. A contract awarded to the University of California at Irvine-UCI (California Std. Agreement 79902), to develop a document focusing on methods for decreasing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generation in institutions was a result of that directive. In early 1985, the US Department of Energy, through EG and G Idaho, Inc., contracted with UCI to expand, update, and revise the California text for national release

  1. Implementation Plan for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These commitments were initially submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The plans and schedules for implementing the FFA compliance program that were submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tanks Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are updated in this document. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5

  2. Implementation plan for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Plans and schedules for meeting the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were initially submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The information presented in the current document summarizes the progress that has been made to date and provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present the plans and schedules associated with the remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. A comprehensive program is under way at ORNL to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (EPA/TDEC) as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The plans and schedules for implementing the FFA compliance program that were originally submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand D 1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tanks Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are updated in the present document. Chapter I provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5

  3. Low-level radioactive waste treatment technology. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Each generator of low-level radioactive waste must consider three sequential questions: (1) can the waste in its as-generated form be packaged and shipped to a disposal facility; (2) will the packaged waste be acceptable for disposal; and (3) if so, is it cost effective to dispose of the waste in its as-generated form. These questions are aimed at determining if the waste form, physical and chemical characteristics, and radionuclide content collectively are suitable for shipment and disposal in a cost-effective manner. If not, the waste management procedures will involve processing operations in addition to collection, segregation, packaging, shipment, and disposal. This handbook addresses methods of treating and conditioning low-level radioactive waste for shipment and disposal. A framework is provided for selection of cost-effective waste-processing options for generic categories of low-level radioactive waste. The handbook is intended as a decision-making guide that identifies types of information required to evaluate options, methods of evaluation, and limitations associated with selection of any of the processing options

  4. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  5. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  6. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  7. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for Fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section IX and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review of approval. The issue of ES/ER-17 ampersand D1 Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. This document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA as presented in ES/ER-17 ampersand D I and summarizes the progress that has been made to date. This document supersedes all updates of ES/ER- 17 ampersand D 1. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System and the objectives of the FFA. Chapters 2 through 5 contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress

  8. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for Fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section IX and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review of approval. The issue of ES/ER-17&D1 Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. This document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA as presented in ES/ER-17&D I and summarizes the progress that has been made to date. This document supersedes all updates of ES/ER- 17&D 1. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System and the objectives of the FFA. Chapters 2 through 5 contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress.

  9. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchison, D.

    1984-01-01

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  10. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems for fiscal year 1995 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This document is the third annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17 ampersand D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW System as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that led to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5

  11. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This document is an annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chapters 2 through 5

  12. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  13. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trussell, S.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds

  14. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.C.; Walter, P.L.; Baird, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  15. Bioprocessing of low-level radioactive and mixed hazard wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically-based treatment technologies are currently being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to aid in volume reduction and/or reclassification of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes prior to processing for disposal. The approaches taken to treat low-level radioactive and mixed wastes will reflect the physical (e.g., liquid, solid, slurry) and chemical (inorganic and/or organic) nature of the waste material being processed. Bioprocessing utilizes the diverse metabolic and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The application of bioadsorption and bioflocculation to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste are strategies comparable to the use of ion-exchange resins and coagulants that are currently used in waste reduction processes. Mixed hazardous waste would require organic as well as radionuclide treatment processes. Biodegradation of organic wastes or bioemulsification could be used in conjunction with radioisotope bioadsorption methods to treat mixed hazardous radioactive wastes. The degradation of the organic constituents of mixed wastes can be considered an alternative to incineration, while the use of bioemulsification may simply be used as a means to separate inorganic and organics to enable reclassification of wastes. The proposed technology base for the biological treatment of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous waste has been established. Biodegradation of a variety of organic compounds that are typically found in mixed hazardous wastes has been demonstrated, degradative pathways determined and the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms are understood. Accumulation, adsorption and concentration of heavy and transition metal species and transuranics by microorganisms is widely recognized. Work at the INEL focuses on the application of demonstrated microbial transformations to process development

  16. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data

  17. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  18. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan's radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan's population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California's. If everyone's backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan's contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R ampersand D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC

  19. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, President Carter established the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG) to review the nation's plans and progress in managing radioactive wastes. In its final report, issued in March 1979, the group recommended that the Department of Energy (DOE) assume responsibility for developing a national plan for the management of low-level wastes. Toward this end, DOE directed that a strategy be developed to guide federal and state officials in resolving issues critical to the safe management of low-level wastes. EG and G Idaho, Inc. was selected as the lead contractor for the Low-Level Waste Management Program and was given responsibility for developing the strategy. A 25 member task force was formed which included individuals from federal agencies, states, industry, universities, and public interest groups. The task force identified nineteen broad issues covering the generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, and disposal of low-level wastes. Alternatives for the resolution of each issue were proposed and recommendations were made which, taken together, form the draft strategy. These recommendations are summarized in this document

  20. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  1. Low-level radioactive waste vitrification: effect of Cs partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.S.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) immobilization options are cementation or bituminization. Either of these options could be followed by shallow-land burial (SLB) or above-ground disposal. These rather simple LLW procedures appeared to be readily available, to meet regulatory requirements, and to satisfy cost constraints. The authorization of State Compacts, the forced closure of half of the six SLB disposal facilities of the nation, and the escalation of transportation/disposal fees diminish the viability of these options. The synergetic combination of these factors led to a reassessment of traditional methods and to an investigation of other techniques. This paper analyzes the traditional LLW immobilization options, reviews the impact of the LLW stream composition on Low-Level Waste Vitrification (LLWV), then proposes and briefly discusses several techniques to control the volatile radionuclides in a Process Improved LLWV system (PILLWV)

  2. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; McGarvey, R.S.; Lemmon, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  3. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  4. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  5. Characteristics of medically related low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, G.J. Jr.; Teele, B.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a survey that identified the current sources of medically generated radioactive wastes. Included are recommendations on how to reduce the volume of medically-related material classified as low-level radioactive wastes, to improve handling techniques for long-lived radioisotopes, and for options for the use of radioactive materials in medical studies. 8 refs., 11 tabs

  6. Low-level radioactive waste management: French and foreign regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes radioactive waste management regulations applied in USA, CANADA, SCANDINAVIA and FRANCE. For low level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to adapt waste management regulations which were firt definite for high level radioactive wastes. So the exemption concept is a simplification method of regulations applied to low radiation sources

  7. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10/sup 16/ Bq (7.5 x 10/sup 5/ Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation and the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant /sup 90/Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. There are no plans to reactivate the hydrofracture process. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations and under provision 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  8. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 233 U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak

  9. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Assessment of low levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a general methodology for the verification and clearance of sites contaminated with radioactive materials; general expressions for the risk or health detriment are derived. Techniques are developed, using Bayesian decision theory, to optimize the resources allocated to a site monitoring procedure, and to construct the probability distribution of the spatial distribution of specific activity within a site. A technique is also developed to determine the probability that a localized source of specified characteristics will not be detected by the monitoring procedure employed. The application of these techniques is illustrated by means of simple examples. This report confirms that a very large number of measurements are needed if a source of localized activity is to be detected with a high probability, and demonstrates how prior information about past radiological practices might be used to increase the probability of detection. Proposals are made for a programme of research to determine whether or not representative sites can be verified using current measuring techniques. (author)

  11. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section 9 and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review or approval. The initial issue of this document in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. The current revision of this document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA, and it summarizes the progress that has been made over the past year. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System, the objectives of the FFA, the organization that has been established to bring the system into compliance, and the plans for achieving compliance. Chapters 2 through 7 of this report contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress

  12. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10 16 Bq (7.5 x 10 5 Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation of the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant 90 Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations. The facility also falls under the provisions of part 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act pertaining to corrective actions. Nationally, there is an uncertain outlook for the disposal of wastes by underground injection. All wells used for the injection of hazardous wastes (Class I wells) are being reviewed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  14. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

  15. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing

  16. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body

  18. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  19. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, S.R.; Goldstein, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  20. Low-level radioactive waste involved in transportation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information about radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents that have occurred in the United States from 1971 through 1989. Using data from RMIR, this paper will provide detailed information on transportation accidents and incidents that have occurred with low-level radioactive wastes. Additionally, overview data on the number of transport accidents and incidents that have occurred and by what transport mode will also be provided. 4 refs., 6 tabs

  1. Low-Level Radioactive Waste temporary storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 gave responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste to the States. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 attached additional requirements for specific State milestones. Compact regions were formed and host States selected to establish disposal facilities for the waste generated within their borders. As a result of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the existing low-level radioactive waste disposal sites will close at the end of 1992; the only exception is the Richland, Washington, site, which will remain open to the Northwest Compact region only. All host States are required to provide for disposal of low-level radioactive waste by January 1, 1996. States also have the option of taking title to the waste after January 1, 1993, or taking title by default on January 1, 1996. Low-level radioactive waste disposal will not be available to most States on January 1, 1993. The most viable option between that date and the time disposal is available is storage. Several options for storage can be considered. In some cases, a finite storage time will be permitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the generator site, not to exceed five years. If disposal is not available within that time frame, other options must be considered. There are several options that include some form of extension for storage at the generator site, moving the waste to an existing storage site, or establishing a new storage facility. Each of these options will include differing issues specific to the type of storage sought

  2. Low-level radioactive wastes. Council on Scientific Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Under a federal law, each state by January 1, 1993, must provide for safe disposal of its low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the wastes are from using nuclear power to produce electricity, but 25% to 30% are from medical diagnosis, therapy, and research. Exposures to radioactivity from the wastes are much smaller than those from natural sources, and federal standards limit public exposure. Currently operating disposal facilities are in Beatty, Nev, Barnwell, SC, and Richland, Wash. National policy encourages the development of regional facilities. Planning a regional facility, selecting a site, and building, monitoring, and closing the facility will be a complex project lasting decades that involves legislation, public participation, local and state governments, financing, quality control, and surveillance. The facilities will utilize geological factors, structural designs, packaging, and other approaches to isolate the wastes. Those providing medical care can reduce wastes by storing them until they are less radioactive, substituting nonradioactive compounds, reducing volumes, and incinerating. Physicians have an important role in informing and advising the public and public officials about risks involved with the wastes and about effective methods of dealing with them. 18 references

  3. Low-level radioactive wastes. AMA Council on Scientific Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Under a federal law, each state by January 1, 1993, must provide for safe disposal of its low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the wastes are from using nuclear power to produce electricity, but 25% to 30% are from medical diagnosis, therapy, and research. Exposures to radioactivity from the wastes are much smaller than those from natural sources, and federal standards limit public exposure. Currently operating disposal facilities are in Beatty, Nev, Barnwell, SC, and Richland, Wash. National policy encourages the development of regional facilities. Planning a regional facility, selecting a site, and building, monitoring, and closing the facility will be a complex project lasting decades that involves legislation, public participation, local and state governments, financing, quality control, and surveillance. The facilities will utilize geological factors, structural designs, packaging, and other approaches to isolate the wastes. Those providing medical care can reduce wastes by storing them until they are less radioactive, substituting nonradioactive compounds, reducing volumes, and incinerating. Physicians have an important role in informing and advising the public and public officials about risks involved with the wastes and about effective methods of dealing with them

  4. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radioisotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Although the difficulties involved in radioactive waste management are considerable, responsible solutions are possible. This paper will discuss low-level radioactive waste, including its production, the amounts in storage, the rate of waste accumulation and possible strategies for its management. (author). 2 figs

  6. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  7. Report on the evaluation under the Act No 24/2006 of Coll. Environmental Impact Assessment Law Extension of National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal low-level radioactive waste and construction of very low-level radioactive waste repository; Sprava o hodnoteni v zmysle zakona NR SR c.24/2006 o posudzovani vplyvov na ZP. Rozsirenie RU RAO v Mochovciach pre ukladanie NSAO a vybudovanie uloziska pre VNAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanusik, V; Moravek, J; Kusovska, Z [VUJE, a.s., 91864 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2011-11-30

    The report elaborated assessment of the environmental impact of extension of the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Within this repository also the premises for very low level radioactive waste deposition should be built. The assessment report was prepared according to the Act no. 24/2006 Coll, as amended 'On the assessment of environmental impacts' Annex No. 11 upon The scope of assessment issued by the competent authority on the basis of assessment of Intent for this action. The report was prepared in VUJE, Inc. Trnava for Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, Inc. Bratislava (JAVYS).

  8. Directions in low-level radioactive-waste management. Planning state policy on low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The majority of states face a growing problem in the management of low-level radioactive waste generated within their borders. The current uncertainty regarding the availability of disposal sites for these waste products exacerbates their increasing generation rate. The purpose of this publication is to assist state governments in planning effective policy to address these problems. Background information is presented on the current situation, the responsibilities of state government, and the assistance available to states from federal agencies and national groups. The document then focuses on state policy planning, including: (a) methodology for assessing a state's current waste management status and for projecting future needs, (b) consideration of waste management options for a state, and (c) insight into the possible effects and implications of planned policies. This information is intended primarily for state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - and does not include detailed technical information on waste characteristics or handling techniques

  9. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was established by the 67th Legislature to assure safe and effective disposal of the state's low-level radioactive waste. The Authority operates under provisions of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority Act, VACS 4590f-1. In Texas, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics, and may include radioactive material not excluded by this definition with a half-life or more than 35 years if special disposal criteria are established. Prior to beginning the siting study, the Authority developed both exclusionary and inclusionary criteria. Major requirements of the siting guidelines are that the site shall be located such that it will not interfere with: (1) existing or near-future industrial use, (2) sensitive environmental and ecological areas, and (3) existing and projected population growth. Therefore, the site should be located away from currently known recoverable mineral, energy and water resources, population centers, and areas of projected growth. This would reduce the potential for inadvertent intruders, increasing the likelihood for stability of the disposal site after closure. The identification of potential sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste involves a phased progression from statewide screening to site-specific exploration, using a set of exclusionary and preferential criteria to guide the process. This methodology applied the criteria in a sequential manner to focus the analysis on progressively smaller and more favorable areas. The study was divided into three phases: (1) statewide screening; (2) site identification; and (3) preliminary site characterization

  10. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  11. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jester, W.A.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss some of the current rationale behind the environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive materials are as follows: Committee 4 of the International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined three broad objectives for environmental monitoring: 1) assessment of the actual or potential exposure of humans to radioactive materials or radiation present in their environment or the estimation of the probable upper limits of such exposure; 2) scientific investigation, sometimes related to the assessment of exposures, sometimes to other objectives; 3) improved public relations. Various regulations have been written requiring environmental monitoring to ensure that the public is not being exposed to excessive amounts of radiation from natural sources or from human activities. An example of the monitoring of natural sources of radiation is a requirement of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations whereby U.S. water supply companies must have drinking water monitored at least once every four years for radionuclides, primarily the naturally occurring radium-226

  12. Treatment of low-level liquid radioactive wastes by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DelDebbio, J.A.; Donovan, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot plant studies on the use of electrodialysis (ED) for the removal of radioactive and chemical contaminants from acidic low-level radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations. Decontamination efficiencies are reported for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-129, ruthenium-106 and mercury. Data for contaminant adsorption on ED membranes and liquid waste volumes generated are also presented

  13. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  14. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  15. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Chapters are devoted to the following: introduction; a brief description of low-level radioactive wastes and their management; system-side issues; waste reduction and packaging; transportation; disposal; issues for further study; and summary of recommendations. Nine appendices are included

  16. Low-level radioactive wastes: Their treatment, handling, disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Conrad P [Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Radiological Health Research Activities, Cincinnati, OH(United States)

    1964-07-01

    The release of low level wastes may result in some radiation exposure to man and his surroundings. This book describes techniques of handling, treatment, and disposal of low-level wastes aimed at keeping radiation exposure to a practicable minimum. In this context, wastes are considered low level if they are released into the environment without subsequent control. This book is concerned with practices relating only to continuous operations and not to accidental releases of radioactive materials. It is written by use for those interested in low level waste disposal problems and particularly for the health physicist concerned with these problems in the field. It should be helpful also to water and sewage works personnel concerned with the efficiency of water and sewage treatment processes for the removal of radioactive materials; the personnel engaged in design, construction, licensing, and operation of treatment facilities; and to student of nuclear technology. After an introduction the following areas are discussed: sources, quantities and composition of radioactive wastes; collection, sampling and measurement; direct discharge to the water, soil and air environment; air cleaning; removal of radioactivity by water-treatment processes and biological processes; treatment on site by chemical precipitation , ion exchange and absorption, electrodialysis, solvent extraction and other methods; treatment on site including evaporation and storage; handling and treatment of solid wastes; public health implications. Appendices include a glossary; standards for protection against radiation; federal radiation council radiation protection guidance for federal agencies; site selection criteria for nuclear energy facilities.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Champagne for France's second low level [radioactive] waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrier, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Located in the southern Champagne region, France's new million m 3 low level radioactive waste near surface repository, the Centre de l'Aube, will by 1995 completely take over from the country's first repository, Centre de la Manche (capacity 500 000 m 3 ), which has been operating since 1969. The design of the repository is described. (Author)

  19. Champagne for France's second low level [radioactive] waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, G P [ANDRA, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1992-10-01

    Located in the southern Champagne region, France's new million m[sup 3] low level radioactive waste near surface repository, the Centre de l'Aube, will by 1995 completely take over from the country's first repository, Centre de la Manche (capacity 500 000 m[sup 3]), which has been operating since 1969. The design of the repository is described. (Author).

  20. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  1. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  2. The future of very low level radioactive wastes in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that nuclear plants produce various radioactive wastes, that the Cigeo project is the proposed solution to store these radioactive wastes, this article more particularly addresses the issue of very low level radioactive wastes which are now the main matter of concern for the IRSN as their quantity is expected to increase during the years to come (notably in relationship with nuclear reactor lifetime extension), and as present storage capacities will soon be saturated. The author first outlines that these wastes are not very dangerous but very cumbersome. Among these so-defined 'very low level' wastes, 30 to 50 per cent could be considered as harmless, but are now processed as dangerous wastes through costly processes. Various possibilities are then envisaged such as a diversification of storage options

  3. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Z, L.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  4. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  5. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process

  6. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  7. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW.

  8. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin

  9. Low level waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, A.D.; Truitt, D.J.; Logan, J.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1986-02-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc. is the lead contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program, established in 1979. In this role, the company uses its waste management expertise to provide management and technical direction to support the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) in a manner that protects the environment and the public health and safety while improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Program activities are divided into two areas: defense-related and commercial nuclear reactor programs. The defense program was established to develop technology improvements, provide technology transfer, and to ensure a more efficient and uniform system for low level waste disposal. To achieve the program's goals, it is necessary to improve, document, and, where necessary, develop new methods for waste generation reduction, waste treatment, shallow-land burial, greater confinement disposal, and measures to correct existing site deficiencies. The commercial low level waste management program provides support to assist the states in developing an effective national low level waste management system and provides technical assistance for siting of regional commercial LLW disposal sites. The program provides technical and informational support to state officials, low level waste generators, managers, and facility operators to resolve low level waste problems and to improve the systems' overall effectiveness. Procedures are developed and documented and made available to commercial users through this program. Additional work is being conducted to demonstrate the stabilization and closure of low level radioactive waste disposal sites and develop the criteria and procedures for acceptance of such sites by the Department of Energy after closure has been completed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Although the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) addresses the entire Oak Ridge Reservation, specific requirements are set forth for the liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks and their associated piping and equipment, tank systems, at ORNL. The stated objected of the FFA as it relates to these tank systems is to ensure that structural integrity, containment and detection of releases, and source control are maintained pending final remedial action at the site. The FFA requires that leaking LLLW tank systems be immediately removed from service. It also requires the LLLW tank systems that do not meet the design and performance requirements established for secondary containment and leak detection be either upgraded or replaced. The FFA establishes a procedural framework for implementing the environmental laws. For the LLLW tank systems, this framework requires the specified plans and schedules be submitted to EPA and TDEC for approval within 60 days, or in some cases, within 90 days, of the effective date of the agreement

  11. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Junio, J.B.; Caseria, E.S.; Salom, D.S.; Alamares, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing 137 Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  12. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdezco, E M; Marcelo, E A; Junio, J B; Caseria, E S; Salom, D S; Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Manila (Philippines). Radiation Protection Services

    1997-02-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing {sup 137}Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  13. Economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, J.; Jennrich, E.

    1983-01-01

    Regardless of who develops new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites or when, economics will play a role. To assist in this area the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a computer program, LLWECON, and data base for projecting disposal site costs. This program and its non-site specific data base can currently be used to compare the costs associated with various disposal site development, financing, and operating scenarios. As site specific costs and requirements are refined LLWECON will be able to calculate exact life cycle costs for each facility. While designed around shallow land burial, as practiced today, LLWECON is flexible and the input parameters discrete enough to be applicable to other disposal options. What the program can do is illustrated

  14. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. The author concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA

  15. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  16. Multipurpose container for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Pearson, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for disposing of low-level radioactive waste, comprising the steps of (a) introducing the waste into a multipurpose container, the multipurpose container comprising a polymeric inner container disposed within a concrete outer shell, the shape of the inner container conforming substantially to the shape of the outer shell's inner surface, (b) transporting the waste in the same multipurpose container to a storage location, and (c) storing the container at the storage location

  17. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description

  18. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  19. Application of international recommendations and guidance on low level radioactive waste management and remediation of contaminated land at the national level: Experience of regulatory support in Northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, M.; Smith, G.M.; Kerrigan, E

    2005-01-01

    This paper notes the developments in international recommendations on radioactive waste management and remediation of contaminated land and considers their implementation in the context of the Norwegian Plan of Action to improve nuclear safety in North West Russia. Summary information is provided on projects to implement waste management activities (so-called Industrial Projects) and on projects to support regulatory supervision of waste management activities (so-called Regulatory Support Projects). The links between international recommendations and national practice are discussed and it is concluded that, in practice, the details of national standards differ both among themselves and, in some respects, from the recommendations of the ICRP and IAEA. Examples of further potential collaboration projects are listed. While separate responsibilities among organisations have to clear and maintained, combined involvement of operators and regulators is recognised as a prioritised area in future cooperation between NRPA and Russia. (author)

  20. The case for deep-sea disposal of low-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific justification for the sea disposal of low-level solid radioactive wastes is summarized and the relevant national and international codes of practice and legislation are outlined. It is concluded that, since the amount of radioactivity disposed of in the oceans is very small compared with the natural radioactivity, the environmental hazard is small and sea dumping could be increased. (U.K.)

  1. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  2. Radiation safety and health effects related to low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards associated with low-level radioactive waste, one of the nation's greatest concerns, are discussed from a health physicist's perspective. Potential biological hazards, four stages of the low-level radioactive waste disposal process, and suggested methods of reducing the risks of handling and disposal, based on previous studies, are defined. Also discussed are potential pathways of human exposure and two scenarios designed to demonstrate the complexity of modeling exposure pathways. The risks of developing a fatal cancer from exposure to the radioactive material, should it occur, is compared to other more commonly accepted risks

  3. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Low-level radioactive waste performance assessments: Source term modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhour, A.S.; Godbee, H.W.; Miller, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by government and commercial operations need to be isolated from the environment for at least 300 to 500 yr. Most existing sites for the storage or disposal of LLW employ the shallow-land burial approach. However, the U.S. Department of Energy currently emphasizes the use of engineered systems (e.g., packaging, concrete and metal barriers, and water collection systems). Future commercial LLW disposal sites may include such systems to mitigate radionuclide transport through the biosphere. Performance assessments must be conducted for LUW disposal facilities. These studies include comprehensive evaluations of radionuclide migration from the waste package, through the vadose zone, and within the water table. Atmospheric transport mechanisms are also studied. Figure I illustrates the performance assessment process. Estimates of the release of radionuclides from the waste packages (i.e., source terms) are used for subsequent hydrogeologic calculations required by a performance assessment. Computer models are typically used to describe the complex interactions of water with LLW and to determine the transport of radionuclides. Several commonly used computer programs for evaluating source terms include GWSCREEN, BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport), DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term), BARRIER (Ref. 5), as well as SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 (which are used in this study). The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes were prepared by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SOURCE1 is designed for tumulus-type facilities, and SOURCE2 is tailored for silo, well-in-silo, and trench-type disposal facilities. This paper focuses on the source term for ORNL disposal facilities, and it describes improved computational methods for determining radionuclide transport from waste packages

  5. Cover technology demonstration for low-level radioactive sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Warren, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of a shallow land burial site in isolating low-level radioactive and mixed waste is strongly influenced by the behavior of the precipitation falling on the site. Predicting the long-term integrity of a cover design requires a knowledge of the water balance dynamics, and the use of predictive models. The multiplicity of factors operating on a site in the years post-closure (precipitation intensity and duration, soil conditions, vegetation seasonality and variability) have made it extremely difficult to predict the effects of natural precipitation with accuracy. Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field demonstration at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on an inactive waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot are measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Soil moisture reduction during the growing season was more pronounced on the shrub plots. This indicates that a more complex vegetative cover provides greater soil moisture storage capacity for winter precipitation than the usual grass cover

  6. Greater-than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste management concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 assigned to the Federal Government responsibility for the disposal of commercial greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1987, DOE committed to Congress to accept GTCC LLW and provide storage and other waste management as necessary until disposal capacity is available. Current estimates are that about 6,000 m 3 of unpackaged GTCC LLW will be generated to the year 2020. Generators estimate that 100 m 3 of raw GTCC LLW might exceed planned storage capacity to the year 2020. This paper reports the activities of the National Low-Level Waste Program to manage GTCC low-level radioactive waste

  7. Use of Multiple Innovative Technologies for Retrieval and Handling of Low-Level Radioactive Tank Wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble-Dial, J.; Riner, G.; Robinson, S.; Lewis, B.; Bolling, D.; Ganapathi, G.; Harper, M.; Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully implemented an integrated tank waste management plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (1), which resulted in the cleanup, removal, or stabilization of 37 inactive underground storage tanks (USTs) since 1998, and the reduction of risk to human health and the environment. The integrated plan helped accelerate the development and deployment of innovative technologies for the retrieval of radioactive sludge and liquid waste from inactive USTs. It also accelerated the pretreatment of the retrieved waste and newly generated waste from ORNL research and development activities to provide for volume and contamination reduction of the liquid waste. The integrated plan included: retrieval of radioactive sludge, contaminated material, and other debris from USTs at ORNL using a variety of robotic and remotely operated equipment; waste conditioning and transfer of retrieved waste to pretreatment facilities and interim, double contained storage tanks; the development and deployment of technologies for pretreating newly generated and retrieved waste transferred to interim storage tanks; waste treatment and packaging for final off-site disposal; stabilization of the inactive USTs that did not meet the regulatory requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the continued monitoring of the active USTs that remain in long-term service. This paper summarizes the successful waste retrieval and tank stabilization operations conducted during two ORNL tank remediation projects (The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project and the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Remediation Project), the sludge retrieval operations from the active Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks, and pretreatment operations conducted for the tank waste. This paper also provides the status of ongoing activities conducted in preparation

  8. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  9. Demonstration tests for low level radioactive waste packaging safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, I.; Shimura, S.; Miki, T.; Tamamura, T.; Kunitomi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The transport packaging for low level radioactive waste (so-called the LLW packaging) has been developed to be utilized for transportation of LLW in 200 liter-drums from Japanese nuclear power stations to the LLW Disposal Center at Rokkashomura in Aomori Prefecture. Transportation is expected to start from December in 1992. We will explain the brief history of the development, technical features and specifications as well as two kinds of safety demonstration tests, namely one is '1.2 meter free drop test' and the other is 'ISO container standard test'. (J.P.N.)

  10. Review of very low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Guo Minli; Tian Hao; Teng Yanguo

    2005-01-01

    Very low level waste (VLLW) is a new type of radioactive wastes proposed recently. No widely acceptable definition and disposal rules have been established for it. This paper reviews the definition of VLLW in some countries where VLLW was researched early, as well as the disposal policies and methods of VLLW that the IAEA and these countries followed. In addition, the safety assessment programs for VLLW disposal are introduced. It is proved the research of VLLW is urgent and essential in china through the comparison of VLLW disposal between china and these counties. At last, this paper points out the future development of VLLW disposal research in China. (authors)

  11. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Low-level radioactive gas monitor for natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1969-11-01

    A portable radioactivity detection system for monitoring the tritium content of natural gas under field conditions has been developed. The sensing device employed is a complex proportional counting assembly operated without the use of massive shielding previously employed with such low-level radiation detectors. The practical limit of detection for the system is a tritium content of 10 -9 microcurie per cc of natural gas. All components of the system are packaged in three waterproof cases weighing slightly less than 30 kg each. Power requirement is 500 watts of 120 volt, 60 Hz current. Operation is fully automatic with a printed record produced at predetermined time intervals

  13. The NRC perspective on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.L. Jr.; Knapp, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) actions in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (the Act) and NRC's assistance to States and Compacts working to discharge their responsibilities under the Act. Three of NRC's accomplishments which respond explicitly to direction in the Act are highlighted. These are: development of the capability of expedited handling of petitions addressing wastes below regulatory concern (BRC); development of capability to review and process an application within fifteen months; and development of guidance on alternatives to shallow land burial. Certain NRC efforts concerning special topics related to the Act as well as NRC efforts to assist States and Compacts are summarized

  14. Issues in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbrook, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    All industry finds itself today enmeshed in a morass of regulation, political apathy and public antagonism when it comes to hazardous industrial waste. Our industry is a world-class leader on all three fronts. There are no disposal facilities in Canada for radioactive wastes and the prognosis for the future is bleak. As the industry gets older, more and more facilities will be closed and require decommissioning. New facilities require plans for the long-term management of their wastes. Indeed, one major public issue with the nuclear industry is the fate of the wastes produced. In looking at the situation in which we find ourselves today with respect to the long-term management of naturally-occurring low-level radioactive wastes, one must wonder where we are going in the future, and whether indeed is an end in sight

  15. Interpretation of low-level environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Levels of radioactivity in the environment from worldwide fallout have decreased by about a factor of 10 since the early 1970's and many environmental concentrations are now less than the routine estimated lower limit of detection. To accurately represent these data and to assist in evaluating very low levels of radioactivity, each instrumental value with its statistical counting error should be reported. In some instances the background count of the instrument exceeds the sample count resulting in a value that is less than zero (a negative concentration). Evaluation of these negative numbers along with zero and positive concentrations over a suitable sample population can yield important information about concentrations that are less than routine minimum levels of detection. Actual instrumental values (negative, zero and positive) with associated statistical counting errors have been reported by the Environmental Monitoring Group at the Savannah River Plant since 1977. Methods for evaluating these data are discussed and empirical data presented to illustrate important points

  16. Volume reduction by crystallization of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Murray, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes containing boric acid, borax, or sodium sulfate, with radioactive contaminants, are generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. These wastes require disposal, and as such, it is economically and environmentally desirable to reduce their volume. Crystallization was examined in the laboratory as a means of accomplishing this. The crystallizer was operated in both of two modes: evaporative cooling and total evaporation. A 12 wt% boric acid waste feed was concentrated to a 40 to 45 wt% slurry in both modes of operation. Using pure boric acid, a slurry containing over 60 wt% was obtained. An 18.5 wt% borax waste feed was concentrated to 50 wt% in the total evaporative mode and 70 wt% in the evaporatively cooled mode. A 22 wt% sodium sulfate feed was concentrated to a 78 wt% slurry in the total evaporative mode. For all of the feeds, this represents a 4- to 5-fold volume reduction by the crystallizer

  17. Low level radioactive liquid waste decontamination by electrochemical way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.

    1994-10-01

    As part of the work on decontamination treatments for low level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes, the study of an electro-chemical process has been chosen by the C.E.A. at the Cadarache research centre. The first part of this report describes the main methods used for the decontamination of aqueous solutions. Then an electro-deposition process and an electro-dissolution process are compared on the basis of the decontamination results using genuine radioactive aqueous liquid waste. For ruthenium decontamination, the former process led to very high yields (99.9 percent eliminated). But the elimination of all the other radionuclides (antimony, strontium, cesium, alpha emitters) was only favoured by the latter process (90 percent eliminated). In order to decrease the total radioactivity level of the waste to be treated, we have optimized the electro-dissolution process. That is why the chemical composition of the dissolved anode has been investigated by a mixture experimental design. The radionuclides have been adsorbed on the precipitating products. The separation of the precipitates from the aqueous liquid enabled us to remove the major part of the initial activity. On the overall process some operations have been investigated to minimize waste embedding. Finally, a pilot device (laboratory scale) has been built and tested with genuine radioactive liquid waste. (author). 77 refs., 41 tabs., 55 figs., 4 appendixes

  18. Low-level radioactive waste management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Although reviews of disposal practices and site performance indicated that there were no releases to the environment that would affect public health and safety, it became clear that: (a) several burial grounds were not performing as expected; (b) long-term maintenance of closed trenches could be a costly problem, and (c) more cost-effective methods could be developed for the treatment, packing, and disposal of low-level waste. As a result of these reviews, the Department of Energy developed the Low-level Waste Management Program to seek improvements in existing practices, correct obvious deficiencies, and develop site closure techniques that would avoid expensive long-term maintenance and monitoring. Such technology developments provide a better understanding of the physical and technical mechanisms governing low-level waste treatment and disposal and lead to improvement in the performance of disposal sites. The primary means of disposal of low-level waste has been the accepted and regulated practice of shallow land disposal, i.e., placement of low-level waste in trenches 5 to 10 meters deep with several meters of special soil cover. Department of Energy waste is primarily disposed at six major shallow land disposal sites. Commercial waste is currently disposed of at three major sites in the nation - Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington; and Beatty, Nevada. In the late 1970's public concern arose regarding the management practices of sites operated by the civilian sector and by the Department of Energy

  19. Low-level radioactive waste: the Pennsylvania situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krett, R.E.; Dornsife, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1985, the Pennsylvania legislature adopted and Governor Thornburgh signed into law the Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. The Appalachian Compact provides for the establishment and operation of facilities for regional disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) to eligible states. Pennsylvania is designated as the initial host state to develop a regional LLRW disposal facility. The Compact legislation did not grant Pennsylvania the authority to license, permit, regulate, inspect or otherwise initiate the processes necessary to establish a LLRW disposal facility. The burden for implementing the Compact is placed on the state of Pennsylvania. The implementing legislation needed to proceed is currently in Pennsylvania's legislative process. Area Screening and Technology Performance/Design Criteria are currently being developed by D.E.R. staff in conjunction with a sixteen member public advisory committee. Upon enactment of the implementing legislation, Pennsylvania will proceed with all processes necessary to develop a regional LLRW disposal facility for the Appalachian Compact. 1 figure, 1 table

  20. Rokkasho low-level radioactive waste disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited commenced the operation of the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive waste from reactor operation, in 1992 at Rokkasho site in Aomori Prefecture. JNFL is private company whose main activities within the responsibility of JNFL are: 1) Disposal of low-level radioactive waste, 2) Uranium enrichment, 3) Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, 4) Temporary storage of returned wastes from COGEMA and BNFL by reprocessing contracts, prior to disposal. JNFL selected the site for the disposal of LLW at Rokkasho in Aomori Prefecture, then bought land of 3.4 million m 2 . Among waste spectrum, LLWs from nuclear power plants, from uranium enrichment and from reprocessing are to be managed by JNFL, including dismantling of these facilities, and JNFL has plan to dispose about 600 thousand m 3 of wastes ultimately. On the middle of November 1990 JNFL got the permission of the application for 40 thousand m 3 (equivalent to 200,000 drums each with a 200-liter capacity) of reactor operating wastes which is solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics as a first stage. And after the construction work for about 2 years, the operations started at Dec. 8th, 1992. The Disposal center has already accepted about 24,000 LLW drums as of the end of February, 1994. (author)

  1. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Springfield, VA (United States); Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  2. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  3. Considerations for alternative low-level radioactive disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the immediate future, there is a need for low-level radioactive disposal sites to accommodate wastes that would otherwise be placed at a later date in permanent, government sanctioned ''compact'' sites. Until these ''compact'' sites become operational, a potential, relatively low-cost alternative exists in the numerous inactive uranium processing sites that are likewise proposed for remedial action removal or stabilization operations. This paper addressed disposal from the aspects of engineering design, economics and liability of participating parties. Many uranium (and by-product) processing facilities in the western states now stand idle due to current economic conditions within the industry. Many more were previously deactivated for various reasons. All must be dealt with under the UMTRA Program Guidelines with regard to removal, reclamation or other remedial action activities. With cooperative efforts, some of these sites would appear to be suitable for disposal of small volume, low-level radioactive wastes that presently render urban properties valueless in terms of real estate and aesthetic values. Likely sites would appear to be those slated for in-place stabilization and reclamation, particularly where the urban property material has a lower level of radioactivity than the disposal site material. The resultant impacts for site stabilization and reclamation would be solely in the areas of increased material volumes (generally requiring a minimal increase in engineering design complexity) and liability. Clearly, liability will be the overriding factor in such an approach. With the complex hierarchy of regulatory agencies involved and the private sector, what appears to be a relative simple and economic approach may have extreme difficulty in achieving reality

  4. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yasser T.

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  5. A case study in low-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, W.; Rella, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the current trend in Federal and State legislation, utilities are faced with the invitable problem of on-site storage of radioactive waste. Recognizing this problem, the New York Power Authority has taken measures to preclude the possibility of a plant shutdown due to a lack of space allocation for waste disposal at commercial burial sites coincident with an inability to safely store radioactive waste on-site. Capital funds have been appropriated for the design, engineering, and construction of an interim low-level radioactive waste storage facility. This project is currently in the preliminary design phase with a scheduled engineering completion date of September 1, 1984. Operation of the facility is expected for late 1985. The facility will provide storage space solidified liners, drums, and low specific activity (LSA) boxes at the historic rate of waste generation at the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, which is owned and operated by the New York Power Authority. Materials stored in the facility will be suitable for burial at a licensed burial facility and will be packaged to comply with the Department of Transportation regulations for shipment to a licensed burial ground. Waste shipments from the facility will normally be made on a first-in, first-out basis to minimize the storage time of any liner, drum or

  6. A Low Level Radioactivity Monitor for Aqueous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, E.J.M.

    1968-04-01

    A system is described for continuous monitoring of very low levels of radioactivity in waste water containing typically 3.5 g/l dissolved solids. Spray evaporation of the water enables the dissolved solids to be recovered in the form of an aerosol and collected on a filter tape where the radioactivity is measured by a radiation detector. The advantage of this method compared with a direct measurement is that the attenuating effect of the water is removed and thus greater sensitivity is obtained. Compensation for background and any contamination is achieved by feeding distilled water to the aerosol generator every alternate sampling period and recording the count difference between two successive sampling periods . A printed record of the totalised count difference is obtained once per hour during the integration time of one month. For β radioactivity the minimum values of specific activity measurable extend from 1 x 10 -6 Ci/m 3 to 6 x 10 -8 Ci/m depending on the B end-point energy in the range 167 KeV to 2.26 MeV. The estimated minimum measurable specific activity is 6 x 10 -8 Ci/m 3

  7. A Low Level Radioactivity Monitor for Aqueous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, E J.M.

    1968-04-15

    A system is described for continuous monitoring of very low levels of radioactivity in waste water containing typically 3.5 g/l dissolved solids. Spray evaporation of the water enables the dissolved solids to be recovered in the form of an aerosol and collected on a filter tape where the radioactivity is measured by a radiation detector. The advantage of this method compared with a direct measurement is that the attenuating effect of the water is removed and thus greater sensitivity is obtained. Compensation for background and any contamination is achieved by feeding distilled water to the aerosol generator every alternate sampling period and recording the count difference between two successive sampling periods . A printed record of the totalised count difference is obtained once per hour during the integration time of one month. For {beta} radioactivity the minimum values of specific activity measurable extend from 1 x 10{sup -6} Ci/m{sup 3} to 6 x 10{sup -8} Ci/m depending on the B end-point energy in the range 167 KeV to 2.26 MeV. The estimated minimum measurable specific activity is 6 x 10{sup -8} Ci/m{sup 3}.

  8. Recommended regulatory program plan for low-level radioactive waste management in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The National Program for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management was instituted by the US Department of Energy to assist the states in carrying out this new federal policy. Based on the premise that the safe disposal of low-level waste is technologically feasible and that states have the necessary degree of authority to set management policy, the National Program is helping them to develop a responsive, comprehensive regulatory program. The State of Maryland is actively engaged with the National Program in its efforts to form a comprehensive management program. The purpose of this plan is to review existing statutory and regulatory program responsibilities and provide a recommended management scheme for low-level radioactive waste

  9. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    have been fully dismantled. Proven techniques and equipment are available to dismantle nuclear facilities safely. Most parts of a nuclear power plants do not become radioactive or are contaminated at very low levels and most metal can be recycled. There are obvious environmental benefits to the decontamination, recycle and reuse of materials. The benefits come primarily from the reduction of waste and eliminating the need to obtain fresh materials for the new product. The benefits of recycling in other industries are well recognized. Not having a waste management option can sometimes delay decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Therefore, the availability of a recycling route for the waste may accelerate decommissioning progress. With improving prospects for building new nuclear power plants, the industry would likely use the option if significant amounts of waste materials could be recycled economically. There is little consistency in national approaches to recycling radioactive waste. Many options for recycling allow for the release of materials into the public domain (after decontamination to allowable levels). There is not uniform endorsement of this practice from country to country and some stakeholders do not agree with this type of material release (often reduced to as unconditional release). There is a large amount of material that can have conditional release within the industry that assures consistent endorsement by stakeholders. This material includes: concrete, lead, carbon and stainless steel, and graphite. More work needs to be done to ensure consistency in regulation from country to country. The IAEA is working to this end

  10. Some aspects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the NRC supported Shallow Land Burial research program at Brookhaven National Laboraotry and its relationship to the proposed revised ruling on disposal of low level radioactive waste, 10 CFR Part 61. Section of the proposed regulation, which establish the new low level waste classification system and the performance objective placed on waste form, are described briefly. The report also summarizes the preliminary results obtained from the EPA program in which low level waste drums were retrieved from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

  11. Application of EPA regulations to low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The survey reported here was conducted with the intent of identifying categories of low-level radioactive wastes which would be classified under EPA regulations 40 CFR Part 261 as hazardous due to the chemical properties of the waste. Three waste types are identified under these criteria as potential radioactive mixed wastes: wastes containing organic liquids; wastes containing lead metal; and wastes containing chromium. The survey also indicated that certain wastes, specific to particular generators, may also be radioactive mixed wastes. Ultimately, the responsibility for determining whether a facility's wastes are mixed wastes rest with the generator. However, the uncertainties as to which regulations are applicable, and the fact that no legal definition of mixed wastes exists, make such a determination difficult. In addition to identifying mixed wastes, appropriate methods for the management of mixed wastes must be defined. In an ongoing study, BNL is evaluating options for the management of mixed wastes. These options will include segregation, substitution, and treatments to reduce or eliminate chemical hazards associated with the wastes listed above. The impacts of the EPA regulations governing hazardous wastes on radioactive mixed waste cannot be assessed in detail until the applicability of these regulations is agreed upon. This issue is still being discussed by EPA and NRC and should be resolved in the near future. Areas of waste management which may affect generators of mixed wastes include: monitoring/tracking of wastes before shipment; chemical testing of wastes; permits for treatment of storage of wastes; and additional packaging requirements. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. AECL experience with low-level radioactive waste technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Charlesworth, D.H.

    1988-08-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), as the Canadian government agency responsible for research and development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has had experience in handling a wide variety of radioactive wastes for over 40 years. Low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is generated in Canada from nuclear fuel manufacturers and nuclear power facilities, from medical and industrial uses of radioisotopes and from research facilities. The technologies with which AECL has strength lie in the areas of processing, storage, disposal and safety assessment of LLRW. While compaction and incineration are the predominant methods practised for solid wastes, purification techniques and volume reduction methods are used for liquid wastes. The methods for processing continue to be developed to improve and increase the efficiency of operation and to accommodate the transition from storage of the waste to disposal. Site-specific studies and planning for a LLRW disposal repository to replace current storage facilities are well underway with in-service operation to begin in 1991. The waste will be disposed of in an intrusion-resistant underground structure designed to have a service life of over 500 years. Beyond this period of time the radioactivity in the waste will have decayed to innocuous levels. Safety assessments of LLRW disposal are performed with the aid of a series of interconnected mathematical models developed at Chalk River specifically to predict the movement of radionuclides through and away from the repository after its closure and the subsequent health effects of the released radionuclides on the public. The various technologies for dealing with radioactive wastes from their creation to disposal will be discussed. 14 refs

  13. Data base for radioactive waste management: review of low-level radioactive waste disposal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, J.J.; Gray, D.F.; Oztunali, O.I.

    1981-11-01

    This document is prepared in three volumes and provides part of the technical support to the draft environmental impact statement (NUREG-0782) on a proposed regulation, 10CFR Part 61, setting forth licensing requirements for land disposal of low level radioactive waste. Volume 1 is a summary and analysis of the history of low level waste disposal at both commercial and government disposal facilities

  14. Development of chemical decontamination for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Omata, Kazuo; Obinata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Kanamori, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    During routine intermittent inspection and maintenance at nuclear power plants, a considerable quantity of low level radioactive waste is generated requiring release from the nuclear site or treating additionally. To decontaminate this waste for safe release from the nuclear power plant, the first step could be washing the waste in Methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2 , to remove most of the paint coating. However, CH 2 Cl 2 washing does not completely remove the paint coating from the waste, which in the next step is shot blasted with plastic bead media to loose and remove the remaining paint coating. Following in succession, in the third step, the waste is washed in a chelate solution, after which most waste is decontaminated and suitable to be released for recycling. The residual chelate solution may be decomposed into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water by an electrolysis process and then safely discharged into the environment. (author)

  15. Low-level radioactive waste minimization for health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years medical waste has been the subject of considerable public and governmental attention. This has been, in part, due to the media's attraction to unfortunate instances of environmental pollution caused by hazardous and medical wastes. While a considerable amount of information is currently available on the treatment and disposal practices for hazardous wastes, a shortfall of information exists on the subject of medical wastes. Such wastes are generated by various health care institutions. Medical waste is a wide and all encompassing term which refers to a variety of wastes. This presentation addresses medical low-level (LLW) radioactive waste; its generation, recovery and handling. The development of generic waste minimization models and greater use of alternative technologies are part of the discussion

  16. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Using bench scale apparatus, asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth were evaluated as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80% to less than 1%. To collect the same quantity of fly ash, less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co, counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1% at moderate pressure drop

  17. Defining mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the last several months, staffs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been developing a working definition of Mixed Low-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Waste (Mixed LLW). Such wastes are currently being regulated by NRC under authority of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), as amended, and by EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended. Development of the definition is one component of a comprehensive program to resolve differences between the regulatory programs of the two agencies pertaining to the regulation of the management and disposal of Mixed LLW. Although the definition is still undergoing legal and policy reviews in both agencies, this paper presents the current working definition, discusses a methodology that may be used by NRC licensees to identify Mixed LLW, and provides responses to anticipated questions from licensees about the definition. 3 references, 1 figure

  18. Licensing the California low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; Junkert, R.

    1992-01-01

    California has made significant progress toward the issuance of a license to construct and operate the Southwestern Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. However, obstacles to completing construction and preparing to receive waste still exist. This paper will describe the technical licensing issues, EIR/S process, political events, and public interactions that have impacted on California regulators' ability to complete the license application review and reach a decision on issuing a license. Issues associated with safely and liability evaluations, finalization of the environmental impact report, and land transfer processes involving multiple state, federal, and local agencies will be identified. Major issues upon which public and political opposition is focusing will also be described. (author)

  19. Modularized system for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; DiSibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    A modularized system for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste is presented that attempts to overcome the past problems with shallow land burial and gain public acceptance. All waste received at the disposal site is packaged into reinforced concrete modules which are filled with grout, covered and sealed. The hexagonal shape modules are placed in a closely packed array in a disposal unit. The structural stability provided by the modules allow a protective cover constructed of natural materials to be installed, and the disposal units are decommissioned as they are filled. The modules are designed to be recoverable in the event remedial action is necessary. The cost of disposal with a facility of this type is comparable to current prices of shallow land burial facilities. The system is intended to address the needs of generators, regulators, communities, elected officials, licensees and future generations

  20. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas

  1. The development of gate monitor for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Watanabe, Michito; Kato, Tatsuo

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants in Japan, have been deposited in the yard of each power plant. At present, it is stored in about 500,000 drum cans (200l each). These drum cans are carried to Mutsu-ogawara Port by special transport ships and then transferred to Rokkasho LLW transport trucks (special vehicles) for storage. The gate monitor is used to automatically measure the dose rate on the vehicles loaded with transport vessels from a remote location, to ensure the safe transportation from Mutsu-ogawara Port the Burying Center. It is a new system which has been developed for effective measurement of dose rate on a number of transport vessels in a short time. This system is the first in the world for measuring dose rate on vehicles. Such a system cannot be found in any country of the world. (author)

  2. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  3. Legislator's guide to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.M.; Melson, L.G.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the guide is to provide state legislators and their staff with information on low-level radioactive waste management, issues of special concern to the states, and policy options. During 1979, producers of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) faced a crisis. Two of the three commercial disposal sites were temporarily closed and some LLW producers were running short on storage space. For hospitals, clinics, research organizations, and some industries, this meant potential curtailment of activities that produced these materials. Commercial nuclear reactors were not as hard hit during the crisis because they have larger storage areas. The two sites at Beatty, Nevada, and Hanford, Washington, reopened and the immediate crisis was averted. However, the longer term problem of shortage of disposal capacity was just beginning to be recognized. States should be concerned with this problem for several reasons. First, all states produce LLW although the volumes differ among states. Second, states have the responsibility to protect the public health and welfare of their citizens. Third, states may be given the authority to regulate LLW disposal if they enter into agreements with the federal government (Agreement States Program), and 26 states have that authority. Fourth, because of the long-term monitoring and surveillance necessary at a disposal site, states rather than private industry will be held responsible for ensuring that the disposal site is performing safely. Finally, Congress established a policy in 1980 that each state is responsible for the safe disposal of LLW generated within its borders. This policy also includes provisions that could lead to excluding states from using disposal facilities unless they have entered into regional agreements with other states. Two primary options exist for a state: developing its own disposal facility for LLW generated within its borders or joining with other states to develop a regional disposal facility

  4. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.; Jacobs, D.G.; Lee, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  5. Recommendations for future low-level and mixed waste management practices at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Klein, R.B.; Murphy, E.S.; Shuman, R.; Hickman, W.W.; Rutz, A.C.; Uhl, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes recommendations concerning the management of low-level radioactive wastes and mixtures at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Performance assessments, characterization, site disposal design, shipment, and storage are discussed

  6. Aube storage center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2010 activity report of the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety, security and radiation protection, environmental monitoring and effluents, public information and communication

  7. Annual report of the Aube storage center for very-low-level radioactive wastes (CSTFA) - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2011 activity report of the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety, security and radiation protection, environmental monitoring and effluents, public information and communication

  8. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined

  9. Operation for Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Center is located in Oishitai, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikitagun, of Aomori Prefecture. This district is situated in the southern part of Shimohita Peninsula in the northeastern corner of the prefecture, which lies at the northern tip of Honshu, Japan's main island. The Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center deals with only LLW generated by operating of nuclear power plants. The No.1 and No.2 disposal facility are now in operation. The disposal facilities in operation have a total dispose capacity of 80,000m 3 (equivalent to 400,000 drums). Our final business scope is to dispose of radioactive waste corresponding to 600,000 m 3 (equivalent to 3000,000 drums). For No.1 disposal facility, we have been disposing of homogeneous waste, including condensed liquid waste, spent resin, solidified with cement and asphalt, etc. For No.2 disposal facility, we can bury a solid waste solidified with mortar, such as activated metals and plastics, etc. Using an improved construction technology for an artificial barrier, the concrete pits in No.2 disposal facility could be constructed more economical and spacious than that of No.1. Both No.1 and No.2 facility will be able to bury about 200,000 waste packages (drums) each corresponding to 40,000 m 3 . As of March 17, 2008, Approximately 200,00 waste drums summing up No.1 and No.2 disposal facility have been received from Nuclear power plants and buried. (author)

  10. Low-level radioactive wastes in subsurface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes will continue to be buried in shallow-land waste disposal sites. Several of the burial sites have been closed because of the problems that developed as a result of poor site characteristics, types of waste buried, and a number of other environmental factors. Some of the problems encountered can be traced to the activities of microorganisms. These include microbial degradation of waste forms resulting in trench cover subsidence, production of radioactive gases, and production of microbial metabolites capable of complexation, solubilization, and bioaccumulation of radionuclides. Improvements in disposal technology are being developed to minimize these problems. These include waste segregation, waste pretreatment, incineration, and solidification. Microorganisms are also known to enhance and inhibit the movement of metals. Little is known about the role of autotrophic microbial transformations of radionuclides. Such microbial processes may be significant in light of improved disposal procedures, which may result in reductions in the organic content of the waste disposed of at shallow-land sites. 102 references, 5 figures, 19 tables

  11. Low-level radioactive waste associated with plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Zigler, G.; Walsh, R.

    1992-01-01

    Many utilities operating nuclear power plants are expected to seek to extend the useful life of their plants through license renewal. These US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are expected to implement enhanced inspection, surveillance, testing, and monitoring (ISTM) as needed to detect and mitigate age-related degradation of important structures, systems, and components (SSCs). In addition, utilities may undertake various refurbishment and upgrade activities at these plants to better assure economic and reliable power generation. These activities performed for safety and/or economic reasons can result in radioactive waste generation, which is incremental to that generated in the original licensing term. Work was performed for the NRC to help define and characterize potential environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal and plant life extension. As part of this work, projections were made of the types and quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) likely to be generated by licensee programs. These projections were needed to estimate environmental impacts related to the disposal of such wastes

  12. Fee structures for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    Some compacts and states require that the fee system at their new low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility be based on the volume and radioactive hazard of the wastes. The fee structure discussed in this paper includes many potential fee elements that could be used to recover the costs of disposal and at the same time influence the volume and nature of waste that arrives at the disposal facility. It includes a base fee which accounts for some of the underlying administrative costs of disposal, and a broad range of charges related to certain parameters of the waste, such as volume, radioactivity, etc. It also includes credits, such as credits for waste with short-lived radionuclides or superior waste forms. The fee structure presented should contain elements of interest to all states and compacts. While no single disposal facility is likely to incorporate all of the elements discussed here in its fee structure, the paper presents a fairly exhaustive list of factors worth considering

  13. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  14. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers

  15. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

  16. Regional compacting for low-level waste management: an innovative approach in national problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Nern, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the current efforts by the states to institute a reliable national system for low-level radioactive waste management is analyzed. The history of low-level waste management over the last five years is not detailed. It is sufficient to say that there has been a seriously diminished availability of commercial disposal capacity for low-level waste. Some observations and insights into the process the nation has undertaken to solve this problem are offered

  17. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  18. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States -- Progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The US nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW -- industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW -- face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of US low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  19. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low level-radioactive waste disposal: currently operating commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This publication discusses three commercial facilities that receive and dispose of low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located in Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington. All three facilities initiated operations in the 1960s. The three facilities have operated without such major problems as those which led to the closure of three other commercial disposal facilities located in the United States. The Beatty site could be closed in 1983 as a result of a Nevada Board of Health ruling that renewal of the site license would be inimical to public health and safety. The site remains open pending federal and state court hearings, which began in January 1983, to resolve the Board of Health ruling. The three sites may also be affected by NRC's 10 CFR Part 61 regulations, but the impact of those regulations, issued in December 1982, has not yet been assessed. This document provides detailed information on the history and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities. 12 references

  20. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This report assumes that local opposition is a critical issue in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although it recognizes the importance of local health and safety concerns, this report only addresses the economic issues facing local officials in the siting process. Finding ways to overcome local opposition through economic compensation and incentives is a basic step in the waste facility siting process. The report argues that the use of these compensation and incentive mechanisms can help achieve greater local acceptance of waste facilities and also help ease the economic burdens that many communities bear when they agree to host a low-level waste disposal facility. The growing national need for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires that state and local planning agencies develop creative new procedures for siting facilities, procedures that are sensitive to local perceptions and effects

  1. Drumlins - Potential low-level radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A drumlin is a subglacially produced low, streamlined elongate oval hill, mound or ridge with its long axis parallel to the direction of ice flow. It may be composed entirely of till, particularly basal till, or it may have a bedrock core and a relatively thin till outer layer. Most drumlins are less than a half mile long, 400 to 600 feet wide at their base and less than 100 feet high. There are some that are more than a mile long, 1500 to 2000 feet wide and more than 200 feet high. A drumlin has many characteristics which are advantageous to the siting of a low-level radioactive disposal facility. Most drumlins in New York State are composed of basal till which, because of its mode of deposition, may be as dense and impervious as concrete. This composition makes several disposal concepts feasible. Preliminary data and conceptualization indicates a subsurface mined repository paralleling the long axis of a drumlin would meet physical, environmental and long range public safety requirements. A drumlin site could answer many intervenor concerns such as longevity, esthetics, monitoring ability, and inadvertent entry. This paper will describe the structure, composition and engineering significant of the components of a drumlin and will present some alternative concepts for LLRW disposal using a drumlin as a host

  2. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Bench-scale apparatus was used to evaluate asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80 percent to less than 1 percent. Less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats, to collect the same quantity of fly ash. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co - , counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1 percent at moderate pressure drop. The filter cake which forms on the pellet surfaces decreases penetration greatly

  3. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  4. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  5. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste has been produced since the early 1940's. Most of it has been buried in shallow pits at 11 existing sites. Several of the existing sites have performed poorly. Inability to control flow of surface and ground water into and out of disposal pits has been the most important problem. Lack of attention to design of earthen covers over the waste and improper emplacement of the waste in the pits have also contributed to poor performance. Several steps are recommended for improving disposal practices: (1) Waste settlement can be minimized by stacking wastes neatly into pits rather than dumping them randomly; (2) the earthen cover can be made to perform better by making it thicker and by maintaining it properly; and (3) groundwater contamination can be minimized by siting disposal facilities at locations with favorable geohydrologic characteristics. In addition, improved designs are needed for earthen covers, and technology for predicting ground water contamination in the saturated/unsaturated soils that underlie the waste also needs improvement

  6. Risk assessment and reliability for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.O.; Jones, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of critical design features at low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is a major concern in the licensing of these structures. To date, no systematic methodology has been adopted to evaluate the geotechnical reliability of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal facilities currently being designed and/or constructed. This paper discusses and critiques the deterministic methods currently used to evaluate UMTRA reliability. Because deterministic methods may not be applicable in some cases because of the unusually long design life of UMTRA facilities, it is proposed that a probabilistic risk assessment-based methodology be used as a secondary method to aid in the evaluating of geotechnical reliability of critical items. Similar methodologies have proven successful in evaluating the reliability of a variety of conventional earth structures. In this paper, an ''acceptable'' level of risk for UMTRA facilities is developed, an evaluation method is presented, and two example applications of the proposed methodology are provided for a generic UMTRA disposal facility. The proposed technique is shown to be a simple method which might be used to aid in reliability evaluations on a selective basis. Finally, other possible applications and the limitations of the proposed methodology are discussed

  7. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews laboratory efforts that are being developed to address the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are being employed that are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. Sufficient data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW has been developed during the course of this study. These data support the continued development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbially induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form. They also justify the continued effort of enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion

  8. New York State's low-level radioactive waste storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Like their counterparts in other states, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generators in New York State face the prospect of being unable to transfer their LLRW off site beginning January 1, 1993. How long will those generators be able to accumulate and store LLRW on site before activities producing the waste are seriously interrupted? Would a centralized storage facility be a more economically viable solution for medical and academic institutions? The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is conducting a study that seeks to answer these and a variety of related questions over the coming year. This paper describes the origin and design of the study. It reviews the plans for generator-specific data collection, the method for assessing generator storage capability, and the approach to evaluating economic viability. In pursuing this study, the Energy Authority has attempted to incorporate the views of the broad spectrum of LLRW interests. The formation and role of the Study Review Panel, established specifically for that purpose, is discussed. Finally, the paper reviews some of the more interesting questions and issues raised in the development of the study and relates the study to the State's other LLRW management activities, particularly its Interim LLRW Management Plan. (author)

  9. Low-level radioactive waste research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Lambert, J.

    1989-11-01

    The Waste Management Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has developed a strategy for conducting research on issues of concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its efforts to ensure safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The resulting LLW research program plan provides an integrated framework for planning the LLW research program to ensure that the program and its products are responsive and timely for use in NRC's LLW regulatory program. The plan discusses technical and scientific issues and uncertainties associated with the disposal of LLW, presents programmatic goals and objectives for resolving them, establishes a long-term strategy for conducting the confirmatory and investigative research needed to meet these goals and objectives, and includes schedules and milestones for completing the research. Areas identified for investigation include waste form and other material concerns, failure mechanisms and radionuclide releases, engineered barrier performance, site characterization and monitoring, and performance assessment. The plan proposes projects that (1) analyze and test actual LLW and solidified LLW under laboratory and field conditions to determine leach rates and radionuclide releases, (2) examine the short- and long-term performance of concrete-enhanced LLW burial structures and high-integrity containers, and (3) attempt to predict water movement and contaminant transport through low permeability saturated media and unsaturated porous media. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkert, R. [California Dept. of Health Services, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  11. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission low-level radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    It is believed that the priorities of NRC work in low-level waste management as described in this action plan are consistent with the needs of the overall national waste management program. Present licensing procedures and criteria are adequate for the short term, and priority attention is being given to the longer term, when the quantities of waste to be managed will be greater and licensing demand will increase. The plan makes use of expertise within NRC to achieve early results and is coordinated with other Federal agencies having related responsibilities. Since NRC decisions will affect industry, other governmental jurisdictions, private interest groups, and the public at large, procedures were developed to involve them in planning the program

  13. Low-level radioactive waste data base management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roles, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the uses of information obtained from a national system for management of low-level waste shipment manifest information from the perspective of the NRC Division of Waste Management (DWM). A background section is first presented which briefly reviews some of the basic attributes of a workable system, as well as the existing data management systems established by the disposal facility operators. This background leads into a more detailed discussion of the major uses to which a regulatory agency would put the manifest information, including technical studies and analyses of a broad nature as well as day-to-day compliance with regulations and disposal site license conditions. The next two sections respectively summarize NRC's current data base capabilities as well as the limitations in these capabilities. The final section addresses the question: Where do we go from Here? One option under consideration is a rule making which would: (1) set forth the minimum information to be included in shipment manifests in greater detail than that currently specified in 10 CFR 20.311, and (2) require that operators of all low-level waste disposal facilities reduce the information on incoming shipment manifests to an electronic data format which would be periodically forwarded to a centralized location. However, this option would conflict with other NRC priorities and probably require considerable time to implement. Much of the groundwork for a national system has already been prepared, and NRC's preferred approach is to work with States, Compacts, disposal site operators, and DOE to upgrade these existing capabilities. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  14. Success in siting low-level radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.; McCauley, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Government of Canada is about to conclude a legal agreement with three municipalities that will result in a $260-million 10-year multi-phase project to cleanup low-level radioactive wastes and contaminated soils and establish long-term low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Over the last two decades, numerous efforts were undertaken to resolve this long-standing environmental issue. Finally, the communities where the wastes are located came forward with resolutions that they were willing to develop local solutions to the problem. All three municipalities, facilitated by Government funding and assistance, put forward their own local solution to their own waste problem. Government accepted the municipalities' proposals as the basis of a comprehensive approach for dealing with the local problem. Negotiations ensued on Principles of Understanding under which the cleanup would proceed and new long-term waste management facilities would be established. Government's acceptance of the negotiated Principles led to the preparation of a legal agreement that was subsequently signed by each of the municipalities and is now about to be ratified by the Government of Canada. Resolution of the issue will be a major milestone in the Government's environmental agenda. The project will result in an environmentally-responsible, safe, and publicly-accepted approach to the long-term management of the wastes and remove one of the largest contaminated sites issues from the Government's agenda. It also advances the Government's nuclear waste policy and indicates to waste producers that the Government is developing and implementing solutions for wastes for which it is responsible. A key lesson for the Government of Canada in this process has been the advantages of a locally-generated solution. Through the process, the Government empowered the local municipalities to develop their own solution to the local waste problem. It facilitated and supported that effort

  15. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  16. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented

  17. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1987-03-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH 2 ) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na 2 SO 4 can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  18. Low level radioactive waste disposal in Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchev, V.

    2001-01-01

    Kozloduy NPP is the biggest power plant in the Republic of Bulgaria. It is in operation since 1974 and for the past 25 years it has generated over 263 billion kWh electric power. The NPP share in the total electric production in 1998 was about 50%. It has six units in operation - four WWER 440 B-230 and two WWER 1000 B-320. In the nuclear reactor operation the generation of radioactive waste (RAW) is an inevitable process. The waste must be conditioned, stored and disposed of in a safe manner. There are no national radioactive waste disposal facilities, for waste generated by an NPP, in Bulgaria to the moment. This situation necessitates the storage of operational RAW to be carried out on site for a long period of time (30 to 50 years). Following the principle for protection of human health and environment now and in the future, Kozloduy NPP adopted the concept for conditioning the RAW to a stable solid form and placing the waste in a package which should keep its features for a sufficiently long term so that the package can be safely transported to the disposal site. (author)

  19. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Reopening of comment... for public comment a draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste...-based approaches to managing waste are also needed to safely manage Low-Level Radioactive Waste. The...

  20. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins From Commercial Nuclear Power... Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors. DATES: Please submit... Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial...

  1. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0183] Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume... Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction (Policy Statement). This statement encouraged licensees to take..., the NRC staff issued SECY-10-0043, ``Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' (ADAMS Accession No...

  2. 77 FR 40817 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Regulatory Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-2011-0012] RIN-3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Regulatory Management Issues AGENCY: Nuclear... regulatory time of compliance for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, allowing licensees the... system, and revising the NRC's licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. DATES: The...

  3. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, J [ed.; Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  4. Joint US Geological Survey, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission workshop on research related to low-level radioactive waste disposal, May 4-6, 1993, National Center, Reston, Virginia; Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter R.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains papers presented at the "Joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Technical Workshop on Research Related to Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal" that was held at the USGS National Center Auditorium, Reston, Virginia, May 4-6, 1993. The objective of the workshop was to provide a forum for exchange of information, ideas, and technology in the geosciences dealing with LLW disposal. This workshop was the first joint activity under the Memorandum of Understanding between the USGS and NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research signed in April 1992.Participants included invited speakers from the USGS, NRC technical contractors (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories and universities) and NRC staff for presentation of research study results related to LLW disposal. Also in attendance were scientists from the DOE, DOE National Laboratories, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State developmental and regulatory agencies involved in LLW disposal facility siting and licensing, Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), private industry, Agricultural Research Service, universities, USGS and NRC.

  5. A performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derring, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives governing protection of the general population in 10 CFR 61.41, applicants for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste are required to conduct a pathways analysis, or quantitative evaluation of radionuclide release, transport through environmental media, and dose to man. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff defined a strategy and initiated a project at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a methodology for independently evaluating an applicant's analysis of postclosure performance. This performance assessment methodology was developed in five stages: identification of environmental pathways, ranking the significance of the pathways, identification and integration of models for pathway analyses, identification and selection of computer codes and techniques for the methodology, and implementation of the codes and documentation of the methodology. This paper summarizes the NRC approach for conducting evaluations of license applications for low-level radioactive waste facilities. 23 refs

  6. Role of the state in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenneman, F.N.; Salomon, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    This document describes the role of the State in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste in the context of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), which recognizes that the States are responsible for disposal of the waste and as such may develop interstate compacts. The perspective is the present national regulatory framework for the waste system, including generation, transport, treatment, storage and disposal. Although not a definitive legal statement of the area in which States may properly act, the regulatory authority of all Compact States as Agreement States, States with a limited Agreement, and as non-Agreement States is described. The analysis is based on the assumption that the disposal site is State land

  7. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1994-01-01

    Disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a critical part of the national infrastructure needed to maintain the health of American businesses, universities, and hospitals. Currently only 19 States (located in the Northwest and Southeast) have access to operating disposal facilities; all other States are storing their LLW until they open new disposal facilities on their own or in concert with other States through regional compact agreements. In response to recommendations from the National Governors Association, Congress assigned the burden for LLW disposal to all States, first in 1980 through Public Law 96-573, the open-quotes Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Actclose quotes, and again in 1986 through Public Law 99-240, the open-quotes Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985close quotes. As directed by Congress, the Department of Energy provides technical assistance to States and compact regions with this task. After almost 14 years, nine compact regions have been ratified by Congress; California, Texas, North Carolina, and Nebraska have submitted license applications; California has issued an operating license; and the number of operating disposal facilities has decreased from three to two

  9. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  10. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  11. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  12. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  13. Report to Congress: 1995 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions during calendar year 1995 in establishing new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on United States policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  14. Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrin, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    In medical establishments, radioisotopes are used in diagnostic techniques, in chemotherapy or in radioimmunology. Hospitable radioactive wastes are characterized by polymorphism and low activity levels in a great volume. These wastes are also associated with infectivity and toxicity. This paper makes a balance and describes new radioactive waste management proposals. 4 refs.; 3 tabs.; 1 fig

  15. California's response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980: policy and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The public and private corporations and institutions in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have played a major role in shaping and guiding California's response to the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. Working together as the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CAL RAD FORUM), these organizations carry out legislative and public education programs with the objective of establishing, in California, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and maintaining access to existing disposal facilities in other states until the California facility is licensed and operating

  16. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this.

  17. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this

  18. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Low level radioactive liquid waste treatment at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Lasher, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    A new Process Waste Treatment Plant has been constructed at ORNL. The wastes are processed through a precipitation-clarification step and then through an ion exchange step to remove the low-level activity in the waste before discharge into White Oak Creek

  20. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Starmer, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes

  1. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ( 238 U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 238 U can be found, and 238 U behavior in the environment and in the human body

  2. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories

  3. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1997-01-01

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories

  4. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-20

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

  5. Development of a low level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas - 1994 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Texas Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been trying to develop a site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Texas for over ten years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization has been completed and a license application has been filed with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Construction plans were completed in 1993, and the agency is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a license can be issued. Development costs for the site are borne by the utility companies and other major generators in Texas through the assessment of a planning and implementation fee. Total costs to date are approximately $26 million. As the project moves toward completion, state and national anti-nuclear activist groups have become more involved in attempts to thwart the Texas government's effort to solve the radioactive waste problem. To counter this increased opposition, the Texas utility companies and medical radioactive waste generators have also become more active in responding to these groups. This has been very helpful and is in keeping with the elements of building block 12 of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. This paper and poster session look at the schedule, design, and long term prospects for ultimate success of the project

  6. Improved gamma spectrometry of very low level radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineira, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Today, many laboratories face the need to perform measurements of very low level activities using gamma spectroscopy. The techniques in use are identical to those applicable for higher levels of activities, but there is a need to use better adapted materials and modify the measurement conditions to minimize the background noise around the area. This paper presents the design of a very low level activity laboratory which has addressed the laboratory itself, the measuring chamber and the detector. The lab is constructed underground using specially selected materials of construction. The lab atmosphere is filtered and recycled with frequent changeovers. The rate of make-up fresh air is reduced and is sampled high above ground and filtered

  7. Metallograph for the examination of low-level radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.H.; Shaffer, D.S.; Petty, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    A new remote-controlled metallograph was built for use in a low-level radiation background. The metallograph is low cost compared to a conventional remote-controlled metallograph. The motors that drive the stage motions and focus are commercially available and attach to the metallograph without modification. The metallograph was installed on a drawer in a blister behind a shielding door. This allows the metallograph to be reached quickly and easily for maintenance and repair

  8. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites

  9. Recovery of uranium (VI) from low level aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshrestha, Mukul

    1996-01-01

    Investigation was undertaken to evaluate the uranium (VI) removal and recovery potential of a naturally occurring, nonviable macrofungus, Ganoderma Lucidum from the simulated low level aqueous nuclear waste. These low level waste waters discharged from nuclear mine tailings and nuclear power reactors have a typical U(VI) concentration of 10-100 mg/L. It is possible to recover this uranium economically with the advent of biosorption as a viable technology. Extensive laboratory studies have revealed Ganoderma Lucidum to be a potential biosorbent with a specific uptake of 2.75 mg/g at an equilibrium U(VI) concentration of 10 mg/L at pH 4.5. To recover the sorbed U(VI), the studies indicated 0.2N Na 2 CO 3 to be an effective elutant. The kinetics of U(VI) desorption from loaded Ganoderma Lucidum with 0.2N Na 2 CO 3 as elutant, was found to be rapid with more than 75% recovery occurring in the first five minutes, the specific metal release rate being 0.102 mg/g/min. The equilibrium data fitted to a linearised Freundlich plot and exhibited a near 100% recovery of sorbed U(VI), clearly revealing a cost-effective method of recovery of precious uranium from low level wastewater. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Research on near-surface disposal of very low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Yue Huiguo; Hou Jie; Chen Haiying; Zuo Rui; Wang Jinsheng

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal is one of the most sensitive environmental problems to control and solve. As the arriving of decommissioning of early period nuclear facilities in China, large amounts of very low level radioactive waste will be produced inevitably. The domestic and abroad definitions about very low level radioactive waste and its disposal were introduced, and then siting principles of near-surface disposal of very low level radioactive waste were discussed. The near- surface disposal siting methods of very low level radioactive waste were analyzed from natural and geographical conditions assessment, geological conditions analysis, hydrogeological conditions analysis, geological hazard assessment and radioactive background investigation; the near-surface disposal sites'natural barriers of very low level radioactive waste were analyzed from the crustal structure and physico-chemical characteristics, the dynamics characteristics of groundwater, the radionuclide adsorption characteristics of natural barriers and so on; the near-surface disposal sites' engineered barriers of very low level radioactive waste were analyzed from the repository design, the repository barrier materials selection and so on. Finally, the improving direction of very low level radioactive waste disposal was proposed. (authors)

  11. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office: Thirty Years of Experience in Canada - 13308

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Liliana; Gardiner, Mark J.; Zelmer, Robert L. [Natural Resources Canada, 580 Booth Street, Ottawa On. (Canada); Gardiner, Mark J.; Zelmer, Robert L. [Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviews thirty years of progress by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) in developing and implementing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) remediation projects and environmentally safe co-existence strategies. It reports on the present status and the future of the national historic waste program in Canada. There are over two million cubic metres of historic LLRW in Canada. Historic LLRW is broadly defined as LLRW that was managed in the past in a manner that is no longer considered acceptable and for which the original owner cannot reasonably be held accountable. In many cases, the original owner can not be identified or no longer exists. The LLRWMO was established in 1982 as Canada's agent to carry out the responsibilities of the federal government for the management of historic LLRW. The LLRWMO is operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) through a cost-recovery agreement with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), the federal department that provides the funding and establishes national policy for radioactive waste management in Canada. The LLRWMO expertise includes project managers, environmental remediation specialists, radiation surveyors, communications staff and administrative support staff. The LLRWMO in providing all aspects of project oversight and implementation contracts additional resources supplementing core staff capacity as project/program demands require. (authors)

  12. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. The siting process: establishing a low-level waste-disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility encompasses many interrelated activities and, therefore, is inherently complex. The purpose of this publication is to assist state policymakers in understanding the nature of the siting process. Initial discussion focuses on the primary activities that require coordination during a siting effort. Available options for determining site development, licensing, regulating, and operating responsibilities are then considered. Additionally, the document calls attention to technical services available from federal agencies to assist states in the siting process; responsibilities of such agencies are also explained. The appendices include a conceptual plan for scheduling siting activities and an explanation of the process for acquiring agreement state status. An agreement state takes responsibility for licensing and regulating a low-level waste facility within its borders

  13. Mathematical modeling in low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.S.; Yeh, G.T.

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of moisture transport through near-surface infiltration reduction seals above low-level waste trenches may be used to aid in the evaluation of engineering design alternatives. The infiltration of rainwater must be reduced for successful radionuclide containment within a typical shallow trench. Clay admixtures offer not only long-term integrity, but the necessary durability. The use of models is exemplified in the calculation of spatial moisture content and velocity distributions in the vicinity of a near-surface seal

  14. Directions in low-level radioactive-waste management. Incentives and compensation: providing resources for communities hosting low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    State responsibility for the management of low-level radioactive waste necessitates the selection of candidate locations for a disposal facility. Concern over potential impacts can be expected from segments of the citizenry neighboring a proposed site. A number of national organizations comprising state and local officials have recommended the use of incentives and compensation to help offset the negative local impacts. This document explores that concept. Discussion provides background information on potential local impacts from a low-level waste facility and considers the nature and types of incentives and compensation benefits that could be provided. The document then examines realistic options for planning and implementing the benefit program. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for and managing low-level waste disposal facilities

  15. Low-level radioactive waste from rare metals processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, J.; Hendricks, D.W.; Feldman, J.; Giardina, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the situations at the existing Teledyne Wah Chang Co., Inc. located at Albany, Oregon, and the former Carborundum Corp./Amax Specialty Metals, Inc., facilities located at Parkersburg, West Virginia, and Akron, New York, in order to show the extent of the radioactivity problem at rare metals processing facilities and the need to identify for radiological review other rare metal and rare earth processing sites

  16. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, S.; Bellinger, E.

    1988-03-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  17. Solidification of ash from incineration of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, W.A.; Albenesius, E.L.; Becker, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The safe disposal of both high-level and low-level radioactive waste is a problem of increasing national attention. A full-scale incineration and solidification process to dispose of suspect-level and low-level beta-gamma contaminated combustible waste is being demonstrated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The stabilized wasteform generated by the process will meet or exceed all future anticipated requirements for improved disposal of low-level waste. The incineration process has been evaluated at SRL using nonradioactive wastes, and is presently being started up in SRP to process suspect-level radioactive wastes. A cement solidification process for incineration products is currently being evaluated by SRL, and will be included with the incineration process in SRP during the winter of 1984. The GEM alumnus author conducted research in a related disposal solidification program during the GEM-sponsored summer internship, and upon completion of the Masters program, received full-time responsibility for developing the incineration products solidification process

  18. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature

  19. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997

  20. Very Low Level Radioactive Solid Waste Management in CHINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting Jun [No. 117 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2011-06-15

    This paper introduces the policy and regulations on very low level waste (VLLW) management in China. Given the important decommissioning and site restoration program of the old facility, it is considered necessary to create a new disposal facility dedicated to VLLW. Many general design principles are in common with to the disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (LILW), namely the isolation of the waste by means of a multibarrier system, but using bentonite and/or high density polyethylene membranes instead of the generalized use of concrete barriers. The design of the facility is consistent with the design of disposal facilities for hazardous waste. The engineering design of two VLLW disposal facilities is introduced.

  1. Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste for NPP Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang Lak

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive wastes may are generated throughout the life cycle of a nuclear power plant. These wastes can be categorized as follows: Operational wastes in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Plant components resulting from maintenance, modification or life extension work (e.g. steam generators, pumps, valves, control rods, spent filters, etc.). Materials from the structure of the plant and equipment (e.g. metals and concrete that result in large quantities of waste upon decommissioning Large quantities of materials will be generated during decommissioning and dismantling. A significant proportion of these materials will only be slightly contaminated with radioactivity. Due to economies of scale, recycling and reuse options are more likely to be cost effective for such large quantities of materials than for the relatively smaller quantities arising during operation. These materials also present opportunities to manage waste more effectively by utilizing the approaches to blending discussed in this paper. The NRC uses allows blending based on risk and performance measures for public health and safety. Performance-based regulation means that the blended waste must meet the limits on radiation exposures at the disposal facility and limits on how much the radioactivity concentration may vary or in other words, how homogeneous and well mixed it is. LLW blending is an approach to waste management that can give greater flexibility for disposal options for NPP waste from the entire life cycle of the plant which includes operational wastes such as ion exchange resins and filters, maintenance wastes which include replacement components (discrete items), and large quantities of decommissioning wastes

  2. Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste for NPP Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Radioactive wastes may are generated throughout the life cycle of a nuclear power plant. These wastes can be categorized as follows: Operational wastes in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Plant components resulting from maintenance, modification or life extension work (e.g. steam generators, pumps, valves, control rods, spent filters, etc.). Materials from the structure of the plant and equipment (e.g. metals and concrete that result in large quantities of waste upon decommissioning Large quantities of materials will be generated during decommissioning and dismantling. A significant proportion of these materials will only be slightly contaminated with radioactivity. Due to economies of scale, recycling and reuse options are more likely to be cost effective for such large quantities of materials than for the relatively smaller quantities arising during operation. These materials also present opportunities to manage waste more effectively by utilizing the approaches to blending discussed in this paper. The NRC uses allows blending based on risk and performance measures for public health and safety. Performance-based regulation means that the blended waste must meet the limits on radiation exposures at the disposal facility and limits on how much the radioactivity concentration may vary or in other words, how homogeneous and well mixed it is. LLW blending is an approach to waste management that can give greater flexibility for disposal options for NPP waste from the entire life cycle of the plant which includes operational wastes such as ion exchange resins and filters, maintenance wastes which include replacement components (discrete items), and large quantities of decommissioning wastes.

  3. 76 FR 10810 - Public Workshop to Discuss Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Public Workshop and Request for... regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The purpose of this...-level radioactive wastes that did not exist at the time part 61 was promulgated. The developments...

  4. Microbial transformation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1980-06-01

    Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation of the radioactive waste and waste forms disposed of at shallow-land burial sites. Microbial degradation products of organic wastes may influence the transport of buried radionuclides by leaching, solubilization, and formation of organoradionuclide complexes. The ability of indigenous microflora of the radioactive waste to degrade the organic compounds under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was examined. Leachate samples were extracted with methylene chloried and analyzed for organic compounds by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In general, several of the organic compounds in the leachates were degraded under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, the degradation of the organics was very slow, and changes in concentrations of several acidic compounds were observed. Several low-molecular-weight organic acids are formed by breakdown of complex organic materials and are further metabolized by microorganisms; hence these compounds are in a dynamic state, being both synthesized and destroyed. Tributyl phosphate, a compound used in the extraction of metal ions from solutions of reactor products, was not degraded under anaerobic conditions

  5. International aspects of the management of low-level dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: international regulations governing radioactive waste disposal; radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; historical dumping practices; assessment of the North East Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and national and international implications. A recent analysis of international issues associated with ocean disposal of low-level radioactive wastes indicated a number of points which impact on US needs and policies and need resolution. The first is that the development of adequate international criteria and standards will assist the US in evaluating the option of using the oceans for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Secondly, it is essential that international cooperation in research and radiological surveillance be expanded. Thirdly, the delays in the agreements on international mechanisms, criteria and standards, sometimes as a direct result of a lack of coordinated US policies makes the implementation of the intent of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA mechanism more difficult. Last of all in the unresolved question of how the US should apply the London Convention to the 200 mile exclusive economic zone

  6. 1992 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; McDonald, S.D.

    1993-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1992 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1988 through 1992; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1992. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report

  7. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  8. 1994 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1994 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1990 through 1994; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1994. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  9. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  10. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  11. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island

  12. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  13. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  14. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected

  16. The packaging of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Solid radioactive wastes will generally require some kind of packaging to prepare them for a period of storage followed probably by a land burial. In this Paper the specification of the package is discussed in relation to the properties which will facilitate those two phases of the management of the waste. It is concluded that, by adopting the philosophy of redundant barriers for the disposal phase, a suitable package can be specified for any particular waste product even before the repository site has been selected. Low water flow and an appropriate depth to reduce the risk of accidental re-exposure are the technical site parameters for which particular values will have to be assured at that stage. (author)

  17. Low-level radioactive waste processing at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Solid Radwaste Processing Source Book is presented as a supplement to the Liquid Radwaste Source Book released in 1990 and updated in 1991. The publication is the result of an industry-wide survey, and is intended as a resource for technical and managerial decisions involving of the processing of solid radioactive waste including ''wet'' and ''dry'' active waste as found at both Pressurized and Boiling Water Reactor sites. In addition to information on processes, vendors, volumes, and in-plant management activities, technology under consideration for future use and computer applications are listed. Together with key personnel and contact information contained in the Liquid Source Books, the collected data will be of great use when seeking specific, unbiased experience on which to base decisions related to so processing, disposal policy, or potential economic and regulatory impact

  18. Microbial transformation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Micro-organisms play a significant role in the transformation of the radioactive waste and waste forms disposed of at shallow-land burial sites. Microbial degradation products of organic wastes may influence the transport of buried radionuclides by leaching, solubilization, and formation of organoradionuclide complexes. The ability of indigenous microflora of the radioactive waste to degrade the organic compounds under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was examined. Leachate samples were extracted with methylene chloride and analysed for organic compounds by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In general, several of the organic compounds in the leachates were degraded under aerobic conditions. Addition of a nitrogen source increased the rate of decomposition. Under anaerobic conditions, the degradation of the organics was very slow, and changes in concentrations of several acidic compounds were observed. Several low-molecular-weight organic acids are formed by breakdown of complex organic materials and are further metabolized by micro-organisms; hence these compounds are in a dynamic state, being both synthesized and destroyed. Addition of a nitrogen source had only a slight effect on these degradation rates. Tributyl phosphate, a compound used in the extraction of metal ions from solutions of reactor products, was not degraded under anaerobic conditions. The formation of straight- and branched-chain aliphatic acids and their long residence time in an anaerobic environment could significantly affect the migration of radionuclides from the disposal sites. The chemical and biological stabilities of the synthetic chelating and decontamination agents and of naturally occurring and microbially synthesized radionuclide complexes are among the major factors determining the mobility of radionuclides from a burial environment into the biosphere. (author)

  19. A model for a national low level waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenhorn, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A national program for the management of low level waste is essential to the success of environmental clean-up, decontamination and decommissioning, current operations and future missions. The value of a national program is recognized through procedural consistency and a shared set of resources. A national program requires a clear waste definition and an understanding of waste characteristics matched against available and proposed disposal options. A national program requires the development and implementation of standards and procedures for implementing the waste hierarchy, with a specitic emphasis on waste avoidance, minimization and recycling. It requires a common set of objectives for waste characterization based on the disposal facility's waste acceptance criteria, regulatory and license requirements and performance assessments. Finally, a national waste certification program is required to ensure compliance. To facilitate and enhance the national program, a centralized generator services organization, tasked with providing technical services to the generators on behalf of the national program, is necessary. These subject matter experts are the interface between the generating sites and the disposal facility(s). They provide an invaluable service to the generating organizations through their involvement in waste planning prior to waste generation and through championing implementation of the waste hierarchy. Through their interface, national treatment and transportation services are optimized and new business opportunities are identified. This national model is based on extensive experience in the development and on-going management of a national transuranic waste program and management of the national repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Low Level Program at the Savannah River Site also successfully developed and implemented the waste hierarchy, waste certification and waste generator services concepts presented below. The Savannah River Site

  20. Considerations for evaluating proposed low-level radioactive waste compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Thirty-nine States have enacted legislation related to this Act, and five compacts have been submitted to Congress for consent. Other compacts are being negotiated, one in the West and several in the Midwest and Northeast. The Department of Energy has identified a number of items, which if included in the congressional review of each compact, would be likely to increase the possibility that new disposal sites will be developed and properly supported. The Department is providing additional perspectives that have not been previously included in testimony or reports. By suggesting examination of several general elements of a compact proposal, the Department hopes to provide a common focus that may be useful to the Congress in integrating all available information. The Department believes that the Congress should consider the following key items when reviewing the compacts: Commitments that assure the provision of new disposal capacity in the form of a host-State and site selection process with schedules and a target date for new sites to be opened; Commitments that provide short-term measures for storage, treatment, or disposal during an interim period when such new capacity may not be available; Consistency of definitions with 10 CFR Part 61 to assure the compact plan presents a total solution for all low-level waste generated within the region; Periodic review of the compacts by the Congress to examine concerns that are more easily assessed after a compact becomes operational, e.g., economic viability and long-term institutional control; and Economic viability of a compact, when reviewed in the future, in terms of the benefits and the costs specific to that region

  1. The very low level radioactive military waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The recommendations of the Observatory of French nuclear weapons call attention to the fact the I.N.B.S. depend on the services of the High Commissioner of Atomic Energy;call attention to the fact that the reactors of the nuclear propulsion ( only military ones) are out of regulation: independent studies have to be realised on three harbors (Brest, Toulon, Cherbourg) for an evaluation about the environmental and sanitary consequences of the presence of nuclear facilities near urban areas that is not the case for any civil nuclear installation; call attention on the dismantling operations actually in some military nuclear installations, who is in charge of the control of the different steps of these dismantling operations, call attention on the setting up of radioactive waste storage ( very low activity at Saint-Priest, Rhone, very high activity with americium at Valduc, long lived elements at Cadarache, tritium waste at Valduc, alpha waste at Valduc waste not under the control of an independent organism; call attention on the final destination of depleted uranium; call attention on the bad management of tritium by the installation of nuclear weapons fabrication, about the actual stocks in plutonium and uranium. (N.C.)

  2. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control

  3. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  4. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  5. Delaware State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Delaware State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Delaware. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Delaware. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Delaware

  6. Commercial processing and disposal alternatives for very low levels of radioactive waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States has several options available in the commercial processing and disposal of very low levels of radioactive waste. These range from NRC licensed low level radioactive sites for Class A, B and C waste to conditional disposal or free release of very low concentrations of material. Throughout the development of disposal alternatives, the US promoted a graded disposal approach based on risk of the material hazards. The US still promotes this approach and is renewing the emphasis on risk based disposal for very low levels of radioactive waste. One state in the US, Tennessee, has had a long and successful history of disposal of very low levels of radioactive material. This paper describes that approach and the continuing commercial options for safe, long term processing and disposal. (author)

  7. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  8. New Mexico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The New Mexico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Mexico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Mexico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Mexico

  9. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont

  10. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal Agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  11. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  12. West Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The West Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in West Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in West Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in West Virginia

  13. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  14. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah.

  15. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky

  16. New York State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The New York State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New York. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New York. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New York

  17. Indiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, E.L.; Hume, R.D.; Briggs, H.R.; Feigenbaum, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Indiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Indiana. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Indiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Indiana

  18. Hawaii State briefing book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Hawaii State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Hawaii. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Hawaii. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Hawaii

  19. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  20. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  1. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina

  2. Louisiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Louisiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Louisiana. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Louisiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Louisiana

  3. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  4. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  5. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

  6. California State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The California State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in California. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in California. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in California

  7. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts

  8. Arizona State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Arizona State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arizona. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arizona. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arizona

  9. Iowa State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Iowa State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Iowa. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Iowa. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Iowa

  10. Colorado State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Colorado State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Colorado. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Colorado. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Colorado

  11. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee.

  12. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  13. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin

  14. Idaho State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Idaho State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Idaho. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Idaho. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Idaho

  15. Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Virginia

  16. Illinois State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Illinois State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Illinois. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Illinois. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Illinois

  17. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon

  18. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington

  19. NRC perspective on extended on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste after 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, Forrest J.

    1992-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires that each State, which has not provided for disposal capacity by January 1, 1993, must take title and possession of the low-level radioactive wastes generated in the State. If the states do not take title and possession of the wastes, the rebates to which the states would have been entitled to would be returned to the waste generators. in considering the matter, the Commission solicited comments from States) low-level radioactive waste compacts, local governments, and the general public so that the public's views could be factored into the Commission's deliberations on this issue. This paper addresses the current status of NRC positions on the adequacy of the NRC's existing regulatory framework associated with the title transfer provisions of the LLRWPAA and the Commission's views on extended on-site storage of low-level radioactive wastes after the 1993 and 1996 milestones. (author)

  20. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  1. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

  2. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  3. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  4. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming

  5. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  6. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  7. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut

  8. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina

  9. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

  10. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  11. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio

  12. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey

  13. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  14. Michigan State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Michigan State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Michigan. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Michigan. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Michigan

  15. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota

  16. Alabama State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Alabama State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Alabama. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alabama. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alabama

  17. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal cmmunications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  18. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  19. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi

  20. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  1. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico

  2. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  3. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  4. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  5. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  6. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania

  7. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah

  8. 1994 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report for calendar year 1994 summarizes the progress that states and compact regions made during the year in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although events that have occurred in 1995 greatly alter the perspective in terms of storage versus disposal, the purpose of this report is to convey the concerns as evidenced during calendar year 1994. Significant developments occurring in 1995 are briefly outlined in the transmittal letter and will be detailed in the report for calendar year 1995. The report also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1994 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, and is prepared is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

  9. Minnesota State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Minnesota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Minnesota. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Minnesota conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Minnesota

  10. The 1988 state-by-state assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1989-12-01

    This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator categories, waste classes, volumes, and activities. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1988 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1984 through 1988; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1988. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that which was handled by an intermediary. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.P.; Jaffe, M.

    1984-09-01

    In discussing the use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, chapters are devoted to: compensation and incentives in disposal facility siting (definitions and effects of compensation and incentives and siting decisions involving the use of compensation and incentives); the impacts of regional and state low-level radioactive waste facilities; the legal framework of compensation; and recommendations regarding the use of compensation

  12. Incineration of hazardous and low-level radioactive waste by a small generator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, C.C.

    1984-10-01

    The results from Arizona State University's study of the feasibility of a small generator incinerating low-level radioactive waste in a pathological incinerator are reported. The research included various aspects of environmental impact, public relations, cost versus benefit, and licensing procedures. Three years of work resulted in a license amendment authorizing the University to incinerate certain hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. 13 references, 6 figures, 16 tables

  13. Recent experience with the land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Low-level, nuclear fuel cycle wastes are being disposed of at six commercially operated sites in the United States of America. Similar wastes resulting from Federal activities are being disposed of at five Federally operated sites. The hydrology, geology, climate and operational practices at these sites vary greatly. At three sites in the wetter eastern United States which have low-permeability burial media, it is difficult to keep water from getting into the trenches. Two commercial burial sites in New York and Kentucky have not performed as planned. Authorization to operate these facilities was based on site analyses which, it was believed, demonstrated that the buried radioactive wastes would not migrate from the site during their hazardous lifetime (i.e. for hundreds of years). In ten years or less, however, radioactivity has been detected offsite from these two sites. Radioactivity has migrated offsite from the Federal burial site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, also. State and Federal authorities have stated that the radioactivity in the environment around the site was not a health hazard at this time. Information is presented on recent disposal practices and experience at these three low-level burial facilities. Based on this experience, the paper (1) briefly describes operations and problems at the sites; (2) suggests factors which led to the problems; (3) identifies problems which appear to be generic to disposal in humid climates; (4) identifies specific problems which could either reduce the ability to predict the impact of disposal operations or reduce the retention capability of the site; and (5) recommends improvements which can be made in site selection, development, and operation to reduce the environmental impact of the site. (author)

  14. Historic low-level radioactive waste federal policies, programs and oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchette, M.; Kenney, J.; Zelmer, B.

    2011-01-01

    the federal government. Through the Ongoing Waste program, the LLRWMO supports NRCan in its development and implementation of national policies and strategies for the disposal of wastes and in meeting its commitment to international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Information program addresses public information needs related to specific historic waste projects and to low-level radioactive waste management in general. The PHAI MO was established in 2009 to perform similar activities as the LLRWMO but to focus solely on managing the clean-up of historic waste located in the Port Hope area where over 90% of Canada's known historic waste is located. The clean-up is being addressed through Canada's Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The mandate of the PHAI MO to manage the implementation of the PHAI will extend through the completion of Phase 2 of the PHAI. The PHAI MO is a tripartite organization, established within AECL and involving the participation of Public Works and Government Services Canada and NRCan. It is accountable to a Steering Committee, chaired by NRCan, which provides strategic direction. The PHAI MO activities are carried out under two primary projects -- the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project. In addition to the construction of long-term waste management facilities and the remediation of sites contaminated with historic waste its responsibilities also include delivery of various community-related programs established under the PHAI An overview of the historic waste program activities managed on behalf of the federal government through these organizations in the Port Hope area, the Greater Toronto Area, in Fort McMurray, Alberta and along the Northern Transportation Route is provided. (author)

  15. Treatment of solid radioactive waste: The incineration of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, F.; Hempelmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear facilities produce large quantities of burnable solid radioactive waste which incineration can reduce in volume and change into a form capable of ultimate storage. Experiments over many years were carried out at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center to determine the boundary conditions for the design and construction of incineration plants for radioactive waste. On the basis of those experiments a test facility was started up in 1971. This operating facility consists of a shaft furnace lined with ceramics with a downstream series of ceramic flue gas filters. In 1976 the plant was exchanged by the installation of a pilot facility for burning organic solvents and of a flue gas scrubber. The plant has so far been in operation for more than 28000 hours and has processed in excess of 1500 to of solid and some 300 m 3 of liquid low level radioactive wastes. Various repairs and interventions were carried out without greatly impairing availability, which was 81 % on the average. The plant design is being used by various licensees in Japan and Europe; three plants are either in operation or completed, three more are under construction or in the planning stage. On the basis of the available process an incineration plant for alpha contaminated waste will be built at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in the next few years. (orig.)

  16. Methodology of safety evaluation about land disposal of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Accompanying the progress of the construction project of low level radioactive waste storage facilities in Aomori Prefecture, the full scale land disposal of low level radioactive wastes shows its symptom also in Japan. In this report, the scientific methodology to explain the safety about the land disposal of low level radioactive wastes is discussed. The land disposal of general wastes by shallow burying has already had sufficient results. In the case of low level radioactive wastes, also the land disposal by shallow burying is considered. Low level radioactive wastes can be regarded as one form of industrial wastes, as there are many common parts in the scientific and theoretical base of the safety. Attention is paid most to the contamination of ground water. Low level radioactive wastes are solid wastes, accordingly the degree of contamination should be less. The space in which ground water existes, the phenomena of ground water movement, the phenomena of ground water dispersion and Fick's law, the adsorption effect of strata, and the evaluation of source term are explained. These are the method to analyze the degree of contamination from safety evaluation viewpoint. (Kako, I.)

  17. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Clinton, J.C.; Milian, L.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been under way at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the radionuclide release behavior of ion exchange bead resin waste solidified in Portland cement. An important aspect of this program is to develop and evaluate testing procedures and methodologies which enable the long-term performance evaluation of waste forms under simulated field conditions. Cesium and strontium release behavior using a range of testing procedures, including intermittent leachant flow conditions, has been investigated. For cyclic wet/dry leaching tests, extended dry periods tend to enhance the release of Cs and suppress the release of Sr. Under extended wet period leaching conditions, however, both Cs and Sr exhibit suppressed releases. In contrast, radionuclide releases observed under continuously saturated leaching conditions, as represented by conventional leaching tests, are significantly different. The relevance and aplicability of these laboratory data obtained under a wide range of leaching conditions to the performance evaluation of waste forms under anticipated field conditions is discussed. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Viability study for the implantation of an incineration unit for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Andre Wagner Oliani

    1995-01-01

    Incineration have been a world-wide accepted volume reduction technique for combustible materials due to its high efficiency and excellent results. This technique is used since the last century as an alternative to reduce cities garbage and during the last four decades for the hazardous wastes. The nuclear industry is also involved in this technique development related to the low level radioactive waste management. There are different types of incineration installations and the definition of the right system is based on a criterious survey of its main characteristics, related to the rad wastes as well technical, economical and burocratic parameters. After the autonomous Brazilian nuclear programme development and the onlook of the future intensive nuclear energy uses, a radwaste generation increase is expected. One of the installations where these radwastes volumes are awaited to be high is the Experimental Center of ARAMAR (CEA). Nuclear reactors for propulsion and power generation have been developed in CEA beyond other nuclear combustible cycle activities. In this panorama it is important to evaluate the incineration role in CEA installations, as a volume reduction technique for an appropriate radioactive wastes management implementation. In this work main aspects related to the low level radwaste incineration systems were up rised. This information are important to a coherent viability study and also to give a clear and impartial about a topic that is still non discussed in the national scenery. (author)

  19. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technology development through a public process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.P.; Hysong, R.J.; Edwards, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    When Pennsylvania's legislature ratified the Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact in 1985, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania became the host state designee for the compact's low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) disposal facility. Programs necessary for the establishment of this facility became the responsibility of the Department of Environmental Resources' (DER), Bureau of Radiation Protection's, Division of Nuclear Safety (DNS). It was realized early in the process that the technical aspects of this program, while challenging, probably were not the largest obstacle to completing the facility on schedule. The largest obstacle was likely to be public acceptance. Recognizing this, the DNS set out to develop a program that would maximize public involvement in all aspects of site and facility development. To facilitate public involvement in the process, the DNS established a LLRW advisory committee and a strategy for holding public meetings throughout Pennsylvania. As a result of the significant public involvement generated by these efforts, Pennsylvania passed, in February of 1988, one of the most stringent and technically demanding LLRW disposal laws in the nation. Hopefully, increased public confidence will reduce to a minimum public opposition to the facility

  20. Sulfur polymer cement, a new stabilization agent for mixed and low- level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Solidification and stabilization agents for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes are failing to pass governmental tests at alarming rates. The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program funded testing of Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1980s. Those tests and tests by the US Bureau of Mines (the original developer of SPC), universities, states, and the concrete industry have shown SPC to be superior to hydraulic cements in most cases. Superior in what wastes can be successfully combined and in the quantity of waste that can be combined and still pass the tests established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  1. Development of a computerized data base for low-level radioactive waste leaching data: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Colombo, P.

    1986-09-01

    This report documents the development of a computerized data base (db) of leaching data for solidified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) forms. Brookhaven National Lab performed this work under contract with the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program as part of an effort to develop an accelerated leach test(s) that can be used to predict leachabilities of LLW forms over long time periods, i.e., hundreds of years. The accelerated leach test(s) is (are) to be developed based on knowledge of leaching mechanisms and factors that affect leaching. Although developed specifically for the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program, this db may be useful to others concerned with the management of low-level waste. The db is being developed to provide efficient data compilation and analysis capabilities. The data compiled in the db, which include data from the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program and selected data from the literature, have been selected to elucidate leaching mechanisms and factors that affect leaching and are not meant to be a comprehensive compilation of leaching data. This report presents the data compilation aspect of the db. It does not present the programmatic results obtained from analysis of the data regarding leaching mechanisms and factors that affect leaching, which will be presented in reports from the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program. 6 refs

  2. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 2, Niobium-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The Purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to, state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information used to produce this series of reports and an introductory report. This report is Volume 11 of the series. It outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of niobium-94, waste types and forms that contain it, and its behavior in environmental media such as soils, plants, groundwater, air, animals and the human body

  3. Basic approach to the disposal of low level radioactive waste generated from nuclear reactors containing comparatively high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Yoshinori

    1998-01-01

    Low level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated from nuclear reactors are classified into three categories: LLW containing comparatively high radioactivity; low level radioactive waste; very low level radioactive waste. Spent control rods, part of ion exchange resin and parts of core internals are examples of LLW containing comparatively high radioactivity. The Advisory Committee of Atomic Energy Commission published the report 'Basic Approach to the Disposal of LLW from Nuclear Reactors Containing Comparatively High Radioactivity' in October 1998. The main points of the proposed concept of disposal are as follows: dispose of underground deep enough not be disturb common land use (e.g. 50 to 100 m deep); dispose of underground where radionuclides migrate very slowly; dispose of with artificial engineered barrier which has the same function as the concrete pit; control human activities such as land use of disposal site for a few hundreds years. (author)

  4. Alternative concepts for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This conceptual design report is provided by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program to assist states and compact regions in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities in accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1985. The report provides conceptual designs and evaluations of six widely considered concepts for LLW disposal. These are shallow land disposal (SLD), intermediate depth disposal (IDD), below-ground vaults (BGV), above-ground vaults (AGV), modular concrete canister disposal (MCCD), earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB). 40 refs., 45 figs., 77 tabs

  5. An innovative approach to solid Low Level Radioactive Waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancake, D.C. Jr.; Sodaro, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on a new system of Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) accumulation, processing and packaging, as-well as the implementation of a Laboratory-wide training program used to introduce new waste accumulation containers to all of the on-site radioactive waste generators, and to train them on the requirements of this innovative waste characterization and documentation program

  6. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  7. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas.

  9. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas

  10. Low-level radioactive waste management in New York State: Meeting the milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 made the states responsible for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated within their borders. After extensive hearings and public participation, New York State enacted a Radioactive Waste Management Act (State LLRWMA) in July 1986. This paper describes New York's program and reviews the State's progress in complying with the milestone established by Public Law 99-240. A number of concerns about LLRW disposal and the schedule calling for a facility to be operational by January 1, 1993, are also discussed

  11. Low level radioactive waste disposal/treatment technology overview: Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, H.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Savannah River Site will begin operation of several low-level waste disposal/treatment facilities during the next five years, including a new low-level solid waste disposal facility, a low-level liquid effluent treatment facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Closure of a radioactive hazardous waste burial ground will also be completed. Technical efforts directed toward waste volume reduction include compaction, incineration, waste avoidance, and clean waste segregation. This paper summarizes new technology being developed and implemented. 11 refs., 1 fig

  12. Secrets of successful siting legislation for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    California's users of radioactive materials, working together through the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (Cal Rad), have played a role in fostering development of our state's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. One of Cal Rad's contributions was to develop and sponsor California's siting legislation in 1983. In this paper, the elements of the state's LLRW siting law, California Senate Bill 342 (Chapter 1177, Statutes a 1983), and their relationship to a successful siting program are described

  13. 1991 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1991 of States and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. It has been prepared in response to requirements in Section 7 (b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act). By the end of 1991, 9 compact regions (totaling 42 States) were functioning with plans to establish low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Appalachian, Central, Central Midwest, Midwest, Northeast, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southeast, and Southwestern. Also planning to construct disposal facilities, but unaffiliated with a compact region, are Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, and Vermont. The District of Columbia, New Hampshire, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island and Michigan are unaffiliated with a compact region and do not plan to construct a disposal facility. Michigan was the host State for the Midwest compact region until July 1991 when the Midwest Interstate Compact Commission revoked Michigan's membership. Only the Central, Central Midwest, and Southwestern compact regions met the January 1, 1992, milestone in the Act to submit a complete disposal license application. None of the States or compact regions project meeting the January 1, 1993, milestone to have an operational low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Also summarized are significant events that occurred in low-level radioactive waste management in 1991 and early 1992, including the 1992 United States Supreme Court decision in New York v. United States in which New York challenged the constitutionality of the Act, particularly the ''take-title'' provision. Summary information is also provided on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1991 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  14. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

    1998-05-01

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective.

  15. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

    1998-05-01

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective

  16. De minimis applications for alternative disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, C.

    1986-01-01

    Existing NRC regulations provide no minimum level of radioactivity in waste from a licensee's facility that may be disposed of in a manner other than as radioactive waste. With one exception, in 10CFRsection20.306, licensees may dispose of certain levels of tritium and carbon-14 in liquid-scintillation and animal-carcass waste without regard to its radioactivity. In the interim, before specific or generic provisions for disposing of very low level radioactive wastes are adopted through rule making, licensees have another alternative for obtaining approval to dispose of large volumes of materials contaminated with very low levels of radioactivity under provision 10CFRsection20.302(a) ''Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.'' This paper provides the experiences of obtaining both NRC and states (North Carolina and South Carolina) approval for disposing of very low-level radioactive wastes from Duke Power Company's nuclear stations. The approved disposal procedures include landfarming of water treatment residues, on-site disposal (burial) of sand and feedwater heaters, and include offsite release for treatment and disposal of sanitary sewage sludge. In summary, users of radioactive materials should not exclude this approach in their quest to reduce the volume of radioactive waste. It is expected that such submittals could provide a data base for further development of generic limits for radioactive wastes

  17. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Design and operational experience of low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of at the Drigg near-surface disposal site for over 30 years. These are carried out under a disposal authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency. This is augmented by a three tier comprehensive system of waste controls developed by BNFL involving wasteform specification, consignor and waste stream qualification and waste consignment verification. Until 1988 wastes were disposed of into trench facilities. However, based on a series of integrated optioneering studies, new arrangements have since been brought into operation. Central to these is a wasteform specification based principally on high force compaction of wastes, grouting within 20 m 3 steel overpack containers to essentially eliminate associated voidage and subsequent disposal in concrete lined vaults. These arrangements ensure efficient utilisation of the Drigg site capacity and a cost-effective disposal concept which meets both national and international standards. (author). 7 figs

  19. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Basic concept on safety regulation for land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    As to the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes, to which the countermeasures have become the urgent problem at present, it is considered to be a realistic method to finally store the solid wastes concentratedly outside the sites of nuclear power stations and others, and effort has been exerted by those concerned to realize it. Besides, as for extremely low level radioactive solid wastes, the measures of disposing them corresponding to the radioactivity level are necessary, and the concrete method has been examined. The Committee on Safety Regulation for Radioactive Wastes has discussed the safety regulation for those since April, 1984, and the basic concept on the safety regulation was worked up. It is expected that the safety of the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes can be ensured when the safety regulation is carried out in conformity with this basic concept. The present status of the countermeasures to the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes is shown. As the concrete method, the disposal in shallow strate has been generally adopted. At present, the plan for the final storage in Aomori Prefecture is considered, and it will be started with the first stage of four-stage control. (Kako, I.)

  1. Cross flow filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    A new method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level radioactive waste is being developed as an alternative to hydrofracture. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Inertial cross flow filtration was used in this study to determine the potential of this method for separation of the TRU isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. 7 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Use of Eichornia crassipes for treatment of low level liquid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, N.; Ramadan, Y.S.; Hassanin, R.A.; Gafez, M.B. (Atomic Energy Authority, Hot Lab. Center, Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes of cobalt, cerium and cesium were found to be accumulated inside Eichornia crassipes (the water hyacinth). The rate and extent of accumulation were dependent upon environmental parameters such as pH, temperature and interference by certain anions and cations. The accumulation rate of radioactive isotopes inside Eichornia crassipes, were more rapid than non-active ions. The results showed that accumulation of such metals inside the plant could be used successfully in the treatment of low-level liquid radioactive wastes. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs.

  3. Use of Eichornia crassipes for treatment of low level liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, N.; Ramadan, Y.S.; Hassanin, R.A.; Gafez, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes of cobalt, cerium and cesium were found to be accumulated inside Eichornia crassipes (the water hyacinth). The rate and extent of accumulation were dependent upon environmental parameters such as pH, temperature and interference by certain anions and cations. The accumulation rate of radioactive isotopes inside Eichornia crassipes, were more rapid than non-active ions. The results showed that accumulation of such metals inside the plant could be used successfully in the treatment of low-level liquid radioactive wastes. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs

  4. Status of activities: Low-level radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.B.; Shilkett, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of low-level radioactive waste management in the United States is to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In support of this objective is the development of waste treatment and disposal technologies designed to provide stabilization and long-term institutional control of low-level radioactive wastes. Presented herein is a technical review of specific low-level radioactive waste management activities in the United States. Waste treatment and disposal technologies are discussed along with the performance objectives of the technologies aimed at protecting the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. 13 refs., 4 figs

  5. Alaska State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Alaska State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste generators in Alaska. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alaska. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alaska

  6. New Hampshire State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The New Hampshire State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books based on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste generators in New Hampshire. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Hampshire. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Hampshire

  7. Development of new low level radioactive waste disposal sites: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert T.; Antonucci, George J.; Ryan, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the development of three new low level radioactive waste disposal facilities for the Central Midwest (Illinois), Southeastern (North Carolina) and Appalachian (Pennsylvania) compacts is presented. These three sites will dispose of about 50-65 percent of the commercial low-level waste (LLW) generated in the U.S. annually. Chem-Nuclear, as developer and proposed operator of all three sites has used a common approach to site development. This approach has been based on their twenty-plus years of operating experience and a standard technical approach. The technology employed is an above-grade, multiple engineered barrier design. The paper also contrasts actual progress at each site with a generalized project schedule. Areas of schedule delays are noted along with the steps being taken to accelerate schedule. Finally, we note that continued progress and timely start-up of operations of these new sites is critical on a national basis. This is due to the possibility of near-term closure of the existing LLW disposal sites. (author)

  8. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  9. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 x 10 -4 events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 x 10 -1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 x 10 -1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual's lifetime radiation dose

  11. Research and Development of Solar Evaporation on Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hua

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar evaporation, which can save energy and obtain the higher decontamination factor, the larger treatment capability with the simpler designed and easy operation, was one of the general methods to treat low level radioactive liquid waste. However, the use of solar evaporation was limited because the facilities had to occupy the larger area and require sunshine for the longer duration, etc. Several cases form USA, Australian, India and South Korea were presented on R&D of solar evaporation to treat low level radioactive liquid waste.

  12. Low-level radioactive wastes. A bibliography of additions to the Energy Data Base in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1981-12-01

    Access to information on management of low-level radioactive wastes is provided by this special bibliography and other products of the Technical Information Center. Citations to 215 references on low-level radioactive wastes added to the Energy Data Base in 1981 are presented. The abstracts are grouped in broad subject categories. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by non-reports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  13. Thirteenth annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The 40 papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy`s Thirteenth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 19--21, 1991. General subjects addressed during the conference included: disposal facility design; greater-than-class C low-level waste; public acceptance considerations; waste certification; site characterization; performance assessment; licensing and documentation; emerging low-level waste technologies; waste minimization; mixed waste; tracking and transportation; storage; and regulatory changes. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents a set of performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in a new facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal performance objectives include a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) for any member of the public beyond the boundary of the disposal facility, and a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) and a limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 5 mSv (0.5 rem) for any individual who inadvertently intrudes onto the disposal site after loss of active institutional controls. In addition, releases of radioactivity beyond the site boundary shall not result in annual dose equivalents to any number of the public from all sources of exposure that exceed limits established by Federal regulatory authorities and shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This report reviews generally applicable radiation protection standards for the public and environmental radiation standards for specific practices that have been developed by national and international authorities and discusses the use of limits on risk rather than dose as performance objectives and consideration of chemical toxicity rather than radiation dose in establishing limits on intakes of uranium. 63 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents a set of performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in a new facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal performance objectives include a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) for any member of the public beyond the boundary of the disposal facility, and a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) and a limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 5 mSv (0.5 rem) for any individual who inadvertently intrudes onto the disposal site after loss of active institutional controls. In addition, releases of radioactivity beyond the site boundary shall not result in annual dose equivalents to any number of the public from all sources of exposure that exceed limits established by Federal regulatory authorities and shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This report reviews generally applicable radiation protection standards for the public and environmental radiation standards for specific practices that have been developed by national and international authorities and discusses the use of limits on risk rather than dose as performance objectives and consideration of chemical toxicity rather than radiation dose in establishing limits on intakes of uranium. 63 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Characterization of trench water at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Francis, A.J.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently the United States Geological Survey is conducting a study of the hydrogeological and geochemical behavior of commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The data collected from this study will be used to establish criteria for selection of new sites for disposal of radioactive wastes. As part of this study, water samples from trenches at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site were analyzed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the source terms of the radionuclides and other components in solution in the trenches. Procedures for collection and filtration of the samples under anoxic conditions are described. The samples were analyzed for inorganic, radiochemical and organic constituents. The inorganic analysis includes the measurements of pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and various cations and anions. The radionuclides were measured by the gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, and gamma activities, followed by specific measurements of strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes. The organics were extracted, concentrated, and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Considerable quantities of organics were detected in all of the trench waters sampled. Specific organics were found in most of the trenches, however, the organic composition of the trench waters vary. The presence of a variety of organic compounds in trench waters suggest that they may play an important role in the transport of radionuclides

  17. Cement encapsulation of low-level radioactive slurries of complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out to solidify in cement a low-level radioactive waste of complex chemistry which should be produced in a new plant designed to process radioactive effluents from CEA Cadarache Research Center. Direct cementation comes up against a major problem: a very long setting time of cement due to strong inhibition by borates from the waste. A two-stage process, including a chemical treatment prior to immobilization, has been elaborated and the resulted material characterized. (authors)

  18. Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows some recent examples of Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants: - Radioactive liquid wastes proceeding from steam generators leaching (NOGENT SUR SEINE-1 REACTOR) - Thermal insulation proceeding from heat exchanger and blower (CHINON-2 REACTOR) - Old iron from reactor dismantling (CHINON-3 REACTOR, MARCOULE G1 REACTOR, MARCOULE G2-G3 REACTORS) - fresh air filter and fire detector - CHINON-2 REACTOR breaker chambers

  19. Technical study on separating compounds of low level radioactive wastewater by composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    In the view of low level radioactive wastewater from operation and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities and technology of reverse osmosis, this paper analyzes the related research of reverse osmosis technology at home and aboard, and designs a technical system in practice by using reverse osmosis combined with a pretreatment process of disc filtration-ultrafiltration or filtration-microfiltration to treat radioactive wastewater. (authors)

  20. Status report on Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created by Article 4590f-1 to site, develop, operate, decommission, and close a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility for Texas generated waste. In 1989, the Authority's act was recodified by the Texas legislature in the Health and Safety Code., Title 5. Sanitation and Environmental Quality, Subtitle D. Nuclear and Radioactive Materials, Chapter 402. The Authority is governed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Governor, composed of a certified health physicist, geologist, attorney, medical doctor, and two private citizens. Under the statute, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material with a half-life of 35 years or less or having less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Materials with half-lives of greater than 35 years may be classed as low-level waste if special criteria are established by the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control. Subsequent sessions of the legislature have amended the act to revise siting criteria, require consideration of state land, create a Citizen's Advisory Committee, incorporate alternative designs, and establish a special low-level radioactive waste account in the state treasury. The Authority began its activities in 1982. The Authority has proposed a site in far West Texas near Fort Hancock, but El Paso County, the neighboring county to the west, has instituted three separate lawsuits to slow or stop the site selection process. Particular attention was paid early in the site selection process to items which could be fatal flaws from a licensing standpoint. This paper discusses the Fort Hancock site description, site evaluation studies, siting issues, waste volume projections, facility design, license application, cost and schedule

  1. Policy and technical considerations for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section has addressed issues, topics, and considerations related to low-level and intermediate-level wastes that are basic to developing and establishing environmental radiation protection criteria for radioactive wastes. Applicability of criteria, criteria considerations for sites, control of radiological impact to the population, and long-term considerations are discussed

  2. Performance assessment methodology (PAM) for low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selander, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given for Performance Assessment Methodology (PAM) for Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal technologies, as required for licensing and safety studies. This is a multi-disciplinary activity, emphasizing applied mathematics, mass transfer, geohydrology and radiotoxicity effects on humans. (author). 2 refs

  3. Low-level radioactive waste transportation plan for the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparala, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to prepare a recommended transportation plan that will outline specific procedures for monitoring and regulating low-level radioactive waste transport in Maryland and which is consistent with federal law and party-state requirements under the Appalachian Compact

  4. A strategy for the improvement of the intermediate and low level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, J.C.; Salgado, M.; Jova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The work describes the surrent situation with regard to the management of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes that are generated in the country. Updated information is reffered on the quantities of stored wastes that are to be treated and conditioned at the facilities of the CPHR

  5. Low-level radioactive waste in the Midwest: an economic analysis of selected management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Possible economic scenarios for disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated in the Midwest are presented. Relative waste disposal site costs are estimated for each state separately, and for 5-state, 13-state, and 16-state regions. Costs for publicly and privately owned and operated sites are estimated as are incineration and transportation costs

  6. New low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities for the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Within the next few years the Savannah River Plant will require new facilities for the disposal and/or storage of solid low-level radioactive waste. Six options have been developed which would meet the regulatory and site-specific requirements for such facilities

  7. Economics model for new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report describes LLWECON, an interactive computer mode for evaluating financial factors involved in low-level radioactive waste disposal. The logic by which LLWECON calculates the final generator price (price per cubic foot the disposal site operator charges waste generators) is detailed. Required user input and hypothetical examples, covering sites with different capacities, and both public and private-sector development, are included

  8. Report of the Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation Policy Council formed a Task Force in May 1980 to consider the problems associated with low-level radioactive waste disposal. Two major objectives were developed by the Task Force: (1) To recommend Federal policy for improving coordination and implementation of Federal and non-Federal programs that have been established to obtain solutions to existing low-level waste disposal problems, and (2) to recommend Federal policy for disposal of low-level waste containing minimal activity for which alternative disposal methods to existing shallow land burial practices may be acceptable for protecting the public health. These wastes constitute a significant fraction of what is currently classified as low-level radioactive wastes. Included are most of the wastes currently destined for shallow land burial from medical and research institutions, as well as from other sources. Such wastes include liquid scintillation vials, dry solids, animal carcasses, and paper trash; there are many items included which are needlessly classified, on a purely arbitrary basis, as radioactive waste merely because they contain detectable radioactive materials. It is this waste which is of major concern

  9. Maryland and District of Columbia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The District of Columbia and Maryland State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in the District of Columbia and Maryland. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in the District of Columbia and Maryland. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in the District of Columbia and Maryland

  10. The Texas approach to the management of low-level radioactive waste after 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    By 1993, Texas licensees will be producing 52000 ft 3 of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) containing 11000 Ci of Radioactivity. The three operating pressurized water reactors will produce 63% of the waste volume and greater than 90% of the radioactivity. While the majority of the waste is solid LLRW, some of it, such as liquid scintillation vials and bulk liquids from hospitals, universities, and research facilities, is mixed waste. Most of this waste can be shipped out of state and incinerated, but 60 ft 3 of lead contaminated waste from nuclear power plants and other industrial plants requires land disposal

  11. Anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive cellulosic and animal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Strandberg, G.W.; Patton, B.D.; Harrington, F.E.

    1983-02-01

    A preliminary process design and a cost estimate have been made for a volume reduction plant for low-level, solid radioactive wastes generated at ORNL. The process is based on extension of existing anaerobic digestion technology and on laboratory studies indicating the feasibiity of this technology for digestion of the organic portion of low-level, solid radioactive wastes. A gaseous effluent (CO 2 and CH 4 ) is vented in the process, and a liquid ffluent containing undigested solids is filtered to remove solids, which are buried. The liquid is discharged to the low-level liquid waste system at ORNL. Overall volume reduction of solid waste by this process is estimated to be approximately 20:1. Costs appear to be comparable to costs for compaction. The process design is conservative, and several potential improvements which could increase efficiency are discussed in this report

  12. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail

  13. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail.

  14. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail

  15. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action.Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  16. Low-level radioactive waste management: federal-state cooperation or confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the legislative history of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and discusses major issues and problems resulting from the implementation of the Act. Five specific issues addressed in this paper are: what radioactive waste constitutes ''low-level radioactive waste'' within the meaning of the Act; what responsibilities, if any, do the states have to dispose of federal radioactive waste; what liabilities and protections govern the disposal of waste not generated in a disposal-site state (hereafter, the ''host state''); to what standards of care should generators of low-level radioactive waste be held, and by what authority should such generators be licensed and inspected; which disposal-site activities should be considered ''disposal,'' and which activities should be considered ''management,'' within the meaning of the Act, and what authority do the states have, under the Act, to engage in each activity, respectively. The federal government and state governments must solve these problems in order to implement the Act, and thus, to establish equity among the 50 states, and the interstate regional compacts

  17. 76 FR 50500 - Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... issued when disposal space was scarce since two of the three operating low level radioactive waste (LLRW... radioactive waste management program. While the Commission continues to favor the disposal of LLRW over... on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  18. Appalachian States Compact Low-Level Radioactive Waste management survey, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.N.

    1989-03-01

    Since the enactment of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act in February 1988, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has undertaken major steps to develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility within its borders for the exclusive use of radioactive material licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. In order to adequately plan for the design and development of that facility, it is essential to obtain accurate data on LLRW being generated in the Compact. To that end, the Division of Nuclear Safety of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) conducted a survey to determine volume and activity of LLRW shipped and stored in 1987 by the licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. The 1986 LLRW survey included licensees in Pennsylvania and Maryland, while surveys conducted prior to 1986 involved only Pennsylvania licensees. So this is the first survey conducted by BRP that has included all four states of the Compact

  19. Biogenesis of tritiated and carbon-14 methane from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dobbs, S.; Doering, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Methane bacteria were detected in leachate samples collected from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Significant amounts of tritiated and carbon-14 methane were generated by a mixed methanogenic culture from a leachate sample collected from the low-level radioactive waste disposal site, Maxey Flats, KY. Tritiated methane was produced by methane bacteria from synthetic media containing 2 mCi of tritium as tritiated water or tritiated acetate, and the level of tritium added to the medium had no effect on methanogenesis. Under anaerobic conditions the organic compounds containing 14 C and 3 H activity and tritiated water in the waste are metabolized by microorganisms and they produce radioactive gases which escape into the environment from the disposal sites. 4 figures, 3 tables

  20. Environmental safety evaluation in test sea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The study results on the environmental safety in the test sea disposal of low-level wastes by Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Safety Technology in Nuclear Safety Commission are given in connection with the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea reported by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Subcommittee concludes that the effect of the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea on the environment is extremely small. The contents are as follows. The full text of the report; attached data, (1) prediction of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in sea, (2) calculation of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in marine life with biological paths, and (3) estimation of exposure dose in general people; references (1) radiation exposure of the personnel engaged in sea disposal, (2) the effect of a sea disaster during ocean transport. (J.P.N.)

  1. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  2. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes.; Rediseno de un incinerador convencional para la incineracion de desechos radiactivos de bajo nivel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara Z, L E.C.

    1997-04-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author).

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Strategy and plan for siting and licensing a Rocky Mountain low-level radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.

    1983-09-01

    In 1979, the States of Nevada and Washington temporarily closed their commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities and South Carolina, the only other state hosting such a facility, restricted the amount of waste it would accept. All three states then announced that they did not intend to continue the status quo of accepting all of the country's commercial low-level radioactive waste. Faced with this situation, other states began considering alternative LLW management and disposal options. In the Rocky Mountain region, this evolved into discussions for the development of an interstate compact to manage low-level waste. Inherent in this management plan was a strategy to site and license a new LLW disposal facility for the Rocky Mountain region. The Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact was negotiated over the course of a year, with final agreement on the language of the compact agreed to in early 1982. States eligible to join the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Colorado adopted the compact into law in 1982, and Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming adopted it in 1983. Utah has joined the Northwest Compact, although it may decide to join the Rocky Mountain Compact after a new disposal facility is developed for the region. Arizona has taken no action on the Rocky Mountain Compact

  5. Regulatory authority of the Rocky Mountain states for low-level radioactive waste packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.; Tate, P.

    1983-07-01

    The newly-formed Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is an interstate agreement for the management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Eligible members of the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Each state must ratify the compact within its legislature for the compact to become effective in that state and to make that state a full-fledged member of the compact. By so adopting the compact, each state agrees to the terms and conditions specified therein. Among those terms and conditions are provisions requiring each member state to adopt and enforce procedures requiring low-level waste shipments originating within its borders and destined for a regional facility to conform to packaging and transportation requirements and regulations. These procedures are to include periodic inspections of packaging and shipping practices, periodic inspections of waste containers while in the custody of carriers and appropriate enforcement actions for violations. To carry out this responsibility, each state must have an adequate statutory and regulatory inspection and enforcement authority to ensure the safe transportation of low-level radioactive waste. Three states in the compact region, Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, have incorporated the Department of Transportation regulations in their entirety, and have no published rules and regulations of their own. The other states in the compact, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico all have separate rules and regulations that incorporate the DOT regulations. A brief description of the regulatory requirements of each state is presented

  6. Ratio methods for cost-effective field sampling of commercial radioactive low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.; Thomas, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    In many field studies to determine the quantities of radioactivity at commercial low-level radioactive waste sites, preliminary appraisals are made with field radiation detectors, or other relatively inaccurate devices. More accurate determinations are subsequently made with procedures requiring chemical separations or other expensive analyses. Costs of these laboratory determinations are often large, so that adequate sampling may not be achieved due to budget limitations. In this report, we propose double sampling as a way to combine the expensive and inexpensive aproaches to substantially reduce overall costs. The underlying theory was developed for human and agricultural surveys, and is partially based on assumptions that are not appropriate for commercial low-level waste sites. Consequently, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine whether the results can be applied in circumstances of importance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report gives the simulation details, and concludes that the principal equations are appropriate for most studies at commercial low-level waste sites. A few points require further research, using actual commercial low-level radioactive waste site data. The final section of the report provides some guidance (via an example) for the field use of double sampling. Details of the simulation programs are available from the authors. Major findings are listed in the Executive Summary. 9 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs

  7. Operational and regulatory impacts of regional management on transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, C.G.; Wilmot, E.L.; Shepherd, E.W.

    1981-09-01

    The 96th Congress of the United States, as part of the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), instructed the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report on the current US low-level waste management situation and the conditions and requirements for management on a regional basis. The Transportation Technology Center has compared the transportation requirement and regional management scenarios for commercial low-level radioactive waste in support of the DOE response to this instruction. Using 1979 low-level waste volumes shipped to commercial burial grounds and six management regions postulated by DOE, transportation requirements were estimated and compared for the two management scenarios in terms of cumulative shipping distance and transportation cost. Effects of these results on the demand for transportation services and equipment and on population risks were considered. Finally, current regulatory issues and the potential effects of regional management on regulation of low-level waste transportation were reviewed

  8. Adopting plasma pyrolysis for management of low-level solid radioactive waste in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, A.K.; Yeotikar, R.G.; Patil, S.P.; Jha, Jyoti; Mishra, S.K.; Gandhi, K.G.; Misra, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Since Plasma Pyrolysis of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Waste has the potential of reducing waste volumes by a factor of up to 1000:1, the new technology is seen as a sound engineering and economic option for managing voluminous low-active wastes. Development and adoption of such technique, to replace existing methods of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Waste management, is borne out of a compelling need to conserve disposal space. While Plasma-based systems are already in use for disposal of medical, toxic and other industrial wastes, the level of maturity is yet to be attained in their radioactive applications. A Prototype Plasma Pyrolysis Unit is being set up in India which, after extensive trials, will function as a full-scale plant for the volume reduction of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Wastes. This paper deals with the transition philosophy from the current techniques to the Plasma-based process. The design and engineering of the proposed facility and various system components is also briefly touched upon. (author)

  9. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, TsingHai; Jian, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Han; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences; Tsai, Tsuey-Lin [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Chemical Analysis Div.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  10. Status of low-level radioactive waste disposal: how to plan a disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear industry is faced with serious problems in the transportation and burial of low-level radioactive wastes. Soaring burial costs, state regulations regarding transportation routes, and lack of direction from regulatory agencies are problems that must quickly be resolved. In order to gain control of this situation four major steps must be taken. First, states must accept their fair share of responsibility in the waste problem. Regulatory agencies must recognize the seriousness of the problem and develop a schedule for action. The nuclear industry must assert itself in a positive manner regarding the safety of nuclear power, and the low-level waste burial ground situation must improve

  11. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.

    1996-03-01

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass

  12. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M.; Williams, K.

    1994-09-01

    This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ''unpackaged'' volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste

  13. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, P.; Wehmann, G.; Thamer, B.J.; Card, D.H.

    1979-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the most viable alternatives for disposal of solid low-level radioactive wastes is presented to aid in evaluating national waste management options. Four basic alternative methods are analyzed and compared to the present practice of shallow land burial. These include deeper burial, disposal in mined cavities, disposal in engineered structures, and disposal in the oceans. Some variations in the basic methods are also presented. Technical, socio-political, and economic factors are assigened relative importances (weights) and evaluated for the various alternatives. Based on disposal of a constant volume of waste with given nuclear characteristics, the most desirable alternatives to shallow land burial in descending order of desirability appear to be: improving present practices, deeper burial, use of acceptable abandoned mines, new mines, ocean dumping, and structural disposal concepts. It must be emphasized that the evaluations reported here are generic, and use of other weights or different values for specific sites could change the conclusions and ordering of alternatives determined in this study. Impacts and costs associated with transportation over long distances predominate over differences among alternatives, indicating the desireability of establishing regional waste disposal locations. The impacts presented are for generic comparisons among alternatives, and are not intended to be predictive of the performance of any actual waste disposal facility

  14. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  15. Sources, amounts, and characteristics of low-level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid wastes (LLW) are generated in the nuclear fuel cycle, national defense programs, institutional (especially medical/biological) applications, and other research and development activities. The estimated total accumulation of defense LLW, approx. 50.8 x 10 6 ft 3 (approx. 1.4 x 10 6 m 3 ), is roughly three times that estimated for commercial LLW, mill tailings excepted. All nuclear fuel cycle steps generate some LLW, but power plants are the chief source. From 1975 through 1977, reactor process stream cleanup generated approx. 1 x 10 6 (approx. 2.8 x 10 4 m 3 ) annually. Spent fuel storage (or reprocessing) and facility decontamination and decommissioning will become important LLW generators as the nuclear power industry matures. The LLW contains dry contaminated trash, much of which is combustible and/or compactible; discarded tools and equipment; wet filter sludges and ion-exchange resins; disposable filter cartridges; and solidified or sorbed liquids, including some organics. A distinguishing characteristic of LLW is a long-lived alpha-emitting transuranic content of 5 ft 3 (approx. 2.1 x 10 4 m 3 )/y. The majority of these wastes, > 6 x 10 5 ft 3 (> 1.7 x 10 4 m 3 ), was medical and academic wastes which usually contained isotopes with induced activities of less than or equal to 60-day half-life, neglecting 3 H and 14 C

  16. Potential problem areas: extended storage of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. In particular, the range of storage alternatives considered and being implemented by the nuclear power plant utilities is described. The properties of the waste forms and waste containers are discussed. An overview is given of the performance of the waste package and its contents during storage (e.g., radiolytic gas generation, corrosion) and of the effects of extended storage on the performance of the waste package after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of polyethylene, the weakening of steel containers by corrosion). Additional information and actions required to address these concerns, including possible mitigative measures, are discussed. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  17. A performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deering, L.R.; Kozak, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives governing protection of the general population in 10 CFR 61.41, applicants for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste are required to conduct a pathways analysis, or quantitative evaluation of radionuclide release, transport through environmental media, and dose to man. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff defined a strategy and initiated a project at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a methodology for independently evaluating an applicant's analysis of postclosure performance. This performance assessment methodology was developed in five stages: (1) identification of environmental pathways, (2) ranking, the significance of the pathways, (3) identification and integration of models for pathway analyses, (4) identification and selection of computer codes and techniques for the methodology, and (5) implementation of the codes and documentation of the methodology. The final methodology implements analytical and simple numerical solutions for source term, ground-water flow and transport, surface water transport, air transport, food chain, and dosimetry analyses, as well as more complex numerical solutions for multidimensional or transient analyses when more detailed assessments are needed. The capability to perform both simple and complex analyses is accomplished through modular modeling, which permits substitution of various models and codes to analyze system components

  18. Gas generation from low-level radioactive waste: Concerns for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) has urged the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to reexamine the topic of hydrogen gas generation from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in closed spaces to ensure that the slow buildup of hydrogen from water-bearing wastes in sealed containers does not become a problem for long-term safe disposal. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has prepared a report, summarized in this paper, for the NRC to respond to these concerns. The paper discusses the range of values for G(H 2 ) reported for materials of relevance to LLW disposal; most of these values are in the range of 0.1 to 0.6. Most studies of radiolytic hydrogen generation indicate a leveling off of pressurization, probably because of chemical kinetics involving, in many cases, the radiolysis of water within the waste. Even if no leveling off occurs, realistic gas leakage rates (indicating poor closure by gaskets on drums and liners) will result in adequate relief of pressure for radiolytic gas generation from the majority of commercial sector LLW packages. Biodegradative gas generation, however, could pose a pressurization hazard even at realistic gas leakage rates. Recommendations include passive vents on LLW containers (as already specified for high integrity containers) and upper limits to the G values and/or the specific activity of the LLW

  19. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  20. Complex-wide review of DOE's management of low-level radioactive waste - progress to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 includes a recommendation that the Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a comprehensive, complex-wide review of the low-level waste issue to establish the dimensions of the low-level waste problem and to identify necessary corrective actions to address the safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes. DOE's Implementation Plan calls for the conduct of a complex-wide review of low-level radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal sites to identify environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities. The complex-wide review focuses on low-level waste disposal facilities through a site evaluation survey, reviews of existing documentation, and onsite observations. Low-level waste treatment and storage facilities will be assessed for their ability to meet waste acceptance criteria for disposal. Results from the complex-wide review will be used to form the basis for an integrated and planned set of actions to correct the identified vulnerabilities and to prompt development of new requirements for managing low-level waste

  1. Topic I: Induced changes in hydrology at low-level radioactive waste repository sites: A section in Safe disposal of radionuclides in low-level radioactive-waste repository sites; Low-level radioactive-waste disposal workshop, U.S. Geological Survey, July 11-16, 1987, Big Bear Lake, Calif., Proceedings (Circular 1036)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Bedinger, Marion S.; Stevens, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Engineering practices, including the excavation of trenches, placement of waste, nature of waste forms, backfilling procedures and materials, and trench-cover construction and materials at low-level radioactive-waste repository sites greatly affect the geohydrology of the sites. Engineering practices are dominant factors in eventual stability and isolation of the waste. The papers presented relating to Topic I were discussions of the hydrogeologic setting at existing low-level radioactive-waste repository sites and changes in the hydrology induced by site operations. Papers summarizing detailed studies presented at this workshop include those at sites near Sheffield, Ill.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn.; West Valley, N.Y.; Maxey Flats, Ky.; Barnwell, S.C.; and Beatty, Nev. 

  2. Natural radioactivity in iron and steel materials by low-level gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, Maria

    2003-01-01

    High resolution low-level gamma spectrometry was applied to perform a radioactivity measurement in iron and steel raw materials (coal, coke, iron ore, pellets, manganese ore, limestone, dolomite), auxiliary materials (scorialite, oxide of Ti, bentonite), and some related final products (cast iron, slag, blast-furnace, flue dust) involved in iron making processing. We control the activity of materials in various kinds of samples and we investigate for transfer of radioactivity during the blast-furnace process. Artificial radioisotopes are rarely encountered. (authors)

  3. Improved low-level radioactive waste management practices for hospitals and research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report provides a general overview and a compendium of source material on low-level radioactive waste management practices in the institutional sector. Institutional sector refers to hospitals, universities, clinics, and research facilities that use radioactive materials in scientific research and the practice of medicine, and the manufacturers of radiopharmaceuticals and radiography devices. This report provides information on effective waste management practices for institutional waste to state policymakers, regulatory agency officials, and waste generators. It is not intended to be a handbook for actual waste management, but rather a sourcebook of general information, as well as a survey of the more detailed analysis

  4. Comparison of bitumen and cement immobilization of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses a systems comparison of two available immobilization processes for intermediate- and low-level radioactive wastes -- bitumen and cement. This study examines a conceptual coprocessed UO 2 - PuO 2 fuel cycle. Radioactive wastes are generated at each stage of this fuel cycle. This study focuses on these transuranic (TRU) wastes generated at a conceptual Fuel Coprocessing Facility. In this report, these wastes are quantified, the immobilization systems conceptualized to process these wastes are presented, and a comparison of the systems is made

  5. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  6. Operation and management plan of Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Z.; Tomozawa, T.; Mahara, Y.; Iimura, H. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Radioactive Waste Management Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) started the operation of the Rokkasho Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center in December, 1992. This center is located at Rokkasho Village in Aomori Prefecture. The facility in this center will provide for the disposal of 40,000 m{sup 3} of the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) produced from domestic nuclear power stations. The facility will receive between 5,000 m{sup 3} and 10,000 m{sup 3} of waste every year. Strict and efficient institutional controls, such as the monitoring of the environment and management of the site, is required for about 300 years. This paper provides an outline of the LLW burial operation and management program at the disposal facility. The facility is located 14--19 meters below the ground surface in the hollowed out Takahoko Formation.

  7. Experience of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office with EARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, B.J.; Pollock, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) was established by the federal government in 1982 to carry out the government's responsibilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management in Canada. The LLRWMO mandate includes the resolution of historic waste problems which are a federal responsibility. Assessment of LLRWMO projects in accordance with the federal Environmental Assessment Review Process (EARP) has been a long-standing requirement, both as a matter of AECL policy and because the work is federally funded. Several projects have required interim storage at, or near, the original waste site. This aspect, interim storage, can be controversial, and is the primary focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper describes LLRWMO experience with environmental assessment, including public consultation as an integral part of the assessment process, for projects from 1983 to present which have involved substantial volumes of contaminated soil. (author)

  8. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.S.; Duffey, R.B.; Penzin, R.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper

  9. Status of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal site - construction sequencing and staffing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been attempting to develop a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Texas for more than fourteen years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization was completed in 1992, and a license application was filed that year. Construction plans were completed in 1993. In April 1996, the licensing agency, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, completed its review and proposed to issue a license. The administrative hearings on the proposed license should be completed by July 1997. The Authority is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a final license can be issued

  10. Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Program 1992 baseline strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This baseline strategy document describes Department of Energy (DOE) goals, objectives, and strategy for fulfilling its responsibility to dispose of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) according to the requirements of Section 3(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. This document describes the baseline strategy being employed at the end of FY 1992. The strategy for fulfilling the above responsibility consists of three tasks: interim storage of limited quantities of GTCC LLW at a currently operating DOE facility to eliminate a potential public health and safety threcceptance of GTCC LLW for storage in a DOE dedicated facility on an as-needed basis pending disposal; and disposal in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives, assumptions, and strategies for each of these tasks are presented in this plan

  11. Managing Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste: A strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This strategic plan describes the DOE goals, objectives, and strategy for fulfilling its responsibility to dispose of Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW), in accordance with the requirements of Section 3(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The strategy for fulfilling this responsibility consists of three sequential tasks: interim storage of limited quantities of GTCC LLW at currently operating DOE facilities on an as-needed basis; general acceptance of GTCC LLW for storage in a DOE dedicated facility pending disposal; and disposal in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The objectives, assumptions, and strategies for each of these tasks are presented in this plan

  12. Opting for cooperation: A case study in siting a low level radioactive waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976, the Canadian federal government called a halt to efforts by a crown corporation to site a low-level radioactive waste management facility when it became apparent that continuation of the siting process would likely result in significant social disruption and political conflict. It established an independent six-person Task Force to advise it on how to proceed. Twelve months later, the Task Force put forward a radically different siting process based on the voluntary participation of communities and collaborative, joint problem-solving and decision making. Cabinet endorsed the approach and in September 1988 authorized the Task Force to begin implementing the recommended process. The first three phases of the process have been implemented and so far it appears to be achieving its desired objective -- to encourage less confrontation and more cooperation in the siting of the low-level radioactive waste management facility

  13. Operation and management plan of Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Z.; Tomozawa, T.; Mahara, Y.; Iimura, H.

    1993-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) started the operation of the Rokkasho Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center in December, 1992. This center is located at Rokkasho Village in Aomori Prefecture. The facility in this center will provide for the disposal of 40,000 m 3 of the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) produced from domestic nuclear power stations. The facility will receive between 5,000 m 3 and 10,000 m 3 of waste every year. Strict and efficient institutional controls, such as the monitoring of the environment and management of the site, is required for about 300 years. This paper provides an outline of the LLW burial operation and management program at the disposal facility. The facility is located 14--19 meters below the ground surface in the hollowed out Takahoko Formation

  14. Status of the North Carolina/Southeast Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.K. [North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, NC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Southeast Compact is a sited region for low-level radioactive waste because of the current facility at Barnwell, South Carolina. North Carolina has been designated as the next host state for the compact, and the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority is the agency charged with developing the new facility. Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., has been selected by the Authority as its primary site development and operations contractor. This paper will describe the progress currently being made toward the successful opening of the facility in January 1996. The areas to be addressed include site characterization, performance assessment, facility design, public outreach, litigation, finances, and the continued operation of the Barnwell facility.

  15. Low-level radioactive waste program of the US Geological Survey - in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    In 1983, the US Geological Survey will publish final reports of geohydrologic investigations at five commercial low-level, radioactive-waste burial sites in the United States. These reports mark the end of the first phase of the US Geological Survey program to improve the understanding of earth-science principles related to the effective disposal of low-level wastes. The second phase, which was initiated in 1981, is being developed to address geohydrologic issues identified as needing greater attention based upon results of the first-phase site studies. Specific program elements include unsaturated-zone hydrology, geochemistry, clay mineralogy, surface geophysical techniques, and model development and testing. The information and expertise developed from these and previous studies will allow the US Geological Survey to provide sound technical assistance to State low-level waste compacts, the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Environmental Protection Agency. 11 references

  16. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, S.

    1995-12-01

    To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) outlines the key activities that the NLLWMP will accomplish in the following fiscal year. Additional activities are added during the fiscal year as necessary to accomplish programmatic goals. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during fiscal year 1995

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) outlines the key activities tat the NLLWMP will accomplish in the following fiscal year. Additional activities are added during the fiscal year as necessary to accomplish programmatic goals. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during Fiscal Year 1996

  18. Branch technical position for performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.C.; Abramson, L.; Byrne, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a Draft Branch Technical Position on Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. The draft technical position addresses important issues in performance assessment modeling and provides a framework and technical basis for conducting and evaluating performance assessments in a disposal facility license application. The technical position also addresses specific technical policy issues and augments existing NRC guidance pertaining to LLW performance assessment

  19. Managing commercial low-level radioactive waste beyond 1992: Transportation planning for a LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This technical bulletin presents information on the many activities and issues related to transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) to allow interested States to investigate further those subjects for which proactive preparation will facilitate the development and operation of a LLW disposal facility. The activities related to transportation for a LLW disposal facility are discussed under the following headings: safety; legislation, regulations, and implementation guidance; operations-related transport (LLW and non-LLW traffic); construction traffic; economics; and public involvement

  20. Building arrangement and site layout design guides for on site low level radioactive waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, J.W.; Feehan, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many papers have been written by AE's and utilities describing their onsite storage facilities, why they are needed, NRC regulations, and disposal site requirements. This paper discusses a typical storage facility and address the design considerations and operational aspects that are generally overlooked when designing and siting a low level radioactive waste storage facility. Some topics to be addressed are: 1. Container flexibility; 2. Modular expansion capabilities; 3. DOT regulations; 4. Meterological requirements; 5. OSHA; 6. Fire protection; 7. Floods; 8. ALARA

  1. Siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    US Ecology is the State of California's designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In March 1988, a site in the Ward Valley of California's Mojave Desert was chosen for development. Strong local community support has been expressed for the site. US Ecology anticipates licensing and constructing a facility to receive waste by early 1991. This schedule places California well ahead of the siting milestones identified in Federal law. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs

  2. Experience with disposal of low-level radioactive waste: building confidence for and against the regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Lowenthal, M.D. [University of California, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Following the controversy regarding the potential use of the Ward Valley site in California as a low level radioactive waste facility, an Advisory Group and a Scientific Panel were formed to recommend alternatives to the Governor. During the course of the Group and Panel deliberations, the arguments for and against near surface burial and waste classification were crystallized. In this paper we discuss the bases upon which the arguments were formed and what we can learn from them. (author)

  3. Storage for low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this report was to assess whether three nominated sites in Norway for underground storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes would comply with safety standards and applicable laws and regulations. The site selection criteria are described and the report evaluates the technical, environmental and socio-economic suitability of the different sites. The site selection process eliminated two of the nominated sites, whereas one site was singled out. 28 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Experience with disposal of low-level radioactive waste: building confidence for and against the regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Lowenthal, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Following the controversy regarding the potential use of the Ward Valley site in California as a low level radioactive waste facility, an Advisory Group and a Scientific Panel were formed to recommend alternatives to the Governor. During the course of the Group and Panel deliberations, the arguments for and against near surface burial and waste classification were crystallized. In this paper we discuss the bases upon which the arguments were formed and what we can learn from them. (author)

  5. Results of the CRCPD survey of 1984 low-level radioactive waste: progress to mid-September, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    The survey of 1984 low-level radioactive waste by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., is the second such survey. The previous survey was for waste generated during 1982. The CRCPD survey of 1984 LLRW requested information concerning the license, the effluents and other on-site managed wastes, details of exported waste type, the capacity for storing waste prior to shipment and its average utilization during 1984. Details of the exported waste included waste type, processing and packaging, NRC class, burial site or broker to which the waste was sent, and anticipated waste generation by year and by class through 1989. Shortcomings of the questionnaire and preliminary results are discussed. Based on the results of the two surveys of low-level radioactive waste conducted by the CRCPD, and the serious discrepancies which exist between data on waste shipped by generators and that on waste received by disposal sites, the following recommendation is made. That a single, national repository be established for all data on the generation and ultimate disposition of low-level radioactive waste. 1 figure, 1 table

  6. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: disposal volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The northeastern states, with support of the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG), are developing compact(s) for the disposal and management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in the eleven northeastern states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont). The Technical Subcommittee has made a projection of future low-level radioactive waste to the year 2000 based on existing waste volume data and anticipated growth in the Northeast states. Aware of the difficulties involved with any long range projection - unforeseen events can drastically change projections based on current assumptions - the Technical Subcommittee believes that waste volume projections should be reviewed annually as updated information becomes available. The Technical Subcommittee made the following findings based upon a conservative projection methodology: volumes of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states individually and collectively are expected to grow continually through the year 2000 with the rate of increase varying by state; by the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 58,000 m 3 of low-level waste annually, about 1.9 times the current average; and based on current estimates, 47% of the total projected waste volume in the year 2000 will be produced by nuclear power plants, compared to the current average of 54%. Non-reactor wastes will equal 53% of the total in the year 2000 compared to the current 46%

  7. Survey of microbiological effects in low-level radioactive waste disposed of to land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGahan, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation of published literature was mounted to determine the current position of research into microbiological effects in low-level radioactive waste disposal sites and to assess the need for further research. It is concluded from the survey that the microbial activity present in domestic landfills also occurs in shallow land burial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The microbial activity results in the release of tritium as tritiated methane to the atmosphere and tritiated components to the leachate. Carbon-14 migration is also enhanced. It also accelerates the corrosion of steel and concrete used to contain the wastes. There is little evidence for enhanced migration of radionuclides as a result of their incorporation in bacteria but there is considerable evidence for enhancement resulting from the presence of complexing agents (such as ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid and tributyl phosphate) in the waste. Research in this field has been observed to be very active in the United States. Its objective is to predict with more certainty the important parameters for future low-level radioactive waste site designs. Quantitative prediction of microbial effects and their magnitude is not easy to deduce from the published literature, and new site designs will differ markedly from those that have been in operation over the last thirty years. (author)

  8. Removal of Historic Low-Level Radioactive Sediment from the Port Hope Harbour - 13314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, Mark [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    At the Port Hope Harbour, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the Harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. These waste materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Several other on-land locations within the community of Port Hope are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. The Port Hope Project is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remediation of the estimated 120,000 m{sup 3} of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope Harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Port Hope Project. Following a thorough review of various options, the proposed method of contaminated sediment removal is by dredging. The sediment from the dredge will then be pumped as a sediment-water slurry mixture into geo-synthetic containment tubes for dewatering. Due to the hard substrate below the contaminated sediment, the challenge has been to set performance standards in terms of low residual surface concentrations that are attainable in an operationally efficient manner. (authors)

  9. Significant progress towards development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebe, M.; Henry, T.L.; Corpstein, P.

    1996-01-01

    Development of disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste is a complicated legal, regulatory and public sector process. Development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to support generators in Illinois and Kentucky is well under way. Significant progress has been made to re-engineer the siting development process capitalizing on prior lessons learned and a recommitment from Illinois state leadership assuring the future success of the program. Comparisons of why this new process will succeed are the major focus of this paper. Specific changes in approach from the previous process including changes in the Illinois Management Act (Management Act), creation of the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Task Group (Task Group), new roles for the Illinois State Geologic Survey and Illinois State Water Survey (Scientific Surveys) and the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), a new contractor reliance approach and increased confidence on the open-quote science close-quote are the major contrasts between the previous process and the new process currently underway

  10. Ward Valley and the Federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In his State of the Union Address delivered on 23 January 1996, President Clinton said, speaking generally, open-quotes Passing a law - even the best possible law - is only a first step. The next step is to make it work.close quotes The president is right, of course; faithful execution of any law is the key. Unfortunately, this lesson appears lost on his own administration when it comes to making the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act work. That act is one of the most important environmental laws of the 1980s. It was designed by Congress and the state governors to assure both sufficient disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) and regional equity in the siting of new disposal facilities. Former Congressman Morris Udall (D-Ariz.), who was chairman of the House Interior Committee and a congressional environmental leader, was author of the act. No state has done more to make the law work than California. No state has made more progress toward developing a new disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste as mandated by the act. But further progress, that is, actual construction and operation of a disposal facility, has been stymied by the federal administration, which has refused to convey federal desert lands to California for use as the site of the proposed disposal facility

  11. Removal of Historic Low-Level Radioactive Sediment from the Port Hope Harbour - 13314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolberg, Mark; Case, Glenn; Ferguson Jones, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At the Port Hope Harbour, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the Harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. These waste materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Several other on-land locations within the community of Port Hope are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. The Port Hope Project is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remediation of the estimated 120,000 m 3 of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope Harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Port Hope Project. Following a thorough review of various options, the proposed method of contaminated sediment removal is by dredging. The sediment from the dredge will then be pumped as a sediment-water slurry mixture into geo-synthetic containment tubes for dewatering. Due to the hard substrate below the contaminated sediment, the challenge has been to set performance standards in terms of low residual surface concentrations that are attainable in an operationally efficient manner. (authors)

  12. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauls, V.W. [Dept. of Energy, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Field Office

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  13. Managing commercial low-level radioactive waste beyond 1992: Issues and potential problems of temporary storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, States will become responsible for managing low-level radioactive waste, including mixed waste, generated within their borders as of January 1, 1993. In response to this mandate, many States and compact regions have made substantial progress toward establishing new disposal capacity for these wastes. While this progress is noteworthy, many circumstances can adversely affect States' abilities to meet the 1993 deadline, and many States have indicated that they are considering other waste management options in order to fulfill their responsibilities beyond 1992. Among the options that States are considering for the interim management of low- level radioactive waste is temporary storage. Temporary storage may be either short term or long term and may be at a centralized temporary storage facility provided by the State or a contractor, or may be at the point of generation or collection. Whether States choose to establish a centralized temporary storage facility or choose to rely on generators or brokers to provide additional and problem areas that must be addressed and resolved. Areas with many potential issues associated with the temporary storage of waste include: regulations, legislation, and policy and implementation guidance; economics; public participation; siting, design, and construction; operations; and closure and decommissioning

  14. The low-level waste handbook: A user's guide to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1986-11-01

    This report provides a detailed, section-by-section analysis of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Appendices include lists of relevant law and legislation, relevant Congressional committees, members of Congress mentioned in the report, and exact copies of the 1980 and 1985 Acts

  15. Completion report for the isolation and remediation of inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tanks WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, WC-19, 3002-A, 7560, and 7562 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory removed from service, designated in the FFA as Category D, be remediated in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. A human health risk screening assessment was conducted for inactive Tanks WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, WC-19, 3002-A, 7560, and 7562 as part of an evaluation to determine the method of remediation necessary to safely and permanently isolate and remediate the tanks. Risk screening assessment results indicated that the health risks associated with these tanks were within or below the EPA range of concern of 1 x 10 -4 to 1 x 10 -6 . On the basis of these results and with regulators concurrence, it was determined that either no action or in-place stabilization of the tanks would satisfy risk-based remediation goals. Therefore, decisions were made and approved by DOE to remediate these tanks in-place as maintenance actions rather than actions under the CERCLA process. Letters documenting these decisions were approved by DOE and subsequently submitted to TDEC and EPA, who concurred with the maintenance actions. Tanks WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, WC-19, 3002-A, 7560, and 7562 were isolated from associated piping, electrical systems, and instrumentation and were grouted in-place. Tank 7562 was originally isolated from associated piping and instrumentation and left in-place empty for future remedial consideration. Upon further consideration, the decision was made by DOE, with concurrence by the regulators, to complete the maintenance action of Tank 7562 by grouting it in-place in March 1997

  16. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report

  17. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report.

  18. Methodology development for radioactive waste treatment of CDTN/BR - liquid low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de

    1996-01-01

    The radioactive liquid wastes generated in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) were initially treated by precipitation/filtration and then the resulting wet solid wastes were incorporated in cement. These wastes were composed of different chemicals and different radioactivities and were generated by different sectors. The objective of the waste treatment method was to obtain minimum wet solid waste volume and decontamination and minimum operational cost. The composition of the solid wastes were taken into consideration for compatible cementation process. Approximately 5,400 litres of liquid radioactive wastes were treated by this process during 1992-1995. The volume reduction was 1/24 th and contained 20% solids. (author)

  19. The role of the national low level waste repository operator in delivering new solutions for the management of low level wastes in the UK - 16217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkingshaw, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The UK National Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is located near to the village of Drigg in West Cumbria. It is the principal site for disposal of solid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) in the United Kingdom. This paper describes the program of work currently being undertaken by the site's operators, (LLW Repository Ltd and its newly appointed Parent Body Organisation), to extend the life of the LLWR and reduce the overall cost of LLW management to the UK taxpayer. The current focus of this program is to prevent disposal capacity being taken up at LLWR by waste types which lend themselves to alternative treatment and/or disposition routes. The chosen approach enables consignors to segregate LLW at source into formats which allow further treatment for volume reduction or, (for wastes with lower levels of activity), consignment in the future to alternative disposal facilities. Segregated waste services are incorporated into LLW Disposal commercial agreements between the LLWR operator and waste consignors. (author)

  20. Research in the selection of very low level radioactive waste disposal site in southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo, Xianguo; Long, Qiong; Zhong, Hongmei; Xu, Zhengqi; Mu, Keliang; Gao, Lan

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Chinese Radioactive Nuclear Waste Management and Disposal Security is that must use proper and optimized ways to manage radioactive waste and make sure human beings and the environment either at the present or in the future can be free from any unacceptable risks. According to the goal, this paper presents an overview of comprehensive site characterization work that comprises investigations of physical geography, climatology, geology and hydrogeology, as well as geological hazard on two candidate Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) disposal sites (Site 1 and Site 2) which are both located in the south west of China. The results showed that there are many similarities in the regional extent of the two sites, but many distinct differences are found in terrain and topographic features, granule stratum, hydraulic gradient, and so on. On the whole, the two alternative sites are in line with the requirements for very low level radioactive waste disposal, and Site 1 is superior to Site 2. (author)

  1. Properties of the cements and their use in the storage systems of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan T, M. G.

    2011-11-01

    The use of materials containing cement has generalized in the facilities of definitive storage of radioactive wastes due to their easy handling and availability. Besides conforming the buildings and structures, these materials are part of the barriers system that will maintain the isolated radioactive wastes of the biosphere until their activity has decayed at innocuous levels. However, to fulfill this function, the effectiveness and durability of these materials should be demonstrated fully. In Mexico the intention exists of building a definitive storehouse for the low-level radioactive wastes, however are few the studies on the behavior of the materials containing cement used in this type of facilities. With the purpose of to guide and promoting the study of the national cements, in this work is made a revision of the characteristics and properties of the cements with relationship to its use in the systems of definitive storage of low-level radioactive wastes, as well as of some studies that are realized to evaluate its acting as engineering barriers. (Author)

  2. Storage of low-level radioactive waste and regulatory control of sealed sources in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Markkanen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the non nuclear low-level radioactive waste. The cornerstone for maintaining radioactive sources under control in Finland is that all practices involving sources are subject to authorization and all licensing information, including information on each individual source, are entered into a register which is continuously updated based on applications and notifications received from the licenses. Experiences during the past twenty years have shown that source-specific records of sources combined with regular inspections at the places of use have prevented efficiency losing control over sealed radioactive sources. The current capacity in the interim storage for State owned waste is not adequate for all used sealed sources and other small user waste which are currently kept in the possession of the licensees. Thus, expansion of the storage capacity and other options for taking care of the small user waste is under consideration. (N.C.)

  3. Low-level radioactive waste disposal technologies used outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Leigh, I.W.

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal technologies are an integral part of the waste management process. In the United States, commercial LLW disposal is the responsibility of the State or groups of States (compact regions). The United States defines LLW as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high- level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material as defined in Section II(e)(2) of the Atomic Energy Act. LLW may contain some long-lived components in very low concentrations. Countries outside the United States, however, may define LLW differently and may use different disposal technologies. This paper outlines the LLW disposal technologies that are planned or being used in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom (UK)

  4. Application of a glass furnace system to low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.; Armstrong, K.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981 Mound began a study to determine the feasibility of using an electrically heated glass furnace for the treatment of low-level radioactive wastes generated at commercial nuclear power facilities. Experiments were designed to determine: Whether the technology offered solutions to industry waste disposal problems, and if so; whether is could meet what were thought to be critical requirements for radioactive thermal waste processing. These requirements include: high quality combustion of organic constituents, capture and immobilization of radioactivity, integrity of final waste form, and cost effectiveness. To address these questions a variety of wastes typical of the types generated by nuclear power facilities, including not only standard trash but also wastes of high aqueous and/or inorganic content, were spiked with waste radioisotopes predominant in plant wastes and processed in the glass furnace. The results of this study indicate that the unit is capable of fully meeting the addressed needs of the nuclear industry for power plant waste processing

  5. Development of criteria and standards for management of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, A.E.; Falconer, K.L.

    1980-08-01

    The basic need for criteria and standards for radioactive waste management is to ensure compliance with Federal and State regulations applicable to this activity. In addition, criteria and standards can establish the parameters by which a radioactive waste disposal site is selected, the form in which the waste is to be disposed, how a disposal site is to be operated, and how that site is to be closed when it reaches the end of its useful life. For developing criteria and standards, this report discusses the nature of low-level radioactive waste and the role government agencies play in regulating its management. It describes subject areas for which criteria and standards could be developed, current and evolving requirements, and future suggested analyses

  6. The selection, licensing, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Dalton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group has just completed the selection, procurement, licensing, and start-up of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator. This incinerator is the only commercial radioactive waste incinerator in the US and was licensed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Tennessee, the City of Oak Ridge, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. This incinerator has a thermal capacity of 13,000,000 BTUs and can burn approximately 1,000 pounds per hour of typical radioactive waste. Waste to be incinerated is sorted in a new waste sorting system at the SEG facility. The sorting is essential to assure that the incinerator will not be damaged by any unexpected waste and to maintain the purity of the incinerator off-gas. The volume reduction expected for typical waste is approximately 100:1. After burning, the incinerator ash is compacted or vitrified before shipment to burial sites

  7. Study on the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Zhi; He Bin; Zhang Quanhu; Du Qianwei

    2010-01-01

    By simulating the trajectory of one single suspended radioactive particle subjected to ultrasonic standing wave, the principle of the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater by ultrasound was analyzed. The result show that under the action of ultrasonic standing wave, the particle will move toward the pressure node plane and the time of particle reached the plane became shorter when the radium of particle and the frequency and power of ultrasound was enlarged. The mathematic equation represent the change of the number of the suspended particles was built and the decontamination efficiency was calculated. The result shows that under the condition of T=80 min, f=50 kHz and P=71.09 w, the radioactive concentration of wastewater could be reduced from 400 Bq/L to 9.295 Bq/L and the decontamination efficiency was 97.68%. The decontamination efficiency could not be obviously improved by further increasing the treating time. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of thermal hydraulics characteristics of natural cooling low level radioactive waste storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Toshihiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tomonori; Usui, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Hisao; Masaki, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to design a low level radioactive waste storage system so that the decay heat of radioactive waste does not breach the structural safety limit. Currently, this waste storage system is designed as a natural cooling system, which continuously cools the radioactive waste without an active device. It consists simply of a storage pit for radioactive waste and air inlet and outlet ducts. The radioactive waste is cooled by natural convective air flow, which is generated by the buoyancy of heated air due to the decay heat of radioactive waste. It is important to clarify the flow characteristics in the systems in order to evaluate the cooling performance. The air mass flow rate through the system is determined by the balance between the natural convective flow force and pressure loss within the system. Therefore, the pressure drop and flow pattern in the waste storage pit are important flow characteristics. In this study, the pressure drop and air temperature distribution, greatly influenced by the flow pattern in the pit, were measured using a 1/5 scale model and compared with the results obtained from CFD. Flow network analysis, which is a simple model that simulates the flow by nodes and junctions, was conducted and its validity was confirmed by experimental results and CFD. (author)

  9. Safe disposal of radionuclides in low-level radioactive-waste repository sites; Low-level radioactive-waste disposal workshop, U.S. Geological Survey, July 11-16, 1987, Big Bear Lake, Calif., Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, Marion S.; Stevens, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed by shallow-land burial. Low-level radioactive waste generated by non-Federal facilities has been buried at six commercially operated sites; low-level radioactive waste generated by Federal facilities has been buried at eight major and several minor Federally operated sites (fig. 1). Generally, low-level radioactive waste is somewhat imprecisely defined as waste that does not fit the definition of high-level radioactive waste and does not exceed 100 nCi/g in the concentration of transuranic elements. Most low-level radioactive waste generated by non-Federal facilities is generated at nuclear powerplants; the remainder is generated primarily at research laboratories, hospitals, industrial facilities, and universities. On the basis of half lives and concentrations of radionuclides in low-level radioactive waste, the hazard associated with burial of such waste generally lasts for about 500 years. Studies made at several of the commercially and Federally operated low-level radioactive-waste repository sites indicate that some of these sites have not provided containment of waste nor the expected protection of the environment.

  10. Development of very low-level radioactive waste sequestration process criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, N.; Wong, P., E-mail: nicholas.chan@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Segregating radioactive waste at the source and reclassifying radioactive waste to lower waste classes are the key activities to reduce the environmental footprint and long-term liability. In the Canadian Standards Association's radioactive waste classification system, there are 2 sub-classes within low-level radioactive waste: very short-lived radioactive waste and very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW). VLLW has a low hazard potential but is above the Canadian unconditional clearance criteria as set out in Schedule 2 of Nuclear Substances and Devices Regulations. Long-term waste management facilities for VLLW do not require a high degree of containment and isolation. In general, a relatively low-cost near-surface facility with limited regulatory control is suitable for VLLW. At Canadian Nuclear Laboratories' Chalk River Laboratories site an initiative, VLLW Sequestration, was implemented in 2013 to set aside potential VLLW for temporary storage and to be later dispositioned in the planned VLLW facility. As of May 2015, a total of 236m{sup 3} resulting in approximately $1.1 million in total savings have been sequestered. One of the main hurdles in implementing VLLW Sequestration is the development of process criteria. Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) are used as a guide or as requirements for determining whether waste is accepted by the waste management facility. Establishment of the process criteria ensures that segregated waste materials have a high likelihood to meet the VLLW WAC and be accepted into the planned VLLW facility. This paper outlines the challenges and various factors which were considered in the development of interim process criteria. (author)

  11. Low-level waste incineration: experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrer, H.A.; Dalton, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) is a low level radioactive waste treatment facility being operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A key component of the facility is a dual chambered controlled air incinerator with a dry off-gas treatment system. The incinerator began processing radioactive waste in September, 1984. Limited operations continued from that data until October, 1985, at which time all INEL generators began shipping combustible waste for incineration. The incinerator is presently processing all available INEL combustible Dry Active Waste (DAW) (approximately 1700 m 3 per year) operating about five days per month. Performance to date has demonstrated the effectiveness, viability and safety of incineration as a volume reduction method of DAW. 3 figures

  12. A new model for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, A.

    1999-08-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste which is the last step of radioactive waste management has been the most argued subject of the nuclear industry. Comparing with the high level waste which are in small volumes, the low level radioactive waste are produced in considerable volumes but there are more disposal options for them. The countries apply the proper disposal concepts according to their waste management policies that developed for their conditions. Since such a waste management policy has not been developed in our country, the existing legal situation includes only the discharge limits for the waste to be discharged. The disposal facility is the start point of nuclides to move around. The nuclides are carried with the vertical water movement down to saturated zone after they leaked to soil from bottom of disposal facility. They are carried to far field with the water movement in saturated zone. A radiation dose burden arises when this water is drunk by man or used in agriculture and farms. That dose which is subject to future generations after hundreds of years should be kept in a level that is acceptable as harmless for the existing generations. This rule has been accepted by the countries as a disposal principle. The most important factor effecting the nuclide movement in soil is the water movement. The Darcy velocity in our study is described as the vertical movement velocity of water in soil. The disposal unit of radioactive waste is covered with a very low permeable material therefore Darcy velocity is kept as a constant value while the cap material keeps its integrity. After the complete disintegration of cap material, Darcy velocity reaches to natural soil permeability and can again be assumed as a known value. Uncertainty lays on the duration between these two times on how the velocity will change. The general assumption is that the velocity change will be linear meaning that the last known permeability value of the cap material is directly connected to

  13. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  14. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  15. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, R.B.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 to assist states and compacts in their siting and licensing efforts for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) is the element of the DOE that performs the key support activities under the Act. The NLLWMP's activities are driven by the needs of the states and compacts as they prepare to manage their low-level waste under the Act. Other work is added during the fiscal year as necessary to accommodate new requests brought on by status changes in states' and compacts' siting and licensing efforts. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during FY 1997

  16. A new approach to characterize very-low-level radioactive waste produced at hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaffora, Biagio; Magistris, Matteo; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre; Luccioni, Catherine; Saporta, Gilbert; Ulrici, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced as a consequence of preventive and corrective maintenance during the operation of high-energy particle accelerators or associated dismantling campaigns. Their radiological characterization must be performed to ensure an appropriate disposal in the disposal facilities. The radiological characterization of waste includes the establishment of the list of produced radionuclides, called “radionuclide inventory”, and the estimation of their activity. The present paper describes the process adopted at CERN to characterize very-low-level radioactive waste with a focus on activated metals. The characterization method consists of measuring and estimating the activity of produced radionuclides either by experimental methods or statistical and numerical approaches. We adapted the so-called Scaling Factor (SF) and Correlation Factor (CF) techniques to the needs of hadron accelerators, and applied them to very-low-level metallic waste produced at CERN. For each type of metal we calculated the radionuclide inventory and identified the radionuclides that most contribute to hazard factors. The methodology proposed is of general validity, can be extended to other activated materials and can be used for the characterization of waste produced in particle accelerators and research centres, where the activation mechanisms are comparable to the ones occurring at CERN. - Highlights: • We developed a radiological characterization process for radioactive waste produced at particle accelerators. • We used extensive numerical experimentations and statistical analysis to predict a complete list of radionuclides in activated metals. • We used the new approach to characterize and dispose of more than 420 t of very-low-level radioactive waste.

  17. The Department of Energy's National Disposition Strategy for the Treatment and Disposal of Low Level and Mixed Low Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.R.; Tonkay, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program is committed to the environmental remediation of DOE sites. This cleanup mission will continue to produce large amounts of Low Level Waste (LLW) and Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). This paper reports on the development of the DOE LLW/MLLW National Disposition Strategy that maps the Department's long-range strategy to manage LLW and MLLW. Existing corporate LLW and MLLW data proved insufficient to develop this strategy. Therefore, new data requirements were developed in conjunction with waste managers. The paper will report on the results of this data collection effort, which will result in development of DOE LLW/MLLW disposition maps. (authors)

  18. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-01-01

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions

  19. Risk comparisons relevant to sea disposal of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This document contains estimates of, and comparisons among, risks to human health posed by exposures to radionuclides, including those associated with low level radioactive wastes dumping at sea, and organic chemical contaminants resulting from seafood consumption. This study was conducted at the request of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (the London Convention 1972, formerly referred to as the London Dumping Convention) as a component of a review of the wider political, legal, economic and social aspects of sea dumping of radioactive wastes. The highest potential risks associated with seafood consumption are generally those resulting from exposures to naturally occurring radionuclides. In some representations, the potential risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) and dieldrin in seafood are of the same order as those arising from naturally occurring radionuclides. The peak annual risks resulting from low level radioactive waste dumping at sea, assessed on any rational basis, are at least two orders of magnitude lower than those associated with the ingestion of common organic chemical contaminants in seafood. 47 refs, 4 figs, 13 tabs

  20. Determination of 90Sr in low-level radioactive wastes using extraction chromatography and LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temba, Eliane S.C.; Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Mingote, Raquel M.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of 90 Sr in low-level radioactive wastes is presented in this work. It is a part of a methodology developed for the sequential radiochemical separation of radionuclides in low-level radioactive wastes. These radionuclides comprises the actinides and 55 Fe, 63 Ni and 90 Sr, classified as difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides in the radioactive waste characterization, because they cannot be measured by direct measurements, like gamma spectrometry. A variety of methods have been reported in the literature, based on precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange. In this work, the separation was carried out using precipitation and extraction chromatography using the Sr Resin (Eichrom). This resin is strontium-selective, the extractant is a crown ether-derivative immobilized on an inert polymeric support. The 90 Sr eluted from column was measured by LSC. The counting was carried out within 5 hours of the start of yttrium ingrowth to minimize interferences from 90 Y. The counting efficiency was calculated by using a 90 Sr standard solution purified by the specific resin. The chemical yield of the procedure was determined gravimetrically by the addition of a stable Sr carrier. Optimum conditions for the pretreatment, separation and LSC setting were determined using simulated samples. This procedure showed to be rapid and achieved a good chemical recovery, with an average of 84 %, and a detection limit of 0.6 Bq L -1 . (author)