WorldWideScience

Sample records for national assembly law

  1. National Assembly of Serbia and European Parliament: A constitutional-law comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For better understanding of the two parallel processes - EU integration and the rapprochement of the Republic of Serbia to the Union, a comparison of National Assembly of Serbia and European Parliament could be used. There are two legislative bodies in matter, which despite some similarities have numerous differences. The key difference is that National Assembly is a 'full' legislative body, and European Parliament is a part of the Union's legislation, such as one of the Parliament's houses. Perhaps the most important cause of this difference is the fact that National Assembly is a power body of the State, and the European Parliament is an institution of a political and economic community which is not (yet a state. It is to be assumed that the constitutional-law differences between European Parliament and National Assembly, or the parliament of another state, will increasingly diminish if the processes of the transfer of states' sovereignty to the European Union continue. At the same time, the relation of the political power of the European Parliament and the national parliaments of the Union state members will change.

  2. N.3201 National Assembly law project relative to the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This law text, elaborated in the framework of the energy market deregulation, presents the market deregulation and the free choice for the consumers, the dispositions relative to the gas and electric power distribution, the dispositions relative to the Gaz de France capital and the State control and dispositions relatives to contracts of natural ags and electric power supply. (A.L.B.)

  3. N.6 report realized for the economical Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poniatowski, L.

    2006-10-01

    This law project concerns the organization of the french energy sector and the definition of the public utilities. After a presentation of the juridical environment of the european energy sector, the author shows, in the framework of the world energy situation, that the evolution of the juridical aspects of Gaz de France answers a real necessity. He then presents the initial law project dispositions, the modifications of the National Assembly and the amendment of the commission. (A.L.B.)

  4. The role of international institutions in the formation of international bioethical law: UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly attempt to govern human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppuswamy, Chamundeeswari

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the international governance of human reproductive cloning. Noting that bioethics is a new field of engagement for international lawyers, it recounts some of the institutional developments in bioethical law making. The role of UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly is scrutinized and the author discusses the relative merits of the institutions' governance of human reproductive cloning. The author suggests that some international institutions and mechanisms are better suited than others for bioethical law making. The 2005 General Assembly resolution on human cloning is analysed in this context.

  5. International law and United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Matej

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with centuries-lasting open military pretensions of world superpowers, modern diplomacy has developed, as beginning a war, as well as coming to peace demanded political activity which resulted, first in signing, and then coming into effect of international documents, on the basis of which, a foundation for the modern international order has been cast. Further on, by the formation of international organizations, codification has been allowed, as well as a progressive development of international law. Additionally, in the sense of preserving international peace and security, first the League of Nations was formed, and following the ending of World War II, the UN. Generally, the functioning of the United Nation's organs, has been regulated by legal rules, however political goals, tendencies, and mechanisms which the member states are using determine greatly the activity above all of the Security Council, but furthermore of the General Assembly, as a plenary organ. Nevertheless, the achieved results of the Commission for International Law in the meaning of creation of international conventions, as well as state adhering to the same, present unassailable achievements in the sense of development of international law. On the other hand, tendencies of motion of international relationships are aimed at establishing a multi-polar system in the international community. Today, the political scene is assuming a new appearance, by which the nearly built international system is already awaiting further progressive development.

  6. N.590 National assembly. Law project of program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the different articles of the law text n. 590 on the management of the radioactive wastes and materials. It concerns the obligations and the liabilities of producers and users of radioactive spent fuels and wastes. (A.L.B.)

  7. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  8. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  9. Law project modified by the Senate of energy orientation. (urgency declared). The Senate modified, in a first reading, the law project, adopted by the National Assembly in first reading after urgency declaration, concerning: see the numbers: national assembly (12. legisl.): 1586, 1597 and T.A. 302. Senate: 328 and 330 (2003-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This law project concerns the national energy policy, the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  10. No. 1669 French National Assembly, Constitution of the 4 october 1958 twelfth recorded legislature at the presidency of the French National Assembly the 11 june 2004. Law project modified by the Senate of energy policy, transmitted by the Primer Minister to the President of the French National Assembly. The Senate modified in first lecture, the law project adopted by the French National Assembly in first lecture after emergency declaration, about: see numbers: French National Assembly: 1586, 1597 and T.A. 302. Senate: 328, 330 and T.A. 93 (2003-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This law document of the french energy policy deals with the national energy strategy, the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the electric power transport and distribution, fiscal measures. An appendix is devoted to the presentation of the government policy to implement its energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  11. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  12. Text adopted no. 302. Little law, constitution of the 4 October 1958 twelve legislature ordinary session of 2003-2004. Law project adopted by the National Assembly in first reading, after urgency declaration of energy orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This law project concerns the french national energy policy. It presents the government policy on four main axis: the energy independence with the energy supply safety, the environment quality with the fight against the greenhouse effect, the energy prices and the social aspects with the energy supply for all french people. By a presentation of the articles it provides information on the energy demand control, the renewable energies and the financial assistance. (A.L.B.)

  13. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft adopted by the National Assembly; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-03-02

    This document presents the draft of the law regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply, adopted by the French National Assembly. The first Title devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply contains 5 articles. The second Title deals with the production of electricity in the articles 6 through 12. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four concerns with the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 to 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 to 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transient Provisions. The law draft was debated in public session in Paris on 2 March and signed by the President Laurent Fabius.

  14. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  15. Law project adopted by the National Assembly, after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document presents the different articles of the law project dealing with the terminology, the radioactive wastes storage and disposal, the safety and the transport, the financing, the liabilities, the control and the sanctions. (A.L.B.)

  16. N.3201 National Assembly law project relative to the energy sector; N.3201 Assemblee Nationale projet de loi relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This law text, elaborated in the framework of the energy market deregulation, presents the market deregulation and the free choice for the consumers, the dispositions relative to the gas and electric power distribution, the dispositions relative to the Gaz de France capital and the State control and dispositions relatives to contracts of natural ags and electric power supply. (A.L.B.)

  17. NATIONAL PUBLIC LAW IS BACK, EUROPEAN LAW DISAPPEARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS VACARELU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the last two years main titles in daily press, we discover not only great economic problems inside the EU, but also big concerns about the future of EU, when a lot of states are victims of their public debt. For this big deficit, only national budget was good to help, at European level money are missing. In this idea, the concept: “EU with two speeds” really appears, and every government is forced today to have a position. But on this case, a good part of European laws are menaced by the national law coming back – it must be a legal system able to replace the holes, because every human situation must be regulated by a kind of law. In fact, last years discovered why a lot of political constructions are made only of “perfect papers”, not according with the reality. In this case, when integrationist plans are rejected by the reality, only the national states and the national public law are forced to intervene and to support the fury. Our text try to analyze where is the limit of EU law appliance in this case and how much national law will come back.

  18. N.6 report realized for the economical Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.6 rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poniatowski, L

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the organization of the french energy sector and the definition of the public utilities. After a presentation of the juridical environment of the european energy sector, the author shows, in the framework of the world energy situation, that the evolution of the juridical aspects of Gaz de France answers a real necessity. He then presents the initial law project dispositions, the modifications of the National Assembly and the amendment of the commission. (A.L.B.)

  19. N.6 report realized for the economical Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.6 rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poniatowski, L

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the organization of the french energy sector and the definition of the public utilities. After a presentation of the juridical environment of the european energy sector, the author shows, in the framework of the world energy situation, that the evolution of the juridical aspects of Gaz de France answers a real necessity. He then presents the initial law project dispositions, the modifications of the National Assembly and the amendment of the commission. (A.L.B.)

  20. National assembly constitution of the 4. of october 1958 eleventh legislature. Law project relative to the openness and safety in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This law project is the first text submitted to the Parliament in order to given a general frame to nuclear activities. It refers to principles of other activities areas such precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle, and public information principle. It extends the information right of citizens by creating an access right to information held by the operators of nuclear activities. A transparency high committee about nuclear safety is created whom mission is to contribute to public information on nuclear activities and to guarantee its quality and reliability. (N.C.)

  1. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  2. Human Rights in National Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsborg-Andersen, Ayo

    rights law is visible in the case-law of institutions performing reviews of Danish administrative decisions. The book consists of three parts. The first part contains the introduction, research question, methodological considerations and delimitations. The second part is an in-depth look at the theory...... developed using the theory of legal capability and communication theories. Discussing new ways of analysing the application of human rights, this book is relevant for scholars and professionals primarily working with human rights law, but also administrative law, both nationally and internationally.......Human rights are increasingly debated in the public sphere, yet discussions of human rights law are traditionally all but invisible in the discussions on national administrative law. This is at least the case in Denmark. This book sets out to analyse if, and in what way, the application of human...

  3. Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Robinson, Cynthia F; Shen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined (all law enforcement--PMR = 169, 95% CI = 150-191, p law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police (PMR = 388, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 168-765). There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide better data to inform us for preventive action.

  4. [The Assembly and the national priorities ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Social participation and attention to the actions of government have increased dramatically in Ecuador. It is crucial that political debate be broadened concerning the functioning of the National Assembly, thereby opening greater public opportunities for participation. All social groups should be guaranteed access to the debate; expansion of the public sphere is essential for development of effective mechanisms of social inclusion. Those with no capacity to defend their own interests must have a voice. The National Assembly, in addition to reforming the Constitution, must reinforce the role of public men and statesmen at all levels of government. Statesmen place the common interest over special interests and create coalitions to effect necessary changes. The National Assembly must reorient the emphasis of government activities to give all sectors equal opportunity and access to basic public services. The role of the government must be redefined, which includes being equipped with better tools for management and control and with mechanisms for accountability at a time when many believe that globalization and market forces by themselves should dictate the rhythms of political, economic, and social life. Diversity should be respected. Nongovernmental organizations can be of great assistance in fostering dialogue, cooperation, solidarity, and consensus. Ecuadorians must support the goal of human and sustainable development.

  5. Law Enforcement Support Office (LESO) 1999 National Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lytle, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The Law Enforcement Support Office (LESO) national conference was a three-day forum to inform and update federal, state and local law enforcement agents, of the DoD role supporting the National Drug Control Strategy...

  6. National And European Law: Problem Of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to one of the main problems for all integration communities –problem of implementation of the integration law norms in the national legal system of member states. Author, on the example of certain member states of the European Union considers mechanism of the European Union law action in it's member states. In the article constitutional norms of the number of member states which set a ratio of the national and European laws are analyzed. According to the principle of competence giving, member states voluntary transfer part of the competence to the European Union. Competences which are transferred to the member states are the competences of the European Union. In the course of research author investigates opinions of scientists and analyze regulations. Author pays separate attention to the question of the European Union creation. For example, author notes that consideration by the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of the question of compliance of the Treaty to the Constitution of Germany became neither more nor less a most important milestone on the way of Treaty on the European Union ratification by Germany. In the decision on this matter Court defined a number of reference points for the purpose of possible excise if the European integration elimination out of those limits which are set for the government of Germany by its Constitution. The decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany though meant approval of the Treaty on the European Union in the political sense, it was nevertheless unambiguously directed against broad interpretation and federalist vision of the European integration. It is obvious that states, on the basis of constitutional norms may leave contracts that are burdensome for them. It concerns not only international treaties, but also Treaties of the European Union.

  7. The European Union and National Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Vagn

    1995-01-01

    Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law......Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law...

  8. Understanding Law Enforcement Support to National Security Problems and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davies, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores law enforcement as an element of national power, defines its contributions, limitations, and challenges, and provides recommendations to maximize interagency competencies and unity...

  9. National treatment in international trade: National law and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the principle of national treatment, namely one of the basic principles of international trade. The objective is to determine its outreach and contents set in the forms of international trade organising, primarily in the World Trade Organization, from a legal perspective, naturally, all in the context of the Serbian law. The analysis that has been carried out indicates that there is an obvious intention of our legislators to harmonise in principle our legislation with the WTO requirements and standards, which are incomplete themselves and cause disputes that are not resolved in the practice of dispute resolving either entirely or consistently. In our law, a step forward has been made in relation to the situation from the previous relevant legislation, because the application of this principle is extended not only to trade with goods but also to trade with services, and to industrial property rights. However, in the most significant, basic field, namely trade with goods, it is still being done in a general way, by simplifying the entire topic and bringing it down only to protection against discrimination and neglecting the sphere of protectionism. Such acting does not include all the complexity of this matter and it is not entirely harmonised with the WTO requirements. However, a good side of such an approach is that it gives the state more freedom for acting in this sphere, which may be acceptable in the transition period until full membership of Serbia in this organization.

  10. Report realized by the commission of the economical Affairs on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development and of the nuclear energy development, the France decided by the law of the 30 December 1991, to study three axis or researches: the radioactive wastes transmutation, their deep underground disposal and their storage during ten years. Today, after evaluation of the researches results a law project on the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes, has been prepared. This document is the approval of the law project and presents some amendments. (A.L.B.)

  11. In Search of a Trans-national Climate Change Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassus Saint-Genies, Geraud de

    2016-01-01

    Private entities engagement in the battle against climate change is a well-established fact, and a source of intense and diversified normative activity. A certain type of climate rules has thus arisen, with a private origin and an international scope, as they transcend the borders of existing territories. In this context, one could wonder about the possible existence of a trans-national climate change law, as a relatively autonomous body of law, which would exist at the margins of international and national climate change law. Building on the discussions that have been conducted about the trans-national law in other areas of regulations, this study intends to provide answers about the possible existence of a trans-national climate change law

  12. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into force, Islamic law must be written into constitution or legislation. It is needed to have legal basis when performing Islamic law, the existence of religious court is very important in dispute settlement related to Islamic law. The Influence of western legal system is very strong in national legal system. Nevertheless, the western legal system differ substantially from Islamic legal system, and Islamic law was implemented limitedly based upon western legislation. It was limited to family law. While the differentiation are: the way of implementation of western legal system into national legal system and the form of legislation Indonesia has one legislation, which is in effect to all of Indonesian people. On the contrary, Malaysia has many enactments, which are different from one to another in each negeri.

  13. New Tool to Draft National Nuclear Laws. Second Nuclear Law Handbook Available Online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Drafting new national nuclear laws and reviewing existing laws and regulations requires extensive and specialized expertise. For many countries this represents a significant challenge. The IAEA's legislative assistance programme was established to help Member States adopt adequate national nuclear legislation. In 2003, the legistlative assistance programme published the Handbook on Nuclear Law. The reference text provides a fundamental understanding of the key elements and principles of national nuclear legislation. The Handbook is widely utilized by Member States, industry and experts. A second volume of the Handbook was released during the IAEA's 54th General Conference, which convened in Vienna from 20 to 24 September 2010.

  14. N.590 National assembly. Law project of program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes; N. 590 Assemblee Nationale. Projet de loi de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the different articles of the law text n. 590 on the management of the radioactive wastes and materials. It concerns the obligations and the liabilities of producers and users of radioactive spent fuels and wastes. (A.L.B.)

  15. Applicable law in investor-state arbitration: the interplay between national and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the law, national and/or international, that arbitral tribunals apply on the merits to settle disputes between foreign investors and host states. In light of the freedom that the disputing parties and the arbitrators have when designating the applicable law, and because of the

  16. Foreign Nationals and Data Protection Law: A Transatlantic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    2014-01-01

    The application of data protection and privacy law based on nationality is currently a matter of great controversy. This contribution examines the topic in a comparative sense based on the law of the EU and the US. It finds a number of difference, but also similarities, between the approaches used...

  17. Towards the abolition of gender discrimination in nationality laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Albarazi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of gender discrimination to generating and perpetuating statelessness is considerable, and there continues to be a need to address such discrimination in nationality laws.

  18. Seeding Solutions Volume 2: Options for National Laws Governing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... ... 2: Options for National Laws Governing Access To and Control Over Genetic ... to the ownership, conservation, and exchange of genetic resources. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  19. NATIONAL MINORITIES IN THE LAW OF THE EC/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Šmihula

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the law of the EC/EU the protection of national minorities is still a marginal matter. The EU has relied on general international law and on a European regional system of international law and, in case of necessity, accepted their norms. But in the 1990s there began a process of “de-economisation of the European integration” and the importance of national minorities became higher. Protection of the national minorities has not become a generally accepted legally binding principle of the EU, although in several legal acts issues of national minorities are mentioned. On the other hand, the political relevance of national minorities´ protection is very high. The importance of protection of national minorities in future will probably grow. It is a result of the adoption of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2000 and of the discussions regarding the European constitution and the Treaty of Lisbon.

  20. The United Nations General Assembly and Disarmament 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report offers a summary of the proposals made and action taken on disarmament issues by the Assembly at its forty-second regular session. It is published in the framework of the World Disarmament Campaign, which was launched by a unanimous decision of the Assembly in 1982 to inform, to educate and to generate public understanding and support for the objectives of the United Nations in the field of disarmament

  1. Introduction. National Courts vis-à-vis EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.; Wind, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    National Courts and EU Law examines both how and why national courts and judges are involved in the process of legal integration within the European Union. As well as reviewing conventional thinking, the book presents new legal and empirical insights into the issue of judicial behaviour...

  2. Competition soft law in national courts - Quo vadis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Zlatina

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on an empirical data-set of 103 national competition cases of EU Member States, which contain judicial reasoning on supranational, Commission-issued competition soft law. The paper enquires into the possible reasons for detected national judicial attitudes to supranational soft

  3. Report from UNSCEAR to the United Nations General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. The result of this work has presented for the general reader in the 2000 Report to the General Assembly. This report with the supporting scientific annexes, which are aimed at the general scientific community, was published as 'Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes'

  4. The UNGA Resolutions on the Rule of Law at the National and International Levels, 2006-Post 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, R.

    2014-01-01

    For almost a decade, the un General Assembly (unga) has adopted annual resolutions on ‘the rule of law at the national and international levels.’ Moreover, the unga has held a High-level Meeting in September 2012 where Heads of State and Government discussed the topic for the first time ever and

  5. The national law on nuclear activity: some consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Acosta, G.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the contents of the new National Law on Nuclear Activities of the Argentine Republic, analysing the functions of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) (former National Board of Nuclear Regulation -ENREN) and the privatisation of the nuclear power generation performed by the enterprise Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA). It also includes some comments about political and legislative records of the Law in the framework of the Nation's reorganization undertaken by the National Government for the privatisation of the rendering of public services, such as the production of energy and related activities. The Law was approved by Law 24.804 of April 2, 1997, and published in the Official Bulletin of the Argentine Republic on April 25, 1997. In accordance with the provisions of this Law, the National Government, through the above mentioned organisations, will fix the nuclear policy and the functions of research, development, surveillance and control of the nuclear activity. Also, as part of the execution of the nuclear policy, all the obligations accepted by Argentina as signatory party to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty), the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (TNP), the Agreement between the Argentine Republic and the Federative Republic of Brazil through the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to enforce Safeguards, in addition to the commitments signed by Argentina as a member of the Suppliers Group and the National Control System for Sensitive Exports, shall be met [es

  6. Opto-mechanical assembly procurement for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.; Simon, T.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of the small optics procurements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be in the form of completely assembled, tested, and cleaned subsystems. These subsystems will be integrated into the NIF at LLNL. To accomplish this task, the procurement packages will include, optical and mechanical drawings, acceptance test and cleanliness requirements. In January 1999, the first such integrated opto-mechanical assembly was received and evaluated at LLNL. With the successful completion of this important trial procurement, we were able to establish the viability of purchasing clean, ready to install, opto-mechanical assemblies from vendors within the optics industry. 32 vendors were chosen from our supplier database for quote, then five were chosen to purchase from. These five vendors represented a cross section of the optics industry. From a ''value'' catalog supplier (that did the whole job internally) to a partnership between three specialty companies, these vendors demonstrated they have the ingenuity and capability to deliver cost competitive, NIF-ready, opto- mechanical assemblies. This paper describes the vendor selection for this procurement, technical requirements including packaging, fabrication, coating, and cleanliness specifications, then testing and verification. It also gives real test results gathered from inspections performed at LLNL that show how our vendors scored on the various requirements. Keywords: Opto-Mechanical, assembly, NIF, packaging, shipping, specifications, procurement, MIL-STD-1246C, surface cleanliness

  7. National space legislation : future perspectives for Malaysian Space Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, Che Zuhaida Binti

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the future perspectives for Malaysian space law. It aims at demonstrating the development of Malaysian outer space activities inclusive of her status with respect to United Nations space conventions and her membership of international and regional space-related organizations.

  8. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or…

  9. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrative rules and an administrative justice system.

  10. Correlates of compliance with national comprehensive smoke-free laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruga, Armando; Hayes, Luminita S; Aguilera, Ximena; Prasad, Vinayak; Bettcher, Douglas W

    2017-12-05

    To explore correlates of high compliance with smoking bans in a cross-sectional data set from the 41 countries with national comprehensive smoke-free laws in 2014 and complete data on compliance and enforcement. Outcome variable: compliance with a national comprehensive smoke-free law in each country was obtained for 2014 from the WHO global report on the global tobacco epidemic. Explanatory variables: legal enforcement requirements, penalties, infrastructure and strategy were obtained through a separate survey of governments. Also, country socioeconomic and demographic characteristics including the level of corruption control were included. an initial bivariate analysis determined the significance of each potentially relevant explanatory variable of high compliance. Differences in compliance were tested using the exact logistic regression. High compliance with the national comprehensive smoke-free law was associated with the involvement of the local jurisdictions in providing training and/or guidance for inspections (OR=10.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 117.7) and a perception of high corruption control efforts in the country (OR=7.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 85.8). The results show the importance of the depth of the enforcement infrastructure and effort represented by the degree to which the local government is involved in enforcement. They also show the significance of fighting corruption in the enforcement process, including the attempts of the tobacco industry to undermine the process, to achieve high levels of compliance with the law. The results point out to the need to invest minimal but essential enforcement resources given that national comprehensive smoke-free laws are self-enforcing in many but not all countries and sectors.

  11. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Torus Design, Fabrication and Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Barnes, G.; Chrzanowski, J.H.; Heitzenroeder, P.

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Fabrication, assembly, and initial power tests were completed in February of 1999. The majority of the design and construction efforts were constructed on the Torus system components. The Torus system includes the centerstack assembly, external Poloidal and Toroidal coil systems, vacuum vessel, torus support structure and plasma facing components (PFC's). NSTX's low aspect ratio required that the centerstack be made with the smallest radius possible. This, and the need to bake NSTXs carbon-carbon composite plasma facing components at 350 degrees C, was major drivers in the design of NSTX. The Centerstack Assembly consists of the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) windings, the Ohmic Heating (OH) solenoid and its associated tension cylinder, three inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils, thermal insulation, diagnostics and an Inconel casing which forms the inner wall of the vacuum vessel boundary. It took approximately nine months to complete the assembly of the Centerstack. The tight radial clearances and the extreme length of the major components added complexity to the assembly of the Centerstack components. The vacuum vessel was constructed of 304-stainless steel and required approximately seven months to complete and deliver to the Test Cell. Several of the issues associated with the construction of the vacuum vessel were control of dimensional stability following welding and controlling the permeability of the welds. A great deal of time and effort was devoted to defining the correct weld process and material selection to meet our design requirements. The PFCs will be baked out at 350 degrees C while the vessel is maintained at 150 degrees C. This required care in designing the supports so they can accommodate the high electromagnetic loads resulting from plasma disruptions and the resulting relative thermal expansions

  12. Text adopted no. 302. Little law, constitution of the 4 October 1958 twelve legislature ordinary session of 2003-2004. Law project adopted by the National Assembly in first reading, after urgency declaration of energy orientation; Texte adopte no. 302. Petite loi, constitution du 4 octobre 1958 douzieme legislature session ordinaire de 2003-2004. Projet de loi adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale en premiere lecture, apres declaration d'urgence, d'orientation sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This law project concerns the french national energy policy. It presents the government policy on four main axis: the energy independence with the energy supply safety, the environment quality with the fight against the greenhouse effect, the energy prices and the social aspects with the energy supply for all french people. By a presentation of the articles it provides information on the energy demand control, the renewable energies and the financial assistance. (A.L.B.)

  13. A new national smokefree law increased calls to a national quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Sertsou, Gabriel; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Grigg, Michele; Li, Judy

    2007-05-08

    A law making all indoor workplaces including bars and restaurants smokefree became operational in New Zealand in December 2004. New Zealand has a national free-phone Quitline Service which has been operational since 1999. Previous work has shown that the number of calls to the Quitline are influenced by marketing of the service through media campaigns. We set out to investigate if the smokefree law increased calls to the Quitline. For 24 months prior to the law, and 12 months after the law, data were collected on: (i) Quitline caller registrations and the issuing of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vouchers by the Quitline Service; (ii) expenditure on Quitline-related television advertising; (iii) expenditure on other smokefree television advertising; and (iv) print media coverage of smoking in major New Zealand newspapers. These data were inputs to a time series analysis using a Box-Jenkins transfer function model. This used the law change as the intervention variable, with the response series being the monthly Quitline caller rates and monthly first time NRT voucher issue rates. The monthly rates of Quitline caller registrations and NRT voucher issues were observed to increase in the months after the law change. The increase in both these outcomes was even greater when considered in terms of per level of Quitline advertising expenditure (though these patterns may have partly reflected marked reductions in advertising expenditure at the time of the law change and hence are of limited validity). In the more robust time series analyses, the law change (intervention variable) had a significant effect (p = 0.025) on increasing the monthly caller registration rate in December 2004. This was after adjusting for the possible effects of Quitline advertising expenditure, print media coverage, and other smoking-related advertising expenditure. The new national smokefree law resulted in increased quitting-related behaviour. This would suggest there is an extra opportunity

  14. A new national smokefree law increased calls to a national quitline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Sertsou, Gabriel; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Grigg, Michele; Li, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background A law making all indoor workplaces including bars and restaurants smokefree became operational in New Zealand in December 2004. New Zealand has a national free-phone Quitline Service which has been operational since 1999. Previous work has shown that the number of calls to the Quitline are influenced by marketing of the service through media campaigns. We set out to investigate if the smokefree law increased calls to the Quitline. Methods For 24 months prior to the law, and 12 months after the law, data were collected on: (i) Quitline caller registrations and the issuing of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vouchers by the Quitline Service; (ii) expenditure on Quitline-related television advertising; (iii) expenditure on other smokefree television advertising; and (iv) print media coverage of smoking in major New Zealand newspapers. These data were inputs to a time series analysis using a Box-Jenkins transfer function model. This used the law change as the intervention variable, with the response series being the monthly Quitline caller rates and monthly first time NRT voucher issue rates. Results The monthly rates of Quitline caller registrations and NRT voucher issues were observed to increase in the months after the law change. The increase in both these outcomes was even greater when considered in terms of per level of Quitline advertising expenditure (though these patterns may have partly reflected marked reductions in advertising expenditure at the time of the law change and hence are of limited validity). In the more robust time series analyses, the law change (intervention variable) had a significant effect (p = 0.025) on increasing the monthly caller registration rate in December 2004. This was after adjusting for the possible effects of Quitline advertising expenditure, print media coverage, and other smoking-related advertising expenditure. Conclusion The new national smokefree law resulted in increased quitting-related behaviour. This would

  15. A new national smokefree law increased calls to a national quitline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A law making all indoor workplaces including bars and restaurants smokefree became operational in New Zealand in December 2004. New Zealand has a national free-phone Quitline Service which has been operational since 1999. Previous work has shown that the number of calls to the Quitline are influenced by marketing of the service through media campaigns. We set out to investigate if the smokefree law increased calls to the Quitline. Methods For 24 months prior to the law, and 12 months after the law, data were collected on: (i Quitline caller registrations and the issuing of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT vouchers by the Quitline Service; (ii expenditure on Quitline-related television advertising; (iii expenditure on other smokefree television advertising; and (iv print media coverage of smoking in major New Zealand newspapers. These data were inputs to a time series analysis using a Box-Jenkins transfer function model. This used the law change as the intervention variable, with the response series being the monthly Quitline caller rates and monthly first time NRT voucher issue rates. Results The monthly rates of Quitline caller registrations and NRT voucher issues were observed to increase in the months after the law change. The increase in both these outcomes was even greater when considered in terms of per level of Quitline advertising expenditure (though these patterns may have partly reflected marked reductions in advertising expenditure at the time of the law change and hence are of limited validity. In the more robust time series analyses, the law change (intervention variable had a significant effect (p = 0.025 on increasing the monthly caller registration rate in December 2004. This was after adjusting for the possible effects of Quitline advertising expenditure, print media coverage, and other smoking-related advertising expenditure. Conclusion The new national smokefree law resulted in increased quitting

  16. Reviewing the National Courts in Creating Orderly International Law and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanis Leatemia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orderly international community and international law are determined by a national court. Essentially, the national court must be competent to maintain the balance between the national interest which based on the national sovereignty as well as the provisions of international law within the framework of peaceful coexistence. This article reviews the role of national courts in creating and developing the customary international law. As it turns out in practice, however, it has certain weaknesses, particularly in view of the accountability and legitimacy aspects of its establishment. This purpose could be achieved if national courts were able to maintain a balance between the national interest based on the sovereignty of State on the one hand and the provisions of international law on the other. The function of the national court was to maintain a balance between international law and national law.

  17. The development of nuclear law during the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. von

    1976-01-01

    The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea will influence nuclear law in the following fields: construction and operation of offshore nuclear power plants, dumping of radioactive wastes in the sea, navigation of nuclear ships and maritime transport of radioactive materials. Nuclear law experts should take advantage of the situation of the present conference which may enable them the influence discussions as well as the outcome of the Conference in these fields by their expertise and knowledge. (Auth) [fr

  18. The impact of the ECHR on private international law: An analysis of Strasbourg and selected national case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiestra, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the interaction between the rights guaranteed in the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) and private international law has been analyzed by examining the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) in Strasbourg and selected national courts. In doing so the

  19. Monitoring of compliance with the national tobacco advertising law in 11 cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Xu

    2018-03-01

    Despite implementation of the revised national Advertising Law, tobacco advertising and promotion is still commonly found at tobacco POS in China. Law enforcement agencies should increase inspection and enforcement measures on tobacco advertising and promotion.

  20. Nuclear law in Morocco: national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabil, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry is very advanced in Morocco. This technological progress has been accompanied by fairly detailed legislation and significant involvement on the part of Morocco in international conventions and agreements. The desire to progress further with regard to research and the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires a twofold effort: the various pieces of national legislation on nuclear law need to be reformulated to bring them into line with the most recent rules in this sphere; Morocco international undertakings need to be revised in light of its immediate interests, certainly, but also of foreseeable developments, particularly with regard to safety and third party liability. (author)

  1. National identity and law in the context of European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Lise; Palsbro, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Nationalistic discourse is often associated with the flag waving of popular culture, political views of extremist right-wing parties or the routine rhetoric of ‘us’ versus ‘them’, pervading social life in general. However, nationalistic discourse is to be found even in academic writings by the pr......Nationalistic discourse is often associated with the flag waving of popular culture, political views of extremist right-wing parties or the routine rhetoric of ‘us’ versus ‘them’, pervading social life in general. However, nationalistic discourse is to be found even in academic writings...... by the professional elite of lawyers, who readily resort to ideological topoi of national identity and culture to support legal argument. Reporting from a comprehensive study on Danish academic and public debate on European human rights law, this article explores how the legal community of Denmark reacts emotionally...

  2. The comparative constitutional law on national constitutional system: with regard to the IX World Congress of Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Landa Arroyo, César

    2015-01-01

    From  the  process  of  globalization  of  law,  the  comparative constitutional law has gained a leading role for a better understanding and solving old and new constitutional national and international challenges. Therefore, some assumptions and considerations to take into account are presented for the development of the national constitutional order within the framework of the comparative constitutional law, such as universality and relativism of human rights; the concept of power and cons...

  3. Law project modified by the Senate of energy orientation. (urgency declared). The Senate modified, in a first reading, the law project, adopted by the National Assembly in first reading after urgency declaration, concerning: see the numbers: national assembly (12. legisl.): 1586, 1597 and T.A. 302. Senate: 328 and 330 (2003-2004); Projet de loi modifie par le Senat d'orientation sur l'energie. (Urgence declaree). Le Senat a modifie, en premiere lecture, le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee nationale en premiere lecture apres declaration d'urgence, dont la teneur suit: voir les numeros: Assemblee nationale (12. legisl.): 1586, 1597 et T.A. 302. Senat: 328 et 330 (2003-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This law project concerns the national energy policy, the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  4. Student Rights in the U.S. and Civil Law Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    A discussion of the two legal traditions illuminates this comparison of student rights in common and civil law nations. The United States is among a minority of nations that use common law, a complex system cluttered with processes difficult to explain and loaded with protections for defendents in both criminal and civil cases. In American common…

  5. Protecting Biodiversity: National Laws Regulating Access to Genetic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book is the first to compare such laws and policies across a range of countries in ... and developing worlds, including Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, ... conservation, the environment, intellectual property, and related issues; ...

  6. The development of the international and national radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author reports in detail about the development of the international radiation protection law, gives a general survey of domestic legislation in the FRG and abroad and presents the individual problems of the radiation protection laws in a comparative way, such as radiation protection principles/dose limit values, licensing and monitoring regulations disposal of radioactive wastes, application of ionising rays and radioactive substances to men as well as protection from non-ionising radiation. (UN) [de

  7. N.7 notice presented for the Finances Commission, of the budget control and the economical accounts of the Nation on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.7 avis presente au nom de la commission des Finances, du controle budgetaire et des comptes economiques de la Nation sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Ph

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the privatization of Gaz de France and the new control of the State on this society. It underlines the necessity of a financial independence of the Commission of the Energy regulation (CRE). (A.L.B.)

  8. China and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincent, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    ...), and has made maritime claims citing historic waters. China asserts that these actions are consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Convention On The Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS) Treaty...

  9. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin.

  10. Intervention in National and Private Cyber Space and International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Wrange, Pål

    2013-01-01

    In international law discourse on cyber attacks, there has been much focus on the threshold for the use of force. Cyber attacks or intrusions which do not reach the threshold of the use of force have been held to be unproblematic. However, such intrusions -- including many measures amounting to cyber espionage or counter-terrorism -- will often constitute illegal interventions into the sovereignty of another state, or constitute violations of human rights.Unfortunately, states have not been v...

  11. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont,, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries’ legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law – from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance. PMID:27429492

  12. National public health law: a role for WHO in capacity-building and promoting transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Sultan, Géraldine; Tsai, Feng-Jen; Anderson, Evan; Kastler, Florian; Sprumont, Dominique; Burris, Scott

    2016-07-01

    A robust health infrastructure in every country is the most effective long-term preparedness strategy for global health emergencies. This includes not only health systems and their human resources, but also countries' legal infrastructure for health: the laws and policies that empower, obligate and sometimes limit government and private action. The law is also an important tool in health promotion and protection. Public health professionals play important roles in health law - from the development of policies, through their enforcement, to the scientific evaluation of the health impact of laws. Member States are already mandated to communicate their national health laws and regulations to the World Health Organization (WHO). In this paper we propose that WHO has the authority and credibility to support capacity-building in the area of health law within Member States, and to make national laws easier to access, understand, monitor and evaluate. We believe a strong case can be made to donors for the funding of a public health law centre or unit, that has adequate staffing, is robustly networked with its regional counterparts and is integrated into the main work of WHO. The mission of the unit or centre would be to define and integrate scientific and legal expertise in public health law, both technical and programmatic, across the work of WHO, and to conduct and facilitate global health policy surveillance.

  13. The Principle of National Treatment in international economic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This second volume in the European IP Institutes Network Series provides an exhaustive overview on the principle of national treatment that is enshrined in a number of international treaties. The non-discrimination principle ensures that foreign nationals, goods, services or investments are not

  14. Balancing economic freedom against social policy principles: EC competition law and national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia

    2012-07-01

    EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Family law and national culture
    Arguing against the cultural constraints argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Antokolskaia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘cultural constraints argument’, submits that family laws are embedded in unique national cultures, that this cultural and historical diversity is unbridgeable and therefore family laws are not spontaneously converging and cannot be deliberately harmonised. This article argues against the core assumption of the cultural constraints argument – the alleged embedment of family laws in unique and unchangeable national cultures. History shows that in the field of family ideology and law one cannot really talk of unique national cultures, but rather of a pan-European culture, which is not homogeneous but an amalgamation of pan-European ‘conservative’ and pan-European ‘progressive’ cultures. The relative influence of these two opposing family ‘cultures’ varies from country to country and from time to time. Examinations of history of family law suggest that there are the differences in the balance of political power between ‘progressive’ and ‘conservative’ forces, rather than national culture that determines the differences in the pertinent national family laws.

  16. Law project adopted by the National Assembly, after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes; Projet de loi adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale, apres declaration d'urgence, de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The document presents the different articles of the law project dealing with the terminology, the radioactive wastes storage and disposal, the safety and the transport, the financing, the liabilities, the control and the sanctions. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention ...

  18. Member States must apply most favoured nation treatment under EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to case law from the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), a Member State is not obliged to enact most favoured nation treatment if a tax treaty prescribes a certain type of tax treatment (bilateral most favoured nation treatment). In this article, the author discusses whether EU

  19. Revolution by the Law. Transformation of the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly 1989-1990

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubal, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2015), s. 60-83 ISSN 0353-0329 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/11/0423 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Czechoslovak Federal Assembly * the Velvet Revolution * Civic Forum Subject RIV: AB - History

  20. National accounting law in Norway, and in other Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lundesgaard, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Denne gjesteforelesningen ble gitt ved Gdanks school of banking 3. mars 2010 The national Norwegian Accounting Act is based on what represents a modernized version of classical accounting principles. That is, most fundamentally, the approach is transaction based (historic cost) and result oriented. In this presentation, the focus is on Chapter 4 of the Act, i.e. the principles chapter of the Act.

  1. Can a state house of assembly enact pension law in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. The National Breastfeeding Policy in Nigeria: the working mother and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worugji, I N E; Etuk, S J

    2005-08-01

    In this article, we examine the National Breastfeeding Policy in Nigeria, the extent to which the law guarantees and protects the maternity rights of the working mother, and the interplay between the law and the National Breastfeeding Policy. Our aim is to make people aware of this interplay to lead to some positive efforts to sanitize the workplace and shield women from some of the practices against them in employment relations in Nigeria as well as encourage exclusive breastfeeding by employed mothers.We conclude that the provisions of the law in this regard are not in accord with the contemporary international standards for the protection of pregnancy and maternity. It does not guarantee and protect the freedom of the nursing mother to exclusively breastfeed the child for at least the 6 months as propagated by Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the National Breastfeeding Policy. Moreover, there is no enabling law to back up the National Policy Initiative as it affects employer and employee relations. We, therefore, suggest a legal framework for effective implementation of the National Breastfeeding Policy for women in dependent labour relations. It is hoped that such laws will not only limit some of the practices against women in employment but also will encourage and promote exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by employed mothers.

  3. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  4. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention to the solutions found in Serbian double taxation treaties which are methodologically divided into three groups. One of them stands out as the most notable, being unique in global terms: double taxation treaties which provide for a prohibition of discriminatory treatment based on residence. The author critically addresses the fundamental flaws of the Serbian double taxation treaty policy which are recognized thorough a detailed scrutiny of the relevant norms of these international agreements.

  5. Statement to the 54th session of the United Nations General Assembly. United Nations, New York, 4 November 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his Statement to the 54th Session of the United Nations General Assembly (New York, 4 November 1999), the Director General of the IAEA presented some of the major Agency's achievements in fulfilling its mandate as described in the Annual Report of the IAEA for 1998, and also some of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead

  6. Determining the Role of Language and Culture in First Nations Schools: A Comparison of the First Nations Education Act with the Policy of the Assembly of First Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcom, Lindsay A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I explore the incongruence between the federal government's proposed First Nations Education Act and the approach of the Assembly of First Nations (AFN) regarding language and culture education. I also examine research concerning potential outcomes of their approaches to determine what would be most beneficial to learners.…

  7. Ultraviolet Light Generation and Transport in the Final Optics Assembly of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hackel, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Feit, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parham, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kozlowski, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitman, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    The design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) includes a Final Optics Assembly (FOA) subsystem for ultraviolet (UV) light generation and transport for each of the 192 beamlines. Analytical and experimental work has been done to help understand and predict the performance of FOA.

  8. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.

  9. Legal provisions concerning the handling and disposal of radioactive waste in international and national law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development and present state of legislation and regulation in the field of handling and disposal of radioactive waste is surveyed. On the basis of the comprehensive collection of all legal sources of atomic energy law, including the radiation protection law of the Institute of Public International Law of the Goettingen University (Germany, F.R.), the report will consider provisions of international organizations (IAEA, OECD-NEA, EURATOM-Basic Norms, ICRP), of international agreements (London, Barcelona, Paris, Helsinki Conventions; civil liability conventions) and of the national law of different countries (USA, UK, France, Germany, F.R. and D.R., Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain). The following subjects are considered: notion and definition of radioactive waste, license-system for handling, storage and disposal; exemptions; licensing of nuclear installations and waste disposal; obligation to deliver radioactive wastes; centralized interim and final storage installations; penalties. (H.K.)

  10. National assembly constitution of the 4. of october 1958 eleventh legislature. Law project relative to the openness and safety in nuclear matter; Assemblee Nationale constitution du 4 octobre 1958 onzieme legislature. Projet de loi relatif a la transparence et a la securite en matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This law project is the first text submitted to the Parliament in order to given a general frame to nuclear activities. It refers to principles of other activities areas such precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle, and public information principle. It extends the information right of citizens by creating an access right to information held by the operators of nuclear activities. A transparency high committee about nuclear safety is created whom mission is to contribute to public information on nuclear activities and to guarantee its quality and reliability. (N.C.)

  11. Can National Company Law Require a Branch of a Foreign Company to Have an Independent Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2014-01-01

    With its basis in Danish law, the article analyses the question of whether a foreign company that establishes a branch in another EU or EEA member state can be required to ensure that the branch name not only repeats the foreign company’s name and nationality with the addition of the designation...

  12. Graph Structure in Three National Academic Webs: Power Laws with Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike; Wilkinson, David

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the Web can be modeled as a mathematical graph and analyzes the graph structures of three national university publicly indexable Web sites from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Topics include commercial search engines and academic Web link research; method-analysis environment and data sets; and power laws. (LRW)

  13. Crime in woods: role of law enforcement officers in national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne F. Tynon; Deborah J. Chavez; Joshua W. R. Baur

    2010-01-01

    This first nationwide study of US Forest Service (USFS) law enforcement officers (LEOs) examined respondents’ roles in the USFS, what they perceived as their highest work priority, and what their relationship with the rest of the USFS should be. Results show that LEOs believe they have a high priority for protecting forest users and they believe that National Forest...

  14. Application of national treatment in the foreign investments law of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available National treatment of foreign investors in the Serbian law, primarily the content, field and reach of its application, including the system of exemptions, all in the comparative context makes the subject of study in the paper. A new investment related legislation of Serbia anticipates the application of national treatment on a wide and more precisely regulated basis. In addition, our country has concluded a number of bilateral agreements on protection of investments, which, by the rule, contain the obligation to observe the principle of national treatment, in a relatively standardized form. In terms of content, our law has accepted a concept where national treatment is formally reduced to equal treatment of foreign and domestic investors. We evaluate positively the fact that a new system of stimulations enables avoiding the possibility of bringing foreign investors in actually privileged position compared to domestic investors, which used to happen periodically before. Speaking in general, the above-mentioned treatment in our law is legally stipulated in the framework of international comparative standards, including the system of exemptions. The lack of new legislation is that it displaces their regulating from the investment related legislation into special laws, which reduces the effective transparency and possibility for foreign investors to manage more easily. However, it is obvious that our country has managed to get closer in this field to its conceptual goal to establish a system of protection of foreign investors at a rational basis, while maintaining a stimulative legal environment for their investments and protecting its own interests.

  15. California's greenhouse gas law, Assembly Bill 1493: Deficiencies, alternatives, and implications for regulatory climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    California's Air Resources Board has finalized regulations implementing Assembly Bill (AB) 1493, which requires 'maximum feasible and cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles'. By 2030, when California's light-duty vehicle stock has been substantially replaced by regulation-compliant vehicles, total emissions from regulated vehicles are projected to be reduced by 27% relative to 'business-as-usual', but are nevertheless expected to be 8.7% higher than 2004 emissions. If an 8.7% increase truly represents the 'maximum feasible and cost-effective' emissions reduction from transportation vehicles, then global climate stabilization clearly will not be attained within limits of 'feasibility' and 'cost-effectiveness', and climate sustainability will only be achievable through severely draconian measures. On the other hand, if significantly greater emissions reduction would be feasible and cost-effective, then the AB 1493 regulations fail to satisfy the legislative policy mandate and the task is to find a regulatory mechanism that will. The thesis of this paper is that the regulations do not satisfy the mandate for several reasons, the most important being the conflicting policy objectives of the 'cost-constrained' legislative mandate and the 'quantity-constrained', standard-based regulatory instrument. An alternative policy instrument that would better fit legislative policy and environmental objectives would be a feebate-type system (although not necessarily a conventional vehicle feebate)

  16. Creation of Rules in National and International Business Law: A Non-National Analytical-Synthetic Comparative Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    in changes and alternative expressions of the legal contents of the provision. If the provision is used as a model for preparing national as well as international rules but is changed more or less extensively, the question is whether these rules have to be interpreted and applied in the same way......  This article centres on the impact the CISG Convention has had on the national and international development of law. It focuses on the rules in Art. 35 CISG, as the contents of the provision has gained wide recognition in a number of jurisdictions. However, this recognition has resulted...

  17. No. 2012 National Assembly. Constitution of the 4 october 1958. Twelve legislature. Deposed to the presidency of the National Assembly the 21 december 2004. Law proposition aiming to insure a public control of the wastes to reduce their production and to boost a new policy in matter of elimination and development; No. 2012 Assemblee Nationale. Constitution du 4 octobre 1958. Douzieme legislature. Enregistre a la Presidence de l'Assemblee nationale le 21 decembre 2004. Proposition de loi visant a assurer une maitrise publique des dechets pour la reduction de leur production et pour impulser une politique nouvelle en matiere d'elimination et de valorisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The document presents in a first part the main motives of the law project: the inadequacy of the wastes treatment capacities, the too poor political approach of the problem, the necessity of reinforce the public control of the wastes management services, the financing of the wastes policy. The second part describes the law proposition articles by articles: minimize the wastes production, the wastes elimination plans, the cooperation between the public collectivities, the financial management. (A.L.B.)

  18. SCHOOL FOOD SERVICE, HOSPITAL AND HEALTCARE: NEW GUIDELINES ON NATIONAL LAW AND VETERINARY 488/99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Carosielli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the guidelines of the National school catering, hospital and health care, recently published. Show only the aspect of Article 59 of the Law n.488/99, given the complexity of the issue and the rampant protectionism dictated more by ethnic and ethical and environmental claims, which has prompted some governments to fear the food self-sufficiency, in sharp contrast with European free trade rules. The issues related to Article 59 of Law No 488 of 23 December 1999 and the amendment to Article 123 of Law 388/2000, concerning the development of organic farming and quality, are commented in relation to the cd Procurement Code, in particular the legislative decree n.163 dated 12 April 2006 and subsequent amendments and additions, noting criticism of the check up as required by Article 59 and the low involvement of the veterinary hygienist.

  19. Statement to the fifty-fifth session of the United Nations General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2000-01-01

    In his statement to the fifty-fifth session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Director General of the IAEA briefly presented the three fundamental functions of the IAEA, namely: its role as a catalyst for the development and transfer of peaceful nuclear technologies, the efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and move towards nuclear disarmament, and the work to build and maintain a global nuclear safety regime

  20. Legislative Process For National Atomic Energy Laws Various Legal Approaches And Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Legislative Process for National Atomic Energy Laws (NAELs) aim at establishing a legal base for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Various approaches (partial and comprehensive) to draft the NAELs are studied. The paper also studies some national nuclear energy laws through a comparative legal analysis and the important developments that have taken place in the legislative process for NAELs. There are lessons learned from the legislative process for NAELs. First, each state must develop its own legislative framework based on its own situation. Second, although the NAELs have common features, they vary considerably due to national legal traditions, social, economic circumstances and cultural values. Third, the NAELs have also evolved in time. Fourth, the technical standards, rules and guidelines should not be part of legislation issued by the Parliament because they would also facilitate quick adaption to new technical developments. Fifth, interface between legal and technical issues, requiring legal and technical experts to interact with each other. Sixth, continuing assessment that may lead to amendments to the law over time

  1. Problems raised by participation of foreign citizens in national licensing procedures - aspects of public international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1983-01-01

    In western Europe persons living in border areas increasingly ask for participation in national licensing procedures for nuclear installations to be erected close to the border in neighbouring countries. National practices vary in this matter. Whilst many countries concede rights of participation to foreign citizens in the border areas, the Federal Republic of Germany, e.g., denies foreign citizens direct participation. The paper enquires into the connected problems of public international law and pertinent international treaties and international customary low are examined. (NEA) [fr

  2. The National Criticality Experiments Research Center at the Device Assembly Facility, Nevada National Security Site: Status and Capabilities, Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S.; Bess, J.; Werner, J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) was officially opened on August 29, 2011. Located within the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the NCERC has become a consolidation facility within the United States for critical configuration testing, particularly those involving highly enriched uranium (HEU). The DAF is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that is operated by the National Nuclear Security Agency/Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). User laboratories include the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Personnel bring their home lab qualifications and procedures with them to the DAF, such that non-site specific training need not be repeated to conduct work at DAF. The NNSS Management and Operating contractor is National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) and the NNSS Safeguards and Security contractor is Wackenhut Services. The complete report provides an overview and status of the available laboratories and test bays at NCERC, available test materials and test support configurations, and test requirements and limitations for performing sub-critical and critical tests. The current summary provides a brief summary of the facility status and the method by which experiments may be introduced to NCERC.

  3. International Law and the Society of Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law in the 1990s. Cases and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jason Scott, Ed.; Scurti, Jason, Ed.; And Others

    This casebook on international law was developed by high school students around the globe and emphasizes the important role that students can play in furthering international law education. The text provides teachers and students with a summary review of 25 major cases heard by the International Court of Justice, along with additional materials.…

  4. The National Security Strategy Under the United Nations and International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    a result of that war." This was addressed in 1951 by Hans Kelsen in a legal analysis of fundamental problems with the UN Charter. He concluded that...www.zmag.org/content/print_article.cfm>; Internet; accessed 31 January 2004. 36 Charter of the United Nations, Article 107. 37 Kearly, 27–28. 38 Hans Kelsen

  5. The development of health law as a way to change traditional attitudes in national legal systems. The influence of international human rights law: what is left for the national legislator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmontiene, Toma

    2010-03-01

    The development of health law as a sovereign subject of law could be seen as a correlative result of the development of international human rights law. From the perspectives of human rights law, health law gives us a unique possibility to change the traditional point of reference - from the regulation of medical procedures, to the protection of human rights as the main objective of law. At the end of the twentieth and the beginning of this century, human rights law and the most influential international instrument--the European Convention on Human Rights (and the jurisprudence of the ECHR) has influenced health care so much that it has became difficult to draw a line between these subjects. Health law sometimes directly influences and even aspires to change the content of Convention rights that are considered to be traditional. However, certain problems of law linked to health law are decided without influencing the essence of rights protected by the Convention, but just by construing the particularities of application of a certain right. In some cases by further developing the requirements of protection of individual rights that are also regulated by the health law, the ECHR even "codifies" some fields of health law (e.g., the rights of persons with mental disorders). The recognition of worthiness and diversity of human rights and the development of their content raise new objectives for national legislators when they regulate the national legal system. Here the national legislator is often put into a quandary whether to implement the standards of human rights that are recognized by the international community, or to refuse to do so, taking account of the interests of a certain group of the electorate.

  6. Effect of Uruguay’s National 100% Smokefree Law on Emergency Visits for Bronchospasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Sandoya, Edgardo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Implementation of smokefree laws is followed by drops in hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases and asthma. The impact of smokefree laws on use of non-hospital medical services has not been assessed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of Uruguay’s national 100% smokefree legislation on non-hospital emergency care visits and hospitalizations for bronchospasm and bronchodilator use. Methods The monthly number of non-hospital emergency care visits and hospitalizations for bronchospasm, as well as monthly puffs of bronchodilators (total and per person), from 3 years prior to the adoption of the 100% smokefree policy on March 1, 2006 through 5 years after the policy were assessed using interrupted time series negative binomial regression. Data analysis was conducted in 2014. Results The incidence of non-hospital emergency visits for bronchospasm decreased by 15% (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.85, 95% CI=0.76, 0.94) following implementation of the law. Hospitalizations for bronchospasm did not change significantly (IRR=0.89, 95% CI=0.66, 1.21). Total monthly puffs of salbutamol and ipratropium administered in the non-hospital emergency setting decreased by 224 (95% CI= −372, −76) and 179 (95% CI= −340, −18.6), respectively, from means of 1,222 and 1,007 before the law. Conclusions Uruguay’s 100% smokefree law was followed by fewer emergency visits for bronchospasm and less need for treatment, supporting adoption of such policies in low- and middle-income countries to reduce the disease burden and healthcare costs associated with smoking. PMID:25997906

  7. Private International Law in the Czech Republic: Tradition, New Experience and Prohibition of Discrimination on Grounds of Nationality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauknerová, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 83-105 ISSN 1744-1048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : private international law * nationality * prohibition of discrimination Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  8. Cyberspace as a Theater of Conflict: Federal Law, National Strategy and the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    short period of time. When web search organizations canvas the web looking for sites to catalog, they will discover your systems and create registry... Fingerprint & DNA Databases, INTERPOL & National Law Enforcement Communication Systems, Firearms Registration Records, Drivers License, Birth

  9. Some internationl law elements of national nuclear regulations from the Polish point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadkowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The essential contents of the Polish Nuclear Act from 1986 reflects on one hand needs and possibilities of the industrial use of nuclear energy and, on the other, international obligations of Poland. Poland is a State with a limited activity regarding to industrial use of nuclear energy; the main international-law elements of national nuclear regulations can be described as follows: 1. The good-neighborliness principle concerning the siting of nuclear installations in border areas. 2. An adequate concept of nuclear damage. 3. An adequate concept of liability for nuclear damage. (orig./HSCH)

  10. Innovation and participation for healthy public policy: the first National Health Assembly in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Birmingham, Maureen; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims to describe and disseminate the process and initial outcomes of the first National Health Assembly (NHA) in Thailand, as an innovative example of health policy making. The first NHA, held in December 2008 in Bangkok, brought together over 1500 people from government agencies, academia, civil society, health professionals and the private sector to discuss key health issues and produce resolutions to guide policy making. It adapted the approach used at the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization. Findings are derived from a literature review, document analysis, and the views and experiences of the authors, two of whom contributed to the organization of the NHA and two of whom were invited external observers. Fourteen agenda items were discussed and resolutions passed. Potential early impacts on policy making have included an increase in the 2010 public budget for Thailand's universal health coverage scheme as total public expenditure has decreased; cabinet endorsement of proposed Strategies for Universal Access to Medicines for Thai People; and establishment of National Commissions on Health Impact Assessment and Trade and Health. The NHA was successful in bringing together various actors and sectors involved in the social production of health, including groups often marginalized in policy making. It provides an innovative model of how governments may be able to increase public participation and intersectoral collaboration that could be adapted in other contexts. Significant challenges remain in ensuring full participation of interested groups and in implementing, and monitoring the impact of, the resolutions passed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Local energy supply under national and European law. With special regard to municipal policy opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Conceivably, the erection of a single European energy market for electricity and natural gas as specified in the EC draft guidelines may change the conditions of local energy supply. This thesis therefore investigates which instruments are at the disposal of municipal governments for the realization of energy-political concepts of their own: Rights of way and granting of franchises, establishment of and transfer of tasks to municipal utilities, common carvier duties, and free choice of suppliers by distributors. The handling of franchise payments and treatment of municipal interconnected networks are of considerable importance for the financial situation of communities. The first section deals with the legal issues of local energy supply with regard to national law. The second part deals with the same questions with regard to community law. Furthermore it is considered what would be the consequences of the realization of the two guidelines concerning the single energy market. In the final section the results are compared and the significance of community law for local energy supply is assessed. (orig./HP) [de

  12. ARRANGEMENT OF LAW BY STATE FINANCIAL AUTHORITY IN REALIZING NATIONAL BANKING INDUSTRY THAT’S HEALTHY AND DYNAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammar Arafat Yusmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available he development of national banking nowadays are growing fast, competitive and integrative. One problem of Indonesian banking system related with practicing law arrangement which is a harmonization process toward legislations. The focus problems are: law arrangement in banking governance, the procedure of the law arrangement in achieving national bank industry which are healthy and dynamic. As intermediary institutions, bank should be in a healthy condition in order to gain public confidence and deserve to increase national economic growth. Based on the conceptual discussion, obtained arguments are: (1 The law arrangement of national banking should be done coodinately between Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK and Bank Indonesia (BI; (2 Procedure of law arrangement according to the function and authority of OJK and BI which the urgent subjects are to avoid conflict of norm, overlapping policies and limited validity of norm of the law case which happen and will be happen; (3 banking law arrangement include bank arrangement and supervision system, strengthening internal condition of the bank, empowering and protecting consumer with complaints mechanism and follow-up which are clear and measurable.

  13. Law 15.809 National budget of ressources and expenditure, it approve for the actually government period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The articles 340,341,342,343 of the budget law 115.809 treat the following topics: creation of the National Commission of Atomic Energy with the National Direction of Nuclear Technology in the Uruguay,duties, radiation protection taxs

  14. Electing Cuba’s National Assembly Deputies: Proposals, Selections, Nominations, and Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Giving credence to the Cuban concept of democracy and taking into account the unique characteristics of the Cuban candidate selection and composition of the Cuban National Assembly, noncompetitive elections and a one party system do  not necessarily translate into an undemocratic  electoral process. The electoral process for municipal assembly delegates shows that open nominations and competitive elections are not incompatible with Cuban socialism and Cuba’s goals of participation, involvement and representation.  Resumen: Eligiendo a los diputados a la Asamblea Nacional de Cuba: Propuestas, Selecciones, Nominaciones y CampañasReconociendo el concepto cubano de democracia  y tomando en cuenta las características únicas de  la selección de candidatos en Cuba y de la composición de la Asamblea Nacional cubana, de las  elecciones no competitivas y del sistema unipartidista, no se traduce necesariamente en un proceso  electoral no democrático. El proceso electoral  para elegir a los delegados a la asamblea municipal muestra que las nominaciones abiertas y las  elecciones competitivas no son incompatibles con  el socialismo cubano y los objetivos cubanos de  participación, compromiso y representación.

  15. Statement to the 47th session of the United Nations General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1993-01-01

    IAEA Director General, Hans Blix, in his statement to the 47th session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 October 1992, reminded that 1992 marks the fiftieth anniversary of controlled nuclear fission and the thirty-fifth anniversary of the IAEA. He specially commented on the various measures taken during the past year to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system as a part of the challenge to reduce the risk of a further spread of nuclear weapons. He also discussed the role of the IAEA in the fields of nuclear safety, nuclear waste, transfer of technology and assistance to developing countries and the financing and management of the Agency within the UN system

  16. TENLAW: Tenancy Law and Housing Policy in Multi-level Europe - National Report for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law in a general housing law context. Based on a quiestionaire from Universität Bremen. The project is financed by EU Seventh Framework Programme.......Report on Danish Tenancy Law in a general housing law context. Based on a quiestionaire from Universität Bremen. The project is financed by EU Seventh Framework Programme....

  17. Transposition of the new European Union audit regulation into the Croatian national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Sever Mališ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The audit reform in the EU had as a consequence the adoption of the new regulatory framework. The European Parliament adopted Directive 2014/56/EU amending the Directive 2006/43/EC on statutory audit in the EU and the EU Regulation No. 537/2014 containing requirements that relate specifically to the statutory audit of public interest entities. Each Member State needs to transpose the Directive into its national legislation and also ensure its implementation. Within the framework of transposing the Directive into the national regulation, each Member State had many options that allows them to tailor the provisions of the national law according to their needs and specific aspects of the national audit markets. However, the number of options brings risks that are connected to additional audit procedures and inefficiencies in the process of performing audit with the potential effects on the quality and cost of audits. The aim of this article is to analyse the most important (not used options of the Directive and Regulation according to the Croatian national legislation. In that sense, the article provides information about the definition of statutory audit and the subjects of statutory audit as well as the definition of public interest entities in Croatia. In addition, the audit profession in Croatia is analysed in the context of the “European audit passport”. The results of this research can be a base for future comparisons between Croatia and the other EU Member States. Finally, the implementation of this provisions will answer the question: Does the implementation of different options bring convergence or divergence within the single EU audit services market?

  18. The Paramountcy of EU Law Over National Law The Extent to which Lyon’s Statements Reflect on the Relationship between EU and Domestic Law within the UK and Candidate States such as Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbi Ago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As we live in a world that is becoming ever more globalized, it is unavoidable to consider the effect supranational entities and globalization itself have on the national sovereignty of the state. The EU is probably the most well-known example of a supranational entity and as such it cannot help but bring about a number of sides regarding its power over its members. There are many that would claim the EU has undermined national sovereignty, especially when it comes to the legal sphere. The issue at hand has been addressed by scholars such as Dr. Anne Lyon and this paper is a direct analysis of her statement regarding paramountcy. In summation, Lyon has stated that EU law has undermined national law. This has happened due to a number of reasons, one of which is the passing of a parliamentary Act intending to prioritize EU law. At this point, shall they need to provide otherwise, it is quite an argument to claim whether they could give effect to national law instead. Therefore, it has become necessary to consider the extent to which these statements reflect the relationship between EU law and ‘domestic’ laws within the UK and try and apply to the legal future of candidate states, such as Albania. This paper analyzes the two parts of Lyon’s argument, namely the paramountcy and parliamentary aspects of the issue, while also aiming to provide a framework on which future candidate states such as Albania can work on in order to achieve a more efficient assimilation into the EU legal system together with the forewarnings necessary shall they wish the opposite.

  19. Report realized by the commission of the economical Affairs on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development and of the nuclear energy development, the France decided by the law of the 30 December 1991, to study three axis or researches: the radioactive wastes transmutation, their deep underground disposal and their storage during ten years. Today, after evaluation of the researches results a law project on the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes, has been prepared. This document is the approval of the law project and presents some amendments. (A.L.B.)

  20. National Institute of Justice Center Requirements Definition, Technical Assistance, Agile Test and Evaluation and Cyber Science Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frantz, Frederick

    2003-01-01

    This task provided for assembly, definition, and completion of technical enhancements in coordination with the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center -Northeast Region (NLECTC-NE...

  1. Report on the behalf of the Commission for social affairs on the bill project adopted by the National Assembly after implementation of the accelerated procedure, ratifying the decree 2017-48 of 19 January 2017 related to the profession of medical physicist and the decree 2017-50 of 19 January 2017 related to the acknowledgement of professional qualifications in the field of health, on the bill project adopted by the National Assembly after implementation of the accelerated procedure, ratifying the decree 2017-31 of 12 January 2017 for the coherence of texts with respect to arrangements of law 216-41 of 26 January 2016 for the modernisation of our health system, and on the bill project adopted by the National Assembly after implementation of the accelerated procedure, ratifying the decree 2017-644 of 27 April 2017 related to the adaptation of legal arrangements related to the operation of health profession orders. Nr 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    After a statement of conclusions made by the Commission, this parliamentary report briefly indicates and presents the addressed decrees and bill projects. Then, it reports the examination of the various concerned articles which thus first addresses the definition of the profession of medical physicist: overview of the profession, of concerned centres, opinion of the Commission. The next part addresses the acknowledgement of professional qualifications in the field of health: proposed arrangement with a transition of the European law, implementation of a procedure for a partial access to medical and paramedical professions, new arrangements for stronger controls, conditions for a free service providing, acknowledgement of professional qualifications for equipment-related professions and for the use of the title of psychotherapist. It discusses articles which bring texts into coherence with respect to arrangements of the French law on modernisation of the French health system, and the adaptation of legal arrangements related to the operation of health profession orders. Commission debates, a list of hearings, and comparative tables of article contents are provided

  2. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements optics assembly building (OAB) SSDR 1.2.2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements 'for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Optics Assembly Building (OAB). These building system requirements are associated with housing and supporting the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the OAB for preparing and repairing optical and mechanical components used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser and Target Building (LTAB). This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the OAB: * Structural systems for the building spaces and operational-support equipment and building- support equipment. * Architectural building features associated with housing the space, operational cleanliness, and functional operation of the facility. * Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facility. * Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants and stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater. * Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facility and its contents. * Material handling equipment for transferring optical assemblies and other materials within building areas and to the LTAB. * Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling, cleaning, and other service to optical and mechanical components. * Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service to the building and equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities. * Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Generic design criteria, such as siting data, seismic requirements, utility availability, and other information that contributes to the OAB design, are not addressed in this document

  3. Law no 2006/18 of June 21, 2006 modifying the law no 98-011 of May 7, 1998 providing for the creation of a Public Establishment of the executive power named the National Radioprotection Center (CNRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This law provides for the modification of articles 2 and 5 of the law 98-011 of 07 May 98 providing for the creation of National Radiation Protection Centre (CNRP). CNRP is the National Regulatory Authority in Nuclear Security Safety and Safeguards and in Radiation protection. It is member of the Technical consultative committee for radioprotection and nuclear technics [fr

  4. The Nomos of the Desert. Patagonia’s Space and the Foundation of the National Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Raúl Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The so-call “Conquista del Desierto” (“Conquest of the Desert” is one of the most important and controversial points in the history of Argentina. Debates on the subject are abundant in literature, as well as a large number of juridical studies on the legal justification of the conquest of Patagonia by the argentine Nation-State. However, an analysis with a legal and political philosophy perspective on the conquest of the desert is still missing. According to our hypothesis, an analysis under the thoughts of Giorgio Agamben and Carl Schmitt permits a better comprehension of the phenomenon. The “Conquest of the Desert” can be seen as a paradigm of the land taking, partition and exploitation described by Schmitt as a foundation of law. At the same time, the works of Agamben allow the approach the position of the indigenous people in the process of discipline and forcible incorporation to the space of normality in the brand-new argentine Nation-State.

  5. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John S.

    2005-05-01

    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  6. National smokefree law in New Zealand improves air quality inside bars, pubs and restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Näthe Jenny

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: We aimed to: (i assess compliance with a new smokefree law in a range of hospitality settings; and (ii to assess the impact of the new law by measuring air quality and making comparisons with air quality in outdoor smoking areas and with international data from hospitality settings. Methods: We included 34 pubs, restaurants and bars, 10 transportation settings, nine other indoor settings, six outdoor smoking areas of bars and restaurants, and six other outdoor settings. These were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. The number of lit cigarettes among occupants at defined time points in each venue was observed and a portable real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure fine particulate levels (PM2.5. Results: No smoking was observed during the data collection periods among over 3785 people present in the indoor venues, nor in any of the transportation settings. The levels of fine particulates were relatively low inside the bars, pubs and restaurants in the urban and rural settings (mean 30-minute level = 16 μg/m3 for 34 venues; range of mean levels for each category: 13 μg/m3 to 22 μg/m3. The results for other smokefree indoor settings (shops, offices etc and for smokefree transportation settings (eg, buses, trains, etc were even lower. However, some "outdoor" smoking areas attached to bars/restaurants had high levels of fine particulates, especially those that were partly enclosed (eg, up to a 30-minute mean value of 182 μg/m3 and a peak of maximum value of 284 μg/m3. The latter are far above WHO guideline levels for 24-hour exposure (ie, 25μg/m3. Conclusion: There was very high compliance with the new national smokefree law and this was also reflected by the relatively good indoor air quality in hospitality settings (compared to the "outdoor" smoking areas and the comparable settings in countries that permit indoor smoking. Nevertheless, adopting enhanced regulations (as used in

  7. National smokefree law in New Zealand improves air quality inside bars, pubs and restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard; Maher, Anthony; Näthe, Jenny; Jalali, Rafed

    2007-05-18

    We aimed to: (i) assess compliance with a new smokefree law in a range of hospitality settings; and (ii) to assess the impact of the new law by measuring air quality and making comparisons with air quality in outdoor smoking areas and with international data from hospitality settings. We included 34 pubs, restaurants and bars, 10 transportation settings, nine other indoor settings, six outdoor smoking areas of bars and restaurants, and six other outdoor settings. These were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. The number of lit cigarettes among occupants at defined time points in each venue was observed and a portable real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure fine particulate levels (PM2.5). No smoking was observed during the data collection periods among over 3785 people present in the indoor venues, nor in any of the transportation settings. The levels of fine particulates were relatively low inside the bars, pubs and restaurants in the urban and rural settings (mean 30-minute level = 16 microg/m3 for 34 venues; range of mean levels for each category: 13 microg/m3 to 22 microg/m3). The results for other smokefree indoor settings (shops, offices etc) and for smokefree transportation settings (eg, buses, trains, etc) were even lower. However, some "outdoor" smoking areas attached to bars/restaurants had high levels of fine particulates, especially those that were partly enclosed (eg, up to a 30-minute mean value of 182 microg/m3 and a peak of maximum value of 284 microg/m3). The latter are far above WHO guideline levels for 24-hour exposure (ie, 25 microg/m3). There was very high compliance with the new national smokefree law and this was also reflected by the relatively good indoor air quality in hospitality settings (compared to the "outdoor" smoking areas and the comparable settings in countries that permit indoor smoking). Nevertheless, adopting enhanced regulations (as used in various US and Canadian jurisdictions) may be

  8. The Digitalization of the Assembly Line of Knowledge About Law: A Reinvention of the Confrontational Nature of Legal Scholarship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; van den Herik, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects upon the rise of new tools of production and dissemination of knowledge about law as well as their impact on the dynamics and the nature of the profession of legal scholar. Taking the contemporary international legal scholarship as a case-study, it discusses potentially dramatic

  9. Law 16.736 National budget: approval for the actual governing period that rules starting from 1 January 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The articles 297,299,302,303 of the budget law 16.736 treat the following topics: of the coalition of the National Commission of Atomic Energy with the National Direction of Nuclear Technology in the Uruguay; it is believed in the National Direction of Nuclear Technology a department of attention of Radiological Emergencies; the obligatoriness of the personal dosimeter settles down for all the workers exposed to the ionizing radiations ;it notices a special departure to be used as compensation of national expenses of the Program Cooperative Regional Agreements for the Promotion of the Science and the Nuclear Technology in Latin America [es

  10. On scaling laws for modelling the steam/water flow in a 'Dodewaard' fuel-assembly using Freon-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, R. van de; Mudde, R.F.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der.

    1991-09-01

    To stimulate the steam/water flow behaviour in a fuel assembly as present in the boiling water reactor at Dodewaard, Freon-12 is used as a modelling fluid. Scaling criteria are elaborated using dimensional analysis as a fluid-to-fluid modelling technique. When scaling is emphasized on void-fraction distribution and flow-regime transitions it is found that an approximately half-scale geometry for the Freon-model should be used. Together with the low latent heat of vaporization of Freon-12 this reduces the total required heat input significantly to be only 2% of the required heat input in a 'Dodewaard' fuel-assembly. Finally, working pressure (and saturation temperature) can also be brought to a convenient level. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  11. The National Women's Health Study: assembly and description of a population-based reproductive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prior Susan

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miscarriage is a common event but is remarkably difficult to measure in epidemiological studies. Few large-scale population-based studies have been conducted in the UK. Methods This was a population-based two-stage postal survey of reproductive histories of adult women living in the United Kingdom in 2001, sampled from the electronic electoral roll. In Stage 1 a short "screening" questionnaire was sent to over 60,000 randomly selected women in order to identify those aged 55 and under who had ever been pregnant or ever attempted to achieve a pregnancy, from whom a brief reproductive history was requested. Stage 2 involved a more lengthy questionnaire requesting detailed information on every pregnancy (and fertility problems, and questions relating to socio-demographic, behavioural and other factors for the most recent pregnancy in order to examine risk factors for miscarriage. Data on stillbirth, multiple birth and maternal age are compared to national data in order to assess response bias. Results The response rate was 49% for Stage 1 and 73% for the more targeted Stage 2. A total of 26,050 questionnaires were returned in Stage 1. Of the 17,748 women who were eligible on the grounds of age, 27% reported that they had never been pregnant and had never attempted to conceive a child. The remaining 13,035 women reported a total of 30,661 pregnancies. Comparison of key reproductive indicators (stillbirth and multiple birth rates and maternal age at first birth with national statistics showed that the data look remarkably similar to the general population. Conclusions This study has enabled the assembly of a large population-based dataset of women's reproductive histories which appears unbiased compared to the general UK population and which will enable investigation of hard-to-measure outcomes such as miscarriage and infertility.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE RIGHT TO HEALTH CARE SYSTEM PRISON LAW INTENDED TO ROMANIAN NATIONAL HEALTH LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Laurenţia GĂIŞTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health protection represents a protection measure for persons being a guaranteed right in Romania provided by the 34 Article of Romanian Constitution. The state is liable for taking measures of protecting physical and mental health, both for free persons and for those persons serving custodial measures. Starting from the Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers of the Member States relating to the European Prison Rules Rec (2006 2, which provides in paragraph 2 of subparagraph 40 – “The organization of health care in prisons”- that health policy from prison will be integrated in national health policy, being compatible with that. That comparative study aims at the implementation of European’s recommendations in different medical specialty areas. During this presentation are highlighted identical or different provisions stipulated in the relevant legislation of both two health systems, concluding that in certain areas of prison system, the state provides extra healthcare legislation. Comparative study between the right of medical assistance provided by Romanian Prison Legislation and the right of medical assistance provided by Romanian National Health Care System.

  13. Articulating the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikozho, C.; Danga, L.; Saruchera, D.

    2017-08-01

    Governance of the water sector in South Africa has reflected the political changes taking place in society. For instance, due to apartheid policies of segregation, inequality of access to water resources marks South Africa's history in a very profound way and redistribution of rights to water to redress the results of past discrimination became an explicit purpose of the post-apartheid water governance policy and legislative regime. In this paper, we articulate the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law. This includes documenting and reflecting on most of the available information that shows how the new water policy and law were developed. Findings from the study show that the key players active in the water law review process deliberately took into account the political goals and dynamics of power asymmetry within which the law was being articulated. Therefore, the water law as it stands today and in the past must be understood within the context of the socio-economic and political landscape that has prevailed in South Africa at different historical junctures. We contend that a detailed examination and articulation of the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law enables practitioners and scholars to better understand the main motivations behind the water sector reforms and the then prevailing thinking behind the policy and legislation eventually promulgated. The present water law must be understood in the context of these reforms and the objectives they sought to achieve.

  14. Reception in Chile of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency: Brief analysis of the center of main interests of the debtor as a new connecting factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Daniel Levy Morchio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyze the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-border Insolvency and its incorporation into national law by means of the entry into force of the new Law of Insolvency and Re-entrepreneurship, paying special attention to the concept of center of main interests of the debtor, as a new factor of connection between jurisdictions. For this, we will begin with the situation of cross-border insolvency in Chile prior to the new law, will analyze the origin, structure and objectives of the model law and the way in which was introduced in Chile, to finally study the concept of center of main interests of the debtor.

  15. 8 CFR 1245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. 1245.9 Section 1245.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT... nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. (a) Principal applicant status. All...

  16. 8 CFR 245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. 245.9 Section 245.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON... of China under Public Law 102-404. (a) Principal applicant status. All nationals of the People's...

  17. 12 CFR 609.910 - Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). 609.910 Section 609.910 Banks and Banking... with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). (a) General. E-SIGN makes it easier to conduct E-commerce. With some exceptions, E-SIGN permits the use and...

  18. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  19. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  20. Intuitive intellectual property law: A nationally-representative test of the plagiarism fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2017-01-01

    Studies with convenience samples have suggested that the lay public's conception of intellectual property laws, including how the laws should regulate and why they should exist, are largely incommensurate with the actual intended purpose of intellectual property laws and their history in the United States. In this paper, we test whether these findings generalize to a more diverse and representative sample. The major findings from past work were replicated in the current study. When presented with several potential reasons for IP protection, the lay public endorsed plagiarism and felt that acknowledging the original source of a creative work should make copying that work permissible-viewpoints strongly divergent from lawmakers' intent and the law itself. In addition, we replicate the finding that lay people know remarkably little about intellectual property laws more generally and report little experience as users or creators of creative works.

  1. Statement to the Sixtieth Regular Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 31 October 2005, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    In his statement to the Sixtieth Regular Session of the United Nations General Assembly the Director General of the IAEA highlighted developments related to each part of the Agency's mission - technology, safety and verification - and outlined a few objectives for the future. In the area of nuclear technology it was reported that a considerable change in attitudes towards nuclear energy is taking place. Fast growing global energy demands, an increased emphasis on the security of energy supply, and the risk of climate change are driving a renewed consideration of nuclear power. A group of senior expert was established who explored options for multilateral control of fuel cycle facilities to address challenges posed by proliferation sensitive operations, such as those related to uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Much attention was given to the first step - to provide the assurance of supply of nuclear fuel and technology at competitive market prices. These multilateral approaches could offer additional advantages in terms of safety, security and economics. IAEA activities in the fields of food and agriculture, environmental applications and human health were reviewed including the Agency's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). Concerning nuclear safety and security the IAEA has made progress on multiple fronts. The Convention on Nuclear Safety has evolved into a forum for more substantive discussion on safety issues, incorporating feedback and lessons learned from the results of IAEA peer reviews. IAEA safety standards are receiving increasingly broad acceptance as the global reference for protecting people and the environment against nuclear accidents and harmful radiation exposure. A report on 'Chernobyl's Legacy' was issued. The International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, adopted by the General Assembly in April, requires States Parties to criminalize the unlawful possession and use of radioactive material and the

  2. One voice or different choice?: Vote defection of European Union member states in the United Nations General Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmester, Nicolas; Jankowski, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Existing research suggests that European Union member states are increasingly able to act in concert in the United Nations General Assembly. Based on several hundred co-ordination meetings per year, the European Union ‘speaks with one voice’ on most of the resolutions voted upon in the United...... Nations General Assembly. However, little is known about instances where the European Union member states do not vote coherently. Three questions remain unanswered. First, which aspects affect deviating voting behaviour of European Union member states? Second, who are the most frequent defectors from...... the European Union’s majority position? Third, which voting blocs within the European Union can be identified? The article answers these questions in a quantitative design by controlling for domestic factors, issues of resolutions and the position of the United States. The results suggest that domestic aspects...

  3. The Agency's Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1969-70. Explanatory Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-11-13

    By Resolution GC(XIV)/RES/268 the General Conference requested the Board of Governors to arrange for the preparation of a supplement to the Board's annual report to the General Conference for 1969-70 which, together with that report, constitutes the Agency's report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for that year. The present document contains the supplement, which deals briefly with some developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 1 October 1970.

  4. The Agency's Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1968-69. Explanatory Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    By Resolution GC(XIII)/RES/251 the General Conference requested the Board of Governors to arrange for the preparation of a supplement to the Board's annual report to the General Conference for 1968-69 which, together with that report, shall constitute the Agency's report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for that year. The present document contains the supplement, which deals briefly with some developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 1 October 1969.

  5. The Agency's Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1969-70. Explanatory Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By Resolution GC(XIV)/RES/268 the General Conference requested the Board of Governors to arrange for the preparation of a supplement to the Board's annual report to the General Conference for 1969-70 which, together with that report, constitutes the Agency's report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for that year. The present document contains the supplement, which deals briefly with some developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 1 October 1970.

  6. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  7. Enacting National Seabed Mining Laws in Africa: Importance of a Practitioner’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas N. Kimani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Countries should develop seabed mining laws that maintain environmental and social protections, yet whose safeguard rules are easier to understand and can be implemented at lower cost. Blindly adopting foreign laws, however well drafted, may result in a regime that is fragmented, inefficient and costly to administer from industry’s perspective. Insights from Kenya, demonstrates the value of adopting a practitioners perspective to identify practical problems, potential opportunities and important policy issues.

  8. National report of France. Risks and risk assessment according to the law of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, L.

    1980-01-01

    This report encompasses the following chapters: the fundamentals of the law governing conventional industrial facilities, normative principles of atomic energy law; risk assessments in the law concerning conventional industrial facilities, risk assessment in the law concerning nuclear power plants; application of probabilistic methods in the field of nuclear safety, probabilistic methods in the safety assessment of modern aircraft; concept of risk in police regulations, 'Theorie des risques anormaux de voisinage' in public law on indemnification, causality and probability in civil law. It is stated in this report that in France, too, the idea of completely reforming the procedures of safety analysis is gaining ground, and the change from hitherto applied deterministic methods to logical risk analyses and probabilistic licensing is to be expected in the long run. This change will most probably be effected by defining a general risk acceptance criterion by means of conventions and, on the basis of this generally accepted criterion, proceed to defining an accepted, quantitatively determined risk standard both for a complete plant and for individual systems. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2009-04-01

    ori responded to the new law with increased calls to the national Quitline service. Conclusion The New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act had a range of positive effects, including reducing SHS exposure among Māori communities. If the experience is replicated in other countries with indigenous populations, it suggests that comprehensive smokefree environments legislation will have beneficial effects on the health of indigenous groups and could contribute to reducing inequalities in health within societies.

  10. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background Smokefree environments legislation is increasingly being implemented around the world. Evaluations largely find that the legislation is popular, compliance is high and report improved air quality and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The impact of the legislation on disadvantaged groups, including indigenous peoples has not been explored. We present findings from a multifaceted evaluation of the impact of the smokefree workplace provisions of the New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act on Māori people in New Zealand. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The Smokefree Environments Amendment Act extended existing smokefree legislation to almost all indoor workplaces in December 2004 (including restaurants and pubs/bars). Methods Review of existing data and commissioned studies to identify evidence for the evaluation of the new legislation: including attitudes and support for the legislation; stakeholders views about the Act and the implementation process; impact on SHS exposure in workplaces and other settings; and impact on smoking-related behaviours. Results Support for the legislation was strong among Māori and reached 90% for smokefree restaurants and 84% for smokefree bars by 2006. Māori stakeholders interviewed were mostly supportive of the way the legislation had been introduced. Reported exposure to SHS in workplaces decreased similarly in Māori and non-Māori with 27% of employed adult Māori reporting SHS exposure indoors at work during the previous week in 2003 and 9% in 2006. Exposure to SHS in the home declined, and may have decreased more in Māori households containing one or more smokers. For example, the proportion of 14–15 year old Māori children reporting that smoking occurred in their home fell from 47% in 2001 to 37% in 2007. Similar reductions in socially-cued smoking occurred among Māori and non-Māori. Evidence for the effect on smoking prevalence was mixed. Māori responded to the new law with

  11. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-04-30

    Smokefree environments legislation is increasingly being implemented around the world. Evaluations largely find that the legislation is popular, compliance is high and report improved air quality and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The impact of the legislation on disadvantaged groups, including indigenous peoples has not been explored. We present findings from a multifaceted evaluation of the impact of the smokefree workplace provisions of the New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act on Māori people in New Zealand. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The Smokefree Environments Amendment Act extended existing smokefree legislation to almost all indoor workplaces in December 2004 (including restaurants and pubs/bars). Review of existing data and commissioned studies to identify evidence for the evaluation of the new legislation: including attitudes and support for the legislation; stakeholders views about the Act and the implementation process; impact on SHS exposure in workplaces and other settings; and impact on smoking-related behaviours. Support for the legislation was strong among Māori and reached 90% for smokefree restaurants and 84% for smokefree bars by 2006. Māori stakeholders interviewed were mostly supportive of the way the legislation had been introduced. Reported exposure to SHS in workplaces decreased similarly in Māori and non-Māori with 27% of employed adult Māori reporting SHS exposure indoors at work during the previous week in 2003 and 9% in 2006. Exposure to SHS in the home declined, and may have decreased more in Māori households containing one or more smokers. For example, the proportion of 14-15 year old Māori children reporting that smoking occurred in their home fell from 47% in 2001 to 37% in 2007. Similar reductions in socially-cued smoking occurred among Māori and non-Māori. Evidence for the effect on smoking prevalence was mixed. Māori responded to the new law with increased calls to the

  12. “Her place among the nations of the earth”: Irish votes at the UN General Assembly, 1955-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Gillissen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since joining the United Nations in 1955, Ireland has enjoyed a good reputation within the organization because of its commitment to multilateral diplomacy and its progressive position on human rights, self-determination and disarmament. However, when voting on resolutions in the General Assembly, the Irish delegation must take into account its effectiveness and impact on the UN, as well as the position of other countries. The USA has exerted particular pressure from the beginning, and since 1973 Ireland has also had to comply with the requirements of European solidarity. Nonetheless, various studies of Irish votes at the General Assembly show that on the whole Ireland has maintained a distinctive profile, faithful to its traditional values. Despite some changes over time, continuity seems to be the hallmark of Ireland’s UN policy, which is characterised by a moderate, constructive approach within the framework of a progressive grouping of states

  13. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiras, Sergio Alves; Couto, Roberto Toscano

    1995-01-01

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs

  14. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements final optics assembly subsystem SSDR 1.8.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.

    1996-01-01

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Final Optic Assembly (FOA). The FOA (WBS 1.8.7) as part of the Target Experimental System (1.8) includes vacuum windows, frequency conversion crystals, focus lens, debris shields and supporting mechanical equipment

  15. Impact of neutron thermal scattering laws on the burn-up analysis of supercritical LWR's fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    This work is a contribution to the HPLWR2 (High Performance Light Water Reactor Phase 2), a research project having the goal to investigate the technical feasibility of the High Performance Light Water Reactor. The basic idea of the HPLWR is that of an LWR working at supercritical pressure, which would allow heating up the coolant to a temperature of about 500 C without having phase transition and sending the coolant directly to the turbine. One issue aroused by this design, deserving to be addressed by research, is the behaviour of thermal neutrons in supercritical water. At thermal energies, the De Broglie wavelength associated with the neutron is comparable to the interatomic distances in crystals and molecules and the scattering is fully governed by the laws of quantum mechanics, according to which the geometry of the aggregates the nuclei are bound to and their intra- and intermolecular dynamics are of crucial importance. It can be shown that there is a certain mathematical relation between the Fourier-transform of the hydrogen atoms' velocity autocorrelation function and their double-differential scattering cross section. This Fourier-transform, called ''generalized frequency distribution'', can be derived from experimental measurements and, effectively, Bernnat et al. of the Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme of the University of Stuttgart derived the generalized frequency distribution for liquid water on the basis of experimental results of Page and Haywood. Unfortunately there exists no experimental facility nowadays to support a thorough work of this type on supercritical water and therefore the scattering kernel for thermal neutrons in supercritical water is unknown. In criticality calculations involving supercritical water one can turn to one of the thermal scattering kernels available nowadays for hydrogen bound to the H 2 O molecule: for liquid water, for vapour or considering the nuclei of hydrogen as unbound. The third, most naive option

  16. Environmental situation in Austria. Seventh state of the environment report of the federal minister of environment to the national assembly of the Austrian parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Banko, G.; Baumann, R.

    2004-01-01

    With the presentation of the seventh state of the Environment Report, the Umweltbundesamt - Austrian Environment Agency - fulfils its legal obligation of submitting detailed information on the state of the environment in Austria, thus providing the National Assembly of the Austrian Parliament as well as the Federal Government with an objective basis of data and information. It covers the period under review of 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2003 (unless stated otherwise) and is organized in 6 chapters: 1.- Sustainable development; 2.- Man and environment; 3.- Environmental impacts (agriculture, forest management and hunting, water resource management, energy industry, spatial planning, transport, the handling of chemicals, the application of pesticides and biocidal products, the application of genetically modified organisms, industry, waste management, contaminated sites, and noise); 4.- Environmental media (water, air, soil); 5.- Fauna, flora, habitats (biodiversity, nature protection, national parks in Austria, forest, agricultural habitats, Alpine regions) and 6.- Special chapters (greenhouse emissions and climate change, floods). In order to facilitate orientation, chapters 2-5 has been structured as follows: The 'Introduction' gives an overview of the conditions relevant for Austria as well as the current situation - if applicable also in comparison with other countries, the subchapter 'Environmental policy targets' lists the goals relevant for the respective topic specified in or to be derived from national or EU-wide laws, regulations, ordinances, plans or strategies; 'Situation and Trends' describes the current situation as well as future trends as far as they are detectable; the subchapter 'Summary Assessment and Outlook' compares the status quo with the trends contained in the 'Environmental policy targets'; the subchapter 'Recommendations' contains, from a point of view of precautionary environmental protection, recommendations of measures to guarantee

  17. Federal Law Enforcement in Bi-National Perspective: The United States FBI and the Mexican PFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    de Ciencias Penales INCLE International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement IT information technology LISSSTE Ley del Instituto de Seguridad y...Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Penales—INACIPE).195 However, if the video on Youtube.com is an indication of the seriousness with which ministerial

  18. Comparing the Law and Governance of Assisted Dying in Four European Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a comparative law and governance insight to assisted dying in England, France, Switzerland and the Netherlands, bringing together empirical studies of regulation and normative thinking about the role of the state. It follows the ‘new governance’ scholarly effort to challenge

  19. Preparing the National Capital Region to Conduct a Multijurisdictional and Interdisciplinary Law Enforcement Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    stalk the weak and defenseless? What if a Mumbai-style terrorist attack were to occur? Is the NCR law enforcement (LE) community prepared to...task forces for street level crimes (e.g., gangs , drugs, firearms), they rarely work together on investigations that would require dozens, or even

  20. Report on the bill concerning the modernization and development of electricity public service, adopted with modifications by the National Assembly at new reading; Rapport sur le project de loi, adopte avec modifications par l'Assemblee nationale en nouvelle lecture, relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, Henri [Senat, Paris (France)

    2000-01-20

    This document is a report presented on behalf of Commission of Economic Affairs and Plan on the project of law concerning the renovation and development of electricity public service, adopted with modifications by the National Assembly at new reading. The general outlook comprises three points titled: A. Examination conditions showing little respect of Parliament; B. A position of National Assembly inspired of dogmatic considerations; C. A text adopted by the National Assembly which turns the back to Europe and does a disservice to France's industry. The examination of the articles follows. This part is structured on the following titles: The public service of electricity, (five articles); The production of electricity (seven articles); The transport and distribution of electricity (two chapters and nine articles); Access to public electricity grids (three articles); The accounting dissociation and transparency (two articles); Regulation (twelve articles); The object of EDF (one article); Diverse and transient measures (six articles). A comparative table completes the document. It contains the texts adopted by the National Assembly at first reading, the text adopted by the Senate at first reading and the text adopted by the National Assembly at new reading.

  1. Law in orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, D.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns space law and regulations to cope with the legal problems that space-faring governments must address. In 1957 the General Assembly of the United Nations established a committee on the peaceful uses of outer space (COPUOS), which worked on a treaty for outer space. COPUOS spent from 1962-1971 formulating a liability convention, and in 1976 a moon treaty was proposed. However COPUOS has not been able to reach a concensus on recent issues, including remote-sensing and communications satellites. COPUOS reached the end of its effective life in 1982, and now there is a need for governments to take a new initiative into Space law and regulations to cope with the problems posed by new technology. (U.K.)

  2. Finding the Gaps: A Comparative Analysis of Disability Laws in the United States to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the National Council on Disability (NCD), and others, better understand how the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, if ratified by the United States, might impact U.S. disability laws by examining the degree to which U.S. law is consistent with the CRPD. The paper endeavors to analyze the…

  3. The Problems of Coordination of the International Duties of the Kazakhstan Republic in the Social-Labour Sphere and National Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buribayev, Yermek A.; Oryntayev, Zhambyl K.; Bekbossynov, Yermek; Mazhinbekov, Saken; Yessenbekova, Patima; Blasheva, Manshuk

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The research topicality is conditioned by the fact that the labour secure of the social and labour human rights is realized not only by the national law but also by the international law that is usually more progressive and establishes the generally accepted standards and norms of human rights in the social-labour sphere.…

  4. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.13 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public... section 241(a)(5) of the Act, if the alien: (1) Is a national of Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided...

  5. Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the year 1964-65. Explanatory Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    By Resolution GC(IX)/RES/l87 the General Conference decided that the Agency's Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for 1964-65 would consist of the annual report of the Board of Governors to the General Conference for 1964-65, together with a supplement. The annual report has been issued as document GC(IX)/299. The present document contains the supplement which deals with developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 1 October 1965, including action taken by the General Conference at its ninth regular session which took place in Tokyo from 21 to 28 September 1965

  6. Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1959-60. Explanatory Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-10-21

    By resolution GC(IV)/RES/62 the General Conference decided that the Agency's annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for 1959-60 would consist of the annual report of the Board of Governors to the General Conference for 1959-60, together with a supplement. The annual report of the Board has been issued as document GC(IV)/ 114. The present document contains the supplement which deals with developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 30 September 1960, including action taken by the General Conference at its fourth regular session.

  7. Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the year 1964-65. Explanatory Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-10-29

    By Resolution GC(IX)/RES/l87 the General Conference decided that the Agency's Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for 1964-65 would consist of the annual report of the Board of Governors to the General Conference for 1964-65, together with a supplement. The annual report has been issued as document GC(IX)/299. The present document contains the supplement which deals with developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 1 October 1965, including action taken by the General Conference at its ninth regular session which took place in Tokyo from 21 to 28 September 1965.

  8. Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1960-61. Explanatory Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    By resolution GC(V)/RES/89 the General Conference decided that the Agency's annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for 1960-61 would consist of the annual report of the Board of Governors to the General Conference for 1960-61, together with a supplement. The annual report of the Board has been issued as document GC(V)/154. The present document contains the supplement which deals with developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 6 October 1961, including action taken by the General Conference at its fifth regular session

  9. Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1961-62. Explanatory Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-12

    By Resolution GC(VI)/RES/114 the General Conference decided that the Agency's annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for 1961-62 would consist of the annual report of the Board of Governors to the General Conference for 1961-62, together with a supplement. The annual report of the Board has been issued as document GC(VI)/195. The present document contains the supplement which deals with developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 1 October 1962, including action taken by the General Conference at its sixth regular session.

  10. Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1960-61. Explanatory Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-10-26

    By resolution GC(V)/RES/89 the General Conference decided that the Agency's annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for 1960-61 would consist of the annual report of the Board of Governors to the General Conference for 1960-61, together with a supplement. The annual report of the Board has been issued as document GC(V)/154. The present document contains the supplement which deals with developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 6 October 1961, including action taken by the General Conference at its fifth regular session.

  11. Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1959-60. Explanatory Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    By resolution GC(IV)/RES/62 the General Conference decided that the Agency's annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for 1959-60 would consist of the annual report of the Board of Governors to the General Conference for 1959-60, together with a supplement. The annual report of the Board has been issued as document GC(IV)/ 114. The present document contains the supplement which deals with developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 30 September 1960, including action taken by the General Conference at its fourth regular session

  12. Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for the Year 1961-62. Explanatory Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    By Resolution GC(VI)/RES/114 the General Conference decided that the Agency's annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations for 1961-62 would consist of the annual report of the Board of Governors to the General Conference for 1961-62, together with a supplement. The annual report of the Board has been issued as document GC(VI)/195. The present document contains the supplement which deals with developments in the Agency's work during the period 1 July to 1 October 1962, including action taken by the General Conference at its sixth regular session

  13. Law created by the National Commission for Nuclear Energy. Ley que crea la Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-12-01

    The National Commission for Nuclear Energy issued a law, enforced on January 1, 1956, in its position as an organ of the Federal Executive Power, with its own personality and patrimony, and the judicial capacities necessary to carry out its purposes: for all matters pertaining this law, 'atomic materials' are those included in the Mineral Resources; uranium, thorium and in general all elements from which energy may be obtained in large amounts through nuclear reactions, based upon the judgement of the Commission. The objective of the National Commission for Nuclear Energy is to control, survey, coordinate, foster and carry out: (a) Exploration and exploitation of atomic material deposits, as well as the deposits of all other material that may be of specific use for the construction of nuclear reactors. (b) Possession of atomic material. (c) Exports and imports of such material. (d) Imports and exports of equipment for the use of nuclear energy. (e) Trade and local transportation of these materials. (f) The production and use of nuclear energy, intended primarily to satisfy national needs. (g) Scientific research in the field of nuclear fission and all related technical and scientific disciplines.

  14. ByLaws for the Governance of the Sandia National Laboratories Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; Rodgers, Theron; Dong, Wen; Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Barkholtz, Heather; Alley, William Morgan; Wolk, Benjamin Matthew; Vane, Zachary Phillips; Priye, Aashish; Ball, Cameron Scott

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the rules of governance for the Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association. This includes election procedures for filling vacancies on the SPD board, an all-purpose voting procedure, and definitions for the roles and responsibilities of each SPD board member. The voting procedures can also be used to amend the by-laws, as well as to create, dissolve, or consolidate vacant SPD board positions.

  15. Policy Entrepreneurs and the Design of Public Policy: The Case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISSIM COHEN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available How do policy entrepreneurs implement in practice the things theory suggests they should do? This article suggests various insightsinto the influence of policy entrepreneurs on the formulation of public policy. Using a broad definition of the concept of policyentrepreneur, the article identifies the main characteristics of entrepreneurial activities, describes various strategies that the policyentrepreneur may employ, and develops a model of successful and effective policy entrepreneurship. Using an analysis of the designof the Israel National Health Law of 1994 as a case study, the article emphasizes the importance of policy entrepreneurs in thepublic policy arena and provides several insights into the conditions for their activity, their motivations and main strategies.

  16. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  17. Law of the Slovak National Council of 14 July 1960 on the Procedure and Functions of the Slovak National Council

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    ... of the economy and culture in Slovakia (2) The Slovak National-Council carries out its operations to the extent designated by the Constitution in such a way that it is an effective instrument of the working people in ensuring the political, economic and cultural tasks in Slovakia.

  18. The association between graduated driver licensing laws and travel behaviors among adolescents: an analysis of US National Household Travel Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motao Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young novice drivers have crash rates higher than any other age group. To address this problem, graduated driver licensing (GDL laws have been implemented in the United States to require an extended learner permit phase, and create night time driving or passenger restrictions for adolescent drivers. GDL allows adolescents to gain experience driving under low-risk conditions with the aim of reducing crashes. The restricted driving might increase riding with parents or on buses, which might be safer, or walking or biking, which might be more dangerous. We examined whether GDL increases non-driver travels, and whether it reduces total travels combining drivers and non-drivers. Methods We used data from the US National Household Travel Survey for the years 1995–1996, 2001–2002, and 2008–2009 to estimate the adjusted ratio for the number of trips and trip kilometers made by persons exposed to a GDL law, compared with those not exposed. Results Adolescents aged 16 years had fewer trips and kilometers as drivers when exposed to a GDL law: ratio 0.84 (95 % confidence interval (CI 0.71, 1.00 for trips; 0.79 (0.63, 0.98 for kilometers. For adolescents aged 17 years, the trip ratio was 0.94 (0.83, 1.07 and the kilometers ratio 0.80 (0.63, 1.03. There was little association between GDL laws and trips or kilometers traveled by other methods: ratio 1.03 for trips and 1.00 for kilometers for age 16 years, 0.94 for trips and 1.07 for kilometers for age 17. Conclusions If these associations are causal, GDL laws reduced driving kilometers by about 20 % for 16 and 17 year olds, and reduced the number of driving trips by 16 % among 16 year olds. GDL laws showed little relationship with trips by other methods.

  19. Cross-National Variations in Student Employment and Academic Performance: The Roles of National Context and International Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Henck, Adrienne; Post, David

    Most existing research indicates that working students perform more poorly than do full-time students on standardized achievement tests. However, we know there are wide international variations in this gap. This article shows that national and international contexts help to explain the gap in the academic performance between working and non-working middle-school students. We combined data from the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) eighth-grade assessment with the country specific information on socioeconomic and educational conditions, as well as the timing of each country's ratification of an international treaty regulating child labor. Our multilevel analyses show that, while student employment was generally negatively associated with academic performance, this negative association is smaller in countries that by 1995 had ratified the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 138 on child labor. These findings highlight the role of national and international policy in structuring the consequences of student employment for academic performance.

  20. Cross-National Variations in Student Employment and Academic Performance: The Roles of National Context and International Law*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Henck, Adrienne; Post, David

    2014-01-01

    Most existing research indicates that working students perform more poorly than do full-time students on standardized achievement tests. However, we know there are wide international variations in this gap. This article shows that national and international contexts help to explain the gap in the academic performance between working and non-working middle-school students. We combined data from the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) eighth-grade assessment with the country specific information on socioeconomic and educational conditions, as well as the timing of each country's ratification of an international treaty regulating child labor. Our multilevel analyses show that, while student employment was generally negatively associated with academic performance, this negative association is smaller in countries that by 1995 had ratified the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 138 on child labor. These findings highlight the role of national and international policy in structuring the consequences of student employment for academic performance. PMID:25632163

  1. Recent developments in national antitrust practice and case law: January 2012 – May 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siragusa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period under review, the Italian Competition Authority and administrative courts analyzed many important cases in different economic sectors. Some of the these cases raised extremely complex legal and economic issues. The analysis of decision practice and case law highlights some critical aspects of recent antitrust enforcement, namely: (i the need to strengthen the fight against cartels; (ii the need to refine the tools used in merger analysis, also through the use of modern econometric methods; (iii the need to enhance the role of economic analysis in the assessment of unilateral exclusionary conduct, in line with the Commission’s Guidance on Article 102 TFEU; and (iv the need to find a better balance between competition rules and sector-specific regulation, so as to avoid overlapping and inconsistencies. A further critical issue is the need to reinforce the protection of the rights of defense. In order to improve the current administrative enforcement system, it is necessary to enhance the procedural guarantees and to remove the limits on judicial review of antitrust decisions, thus enabling administrative courts to review fully, in fact and in law, any aspect of the ICA’s finding of infringement, and to pronounce also on the merits of the case.

  2. College law enforcement and security department responses to alcohol-related incidents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Winters, Ken C; Toomey, Traci L

    2014-08-01

    Campus police and security personnel are often the first to respond to alcohol-related incidents on campus. The purpose of this study is to examine how campus law enforcement and security respond to alcohol-related incidents, and how consequences and communication differ based on characteristics of the incident. Directors of campus police/security from 343 colleges across the United States completed a survey regarding usual practice following serious, underage, and less serious alcohol incidents on and off campus. Campus law enforcement and security most commonly reported contacting campus officials. A minority reported issuing citations and referring students to the health center. Enforcement actions were more commonly reported for serious and underage incidents than for less serious incidents. Large (vs. small) colleges, public (vs. private) colleges, and those located in small (vs. large) towns more consistently reported taking actions against drinkers. Understanding how campus police and security respond to alcohol-related incidents is essential for reducing alcohol-related problems on college campuses. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Security Clearances and the Protection of National Security Information: Law and Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Sheldon

    2000-01-01

    ... designed to protect National Security information. The report provides an authoritative compendium for lawyers, security officers and for managers of corporations who must deal with the legal and procedural aspects of security clearances...

  4. Homeland Security Knowledge Management for Local Law Enforcement in the National Capital Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Deirdre I

    2005-01-01

    .... While local police must effectively address community needs associated with crime and quality of life, they are also now on the front lines of the nation's battle against the forces of international terrorism...

  5. Filtering, transport and long-term storage of carbon dioxide in licensing law and national planning law. Implementation of the 2009/31 EG directive via a CCS law; Abscheidung, Transport und dauerhafte Speicherung von Kohlenstoffdioxid im Genehmigungs- und nationalen Planungsrecht. Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2009/31 EG durch ein CCS-Gesetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    The book discusses the legal boundary conditions of the CCS technology in licensing law and national planning law against the background of RL/ 2009/31 EG and the various drafts of a German CCS law between 2009 and 2011. The legal situation is outlined as of June 2011, when the original dissertation was submitted; the draft acts are analyzed critically in a comparative evaluation. Publications of a later date are considered as far as possible.

  6. N.3142 National Assembly law proposition aiming to help the purchasing of households facing the petroleum products prices increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This text presents the problem of the households purchasing facing the increase of the petroleum products. It recalls the government policy, and criticizes the french government gap in favor of the households. In the second part it proposes to replace the ''floating TIPP'' and to reallocate a part of the exceptional incomes of the petroleum companies. (A.L.B.)

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory

  9. Ecology of national rule birth : A longitudinal study of Dutch higher educational law, 1960-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Witteloostuijn, A.; de Jong, G.

    To date, quantitative assessments of the evolution of national rules have only rarely been conducted, leaving many questions ill-understood and unaddressed, particularly as to the features of rule stock evolution patterns. Can such patterns be traced, and if so, can the underlying causal mechanisms

  10. Statement to the fifty-third session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 2 November 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the statement of the Director General of the IAEA at the fifty-third session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York, USA, on 2 November 1998. The statement focuses on the priority work of the Agency under the following main headings: contribution to peace and security (including the IAEA's strengthened safeguards system, inspections in Iraq, safeguards verifications in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, future prospects of verification, illicit trafficking in nuclear material), co-operation for development (the Agency's technical co-operation programme), and meeting global challenges in the field of energy, the environment and nuclear safety. The statement concludes with a description of the process of management review and reform initiated by the Director General to ensure that the Agency is responding efficiently and effectively to the needs of its Member States

  11. Smoking cessation interventions from health care providers before and after the national smoke-free law in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    Smoking cessation advice from health care providers (HCP) is well-known to be associated with increased quitting. This study sought to understand the extent to which smokers in France who visited a HCP around the time of the implementation of the national ban on smoking received encouragement to quit from a HCP and what kinds of intervention were provided. HCP may have a unique opportunity during the implementation phase of smoke-free laws to address their patients' smoking behaviours to increase the likelihood of success at a time when smokers' readiness and interest in quitting may be higher. Telephone interviews were conducted among adult smokers (n = 1067) before and after the two-phase (2007 and 2008) national ban on indoor smoking as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. In the survey, smokers were asked whether they had visited a HCP in the past 6 months and, if so, whether they had received cessation encouragement, and/or other interventions to support quitting such as prescriptions for stop-smoking medication. Most smokers (61%) reported visiting a HCP in the 6 months prior to the first phase of the national smoke-free ban, and 58% after the time of the hospitality ban. Of these, most reported they did not receive any assistance from a HCP before (54%) or after (64%) the smoke-free law. Among those who reported an intervention, the most common were only encouragement to quit (58% in Wave 1 and 49% in Wave 2), or receiving both encouragement and a pamphlet (31% in both Wave 1 and 2). The combination of prescriptions for stop-smoking medicine and encouragement to quit increased from 8% in 2007 to 22% in 2008. The smokers who received an intervention were more likely (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9) to report that they were thinking about quitting. This study demonstrates that HCP in France are well positioned to provide smoking cessation encouragement and other interventions to a majority of smokers and thus the importance of taking

  12. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  13. Occupational Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers, 2003-2013: Data From the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Janet M; Fowler, Katherine A; Betz, Carter J; Baumgardner, Jason L

    2016-11-01

    Law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the U.S. are at an increased risk for homicide. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of homicides of LEOs in 17 U.S. states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System. This active surveillance system uses data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze National Violent Death Reporting System data for 2003-2013. Deaths of LEOs feloniously killed in the line of duty were selected for analysis. LEO homicides and the circumstances preceding or occurring during the incident were characterized. Analyses were conducted October 2015-June 2016. A total of 128 officer homicides from 121 incidents were identified. Most (93.7%) LEO victims were male, 60.9% were aged 30-49 years (average age, 40.9 years). Approximately 21.9% of LEOs were killed during an ambush, and 19.5% were killed during traffic stops or pursuits. Of the 14.1% of LEOs killed responding to domestic disturbances, most disturbances were intimate partner violence related. More than half (57.0%) of homicides were precipitated by another crime, and of these, 71.2% involved crimes in progress. Most suspects were male. Ninety-one percent of homicides of LEOs were committed with a firearm. This information is critical to help describe encounter situations faced by LEOs. The results of this study can be used to help educate and train LEOs on hazards, inform prevention efforts designed to promote LEO safety, and prevent homicide among this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Impact of Transposition of the Directive 2013/34/EU into the National Laws of EU Member States Emphatically V4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has published the Directive 2013/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements and related reports of certain types of undertakings for reasons of increasing of the competitive advantage and productivity of small and medium‑sized enterprises. The EU Member States have to incorporate the rules of the Directive with their national law by 20 July 2015 at the latest during the year 2016. The intention of this paper is to determine and to evaluate the impacts of transposition of the Directive into the Czech Accounting Law and into the national accounting laws of EU Member States chosen. There is an identification of main differences of Czech Accounting Law and of amended Czech Accounting Law issued 1st of January 2016. There is an impact of implementation of the Directive 2013/34/EU on financial statements and at the same time on requirements of audit for individual categories of Czech accounting entities. In this paper, there is also an analysis of impact of the Directive 2013/34/EU on national accounting laws V4 States and on several further EU Member States. On the basis of comparison of differences recognized, there is an deduction of findings for companies falling into the same group.

  15. Designing an effective microbial forensics program for law enforcement and national security purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Randall S

    2014-06-01

    Forensic capabilities that provide lead information, and investigative, intelligence, prosecution and policy decision support can be invaluable for responding to and resolving bioterrorism events. Attributing biological attacks through scientific and other resources and processes is an important goal, for which science can be instrumental. Some even believe that having effective microbial forensics capabilities along with others can even deter adversaries from using biological weapons. For those nations that do not have such or wish to integrate or upgrade capabilities, thoughtful analysis and consideration of certain design principles will increase the likelihood that success will be attained.

  16. Legal provisions concerning the handling and disposal of radioactive waste in international and national law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1980-01-01

    A short survey is given on the situation of international legislation concerning radioactive waste handling and disposal. There are special rules on the disposal of nuclear waste in a number of conventions (Geneva 1958, London 1972, Helsinki 1974, Paris 1974, Barcellone 1976) on the protection of the marine environment and of the high sea against pollutions. In 1974 and 1978, the International Atomic Energy Agency made further recommendations concerning radioactive wastes referred to in the London Convention. In 1977, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development also set up within its Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) a multilateral consultation and surveillance mechanism for the sea-dumping of radioactive waste. The NEA has since published recommendations on the sea-dumping of radioactive waste. In 1975, it was agreed to abide by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 not to dispose any nuclear waste on the Antarctic Region. There is at present no absolute prohibition of radioactive waste disposal in outer space but the Member States of the United Nations are responsible for such activities. As regards national legislation, the legal provisions for 13 different countries on radioactive waste disposal are listed. (UK)

  17. Statement to the 64. Regular Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 2 November 2009, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2009-01-01

    This is the last speech of Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei to the General Assembly as Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency. He is reviewing the achievements of the IAEA during the last 12 years of his service to the Agency as Director General. He summarizes the activities of nuclear power, nuclear safety, technical cooperation, the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), the technical cooperation programme, the global non-proliferation landscape (in particular Iraq and the DPRK), uranium enrichment and plutonium reprocessing, as well as nuclear disarmament. Ultimately, a new global system of collective security is needed that entails an overhaul of the United Nations system and, above all, of the Security Council. A new system in which no country feels the need to rely on nuclear weapons for its security. A new system with effective global mechanisms for conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peacemaking. An equitable and inclusive system in which security is not perceived as a zero sum game, or based on domination, or on a balance of power. A system that places human security and human solidarity at its core, that grasps our shared destiny as one human family and that enables all of us to live together free from fear and free from want. In concluding, he takes this opportunity to express his deep gratitude to the Republic of Austria for being a most gracious and supportive host country of the IAEA. He congratulates his successor, Director General-elect Yukiya Amano, and wishes him every success. He thanks the General Assembly for its support during his 12 years as Director General

  18. International cooperation and guarantee of nuclear safety in the implementation of national nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The provisions against damage to be made in accordance with the state of the art as a precondition for licensing under Sec.7, Para.2, No.3 of the German Atomic Energy Act more than ever relate to international findings and practice in science as well as technology. In view of the peaceful use of nuclear power worldwide, together with the manifold institutionalized international and European schemes for cooperation within IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), OECD/NEA (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency), and within the framework of EURATOM, these can be gleaned only from the global state of the art. In addition, there are informal associations and bilateral cooperation schemes of countries within which knowledge is exchanged and, in part, even specific measures ensuring nuclear safety are agreed upon. Also existing international rules and regulations are important. It is for the national enforcement authorities in the nuclear field to determine and assess the bandwidths of scientific opinions and theoretical as well as practical technical availabilities with regard to all tenable scientific findings and technical developments known on the international horizon. (orig.)

  19. Case law. Administrative decisions. National legislative and regulatory activities. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The different subjects are as follow: judgment on Konrad repository project (Germany), Measures for the dismantling of Barsebaeck (Sweden), amendment to the criminal code (Argentina), Australian nuclear science and technology organisation amendment act, commonwealth radioactive waste management legislation amendment (Australia), amendments to the radiation act and radiation decree (Finland), decree on securing financing for nuclear charges, decree licensing the construction of the basic nuclear installation Flamanville 3 comprising an EPR reactor (France), amendment to the act on preventive radiation protection, administrative provisions on the supervision of environmental radioactivity, ordinance on radioactive drugs, amendment to the ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, European agreement relating to the international transportation of dangerous goods by road, ordinance on the transportation of dangerous goods by road and rail, ordinance to amend the R.I.D. regulations, ordinance on the transportation of dangerous goods on the Rhine and Mosel rivers, amendments to the 1961 foreign trade act and to the 1993 foreign trade ordinance (Germany), regulations in the field of radiation protection (Iceland), decree on nuclear reactor licensing (Indonesia), carriage of dangerous goods by road act (Ireland), decree on emergency planning with regard to the transport of radioactive and fissile materials (Italy), covenant between the government and the Borssele operator concerning the life extension (Netherlands), consolidated edition of the 1965 radiation protection act (New Zealand), regulation on ionizing radiation sources (Poland), decision approving the structure and organisation of the romanian nuclear agency, amendment of the 2003 decision approving the internal rules of the national commission for the control of nuclear activities, amendment of the 2003 ordinance on the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste including final disposal

  20. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  1. The Existence of Customary Law in the Polemics of Positive Law – a Study From the Perspective of Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, M

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the law family, the Adat law is one form of positive law which plays particular role and contribution in the making process of the whole positive law in Indonesia. Existence of Adat law in the constitutional of Indonesia painted its own color. As one of the oldest customary law in the life of local community Adat law has become the seed and formatting idea of Indonesia's national law where Adat Law has widely influenced other positive law.

  2. Deregulation and regulation by the national and European antitrust laws. The development and amendment of antitrust laws and their effects on the public utilities. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the meeting discuss the following subjects: The public utilities and their scope of exemptions from provisions of the antitrust laws as established by court rulings; reimbursement for electricity supplied to the grid and the phasing out of franchise agreements; the competition policy of the Federal Cartel Office towards the public utilities; legal and economic implications of the competition policy adopted by the Federal Cartel Office for the structures of the public sector of the power supply industry; ensuring safe and priceworthy power supply in Europe. The five papers can be separately retrieved from the database. (HSCH) [de

  3. Between Indian Law and Qullasuyu Nationalism. Gregorio Titiriku and the Making of AMP Indigenous Activists, 1921-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waskar Ari-Chachaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1921, when hard-line Liberal regimes ended in Bolivia, Gregorio Titiriku, an Uru-Aymara Indian from the shores of lake Titikaka (La Paz, started 50 years of Indian intellectual activism among the Alcaldes Mayores Particulares (AMP, a 450 cell network of indigenous intellectuals. Titiriku struggled against internal colonialism and was a crucial participant in the making of AMP subaltern nationalism.  Titiriku’s ideas became a crucial part of AMP discourse, known during this time as Indian Law.  This discourse promoted the worship of Pachamama (mother earth and Achachillas (the spirit of the grandparents in the high hills of the Andes.  AMP discourse sought to rename the nation of Qullas (currently known as Aymara-Quechuas. Titiriku was especially good at creating ideas for mobilization among the AMP, such as qullasuyun wawapa (the children of the Qulla tribes in order to promote "jaqi" pride (indigenous peoples pride, and bayeta camisas (people who dress in “bayeta” in order to promote an Indian dress-code as part of a politics of identity. These ideas provide us with a privileged field for understanding of the relationship between alternative modernities and public spheres. Titiriku thus used AMP discourse to contest segregation policies and to resist mainstream civilization projects. The particularities of Indian Law and its strategic nationalism reveal the existence of alternative discourses of modernity largely forgotten in Bolivia. The analysis of AMP discourse helps us understand the longstanding presence of struggle for autonomy and hegemonic projects in Bolivia and provides us with a better comprehension of how internal colonialism and public audiences interact historically.En 1921, cuando concluyó el periodo de gobiernos liberales en Bolivia, Gregorio Titiriku, indio uru-aymara originario de las orillas del lago Titikaka (La Paz, inició cincuenta años de activismo intelectual indio entre los Alcaldes Mayores Particulares

  4. Report on the behalf of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission (1) on: the bill project, adopted by the National Assembly after application of the accelerated procedure, aiming at forbidding the exploration and exploitation of liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon mines by hydraulic fracturing, and abrogating exclusive search permits including projects using this technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houel, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report first presents shale gases as a new resource for the French energetic independence, but also outlines the risks of durable environment damages when using inappropriate techniques. It outlines the need of a new law to review the current mining code, in order to forbid a practice which presents too important risks for the environment, to improve the knowledge on these issues, and to define more transparent procedures. It briefly presents the bill project, the main modifications introduced by the National Assembly, and the opinion of the Commission

  5. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  6. The Interaction Between the Debt Relief Measures in the National Credit Act 34 of 2005 and Aspects of Insvolvency Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C van Heerden

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The National Credit Act 34 of 2005 (the 'NCA' aims at promoting responsibility in the credit market by encouraging responsible borrowing, avoidance of over-indebtedness and the fulfilment of financial obligations by consumers, and at discouraging reckless credit granting by credit providers and contractual default by consumers. Although a further aim is to address over-indebtedness by debt review, for instance, this mechanism is based on the principle of satisfaction of the consumer's responsible financial obligations in full. In a recent judgment, Ex parte Ford 2009 (3 SA 376 (WCC, the court has thus refused to grant a sequestration order following an application for voluntary surrender since the bulk of the debt was credit agreements regulated by the NCA. The fact that the debtor-applicant did not apply for debt review in terms of the NCA of 2005 before applying for voluntary surrender played a significant role in the court's decision not to grant the order. This article thus considers the impact of the debt relief remedies in the NCA on insolvency law. In particular it is an attempt to provide some answers to the question if the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936 (hereafter the 'Insolvency Act' is in conflict with the previously stated principle of the NCA, namely full satisfaction of all responsible financial obligations by an over-indebted consumer. It also considers the concepts of over-indebtedness and reckless credit and their related debt relief remedies when considering applications for voluntary surrender or compulsory sequestration in terms of the Insolvency Act.

  7. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  8. National law of the nuclear activity of the Argentine Republic. (Sanctioned on April 2, 1997 and partially promulgated on April 23, 1997; B.O. 25-Apr-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine National State, will establish the nuclear policy and perform the functions of research, development, regulation and supervision through two organisations, the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). The National Atomic Energy Commission will continue to function as an autonomous entity, depending from the Ministry of Culture and Education of the Nation. Among the activities under its responsibility it will have to advise the National Executive Power on nuclear policy issues, promote the training of highly-specialised human resources, scientific and technological developments, execute development programs, promote programs for technological innovation, perform the responsibility for radiation waste management, etc. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority will act as an aunotomous entity in the jurisdiction of the Presidency of the Nation and will be responsible for the functions of regulation and control of the nuclear activity in everything which is related to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and control of the use of nuclear materials, nuclear facilities, licensing and international safeguards and give advise to the National Executive Power. Both institutions will depend from a Board of Directors composed by six members, one of which will be the Chairman and they will be responsible for the actions to comply with the objectives and functions mentioned above. In its last chapter, the law declares as subject to the privatisation the activities of nuclear energy generation presently developed by Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NASA), as well as the Nuyclear Fuel Cycle used for the nuclear energy generation for industry or research and the Production of Radioisotopes developed by CNEA. This law revokes the articles numbers 2, 5, 9, 11, 16 and 17 of the Decree-Law N' 22.498/56 (B.O. 28-Dec-1956)

  9. Arrests for child pornography production: data at two time points from a national sample of U.S. law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M

    2011-08-01

    This study collected information on arrests for child pornography (CP) production at two points (2000-2001 and 2006) from a national sample of more than 2,500 law enforcement agencies. In addition to providing descriptive data about an understudied crime, the authors examined whether trends in arrests suggested increasing CP production, shifts in victim populations, and challenges to law enforcement. Arrests for CP production more than doubled from an estimated 402 in 2000-2001 to an estimated 859 in 2006. Findings suggest the increase was related to increased law enforcement activity rather than to growth in the population of CP producers. Adolescent victims increased, but there was no increase in the proportion of arrest cases involving very young victims or violent images. Producers distributed images in 23% of arrest cases, a proportion that did not change over time. This suggests that much CP production may be primarily for private use. Proactive law enforcement operations increased, as did other features consistent with a robust law enforcement response.

  10. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  11. Statement to the sixty-third regular session of the United Nations General Assembly, 28 October 2008, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2008-01-01

    In his statement to the Sixty-Third Regular Session of the United Nations General Assembly the IAEA's Director General Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei reported on the work of the Agency in the last year and highlighted some of the challenges which need to be addressed. He stressed the importance of the Agency's work in technical cooperation to boost food supplies and combat pests and animal diseases and stated that in some areas the IAEA's role is unique as in mapping water resources by applying nuclear techniques. Concerning nuclear power the IAEA advises countries considering its introduction and assists them to identify their options and the best energy mix. To ensure that newcomers use nuclear energy efficiently, safely, securely and with minimal proliferation risk, the IAEA impresses upon them the need to plan properly, to build the human resources and infrastructure, to establish independent and effective regulators and to adhere to international safety, security and non-proliferation instruments. The Agency offers advice in drafting national nuclear legislation and trains regulators and operators. One implication of a nuclear renaissance is the spread of nuclear material to many more countries. This naturally increases the risk that nuclear material could be diverted to make nuclear weapons. That is why the IAEA needs to think seriously about some form of multinational control over the fuel cycle. According to Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei the ideal scenario would be to start with a nuclear fuel bank under IAEA auspices. Then all new enrichment and reprocessing activities should be placed exclusively under multilateral control. Ultimately, all existing facilities should also be converted from national to multilateral control. The Agency helps countries improve their border controls, strengthen physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive sources and enhance nuclear security at major public events, such as the Beijing Olympic Games this summer. Effective nuclear

  12. Decree-Law No. 375/90 of 10 November 1990 designating the competent national authority for the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Decree-Law designates, in accordance with the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Protection and Nuclear Safety Bureau (GPSN) of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources as the national competent authority in relation to physical protection matters. Accordingly, the import, manufacture, possession, purchase, sale or transfer of nuclear material, as well as its transport, are subject to prior authorisation by the GPSN [fr

  13. REFLECTIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF MINOR'S RIGHTS IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: FROM THE NATIONAL REGULATIONS TO THE COMMUNITY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, BONCIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes an examination of the development rights of juveniles in conflict with the law in terms of legal regulations adopted by the Council of Europe, the European Union and its Member States. Approaching the settlement of all matters relating to human rights, including the rights of the child, it searched the extent to provide a mechanism in respect of children's rights and how its rights are reflected both of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and Community and of national regulations of the Member States of the European Union. Declarative character of the Community provisions do not provide sufficient protection and uniformity toward juvenile rights in this matter, being treated differently in different countries depending on national and regional legal regime. Analysis of international treaties, customary, and national case law emphasized the need for prevention of juvenile delinquency and juvenile protection by merging rules at Community level in order to ensure a common, reasonable and sufficient protection for the juvenile in general and those found in conflict with law in particular.

  14. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  15. Targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth: results from a national survey of local law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Erickson, Darin J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.

  16. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Mangement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This is the first quarterly update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. Because states have been very active on waste management issues, the whole report is being reissued in this update. It covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. The administrative section provides information on the governor, lead agencies, other involved administrative agencies, relevant commissions, boards and councils and various contacts. The Legislative section provides general information on the legislature and lists legislative leaders, the relevant committees and their chairs and a legislative contact. In the section covering Applicable Legislation, laws related to radiation protection, low-level waste and high-level waste have been summarized. Hazardous waste siting laws are included for states that do not have a siting law covering radioactive waste. The section also contains summaries of relevant bills introduced in 1982 and 1983 legislative sessions and their disposition. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 15 April 1983

  17. Statement to Sixty-Eighth Regular Session of United Nations General Assembly, 5 November 2013, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2013-01-01

    IAEA is working closely with the African Union to help create tsetse- free zones, using the Sterile Insect Technique and other methods. The Sterile Insect Technique is essentially a form of contraception for tsetse flies. Male flies which are mass- produced in special facilities are sterilised using radiation. The sterile males are then released into affected areas, where they mate with wild females. These do not produce offspring. This technique can eventually eradicate entire populations of tsetse flies, as happened in Zanzibar in 1999. In recent years, significant progress has been made suppressing tsetse flies in Ethiopia and Senegal by using the Sterile Insect Technique and conventional methods. Together with 13 countries in the Sahel region of Africa, the IAEA is working to alleviate severe water shortages which have caused a humanitarian crisis. Underground aquifers that store fresh water span national borders in the region. The IAEA helps countries to measure and monitor these shared fresh water supplies suing nuclear isotopic techniques. This provides the data to enable policy-makers to develop a strategic plan for managing these vital resources. Responding to concerns among Member States about climate change, the new Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre started work this year at the IAEA Environmental Laboratories in Monaco. This enhances our efforts to promote a comprehensive approach to the study, monitoring and protection of marine, coastal and terrestrial ecosystems. The annual IAEA Scientific Forum in September was entitled The Blue Planet: Nuclear Applications for a Sustainable Marine Environment. I informed the General Assembly a year ago about my plans to modernize the eight IAEA nuclear applications laboratories near Vienna. These do essential work in assisting with the transfer of nuclear science and technology to developing countries in areas such as human and animal health, food security and safety, agriculture, and environmental

  18. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This updated report covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 31 August 1984

  19. Law enforcement staff perceptions of illegal hunting and wildlife conservation in the Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Mango, L.; Jakarasi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, pressure from the illegal harvesting of wildlife is a recurrent issue for protected area management. In order to ensure the effective conservation of wildlife resources, law enforcement has been identified as one of the most important components of protected area management. Our study

  20. Should Cops Be Spies? Evaluating the Collection and Sharing of National Security Intelligence by State, Local and Tribal Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    criminal activity, while state, local and tribal law enforcement provide the local-area expertise. A side benefit of this symbiotic relationship is all...intelligence was focused primarily on geopolitical rivalries” (pp. 41–42). Now that al-Qa’ida, through its surrogates and franchisees —as well as through its

  1. The implications of alcohol intoxication and the Uniform Policy Provision Law on trauma centers; a national trauma data bank analysis of minimally injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Terence; Shafi, Shahid; Sperry, Jason L; Gentilello, Larry M

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol intoxication may confound the initial assessment of trauma patients, resulting in increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, thereby increasing hospital costs. The Uniform Policy Provision Law (UPPL) exists in many states and allows insurance companies to deny payment for medical treatment for alcohol-related injuries. If intoxication increases resource utilization, these denials compound the financial burden of alcohol use on trauma centers. We hypothesized that patients injured while under the influence of alcohol require more diagnostic tests, procedures, and hospital admissions, leading to higher hospital charges. The National Trauma Databank (2000-2004) was analyzed to identify adult trauma patients (age > or = 16 years) who were discharged alive, had a length of stay laws that penalize trauma centers for identifying intoxicated patients should be repealed in states where they exist.

  2. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  3. ABOUT THE RECENT INTERPRETATION OF CJEU IN THE MATTER OF UNFAIR TERMS OF CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS RELEVANT MEANINGS FOR THE NATIONAL CASE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Orga-Dumitriu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The original formula established by the EU legislator for the repression of unfair terms (by the use of the criteria for the establishment of the abusive character – the lack of negotiation of the clause, the significant unbalance between the rights and obligations of the parties and the infringement, by the professional, of the good faith requirement was consolidated by the developments made at case law level through the exercise, by the Court in Luxembourg, of its interpretative function. The study starts with a diachronic view of the solutions that highlighted the manifest tendency of CJEU to provide the effective protection of consumers by the admission of the judicial control performed ex officio over the unfair terms in Océano Grupo, Mostaza Claro and Cofidis, such judgments being also reconfirmed on occasion of the ulterior interventions from Pannon GSM, Asturcom Telecomunicaciones and Pénzügyi Lízing or, with particular reference to the consumer credit contracts, in Banco Español de Crédito and, lately, in Aziz (I. Afterwards, following a general description of the casuistic background of the disputes between credit consumers and banks in Romania (II, the analysis of the juridical meanings of the interpretations related to the recent Kásler case law from the 30th of April 2014, respectively Sánchez Morcillo and Abril García case laws from the 17th of July 2014 may not be extended also by the realistic assessment of the effects thereof in our national law and of the (potential implications that are relevant for the Romanian courts of law (III.

  4. Forty Years of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 (XXX) on Zionism and Racism: the Brazilian Vote as an instance of United States - Brazil Relations

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, NORMA BREDA DOS; UZIEL, EDUARDO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 1975, Brazil voted in favor of the United Nations General Assembly resolution 3379 (XXX), equating Zionism with a form of racism. Focusing on the decision-making process of president Ernesto Geisel's (1974-1979) foreign policy, "responsible pragmatism", this article discusses how the ultimate decision to vote in favor of resolution was taken taking into account mainly US-Brazil relationship. Resumo Em 1975, o Brasil votou a favor da resolução da Assembleia Geral das Nações Unid...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Assembly Building 9B (Building 09-54): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    Assembly Building 9B (Building 09-54) is a contributing element to the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Historic District. The SNL TTR Historic District played a significant role in U.S. Cold War history in the areas of stockpile surveillance and non-nuclear field testing of nuclear weapons designs. The district covers approximately 179,200 acres and illustrates Cold War development testing of nuclear weapons components and systems. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  6. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This is the sixth update of ''Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration.'' It completely replaces the fifth update (15 September 1984). The updated report covers low-level radioactive waste compacts, and the administration, the legislature and the laws related to radioactive waste management in each of the fifty states. The report is organized by low-level waste compact regions. Each section begins with a description of the low-level waste compact, followed by reports on each state within the region. There are also sections for states which have made plans to dispose of waste independently of a compact, and for those states which have not yet declared their intentions. The report on each compact is divided into four sections: Cover Page, Chair Organization, State Delegations, and Compact

  7. Asylum vs sovereignty in the 21st century: How nation-state's breach international law to block access to asylum.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2015-01-01

    Asylum was created by the international community in the 20th century to provide legal protection to individuals fleeing persecution by nation states; but the ability to secure asylum has been fundamentally reshaped by sovereign national interests in the 21st century. This paper has two objectives. First it explores the various ways in which nation-states have adopted policies and pursued agendas which prevent asylum seekers from gaining access to countries of asylum, which criminalize many w...

  8. The data submitted by the United Kingdom to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for the 1977 report to the General Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, F E; Webb, G A M

    1976-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established by the General Assembly in 1955 to report on the exposure of man to ionising radiation. In the subsequent twenty years the Committee has covered most aspects of the subject with repeated reviews of the levels of exposure from fallout due to weapons testing. The Committee is currently preparing a further report on doses from all sources and an evaluation of their biological effects. This is expected to be published in 1977. To aid it in compiling this report the Committee requested Member States of the UN to submit national data on a wide range of sources of exposure. The Board was asked by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to collate the information requested from the United Kingdom. Data were available in the scientific literature on some topics, such as medical irradiation and environmental radioactivity. On some other topics, particularly occupational exposure, data have been collected but seldom publishe...

  9. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  10. International Treaties Tax Law in Brazilian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Zampieri Sellmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International agreements are the primary source of obligations internationally, whi- ch generate reflections in national law. They have been extremely used in tax harvest because they avoid double taxation and reduce tax burden in international trade. They are formal sources of tax law, which the legislature is expressly recognized in Article 96 of the National Tax Code to set the “tax legislation” expression. Article 98 of the Code determines the supremacy of international tax agreements over national law. Against the odds, international tax agreements do not revoke or modify the national legislation, just limit the effectiveness of national law incompatible with them, with supra-legal hierarchy and infra-constitution. They are above national law, either after or before it is created, and are below the Federal Constitution, so agreements incompatible with it should not be approved by Congress and, if so, they will be subject to declaration of unconstitutionality by the Supreme Court. It is a reporting case the international agreement’s unconstitutio- nality after it is celebrated.

  11. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  12. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  13. Local energy supply under national and European law. With special regard to municipal policy opportunities. Oertliche Energieversorgung nach nationalem und europaeischem Recht. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung kommunaler Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Conceivably, the erection of a single European energy market for electricity and natural gas as specified in the EC draft guidelines may change the conditions of local energy supply. This thesis therefore investigates which instruments are at the disposal of municipal governments for the realization of energy-political concepts of their own: Rights of way and granting of franchises, establishment of and transfer of tasks to municipal utilities, common carvier duties, and free choice of suppliers by distributors. The handling of franchise payments and treatment of municipal interconnected networks are of considerable importance for the financial situation of communities. The first section deals with the legal issues of local energy supply with regard to national law. The second part deals with the same questions with regard to community law. Furthermore it is considered what would be the consequences of the realization of the two guidelines concerning the single energy market. In the final section the results are compared and the significance of community law for local energy supply is assessed. (orig./HP)

  14. Expropriation law in France

    OpenAIRE

    Melot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In this publication, the editors present the first comparative overview of expropriation law in Europe covering 15 different jurisdictions. For many of the countries represented, this publication is the first English-language description of their national expropriation law. This survey provides a lot of information for all practitioners in the field of expropriation of land.

  15. Essay on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva

    1994-01-01

    This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

  16. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  17. Four-year follow-up of smoke exposure, attitudes and smoking behaviour following enactment of Finland's national smoke-free work-place law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heloma, Antero; Jaakkola, Maritta S

    2003-08-01

    This study evaluated the possible impact of national smoke-free work-place legislation on employee exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), employee smoking habits and attitudes on work-place smoking regulations. Repeated cross-sectional questionnaire surveys and indoor air nicotine measurements were carried out before, and 1 and 3 years after the law had come into effect. Industrial, service sector and office work-places from the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. A total of 880, 940 and 659 employees (response rates 70%, 75% and 75%) in eight work-places selected from a register kept by the Uusimaa Regional Institute of Occupational Health to represent various sectors of public and private work-places. Reported exposure to ETS, smoking habits, attitudes on smoking at work and measurements of indoor air nicotine concentration. Employee exposure to ETS for at least 1 hour daily decreased steadily during the 4-year follow-up, from 51% in 1994 to 17% in 1995 and 12% in 1998. Respondents' daily smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption diminished 1 year after the enforcement of legislation from 30% to 25%, and remained at 25% in the last survey 3 years later. Long-term reduction in smoking was confined to men. Both smokers' and non-smokers' attitudes shifted gradually towards favouring a total ban on smoking at work. Median indoor airborne nicotine concentrations decreased from 0.9 micro g/m3 in 1994-95 to 0.1 micro g/m3 in 1995-96 and 1998. This is the first follow-up study on a nationally implemented smoke-free work-place law. We found that such legislation is associated with steadily reducing ETS exposure at work, particularly at work-places, where the voluntary smoking regulations have failed to reduce exposure. The implementation of the law also seemed to encourage smokers to accept a non-smoking work-place as the norm.

  18. [Adapting the law to offer better protection to female victims of violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Édouard

    2014-11-01

    As society has become more aware of the seriousness and the extent of domestic violence, the law has been adapted in order to offer female victims better protection. These legislative changes are recent and still meet with some resistance. The act of the 9th of July 2010 modified penal and civil laws to take better account of the specificities of the mechanisms of domestic abuse and create appropriate tools. The law about real equality between women and men, approved by the National Assembly on the 23rd of July 2014, is in line with this same objective.

  19. Olympic citizenship and the (un)specialness of the national vest: rethinking the links between sport and citizenship law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostakopoulou, D.; Schrauwen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing mobility of athletes prompts a reconsideration of the presumed connection between allegiance, identity and nationality. Olympic citizenship challenges traditional understandings of community membership by calling into question the privileged status of birthright citizenship and by

  20. Internal Controls and Compliance with Laws and Regulations for the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund Financial Statements for FY 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, as amended by the Federal Financial Management Act of 1994, requires an annual audit of revolving funds such as the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund...

  1. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  2. Statement to the 65. Regular Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 8 November 2010, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This is my first report to the General Assembly as Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency. A constant theme of my first year in office has been to pursue objectives in regard to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and the promotion of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in a balanced manner. I am trying to change the widespread perception of the Agency as simply the world's 'nuclear watchdog' because it does not do justice to our extensive activities in other areas, especially in nuclear energy, nuclear science and applications, and technical cooperation. Today, I will review the highlights of the Agency's work in the past year and share some thoughts on current issues

  3. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  4. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  5. Power laws for heavy-tailed distributions: modeling allele and haplotype diversity for the national marrow donor program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Slater

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Measures of allele and haplotype diversity, which are fundamental properties in population genetics, often follow heavy tailed distributions. These measures are of particular interest in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT. Donor/Recipient suitability for HSCT is determined by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA similarity. Match predictions rely upon a precise description of HLA diversity, yet classical estimates are inaccurate given the heavy-tailed nature of the distribution. This directly affects HSCT matching and diversity measures in broader fields such as species richness. We, therefore, have developed a power-law based estimator to measure allele and haplotype diversity that accommodates heavy tails using the concepts of regular variation and occupancy distributions. Application of our estimator to 6.59 million donors in the Be The Match Registry revealed that haplotypes follow a heavy tail distribution across all ethnicities: for example, 44.65% of the European American haplotypes are represented by only 1 individual. Indeed, our discovery rate of all U.S. European American haplotypes is estimated at 23.45% based upon sampling 3.97% of the population, leaving a large number of unobserved haplotypes. Population coverage, however, is much higher at 99.4% given that 90% of European Americans carry one of the 4.5% most frequent haplotypes. Alleles were found to be less diverse suggesting the current registry represents most alleles in the population. Thus, for HSCT registries, haplotype discovery will remain high with continued recruitment to a very deep level of sampling, but population coverage will not. Finally, we compared the convergence of our power-law versus classical diversity estimators such as Capture recapture, Chao, ACE and Jackknife methods. When fit to the haplotype data, our estimator displayed favorable properties in terms of convergence (with respect to sampling depth and accuracy (with respect to diversity

  6. Law Enforcement Agency Defibrillation (LEA-D): proceedings of the National Center for Early Defibrillation Police AED Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosesso, Vincent N; Newman, Mary M; Ornato, Joseph P; Paris, Paul M; Andersen, Leon; Brinsfield, Kathryn; Dunnavant, Gregory R; Frederick, Jay; Groh, William J; Johnston, Steven; Lerner, E Brooke; Murphy, George P; Myerburg, Robert J; Rosenberg, Donald G; Savino, Mitchell; Sayre, Michael R; Sciammarella, Joseph; Schoen, Valerie; Vargo, Philip; van Alem, Anouk; White, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    Why does LEA-D intervention seem to work in some systems but not others? Panelists agreed that some factors that delay rapid access to treatment, such as long travel distances in rural areas, may represent insurmountable barriers. Other factors, however, may be addressed more readily. These include: absence of a medical response culture, discomfort with the role of medical intervention, insecurity with the use of medical devices, a lack of proactive medical direction, infrequent refresher training, and dependence on EMS intervention. Panelists agreed that successful LEA-D programs possess ten key attributes (Table 6). In the end, the goal remains "early" defibrillation, not "police" defibrillation. It does not matter whether the rescuer wears a blue uniform--or any uniform, for that matter--so long as the defibrillator reaches the victim quickly. If LEA personnel routinely arrive at medical emergencies after other emergency responders or after 8 minutes have elapsed from the time of collapse, an LEA-D program will be unlikely to provide added value. Similarly, if police frequently arrive first, but the department is unwilling or unable to cultivate the attributes of successful LEA-D programs, efforts to improve survival may not be realized. In most communities, however, LEA-D programs have tremendous lifesaving potential and are well worth the investment of time and resources. Law enforcement agencies considering adoption of AED programs should review the frequency with which police arrive first at medical emergencies and LEA response intervals to determine whether AED programs might help improve survival in their communities. It is time for law enforcement agency defibrillation to become the rule, not the exception.

  7. Employee perceptions of protected area law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Wynveen; Robert D. Bixler; William E. Hammitt

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that criminal activity negatively impacts visitors? recreation experiences in the nation?s parks and forests (Fletcher 1983). To further understand how law enforcement can effectively manage criminal activity in protected areas, this study was designed to describe law enforcement and non-law enforcement rangers? perceptions of a range of law...

  8. Thematic procedures of the United Nations Commission on human rights and international law : in search of a sense of community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutter, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the so-called "thematic approach" as a method available to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights to take cognizance of and to react upon violations of human rights worldwide. To this end, three different thematic procedures, the Working Group on Enforced or

  9. Immediate tasks in realization of 52-53 Sessions of United Nations Organization General Assembly resolution on Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author points out, that ecological heritage of Semipalatinsk test site is not studied, scattered investigations does not give objective assessment about radiation situation in the region. Only operations of close down of wells on the base of inter-state agreement between Republic of Kazakhstan and the United States of America were carried out. There are following main rehabilitation measures on liquidation of nuclear tests consequences in the region: study, deactivation and re-cultivation of populated territories; study of radioactive contamination level in underground waters and definition radionuclides migration by biological chain for taking preventative measures. It is noted, that citizens of the region with gratitude took solution of 52-53 Sessions of United Nations Organization General Assembly 'On liquidation of nuclear tests consequences on Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

  10. National Assembly - 2012-2013 regular session, 255. sitting, Sitting of Thursday 30 May 2013, verbatim record: Debate on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, Pierre-Franck; Repussard, Jacques; Miniere, Dominique; Chanteguet, Jean-Paul; Batho, Delphine; Baupin, Denis; Chassaigne, Andre; Bouillon, Christophe; Mariton, Herve; Sas, Eva; Reynier, Franck; Roig, Frederic; Lambert, Francois-Michel; Valter, Clotilde; Massonneau, Veronique; Pompili, Barbara; Laponche, Bernard; Molac, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This document publishes the verbatim of a debate on nuclear safety in the French National Assembly. Interveners who belong to different parties and to different bodies and institutions (notably ASN, IRSN, EDF), of researchers, notably discussed the degradation of nuclear safety in France, the necessary review of the French nuclear safety framework, the implication of the ASN in the debate on energy transition, the nuclear plant lifetime, the present governance of nuclear safety, the ageing issue, the renewal of personnel abilities and qualifications, the issue of subcontracting, the possibility of a nuclear accident in France, the role of the different bodies and institutions, the evolution of the French nuclear fleet. Questions and answers are also reported

  11. The Effects of Educational Diversity in a National Sample of Law Students: Fitting Multilevel Latent Variable Models in Data With Categorical Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Panter, A T; Daye, Charles E; Allen, Walter F; Wightman, Linda F

    2009-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the use of race-conscious admissions can be partially resolved with improved empirical knowledge of the effects of racial diversity in educational settings. We use a national sample of law students nested in 64 law schools to test the complex and largely untested theory regarding the effects of educational diversity on student outcomes. Social scientists who study these outcomes frequently encounter both latent variables and nested data within a single analysis. Yet, until recently, an appropriate modeling technique has been computationally infeasible, and consequently few applied researchers have estimated appropriate models to test their theories, sometimes limiting the scope of their research question. Our results, based on disaggregated multilevel structural equation models, show that racial diversity is related to a reduction in prejudiced attitudes and increased perceived exposure to diverse ideas and that these effects are mediated by more frequent interpersonal contact with diverse peers. These findings provide support for the idea that administrative manipulation of educational diversity may lead to improved student outcomes. Admitting a racially/ethnically diverse student body provides an educational experience that encourages increased exposure to diverse ideas and belief systems.

  12. Statement to Sixty-Seventh Regular Session of United Nations General Assembly, 5 Nov 2012, New York, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    When I addressed the General Assembly a year ago, I spoke at some length about the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011. The aftermath of the devastating earthquake and tsunami dominated the work of the IAEA for much of that year. We are now well into the post-accident phase. The focus is on implementing the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety which was adopted by our Member States last year. Progress has been made in many areas. Measures have been taken to improve protection against extreme hazards such as earthquakes and tsunamis. Countries are upgrading their emergency preparedness and response capabilities. IAEA safety standards are being reviewed. Our programme of expert peer review services is being expanded. A key priority for all nuclear power plant operators has been establishing reliable back-up electricity supply in the event of a prolonged blackout. Already, it is fair to say that nuclear power is safer than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi accident. But the process of ensuring that the right lessons are learned will continue for many years. It is essential that the Action Plan is implemented in full. Next month, the IAEA and the Government of Japan will hold a Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety in Fukushima Prefecture. At this Conference, we will present the conclusions of international expert meetings on issues such as reactor and spent fuel safety, responding to tsunamis and earthquakes, and transparency and communication. We will also prepare a comprehensive report on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, to be finalized in 2014. The lasting legacy of the accident will be a much more intense focus on safety. Nuclear safety remains the responsibility of individual countries. However, governments have recognized that effective international cooperation is vitally important and that the IAEA has a unique role to play. (IAEA)

  13. Decree-Law No. 361/79 of 8 August 1979 determining the structure and competence of the National Laboratory of Industrial Engineering and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Decree-Law determines the structure and scope of the National Laboratory of Industrial Engineering and Technology (LNETI) which now includes the Nuclear Physics and Engineering Laboratory of the Junta de Energia Nuclear and its central services. The nuclear activities of the LNETI are divided into three sectors: the Department for Radiological Protection and Safety, responsible for radiation protection in nuclear installations and for the safety of nuclear equipment; the Department for Energy and Nuclear Engineering, responsible for R and D in nuclear engineering and for nuclear energy production; and finally, the Department for Nuclear Science and Technology, in charge of R and D in nuclear science and of promoting the application of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. (NEA) [fr

  14. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  15. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  16. Law 16.466 Environment:state National interest their protection against any kind of depredation,destruction or contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    It is declared of general and national interest the protection of the environment against any depredacion,destruccion type or contamination, as well as the prevention of the negative and noxious environmental impact and the alteration of the environment damaged by human activities. The production factories and transformation of Nuclear Energy, as well as roads,bridges, railway line,airports, pipeline,gas pipeline treatment of toxic or dangerous residuals plants and others should be subjected to the previous realization of a study of environmental impact [es

  17. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  18. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  19. Bacteriophage Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Aksyuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  20. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  2. The data submitted by the United Kingdom to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for the 1977 report to the General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.E.; Webb, G.A.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1976-10-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established by the General Assembly in 1955 to report on the exposure of man to ionising radiation. In the subsequent twenty years the Committee has covered most aspects of the subject with repeated reviews of the levels of exposure from fallout due to weapons testing. The Committee is currently preparing a further report on doses from all sources and an evaluation of their biological effects. This is expected to be published in 1977. To aid it in compiling this report the Committee requested Member States of the UN to submit national data on a wide range of sources of exposure. The Board was asked by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to collate the information requested from the United Kingdom. Data were available in the scientific literature on some topics, such as medical irradiation and environmental radioactivity. On some other topics, particularly occupational exposure, data have been collected but seldom published systematically

  3. [Promoting directives of the Quality Law of the Spanish National Health System: Computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferrer, Arturo; Valcárcel, María Ángel

    2018-04-01

    The Cohesion and Quality Act of the National Health System promotes the use of new technologies to make it possible for health professionals put the scientific evidence into practice. In order to do this, there are technological tools, known as of computer-interpretable guidelines, which can help achieve this goal from an innovation perspective. They can be adopted using an iterative process, having a great initial potential as an educational tool, of quality and safety of the patient, in the decision making and, optionally, can be integrated with the electronic medical history, once they are rigorously validated. This article presents updates on these tools, reviews international projects, and personal experiences in which they have demonstrated their value, and highlights the advantages, risks, and limitations they present from a clinical point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... section 20(1)(a) of the Electoral Commission Act 51 of 1996 after counsel ... in the 2016 national municipal elections scheduled for 3 August 2016, .... of South African law 9 ed (Cape Town: Juta and Company Ltd 2007) 93.

  5. Statement to the fifty-seventh regular session of the United Nations General Assembly. New York, Nov. 11, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the establishment in 1957 of the International Atomic Energy Agency, we have been dedicated to the achievement and promotion of a vision, 'Atoms For Peace': on the one hand, the prevention of nuclear weapons proliferation, with the aim of their eventual elimination - and on the other, the sharing of safe and secure nuclear technologies in peaceful applications that benefit humankind. I will speak briefly today about the IAEA's progress in working toward those goals. The most prominent issues covered in this statement include: Nuclear Technology, meaning nuclear power technology, radioactive waste management; non-power nuclear applications; nuclear safety; protection against nuclear terrorism; verification of nuclear non-proliferation, with the emphasis on implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions Related to Iraq and status of safeguards agreement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea; application of IAEA Safeguards in the Middle East; Nuclear Arms Control Efforts; and the Management of the IAEA. This overview of the past year of IAEA activities reflects a continuing evolution in all our areas of work - and, the dynamic nature of our programme in anticipating and responding to that evolution. The Agency continues to play a key role in ensuring that the benefits of nuclear technology are shared globally, that nuclear activities are conducted safely, that nuclear and radioactive materials and facilities are adequately protected, and that a credible inspection regime exists to verify compliance with non-proliferation commitments. Naturally, the ability to effectively perform those functions depends on the commitment and support of our Member States

  6. [Certification of an ambulatory gastroenterologic service fulfilling ISO Law 9001--criteria and national guidelines of the Gastroenterologic Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkner, B

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of certification and accreditation are the deployment and examination of quality improvement measures in health care services. The quality management system of the ISO 9001 is created to install measures and tools leading to assured and improved quality in health care. Only some experiences with certification fulfilling ISO 9001 criteria exist in the German health care system. Evidence-based clinical guidelines can serve as references for the development of standards in quality measurement. Only little data exists on the implementation strategy of guidelines and evaluation, respectively. A pilot quality management system in consistence with ISO 9001 criteria was developed for ambulatory, gastroenterological services. National guidelines of the German Society of Gastroenterology and Metabolism and the recommendations of the German Association of Physicians for quality assurance of gastrointestinal endoscopy were included in the documentation and internal auditing. This pilot quality management system is suitable for the first steps in the introduction of quality management in ambulatory health care. This system shows validity for accreditation and certification of gastrointestinal health care units as well.

  7. Statement to the 41st session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 29 September 1997; Statement to the 52nd session of the United Nations General Assembly 12 November 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1997-12-01

    The document presents Statement to the 41st Session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency and Statement to the 52nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly made at the 40th anniversary of the IAEA

  8. Statement to the 39th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 18 September 1995. Statement to the 50th session of the United Nations General Assembly 1 November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1995-11-01

    In the Statement to the 39th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA main directions of IAEA activities for 1994 and plans for the future are outlined. In the Statement to the 50th Session of the United Nations General Assembly main achievements and challenges facing the international community in the field of IAEA competence are discussed

  9. Statement to the 39th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 18 September 1995. Statement to the 50th session of the United Nations General Assembly 1 November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H

    1995-11-01

    In the Statement to the 39th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA main directions of IAEA activities for 1994 and plans for the future are outlined. In the Statement to the 50th Session of the United Nations General Assembly main achievements and challenges facing the international community in the field of IAEA competence are discussed.

  10. Statement to the 40th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 16 September 1996; Statement to the 51st session of the United Nations General Assembly 28 October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1996-11-01

    In the Statement to the 40th Session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency main directions of the IAEA activities and plans for the future are outlined. In the Statement to the 51th Session of the United Nations General Assembly main achievements and challenge facing the international community in the field of IAEA competence are discussed

  11. Statement to the 34th session of the general conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 17 September 1990. Statement to the 45th session of the United Nations general assembly, 23 October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1991-01-01

    The document contains the following two statements of Hans Blix, Director General of the IAEA: Statement to the 34th Session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 17 September 1990; Statement to the 45th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 23 October 1990. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these statements

  12. Statement to the 35th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 16 September 1991; Statement to the 46th session of the United Nations General Assembly 21 October 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1991-01-01

    The document contains the following two statements of Hans Blix, Director General of the IAEA: Statement to the 35th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 16 September 1991; Statement to the 46th session of the United Nations General Assembly, 21 October 1991. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these statements

  13. Statement to the 38th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 19 September 1994; Statement to the 49th session of the United Nations General Assemblies 17 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1994-10-01

    The document reproduces the two statements of the IAEA Director General to the 38th Session of the General conference of the IAEA from 19 September 1994 and to the 49th Session of the United Nations General Assembly from 17 October 1994. A separate abstract was prepared for each statement

  14. Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children: findings from a nationally representative sample of law enforcement agencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2011-03-01

    This article explores the variety of ways in which the Internet is used to facilitate the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and provides national incidence estimates for the number of arrests involving such technology-facilitated crimes in 2006. The National Juvenile Online Victimization Study is a nationally representative longitudinal study of more than 2,500 local, county, state, and federal law enforcement agencies across the United States. The current article utilizes Wave 2 data, which surveyed arrests in 2006 for Internet-related sex crimes against minors. Detailed data were collected via telephone interviews with investigators about 1,051 individual arrest cases. Findings show that an estimated 569 arrests for Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children (IF-CSEC) occurred in the United States in 2006. Offenders in IF-CSEC cases fell into two main categories: (1) those who used the Internet to purchase or sell access to identified children for sexual purposes including child pornography (CP) production (36% of cases), and (2) those who used the Internet to purchase or sell CP images they possessed but did not produce (64% of cases). Offenders attempting to profit from child sexual exploitation were more likely than those who were purchasing to have (a) prior arrests for sexual and nonsexual offenses, (b) a history of violence, (c) produced CP, (d) joined forces with other offenders, and (e) involved female offenders. Although the number of arrests for IF-CSEC crimes is relatively small, the victims of these crimes are a high-risk subgroup of youth, and the offenders who try to profit from these crimes are particularly concerning from a child welfare perspective.

  15. Nuclear law reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    When an Agency Seminar on the Development of Nuclear Law was held in Bangkok during April, those taking part included two previous trainees with the Agency's Legal Division. Both hold important positions with their national Atomic Energy Commissions, one as Legal Adviser and the other as Chief Legal Officer. All others who attended are closely associated with drafting laws and regulations for nuclear activities. (author)

  16. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  17. Statement to Sixty-Sixth Regular Session of United Nations General Assembly, 1 November 2011, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Since March 11 this year, the IAEA has been working on the very serious accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. I will therefore begin by reflecting on that accident and its aftermath, before talking about other aspects of our work. As you know, the accident at Fukushima Daiichi was caused by an earthquake and tsunami of unprecedented severity, which struck eastern Japan on 11 March. The IAEA has been doing everything it can to help Japan bring the situation at the site under control and to mitigate the consequences of the accident. The Japanese authorities and the operator have been working steadily to stabilise the reactors and are now confident that so-called ''cold shutdown'' will be achieved by the end of the year. The IAEA will continue to assist Japan as it tackles the challenging work of decontamination and remediation in the affected areas. In September, our 151 Member States endorsed a 12-point IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. Key elements of the Action Plan include an agreement that all countries with nuclear power programmes will promptly undertake what have become known as ''stress tests'' of their nuclear power plants. The framework for expert peer reviews by the IAEA of operational safety at nuclear power plants is being strengthened. The effectiveness of national and international emergency preparedness and response arrangements, IAEA safety standards and relevant international conventions will also be reviewed. The Action Plan represents a significant step forward. It is vital that it is fully implemented in all countries with nuclear power and that the right lessons are learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. I would like to express my gratitude to Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon for convening a High-Level Meeting on Nuclear Safety and Security in September and bringing UN-system organizations together to collaborate on this issue. Nuclear safety is the responsibility of individual countries, but the IAEA - the only

  18. Statement to the sixty-first Regular Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 30 October 2006, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2006-01-01

    for the development of a new framework for the nuclear cycle. The first step would be to establish mechanisms for assurances of supply of fuel for nuclear power reactors - and, as needed, assurance of supply for the acquisition of such reactors. The second step would be to limit future enrichment and reprocessing to multilateral operations, and to convert existing enrichment and reprocessing facilities from national to multilateral operations. Time has come to think of a new framework for the use of nuclear energy - a framework that accounts for both the lessons we have learned and the current reality. This new framework should in my view include: innovative nuclear technology that is inherently safe, proliferation resistant and more economical; universal application of comprehensive safeguards and the additional protocol; concrete and rapid progress towards nuclear disarmament; a robust international security regime; and an effective and universal nuclear safety regime

  19. The Tangible Economic benefits of the 20th Session of the United Nations World Tourism Organisation General Assembly to Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Njerekai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a documentation of the tangible economic benefits that accrued to the town of Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, by co-hosting with Zambia, the 20th session of the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO General Assembly (GA in 2013. The paper intends to offset speculations, half-truths and exaggerations on the tangible economic benefits of the event to the town and to contribute significantly to the scanty existing literature on the impact of these events to developing countries. A single case study research design focusing on the town was adopted for this study. The study participants to the research included tourism and hospitality organizations, the Victoria Falls municipality authorities, service providers and Victoria Falls town residents. Researcher administered questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation check lists were used to collect the data. In general, although the GA brought some significant transformative effects to the town of Victoria Falls in terms of employment creation, infrastructural development, revenue generation and the country's image, future host cities and countries to this event should mobilize adequate funds for the event, time it appropriately, ensure a fair spread of the benefits to various sectors and put up structures that do not turn into white elephants soon after the event.

  20. Tuesdays of the future. The energy transition in debate. A season at the Hotel de Lassay, season 2013-2014, Presidency of the National Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This publication proposes synthetic transcriptions of debates regularly organised by the French National Assembly (during the 2013-2014 season) on issues related to energy and to energy transition. These debates gathered not only representatives of public authorities, but also representatives of actors of the concerned sectors, experts and even inhabitants of concerned regions of the world. These meetings addressed the following issues: transports of the 21. century (issues for rail transport, development of new clean vehicles and research in the automotive industry), the future of nuclear energy (prospective issues related to energy needs, issue of power plant ageing, evolution of electric power production and consumption, issues of safety and plant lifetime, cost of nuclear wastes), the role and commitment of territories in energy transition, the European emergency, how to finance energy transition (the decrease of public financial means, the fact that energy transition costs are in fact investments, issue of housing renovation financing, the role of banks, the lack of visibility for projects and needs), the new energies, and the Paris Climate Conference of 2015

  1. Autonomous Assembly of Structures in Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-orbit assembly of structures is a task that must be performed by space-walking humans, and yet it is costly, time-consuming, and potentially dangerous. Assembly...

  2. Application of the United Nations convention on contracts for TEH international sale of goods when the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of a contracting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the problems with respect to the application of the UN Sales Convention (CISG by virtue of its Article 1(1(b. To that effect, the author analyzes the legal nature of this provision, describes the prerequisites for its application and explains the relevance of different rules of private international law for the application of the CISG. A special attention is given to the effects of Article 95 reservation. The author presents arguments against a widely spread opinion that the Article 1(1(b is in itself a conflict-of-laws rule, suggests that this provision is suitable to be applied both by courts and arbitral tribunals and explains the importance of the rules on classification and renvoi for the application of the CISG. With respect to the effect of Article 95 reservation, the author gives precedence to the position of the applicable law, rather than the law of the forum, concerning this reservation.

  3. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  5. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called "digital materials." We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  6. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of occurrence...

  7. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gathers three case laws, one concerning France and the two others concerning the United States. France - Decision of the Administrative Court in Strasbourg on the permanent shutdown of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant: On 9 March 2011, the administrative court in Strasbourg confirmed the government's rejection to immediately close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, the first unit of which started operation on 1 January 1978. The court rejected the motion of the 'Association trinationale de protection nucleaire' (ATPN) filed against the decision of the Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment to refuse the final shutdown of the plant. The group, which brings together associations as well as French, German and Swiss municipalities, had taken legal action in December 2008. United States - Case law 1 - Judgment of a US Court of Appeals on public access to sensitive security information and consideration of the environmental impacts of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities: This case concerns 1) the public's right to access classified and sensitive security information relied upon by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its environmental review; and 2) the sufficiency of the NRC's environmental review of the impacts of terrorist attacks for a proposed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In 2003, the NRC ruled that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) did not require the NRC to consider the impacts of terrorist attacks in its environmental review for the proposed ISFSI at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ' NEPA mandates that all federal agencies must prepare a detailed statement on the environment impacts before undertaking a major federal action that significantly affects the human environment. In 2004, the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, a group of individuals who live near the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, filed a petition in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit challenging the NRC's 2003 decision. The

  9. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)

  10. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  11. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    . Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...... Falling on a Normal Working Day and Leave Schemes Chapter 4. Remuneration and Benefits Chapter 5. Incapacity to Work Chapter 6. Job Security Chapter 7. Protection of Certain Categories of Employee and against Discrimination in Employment Chapter 8. Covenants of Non-competition and Non-solicitation Chapter....... Strikes, Lock-outs and Other Legal Forms of Industrial Action Chapter 6. Settlement of Industrial Disputes of Interest and Protection of Vital Needs Chapter 7. Disputes of Rights Introductory Remarks Part I. Implementation into National Law Chapter 1. Legal Sources Chapter 2. Objective and Scope Chapter 3...

  12. THE LAW ON EDUCATION OF 2012 AND DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL LAW IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    KOZYRIN A.N.; TROSHKINA TATYANA

    2017-01-01

    In September 2013 Russia enacted a new law on education which introduced significant changes into the system of sources for Russian educational law. This article analyses the provisions of the education law that pertain to sources of educational law in the Russian Federation, the relationship between different levels of normative and legal regulation, including: international, national (federal laws and by-laws, legal regulation of relations in education at the regional and municipal levels i...

  13. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  14. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  15. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  16. International and European Security Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herbach

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security law, or more comprehensively conflict and security law, on the international level represents the intersection of three distinct but interrelated fields: international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict, jus in bello, the law of collective security (most identified with the United Nations (UN system, jus ad bellum and arms control law (including non-proliferation. Security in this sense is multifaceted - interest security, military security and, as is often referred to in the context of the EU, human security. As such, the law covers a wide range of specific topics with respect to conflict, encompassing the use of force, including choice of weapons and fighting techniques, extending to the rules applicable in peacekeeping and peace enforcement, and yet also dictating obligations outside the context of conflict, such as safeguarding and securing dual-use materials (those with both peaceful and military applications to prevent malicious use.

  17. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating to...

  18. Islamic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  19. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic

  20. Environmental law and nuclear law: a growing symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennerechts, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article is divided in two parts. The first part deals with the interrelationship between environmental law and nuclear law. It specifically addresses selective topics which the author considers as substantial proof that environmental law is in evidence in the nuclear field. These topics are access to nuclear information, public participation in nuclear decision-making and prevention and compensation of environmental damage caused by nuclear incidents. Environmental law will be considered in its narrow sense, meaning the law that seeks to protect nature such as soil, water, air and biodiversity. The position of the author is that the importance of environmental law for nuclear activities is increasing and may lead to a growing symbiosis with nuclear law. Environmental law and nuclear law share the same objectives: protection against mitigation of and compensation for damage to the environment. In the second part a specific problem that touches upon the extra-territorial effect of environmental legislation in the nuclear field will be examined. At the beginning of the 21. century, it can be expected that vendors of nuclear facilities will spare no efforts in trying to enter new markets all over the world. Countries with more developed environmental requirements on the construction of nuclear facilities by their national vendors in customer countries. This part of the article will analyse whether public international laws to the construction of nuclear facilities abroad. The author believes that there may well be a legal basis under customary international law justifying the application of national environmental law to the construction of nuclear facilities and the performance of work on nuclear facilities in foreign countries, but there would appear to be none permitting the enforcement of these laws in the absence of an agreement with the foreign country. (N.C.)

  1. Law Panel in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odulana, J

    In September 1976 the Africa Regional Council (ARC) of IPPF created a Law Panel to 1) advise the ARC on the emphasis of laws and parenthood programs in the region, 2) investigate legal obstacles to family planning and ways of removing them, 3) institute a monitoring service on laws and court decisions affecting planned parenthood, and 4) prepare a list of lawyers and legal reformers by country. The panel has 1) recommended adoption of an IPPF Central Medical Committee and Central Law Panel statement on sterilization, adolescent fertility control, and the use of medical and auxiliary personnel in family planning services with guidelines for Africa; 2) appointed National Legal Correspondents to carry on the monitoring service mentioned above in 18 countries; and 3) discussed solutions to problems in delivering family planning services with family planning associations in Tanzania, Zambia, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Kenya. Laws governing family planning education and services, marriage, divorce, and maternity benefits in these countries are summarized. In 1978 the panel will hold 2 workshops on law and the status of women.

  2. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

  3. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  4. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  5. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  6. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  7. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph; Werlauff, Erik

    , and the United Kingdom are taken into account; Italy is now included in this new edition. As in earlier editions, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organizations, wherever located...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  11. Energy law '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The International Bar Association's Section on Energy and Natural Resources Law selected eight key topics for discussion at their ninth seminar in the Netherlands in 1990. Only two papers specifically related to nuclear power and these were within the topic of environmental issues facing the energy industries. Both papers dealt with the legal aspects of nuclear plants sited near national borders and covered international law and the need for standardized regulations and agreements on issues such as environmental impacts, safety, radiological protection, public information and emergency plans in case of accidents. (UK)

  12. WHO: World Health Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, A

    1992-05-23

    1200 delegates from 175 member countries attended the 45th World Health Assembly in Geneva. Everyone at the Assembly ratified measures to prevent and control AIDS. 12 countries intended to do long term planning for community based care for AIDS patients. Further the Assembly denounced instances where countries and individuals denied the gravity of the AIDS pandemic. In fact, it expressed the importance for urgent and intensive action against HIV/AIDS. The assembly backed proposals to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases that affect AIDS patients, especially hepatitis B. For example, in countries with hepatitis B prevalence 8% (many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, Asia, the Pacific region, and South America), health officials should introduce hepatitis B vaccine into their existing immunization programs by 1995. By 1997, this vaccine should be part of all immunization programs. The Assembly was aware of the obstacles of establishing reliable cold chains for nationwide distribution, however. Delegates in Committee A objected to the fact that 50% of the populations of developing countries continued to have limited access to essential drugs. They also expressed disapproval in implementation of WHO's 1988 ethical criteria for promotion of drugs which WHO entrusted to the Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). CIOMS lacked WHO's status and thus could not effectively monitor drug advertising. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry as well as WHO provided the funds for a meeting of 25 experts to discuss principles included in the ethical criteria. At least 4 countries insisted that WHO have the ultimate authority in monitoring drug advertising. Delegates did adopt a compromise resolution on this topic which required that industry promotion methods be reported to the 1994 Assembly via the Executive Board. The Assembly requested WHO to establish an international advisory committee on nursing and midwifery and to improve the network of

  13. National report of the Federal Republic of Germany. Risks and risk assessment according to the law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.; Feldmann, F.J.; Knueppel, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives a detailed account of the way risks and risk assessment are treated in civil law, criminal law and public law, with a special emphasis on industrial law, law on emission control and atomic energy law. The discussions mainly refer to probability of occurrence, relativity, limiting values, prevention of hazards, precautionary, safety measures, principles of radiological protection, list of accidents, 'residual risk', deterministic safety concept, probabilistic methods and the probabilistic approach in the legal system. As the determination of a standard of acceptability on the basis of probabilistic analyses is mainly a legal problem, and as this standard cannot be defined by technical experts in a legally binding way, it is to be regarded as a task of the legislature or the judicial authorities, e.g. the licensing authorities and the courts, which ought to accept this task and work out practicable solutions. This seems to be particularly true with regard to plant components and external effects. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  15. Bowett's law of international institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Sands, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bowett's Law of International Institutions is the leading introduction to this complex, important and growing area of international law, with increasing significance for developments at the national level. Covering all the major global, regional and judicial institutions and all international organisations that regulate aspects of development and providing an introductory overview of the law of international organisations, including international courts and tribunals as a whole. The book offers a basic framework, insights into some of the more essential issues, and indications of where to find more detail. Bowett's is essential reading for students of international law and international relations and will also be of considerable interest to lawyers practising in the area.

  16. The law of international organisations

    CERN Document Server

    White, Nigel D

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the main-type of international organisation - the inter-governmental organisation (IGO). That law consists of principles and rules found in the founding documents of IGOs along with applicable principles and rules of international law. The book also identifies and analyses the law produced by IGOs, applied by them and, occasionally, enforced by them. There is a concentration upon the United Nations, as the paradigmatic IGO, not only upon the UN organisation headquartered in New York, but on other IGOs in the UN system (the specialised agencies such as the World Health Organisation).

  17. Unfinished Business: Canada’s Contribution to Promoting Compliance with International Humanitarian Law Through the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Agenda of the United Nations Security Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle A. Martin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During its 1999-2000 term on the United Nations Security Council, Canada helped launch the Council’s “Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict” agenda. This aimed to reduce civilian war casualties through better respect for international humanitarian law [IHL]. This article reviews the agenda’s origins and evolution ten years on. The authors focus on Canada’s contributions in increasing the Council’s efforts to protect civilians, with three main assertions. First, Canada had a key role in creating and promoting the agenda, an important IHL initiative. Second, the agenda is well established in the Council’s work, but needs further effort to ensure greater impact in specific situations. Third, Canada could develop the agenda and improve respect for IHL if it joins the Security Council for the 2011-2012 term, picking up its “unfinished business” from its last Council term. Pendant son mandat de 1999-2000 au Conseil de Sécurité de l’ONU, le Canada a aidé à lancer le programme « La protection des civils dans les conflits armés » du Conseil. Le but était de réduire le nombre de victimes civiles de la guerre en faisant respecter davantage le droit international humanitaire [DIH]. Cet article passe en revue l’origine du programme et son évolution après dix années. Les auteurs portent leur attention sur les contributions du Canada pour augmenter les efforts du Conseil en vue de la protection des civils, en faisant trois affirmations principales. D’abord, le Canada a joué un rôle-clé dans la création et la promotion du programme, une initiative importante de DIH. Deuxièmement, le programme est bien établi au sein du travail du Conseil, mais nécessite des efforts additionnels afin d’assurer plus d’impact dans des situations particulières. Troisièmement, le Canada pourrait développer le programme et améliorer le respect du DIH s’il devient membre du Conseil de Sécurité pour 2011- 2012 lui permettant de

  18. Zadruga as a basis of certain institutes of public law according to Valtazar Bogišić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rules of customary law concerning the relation between the chieftain and council in so - called zadruga (extended family, common among South Slavs were examined in this paper. In that relation, in Branislav Nedeljković's opinion, Valtazar Bogišić finds similarities with the one between the government and national assembly in parliamentary monarchy. The customary law provisions regarding zadruga's chieftain, his qualities, manner of election and authorities, as well as the rules concerning zadruga's council were presented and critically analised. It is also pointed out how the principles of zadruga's life served Bogišić as a model for introduction of parliamentary regime in Serbia. On the occasion of passing the Constitution of the Principality of Serbia of 1869, Bogišić namely suggested that the State should, to some extent, be organized after the model of zadruga. His idea of application of a private law institute such as zadruga in sphere of public law has its logical explanation. As a follower of the Historic school of law, Bogišić believed that customs are the most direct expression of national spirit without which it is impossible to become truly acquainted with characteristics and particularities of a nation. Therefore, the constitution should mostly represent codification of customary law. Naturally, in course of drafting the constitution, other nations' experiences as well as achievements of contemporary science should be taken into consideration.

  19. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  20. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  1. A pluralist approach to the Law of International Sales | Coetzee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the twentieth century the problem of diverse laws was primarily addressed by global uniform law such as the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). However, uniform law is rarely complete and has to be supplemented by national law, trade usage or party agreement.

  2. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic law enforcement principles. 634.26 Section 634.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... law enforcement principles. (a) Traffic law enforcement should motivate drivers to operate vehicles...

  3. Valve assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandling, M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved valve assembly, used for controlling the flow of radioactive slurry, is described. Radioactive contamination of the air during removal or replacement of the valve is prevented by sucking air from the atmosphere through a portion of the structure above the valve housing. (U.K.)

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  5. Police Deprivation of Third Parties’ Liberty – A Field of Tension between National Police Law and the European Convention on Human Rights, as illustrated by Austin & Others v the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Fredriksen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Austin & Others v the United Kingdom The European Court of Human Rights came to the conclusion that the use of a police cordon, also known as “kettling”, where approximately 2000 people were forced to remain inside the cordon for up to eight hours, did not amount to deprivation of liberty under Article 5 (1 of the European Convention on Human Rights. This conclusion was reached by way of restrictive interpretation of the term “deprivation”. Previous case law establishes a set of criteria to be used when deciding if an infringement on the physical liberty to move from place to place constitutes a deprivation of this liberty, or merely a restriction upon it. These criteria were upheld in Austin, but were found to give room for taking into account the context and circumstances in which the police cordon was used. The previous view of the Court that the grounds justifying deprivations of liberty listed in Article 5 (1 (a-f are exhaustive, was also upheld. In this article the starting point is the close relationship between national police law regarding the maintenance of security and public order on one hand, and the principle of necessity on the other. It is emphasised that “necessity”-based norms in national police law can make police measures directed against innocent third parties legal, deprivations of liberty included, but that this possibility would have been absent in Article 5 (1 of the Convention without the aforementioned restrictive interpretation of the term “deprivation”. An attempt is made to show that this interpretation is in fact based on central elements of the principle of necessity. Furthermore, it is attempted to show that the restrictive interpretation can be seen as a reflection of the need acknowledged in national police law, as well as in other articles of the Convention, to direct police measures against innocent third parties.

  6. Drifting and moored buoy data observed during 2015 and assembled by the Global Data Assembly Center for Drifting Buoy Data (formerly Responsible National Oceanographic Data Center (RNODC)), Canada (NCEI Accession 0156004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Buoy data is available in real time to platform operators via telecommunications providers and distributed on the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) of the World...

  7. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)

  9. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  10. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  11. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not a...

  12. Prevalence of marijuana use does not differentially increase among youth after states pass medical marijuana laws: Commentary on and reanalysis of US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Melanie M; Mauro, Christine; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerda, Magdalena; Martins, Silvia S; Feng, Tianshu

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on marijuana use in the USA, particularly among youth. The article by Stolzenberg et al. (2015) "The effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use" concludes that "implementation of medical cannabis laws increase juvenile cannabis use". This result is opposite to the findings of other studies that analysed the same US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data as well as opposite to studies analysing other national data which show no increase or even a decrease in youth marijuana use after the passage of MML. We provide a replication of the Stolzenberg et al. results and demonstrate how the comparison they are making is actually driven by differences between states with and without MML rather than being driven by pre and post-MML changes within states. We show that Stolzenberg et al. do not properly control for the fact that states that pass MML during 2002-2011 tend to already have higher past-month marijuana use before passing the MML in the first place. We further show that when within-state changes are properly considered and pre-MML prevalence is properly controlled, there is no evidence of a differential increase in past-month marijuana use in youth that can be attributed to state MML. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  14. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the corrosion rate and suppress the increase of radioactive corrosion products in reactor water of nuclear fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactors having spacer springs made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloys. Constitution: Spacer rings made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloy are incorporated and used as fuel assemblies after applying treatment of dipping and maintaining at high temperature water followed by heating in steams. Since this can remove the nickel leaching into reactor water at the initial stage, Co-58 as the radioactive corrosion products in the reactor water can be reduced, and the operation at in-service inspection or repairement can be facilitated to improve the working efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The dipping time is desirably more than 10 hours and more desirably more than 30 hours. (Horiuchi, T. )

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  17. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Private Arbitration of Incidental Public Law Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

     The article discusses the incidental public law issues which can arise in an arbitration case, e.g. concerning power, heating, natural gas and other public facility legislation, national or Community legal restrictive trade practices law, and rules on state administration approval of the terms...... by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....

  19. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  1. The LAW library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.M.; Parks, C.V.; Arwood, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The 238 group LAW library is a new multigroup library based on ENDF/B-V data. It contains data for 302 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, though it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections

  2. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a new approach to decision-making in mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) requires us to engage in new approaches to decision-making in mental health law. The reclassification of mental health rights to the realm of disability rights is an important step towards equal treatment for persons with psychosocial disabilities. Law reformers worldwide are beginning to consider the implications of the provisions. Legislators will be required to understand the underlying philosophy of the CRPD to realise the rights set out in it. The CRPD possesses a number of innovative provisions which can transform decision-making in the mental health context. Article 12 provides a new conceptualisation of persons with disabilities and their capacity to participate by requiring support to exercise legal capacity. While good practice exists, the provision has yet to be fully implemented by many State Parties. This article discusses the impact of the CRPD on mental health law, legal capacity law and describes examples of supported decision-making models for mental health care.

  3. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  4. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal

  5. General Assembly debate on IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    On 3 November 1959, the General Assembly of the United Nations considered the annual report of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the first report to cover a full operational year of the Agency - 1 July 1959 to 30 June 1959, more recent developments having been summarized in a preface. At the end of the debate the Assembly adopted a resolution, submitted jointly by Czechoslovakia, the Union of South Africa and the United Arab Republic, taking note of the report

  6. Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Critical Assemblies Facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been in existence for thirty-five years. In that period, many thousands of measurements have been made on assemblies of 235 U, 233 U, and 239 Pu in various configurations, including the nitrate, sulfate, fluoride, carbide, and oxide chemical compositions and the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. The present complex of eleven operating machines is described, and typical applications are presented

  7. Act No. 61 of 21 January 1994-Transformation into law, with amendments, of Decree-Law No. 496 of 4 December 1996 laying down urgent provisions on reorganising environmental controls and creating the National Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Act sets up the National Environmental Protection Agency-ANPA which replaces the Nuclear Safety and Health Protection Directorate (ENEA/DISP) of the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). The ENEA/DISP's tasks, staff, structures, technical equipment and financial resources are transferred to the new Agency. ANPA is responsible for all the national technical and scientific activities and co-ordinates the working methods of the above-mentioned regional and provincial agencies. It also provides consultation and support services to the Ministry of the environment. In particular, ANPA is competent for supervising activities related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and analysing the impact of radiation on the environment. (NEA)

  8. International Satellite Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Dunk, Frans

    2017-07-01

    International space law is generally considered to be a branch of public international law. In that sense, it constitutes a "subset of rules, rights and obligations of states within the latter specifically related to outer space and activities in or with respect to that realm." Dealing with an inherently international realm, much of it had been developed in the context of the United Nations, where the key treaties are even adhered to by all major space-faring countries. In addition, other sources—including not only customary international law but also such disputed concepts as "soft law" and political guidelines and recommendations—also contributed to the development of a general framework legal regime for all of mankind's endeavors in or with respect to outer space. Originally, this predominantly included scientific and military/security-related activities, but with the ongoing development of technology and a more practical orientation, it increasingly came to encompass many more civilian and, ultimately, even commercial activities, largely through downstream applications originating from or depending on space technology and space activities. Important here are the overarching, usually more theoretical aspects of international space law, which include how it was developed or continues to be developed, what special roles do "soft law" or the military aspects of space activities play in this regard, and how do national space laws (also) serve as a tool for interpretation of international space law. Also important is the special category of launches and other space operations in the sense of moving space objects safely into, through and—if applicable—back from outer space. Without such operations, space activities would be impossible, yet they bring with them special concerns; for instance, in terms of liability, the creation of space debris and even the legal status and possible commercialization of natural resources produced from celestial bodies. Finally

  9. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  10. Radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA) [fr

  11. Bill project putting an end to the search for as well as to the exploitation of hydrocarbons, and bearing various applications related to energy and to the environment, adopted on new reading by the National Assembly - Nr 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas-Roy, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    While considering objectives of limitation of temperature increase, and in order to limit the use of fossil energies likes conventional and non-conventional hydrocarbons, the exploitation of which would result in an increase of CO 2 emissions, France has to modify its rules related to hydrocarbon extraction. This bill project therefore aims at programming the end of the exploration and of the exploitation of hydrocarbons. As mentioned, some articles of this bill project concern energy regulation, or can be a transposition of a European directive. This document presents the final version of each article adopted by the National Assembly

  12. Legal content of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, adopted by the united nations general assembly by resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a detailed analysis of the legal contents of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant workers and their Families, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the Resolution 45/158 of December 1990. The objectives of the Convention, the personal spehere of application, the Human Rights of all migrant workers and their families wether they be regular of iregular are presented throughout the article. Finally, the practical effectiveness of the Convention is analyzed concluding with the importance of its ratification by the largest number of States possible.

  13. National minorities in legislation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagradić Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 17 recognized national minorities living and working in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At least, they have been enumerated, identified and sanctioned as such by the Law on the Protection of Rights of National Minorities adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2003. Apart from that law, the rights of national minorities and its members have also been regulated by the whole set of many different laws, from the election, criminal, education and other identity-related laws to the laws addressing the specific areas and/or life issues, all adopted at the level of the state, the entities, the cantons, and the Brcko District of BiH. This paper analyses the content, the significance, and the legal and sociopolitical implications of certain provisions of the Law on the Protection of Rights of National Minorities from the sociological and political views and methods, as well as the relation and the impact of its norms on social sphere and individual existence (in politics, education, culture, the media, employment etc. of minority members within a multi-specific and asymmetric state as post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. The causa finalis of this tractatus's narrative is to give a better understanding of human rights of minorities, their etiology and determination.

  14. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  15. Law No.13.192 workers that execute radiological services it state included in the advantage of the laws 9.940 and 9744 to civil or militaries employers belonging to Ministry of National Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The civil and military officials that lend services in dependences of the Ministry of National Defense in the tasks of radiological services were applied in the compute to be carried out the legal norms referred to effects of their retirement [es

  16. The Treaty of Maastricht and energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.; Pielow, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In December 1993 a German-Spanish colloquy on topical questions of community law as well as national and supra-national energy law was held at the Institute of Mining and Energy Law at Bochum. Discussions centered around the constitutional issues surrounding the treaty establishing the European Union of 7th February 1992, which came into force on 1st November 1993, and its implications for the national regulatory systems in the energy economy. Against this background the most recent developments in energy law and energy policy in Spain and the Federal Republic of Germany were described. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  19. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  20. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  1. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Azekura, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a heavy water moderated light water cooled pressure tube type reactor, no sufficient effects have been obtained for the transfer width to a negative side of void reactivity change in a region of a great void coefficient. Then, a moderation region divided into upper and lower two regions is disposed at the central portion of a fuel assembly. Coolants flown into the lower region can be discharged to the cooling region from an opening disposed at the upper end portion of the lower region. Light water flows from the lower region of the moderator region to the cooling region of the reactor core upper portion, to lower the void coefficient. As a result, the reactivity performance at low void coefficient, i.e., a void reaction rate is transferred to the negative side. Thus, this flattens the power distribution in the fuel assembly, increases the thermal margin and enables rapid operaiton and control of the reactor core, as well as contributes to the increase of fuel burnup ratio and reduction of the fuel cycle cost. (N.H.)

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Aoyama, Motoo; Nakajima, Junjiro

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for an n x n lattice-like BWR type reactor, n is determined to 9 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 4.4% by weight or less. Alternatively, n is determined to 10 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 5.2% by weight or less. An average take-out burnup degree is determined to 39GWd/t or less, and the matrix is determined to 9 x 9 or more, or the average take-out burnup degree is determined to 51GWd/t, and the matrix is determined to 10 x 10 or more and the increase of the margin of the maximum power density obtained thereby is utilized for the compensation of the increase of distortion of power distribution due to decrease of the kinds of plutonium enrichment degree, thereby enabling to reduce the kind of the enrichment degree of MOX fuel rods to one. As a result, the manufacturing step for fuel pellets can be simplified to reduce the manufacturing cost for MOX fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  5. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  6. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  7. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  8. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  9. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  10. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  11. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas

  12. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  13. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    In a fuel assembly in which spectral shift type moderator guide members are arranged, the moderator guide member has a flow channel resistance member, that provides flow resistance against the moderators, in the upstream of a moderator flowing channel, by which the ratio of removing coolants is set greater at the upstream than downstream. With such a constitution, the void distribution increasing upward in the channel box except for the portion of the moderator guide member is moderated by the increase of the area of the void region that expands downward in the guide member. Accordingly, the axial power distribution is flattened throughout the operation cycle and excess distortion is eliminated to improve the fuel integrity. (T.M.)

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO 2 incorporated with Gd 2 O 3 at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO 2 not containing Gd 2 O 3 . The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  19. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ritsuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the operation performance of a BWR type reactor by improving the distribution of the uranium enrichment and the incorporation amount of burnable poisons in fuel assemblies. Constitution: The average enrichment of uranium 235 is increased in the upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion, while the incorporation amount of burnable poisons is increased in an upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion. The difference in the incorporation amount of the burnable poisons between the upper and lower portions is attained by charging two kinds of fuel rods; the ones incorporated with the burnable poisons over the entire length and the others incorporated with the burnable poisons only in the upper portions. (Seki, T.)

  20. THE DRAFT LAW ON THE STATUS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES VERSUS THE REAL CHALLENGES OF THE SYSTEM FOR THE PROTECTION OF MINORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDREESCU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes an in-depth discussion of the provisions of the Draft Status of National Minorities: the definition of national minorities, the cultural autonomy system, the monopoly of political and cultural rights, and lack of transparency in the resources usage, the statements of individuals concerning their affiliation to a national community, the provisions dealing with religions “specific” to minorities, and the status of national minorities as constitutive factors of the Romanian state. The intention to reform the system for the protection of national minorities by adding cultural autonomy to other provisions is a positive one. However, the solutions put forward are dissatisfying. The Draft Status destroys democracy within the minority communities; reinforces the status quo where it should be questioned; extends the monopoly of political groups regarding decision-making in the cultural and educational areas; creates the conditions for increased ethnic business and leads to unreasonably higher costs of the national minority protection system compared to the benefits. Particularly important is the fact that the Draft Status does not tackle the specificity of the two big “nationalizing minorities”, Hungarians and Roma population. Hungarians are experiencing a continuous population decrease and are concerned about the decline of the old Hungarian civilization in Transylvania. The Roma population is facing severe issues regarding social status and poverty and need to be provided with an environment in which this fragmented community may mobilize. They need creative solutions for institutionalization.

  1. NASA 3D Models: Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) is one of the largest buildings in the world. It was originally built for assembly of Apollo/Saturn vehicles and was later...

  2. Diplomacia em xeque: Direito das Gentes e escravidão na agenda bilateral Brasil-Uruguai (1847-1869 * Diplomacy put at stake: Law of Nations and slavery in Brazil-Uruguay bilateral agenda (1847-1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL PETER DE LIMA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo se propõe a analisar os embates diplomáticos entre Brasil e Uruguai em meados do século XIX que tiveram como eixo o imbricado terreno de convergência entre a escravidão e a diplomacia. Com frequentes desacordos de interpretações e encaminhamentos – frutos em grande parte da contraposição entre a estrutura escravista vigente no Brasil frente às leis abolicionistas uruguaias já implementadas –, o assunto alimentou profundas tensões na pauta bilateral e debates sobre elementos instituintes do ordenamento internacional mais amplo. Como objeto central da problemática a aplicação, extensão e validade do Direito das Gentes como balizador para a questão.Palavras-chave: Escravidão; Diplomacia; Direito das Gentes. Abstract: This article aims to analyze the diplomatic clashes between Brazil and Uruguay in the mid nineteenth century that had the shaft interwoven plot of the convergence between slavery and diplomacy. With frequent disagreements of interpretation and referrals – fruit in much the contrast between the current slave structure in Brazil ahead to the Uruguayan-abolitionist laws already implemented –, it fueled deep tensions in the bilateral agenda and discussions on instituting elements of the wider international system. As the central object of problematic the application, extent and validity of the Law of Nations as a beacon to the issue.Keywords: Slavery; Diplomacy; Law of Nations.

  3. Drifting buoy data observed during 1985 through 1989 and assembled by the Responsible National Oceanographic Data Center (RNODC) for Drifting Buoy Data (NODC Accession 9100057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and meteorological data were collected from drifting buoys from a World-Wide distribution from 2 January 1985 to 31 December 1989. Data were processed by...

  4. Drifting buoy data observed during 1992 and assembled by the Responsible National Oceanographic Data Center (RNODC) for Drifting Buoy Data (NODC Accession 9300091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and meteorological data were collected from drifting buoys from a World-Wide distribution from 01 January 1992 to 31 December 1992. Data were processed by...

  5. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  6. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

  7. VALIDATION OF THE DERIVED LAW NORM IN THE EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Leția

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout realizing the study we analyzed the validity of the European law norm resulting from the derived sources of law with obligatory force (regulations, decisions and directives in connection with the European law norm, the national law norm and the general principles of law considering the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice and the supremacy of the European Union law also over national constitutions. Thus the European Union represents a new law order, having as subjects not only states member, but also the nationals of these states, who benefit of rights that can be appealed before national courts against public organisms or other private persons and obligations. Therefore, the European Court of Justice has successively imposed the direct applicability of community norms, continuing with the priority of these norms so that in the end the principle of the supremacy of the European law has been adopted. The European norm has to be respected and interpreted in a uniform manner in all states member, considering the fact that the supremacy of the European law over the national law is seen as a sine qua non of the integration, but also a fundamental principle of the Union. National courts guarantee the supremacy of the European norm and its unitary application – aspects analyzed in this study- through the procedure of preliminary decisions.

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws (United States): 1 - Virginia Uranium, Inc. v. Warren, 848 F.3d 590 (4. Cir. 2017): In the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia, the plaintiffs, a collection of uranium mining companies and owners of land containing uranium deposits, challenged a Commonwealth of Virginia moratorium on conventional uranium mining. The plaintiffs alleged that the state moratorium was preempted by federal law under the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution.; 2 - United States v. Energy Solutions, Inc.; Rockwell Holdco, Inc.; Andrews County; Holdings, Inc.; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC. (D. Del. June 21, 2017): In 2016, the United States, acting through the US Department of Justice, commenced an action in United States District Court in Delaware seeking to enjoin the acquisition of Waste Control Specialists, LLC (WCS) and its parent company by Energy Solutions, Inc., and its parent. WCS and Energy Solutions are competitors in the market for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) produced by commercial generators of such material. The United States alleged that the proposed acquisition was unlawful. 3 - Cooper v. Tokyo Electric Power Company, No. 15-56426 (9. Cir. 2017): The plaintiffs are US Navy service members who were deployed off the Japanese coast as part of the US effort to provide earthquake relief after the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011. Plaintiffs sued alleging 'that TEPCO was negligent in operating the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and in reporting the extent of the radiation leak

  9. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law. 776.57 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.57 Unauthorized practice of law. (a) Unauthorized practice of law. A... law in a jurisdiction where doing so is prohibited by the regulations of the legal profession in that...

  10. The sources of the specificity of nuclear law and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainaud, J.M.; Cristini, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyses the sources of the specificity of nuclear law and its relationship with environmental law as well as with ordinary law. The characteristics of nuclear law are summarized thus: recent discovery of the atom's uses and mandatory protection against its effects; internationalization of its use, leading to a limitation of national authorities competence. Several international treaties are cited (Antarctic Treaty, NPT, London Dumping Convention etc.) showing the link between radiation protection and the environment. (NEA) [fr

  11. Environmental Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    in litigation, which may require the Department of the Interior to introduce Mexican grey wolves onto White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, although...first reservation of federal land was Yellowstone National Park in 1872. B. The first preservation statute was the Antiquities Act of 1906. 16 U.S.C

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for a BWR type reactor, water rods or water crosses are disposed between fuel rods, and a value with a spring is disposed at the top of the coolant flow channel thereof, which opens a discharge port when pressure is increased to greater than a predetermined value. Further, a control element for the amount of coolant flow rate is inserted retractable to a control element guide tube formed at the lower portion of the water rod or the water cross. When the amount of control elements inserted to the control element guide tube is small and the inflown coolant flow rate is great, the void coefficient at the inside of the water rod is less than 5%. On the other hand, when the control elements are inserted, the flow resistance is increased, so that the void coefficient in the water rod is greater than 80%. When the pressure in the water rod is increased, the valve with the spring is raised to escape water or steams. Then, since the variation range of the change of the void coefficient can be controlled reliably by the amount of the control elements inserted, and nuclear fuel materials can be utilized effectively. (N.H.)

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Koji; Ueda, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    In a fuel assembly used for a light water cooled reactor such as a BWR type reactor, a water rod is divided axially into an upper outer tube and a lower outer tube by means of a plug disposed from the lower end of a water rod to a position 1/4 - 1/2 of the entire length for the water rod. Inlet apertures and exit apertures for moderators are respectively perforated for the divided outer tube and upper and lower portions. Further, an upper inner tube with less neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is perforated on the plug in the outer tube, while a lower inner tube with greater neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is suspended from the lower surface of the plug in the outer tube. Then, the opening area for the exit apertures disposed to the upper outer tube and the lower outer tube is controlled depending on the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the upper inner tube and the upper outer tube, and the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the lower inner tube and the lower outer tube. This enables effective spectral shift operation and improve the fuel economy. (T.M.)

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  16. 32 CFR 634.33 - Training of law enforcement personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training of law enforcement personnel. 634.33 Section 634.33 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.33 Training of law enforcement personnel. (a) A...

  17. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8 Section 806b.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air...

  18. 12 CFR 34.4 - Applicability of state law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... laws that obstruct, impair, or condition a national bank's ability to fully exercise its Federally... exercise of national banks' real estate lending powers: (1) Contracts; (2) Torts; (3) Criminal law; 2 2 But... and transfer of real property; (7) Taxation; (8) Zoning; and (9) Any other law the effect of which the...

  19. 32 CFR 634.41 - Compliance with State laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance with State laws. 634.41 Section 634.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.41 Compliance with State laws. (a) Installation commanders...

  20. Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth General Assembly Beijing 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Preface; 1. Inaugural ceremony; 2. Twenty-eighth General Assembly business sessions; 3. Closing ceremony; 4. Resolutions; 5. Report of Executive Committee, 2009-2012; 6. Reports on Division, Commission, and Working Group meetings; 7. Statutes, bye-laws, and working rules; 8. New members admitted at the General Assembly; 9. Divisions and their Commissions.

  1. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  2. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

  3. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  4. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This plan report is divided into the following chapters: the course ahead, currently predominant fuels (oil, gas), America's energy triad, sources of diversity and long-term supply, sources of uncertainty, summary of current projections, and public comments on the nation's policy toward energy. (DLC)

  5. INDONESIAN SALVAGE LAW WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF CONTEMPORARY MARITIME LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiana Puspitawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in a strategic position, that is between two great oceans and two land masses have made Indonesia a centre of international trade and shipping. In fact, 90% of international trades are carried out through the ocean. It is therefore crucial to assure that the activities in carrying goods across the ocean are incident free. However, if accident happens, assistance from professionals to preserve items of property is desirable. In such, salvage law emerged. This paper discusses comprehensively Indonesian salvage law within the framework of contemporary maritime law. While Indonesian maritime law is mostly based on its national law on the carriage of goods by the sea, in fact, the development of maritime law is highly affected by international practices which are largely based on international conventions and regulations. This research finds that while Indonesian salvage law can be found in Book II Chapter VII article 545-568k Wetboek Van Koophandel or known as Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang (KUHD, which focused narrowly on the value of salved property as the primary measures of success, yet Indonesian salvage law has not been developed in accordance with current international salvage law, which adopted a broader and more balanced approached in both commercial and environmental aspects. Although it is believed that such approached is “culturally unrecognized” in Indonesia, this research argued that since Indonesian waters are part of international waters, all process by waters including salvage should confirm the relevant international practices and regulations. While Indonesia has taken out salvage law from KUHD and regulates it within Act Number 17/2008 on navigation, however, such act only provides one article for salvage stating that salvage will be regulates further by Ministry Regulation. Untill this paper was written no such government regulation produced yet by Indonesia. Since Indonesian waters is the centre of international

  6. Statement to the 36th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 21 September 1992; Statement to the 47th session of the United Nations General Assembly 21 October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1993-01-01

    IAEA Director General, Hans Blix, in his statements to the 47th session of the United Nations General Assembly and to the 36th session of the General Conference of the IAEA, reminded that 1992 marks the fiftieth anniversary of controlled nuclear fission and the thirty-fifth anniversary of the IAEA. He specially commented on the various measures taken during the past year to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system as a part of the challenge to reduce the risk of a further spread of nuclear weapons. He also discussed the role of the IAEA in the fields of nuclear safety, nuclear waste, transfer of technology and assistance to developing countries and the financing and management of the Agency within the UN system

  7. Report on the behalf of the Commission of Economic Affairs on the bill project, adopted by the National Assembly after an accelerated procedure, and aiming at preparing the transition towards an energy-efficient system - Nr 70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteau, Roland

    2012-01-01

    This report notably addresses the issues present in a bill project and concerning the introduction of a progressive energy pricing with the implementation of a bonus-malus principle in energy tariffs as well as some measures related to social tariffs. After having evoked this progressive pricing which aims at promoting a more moderate use of energy, the author refers to international examples (California, Italy, Minnesota, Japan, Quebec, South Korea, Belgium and Germany). He outlines that such a progressive pricing incites a reduction of energy consumption. He discusses the required accompanying policies: struggle against energy precariousness and promotion of energy performance. Other accompanying measures are presented and discussed which notably concerns wind farm implantation. Then, the report contains the text proposed to the Senate, the opinion of the Commission, a list of hearings, and a table comparing the present situation, the content of the bill project, the text adopted by the National Assembly, and the text issued by the Commission

  8. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  9. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Benchmark assemblies of the Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several critical assemblies of precisely known materials composition and easily calculated and reproducible geometries have been constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Some of these machines, notably Jezebel, Flattop, Big Ten, and Godiva, have been used as benchmark assemblies for the comparison of the results of experimental measurements and computation of certain nuclear reaction parameters. These experiments are used to validate both the input nuclear data and the computational methods. The machines and the applications of these machines for integral nuclear data checks are described

  11. Benchmark assemblies of the Los Alamos critical assemblies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Several critical assemblies of precisely known materials composition and easily calculated and reproducible geometries have been constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Some of these machines, notably Jezebel, Flattop, Big Ten, and Godiva, have been used as benchmark assemblies for the comparison of the results of experimental measurements and computation of certain nuclear reaction parameters. These experiments are used to validate both the input nuclear data and the computational methods. The machines and the applications of these machines for integral nuclear data checks are described. (author)

  12. Benchmark assemblies of the Los Alamos critical assemblies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several critical assemblies of precisely known materials composition and easily calculated and reproducible geometries have been constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Some of these machines, notably Jezebel, Flattop, Big Ten, and Godiva, have been used as benchmark assemblies for the comparison of the results of experimental measurements and computation of certain nuclear reaction parameters. These experiments are used to validate both the input nuclear data and the computational methods. The machines and the applications of these machines for integral nuclear data checks are described

  13. Print-Assisted Photovoltaic Assembly (PAPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of an innovative method for the fabrication of thin-film photovoltaic panels. Print-Assisted Photovoltaic Assembly, or PAPA,...

  14. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  15. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    , treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  16. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  17. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  18. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of national defence and army, about the 2005 finances law project (no. 1800). Tome 2, defense, nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Nuclear deterrence still represents an important part of French military budgets. However, its relative share is progressively reducing with the progress of the big programs implemented for its modernization. The 2005 finances law project rules out any risk of threat on these programs. This report presents, first, the schedule of the renewal of the strategic oceanic fleet (the M51 missile and the new generation of submarines) and the strategic air forces. Then, it comments the programs in progress at the direction of military applications of the atomic energy commission (CEA): a significant part of funds devoted to nuclear deterrence, the evolution of the simulation program, the delicate question of the financing of the dismantling of fissile material production facilities. Finally, it stresses of the research effort to sustain in order to stand the evolution of threats and to warrant the perenniality of deterrence: nuclear proliferation remains worrying and technologies linked with deterrence are changing rapidly, the need of a constant research effort in order to keep the competences up. (J.S.)

  19. Submission of Republica Oriental del Uruguay to the Commission on the limits of the continental shelf pursuant to provisions of article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata Prates, C.; Tajes, J.; Burgos, M.; Caamaño; Lamartheé; Montiel, D.; Preciozzi, F.; De Santa Ana, H.

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to provisions of article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (hereinafter the Convention), and to article 4 of Annex II of same, República Oriental del Uruguay (Uruguay) hereby submits to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (the Commission) particulars on the outer limit of its continental shelf, extending beyond 200 nautical miles (M) from the baselines from which the breadth of territorial sea is measured. On December 10, 1982 Uruguay signed the Convention, which was subsequently approved by Uruguayan Law Nº 16,287, and ratified on December 10, 1992. The porvisions of article 76 invoked in Uruguay submission fixed points delimiting Uruguay’s Continental Shelf. There exist, at present, no unresolved disputes over the maritime border with either of Uruguay’s neighbouring countries, Argentina or Brazil. It was received assistance in the elaboration of this Submission April 2008, from member of the Commission and also assistance from other, non-member consultants and institutions from Germany, Brazil, Portugal and Norway

  20. Edmund Burke, the Atlantic American war and the ‘poor Jews at St. Eustatius’. Empire and the law of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Abbattista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to a relatively minor episode in Edmund Burke’s parliamentary career and political speculation involving the rights of war and international law in the final years of the American War of Independence. The starting point for Burke’s consideration of these questions was the affair of St. Eustatius, that is to say Britain’s conquest in 1781 of the Dutch West-Indian island early in the “fourth Anglo-Dutch War” of 1780-1784. The harsh treatment of the Dutch colony’s cosmopolitan community by the commanding officers of the British Navy and Army provoked a series of reactions in Britain and the colonies. The essay starts by outlining the identity of St. Eustatius with its economic, demographic and social features, its peculiar role in the eighteenth-century West Indies and its emblematic meaning in the historical literature of the Enlightenment as a symbol of the virtues of commerce and of economic liberty. It goes on to analyse the facts of the military conquest in 1781 and the ensuing occupation realized by Admiral George Rodney and Major-General John Vaughan, particularly as this affected the “poor Jews at St. Eustatius” (as Burke himself qualified them in his second speech on 4 December 1781, with the subsequent reactions of the Dutch and especially the British Atlantic world. We then examine Edmund Burke’s reasons for taking up this affair, including the political and ideological motives and the sources of arguments he used in the two parliamentary speeches he made on the topic during 1781, relating this to Burke’s ideas on international relations and imperial government during the 1770s and 1780s. We end by pointing to cultural links between Burke’s positions and a wider political, commercial and civic culture emerging in the British Atlantic world which reflected some of the most typical European Enlightenment values and ideological commitments.

  1. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  2. The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw

    2013-10-01

    A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (keff=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication.

  3. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  4. DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE WITH THE WS/HS ASSEMBLY MOVEMENT USING LABVIEW VIS, NATIONAL INSTRUMENT MOTION CONTROLLERS, AND COMPUMOTOR ELECTRONIC DRIVE UNITS AND MOTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.; Day, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), designed and built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program and provides a platform for measuring high-power proton beam-halo formation. The technique used for measuring the beam halo employs nine combination Wire Scanner and Halo Scraper (WS/HS) devices. This paper will focus on the experience gained in the use of National Instrument (NI) LabVIEW VIs and motion controllers, and Compumotor electronic drive units and motors. The base configuration couples a Compumotor motor driven by a Parker-Hannifin Gemini GT Drive unit. The drive unit is controlled by a NI PXI-7344 controller card, which in turn is controlled by a PC running custom built NI LabVIEW VIs. The function of the control VI's is to interpret instructions from the main control system, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), and carry out the corresponding motion commands. The main control VI has to run all nineteen WS/HS motor axes used in the accelerator. A basic discussion of the main accelerator control system, EPICs which is hosted on a VXI platform, and its interface with the PC based LabVIEW motion control software will be included

  5. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside...... the subsequent award, if and when such measure is dictated by the Member State’s procedural rules. This article examines the relevant procedural rules in Denmark and Sweden based on two recent decisions by the national Supreme Courts. It concludes that under Scandinavian procedural law, courts will generally...... a framework for understanding the interplay between national and EU law, at least in the Scandinavian countries....

  6. Restaurant smoking sections in South Africa and the perceived impact of the proposed smokefree laws: Evidence from a nationally representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Little

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The South African Minister of Health announced in 2016 that he intends to introduce tobacco control legislation that will prohibit smoking in restaurants. This will substantially strengthen the Tobacco Products Control Act (1993, as amended, which currently allows restaurants to have a dedicated, enclosed indoor smoking area.Objectives. To analyse current smoking policies of restaurants, whether and how these policies have changed over the past decade, and restaurateurs’ attitudes to the proposed legislative changes.Methods. From a population of nearly 12 000 restaurants, derived from four websites, we sampled 2 000 restaurants, stratifying by province and type (independent v. chain and disproportionately sampling small strata to ensure meaningful analysis. We successfully surveyed 741 restaurants, mostly by phone. We also surveyed 60 franchisors from a population of 82 franchisors.Results. Of the restaurants sampled, 44% were 100% smoke-free, 44% had smoking sections outside, 11% had smoking sections inside, and 1% allowed smoking anywhere. Smoking areas were more common in independent restaurants (62% than franchised restaurants (43%. Of the restaurants with a smoking section, 33% reported that the smoking sections were busier than the non-smoking sections. Twenty-three percent of restaurants had made changes to their smoking policies in the past 10 years, mostly removing or reducing the size of the smoking sections. Customer requests (39%, compliance with the law (35% and cost and revenue pressures (14% were the main reasons for changing smoking policies. Of the restaurant respondents 91% supported the current legislation, while 63% supported the proposed legislative changes; 68% of respondents who were aware of the proposed legislation supported it, compared with 58% of respondents who were not aware of the proposed legislation.Conclusions. In contrast to the vehement opposition to the 1999 legislation, which resulted

  7. Energy Landscapes: From Protein Folding to Molecular Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute assembly is very common in biology and in nanotechnology. Simple examples of self-assembly are the folding efflux pump machinery, ATP synthase, the ribosome, and many others. In nanotechnology, self-assembly has

  8. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  9. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  10. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  11. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  12. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  13. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  14. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  15. Effectively Engaging in Tribal Consultation to protect Traditional Cultural Properties while navigating the 1872 Mining Law - Tonto National Forest, Western Apache Tribes, & Resolution Copper Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nez, N.

    2017-12-01

    By effectively engaging in government-to-government consultation the Tonto National Forest is able to consider oral histories and tribal cultural knowledge in decision making. These conversations often have the potential to lead to the protection and preservation of public lands. Discussed here is one example of successful tribal consultation and how it let to the protection of Traditional Cultural Properties (TCPs). One hour east of Phoenix, Arizona on the Tonto National Forest, Resolution Copper Mine, is working to access a rich copper vein more than 7,000 feet deep. As part of the mining plan of operation they are investigating viable locations to store the earth removed from the mine site. One proposed storage location required hydrologic and geotechnical studies to determine viability. This constituted a significant amount of ground disturbance in an area that is of known importance to local Indian tribes. To ensure proper consideration of tribal concerns, the Forest engaged nine local tribes in government-government consultation. Consultation resulted in the identification of five springs in the project area considered (TCPs) by the Western Apache tribes. Due to the presence of identified TCPs, the Forest asked tribes to assist in the development of mitigation measures to minimize effects of this project on the TCPs identified. The goal of this partnership was to find a way for the Mine to still be able to gather data, while protecting TCPs. During field visits and consultations, a wide range of concerns were shared which were recorded and considered by Tonto National Forest. The Forest developed a proposed mitigation approach to protect springs, which would prevent (not permit) the installation of water monitoring wells, geotechnical borings or trench excavations within 1,200 feet of perennial springs in the project area. As an added mitigation measure, a cultural resources specialist would be on-site during all ground-disturbing activities. Diligent work on

  16. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  17. The growing interrelationship between nuclear law and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    With the recent United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris, a great deal of attention is being given to low-carbon energy technologies and policies that could help the world limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. Celsius. Among these technologies, nuclear energy, which remains the largest source of low-carbon electricity in OECD countries and the second largest source of electricity at the global level after hydropower, can play a key role. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident heightened public concern over the safety of nuclear energy in many countries. Because of the potentially far-reaching consequences of the use of nuclear energy on the environment in the case of an accident, it is commonly thought that nuclear law and environmental law are not entirely compatible or do not necessarily share the same objectives. Nuclear law may be defined as 'the body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation', while environmental law can be defined as 'the body of law that contains elements to control the human impact on the Earth and on public health'. These two areas of law were considered independently in the past, since the initial focus of nuclear law, which was developed before environmental law, was to protect people and property, without explicitly referring to the environment. However, the 1986 Chernobyl accident and increasing environmental concerns during that same decade led to a growing emphasis on environmental protection in the field of nuclear activities. On the one hand, nuclear law, as 'lex specialis', aims to ensure that nuclear activities are carried out in a manner that is safe for both the public and the environment. On the other hand, the expansion of the realm of environmental law has given rise to the application of environmentally focused

  18. Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. General Assembly 56. session (10-18 July 2008). Official Records: 63. session, suppl. no. 46(A/63/46)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to radiation has origins such as medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures; nuclear weapons production and testing; natural background radiation; nuclear electricity generation; accidents such as the one at Chernobyl in 1986; and occupations that entail increased exposure to artificial or naturally occurring sources of radiation. Since the establishment of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation by General Assembly resolution 913 (X) of 3 December 1955, the mandate of the Committee has been to undertake broad reviews of the sources of ionizing radiation and of the effects of that radiation on human health and the environment. In pursuit of its mandate, the Committee thoroughly reviews and evaluates global and regional exposures to radiation; and it evaluates evidence of radiation-induced health effects in exposed groups, including survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan. The Committee also reviews advances in the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which radiation-induced effects on health or on the environment can occur. Those assessments provide the scientific foundation used, inter alia, by the relevant agencies of the United Nations system in formulating international standards for protection of the public and of workers against ionizing radiation, those standards, in turn, are linked to important legal and regulatory instruments. The Committee held its fifty-sixth session in Vienna from 10 to 18 July 2008. Norman Gentner (Canada), Wolfgang Weiss (Germany) and Mohamed A. Gomaa (Egypt) served as Chairman, Vice-Chairman and Rapporteur, respectively. The Committee scrutinized and approved for publication five scientific annexes that had last been considered at its fifty-fifth session (21-25 May 2007), as reported to the General Assembly in the report of the Committee on that session.3 As previously reported,4 the Committee had originally planned that those documents would be published by 2005. With regard

  19. IMPLEMENTATION BALANCING IDEA IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRIMINAL LAW IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso Santoso

    2015-01-01

    Development of national criminal law has long been a study and discussion for academics, practitioners and law enforcement in Indonesia. Development or renewal of criminal law would become ideals of the nation to realize laws for all society, because the Criminal Code at this time is considered not answer legal issues in Indonesia, in particular recent developments tends to evoke dissatisfaction of society in law enforcement. Renewal and development of criminal law can not be done on an ad-ho...

  20. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  1. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Five articles are tackled: in France, the judgement of the Court of Appeal of Limoges concerning the dumping of radioactive waste by Areva N.C.(2006). The Court of Appeal of Limoges ruled that Areva N.C. was not guilty of dumping radioactive waste, and neither had it infringed radiation protection regulations or general mining industry regulations. there was no proof of damage to fish fauna. In Sweden, judgement on Plans for the dismantling of Barsebaeck (2006). This court case resulted from a dispute between the operator and the Swedish government Swedish radiation Protection Institute. The Swedish Government wanted decommissioning to commence immediately whereas plant management at Barsebaeck had indicated its intention to wait until 2020, when the radiation dose to workers during decommissioning work would be lower. The court approved the plans to commence dismantling in 2020, when a repository for large reactor components will be ready at the national final repository for radioactive waste at the Forsmark plant. In United Kingdom, on October 2006, British Nuclear group Sellafield Ltd. (B.N.G.S.L.) was fined 500 000 pounds (G.B.P.) plus G.B.P. 68000 in costs in a case brought by the UK health and Safety Executive (H.S.E.) for failing to identify and stop an eight-month long leak of 83 400 litres of radioactive liquid at the Thermal Oxide reprocessing Plant (T.H.O.R.P.) at Sellafield in Cumbria. The fine was levied at Carlisle Crown Court after B.N.G.S.L. pleaded guilty, at an earlier hearing, to the three counts of breaching conditions attached to the Sellafield site licence, granted under the 1965 Nuclear Installations Act as amended. These conditions require the licensee to make and comply with written instructions; to ensure safety systems are in good working order; and to ensure radioactive material is contained and, if leaks occur, they are detected and reported. In Usa, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (N.W.P.A.) the US

  2. Unification of Patrimonial Laws Governing International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Should the laws of the world dealing with cross-border transactions be unified? Such unification presupposes an agreement on what we understand by ‘law’ and what its sources are. The drafters of uniform laws and lawyers who are preoccupied with comparative law often ask themselves: Is there, among...... the nations, a common core of legal values? If there is, this will facilitate legal unification. It will also make the international law-making easier if, in exceptional cases, a court is permitted to disregard a legal rule....

  3. Presentation of the policy bill of program on the radioactive materials and wastes management by Francois Loos, Ministry delegate to the Industry, National Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This document provides the text of the presentation of Francois Loos. The bill institutes a national radioactive materials and waste management plan and defines a programme and calendar for research and work leading to implementation of this plan, which will comprise three major points: with a view to looking to reduce the quantity of waste, spent nuclear fuels taken from the nuclear power plants will be reprocessed for recycling in the plants; waste which cannot be recycled will be packaged in a robust matrix and then temporarily stored on the surface; after interim storage, waste which cannot be finally disposed of in a surface facility, will be placed in a deep geological reversible repository. In order to monitor each step in this plan, the bill strengthens independent assessment of research and involves greater information of the public. With regard to financing, the bill clarifies the fact that economic development of the departments concerned by research into disposal options and the research itself will be financed by additional taxes on the operators of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Report on alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing for the exploration and exploitation of non conventional hydrocarbons - National Assembly No. 1581 / Senate No. 174

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LENOIR, Jean-Claude; BATAILLE, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Based on several hearings, and on missions in the USA and in Poland, this report addresses the issue of alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing which appeared to be more advanced than hearings performed for a preliminary report had suggested. A first part outlines the necessity of fracturing the rock, and presents several possible modalities, proposes a detailed overview of alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing used in the USA and in Poland. The second part outlines that coal gas is already an exploitable resource without rock fracturing; it discusses the possible perspectives thus associated for the old French coal-mining sites, outlines that this resource can be exploited without requiring hydraulic fracturing, and comments the first assessments. The third part addresses the possible management of risks associated with hydraulic fracturing: risks vary from one region to the other and therefore require further studies; the non-conventional hydrocarbon issue is addressed in different ways in the USA; the use of this technique must be controlled by public authorities. The next part outlines the need of an assessment of national resources before any assessment of the economic impact. The last part formulates several proposals for the future

  5. Public policies of struggle against air pollution. A survey requested by the National Assembly Committee for assessment and control of public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This report focuses on the assessment and perspectives of French public policies of struggle against outdoor air pollution, out of problems related to greenhouse gas emissions. It is based on a sectoral analysis of actions undertaken by public authorities, but also and more particularly on measures adopted within the frame of pollution peak management in March 2014 and March 2015, as well as on plans for atmosphere protection adopted in Ile-de-France, in the Arve river valley, in Bouches-du-Rhone, in Haute-Normandie, and in the Grenoble region, as these regions display very different characteristics in terms of atmospheric pollution. A questionnaire was also sent to regional authorities, and measures adopted for air quality control in some neighbouring countries (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Switzerland) have been examined. The report shows that stakes are always better identified and addressed (general improvement of regulated pollutants, confirmed risks for health, a constraining regulatory framework, and pollutants still to be better controlled). However, it shows that measures are not coherent enough. It highlights contradictions with other national policies, badly organised governance, the existence of multiple legal and financial tools but with not well known expenses, and a not very convincing management of pollution peaks. It discusses efforts to be amplified: a wider scope of application of the polluter-pay principle, a better distribution of efforts among activity sectors, an implementation of more ambitious arrangements in the transport sector, and a better communication for a better change acceptance

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF UNIFORMIZATION OF THE LAW AND THE PROBLEMS OF ELECTRICITY AND THE NATIONAL REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR ENERGY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Joița

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overview. The concept of internal market it is a crucial and central ones in European modern construction. After the third legal package in energy the internal market of energy (electricity and gas have to be fulfill until the end of 2014.Is this functional or just a theoretical projection? Can we see a direct and quantifiable effects? Is the regulation of energy network industries a proper answer and a direct intervention of State or have to be balance by competition? Is competition possible without regulation on this issue? Regulation of network industries is the prerequisite condition but without a real competition will be not an internal market. Methods. We assessed an individual case and possible scenario for Romania. Also a comparative methods was in place for understanding and analyses institutions (national regulatory authority and mechanism of the market with some focus on the financial markets. Results. The methods used revealed that institution, with unambiguously attribution and competence, autonomous and independent and working mechanism with unambiguously attribution and competence represent a tools for achieve a real market. Nevertheless the predictable and well done regulations in energy, with a large debate with all the actors involved it is indispensable tools.

  7. Contribution of United Nations in Serbia to protection of women survivors of violence in family and in intimate partner relationships: From international law to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analyses of engagement of the United Nations in Serbia in the field of the prevention and establishment of protection system for women survivors of violence in family and in intimate partner relationships. The scientific objective is to assess the contribution of the UN interventions in this field in Serbia, while the applicative objective is to use the results of the analysis in the planning of State’s interventions for the effective implementation of the Istanbul convention based upon lessons learnt from the UN interventions in this field. The subject of the paper is the analysis of the approach UN in Serbia has adopted over the past decade in establishment of the institutional response to violence against women, as well as the UN’s contribution to setting horizontal and vertical institutional exchange mechanisms among different sectors with mandate to provide services to survivors/ victims, specifically multi-sectoral co-operation model for protection of victims and support to setting institutional basis for the recognition of specialist support services for women survivors of violence. Both aspects are framed within the obligations deriving from the Istanbul convention with the aim to observe the correlation between the UN’s approach and the requirements of this international treaty.

  8. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  9. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  10. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  11. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  12. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  13. [Medical Devices Law for pain therapists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regner, M; Sabatowski, R

    2016-08-01

    Medical Devices Law is a relatively new legal system, which has replaced the Medical Devices Regulations still well-known in Germany. German Medical Devices Law is based on European directives, which are, in turn, incorporated into national law by the Medical Devices Act. The Medical Devices Act is a framework law and covers a number of regulations that address specific topics within Medical Devices Law. In turn, in individual regulations, reference is made to guidelines, recommendations, etc. from other sources that provide detailed technical information on specific topics. Medical Devices Law is a very complex legal system, which needs to be permanently observed due to constant updating and adjustment. In the current article, the design and the structure of the system will be described, but special emphasis will be laid on important problem areas that need to be considered when applying and operating medical products, in this case by pain therapists in particular.

  14. Business and human rights: from soft law to hard law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Elisabeta Cîrlig

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades the international community turned its attention towards the impact that businesses have on human rights, and the role they can play in furt hering human rights protection, in light of the lead role they play in globalization, and the increasingly vocal allegations of human rights violations directed against some multinationals. These developments triggered some action at the United Nations, an d at the European Union level, and led to the development of international soft law in this area, moving slowly towards binding instruments. This paper explores the evolution of business and human rights, presents the current international non-binding instruments, as well as some states’ binding initiatives in this area, and highlights the tendency to move from soft law to hard law, to leave the realm of voluntary corporate responsibility for the one of pure accountability. In this context, several solutions are debated by scholars: from a binding treaty, or a series of narrower treaties focused on specific areas, to a Model Law which could be used by states to enact laws imposing obligations on businesses within their jurisdictions, or even adding human rights in the international investment agreements and making use of the international arbitration as an enforcement mechanism.

  15. Property law in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Rebecca Frances

    2012-01-01

    Jersey law, and within it Jersey property law, has received little academic attention. This thesis seeks to examine, and provide a systematic account of, the Jersey law of property. Specific aspects of substantive law are explored. From these, general observations about the nature and structure of property law are made. Unsurprisingly, given the small size of the island, Jersey has a relatively limited amount of indigenous legal material to offer, much of it in French. Inevitab...

  16. Europeanisation of private law and English law

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law

  17. Reflections on the Action Assembly ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Farquhar, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  18. Legal basis of energy economy. Collection of important laws and regulations of the amended power economy law. 7. ed.; Rechtsgrundlagen der Energiewirtschaft. Sammlung wichtiger Gesetze und Vorschriften zum novellierten Energiewirtschaftsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, B.J.; Schweers, E.

    2007-07-01

    The book under consideration is an actual collection of important laws and regulations according to the amended power economy law. It is the 7th edition and contains components of the European and national cartel law. Furthermore, the power economy law, the regulations of mains access, and the regulations of mains fee are revised editorial. The book consist of four main chapters: (a) General energy law; (b) Bylaws to energy economical laws; (c) Law of privileged energy supports; (d) cartel law.

  19. Environmental law - the question of a systematization and codification of environmental law in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu Yen-Lin, A.

    2000-04-01

    In the last three decades environmental law has become an important part of jurisprudence. As a cross-section subject environmental law refers to a number of different legal subjects, making a clear distinguishing impossible. The thesis has the purpose to explain the concept of environmental law and to systematize the field of environmental law (also with regard to a general codification). Beginning with a summary of environmental law definitions and following a review of the international and national legal development there is an overall view about the sources, the various sections, the principles, the instruments and the implementing institutions of environmental law. The question of a complete codification of environmental law in a statute book is of special interest, as there are also international endeavors going in this direction. (author)

  20. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  1. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masribut Sardol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article 1 paragraph (3 of the Constitution of 1945 (UUD 1945 stated that Indonesia is a Rule of Law. One feature of the Rule of Law is the existence of human rights in the state administration. Indonesia, since independence on August 17, 1945 has asserted the defense of human rights as stated in the opening clause and in the torso of the 1945 Constitution Article 27-34. In the era of reform, on the Government of President Habibie, the President and the Parliament ratified the UN convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading human dignity into Law number 5 of 1998. Then the MPR also publishes the statutes of MPR No. XVII/MPR/1998 on Human Rights, which was followed up with the appearance of Law No. 39 of 1999 on human rights. In accordance with the law in Indonesia based on the sort of Law No. 12 of 2011, the actual products that have been issued by the Government (the MPR, DPR and President that follow up the substance of Human Rights in the Constitution with established Assembly and the law is already correct. But when the MPR then does the second amendment to the Constitution on August 18, 2000 by adding a special article chapters and contains about Human Rights (as mentioned in Chapter X-A section 28 A-J, have made the complexity hierarchy of law in Indonesia because it is not in accordance with the substance of article 7 of Law No. 12 of 2011. How To Cite: Sardol, S. (2014. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 85-100. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.105

  2. Europe-building through private law : Lessons from constitutional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2012-01-01

    Questioning the link between private law and the nation-state that is implied by nationalist perceptions of the law, this paper seeks to find support for a transnational (Europeanist,constitutional-patriotist or cosmopolitan) view on private law in constitutional theory. Normative theories of

  3. 32 CFR 644.440 - Application of antitrust laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Application of antitrust laws. 644.440 Section... Application of antitrust laws. Section 207 of the Federal Property Act provides that real property and related... the antitrust laws. Prior to obligating the Government on any such disposal, the District Engineer...

  4. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law. Where...

  5. 22 CFR 52.3 - Certification as to marriage laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification as to marriage laws. 52.3 Section 52.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.3 Certification as to marriage laws. Although a consular officer may have knowledge respecting the laws of marriage...

  6. Environmental law. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, H.J. (ed.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Forschungsstelle Umweltrecht

    2007-07-01

    The text book under consideration already is addressed to lawyers and students of jurisprudence. It enables an introduction into the general environmental law and consists of sixteen autonomous chapters: (a) International law in the field of ecology (Matthias Buck, Roda Verheyen); (b) European and national environmental constitutional law (Johannes Caspar); (c) General environmental administrative law (Ulrich Ramsauer); (d) Pollution abatement law (Hans-Joachim Koch); (e) Water protection law (Silke Laskowski, Cornelia Ziehm); (f) Recycling economy law and waste management law (Martin Dieckmann, Moritz Reese); (g) Nature conservation law (Christian Maass, Peter Schuette); (h) Soil conservation law and contaminated sites law (Nikolaus Herrmann); (i) Energy legal regulations as an instrument of environmental protection (Wolfgang Ewer); (j) Atomic energy law (Klaus Jankowski); (k) Genetic engineering law (Ursula Prall); (l) Law of hazardous materials (Eckhard Pache); (m) Environmental law in planning law (Nikolaus Hermann); (n) Environment and traffic (Philipp Hermann, Ekkehard Hofmann); (o) Agriculture and ecology (Ulf-Henning Moeker); (p) Liberal trade and environmental protection (Matthias Buck).

  7. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tashima, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

  9. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    head of traditional central government, the headman was the head of the ward, and the family head exercised leadership at family level.13 Accordingly, the nature of traditional governance in South Africa was that of an unspecialised legal system where the king or chief was creator of laws, the executor of laws and the judge ...

  10. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  11. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  12. FATF as international law institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Б. Кудас

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of creation, analysis of the legal bases of activity, forms of decision-making, control over their implementation, measures of impact on the national banking system «of the Task force on financial measures in the sphere of money laundering». In article also addressed the question of the modern status of international bodies in the system of subjects of international law.

  13. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  14. Current questions concerning Space Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteix, Simone.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers in part the legal problems connected with the use of nuclear sources in space. These problems were highlighted by the accidental fall of the Soviet statellite Cosmos-954 in Canadian territory in January 1978. The author describes the status of international law on the subject, the work in the United Nations and discusses the measures to be taken to define a code of practice use of nuclear sources in space. (NEA) [fr

  15. The quest for an Indian blood law as of blood transfusion services regulatory framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion services are a vital part of the national health delivery system. The responsibility for ensuring a continuous supply of blood rests with health administrators, who need to galvanize entire communities towards regular and non-remunerated blood donation. Objective: The present study aimed to examine the prevailing global regulations and practices related to blood transfusion and press the case for a dedicated blood law in India. Materials and Methods: We attempted a comprehensive, annotated assembly of published studies on blood transfusion services in India. Data Abstraction and Synthesis: Laws related to blood transfusion services exist in India as a part of the Drugs and Cosmetics Law. In the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers who give blood for a community supply. In order to augment safe blood transfusion services in India, we have to develop operational legal guidelines on recruitment and retention of voluntary blood donors to direct related organizations for this imperative activity. Conclusion: Several factors, such as political will and a professional and ethical approach can help in formulating a common vision, building trust, by providing optimum information towards a social movement for the rational blood transfusion services. We have to come together for a dedicated blood law in order to improve the quality of blood transfusion services in India.

  16. Organisation of the National Atomic Energy Commission. Decree-Law N` 22.498 (19-Dec-1956; B.O. 28-Dec-1956). Ratified by Law 14.467/58; Organizacion de la Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica. Decreto-Ley N` 22.498 (19-dic-1956; B.O. 28-dic-1956). Ratificada por Ley 14.467/58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1957-12-31

    Organization of the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic. Organic law through which this institution shall function as an autonomous entity, empowered to act publicly and privately in scientific, technical, industrial, commercial, administrative and financial matters. Its purposes will be the scientific and industrial promotion, execution, research and application of nuclear transmutations. Also to control the applications of nuclear energy for reasons of public usefulness in order to prevent the damages they could cause. It establishes that the CNEA will be administered by a Board of Directors composed by a Chairman and five members, who will have attributions and duties such as advise the Executive Power of the Argentine Republic in matters related to the atomic energy and their applications and the necessary precautions for the protection against atomic dangers. This Board of Directors will need the authorization of the Executive Power to undertake some activities such as the exportation of nuclear materials or enter into contracts and agreements with societies with the Argentine provinces for the exploitation of nuclear deposits and mines.

  17. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  18. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, Pierre; Mesnage, Bernard; Nervi, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This invention refers to fuel assemblies for a liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactor. Each assembly is composed of a hollow vertical casing, of regular polygonal section, containing a bundle of clad pins filled with a fissile or fertile substance. The casing is open at its upper end and has a cylindrical foot at its lower end for positioning the assembly in a housing provided in the horizontal diagrid, on which the core assembly rests. A set of flat bars located on the external surface of the casing enables it to be correctly orientated in its housing among the other core assemblies [fr

  20. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  1. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  2. Community Notification Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...

  3. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  4. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  5. On crystallization of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmodis Jenő

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of autonomy of law. The paper examines the medieval origins of legal positivism from a historical approach, sketching the main theories concerning the emergence of law, and phrasing some preliminary consideration for a historical and philosophical view of the problem of the birth of law. As a result of reasoning the article suggests some legal historical and human ethological ideas relating to the phenomena of crystallization of the law.

  6. [Palliative care after neonatal intensive care: Contributions of Leonetti Law and remaining challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, P; Dillenseger, L; Cojean, N; Escande, B; Zores, C; Astruc, D

    2017-02-01

    The 2005 enactment of the "Patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has been accompanied by practical changes in the processes of withdrawal and withholding of active life-sustaining treatments. This law has also promoted the implementation of palliative care in perinatal medicine to avoid unreasonable therapeutic interventions and to preserve the dying patient's quality of life and human dignity. Recently, a new law has been voted by the French National Assembly and new reflections on the ethical aspects of the end of life in neonatal medicine should resume again within the French Society of Neonatology in the working group on ethical issues in neonatology. This is why it appears important to discuss the perceived benefits and the persistent difficulties related to the implementation of the Leonetti law in neonatology. Collegiality in the decision-making processes as well as withdrawal and withholding of life-sustaining treatments that were already present in the practices of many centers has been stipulated within a legal framework and promoted in clinical practice. It has brought serenity within perinatal nursing and medical teams. It has helped them face the always-difficult end-of-life situations with parents and deal with decision-making processes in an intense emotional climate. However, new questions inherent to the law have appeared. The most important ones concern the withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration, the time pressure in the management of the decision-making process, and the management of the duration of palliative care. Challenges remain in addressing various persistent ethical dilemmas such as the possible survival of newborns with significant brain lesions detected after the period of life-sustaining treatments that have allowed their survival. The new law carried by Mr. Clayes and Mr. Léonetti should provide answers to some of these ethical issues, but it would probably not solve all of them. Copyright

  7. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    is still on the increase.8 It is forecast that the world will face a 40 per cent .... the legal context entails.27 Renowned property law scholars, like Underkuffler, argue ..... operation of law.53 The classic examples of Roman law res publicae were ...

  8. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  9. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  10. Transnational Constitutional Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); K.I. Bhatt (Kinnari)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its

  11. Unjust enrichment in business law

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...

  12. Mechanics of a crushable pebble assembly using discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annabattula, R.K.; Gan, Y.; Zhao, S.; Kamlah, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of crushing of individual pebbles on the overall strength of a pebble assembly is investigated using discrete element method. An assembly comprising of 5000 spherical pebbles is assigned with random critical failure energies with a Weibull distribution in accordance with the experimental observation. Then, the pebble assembly is subjected to uni-axial compression (ε 33 =1.5%) with periodic boundary conditions. The crushable pebble assembly shows a significant difference in stress–strain response in comparison to a non-crushable pebble assembly. The analysis shows that a ideal plasticity like behaviour (constant stress with increase in strain) is the characteristic of a crushable pebble assembly with sudden damage. The damage accumulation law plays a critical role in determining the critical stress while the critical number of completely failed pebbles at the onset of critical stress is independent of such a damage law. Furthermore, a loosely packed pebble assembly shows a higher crush resistance while the critical stress is insensitive to the packing factor (η) of the assembly.

  13. European water law in transition: the challenge of integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2005-01-01

    European and domestic national water law have witnessed a number of developments, which can be described as the development from a national territorial approach towards a transnational integrated approach. Initially, Dutch water law for example, sought to offer protection against flooding. More

  14. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS CRIMES AND ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent. All...

  15. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    to health care services dovetails with the international law approach to assessing compliance with the ..... with extended opening hours) are well distributed across the city.40 Availability of .... often constitutes a de facto denial of access to care.

  16. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  17. Energy law novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Paula

    2004-01-01

    Energy Law no. 318/2003 has been worked out in compliance with the EU Electricity Directive based on the following principles and objectives: - clearly defining the positions and roles of various institutional entities and structures; - introducing the competitions in energy generation and supply; - creation and functioning of electricity competitive markets; - right of certain consumers to buy electricity directly from the producers; - direct, fair and regulated access to electrical network of all the participants in the electricity market; - generators, distributors and consumers; - achieving the activities in the field under reliable conditions and at the quality standards for optimally using the primary energy resources by observing the environmental protection norms in force; - promoting, in a balanced manner, the interests of the National Power System based on the European regulations and requirements on optimal and efficient resources use by observing the environmental criteria and norms; - ensuring the sustainable development of the national economy; - diversifying the primary energy resources basis; - transparency of electricity tariffs, prices and taxes; - creating the security stocks of needed fuels for electricity and heat co-generation; - ensuring the interconnected operation of the NPS with the energy systems in the neighboring countries and with the ones in the UCTE; - promoting the use of renewable energy sources. Among the novelties brought by this Law by the definitions given to the terms used it is worth mentioning: - Access to the public electricity network; - Energy capacity; - Passageway of the electric line; - Natural monopoly in the energy field; - Electricity market operator; - Distribution system operator; - Transmission system operator; -Merit order (i.e the order in which an electricity producer is taken into consideration according to the price offered to cover the NPS electricity demand); - Electricity market; - Rehabilitation

  18. THE EMERGENCE OF A DISCIPLINE: INFORMATION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Ştefan DINU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to emphasize the fact that in the context of information society, regulations and laws governing information and data as well as information systems activities, must be prevalent. In this regard, we believe that at least on the educational and academic level the discipline of information law must be developed in accordance with the new challenges and threats to security, synchronized with the transformed paradigm of national and international security.

  19. Tax reforms - taxes without tax laws

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2009-01-01

    All Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, accounting, auditing and tax returns, can be abolished if a new tax system called "TOP Tax system" is adopted and implemented by all nations. Ultimate economic reforms will relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, tax collection, tax enforce...

  20. Transnational Law and the Ibt Course

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, A. Zen Umar

    2014-01-01

    Today business transactions transcending national borders need a new concept, namely transnational business transactions. It deals not only with private, but also with public issues; This in line with the birth of transantional law, as firstly expressed by Judge Jessup Philip in 1956. This article aims to discuss the importance of including the International bussiness transactions (“IBT”) course in Indonesia's legal education. It concludes that transnational law, as reflected by IBT is nowada...