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Sample records for nasopharyngeal radium irradiation

  1. Cancer incidence after nasopharyngeal radium irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Verduijn, Pieter G.; Stovall, Marilyn; Land, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    From 1940 until 1970, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was used to treat children and military personnel suffering from Eustachian tube failure attributable to local lymphoid hyperplasia. We studied cancer incidence in a cohort of 4339 Dutch patients treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation,

  2. Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: The lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graamans, Kees

    2017-02-01

    In the Netherlands, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was started in 1945. The indications included refractory symptoms of otitis media with effusion and other adenoid-related disorders after adenoidectomy. It was considered a safe and effective therapy. Its use decreased sharply in 1958, following a worldwide media avalanche around the dramatic events in the treatment of a 5-year-old child in Utrecht, enhancing the widespread fear of radioactivity. This case history illustrates the powerful role of the media in medical decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Late health effects of childhood nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: nonmelanoma skin cancers, benign tumors, and hormonal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; Land, Charles E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Verduijn, Pieter G.; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2002-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (NRI) was widely used from 1940 through 1970 to treat otitis serosa in children and barotrauma in airmen and submariners. We assessed whether NRI-exposed individuals were at higher risk for benign tumors, nonmelanoma skin cancer, thyroid disorders, and conditions

  4. Health consequences of nasopharyngeal radium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, D.P.; Matanoski, G.; Comstock, G.W.; Mitchell, T.

    1980-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine whether a population of children with hearing loss who were irradiated with radium applicators in the forties and fifties would have an increased risk of tumors in the area of the nasopharynx, thyroid, and other surrounding tissues or would have other long-term results of radium treatments such as signs of hormonal changes related to radiation exposure of the pituitary glands. The results of the study of the chronic effects from irradiation of adenoids suggests a significant excess risk of head and neck cancers, especially brain tumors. The increased incidence of thyrotoxicosis in the exposed population may have resulted from hormonal imbalance secondary to pituitary gland irradiation and should receive further study. Chronic hearing loss occurred more frequently in the irradiated group but it is difficult to be sure whether this indicated an ineffectiveness of the treatment or differences in the characteristics of the deafness in individuals selected for radium treatments

  5. Neoplasms following childhood radium irradiation of the nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, D.P.; Comstock, G.W.; Matanoski, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen to 35 years after admission to a clinic for the prevention of deafness, no increased overall cancer risk could be detected among 904 persons who had been treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation when compared with the risk among 2,021 persons who were either treated surgically or not treated at all, although there were differences at specific sites. An increased risk of developing both benign and malignant head and neck tumors was found among irradiated persons. Whereas no one head and neck site showed a statistically significant excess, a slight excess of brain cancer occurred 15-20 years after radium treatment. No increase in thyroid cancer risk was observed, a result possibly attributable to the low radiation doses to this organ, and the relatively small population irradiated

  6. Nasopharyngeal irradiation treatment of hyperplastic adenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatment in childhood is an important cause of thyroid cancer. In the 1930 to 1950 era, radium irradiation of the nasopharynx was used to control hyperplastic adenoids. Because of the technical characteristics of this applicator, sufficient radiation was not applied to the thyroid by this technique to stimulate the development of thyroid malignancies. No malignancies have been reported thus far as a result of this treatment

  7. Radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerskov-Klika, Midana; Lokner, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of control and/or storage of radiation sources used in hospitals in Croatia. The administration organization of the country, now being established; work on the new legislation, and the regulatory framework for protection against radiation, combined with a desire to achieve the systematic and safe storage of all existing radioactive waste, until the construction of a disposal site for low- and medium - level radiation waste, have all contributed to the decision whereby all radiation sources in Croatia are to be located and made safe. Accordingly, it was agreed that a commission, involving Croatian Health Ministry, the Hazardous Waste Management Agency, the Institute for Medical Research, and the Ruder Boskovic Institute, should organize the search, collection and conditioning of all radium sources which have been used in medical establishments throughout Croatia. The subsequent investigation revealed that almost half of all radium sources are located in an old storage facility at the Institute for Medical Research. Those sources, as well as others located in hospitals following months of investigation, have now been collected together in one place - the Ruder Boskovic Institute. Following a process of identification, and entry in a relevant data base, all sources were subject to a conditioning procedure. They were placed in stainless-steel capsules, each capsule containing approximately 50 milli curries of radium. The capsules are scaled with a lid, welded in a place using a special procedure, which totally isolates the contents from the environment. Neither radium nor its products are able to escape from the capsule. Then, the capsules, in groups of ten, are placed in a massive lead container, which prevents leakage of radiation resulting from disintegration. The lead container is placed inside a stainless-steel barrel filled with concrete. In this way, the radium sources no longer pose any threat to the environment. Due to its long

  8. Hypothalmic hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.S.L.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.T.; Ma, J.T.C.; Ho, J.H.C.; Tse, V.K.C.; Ling, N.

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients, one male and seven females, with no pre-existing hypothalamic-pituitary disease, who developed symptoms of hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma were studied 5 years or more after radiotherapy. All were GH deficient. Four of the patients with no GH response during insulin tolerance tests (ITT) showed increased GH in response to synthetic human growth hormone releasing factor (GRF-44). Four patients had impaired cortisol responses to ITT, and gradual but diminished cortisol responses to ovine corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF-41). There was no significant difference between mean peak increments in response to ITT and those in response to CRF-41. TSH responses to TRH were delayed in five and absent in two patients; four of these had low free T4 index. Prolactin was raised in all seven women and increased further in response to TRH. Two patients had impaired gonadotrophin responses to LHRH. None of the patients had clinical or biochemical evidence of diabetes insipidus. These data suggest that post-irradiation hypopituitarism in these patients results from radiation damage to the hypothalamus leading to varying degrees of deficiency of the hypothalamic releasing or inhibitory factors. (author)

  9. Carcinoma of the vagina. [Complications following whole-pelvis. gamma. irradiation and radium implant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, R.B. Jr.; Million, R.R.; Daly, J.W.

    1978-11-01

    Twenty-two patients with Stage I through IV primary vaginal squamous cell carcinomas treated for cure with radiation therapy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the relationship of dose to complications and local control. All but 2 patients received 4000 to 6000 rad whole pelvis irradiation plus at least one radium application. Local control was 91%, with an absolute 2-year disease-free survival of 82%. The degree of anaplasia was found to influence prognosis, with all local and distant failures resulting from high-grade lesions. The complication rate was modest, with no fistulae or serious bowel complications. An analysis of total dose (external plus radium) with respect to local failure and complications showed that no major complications occurred at a combined dose below 9000 rad. An analysis of the individual contributions of external irradiation and radium implants showed that all but one very minor complication occurred at a radium dose of 4000 rad or higher. From these data, overall treatment planning and total dose recommendations are made.

  10. Distant Metastases of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Definite Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Lee, Hyung Sik; Moon, Sun Rock; Kim, Gwi Eon; Loh, John Juhn-Kyu

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and thirty five patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx were treated by radiation therapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University between August 1977 and July 1987. Of the 30 patients omitted: 8 had distant metastases at initial diagnosis or during radiotherapy; 18 patients refused or did not received a full course of radiation therapy, and four had not been confirmed histologically. The remaining 105 patients were analyzed to determine the incidence and patter of distant metastases. Diagnosis of distant metastases was made based on clinical signs and radiography, even though histologic confirmation was not made. Twenty-six patients developed distant metastases after definite irradiation of nasopharynx and neck, an incidence rate of 24.8%. The common sites of distant metastases were, in descending order, bone, lung, liver, and brain. There was a strong correlation between Ho's N stage and distant metastases rate. But sex, age, histologic subtype (squamous cell and undifferentiated cell), AJC T and N stage, treatment modalities (radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy) were not significant. Of those patients who developed distant metastases, 80.8% were discovered within 2 years of their radical radiotherapy. The prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients developing distant metastases was poor: median survival was nine months and 80% of those patients died within two years of the initial diagnosis of distant metastasis

  11. Changes in the prostacyctin sensitivity of thrombocytes after intravaginal radium irradiation of patients with corpus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate, to what extent the platelet sensitivity in comparison to prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) should be seen as a responsible factor in the increase of the thrombosis rate. For this blood was examined from 22 patients with corpus carcinoma who had received an intravaginal Radium implant with a radiation dose of 960 mgeh to over 24 h. These patients were compared to a control group of 21 clinically healthy women. Even before the radiation therapy there was an increased aggregation rate of the thrombocytes in the carcinoma patients as well as a reduced sensitivity to PGI 2 . Under irradiation there was an even greater decrease in the sensitivity of the thrombocytes to PGI 2 . The aggregation speed increase statistically significantly and the number of thrombocytes decreased during the Radium irradiation. After the giving of heparin the sensitivity of the thrombocytes to PGI 2 sank strongly. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Long-term survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and late complications of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Mitsuru; Komori, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hideyo; Takimoto, Toru; Umeda, Ryozo

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation remains the mainstay of treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the primary site and the neck. We studied the long-term effects of irradiation in five patients who have survived ten or more years after treatment without recurrence of disease, and we were impressed by the rarity of disabling complications of the treatment. Minor complications were common, and especially troublesome were xerostomia, dental caries, postnasal crusting and neck weakness. (author)

  13. Clinical analysis of post-irradiation sensorineural hearing loss in patients suffering from nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xueguan; Liu Zhiyong; Zhang Liyuan; Tian Ye

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of post-irradiation sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in patients suffering from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to evaluate its potentially contributing factors. Methods: Pure tonetest and impedance audiography were carried out in patients suffering from nasopharyngeal carcinoma with a post-irradiation follow-up time over 1 year. Additionally, the test results were combined with clinical data and analyzed retrospectively. Results: The follow-up time of all patients ranged from 12 to 94 months (median 53 months). The incidences of SNHL at low and high frequencies were 8% and 42% respectively. Univariate analysis showed that patient's age and follow-up time affected the incidence of SNHL at high frequencies (t=2.051, P=0.0269; t=2.978, P=0.0011), but sex, preirradiation subjective hearing loss, irradiation dose and chemotherapy including cisplatin had no significance. Multivariate analysis by Binary Logistic Regression revealed that the risk of SNHL was correlated with patient's age and follow-up time (P=0.02; P=0.009). Conclusion: Post-irradiation SNHL at high frequencies in patients suffering from nasopharyngeal carcinoma is more common than that at low frequencies. The independent prognostic factors for development of SNHL at high frequencies are patient's age and follow-up time. But the role of preirradiation hearing level ,irradiation dose and chemotherapy including cisplatin are not conclusive and further research is needed. (authors)

  14. Storage container of radium source newly manufactured for trial for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the uterine cervix, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Chiaki; Sasaki, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    1977-01-01

    To decrease exposure dose from radium source to operators during the treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix, new-type storage container was manufactured and its usefullness was discussed. The new-type container manufactured for trial houses radium source, for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the cervix, connecting with TAO-type applicator for afterloading. TLD 1200 Type was used for measurement of radiation dose, and radium 50 mCi was used per one case. The obtained results were as follows: Using the new-type container, 45-60% decrease of exposure dose in the hands and fingers and 44% decrease in the body were obtained. The exposure dose of persons engaged in work of radiotherapy for one week was only 2.2% of the maximum permissible exposure dose, The time treating radium source was shortened to 50% by using the new-type container, and the shortening of that time was a great factor of countermeasures for decreasing exposure dose to operators. From above-mentioned results, the new-type storage container can be put sufficiently to practical use as a storage container of radium source for intracavitary irradiation of cancer of the cervix (when using TAO type afterloading method). (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Rupture of an internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm after irradiation for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yukiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Sasai, Hisanori; Kamakura, Aya; Sakata, Yoshiharu; Miyahara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The primary treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been external radiotherapy. Rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of irradiation therapy for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A 78 years old man had a history of NPC treated with radiotherapy in 1993. He was admitted to the hospital because of epistaxis. Angiography showed an ICA pseudoaneurysm pointing medially to the nasopharynx. Coil embolization of the ICA was performed, but cerebral infarction occurred. Internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms are an uncommon but potentially lethal condition. Angiography is the mainstay of diagnosis of the aneurysm and planning the embolization of the ICA. We should be more aware of this complication in NPC patients. (author)

  16. Risk factors of conventional irradiation-induced lower cranial neuropathy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianji; Hong Jinsheng; Zhang Yu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the risk factors of radiation-induced lower cranial neuropathy (RILCN) after conventional radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and to improve the radiotherapeutic planning. Methods: A hundred cases received radical radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 200 individual matched controls on sex, age and time to start the radiotherapy were studied. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze 13 risk factors related to development of RILCN. Results: Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that cigarette smoking, irradiation scheme, radiation close to the superior neck, neck fibrosis and acute radiation-related dermatitis of neck were risk factors of RILCN, their relative risks were 4.594, 2.629, 1.072, 4.141 and 2.531, respectively. Among three external irradiation schemes, it is found that pre-auricular portal plus whole neck tangential portal irradiation had the highest risk of RILCN. Conclusions: The study suggested that the irradiation scheme of pre-auricular portal plus whole neck tangential portal should be no longer used. (authors)

  17. Pituitary dysfunction in adult patients after cranial irradiation for head and nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M.; Malgo, Frank; Neelis, Karen J.; Coremans, Ida; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pituitary insufficiency after radiotherapy in the hypothalamic pituitary region is a well-known complication. However, endocrine assessments are not incorporated in the follow-up after cranial irradiation for head and neck tumours. Aim of the study: To evaluate pituitary function in patients cranially irradiated for non-pituitary tumours. Patients and methods: Evaluation of pituitary function in all available patients treated at our centre with cranial radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. Results: We included 80 patients. Forty patients were treated for cerebral tumours, 15 for nasopharyngeal tumours, and 25 for different tumours like meningioma or cerebral metastasis. Mean age was 47.5 (18.6–89.7) years. Mean radiation dose delivered at the pituitary region was 56.27 Gy (40.0–70.0). Pituitary insufficiency was present in 16 patients within 2 years after irradiation 23/49 patients (47%) after 5 years and 27/45 (60%) after 10 years and 31/35 patients (89%) after 15 years. Conclusion: Pituitary insufficiency is highly prevalent in adult patients treated with cranial radiotherapy for head and nasopharyngeal tumours. These prevalence rates are comparable to those observed after radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. Because hormone replacement of endocrine deficits improves quality of life and prevents potential severe complications, such as Addisonian crises, periodical evaluation of pituitary function is advocated

  18. Is Elective Irradiation to the Lower Neck Necessary for N0 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yunsheng; Zhu Guopei; Lu Jiade; Ying Hongmei; Kong Ling; Wu Yongru; Hu Chaosu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize our experience and treatment results in lymph node-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated in a single institution. Methods and Materials: From January 2000 to December 2003, 410 patients with lymph node-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. The T-stage distribution was 18.8% in T1, 54.6% in T2 (T2a, 41 patients; T2b, 183 patients), 13.2% in T3, and 13.4% in T4. All patients received radiotherapy to the nasopharynx, skull base, and upper neck drainage areas, including levels II, III, and VA. The dose was 64-74 Gy, 1. 8-2.0 Gy per fraction over 6.5-7.5 weeks to the primary tumor with 60 Co or 6-MV X-rays, and 50-56 Gy to levels II, III, and VA. Residual disease was boosted with either 192 Ir afterloading brachytherapy or small external beam fields. Results: The median follow-up time was 54 months (range, 3-90 months). Four patients developed neck recurrence, and only 1 patient (0.2%) experienced relapse outside the irradiation fields. The 5-year overall survival rate was 84.2%. The 5-year relapse-free survival rate, distant metastasis-free survival rate, and disease-free survival rate were 88.6%, 90.6% and 80.1%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that T classification was the only significant prognostic factor for predicting overall survival. The observed serious late toxicities were radiation-induced brain damage (7 cases), cranial nerve palsy (16 cases), and severe trismus (13 cases; the distance between the incisors was ≤1 cm). Conclusion: Elective levels II, III, and VA irradiation is suitable for nasopharyngeal carcinoma without neck lymph node metastasis.

  19. Sensori-neural hearing loss in patients treated with irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, C.; Moller, K.; Overgaard, M.; Overgaard, J.; Elbrond, O.

    1991-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the inner ear to irradiation. Cochlear function was tested in a cohort of 22 patients before and 7-84 months after receiving external irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The pre-irradiation sensori-neural hearing threshold at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz was used as a baseline for the individual patient, and the observed sensori-neural hearing loss (SNHL) was calculated as the difference between pre- and post-irradiation values. The pre-irradiation hearing level or patient age was not correlated with the actual SNHL. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between the total radiation dose to the inner ear and the observed hearing impairment. SNHL was most pronounced in the high frequencies, with values up to 35 dB (4000 Hz) and 25 dB (2000 Hz) in some patients. The latent period for the complication appeared to be 12 months or more. The deleterious effect of irradiation on the hearing should be kept in mind both in treatment planning and in the follow-up after radiotherapy

  20. Apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (CNE-2) induced by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Ke; He Shaoqin; Feng Yan; Tang Jinhua; Feng Qinfu; Shen Yu; Yin Weibo; Xu Guozhen; Liu Xinfan; Wang Luhua; Gao Li

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the apoptotic response of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (CNE-2) induced by neutron irradiation. Methods: CNE-2 cells were cultured as usual. Using the techniques of DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA special fluorescent staining, the status of apoptosis in CNE-2 cells after neutron irradiation was detected. Results: It was shown that the apoptosis can be induced in CNE-2 cell after neutron radiation. Six hrs, after different doses of neutron (0/0.667/1.333/2.000/2.667/3.333 Gy) and X-ray 0/2/4/6/8/10 Gy) irradiation the apoptotic rates were 2.4%, 6.3%, 7.1%, 9.5%, 13.5%, 14.6% and 2.4%, 3.8%, 5.7%, 7.8%, 10.4%, 11.7%, respectively; at 48 hrs they were 18.3%, 21.5%, 22.8%, 29.3%, 34.2% and 13.7%, 17.6%, 21.3%, 25.6%, 28.9%, respectively. At 10 hrs after neutron irradiation the DNA ladder of apoptosis could be detected between 0.667-3.333 Gy doses in CNE-2 cells by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Neutron radiation can induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Compared with the X-ray, neutron induces apoptosis in larger extent than X-ray in the same condition; meanwhile, apoptosis after irradiation is dose and time dependent

  1. Radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated

  2. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Ki Ho; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4-72 Gy (39.6-45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC.

  3. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Ki Ho; Lee, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4-72 Gy (39.6-45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC.

  4. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Ki Ho; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4-72 Gy (39.6-45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC

  5. A clinical staging system and treatment guidelines for maxillary osteoradionecrosis in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.-J.; Lee, J.-J.; Ting, L.-L.; Tseng, I.-Y.; Chang, H.-H.; Chen, H.-M.; Kuo, Y.-S.; Hahn, L.-J.; Kok, S.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a clinical staging system for maxillary osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Methods and Materials: The data of maxillary ORN cases among 1,758 irradiated NPC patients were analyzed. A staging system based on the degrees of bone exposure (E), infection (I), and bleeding (B) was developed. Correlations between various clinical parameters and stages of maxillary ORN and relationships between treatment modalities and outcomes at each stage were evaluated. Cumulative success of treatment and risk factors that affect treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: The incidence of maxillary ORN was 2.7% (48/1,758). TNM stage of NPC (p < 0.001), radiation dose (p = 0.029), and tooth extraction (p < 0.001) appeared to have significant influences on disease severity. Success rates between conservative therapy and surgical treatment were not significantly different for Stage I ORN but differed significantly for Stage II (p = 0.013) and Stage III (p = 0.008) lesions. Grade 3 infection and bleeding significantly jeopardized treatment success (p = 0.043 and 0.015, respectively). The risk ratios of treatment failure for Grade 3 infection and bleeding were 2.523 (p = 0.034) and 3.141 (p = 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: More serious maxillary ORN tended to occur in cases with more advanced NPC, higher radiation dose, and history of tooth extraction. Surgical treatment was usually required in Stage II and III ORN. The grades of infection and bleeding are important factors in guidance of treatment and prediction of outcomes

  6. The pattern of relapse and survival of elective irradiation of the upper neck for stage N0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiayun; Pan, Ziqiang; Guo, Xiaomao; Ye, Ming; Zhang, Zhen; He, Shaoqin; Liu, Taifu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate patterns of failure and survival rates of elective irradiation of upper neck in N0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. From February 1996 to November 2002, 97 patients without cervical lymph node involvement were admitted for radiotherapy alone. Before treatment, each patient underwent enhanced CT of nasopharynx and neck. All patients received radiotherapy to the nasopharynx, skull base, and upper neck drainage areas (including levels II, III, and VA). The upper neck was irradiated to a total dose of 50-56 Gy/25-28 fractions/5-5.6 weeks. For the primary tumor, 22 patients used conventional fractionation for a total dose of 70 Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks, and 75 patients used an accelerated hyperfractionationated schedule for a total dose of 78 Gy/60 fractions/6 weeks. The median follow-up of these 97 patients was 7.75 years. 10 patients had recurrences in the nasopharynx, 8 had distant metastasis, and 5 had recurrences in the cervical lymph nodes. Among the cervical lymph node failures, the areas of recurrence were in the II drainage areas in 4 patients who had neck dissections afterwards, and in IA drainage areas in 1 patient who also had recurrence in the nasopharynx. The causes of death were recurrence in the nasopharynx for 8 patients, 1 of these also had recurrence in the neck, distant metastases in 8 patients, and non-neoplastic diseases in 3 patients. The causes of failure of N0 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy alone to the nasopharynx and upper neck were nasopharyngeal recurrence, distant metastasis, and cervical recurrence in order of frequency. Elective irradiation of upper neck (II, III, VA) is advised for stage N0 patients diagnosed by enhanced CT of neck. Cervical recurrence alone is rare, which did not greatly affect the long-term survival after salvage neck dissection

  7. Cell-kinetics of the human uterine cervical carcinoma cells during radium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Masaharu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    HeLa cells grown in a monolayer culture and in nude mice were exposed to graded dose rates (37, 55 or 200 rad/hour) and doses (500-2,000 rad) of radiation and analyzed in terms of their cell cycle distribution using flow-microfluorometry. In the case of the cultured HeLa cells, dose-survival curves were constructed using colony formation as the end-point. The HeLa cells, both in vitro and in vivo, accumulated in G2-M phases after both acute and chronic irradiation. The dose rate of 37 rad/hour proved to be the most effective in producing G2-M accumulation, which is the sensitive phase of the cell cycle. In comparing the G2-M accumulation to the irradiation time, 55 and 37 rad/hour proved to be similarly efficient in producing G2-M accumulation, both in vitro and in vivo. When survival of HeLa cells in vitro was studied, the radiation-induced changes in cell distribution correlated with cell survival and accounted for the change in the dose rate effect above 1,000 rads. In the case of in vivo HeLa cells, the decrease in the number of G0+G1 stage cells was demonstrated during chronic irradiation (37 and 55 rad/hour). The two low dose rates were equally efficient in producing a decrease in the number of G0+G1 cells. These data indicate that chronic irradiation induces redistribution and recruitment more effectively than acute irradiation. (author)

  8. Sarcomatous transformation of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.T.; Bauer, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    A case of fibrosarcoma arising in a recurrent nasopharyngeal angiofibroma 18 years after radiation therapy is described. A review of the medical literature revealed two other documented cases of sarcomatous transformation of angiofibroma, and in both, the angiofibromas had also been irradiated before the sarcomatous transformation. These occurrences should caution against the indiscriminate application of radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal angiofibromas

  9. The effects of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 in the irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-Y.; Hsu, W.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in southern China and Taiwan. NPC is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the EBV encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1)is commonly found in the tumor cells. Radiotherapy is the effective choice for most of the NPC patients with different classification and stages. The previous studies showed that EBV-associated NPC tend to be more sensitive to radiotherapy and have been shown the better prognosis than that of EBV-negative NPC. It suggests that LMP-1 may be able to modulate the cellular sensitivity of apoptosis induced by radiation in some kinds of NPC cells. In our study, LMP-1-expressing HONE-1 NPC cells were taken to treat with radiation to investigate whether the LMP-1 can prevent the cells from apoptosis induced by irradiation. The growth of LMP-1-expressing HONE-1 NPC cells were not significantly different from that without expressing LMP-1 at a giving dose of 2, 4 or 6Gy. However, the arrested cellular growth was found in LMP-1-expressing cells irradiated with a dose higher than 8Gy. In addition to the DNA fragmentation, the different levels of several related proteins of the apoptotic pathway and the mRNA of cell cycle arrest in these transfected cells were also investigated after various treatments

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with head and neck irradiation for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, N.M.C.; Lam, W.W.M.; Chook, P.; Woo, K.S.; Liu, K.H.; Leung, S.F.; Wong, K.S.; Metreweli, C

    2002-07-01

    AIM: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been shown to be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients at risk of cardiovascular events. In this study, we aimed to examine the IMT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received irradiation to the carotid arteries during radiotherapy, and compared them with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one NPC patients (aged between 39 and 69 years) and a group of 51 age-and sex-matched controls were studied by ultrasound. The IMT at the far wall of the common carotid artery was measured three times and the average value taken in each subject. The IMT of both groups were compared. Risk factors for IMT thickness, including hypertension, smoking, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, history of cerebrovascular accidents and cardiovascular disease, were also studied. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT of patients in the NPC group (2.2+/-1.5 mm) was statistically greater than that in normal controls (0.7+/-0.15 mm) (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the IMT in the right and left common carotid arteries within each group of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that patients with irradiation have increased arterial IMT. As they are asymptomatic the clinical relevance is not clear. So, N.M.C. et al. (2002)

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with head and neck irradiation for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, N.M.C.; Lam, W.W.M.; Chook, P.; Woo, K.S.; Liu, K.H.; Leung, S.F.; Wong, K.S.; Metreweli, C.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been shown to be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients at risk of cardiovascular events. In this study, we aimed to examine the IMT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received irradiation to the carotid arteries during radiotherapy, and compared them with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one NPC patients (aged between 39 and 69 years) and a group of 51 age-and sex-matched controls were studied by ultrasound. The IMT at the far wall of the common carotid artery was measured three times and the average value taken in each subject. The IMT of both groups were compared. Risk factors for IMT thickness, including hypertension, smoking, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, history of cerebrovascular accidents and cardiovascular disease, were also studied. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT of patients in the NPC group (2.2+/-1.5 mm) was statistically greater than that in normal controls (0.7+/-0.15 mm) (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the IMT in the right and left common carotid arteries within each group of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that patients with irradiation have increased arterial IMT. As they are asymptomatic the clinical relevance is not clear. So, N.M.C. et al. (2002)

  12. Recycling radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Technology Programs Department of Fluor Daniel Fernald investigated alternatives for dealing with the World's largest concentrated supply of radium, the K-65 silos at Fernald, the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) former uranium processing facility near Cincinnati, Ohio. These two silos contain nearly 3,770 curies (by definition 3,770 grams) primarily of Ra-226 (T 1/2 = 1600 a) within 10,000 metric tons of material. Material contents of the silos were to be vitrified according to a Record of Decision (ROD) between the DOE and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Because of cost considerations, that alternative must be reconsidered. Research showed that although Ra-226 had come mostly into disfavor as a therapeutic agent for cancer, isotopes derived from the neutron bombardment of pure Ra-226 and radioactive decay of the resulting purified isotopes could be used to good effect. One of these isotopes, bismuth-213 (Bi-213, T 1/2 = 45.6 m), is being used in clinical trials against acute myelogenous leukemia. The isotope is attached to an antibody that seeks out cancer cells. Because alpha particles dissipate most of their energy within the space of one or a few cells, virtually all the surrounding healthy tissue remains unharmed. Because of the short half life, waste disposal is no problem. Because of past policies, radium for feedstock is difficult to find. A new policy is needed in the United States acknowledging radium's value for feedstock while continuing to control its health and environmental consequences

  13. Dose analysis of boost irradiation of parapharyngeal space in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, V.W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) is one of the common spreads of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Since early eighties boost treatment has been routinely given to patients with PPS involvement. The use of oblique facio-cervical field in this treatment posed difficulty in assessing the dose distribution before the 3-D computer systems are available. This study evaluated the variations of dose distribution by different boost techniques on fifteen patients with PPS involvement using 3-D computer planning system. Comparisons were made between different radiation types, photon energies and modes of collimation respectively. Results showed that the dose distributions in the boost treatment were acceptable, as they did not bring the total doses of the normal structures exceeding their tolerance. There was little difference between 6 and 10 MV photons, but significant differences were found between photon and electron beams. Photon beams were better than the electron beams in giving lower doses to the spinal cord and the TM joint with more homogeneous dose to the target volume, whereas electron beams gave better sparing of the lens and temporal lobe. For the photon beams, half-blocked beam was superior to symmetrical beam in reducing the brain stem dose, but there was no advantage to the rest of normal structures. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  14. Radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-03-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Radium-226

  15. Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Shen; Lin, Fang-Jen; Huang, Miau-Ju; Wang, Pei-Wan; Tang, Simon; Leung, Wei-Man; Leung, Wan

    1989-01-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

  16. Radium in diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, J.

    1977-05-01

    In order to determine the addition of radon and radium to the air in mines, originatiny from the combustion of petroleum, measurements of the content of radium in diesel oil have been performed. Knowing the radium content theradon content can easily be calculated. The procedures used for the chemical analysis of radium is desribed. The ash remaining after combustion of the diesel oil is soluted in water and radium is precipiated as sulphate. The radium is detected by a ZnS (Ag) detector. The diesel oils from different petroleum companies contained between o.019-0.5pCi radium - 226. The conclution is that the consumption of diesel oils in motors used in mines does not contribute to the radium - 226 content at the air move than permissible according to norms.(K.K.)

  17. Cranial irradiation for cerebral and nasopharyngeal tumours in children: evidence for the production of a hypothalmic defect in growth hormone release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacklay, A.; Grossman, A.; Ross, R.J.M.; Savage, M.O.; Davies, P.S.W.; Plowman, P.N.; Besser, G.M.; Coy, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    A synthetic 29-amino acid analogue of human pancreatic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH(1-29)NH 2 ) has recently been shown to stimulate the release of GH in normal subjects. The authors have studied the GH reponse to GHRH(1-29)NH 2 in nine children irradiated for brain and nasopharyngeal tumours, who were not growing and were deficient in GH as assessed by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Serum GH rose in response to GHRH(1-29)NH 2 in all the children, and in five the peak serum GH response was > 20 mu./1. The data suggest that when hypothalamo-pituitary irradiation results in GH deficiency, this is due to a failure of the synthesis or delivery of endogenous GHRH from the hypothalamus to the pituitary cells. It also suggests that it may be possible to treat such children using synthetic GHRH in place of exogenous GH. (author)

  18. Nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, B.; Biston, M.C.; Montbarbon, X.; Pommier, P.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to propose recommendations concerning the delineation of the target volume of the nasopharyngeal cancers, the planning of the treatment, and describe the expected results about the efficiency and the toxicities. Theses recommendations are based upon anatomy, natural history of theses tumors, and upon published experiences from different teams working with IMRT. (authors)

  19. Temporal lobe injury after re-irradiation of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma using intensity modulated radiotherapy: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Lu, Taixiang; Zhao, Chong; Shen, Jingxian; Tian, Yunming; Guan, Ying; Zeng, Lei; Xiao, Weiwei; Huang, Shaomin; Han, Fei

    2014-09-01

    Temporal lobe injury (TLI) is a debilitating complication after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), especially in patients who suffer treatment relapses and receive re-irradiation. We explored the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of TLI in locally recurrent NPC (rNPC) patients after re-irradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A total of 454 temporal lobes (TLs) from 227 locally rNPC patients were reviewed. The clinical characteristics of TLI were analyzed. In the two radiotherapy courses, the equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2) for the TLs was recalculated to facilitate comparison of the individual data. The median follow-up time was 31 (range, 3-127) months. After re-irradiation using IMRT, 31.3 % (71/227) of patients developed TLI. The median latency of TLI was 15 (range, 4-100) months. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that the interval time (IT) between the two courses of radiotherapy and the summation of the maximum doses of the two radiotherapy courses (EQD2 - ∑max) were independent factors influencing TLI. The 5-year incidence of TLI for an IT ≤26 or >26 months was 35.9 and 53.7 % respectively (p = 0.024). The median maximum doses delivered to the injured TLs were significantly higher than was the case for the uninjured TLs after two courses of radiotherapy (135.3 and 129.8 Gy, respectively: p 2-year interval was found to be relatively safe.

  20. The challenge in treating locally recurrent T3-4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the survival benefit and severe late toxicities of re-irradiation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yun-Ming; Huang, Wei-Zeng; Yuan, Xia; Bai, Li; Zhao, Chong; Han, Fei

    2017-06-27

    Effective treatments for patients with advanced locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are limited. This investigation was to determine the potential benefits from re-irradiation by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on survival and the effects of severe late toxicities. A retrospective study was conducted in 245 patients diagnosed with locally recurrent T3-T4 NPC who had undergone re-irradiation with IMRT. Follow-up data was colletedand factors associated with survival and severe late toxicities were analyzed. The 5-year local-regional failure-free survival, distant failure-free survival and overall survival rates were 60.9%, 78.3% and 27.5%, respectively. The presence of severe late complications, recurrent T4 disease and gross tumor volume >30 cm3 were associated with poor survival. The incidences of mucosal necrosis, temporal lobe necrosis, cranial neuropathy and trismus were 22.0%, 14.6%, 27.0% and 14.6% respectively. Re-irradiation with IMRT is an effective choice in patients with locally recurrent T3-T4 NPC. However, the survival benefits can be partly offset by severe late complications and optimum treatments in these patients remain a challenge.

  1. Investigation of the feasibility of elective irradiation to neck level Ib using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Yi-Kan; Li, Wen-Fei; Guo, Rui; Chen, Lei; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Liu, Xu; Liu, Li-Zhi; Lin, Ai-Hua; Tang, Ling-Long; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of elective neck irradiation to level Ib in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We retrospectively analyzed 1438 patients with newly-diagnosed, non-metastatic and biopsy-proven NPC treated with IMRT. Greatest dimension of level IIa LNs (DLN-IIa) ≥ 20 mm and/or level IIa LNs with extracapsular spread (ES), oropharynx involvement and positive bilateral cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) were independently significantly associated with metastasis to level Ib LN at diagnosis. No recurrence at level Ib was observed in the 904 patients without these characteristics (median follow-up, 38.7 months; range, 1.3–57.8 months), these patients were classified as low risk. Level Ib irradiation was not an independent risk factor for locoregional failure-free survival, distant failure-free survival, failure-free survival or overall survival in low risk patients. The frequency of grade ≥ 2 subjective xerostomia at 12 months after radiotherapy was not significantly different between low risk patients who received level Ib-sparing, unilateral level Ib-covering or bilateral level Ib-covering IMRT. Level Ib-sparing IMRT should be safe and feasible for patients without a DLN-IIa ≥ 20 mm and/or level IIa LNs with ES, positive bilateral CLNs or oropharynx involvement at diagnosis. Further investigations based on specific criteria for dose constraints for the submandibular glands are warranted to confirm the benefit of elective level Ib irradiation

  2. Is sensorineural hearing loss a possible side effect of nasopharyngeal and parotid irradiation? A systematic review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaijmakers, Esther; Engelen, Antoine M.

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: Little has been published about permanent hearing loss due to radiotherapy, thus making it a rather unknown phenomenon. Therefore, we performed a study of the literature over the last 20 years. Materials and methods: Sixteen relevant clinical studies were found, reporting mostly on nasopharyngeal or parotid gland treatments. Hearing loss was measured using a pure tone audiogram. Studies were assessed using a simple scoring list. Nine studies were used for further analysis. Data on the pure tone audiogram were pooled. Results: Results showed that, especially in the higher frequencies (≥4 kHz), loss can be measured. When data were pooled, in 42±3% of the patients a hearing loss was found of 10 dB or more at 4 kHz. Averaged over all measured frequencies the effect is less prominent but still statistically significant (18±2%). No significant difference between nasopharyngeal and parotid gland treatment was found (P<0.05). Conclusion: Only a few studies, mostly concerning small patient numbers, have investigated hearing damage due to radiotherapy. So far there has been no consensus on the subject. However, in this systematic review we found a significant effect. Dose to the inner ear therefore deserves more attention, especially in dose escalation studies and inverse planning

  3. Biological effects of radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosselmeyer, E.

    1982-12-01

    It is evident from a survey of the current literature that a problem exists in finding the correlation between the exposure of the human body to radiation, with the subsequent development of diseases, particularly for certain types of cancer. A brief history of the early experiences of radium incorporation into humans is given followed by data collected on some important polulation groups exposed to radium body burden, such as miners in rare metal and uranium mines, dial painters and some groups of patients. The medical and technical applications of radium are discussed. A summary is also given of the natural occurence of radium and the amounts in which it is present in the environment. Incorporation, retention and excretion pathways are outlined. In order to study the metabolism and the induction of diseases by radium several animal studies have been performed. The ICRP regards radium-226 as the best known and most studied radionuclide. It can thus serve as a guideline for setting limits for other radionuclides, e.g. plutonium. The valid limiting value for radium-226 of 0.1 μCi for whole body exposure is generally accepted and regarded as sufficiently safe. Finally, transfer factors have been collected as fas as they were available in the literature. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Mine water purify from radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebecka, J.

    1996-01-01

    The article describes purification of radium containing water in coal mines. Author concludes that water purification is relatively simple and effective way to decrease environmental pollution caused by coal mining. The amount of radium disposed with type A radium water has been significantly decreased. The results of investigations show that it will be soon possible to purify also type B radium water. Article compares the amounts of radium disposed by coal mines in 1990, 1995 and forecast for 2000

  5. New Jersey Radium Research Project: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Cancers among dead New Jersey subjects were almost three times the expected number. Their radiation experience apparently acted as a generalized carcinogen. Conventional clinical, laboratory and roentgenographic tests neither correlated with calculated radiation exposure nor predicted which subjects subsequently developed cancer. More subjects than expected were deaf and enough of the subjects had increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates and decreased alpha-1 serum globulin levels that both hearing tests and tests of immune competence should be undertaken among asymptomatic exposed populations at regular intervals to see whether these may indicate radiation effects prior to a fatal cancer or blood dyscrasia. If pre-terminal radium-226 burdens validly express total irradiation experience, and past exposure to shorter-lived radium-228 (mesothorium) makes it unlikely that this is so, the distribution of radium osteitis among our subjects suggests that anatomically demonstrable radiation injury occurs in the vast majority of subjects with any radium-226 burden that can be measured above background levels after twenty-five years, and in almost half of those exposed whose measured radium-226 burdens are indistinguishable from background levels. Modification of the occupational exposure standard is recommended

  6. New Jersey Radium Research Project: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Cancers among dead New Jersey subjects were almost three times the expected number. Their radiation experience apparently acted as a generalized carcinogen. Conventional clinical, laboratory and roentgenographic tests neither correlated with calculated radiation exposure nor predicted which subjects subsequently developed cancer. More subjects than expected were deaf and enough of the subjects had increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates and decreased alpha-1 serum globulin levels that both hearing tests and tests of immune competence should be undertaken among asymptomatic exposed populations at regular intervals to see whether these may indicate radiation effects prior to a fatal cancer or blood dyscrasia. If pre-terminal radium-226 burdens validly express total irradiation experience, and past exposure to shorter-lived radium-228 (mesothorium) makes it unlikely that this is so, the distribution of radium osteitis among our subjects suggests that anatomically demonstrable radiation injury occurs in the vast majority of subjects with any radium-226 burden that can be measured above background levels after twenty-five years, and in almost half of those exposed whose measured radium-226 burdens are indistinguishable from background levels. Modification of the occupational exposure standard is recommended. (PCS)

  7. Electrodeposition of Radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, M.T.; Jimenez, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    A study of different electrodeposition methods of radium for its measurement by alpha-spectrometry is presented. The recommended procedure uses an aqueous solution of ammonium oxalate and nitric acid in the presence of microgram amounts of platinum as electrolyte

  8. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  9. The influence of radium therapie on the yeast contamination of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendling, W.; Schnell, J.D.; Spiecker, R.; Sankt Franziskus-Hospital, Bielefeld

    1979-01-01

    Before the beginning of radium therapy a vaginal yeast contamination of 9,7% was found of 113 patients with various genital carcinomas. However, the incidence of vaginal yeast contamination increased suddenly to 30,9% under the contac irradiation therapy with radium. The radiation effect of radium is not sufficient for a 'selfsterilisation' of the radium-carrier in the case of yeast contamination. Therefore, a chemic desinfection of the radium-carriers is principly necessary. The significance is discussed and the recommendation is made that routine mycological supervision be carried out on all patients with gynaecological carcinomas and appropriate antimycotic therapy initiated where necessary. (orig.) [de

  10. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhixiong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Wenjia; Che, Kaijun; Wu, Vincent W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  11. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-15

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g{sup -1}, average value 14 Bq g{sup -1}). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g{sup -1} (average value 81 mBq g{sup -1}). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  12. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g -1 , average value 14 Bq g -1 ). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g -1 (average value 81 mBq g -1 ). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  13. Radium diagnosis campaign - 59327

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabillaud Poillion, Florence

    2012-01-01

    In line with the approaches already adopted in France during the 90's on various sites where research and/or radium-extraction activities were mostly conducted in the past, the French public authorities wish from now on to pursue their prevention and site-rehabilitation approach inherited from the French craftsman and medical sectors that used that radioelement. As a matter of fact, radium has been in use in several medical activities, notably in the initial methods of cancer therapy. Similarly, it was also used in some craftsman activities, such as the clock industry, for its radioluminescent properties, the fabrication of lightning conductors or cosmetics until the 60's. Those activities have generated various traces of pollution that have remained today. On the basis of the different inventories of industrial sites where radium may have been held or used, and notably the inventory updated by the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN) in 2007 at the request of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN), French State services have potentially identified 134 sites that hosted radium-related activities in France. The radiological status of those sites is either unknown or very partially known by State services. Sites include both dwellings or commercial premises and derelict lands. The 'Radium Diagnosis Campaign' (Operation Diagnostic Radium), consists of a radiological survey carried out by the IRSN. In cases where traces of radium are detected, plans call for the implementation of precautionary measures and of a medical follow-up of the relevant populations. Lastly, radium-contaminated sites are rehabilitated by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra). That voluntary and positive approach on the part of public authorities is fully financed by public funds, and consequently

  14. Reduction of radiation-induced xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma using CT simulation with laser patient marking and three-field irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Takeshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takuro; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitahara, Toshihiro; Oomori, Keiichi; Yasuda, Motoyuki; Fukuda, Satoshi; Inuyama, Yukio; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor control and reduction of postirradiation xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the three-field irradiation technique based on the CT-based simulation with laser patient marking was investigated. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with NPC were consecutively treated between 1983 and 1993. In 33 patients treated before 1987, target volume was determined using a conventional x-ray simulator with a reference of CT images, and the primary site was treated by the conventional parallel-opposed two-field technique (Group I). In 45 patients treated from 1987, target volume was determined using a CT simulator slice by slice, the treatment field was projected onto the patient's skin by a laser beam projector mounted on a C-arm, and the primary site was irradiated by a three-fields (anterior and bilateral) technique (Group II). In Group II, the shape of each field was determined using a beam's eye view to reduce the dose to the bilateral parotid glands. The three-field technique reduced the dose to the superficial lobe of parotid gland to about two-thirds of the dose given by the two-field technique. Radiation-induced xerostomia was evaluated by clinical symptoms and radio-isotope sialography. Results: The 5-year survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 46.6 and 31.2% in Group I, and 46.8 and 46.5% in Group II. A large variation in the volume of parotid glands were demonstrated, ranging from 9 cm 3 to 61 cm 3 among patients treated with CT simulation. Forty percent of the patients in Group II showed no or mild xerostomia, whereas all of the patients in Group I showed moderate to severe xerostomia (p < 0.01). The radioisotope sialography study showed that the mean secretion ratio by acid stimulation was improved from 3.8% in the Group I to 15.2% in the Group II (p < 0.01). Conclusions: CT simulation was useful to determine the size and shape of each field to reduce the dose to the parotid gland, of which size varies

  15. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  16. Denver radium site's - Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolski, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    In developing this case history of the Denver radium sites, an attempt is made to establish the Colorado carnotite connection from the point of discovery to early development and its eventual role in the inception of the National Radium Institute and Denver's radium legacy. Early exploitive mining activities and the exportation of the highest grades of uranium ore to Europe greatly disturbed key officials at the U.S. Bureau of Mines. With its proximity to known carnotite deposits and industrial capacity, Denver's destiny as one of America's early radium production centers became a reality by 1914. With African pitchblend discoveries, Belgium competition spelled the beginning of the end of Denver's romance with radium by 1920. The sites where Denver made or used its radium were lost in obscurity for 60 years and rediscovered in 1979. Thirty one sites and a characterization of their radioactive impact are now a part of the Superfund National Priorities listing for eventual cleanup

  17. Exposure data for radium patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This appendix summarizes exposure data collected as of 31 December 1981 for 2282 radium cases under study at the Center for Human Radiobiology. It includes all persons meaasured for radium since the start of te Center in 1969 and all persons for whom we have analytic data from earlier work at the Radioactivity Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the New Jersey Radium Research Project of the New Jersey department of Health, and the Argonne Radium Studies at the Argonne National Laboratory and the Argonne Cancer Research Hospital

  18. The environmental behaviour of radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.

    1980-09-01

    Radium-226 and its daughter, radon-222, an inert gas, are important members of the uranium decay series as far as human exposure is concerned. Radon diffuses from rocks, soil and water into the atmosphere, and its daughter products polonium-218 and polonium-214 can be retained in the lungs. Radium and radon are contained in emissions from fossil fuel plants, fertilizers, natural gas, building materials and uranium ore. To assess the impact of man's use, intentional or not, of radium and its daughters, we must know their physical, chemical and biological behaviour. This report examines the literature pertinent to the natural levels of radium found in rock, soil, water and plants. Information concerning radium is integrated from several disciplines. The radiological properties and chemistry of radium, and radium-soil interactions are discussed as well as the soil distribution coefficient and the mode of soil transport of radium. Plant transfer coefficients for radium and methods of analysis and measurement are given. A list of topics requiring further research concludes the report. (auth)

  19. Radium therapy for carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shizumi; Makino, Sohtaro; Satake, Bunsuke; Takahashi, Keiichi; Sakaino, Kohji; Nakajima, Nobuaki

    1984-01-01

    Results of radium therapy with or without multi-disciplinary treatment for carcinoma of the tongue were studied in 117 patients treated from 1973 to 1981 at Gunma Cancer Center. 1. The patients were classified according to the TNM classification of UICC (1978). Seventeen patients were T1, 42 were T2, 31 were T3, 27 were T4, 92 were NO, 18 were N1, 2 were N2 and 5 were N3. 2. The treatment methods included external irradiation with 1,000-2,000 rads by 6MV X-ray followed by radium interstitial implants of 6,000-8,000 rads in 93 patients (73.9 per cent), radium therapy with additional Bleomycin 45-60 mg in 24 patients (20.5 per cent), and cryosurgery in 3 patients. 3. The five year survival rate was 41.6 per cent; 100.0 per cent for T1, 50.0 per cent for T2, 38.8 per cent for T3 and 10.5 per cent for T4. The overall five-year cumulative survival rate was 46.9 per cent. For primary lesions of T3 or T4, greater efforts should be made with combined modalities, such as planned multi-disciplinary treatments with combined radiation and major surgery. (author)

  20. The nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternitskaya, Yu.P.

    2003-01-01

    The CT and MRT features of the nasopharyngeal angiofibroma on basis of 12 patients was studied. Combined CT and MRT examination allowed to define nasopharyngeal angiofibroma's typical signs, to appreciate limits, to contribute to differential diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses

  1. Eye changes induced by radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.; Shabestari, L.; Angus, W.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radium-induced intraocular neoplasia has not been reported in people, nor were the intraocular pigmentary changes observed in the beagles described in the dial painters or the radium 226 iatrogenic cases. However, Spiess (1969) has observed a 25% incidence of multiple pigmented naevi in the iris of the radium 224 German cases and Stefani, Spiess and Mays (1986) have noted an abnormal incidence of cataracts in this same group of patients. The reasons for the absence of the much less severe radium-induced eye changes in man as compared to the dog has not been determined. Reference is also made to the authors radium 226 rodent studies with mouse strain onychomys leucogaster. (author)

  2. Modelisation and distribution of neutron flux in radium-beryllium source (226Ra-Be)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didi, Abdessamad; Dadouch, Ahmed; Jai, Otman

    2017-09-01

    Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP-6), to analyze the thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes, of 3 millicuries of radium-beryllium, for determine the qualitative and quantitative of many materials, using method of neutron activation analysis. Radium-beryllium source of neutron is established to practical work and research in nuclear field. The main objective of this work was to enable us harness the profile flux of radium-beryllium irradiation, this theoretical study permits to discuss the design of the optimal irradiation and performance for increased the facility research and education of nuclear physics.

  3. Removal of radium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauch, R.P.

    1992-08-01

    The report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water. Calcium cation exchange removes radium and can be used when hardness removal is not necessary. Iron removal processes are discussed in relation to radium removal. Iron oxides remove much less than 20 percent of the radium from water under typical conditions. Manganese dioxide removes radium from water when competition for sorption sites and clogging of sites is reduced. Filter sand that is rinsed daily with dilute acid will remove radium from water. Manganese dioxide coated filter sorption removes radium but more capacity would be desirable. The radium selective complexer selectively removes radium with significant capacity if iron fouling is eliminated

  4. Barium and radium radiopolarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.

    1979-01-01

    Radiopolarography has been applied to the study of two elements (barium and radium) which is difficult by classical polarography because of their strong electropositivity. Various parameters have been considered: nature, concentration and pH of supporting electrolyte. In any case of investigated mediums, the reduction to the metallic state reaction appeared to be reversible. An important variation of the barium half-wave potential E 1/2 with the ionic strength μ of the solution, imposed by LiCl used as supporting electrolyte, has been observed. It gives the possibility to estimate, for μ = 0, E 1/2 (Ba) = - 1.916 V/S.C.E. and E 1/2(Ra) = - 1.852 V/S.C.E. The values of barium and radium half wave potentials, obtained with a good accuracy in LiCl (or LiClO 4 ) 0.1 M medium, have been used to establish the amalgamation energy Δ 2 (M) of these elements. A linear variation of Δ 2 (M) with the metallic radius of the 2a elements has been obtained. On the other hand, by making the concentration of the complex forming agent (Cit 3- ) vary in the solution, we have a shift in the half wave potential from which we can deduce the stability constant of the complexe and its composition (BaCit - ; pK 1 =2). At last, nature and concentration of the supporting electrolyte (between 5.10 -2 M and 5M) have a determining influence on the extent of the polarogram plateau. This plateau is limited by an 'hollow effect' preceding the supporting electrolyte discharge. An interpretation of this effect is suggested which is based on the Stern model [fr

  5. Results of high intensity afterloading irradiation with 192 iridium in the therapy of genital tumors in women under different dose rates, fractionations and total doses in comparison with conventional radium contact irradiation. Ergebnisse der High-Intensity-Afterloadingbestrahlung mit 192 Iridium in der Therapie von Genitaltumoren der Frau unter verschiedenen Dosisleistungen, Fraktionierungen und Gesamtdosen im Vergleich mit konventioneller Radiumkontaktbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giers, G

    1986-05-07

    In comparison to conventional radium therapy are to be evaluated the results of the high intensity afterloading technique with the help of the parameters survial rate and complication rate. Thereby were included in the examination 4 documentations of results (collum, cervix stump, corpus and vaginal carcinoma) with altogether 742 patients with 2806 single irradiations and an evaluation of the therapy after several modifications of the therapy schemes. The 5-year survival rate was in the case of collum carcinoma: 68.4%, cervix stump: 50%, corpus carcinoma: 76%, and vaginal carcinoma: 66.6%. The corresponding 3-year survival rates were: 74.2%, 80%, 84% and 70% with primary irradiation. Only with cervix stump carcinoma were the values for post-operative irradiation. The description of the irradiation results showed, that with the changing of the fractionation mode and the dose level in collum and corpus carcinoma the irreversible complications as an expression of the success of a new therapy were reduced. The for now best suited therapy schema (fractionation and dosing) are described. (TRV).

  6. Removal of radium from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.R.; Masters, J.T.; Neven, M.

    1983-01-01

    Radium is often present in ores and an aqueous solution associated with the ore may consequently contain dissolved radium. It is frequently necessary to remove radium from such solutions to reduce the total radium content to a prescribed low level before the solution can be returned to the environment. The present invention is based on the discovery that the total radium content can be reduced to a satisfactory level within a reasonable time by adding a soluble barium salt to a radium-containing sulphate solution which also contains dissolved magnesium at a pH not greater than about 0 to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate, raising the pH to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate, and separating substantially all of the precipitates from the solution

  7. Determination of radium in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohorst, F.A.; Huntley, M.W.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    These detailed work instructions (DWIs) are tailored for the analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in drinking water supplies from ground water and surface water sources and composites derived from them. The instructions have been adapted from several sources, including a draft EPA method. One objective was to minimize the generation of mixed wastes. Quantitative determinations of actinium-228 are made at 911 keV. The minimum detection level (MDL) for the gamma spectrometric measurements at this energy vary with matrix, volume, geometry, detector, background, and counting statistics. The range of MDL`s for current detectors is 0.07 to 0.5 Bq/sample. Quantitative determinations of radium-226 are made by counting the high energy alpha particles which radium-226 progeny emit using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 3.8 E-3 Bq/sample. The maximum concentration which may be counted on available instruments without dilution is about 2 E + 5 Bq/sample. Typically, this determination of radium in a 2 L sample has a yield of 80%. If radium-228 is determined using a 16 h count after 50 h grow-in, the typical MDL is 1 E-9 to 8 E-9 {mu}Ci/mL (1 to 8 pCi/L). If radium-226 is determined using a 2.5 h count after 150 h grow-in, the typical MDA is about 1 E-10 {mu}Ci/mL (0. 1 pCi/L).

  8. Determination of radium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.; Huntley, M.W.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    These detailed work instructions (DWIs) are tailored for the analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in drinking water supplies from ground water and surface water sources and composites derived from them. The instructions have been adapted from several sources, including a draft EPA method. One objective was to minimize the generation of mixed wastes. Quantitative determinations of actinium-228 are made at 911 keV. The minimum detection level (MDL) for the gamma spectrometric measurements at this energy vary with matrix, volume, geometry, detector, background, and counting statistics. The range of MDL's for current detectors is 0.07 to 0.5 Bq/sample. Quantitative determinations of radium-226 are made by counting the high energy alpha particles which radium-226 progeny emit using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 3.8 E-3 Bq/sample. The maximum concentration which may be counted on available instruments without dilution is about 2 E + 5 Bq/sample. Typically, this determination of radium in a 2 L sample has a yield of 80%. If radium-228 is determined using a 16 h count after 50 h grow-in, the typical MDL is 1 E-9 to 8 E-9 μCi/mL (1 to 8 pCi/L). If radium-226 is determined using a 2.5 h count after 150 h grow-in, the typical MDA is about 1 E-10 μCi/mL (0. 1 pCi/L)

  9. Dose-effect relationships for the US radium dial painters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dose-response data are presented from a large percentage of the US workers who were exposed to radium through the painting of luminous dials. The data in this paper are only from females, because very few males worked in this occupation. Log-normal analyses were done for radium-induced bone sarcomas and head carcinomas after the populations of the respective doses were first determined to be log-normally distributed. These populations included luminisers who expressed no radium-related cancerous condition. In this study of the female radium luminisers, the most important data concerning radiation protection are probably from workers who were exposed to radium but showed no cancer incidence. A total of 1391 subjects with average measured skeletal doses below 10 Gy are in this category. A primary purpose is to illustrate the strong case that 226,228 Ra is representative of those radionuclides that exemplify in humans a 'threshold' dose, a dose below which there has been no observed health effects on the exposed individual. Application of a threshold dose for radium deposited in the skeleton does not mean to imply that any other source of skeletal irradiation should be considered to follow a similar pattern. Second, a policy issue that begs for attention is the economic consequence of forcing radiation to appear as a highly toxic insult. It is time to evaluate the data objectively instead of formatting the extrapolation scheme beforehand and forcing the data to fit a preconceived pattern such as linearity through the dose-effect origin. In addition, it is time to re-evaluate (again) variations in background radiation levels throughout the world and to cease being concerned with, and regulating against, miniscule doses for which no biomedical effects on humans have ever been satisfactorily identified or quantified. (author)

  10. Radium in consumer products: an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates in historical and technical perspective how radium began to be used in consumer products and how changing conditions in technology and regulations have greatly modified the use of radium. In addition, the various uses of radium that have been tried or have been used in consumer products have been described, and whenever possible, the historical perspective has been used to show when devices were needed and when changing conditions caused the products to be no longer required. The historical perspective attitude is again used in the evaluation of the risks and benefits of radium in comparison to radium substitutes

  11. The centenary of discovery of radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeron, J.-J.; Gerbaulet, A.

    1998-01-01

    Henri Becquerel presented the discovery of radium by Pierre and Marie Curie at the Paris Academy of Science on 26th December 1898. One century later, radium has been abandoned, mainly for radiation protection difficulties. It is, however, likely that modern techniques of brachytherapy have inherited to those designed for radium sources, and that radium has cured thousands and thousands patients all over the world for about eighty years. The history of discovery and medical use of radium is summarised. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Eye changes induced by radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.; Shabestari, Lorraine; Angus, Walter; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents some features of the radium induced eye syndrome observed in beagles, including the prominence of intraocular pigmentary lesions and compares these with the results of rodent studies (Onychomys leucogaster) featuring a heavily pigmented uvea, and with the radiation syndrome reported in humans. (author)

  13. Inspection of radium-needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekelenburg, L.H.M. van.

    1976-01-01

    A method for leak testing of a radium point source is given. The point source was placed for three days in a closed bottle containing 15 ml of scintillation liquid (Instagel). After removing the point source, the decrease in activity was measured over a 25 day period

  14. Prehistory of Z=88 radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwankner, R.J.; Schoeffl, P.; Lieckfeld, G.

    1994-01-01

    Radium discovery in tailings of early uranium industry was the beginning of its widespread use e.g. in research, medicine and luminous paint production. It is this development taking place in various fields as well as recent results of custodian radiometry, that will be subject of the presentation. (orig.) [de

  15. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Lin

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: The possibility of rare nasopharyngeal carcinoma should be considered in any pregnant woman with presenting symptoms of persistent headache and abnormal nasal discharge, and a detailed thorough investigation is indicated. Successful pregnancy outcome can be achieved after tailored use of a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  16. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  17. 1H-MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing temporal white matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after irradiation: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei Feng; Qiu, Shi Jun; Wang, Hong Zhuo; Lv, Xiao Fei

    2013-01-01

    To detect radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe normal-appearing white mater (NAWM) following radiation therapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Seventy-five H(1)-MR spectroscopy and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) examinations were performed in 55 patients before and after receiving fractionated radiation therapy (total dose; 66-75GY). We divided the dataset into six groups, a pre-RT control group and five other groups based on time after completion of RT. N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatine (Cr), Cho/Cr, mean diffusibility (MD), functional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusibility (λ(⊥)), and axial diffusibility (λ(||)) were calculated. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr decreased and λ(⊥) increased significantly within 1 year after RT compared with pre-RT. After 1 year, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and λ(⊥) were not significantly different from pre-RT. In all post-RT groups, FA decreased significantly. λ(||) decreased within 9 months after RT compared with pre-RT, but was not significantly different from pre-RT more than 9 months after RT. DTI and H(1)-MR spectroscopy can be used to detect early radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe NAWM following radiation therapy for NPC. Metabolic alterations and water diffusion characteristics of temporal lobe NAWM in patients with NPC after RT were dynamic and transient. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid by column leaching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esther Phillip; Muhamad Samudi Yasir

    2012-01-01

    In this study, evaluation of radium-226 removal from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid extracted from peat soil by column leaching method was carried out. Humic acid of concentration 100 ppm and pH 7 was leached through a column packed with radium-contaminated soil and leachates collected were analysed with gamma spectrometer to determine the leached radium-226. Results obtained indicated low removal of radium-226 between 1 - 4 %. Meanwhile, leaching profile revealed that radium-226 was bound to soil components with three different strength, thus resulting in three phases of radium-226 removal. It was estimated that the total removal of radium-226 from 10 g radium-contaminated soil sample studied could be achieved using approximately 31500 - 31850 ml HA solutions with leaching rate of 1 ml/ min. (author)

  19. Radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate on nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Clinical Laboratory, The 5th People's Hospital of Ji'nan, Ji'nan ... Purpose: To investigate the radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate (ETF) on naso-pharyngeal ... malignant solid tumors of head and neck which ... Excess irradiation could result in severe side .... protein bands were probed with corresponding.

  20. Determination of radium in urine; Dosage du radium dans l'urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourniguet, H; Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of radium in urine is described. The radium is carried by a barium sulfate precipitate. The precipitate is mixed with zinc sulfide and the activity measured by scintillation counting. It is thus possible to detect an amount of radium less than 1 pico-curie in the sample. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du radium dans l'urine. Le radium entraine par un precipite de sulfate de baryum est compte par scintillation apres melange du precipite avec du sulfure de zinc. Cette methode permet de deceler moins de 1 picocurie de radium dans l'echantillon. (auteur)

  1. Case report 361: Radium intoxication with radium-induced osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milgram, J.W.; Jasty, M.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a male patient was treated with radium chloride for arthritis involving both knees at a time when he had gonococcal urethritis. He was then 20 years of age and was followed until his death 40 years later at the age of 60 years. During that interval this individual, who possessed one of the largest burdens of radium ever recorded in man, developed spontaneous fractures of both femori and one humerus, symptomatic osteonecrosis of both femoral heads, dramatic progressive radiological findings of bone, and finally, a carcinoma of the maxillary sinus which proved to be the cause of his death. Tissue was obtained from both cortical and cancellous bone at four different times during the patient's life and again at post-mortem. Progressive ischemia with abnormal calcification and then necrosis of both bone and bone marrow were demonstrated in the skeletal tissues. The pathological chances are correlated superbly with the roentgenograms in this report.

  2. Unusual case of radium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Sha, J.Y.; Urnezis, P.W.; Hwang, E.Y.

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the body content, distribution, retention, and excretion rate of 226 Ra for a uranium mill worker who inhaled 226 Ra in an unknown form. Radium was retained in the lung with a biological half-life of 120 days, an the amount initially inhaled was estimated to be 180 +- 30 Bq. These values, combined with an observed radon retention factor of 71%, implied a 50-year dose commitment of 0.16 +- 0.04 Sv to the lung. Although it is believed that this case represents an isolated incident, it is possible that some uranium mill workers may form a contemporary population that is occupationally exposed to radium. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, B.L.; Letourneau, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    In the August 2, 1985, issue of JAMMA, Lyman et al claim to have shown an association between leukemia incidence in Florida and radium in groundwater supplies. Although cautious in their conclusions, the authors imply that this excess in leukemia was in fact caused by radiation. The authors believe they have not presented a convincing argument for causation. The radiation doses at these levels of exposure could account for only a tiny fraction of the leukemia excess

  4. Post irradiation eardrum: a rare complication of the radiotherapy of naso-pharynx carcinomas; Necrose tympanique postradique: une complication rare de la radiotherapie des carcinomes nasopharynges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siala, W.; Mnejja, W.; Daoud, J. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service de Radiotherapie Oncologique, Sfax (Tunisia); Khabir, A. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Sfax (Tunisia); Ghorbel, A. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' ORL, Sfax (Tunisia); Frikha, M. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    The eardrum necrosis is a serious and dreadful complication but rarely described after irradiation of cavum cancers. We report in this work five cases of eardrum necrosis after radiotherapy of nasopharynx carcinomas. Patients and methods: between february 1993 and december 2004 239 patients suffering of anon metastatic nasopharynx cancer have been treated by classical irradiation associated or not to a chemotherapy. The radiotherapy was delivered at the dose of 70 to 75 Gy in the cavum and the ganglions initially reached according a classical modality of hyperfractionated one. We analysed retrospectively the delayed complications occurred six months or more after the radiotherapy beginning. Results: Five cases of eardrum necrosis were reported sixty five months after the end of radiotherapy. these patients suffered of hypoacusia and buzzing. The clinical examination allowed to bring out the eardrum perforation that did not exist before radiotherapy. The total dose of irradiation was 75 Gy for a patient and 71.5 Gy according a hyperfractionated modality for four patients. Three patients had an hearing prosthesis in order to improve their quality of life. Conclusion: the eardrum necrosis after radiotherapy for nasopharynx cancer is a rare and unusual complication, very few reported in the literature. The total dose of irradiation is considered as the principal factor of occurrence risk in such complication. (N.C.)

  5. Radium issues at Hunters Point Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radium was a common source of illumination used in numerous instruments and gauges for military equipment prior to 1970. As a result of its many military applications radium 226 is now a principle radionuclide of concern at military base closures sites throughout the United States. This is an overview of the site characterization strategy employed and a potential site remediation technology being considered at a radium contaminated landfill at Hunters Point Annex, a former U.S. Navy shipyard in San Francisco, California

  6. Removal of radium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The traditional, proven process for radium removal are sodium ion exchange softening, lime softening, and reverse osmosis. The newer, radium-specific column processes include adsorption onto the Dow RSC and BaSO 4 -impregnated alumina. The most promising new radium-specific treatment process for large-scale use is adsorption onto preformed manganese dioxide followed by multimedia or diatomaceous earth filtration The disposal of radium-contaminated wastewaters and sludges from processes under consideration will be a major factor in process selection. The processes of choice for municipal water supply treatment to remove radium are sodium ion exchange softening, lime softening, manganese dioxide adsorption-filtration, and selective adsorption onto the Dow RSC or BaSO 4 -impregnated alumina. Where the water is brackish, reverse osmosis hyperfiltration should also be considered. The radium removal process of choice for whole-house or point-of-entry treatment is sodium ion exchange softening. For point-of-use radium removal, a standard reverse osmosis system including cartridge filtration, activated carbon adsorption, and reverse osmosis hyperfiltration is recommended. Although no cost estimates have been made, the relative costs from most expensive to least expansive, for radium removal in small community water supplies are reverse osmosis, sodium ion exchange softening, lime soda softening, manganese dioxide adsorption-filtration, and the radium-selective adsorbents. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Results of a Phase 2 Study Examining the Effects of Omitting Elective Neck Irradiation to Nodal Levels IV and V{sub b} in Patients With N{sub 0-1} Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian-zhou [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Han, Fei; Lu, Li-Xia; Huang, Shao-Min; Lin, Cheng-Guang; Deng, Xiao-Wu; Cui, Nian-Ji [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhao, Chong, E-mail: gzzhaochong@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure and toxicity in clinically negative necks of N{sub 0-1} nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) but did not receive elective neck irradiation (ENI) to level IV and V{sub b} nodes. Methods and Materials: We conducted a phase 2 prospective study in N{sub 0-1} NPC patients treated with IMRT. ENI included the retropharyngeal nodes and levels II to V{sub a} but omitted levels IV and V{sub b} in clinically negative necks. Patterns of nodal failure, regional control (RC), and late toxicity were evaluated. Results: Between 2001 and 2008, a total of 212 patients (128 N{sub 0} and 84 N{sub 1}) were enrolled in the study. Seven patients (4 in-field and 3 out-of-field) developed nodal failure. One patient (0.5%) developed nodal failure at level V{sub b}, but no patients developed nodal failure at level IV. The 5-year RC rates of the entire group, N{sub 0} patients and N{sub 1} patients were 95.6%, 98.2%, and 91.3%, respectively. Fifteen patients (7.1%) developed distant metastases. The 5-year distant failure-free survival (DFFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 91.4% and 89.8%, respectively. The rates of grade 2 or greater skin dystrophy, subcutaneous fibrosis and xerostomia were 6.2%, 16.6%, and 17.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The rate of out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI to levels IV and V{sub b} in clinically negative necks of patients with N{sub 0-1} NPC was extremely low; therefore, a further phase 3 study is warranted.

  8. Radium organisation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, D.R.; Negi, P.S.; Dutta, T.K.; Gupta, B.D.

    1977-01-01

    In India, the brachytherapy sources used are mostly 226 Ra, 137 Cs and 60 CO. Radiotherapy of patients with these sources may also result in some degree of radiation exposure of radiologists, technologists, radiation source porters and even other workers in rooms around radiotherapy unit. Proper organization of radiotherapy unit leads to accuracy in treatment and protection to patients as well as medical and paramedical personnel. With this objective in view, a set of instructions to be followed while working with radiation sources, particularly radium; guidelines for the physical layout of the unit and staffing and a list of essential monitoring instruments are given. (M.G.B.)

  9. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard H; Overwater RMW; Glastra P; Nissan LA; LSO

    2003-01-01

    The radium concentration was measured in 25 samples of harbour sludge taken from the Rijnmond area (Rotterdam harbours and the Nieuwe Waterweg) in 2002. High radium levels were found near the former discharge points of the phosphate ore processing plants, confirming the results of previous

  10. Reirradiation of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengyel, E.; Baricza, K.; Somogyi, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Olajos, J. [Dept. of Oncoradiology, Josa Andras Hospital, Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Papai, Z. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Goedeny, M. [Dept. of Radiology, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, G.; Esik, O. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Dept. of Oncotherapy, Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To study the efficacy of reirradiation as salvage treatment in patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Between 1993 and 2000, 20 consecutive patients (twelve males and eight females) with nasopharyngeal cancer, previously irradiated in different Hungarian institutions, were reirradiated for biopsy-proven locally recurrent tumor. Histologically, 85% of the patients had WHO type III, 5% type II, and 10% type I disease. Stages I-IV (AJCC 1997 staging system) were assigned to five (25%), seven (35%), five (25%), and three (15%) patients, respectively; none of them had distant metastases, and only eight (40%) displayed regional dissemination. The median time period between termination of primary treatment and local recurrence was 30 (range, 10-204) months. Brachytherapy was the method most frequently used: in ten cases alone (especially for rT1 tumors), and in eight cases in combination with external beam therapy. Two patients with locally advanced disease underwent external beam therapy only. The median dose in the event of brachytherapy alone was 20 Gy (4 x 5 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy, range, 16-36 Gy), and the dose range for exclusive external irradiation was 30-40 Gy. In cases of combined irradiation, a median 20-Gy brachytherapy (range 16-40 Gy) was associated with 30-40 Gy of external irradiation. Radiotherapy was supplemented by neck dissection (six patients), nasopharyngectomy (one patient), or chemotherapy (eleven patients). Results: 16 patients were reirradiated once, three twice, and one patient three times, with a median equivalent dose for tumor effect of 36 Gy (mean, 44 Gy; range, 19-117 Gy; the estimated {alpha}/{beta}-ratio was 10 Gy). The median equivalent dose of reirradiation for late effect on normal tissue (with an estimated 70% delivery of the tumor dose) amounted to 30 Gy (mean, 37 Gy; range, 13-101 Gy, estimated {alpha}/{beta}-ratio 3 Gy). After a median follow-up of 37 (range, 12-72) months, the overall

  11. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.; Lyman, C.G.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established

  12. BRCC3 acts as a prognostic marker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy and mediates radiation resistance in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Ziwei; Xu, Bingqing; Qu, Chen; Tao, Yalan; Chen, Chen; Hua, Wenfeng; Feng, Guokai; Chang, Hui; Liu, Zhigang; Li, Guo; Jiang, Changbin; Yi, Wei; Zeng, Musheng; Xia, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    BRCC3 has been found to be aberrantly expressed in breast tumors and involved in DNA damage response. The contribution of BRCC3 to nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognosis and radiosensitivity is still unclear. Immunohistochemical analysis of BRCC3 was carried out in 100 nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, and the protein level was correlated to patient survival. BRCC3 expression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines was determined by Western-blotting and real-time PCR. Additionally, the effects of BRCC3 knockdown on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell clongenic survival, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle distribution after irradiation was assessed. The BRCC3 protein level was inversely correlated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient overall survival (P < 0.001) and 3-year loco-regional relapse-free survival (P = 0.034). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that BRCC3 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.010). The expression of BRCC3 was much higher in radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells than in radiosensitive cells. Knockdown of BRCC3 increased the cell survival fraction, attenuated DNA damage repair and resulted in G2/M cell cycle arrest in radioresistant NPC cells. High BRCC3 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients is associated with poor survival. BRCC3 knockdown could abate the radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. These findings suggest the utility of BRCC3 as a prognostic biomarker and novel target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  13. General Information about Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer . Ethnic background and being exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus can affect the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor . Having a risk ...

  14. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  15. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  16. Central nervous system tumours and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1989-01-01

    Among female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of fatal brain or central nervous system tumours. A significant excess did appear, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumours outside of the brain was observed, consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Excess tumours of the eye, pituitary or pineal did not occur. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. (author)

  17. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  18. The Environmental Behaviour of Radium: Revised Ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    A number of industrial activities produce residues containing either uranium or thorium series radionuclides or both. These include the mining and milling of uranium and of other metalliferous and non-metallic ores; the production of coal, oil and gas; the extraction and purification of water; and the production of industrial minerals such as phosphates. Residues from such activities have become of increasing interest from a radiological impact assessment point of view in recent years and isotopes of radium are often of particular interest in such assessments. The IAEA attaches high importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the implementation and improvement of activities related to radiation safety standards, including management of radioactive residues containing natural radionuclides, such as radium isotopes. In 1990, the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 310 (TRS 310), The Environmental Behaviour of Radium. Since the publication of TRS 310, a considerable number of publications related to the environmental behaviour of radium have appeared in the literature. It was therefore considered timely to produce a replacement report providing up to date information on key transfer processes, concepts and models that are important in radiological assessments and environmental applications of radium. This report outlines radium behaviour in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. The primary objective of the report is to provide IAEA Member States with information for use in the radiological assessment of accidental releases and routine discharges of radium in the environment, and in remediation planning for areas contaminated by radium. Additionally, applications of radium isotopes as tracers of environmental processes are discussed.

  19. The Environmental Behaviour of Radium: Revised Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    A number of industrial activities produce residues containing either uranium or thorium series radionuclides or both. These include the mining and milling of uranium and of other metalliferous and non-metallic ores; the production of coal, oil and gas; the extraction and purification of water; and the production of industrial minerals such as phosphates. Residues from such activities have become of increasing interest from a radiological impact assessment point of view in recent years and isotopes of radium are often of particular interest in such assessments. The IAEA attaches high importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the implementation and improvement of activities related to radiation safety standards, including management of radioactive residues containing natural radionuclides, such as radium isotopes. In 1990, the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 310 (TRS 310), The Environmental Behaviour of Radium. Since the publication of TRS 310, a considerable number of publications related to the environmental behaviour of radium have appeared in the literature. It was therefore considered timely to produce a replacement report providing up to date information on key transfer processes, concepts and models that are important in radiological assessments and environmental applications of radium. This report outlines radium behaviour in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. The primary objective of the report is to provide IAEA Member States with information for use in the radiological assessment of accidental releases and routine discharges of radium in the environment, and in remediation planning for areas contaminated by radium. Additionally, applications of radium isotopes as tracers of environmental processes are discussed

  20. Antinuclear antibodies in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Masuda, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshizaki, T.; Umeda, R. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    We studied the production of heterophile antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the sera of 50 patients, 20 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 30 with other head and neck cancers (laryngeal cancer and maxillary cancer), before and after radiation therapy. A higher incidence of ANAs was found in the sera of patients with NPC and ANA production in these patients was higher after radiation therapy. We therefore performed in vitro experiments to explore the mechanisms of ANA production in the serum of postirradiated NPC patients. X-ray-irradiated NPC-derived cells (NPC-KT) produced a large amount of Epstein-Barr virus (NPC EBV) compared with non-irradiated NPC-KT cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV-infected lymphocytes produced high levels of ANAs. These data suggest that lymphocytes infected by EBV from NPC cells may produce ANAs in the sera of NPC patients.

  1. Radium removal from Australian spa waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, B.L.; Meakins, R.L.; Bland, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolved radium content of some mineral spring waters in Victoria and Queensland has been found to exceed the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water. Activities in excess of 40 pCi/1 were measured in some bottles. Studies revealed that the dissolved radium content decreased markedly if the spring water was aerated and filtered prior to bottling. The sediment removed contained ferric hydroxide which is a natural scavenging agent for radium. The formation of such sediments in storage tanks and their removal prior to bottling may create a possible radiation hazard

  2. Radium removal from Canadian uranium mining effluents by a radium-selective ion exchange complexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    A laboratory test program was initiated by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program to investigate the applicability of a radium-selective ion exchange complexer for removing radium from Canadian uranium mining effluents. The ion exchange complexer was shown to be efficient in removing radium from contaminated water of uranium mining operations, with the ultimate loading capacity of the resin on one type of water treated being determined as approximately 1,600 Bq/cm 3 of new resin. The results showed that the resin was effective in removing radium but not any other contaminants

  3. A clinical study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Zenya; Wada, Tetsuro; Senarita, Masamitsu

    1999-01-01

    Forty-four patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, treated in Tsukuba University Hospital between March 1988 and March 1998, were reviewed in order to assess the adequacy of our treatment protocol. Most of the cases except 5 were histologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma including 25 of lymphoepithelioma (poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma). Thirty-two out of 39 squamous cell carcinoma cases have fallen into Stage IV category (UICC, 1987) , and all of the non-squamous cell carcinoma cases were also categorized as Stage IV. The basic protocol for nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was the combination of full-dose irradiation and chemotherapy using cisplatin/carboplatin and peplomycin. The metastatic cervical lymphnodes in 9 cases, too massive to control by this treatment, were surgically dissected after the treatment. Recurrence was noted in 9 cases who were rehospitalized and salvaged medically and/or surgically. As a consequence, the overall 5-year survival rate was 71.4% for squamous cell carcinoma. On the other hand, only one of the 5 non-squamous cell carcinoma cases died of the disease. (author)

  4. Study on change of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ling; Chen Jiaxin; Zhang Lixiang; Wang Tiejian; Han Min; Lu Xiaoling

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible changes of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 48 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving primary conventional external beam irradiation were examined before and after radiotherapy to determine their brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP), short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SLSEP) and pattern reversal visual-evoked potential (PRVEP). Results: In comparison with the conditions before radiotherapy, in different periods after radiotherapy abnormal peak latency and interval latency difference were found in BAEP, SLSEP and PRVEP. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy may cause abnormal function of nerve conduction in early periods, which can be showed by BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP, and injury can be timely detected if the three evoked potentials are used together. Thus authors suggest BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP should be examined in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients during and after the radiotherapy so as to find early damage in auditory somatosensory and visual conduction pathways

  5. Recent cases of radium-induced malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brues, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Five cases of malignant disease attributed to radium in patients with measured body burdens have been discovered since 1974, including three bone sarcomas and two mastoid carcinomas. Pertinent findings in these cases are summarized here

  6. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  7. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of 210 Pb and 210 Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas

  8. Recent cases of radium-induced malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Three cases of malignant disease attributed to radium in patients with measured body burdens have been observed since 1978 - one paranasal sinus carcinoma, one mastoid carcinoma, and one fibrosarcoma of bone. These cases are summarized here. 4 references

  9. Overview of radium legacies in Belgium - 59367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehandschutter, B.; Jadoul, L.; Mannaerts, K.; Pepin, S.; Poffijn, A.; Blommaert, W.; Sonck, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Belgian metallurgical company, Union Miniere, has been a key-player in the sector of radium production between 1922 and 1969. The factory based in Olen has extracted radium from minerals and produced radium sources during that period. The radium production facilities have been dismantled in the 70's but legacies of the former production have still to be remediated. An overview of these legacies and of their radiological characteristics will be given. Next to the sites related to radium production, other radium legacies are related to NORM industries, essentially from the phosphate sector (phosphogypsum and CaF 2 stacks). The issue of radium legacies in Belgium encompasses a variety of concrete situations. Next to the issue of the legacies of the former radium production, the other radium contaminated sites are related to current or former NORM industries, especially from the phosphate sector. The methodological and regulatory approaches towards these sites have been described elsewhere in these proceedings. The outcome differs according to the specificities of the site: it will not be the same for the legacies of former radium production where the inventory of radioactivity includes materials which have to be considered and treated as radioactive waste (for example, disused radium sources) than for phosphogypsum stacks where a sufficient level of protection may be brought by relatively simple measures such as restrictions on the use of the site. For these sites, like PG stacks, where radon is the most important exposure pathway in case of intrusion scenario, regulatory measures similar to the ones applied to 'radon-prone areas' (restrictions in the construction of buildings, compulsory radon monitoring in workplaces present on the site,...) may be implemented. In all cases, the radiological risk-assessment will be crucial for the decision-making process. The examples given showed that the probability of occurrence of 'intrusion scenario' (like construction of

  10. Dosimetry of head carcinomas in radium cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.; Harris, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Dose rate calculations, combined with observations of tissue dimensions, lead to the conclusion that radon and its daughters in the airspace produce a greater dose rate in the mastoid air cell epithelium, the tissue at risk for mastoid carcinomas in radium cases, than do radium and its daughters in bone. As the conclusion is based on limited tissue data, assumed values for the radioactivity in bone and airspace, and a number of important assumptions, it must be considered tentative

  11. Personal characteristics relating to radium loss over a decade or more in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Jansen, A.; Kotek, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Personal habits and biological characteristics of 42 female Illinois radium workers first employed during the 1920s were analyzed in relationship to radium loss in late adult life. The 42 women met the criteria that they first were examined between 1957 and 1969 and are no longer employed, have had two or more radium body-burden measurements by gamma spectroscopy, 10-year minimum interval exists between initial and final measurements, and exhibit a RaC body burden in 1970 or later of ≥.137 kBQ. High radium body burdens are associated with decreased rates of radium elimination, as previously described. However, the most powerful predictor was coffee/tea consumption, increased consumption being associated with increased rates of radium elimination and explaining ∼35% of the variance. The effect persisted after deletion of smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of bone damage. Weight/height ratios were positively associated with radium excretion. Individuals smoking cigarettes throughout the study period had significantly low rates of elimination of radium, similar to subjects with x-ray evidence of significant radiation-induced bone damage. Both smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of radiation damage to bone had low weight/height ratios, suggesting that biological promoters of radiation damage to bone may exist. Rates of radium elimination were significantly associated with (linear) bone density, demonstrating that rates of loss of radium cannot be assumed to be independent of adult or postmenopausal bone density losses. Number of children and age of menopause did not have demonstrable effects on radium elimination. 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Personal characteristics relating to radium loss over a decade or more in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Kotek, T.J.; Jansen, A.

    1987-01-01

    Personal habits and biological characteristics of 42 female Illinois radium workers first employed during the 1920s were analyzed in relationship to radium loss in late adult life. The 42 women met the following criteria: (1) first examined between 1957 and 1969, and no longer employed; (2) two or more radium body-burden measurements by gamma spectroscopy; (3) 10-year minimum interval between initial and final measurements; and (4) a RaC body burden in 1970 or later of ≥0.137 kBq. High radium body burdens were significantly associated with decreased rates of radium elimination; however, the most powerful predictor was coffee/tea consumption (p<.005), increased consumption being associated with increased rates of radium elimination and explaining ∼35% of the variance. The effect persisted after deletion of smokers and subjects with X-ray evidence of bone damage. Weight/height ratios were positively associated with radium excretion (p<.025). Smokers throughout the study period had significantly low rates of elimination of radium, similar to subjects with X-ray evidence of significant radiation-induced bone damage. Both smokers and subjects with X-ray evidence of radiation damage to bone had low weight/height ratios, suggesting that biological promoters of radiation damage to bone may exist. Rates of radium elimination were significantly associated with bone density, demonstrating that rates of loss of radium cannot be assumed to be independent of adult or postmenopausal bone density losses. Parity and age of menopause did not demonstrably affect radium elimination. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  13. Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezyar, E.; Atahan, I.L.; Akyol, F.H.; Guerkaynak, M.; Zorlu, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1989, 23 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients presenting with cranial nerve involvement (CNI) of one or more nerves at the time of diagnosis were treated and followed-up in our department. All patients were irradiated with curative intent, and total doses of 50 to 70 Gy (median 65 Gy) were delivered to the nasopharynx. Cranial nerves VI, III, V, IV, IX, and XII were the most commonly involved nerves. The total response rate of cranial nerves was 74% in a median follow-up time of 2 years, with the highest rate observed in the third and sixth cranial nerves. All complete responses except two were observed in the first month after radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Radium-226 and radium-228 in shallow ground water, southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total radium (the sum of radium-226 and radium-228) and gross alpha-particle activities in drinking water that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) are known to cause cancer. Results of investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) indicate that concentrations of total radium in water samples from 33 percent of 170 wells in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in southern New Jersey exceeded the MCL of 5 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) (fig. 1). Wells containing water in which concentrations of total radium were greater than the MCL typically are found where the Bridgeton Formation crops out, in or near an agricultural area, where ground water is acidic (pH less than 5), and where nitrate concentrations generally exceed 5 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Leaching of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium from agricultural chemicals (fertilizer, lime) applied to cropland may increase the mobility of radium in ground water. Gross alphaparticle activities exceeded the USEPA MCL of 15 pCi/L in water from 14 percent of 127 wells. A statistically significant 2:1 ratio between gross alpha-particle activity and concentration of total radium indicates that gross alpha-particle activity can be used as a screening tool to predict the presence of water that may have a high total-radium concentration.

  15. Real time near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Lim Chwee; Gangodu, Nagaraja Rao; Loh, Thomas; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Jianfeng; Lin, Kan; Zhiwei, Huang

    2017-07-25

    Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy has been investigated as a tool to differentiate nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) from normal nasopharyngeal tissue in an ex-vivo setting. Recently, we have miniaturized the fiber-optic Raman probe to investigate its utility in real time in-vivo surveillance of NPC patients. A posterior probability model using partial linear square (PLS) mathematical technique was constructed to verify the sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy in diagnosing NPC from post-irradiated and normal tissue using a diagnostic algorithm from three significant latent variables. NIR-Raman signals of 135 sites were measured from 79 patients with either newly diagnosed NPC (N = 12), post irradiated nasopharynx (N = 37) and normal nasopharynx (N = 30). The mean Raman spectra peaks identified differences at several Raman peaks at 853 cm-1, 940 cm-1, 1078 cm-1, 1335 cm-1, 1554 cm-1, 2885 cm-1 and 2940 cm-1 in the three different nasopharyngeal conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of distinguishing Raman signatures among normal nasopharynx versus NPC and post-irradiated nasopharynx versus NPC were 91% and 95%; and 77% and 96% respectively. Real time near-infrared Raman spectroscopy has a high specificity in distinguishing malignant from normal nasopharyngeal tissue in vivo, and may be investigated as a novel non-invasive surveillance tool in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer.

  16. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma treated with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, benign, locally aggressive tumor, affecting boys of adolescent age. The aggressiveness and high vascularity makes surgery and even a biopsy difficult in majority of cases. Although surgery is the treatment of choice in early cases, considerable debate exists regarding the treatment of advanced disease with intracranial extension. Radiotherapy provides a good response and also avoids surgery-associated morbidity. We are herewith reporting a case of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who showed complete hemostasis and improvement in vision to radiotherapy

  17. Conditioning experience for spent radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, I. S.; Shon, J. S.; Kim, K. J.; Min, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this paper is to apply the technology that was adapted by IAEA for the conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in member states, as a part of IAEA's project with the Korean expert team. This paper is the result that the Korean expert team carried out spent radium conditioning, under the project title 'Radium Conditioning in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. The whole inventory of spent radium sources 1,429.5mCi, was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer and the control of Myanmar authority on behalf of Myanmar. These sources were encapsuled and welded into 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 concrete-shielded drums. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500mCi, 459.5mCi, and 470mCi

  18. The environmental behaviour of radium. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an up to date review of the environmental behaviour of radium, including methods for analysis, assessment and control. The need for a reference text on the subject was identified at an early stage of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on radium behaviour in relation to uranium mining and milling wastes. This publication deals with the sources, properties, environmental behaviour and the methods of analysis, control and assessment of 226 Ra. It is an outgrowth of Agency programmes directed towards the environmental problems involved in uranium mining and milling. The emphasis in several of the sections reflects these origins. For example, many of the contributions in Volume 2 of this report on technologically enhanced sources of radium (Part 1), methods of control and abatement (Part 2) and the impact on man (Part 3) are concerned with uranium mining and milling. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Survey of medical radium installations in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapert, A.C.; Lea, W.L.

    1975-05-01

    A radiation protection survey was performed at 70 medical radium installations in the State of Wisconsin. The requirements of the State's Radiation Protection Code were used as survey criteria. Radiation measurements of radium storage containers, radium capsule leakage tests, and monitoring of work surfaces for contamination were performed. Film badge monitoring data of whole body and extremity doses are presented for 221 individuals at 17 hospitals. Whole body doses during single treatments ranged from 10 to 1360 mrems per individual. The estimate of 500 mrems per treatment was determined as the dose aggregate to hospital personnel. Whole body doses from film badges are compared with analogous TLD doses. Four physicians and six technicians at nine hospitals participated in a study for monitoring the extremities with TLD. Cumulative extremity doses ranged from 28 to 6628 mrems per participant during the study. (U.S.)

  20. The environmental behaviour of radium. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an up to date review of the environmental behaviour of radium, including methods for analysis, assessment and control. The need for a reference text on the subject was identified at an early stage of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on radium behaviour in relation to uranium mining and milling wastes, which began in 1976. There were two CRPs: (1) The Source, Distribution, Movement and Deposition of Radium in Inland Waterways and Aquifers (1976-1980; final report: IAEA-TECDOC-301, published in 1984). (2) The Environmental Migration of Radium and Other Contaminants Present in Liquid and Solid Wastes from the Mining and Milling of Uranium (1981-1985; final report: IAEA-TECDOC-370, published in 1986). This publication deals with the sources, properties, environmental behaviour and the methods of analysis, control and assessment of 226 Ra. It is an outgrowth of Agency programmes directed towards the environmental problems involved in uranium mining and milling. The emphasis in several of the sections reflects these origins. For example, many of the contributions in Volume 2 of this report on technologically enhanced sources of radium (Part 1), methods of control and abatement (Part 2) and the impact on man (Part 3) are concerned with uranium mining and milling. In Volume 1, coverage of the natural distribution (Part 2), analytical methods (Part 3), environmental migration (Part 4) and biological uptake (Part 5), is more general. It is likely that the reader will find the information needed on the environmental behaviour of radium in this report, or will at least find references to other, more appropriate, texts contained in it. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Radiation exposure from radium-226 ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, D.H.; Fenyves, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of radium to total radiation exposure resulting from the consumption of natural levels of 226 Ra in several public water supplies in an Oklahoma county was determined. A pilot-level study of total dietary intake indicated that the culinary use of water anomalously high in radium and the consumption of water-based beverages contributed significantly to radiation exposure. The mean dietary intake of 226 Ra was 20.6 pCi/day in one community and resulted in an estimated bone dose of 310 mrem/year

  2. Track detection methods of radium measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-06-01

    The principles of tack formation and processing including the description of etching and etch-track evaluation for the preferably used plastic track detectors are discussed. Measuring methods to determine 226 Ra activity based either on the mapping of alpha-decaying elements in the complete U-Ra series by alpha-radiography, or on the measurement of uranium alone by neutron induced fissionography, or on the alpha-decay measurement of 222 Rn, the first daughter element of radium, and finally on the measurement of alpha-tracks originating from radium itself, which is separated from its parent nuclides are described in detail. (V.N.)

  3. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  4. Comparison of radiological changes in humans exposed to radium and in beagle dogs injected with radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Kirsh, J.E.; Pool, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Data from MIT and New Jersey studies were combined with data from the Center for Human Radiobiology, Argonne National Laboratory, to create a material of 2259 persons occupationaly exposed to radium. The population studied consisted of radium-dial painters, radium chemists, and persons who had received radium in past years in attempts to treat various medical conditions. Within a colony of beagle dogs at the LEHR, UCD, which received eight semi-monthly injections of 226 Ra were 28 dogs that received a dosage of 80 to 130 times maximum permissible skeletal burden for man (0.1 μCi 226 Ra). The intravenous injections of 226 Ra began at 435 days of age

  5. Occurrence of mammary tumors in beagls given radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.; Huth, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A total of 128 primary mammary tumors (66 of them malignant) occurred in 35 female beagles injected with 226 Ra at eight dose levels ranging from 0.2 to 440 kBq/kg body mass as young adults, while a total of 156 mammary tumors (57 of them malignant) were seen in 46 female control beagles not given any radioactivity. Sixty-three of 65 control dogs and 59 of 61 dogs given 226 Ra survived the minimum age for diagnosis of mammary tumors of 3.75 years. Based on the observed age-dependent tumor incidence rates in the controls and on the corresponding number of dog-years at risk, the total number of observed malignant tumors in the radium group was statistically greater than the number of expected malignant tumors (66 observed vs 34 expected, P < 0.005). There was no such difference for the benign tumors. Cox regression analysis indicated no increased risk for the first tumor occurrence in irradiated dogs. Cox regression analysis of the multivariate risk sets showed no significantly increased risk for the occurrence of benign tumors but a statistically higher risk of 1.66 with a confidence interval of 1.15-2.40 for the occurrence of malignant tumors. The increased risk was dependent on dose, but a dependence on the frequency of previous occurrence of mammary tumors could not be confirmed. Censoring ovariectomized dogs at time of surgery decreased the relative risks slightly but did not alter the significance. Exposure to diagnostic X rays with cumulative exposures below 0.2 Gy had no effect on tumor formation. It is unknown whether the increased risk for malignant mammary tumors was due to some initial deposition of radium in sensitive tissue, a possible irradiation of fatty mammary tissue from transient radon → polonium deposition, or a general effect of the overall radium deposition on the immune system of the dogs that lowered their resistance to formation of mammary tumors. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Radium, for the best and the worst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudia, S.

    1998-01-01

    This digest paper describes how radium became a common constituent of consumer products (medicines, beauty creams, soaps, tooth-pastes, mineral waters etc..) a few years after its discovery. Its use in France was prohibited only in the 1970's. (J.S.)

  7. Conditioning technology of spent radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, K. J.; Jang, K. D.

    2001-03-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this report is to understand well and apply the technology that was applied in conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in Myanmar, as a part of IAEA's project by the Korean expert team. The report is the result that the Korean expert team carried out in Myanmar under the project title 'Radium Conditioning Service in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. As a result of the mission, a whole inventory, 1,429.5 mCi of spent radium sources was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer, Mr. Al-Mughrabi, and under the control of DAE authority. These sources were encapsuled in 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 packages. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500, 459.5, and 470 mCi

  8. Radioresistance-related signaling pathways in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya; Zhu Xiaodong; Qu Song; Su Fang; Wang Qi; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the difference of gene expression profile between the radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and CNE-2, and to screen the signaling pathway associated with radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R was constructed from the original cell line CNE-2. CNE-2R and CNE-2 cells were cultured and administered with 60 Co γ-ray irradiation at the dose of 400 cGy for 15 times. Human-6v 3.0 whole genome expression profile was used to screen the differentially expressed genes. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the pathways related to radioresistance. Results: The number of the differentially expressed genes that were found in these 2 experiments was 374. The Kegg pathway and Biocarta pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed the biological importance of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1 R-mediated signal transduction pathway to the radioresistance of the CNE-2R cells and the significant differences of 13 genes in these 2 pathways,including JUN, MYD88, CCL5, CXCL10, STAT1, LY96, FOS, CCL3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IRAK2 (t=13.47-66.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1R-mediated signal transduction pathway might be related to the occurrence of radioresistance. (authors)

  9. Microdistribution of radium 226 in the beagle skeleton and the resulting radiation dose to the target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The microdistribution of radium 226 in bone sections of beagle dogs, receiving a single injection of 355 or 37 kBq/kg body weight, was analysed by means of a photometric scanning technique. The animals were sacrificed at 5-3000 days post-injection. Time dependence of the concentration of radium 226 was measured in lumbar vertebra and proximal ulnar bones. Hotspot/diffuse ratios, fraction of activity in hotspots and local radiation dose rates to lining cells and hit frequencies to cell nuclei were also determined. Intense irradiation in the high level animals led to abnormal bone formation not observed at the lower level. (author)

  10. Removal method of radium in mine water by filter sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Tomihiro; Naganuma, Masaki

    2003-01-01

    Trace radium is contained in mine water from the old mine road in Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC. We observed that filter sand with hydrated manganese oxide adsorbed radium in the mine water safely for long time. The removal method of radium by filter sand cladding with hydrated manganese oxide was studied. The results showed that radium was removed continuously and last for a long time from mine water with sodium hypochlorite solution by passing through the filter sand cladding with hydrated manganese. Only sodium hypochlorite solution was used. When excess of it was added, residue chlorine was used as chlorine disinfection. Filter sand cladding with hydrated manganese on the market can remove radium in the mine water. The removal efficiency of radium is the same as the radium coprecipitation method added with barium chloride. The cost is much lower than the ordinary methods. Amount of waste decreased to about 1/20 of the coprecipitation method. (S.Y.)

  11. Bone sarcoma in humans induced by radium: A threshold response?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The radium 226 and radium 228 have induced malignancies in the skeleton (primarily bone sarcomas) of humans. They have also induced carcinomas in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. There is no evidence that any leukemias or any other solid cancers have been induced by internally deposited radium. This paper discuses a study conducted on the dial painter population. This study made a concerted effort to verify, for each of the measured radium cases, the published values of the skeletal dose and the initial intake of radium. These were derived from body content measurements made some 40 years after the radium intake. Corrections to the assumed radium retention function resulted in a considerable number of dose changes. These changes have changed the shape of the dose response function. It now appears that the induction of bone sarcomas is a threshold process

  12. Nasopharyngeal cancer through maxillary swing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Ojeda, Luis; Chicaiza Acosta, Jorge; Ulloa Miranda, Darwin

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer is very rare in Ecuador. Radiotherapy associated to concurrent chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. In case of tumor recurrence, these two treatment modalities are usually not effective. For this reason, several studies about the satisfactory results of salvage surgery in terms of locoregional control of the disease, have appeared recently in the literature. We report our first experience of surgical salvage resection of a recurrent tumor through an anterolateral approach (maxillary swing) with an initial satisfactory result. (The author)

  13. MRI in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, S.H.; Ko, S.F.; Wan, Y.L.; Chang, J.T.C.; Chen, W.C.; Tang, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the MRI features of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in 72 patients who underwent MRI before and after gadolinium injection. Recurrent NPC exhibited a high degree of regional spread and a variety of signal intensities and contours. MRI showed a nasopharyngeal mass in 50 patients (69.4 %); other sites of involvement included the parapharyngeal space (44.4 %), nasal cavity (12.5 %), paranasal sinuses (27.8 %), oropharynx (4.2 %), orbit (8.3 %), infratemporal fossa (18.1 %), skull base (59.8 %), intracranial area (51.4 %) and regional lymph nodes (15.3 %). On T2-weighted images, the nasopharyngeal mass gave high signal in 9 of 50 cases (18 %), intermediate in 27 (54 %), mixed in 8 (16 %) and low signal in 6 (12 %). Contrast enhancement was strong in 12 cases (24 %), moderate in 29 (58 %) and heterogeneous in 9 (18 %). The lesion was convex in 31 cases (62 %) and concave or straight in 19 (38 %). Recognition of the distribution and the appearance of recurrent NPC on MRI is essential for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  14. Are nasopharyngeal structures really symmetric?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Keiichi

    1990-01-01

    Asymmetry of nasopharyngeal structure in CT scans, such as blunting of the lateral pharyngeal recesses (LPR, fossa of Rosenmuller) and depression of the parapharyngeal space, is regarded as an essential sign in the diagnosis of malignancies or aggressive inflammatory processes. The rate of nasopharyngeal symmetry, however, has been rarely reported so far. I examined axial CT scans of the nasopharynx of 220 patients who did not have any complaints of the nasopharynx or oropharynx. LPR, tube orifices, torus tubarius, intrapharyngeal muscles, paranasopharyngeal spaces, and deeper musculofacial planes were examined. The asymmetry rates were 17.8%, 15.8%, 16.8%, 3.7%, 5.5%, and 8.0% respectively. The former three superficial landmarks were more often asymmetric than the latter three plane tissues. There were no differences in symmetry between patients with histories of sinus surgery or facial fracture and others. The loss of symmetry of the nasopharyngeal structures, not only the deeper ones, but the superficial ones, seems to be a useful sign in differentiating the recalcitrant pathologies. (author)

  15. Radiation-induced neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Wang Rensheng; Gan Langge; Liu Wenqi; Zhang Yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the post-irradiation neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its related factors. Methods: A total of 267 patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy with D T 50-72 Gy on the neck a half year to 10 years ago were observed for the changes of cervical shape and functions. Results: Different degrees of post-irradiation neck fibrosis were seen in all patients. The rate of heavy degree of neck radiation fibrosis was 24.34 %, and it was 2.74% when received preventive dose on the neck. There was a very significant difference between patients who received late course of tangential irradiation on the neck and those who didn't receive (P=0.0001). The incidence of post-irradiation neck fibrosis didn't increase when patients received radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy (P=0.2678). The function of cervical muscles turned weak in patients received radiotherapy delivered by 6 MV accelerator in late course of tangential irradiation, whereas skin damage was severer in patients treated with 60 Co γ-rays. Conclusions: The incidence of heavy degree of post-irradiation neck fibrosis is high ,and is related closely to late course of tangential irradiation. The authors should avoid adopting this sort of irradiation on the neck. (authors)

  16. Applications of Radium Isotopes to Ocean Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, W. S. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2013-07-15

    With half-lives ranging from 3.7 days to 1600 a, naturally occurring radium isotopes have been used to study a variety of processes in the ocean. New techniques, which allow rapid analyses of the short lived isotopes, {sup 224}Ra (half-life = 3.7 days) and {sup 223}Ra (half-life = 11 days), have lead to many novel ways to apply radium to oceanography. This paper will focus on how the use of these isotopes has led to breakthroughs in quantifying: (1) the residence time of water in estuaries, (2) coastal ocean mixing rates and (3) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). With this new understanding of rates and fluxes in the near shore environment, scientists and coastal managers are now able to evaluate sources of nutrients, carbon, and metals and their impact on the coastal ocean. For example, it is now known that SGD rivals rivers as a nutrient source to many coastal environments. (author)

  17. Radium needles implant in the treatment of extensive vaginal involvement from cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewchand, W.; Prempree, T.; Patanaphan, V.; Carbone, D.; Salazar, O.M.

    1984-01-01

    An appraisal of the dosimetry of a modified brachytherapy approach is presented for improving the local control of extensive vaginal involvement from carcinoma of the cervix. This approach incorporates radium needles implant to the vaginal disease in conjunction with the usual routine intracavitary radium application. The aim of the interstitial implant is specifically to supplement the dose to the vaginal disease from the intracavitary application. Our procedure for accomplishing this boost in the dose to the vagina depends on the location, extent and thickness of the vaginal lesion following external beam irradiation of the whole pelvis. An increase of greater than 50% in the dose to the vaginal disease is gained by this combination intracavitary/implant approach which has been used in a variety of cases covering virtually all pertinent stages of cervical carcinoma. Discussion of the dosimetry of example cases is presented to demonstrate the value of combining interstitial and intracavitary therapy for this specific clinical application. (orig.)

  18. Three cases of temporal bone osteoradionecrosis after nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamatodani, Takashi; Mizuta, Kunihiro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Kumiko; Hosokawa, Seiji; Mineta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis is most commonly caused by radiation-induced injury. We report on 3 cases of temporal bone necrosis that occurred after chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma performed more than 10 years previously. Case 1 was a 42-year-old woman who had nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 1991. The patient underwent chemoradiotherapy (70 Gy total) in 1991, and gamma knife irradiation (20 Gy) in 1998 for local recurrence. The bone in the posterior wall of the left external auditory canal began to be exposed in 2003. Otorrhea from the left ear increased and we found a skin defect and ulcer formation in the postauricular region. We performed radical mastoidectomy and debridement on April, 2010. The area of the defect was covered and filled in with a pedicle musculoperiosteal flap. The intra-aural skin became dry in 6 months, however, she lost consciousness due to a temporal lobe abscess and underwent an emergency operation on April, 2011. After operation, the patient recovered with no neurological symptoms and infections up to the present date. Case 2 was a 58-year-old man who had nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 2001. The patient underwent chemoradiotherapy (66 Gy total) in 2001, and X knife irradiation (15 Gy) 3 months later due to the remaining tumor. The left posterior ear canal wall collapsed and the tympanic membrane retracted with pooling epithelial debris appearing in 2007. Left facial nerve palsy was seen in December 2010. We performed a mastoidectomy on January, 2011. Cholesteatoma and necrotic granuloma with fragile bone filled the mastoid cavity, and a facial canal bone defect was seen. Bone necrosis with cholesteatoma and inflammatory granuloma was revealed by the pathological examination. The facial palsy improved after the operation. Case 3 was a 59-year-old man who had left abducens palsy with nasopharyngeal carcinoma invading the clivus. The patient underwent chemoradiotherapy (60 Gy total) in 2001, and X knife irradiation (24 Gy) 4 months later for

  19. Immunological studies in the human radium population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Menon, M.

    1976-01-01

    Sera from patients carrying high body burdens of radium were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence for antibodies reactive with tissue culture cell lines derived from five osteosarcomas and one malignant melanoma. These were compared with the sera from normal controls and patients with sarcomas and other malignancies. No significant difference could be detected between the number of reactions seen with the radium patients and the controls. By contrast, cross reactions between sera from all the tumor patients tested were greatly increased over the controls. With one osteosarcoma cell line, RPMI-41, 11 out of 12 of the tumor patients' sera reacted compared with 6 out of 17 for the controls. In addition, 30 out of 32 of the tumor patients' sera reacted with the malignant melanoma cell line compared with only 3 out of 12 for the controls. This suggests that if serum from a radium patient could be shown to cross react with a large number of carefully selected cell lines, the presence of a tumor might be suspected

  20. Remedial action of radium contaminated residential properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Eng, J.

    1986-01-01

    Since November 1983, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have been in the process of identifying properties in Montclair, Glen Ridge and West Orange, New Jersey, which were built over radium contaminated soil landfilled areas. Elevated indoor radon concentrations prompted the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to issue a health advisory which included permanent remediation of radon progeny levels in excess of 0.02 Working Levels within two years of discovery. In order to expedite remedial action, NJDEP undertook a ten million dollar cleanup program. Remedial Action at the 12 residential properties encountered some unanticipated problems despite the efforts of numerous government agencies and their contractors to characterize the contamination as much as possible prior to remediation. Some of the unanticipated issues include contamination from other radionuclides, underestimation of removal volumes, and controversy over the transportation and disposal of the radium contaminated soil at a commercial facility in Nevada. This paper will review the approach taken by NJDEP to the remedial action for radium contaminated soil, discuss some of the issues encountered during the remedial action, and provide post remedial action data

  1. Factors affecting radium removal using mixed iron-manganese oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott, H.V. Singh, S.; Kondapally, V.R.

    1993-01-01

    Batch experiments confirmed that sorption of radium by a mixed iron-manganese oxide solid phase shows promise for treating radium-contaminated water. The capacities of these mixed oxides for sorption of radium depend on the composition of the solid phase, the pH of the aqueous solution, and the presence of competing cations. The removal of the oxide-radium complexes from aqueous suspension by manganese greensand filtration was also investigated. It was found that influent radium concentrations of 100 pCi/L were reduced to 2--9 pCi/L by this process. Additional study of the fate of radium in manganese greensand filters is recommended before this procedure is used for drinking water treatment

  2. Factors affecting radium removal using mixed iron-manganese oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, H.V. Singh, S.; Kondapally, V.R. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Batch experiments confirmed that sorption of radium by a mixed iron-manganese oxide solid phase shows promise for treating radium-contaminated water. The capacities of these mixed oxides for sorption of radium depend on the composition of the solid phase, the pH of the aqueous solution, and the presence of competing cations. The removal of the oxide-radium complexes from aqueous suspension by manganese greensand filtration was also investigated. It was found that influent radium concentrations of 100 pCi/L were reduced to 2--9 pCi/L by this process. Additional study of the fate of radium in manganese greensand filters is recommended before this procedure is used for drinking water treatment.

  3. Radium and thorium with barium in micronodules of cattle thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1980-01-01

    Radium isotopes were found concentrated in thyroid glands of cattle. The incidence of measurable radium varied from 80% to less than 0.1% in thyroids from different abattoirs. The radium was concentrated in microscopic bodies containing predominantly barium and sulfur and lying within the storage of thyroglobulin, adjacent to follicular cells. Some thyroid cells may receive biologically significant doses of alpha radiation from these sources

  4. Reverse osmosis separation of radium from dilute aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.S.; Sastri, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Porous cellulose acetate membranes obtained from Osmonics Inc. were characterized in terms of pure water permeability constant, solute transport parameter, and mass transfer coefficient with aqueous sodium chloride solution as the reference system. Reverse osmosis separation behavior of radium-226 as nitrate, chloride, and sulfate salts was studied. Reverse osmosis method of removing radium-226 from aqueous solutions has been compared with other methods, and it has been shown to be one of the best methods for alleviating radium contamination problems

  5. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  6. CT findings of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Yasunobu; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi; Nakamura, Yuji; Nakamoto, Sohken; Sakaino, Koji; Matsuura, Shizumi; Sugihara, Shiro

    1988-05-01

    Seven cases with histologically proved nasopharyngeal angiofibroma were examined by CT. In all cases, contrast medium was administered in drip infusion after precontrast CT. In 6 cases, tumors were apparently enhanced and they became higher in density than the lateral pterygoid muscle. But in one case, the tumor, that was composed of much fibrous tissue, was not enhanced in postcontrast CT. The tumor extension into surrounding structure except for nasal cavity was seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases showed sphenoid sinus extension. But, only 2 cases showed pterygopalatine fossa extension. In these studied cases, sphenoid sinus was involved most frequently. The parapharyngeal space was not obliterated in this series.

  7. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pericardial metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Wen Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is prevalent in Taiwan and is characterized by a high frequency of nodal metastasis. The most common organs with distal metastases are the bones, lungs, and liver, with extremely rare cases to the pericardium. Herein, we report a rare case with NPC who presented with dyspnea and orthopnea. Serial studies, including pericardial biopsy, revealed NPC with pericardial metastasis and pericardial effusion. The tumor cells of both the original and metastatic tumors were positive for Epstein–Barr virus by in situ hybridization. This is the first histologically confirmed case of NPC with pericardial metastasis.

  8. Radiation myelopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kono, Hidehiro; Omata, Toshiyuki; Mochimachi, Izumi; Hasegawa, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed radiation myelopathy. She was treated with radiotherapy, a total dose of about 120 Gy to the cervical spinal cord at the C1 level, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nine months after the final radiation therapy, she complained of a paresthesia in the distal area of the right leg. Neurological examination revealed incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome below the level of C5. Neurological symptoms had been progressive. The spinal MRI showed an abnormal intramedullary high intensity area enhanced by Gd-DTPA. (author)

  9. Radiation myelopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kono, Hidehiro; Omata, Toshiyuki; Mochimachi, Izumi; Hasegawa, Osamu [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    A 36-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed radiation myelopathy. She was treated with radiotherapy, a total dose of about 120 Gy to the cervical spinal cord at the C1 level, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nine months after the final radiation therapy, she complained of a paresthesia in the distal area of the right leg. Neurological examination revealed incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome below the level of C5. Neurological symptoms had been progressive. The spinal MRI showed an abnormal intramedullary high intensity area enhanced by Gd-DTPA. (author).

  10. Radium behaviour during ferric oxi-hydroxides crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassot, S.; Stammose, D.; Benitah, S.

    2004-01-01

    In uranium mill tailings, oxides and oxi-hydroxides are responsible of about 70% of the radium immobilization, half being associated to amorphous forms (mainly hydrous ferric oxides and hydrous manganese oxides). With time, crystallization of these amorphous forms can occur, inducing a redistribution of radium between solid and solution. If the amount of mobile radium increases, the impact of these tailings on the environment may become significant. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of radium released in solution during the crystallization process of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). The transformation of Ra-HFO co-precipitate in crystallized forms (goethite, hematite, is studied by ageing at 40 deg C for different solution compositions. Both solids and solutions are sampled for different times and analysed. The solid evolution is followed by specific area measurements (about 250 m2/g for HFO and about 10-20 m 2 /g for crystallized form) and by determination of the amorphous fraction according to a selective extraction procedure. The solutions were analysed for 226 radium activity, iron concentration and pH. In order to discriminate the part of radium included in the solid and the part of radium fixed on the solid surface, radium sorption onto HFO and crystallized forms is studied as a function of pH. The modelling of the sorption curves with JCHESS 2.0 code allow to point out the mechanisms responsible of the 226-radium distribution between solid and solution during the crystallization process of HFO. (author)

  11. Radium: a miracle cure{exclamation_point} (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genet, M

    1998-07-01

    In 1896, the general population had little enthusiasm for the recent discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. There was certainly much less than for X rays which had appeared, 3 months earlier, as a 'magic radiation'. However, polonium and radium, discovered by the Curies in 1898, aroused new interest in 'uranic rays'. The first weighable amounts of radium, prepared at the beginning of this century, were used for medical applications. Immediately, the therapeutic properties of radium rays against cancer were recognised. The use of radium in medicine became so common that every kind of disease was treated by radium therapy: not only breast cancer, but also, diabetes, sciatica, uraemia, rheumatism, and even impotence{exclamation_point} As a consequence of this tremendous success, the radium industry grew rapidly during the 1920s and numerous goods, especially cosmetics, doped with radium were on sale. It was even considered that in order to be in good health, one should drink a glass of radioactive water every day, prepared by using a radium percolator. This period lasted for more than 25 years, then, just before World War II radium use was considered dangerous and the number of its applications decreased. (author)

  12. Radium-226 in wetland birds from Florida phosphate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, O.B.; Marion, W.R.; O'Meara, T.E.; Roessler, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Radium-226 is a naturally-occurring radionuclide found in enhanced levels at Florida phosphate mines. We inventoried levels of radium-226 in the tissues of 4 wetland bird species from 2 mined and 2 umined areas in Florida. Bone tissues of wood duck (Aix sponsa), mottled duck (Anas fulvigula), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colleted at phosphate mines contained more radium-226 than tissues from unmined areas. Radium-226 concentrations in these birds were within guidelines inferred from radiological standards designed for human protection and should not adversely affect bird populations

  13. Removal of Radium-226 from Radium-Contaminated Soil using Distilled Water and Humic Acid: Effect of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Muhamat Omar

    2011-01-01

    Effect of washing solutions' pH removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using distilled water and humic acid extracted from Malaysian peat soil was studied by batch washing method. The study encompassed the extraction of humic acid and the washing of radium-contaminated soil using distilled water and humic acid solutions of 100 ppm, both with varying pHs in the range of 3 to 11. The radioactivity concentration of radium-226 was determined by gamma spectrometer.The removal of radium-226 was greater when humic acid solutions were used compared to distilled water at the pH range studied and both washing solutions showed greater removal of radium-226 when basic solutions were used. Nevertheless, comparable removal efficiencies were observed when neutral and highly basic humic acid solutions were used. (author)

  14. Otologic disorders following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Motoyoshi, Kazumi; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy is widely accepted as the first choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Delayed otitis of both external and middle ears is sometimes seen as a complication after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, especially for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. They are usually hard to manage and some produces cochlear damages, finally resulting in a sensorineural hearing loss. However, these otologic disorders are tends to be overlooked, because physicians pay less attention to them than the concerning for cancer recurrence. Therefore, studies on the otologic disorders following radiotherapy are lacking. In this study, we analyzed 24 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases retrospectively to clarify the incidence of otologic disorders induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Nasopharyngeal Hemangioma in Adult: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Park, Ji Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Byun, Jang Yul [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Nasopharyngeal masses are usually malignant, and benign nasopharyngeal tumors such as hemangioma are unusual. In adults, hemangiomas do not involute spontaneously, but progress. Imaging modalities are useful to rule out other malignancies and vascular lesions and to evaluate the lesion. Most hemangiomas require no therapy, but certain factors such as age of the patient and location and size of the lesion may make treatment necessary. We report a case of an unusual nasopharyngeal hemangioma treated with endoscopic excision in an adult who complained of hearing loss.

  16. Radium in Humans: A Review of U.S. Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a description of the radium studies that took place at Argonne National Laboratory. It soon became evident, however, that to document the widespread use of radium, a brief review of the application of radium in medicine and in the US dial painting industry is required. Further, because the Argonne studies were not the only such efforts, brief overviews of the other radium programs are included. Even so, much material has been omitted. The extensive references included will allow the interested reader to find additional information. The effects of internally deposited radium in humans have been studied in this country for more than 75 years. Some 2,400 subjects have had their body contents of radium measured, and a majority of them have been followed for most of their adult lives, to understand and quantify the effects of radium. Many more individuals acquired radium internally but were never measured. Some of this group have been located and followed until death; in these cases the cause of death is known without a body content measurement. As a consequence of the efforts made to locate, measure, and follow exposed individuals, a great deal of information about the effects of radium is available. Nevertheless, great gaps remain in the knowledge of radium toxicity. The Argonne study is the largest every undertaken of the effects on humans of an internally deposited radioelement, in which the insult has been quantitated by actual measurements of the retained radioisotope. The study has now been terminated, even though more than 1,000 subjects with measured radium burdens are still alive. This document is written as a brief summary of current knowledge accumulated in this incomplete study.

  17. Radioactive artifacts: historical sources of modern radium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaufox, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radium has been distributed in a wide variety of devices during the early part of this century. Antique objects containing significant amounts of radium turn up at flea markets, antique shows, and antique dealers, in a variety of locations. These objects include radium in devices which were used by legitimate medical practitioners for legitimate medical purposes such as therapy, as well as a wide variety of quack cures. These devices may contain anywhere from a few nanocuries to as much as several hundred microcuries of radium. In addition to medical sources, a large variety of scientific instruments utilize radium in luminous dials. These instruments include compasses, azimuth indicators, and virtually any object which might require some form of calibration. In addition, the consumer market utilized a large amount of radium in the production of wrist watches, pocket watches, and clocks with luminous dials. Some of these watches contained as much as 4.5 microCi of radium, and between 1913 and 1920 about 70 gm was produced for the manufacture of luminous compounds. In addition to the large amount of radium produced for scientific and consumer utilization, there were a number of materials produced which were claimed to contain radium but in fact did not, further adding to the confusion in this area. The wide availability of radium is a result of the public's great fascination with radioactivity during the early part of this century and a belief in its curative properties. A number of objects were produced in order to trap the emanations of radium in water for persons to drink in order to benefit from their healing effects. Since the late 20s and early 30s the public's attitude towards radiation has shifted 180 degrees and it is now considered an extremely dangerous and harmful material

  18. Radium in humans: A review of U.S. studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This document was originally conceived as a description of the radium studies that took place at Argonne National Laboratory. It soon became evident, however, that to document the widespread use of radium, a brief review of the application of radium in medicine and in the US dial painting industry is required. Further, because the Argonne studies were not the only such efforts, brief overviews of the other radium programs are included. Even so, much material has been omitted. The extensive references included will allow the interested reader to find additional information. The effects of internally deposited radium in humans have been studied in this country for more than 75 years. Some 2,400 subjects have had their body contents of radium measured, and a majority of them have been followed for most of their adult lives, to understand and quantify the effects of radium. Many more individuals acquired radium internally but were never measured. Some of this group have been located and followed until death; in these cases the cause of death is known without a body content measurement. As a consequence of the efforts made to locate, measure, and follow exposed individuals, a great deal of information about the effects of radium is available. Nevertheless, great gaps remain in the knowledge of radium toxicity. The Argonne study is the largest every undertaken of the effects on humans of an internally deposited radioelement, in which the insult has been quantitated by actual measurements of the retained radioisotope. The study has now been terminated, even though more than 1,000 subjects with measured radium burdens are still alive. This document is written as a brief summary of current knowledge accumulated in this incomplete study

  19. Effects of the increased radium content in soil on the soil fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutskij, D.A.; Druk, A.Ya.; Semenova, L.M.; Semyashkina, T.M.; Mikhal'tsova, Z.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of elevated radioactive background due to the presence of natural radionuclide of radium-226 on soil animals has been studied. The areas being studied (1-2 hectares) had the elevated radioactivity ranging from 50 to 4000 μR/hour and were located on an over-flood-lands terrace with meadow vegetation in the mid-taiga subzone. Histological examination of tegmental epithelium and middle intestine (tissues in direct contact with radium-contaminated soil) was performed on Dendrobaena octaedra (Sav.) and Dendrodrillus rubidus (Sav.) collected from areas with 4000μR/hour radioactivity. A comparison of the results with data obtained earlier for surface animals inhabiting the same areas has corroborated that settled animals inhabiting contaminated areas for a long time suffer from retardation of development and disturbances in the functioning of body epithelium and of the intestine. The effect of radiation on soil animals can be observed in areas with far lower radioactivity (100-200μR/hour), probably due to their closer contact with radium-contaminated soil. The most convenient object for monitoring of the effects of elevated background radioactivity is the earthworm, which is irradiated not only from outside but also from the smallowed soil

  20. Noncoplanar VMAT for nasopharyngeal tumors: Plan quality versus treatment time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Esther; Bangert, Mark; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the potential of optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments of nasopharyngeal patients and studied the trade-off between treatment plan quality and delivery time in radiation therapy. Methods: For three nasopharyngeal patients, the authors generated treatment plans for nine different delivery scenarios using dedicated optimization methods. They compared these scenarios according to dose characteristics, number of beam directions, and estimated delivery times. In particular, the authors generated the following treatment plans: (1) a 4π plan, which is a not sequenced, fluence optimized plan that uses beam directions from approximately 1400 noncoplanar directions and marks a theoretical upper limit of the treatment plan quality, (2) a coplanar 2π plan with 72 coplanar beam directions as pendant to the noncoplanar 4π plan, (3) a coplanar VMAT plan, (4) a coplanar step and shoot (SnS) plan, (5) a beam angle optimized (BAO) coplanar SnS IMRT plan, (6) a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan, (7) a VMAT plan with rotated treatment couch, (8) a noncoplanar VMAT plan with an optimized great circle around the patient, and (9) a noncoplanar BAO VMAT plan with an arbitrary trajectory around the patient. Results: VMAT using optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories reduced the mean and maximum doses in organs at risk compared to coplanar VMAT plans by 19% on average while the target coverage remains constant. A coplanar BAO SnS plan was superior to coplanar SnS or VMAT; however, noncoplanar plans like a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan or noncoplanar VMAT yielded a better plan quality than the best coplanar 2π plan. The treatment plan quality of VMAT plans depended on the length of the trajectory. The delivery times of noncoplanar VMAT plans were estimated to be 6.5 min in average; 1.6 min longer than a coplanar plan but on average 2.8 min faster than a noncoplanar SnS plan with comparable

  1. Noncoplanar VMAT for nasopharyngeal tumors: Plan quality versus treatment time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Esther, E-mail: e.wild@dkfz.de; Bangert, Mark [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Oelfke, Uwe [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG, United Kingdom and Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors investigated the potential of optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments of nasopharyngeal patients and studied the trade-off between treatment plan quality and delivery time in radiation therapy. Methods: For three nasopharyngeal patients, the authors generated treatment plans for nine different delivery scenarios using dedicated optimization methods. They compared these scenarios according to dose characteristics, number of beam directions, and estimated delivery times. In particular, the authors generated the following treatment plans: (1) a 4π plan, which is a not sequenced, fluence optimized plan that uses beam directions from approximately 1400 noncoplanar directions and marks a theoretical upper limit of the treatment plan quality, (2) a coplanar 2π plan with 72 coplanar beam directions as pendant to the noncoplanar 4π plan, (3) a coplanar VMAT plan, (4) a coplanar step and shoot (SnS) plan, (5) a beam angle optimized (BAO) coplanar SnS IMRT plan, (6) a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan, (7) a VMAT plan with rotated treatment couch, (8) a noncoplanar VMAT plan with an optimized great circle around the patient, and (9) a noncoplanar BAO VMAT plan with an arbitrary trajectory around the patient. Results: VMAT using optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories reduced the mean and maximum doses in organs at risk compared to coplanar VMAT plans by 19% on average while the target coverage remains constant. A coplanar BAO SnS plan was superior to coplanar SnS or VMAT; however, noncoplanar plans like a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan or noncoplanar VMAT yielded a better plan quality than the best coplanar 2π plan. The treatment plan quality of VMAT plans depended on the length of the trajectory. The delivery times of noncoplanar VMAT plans were estimated to be 6.5 min in average; 1.6 min longer than a coplanar plan but on average 2.8 min faster than a noncoplanar SnS plan with comparable

  2. Field measurements of radium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; May, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two whole body counting systems have been developed and employed for field measurements. The radium contents of nine previously unmeasured cases have been determined during three field trips. Future trips are being scheduled to make body radioactivity measurements on a specific subpopulation of CHR radium cases

  3. Radium in humans: A review of U.S. studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a compilation of activities at Argonne National Laboratory that were directed toward the study of radium in humans. However, it soon became obvious that this was a very limited approach, because such a compilation would include no background on the widespread uses of radium in industry and in the medical profession, nor would it address the early history of the discovery of the hazards of radium. Such an approach would also ignore contributions to the study of radium effects made at other laboratories. This document now addresses these topics, in order to give an overall picture of what might be called the radium era, that period from the early part of this century, when radium was rapidly exploited as a tool and a medication, to the present time, when radium is not generally used and the study of its effects has been terminated. The appendix to this review lists all of the measured radium cases, a total of 2,403 individuals whose records were in the files at the end of 1990. For each case the route of exposure, the dates of exposure, the years of birth and death, the measured body content, the calculated intake and dose, and the cause of death have been listed. 165 refs.

  4. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied. Resultaten over 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts J; Glastra P; Nissan LA; Overwater RMW; LSO

    2002-01-01

    The radium concentration was measured in 25 samples of harbour sludge taken in 2001 from the Rijnmond area (Rotterdam harbours and the Nieuwe Waterweg). High radium levels were found near the former discharge points of the phosphate ore processing plants, confirming the results of previous

  5. State of uranium and radium radionuclides in the soil medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnikova, E.V.; Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Popenya, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The reserves of migratory active, potentially mobile and potentially biologically available forms of uranium and radium in the mineral and organic soils of Belarus have been established. The uranium and radium species in the soil pore waters have been also studied. The received data makes possible the estimation of the radionuclide ability to participate in the processes of biogeochemical migration in terrestrial ecosystems. (authors)

  6. Determination of radium 226 and 228 in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Willemot, J.M.; Verry, M.

    1989-01-01

    Usually, only radium 226 is measured in water since determination of radium 228 is not easy at the natural levels. A technique has therefore been developed to measure, at the same time and at low radioactivity levels, two radionuclides most often associated in water and with similar toxicity. Computer data processing brings significant improvements though calculation can be manually done [fr

  7. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  8. Nasopharyngeal bursitis: from embryology to clinical presentation

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shazly, Amr

    2010-01-01

    AE El-Shazly, S Barriat, PP LefebvreDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Liege University Hospital, Liege, BelgiumAbstract: Nasopharyngeal bursitis is a relatively rare syndrome characterized by a collection of symptoms that multidisciplinary specialists should be aware of. Here we present an audit of cases presenting to a rhinology clinic over a two-year period, as well as an overview of the relevant embryology and different clinical presentations of nasopharyngeal bu...

  9. The behaviour of radium in waterways and aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Coordinated Research Program was designed to develop systematic information on the form and movement of radium in water under a range of environmental conditions. The final report contains: a) Selection and standardization of methods for determination of radium in water; b) The distribution of soluble and insoluble radium in natural waters, affected by mining or milling operations; c) The factors affecting the leaching rate from ore heaps and tailings piles; d) The uptake of radium by biological systems, especially those which form part of man's food chain. This information being of great value to those authorities responsible for assessing the consequences of radium releases to water and to those responsible for setting discharge limits

  10. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe, J.L.

    1991-10-01

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2 + , for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  11. Techniques for long term conditioning and storage of radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Gheorghe; Dragolici, Felicia; Nicu, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    The Horia Hulubei National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering developed its own technology for conditioning the radium spent sealed radioactive sources. The laboratory dedicated to radiological characterization, identification of radium sources as well as the encapsulation of spent sealed radioactive sources was equipped with a local ventilation system, welding devices, tightness test devices as well as radiometric portable devices. Two types of capsules have been designed for conditioning of radium spent sealed radioactive sources. For these kinds of capsules different types of storage packaging were developed. Data on the radium inventory will be presented in the paper. The paper contains the description of the process of conditioning of spent sealed radioactive sources as well as the description of the capsules and packaging. The paper describes the equipment used for the conditioning of the radium spent sealed sources. (authors)

  12. Radium 226 in the deep north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, M.

    1986-01-01

    With reference to the distribution of radium-226 in the western equatorial and north-eastern deep Atlantic Ocean it was possible to establish structures in the correlations of radium-226 to its chemical homologue Ba and dissolved SiO 2 . An 11-box model of the deep Atlantic Ocean was used to obtain information on the size of the radium-226 and Ba sources. The soil source derives mainly from the dissolution of barite. For the first time, an evaluation of the radium-226 flow resulting from the dissolution of particulate matter is presented. The box model and the radium-226 concentrations measured put down the value as 23-46·10 -21 mol/m 2 s. (DG) [de

  13. Barium and radium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.; Sharma, H.D.; Reddy, M.R.; Cooper, E.L.; Cherry, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory studies on the distribution coefficients of radium and barium in samples of unconsolidated geologic materials. Graphs of Ksub(d) versus solution concentration for the respective elements showed constant Ksub(d) values in the low concentration range suggesting that, at low concentrations, a distribution coefficient is a valid means of representing the geochemical reactions of both barium and radium. The Ksub(d) values for barium range between 60 and 3500 ml/g. The values appear to be influenced by the amount of barium occurring naturally in the soil materials and thus there is little possiblility of using barium as an analog of radium in laboratory experiments. The Ksub(d) values of radium vary from 50 to 1000 ml/g indicating that a wide range of geological materials have a substantial capacity to retard the migration of radium

  14. Nasopharyngeal bursitis: from embryology to clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE El-Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AE El-Shazly, S Barriat, PP LefebvreDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Liege University Hospital, Liege, BelgiumAbstract: Nasopharyngeal bursitis is a relatively rare syndrome characterized by a collection of symptoms that multidisciplinary specialists should be aware of. Here we present an audit of cases presenting to a rhinology clinic over a two-year period, as well as an overview of the relevant embryology and different clinical presentations of nasopharyngeal bursitis. For 2008–2009, six patients were diagnosed to have nasopharyngeal bursitis, including four males and two females, of mean age 54 years. Two distinct pathologic types were observed, comprising three patients with classical Tornwaldt’s cyst and three with crust-type bursitis. This audit highlights the importance of recognition of the crust-type of nasopharyngeal bursitis and its anatomic and clinical features. A combined endonasal and transoral endoscopic approach is a minimally invasive procedure and an effective method of treating both types of the disease. Our findings are discussed in relation to the embryology of the disorder, with a clinical emphasis on crust-type nasopharyngeal bursitis.Keywords: nasopharyngeal bursitis, crust type, Tornwaldt’s cyst, endoscopic disruption

  15. Controls on radium transport by adsorption to iron minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Wang, T.; Kocar, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are generated by uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal porewater flux leads to accumulation. These isotopes are used as natural tracers for estimating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], allowing for large scale estimation of GW fluxes into and out of the ocean [2]. They also represent a substantial hazard in wastewater produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release to surface and near-surface waters, and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a dominant pathway of radium retention in subsurface environments. For SGD studies, adsorption processes impact estimates of GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids mediates wastewater radium activities. Analysis of past sorption studies revealed large variability in partition coefficients [4], while examination of radium adsorption kinetics and surface complexation have only recently started [5]. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption and column experiments of radium with a suite of iron minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through artificial waters. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the transport and retention of radium. These results will provide critical information on the mineralogical controls on radium retention in subsurface environments, and will therefore improve predictions of radium groundwater transport in natural and contaminated systems. [1] Charette, M.A., Buesseler, K.O. & Andrews, J.E., Limnol. Oceanogr. (2001). [2] Moore, W.S., Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. (2010). [3] Vengosh, A

  16. Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of radium ions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the neutron-deficient radium isotopes with high-resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. Probing the hyperfine structure of the $7{s}\\,^2\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{1/2}$ and $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transitions in Ra II will provide atomic-structure measurements that have not been achieved for $^{{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transition in $^{{A}<214}$Ra will allow the spectroscopic quadrupole moments to be directly measured for the first time. In addition, the technique will allow tentative spin assignments to be confirmed and the magnetic dipole moments measured for $^{\\textit{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the hyperfine structure (in particular the isotope shifts) of the neutron-deficient radium will provide information to further constrain the nuclear models away from the N=126 shell closure.

  17. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

  18. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  19. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  20. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in children. Get comprehensive information about the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic and staging evaluation, prognosis, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma in this summary for clinicians.

  1. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood nasopharyngeal cancer treatment options include chemotherapy, external and internal radiation therapy, surgery, and immunotherapy (interferon). Learn more about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  2. Placement of radium/barium sludges in tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.L.; Multamaki, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Currently radium is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate the radium as radium/barium sulphate. The precipitate is allowed to settle in sedimentation basins prior to discharge of the effluent. The sedimentation basins are not suitable for final disposal of the sludge, and placement of the sludges in the tailings area has been proposed. The geochemical environment of fresh tailings areas was characterized as an acidic, oxidized surface zone underlain by an alkaline, reduced zone comprising the rest of the tailings. The quantity of sludge produced was estimated to be small relative to the quantity of tailings, and therefor a relatively small amount of radium would be added to the tailings disposal area by the addition of sludge. To confirm whether sludge addition affected radionuclide solubilization, laboratory leaching tests were conducted on slurries of acid leach tailings, and sludge-tailings mixtures. Radium in the (Ra,Ba)SO 4 sludge was at least as stable as radium in the tailings, and the sludge was able to absorb radium released from the tailings. The addition of sludge did not affect uranium and thorium solubilization. From these results it appears that the placement of sludge in tailings areas would not adversely affect the stability of radionuclides in the tailings or sludge. (auth)

  3. Radithor and the era of mild radium therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklis, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radium, a school of practitioners arose who were interested primarily in the physiological rather than the tumoricidal powers of this new radioactive element. This treatment philosophy was called mild radium therapy and involved the oral or parenteral administration of microgram quantities of radium and its daughter isotopes, often as cures for rheumatic diseases, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Manufacturers of patent medicines responded to this market by producing a variety of over-the-counter radioactive preparations including pills, elixirs, and salves. One such nostrum was Radithor, a popular and expensive mixture of radium 226 and radium 228 in distilled water. Radithor was advertised as an effective treatment for over 150 endocrinologic diseases, especially lassitude and sexual impotence. Over 400,000 bottles, each containing over 2 muCi (74 kBq) of radium, were apparently marketed and sold worldwide between 1925 and 1930. The death of the Pittsburgh millionaire sportsman Eben M. Byers, who was an avid Radithor user, by radium poisoning in 1932 brought an end to this era and prompted the development of regulatory controls for all radiopharmaceuticals

  4. Study of the radium sorption/desorption on goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassot, S.; Stammose, D.; Mallet, C.; Lefebvre, C.; Ferreux, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    The oxi-hydroxides, present at trace level in uranium mill tailings, are responsible of about 70% of the 226 radium sorption, half being fixed on crystallized forms. This radionuclide (half time=1622y), present at high level (50 to 100kBq.kg -1 ), can be released in groundwater, involving a possible contamination of the food chain (actual concentration limit=0.37Bq.1 -1 ). So, it is very important to point out the mechanisms of the radium sorption/desorption on crystallized oxi-hydroxides as a function of chemical conditions of the system. The radium sorption on synthetic goethite α-FeOOH has been studied as a function of contact time, initial radium activity, pH, sodium and calcium concentrations. The results show that, after one hour of contact time (necessary to reach equilibrium), the radium sorption increases widely in a pH range 6-7. The increase of Na + concentration is without influence on the radium sorption, indicating the low interactions between sodium and surface sites. At the opposite, the presence of calcium in solution decreases widely the radium sorption, that indicates a competition between calcium and radium for the same kind of sorption sites of the oxi-hydroxide surface. The percentage of radium desorbed increases widely with time, from 1 to 120h and becomes constant at a time higher than 120h. This long equilibrium time for desorption in comparison with sorption one can be explain by a local evolution of the sorption sites of the solid, which become less accessible for the solution in contact. (author)

  5. X-ray and radium gamma radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokkema, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    During the period 1896-1939 a number of maxima could be distinguished in the incidence of X-ray and radium gamma ray injuries in patients. An explanation for these fluctuations is investigated in this study. The first distinguishable maximum in the number of reported cases of X-ray injuries can be found in the period 1896-1897 and mainly concerns skin lesions, caused by the lack of shielding and ignorance of the effects. In the period 1904-1905 there was once again an apparent prevalence of radiation injuries to patients. After 1905 the incidence of radiation injuries decreased due to a wider use of dosimetric methods. The third phase of increased injuries may be subdivided into three components. In diagnostic roentgenology from 1896 to 1926 a number of causes of roentgen burns persisted: multiple or long exposures, the use of a short focus-skin-distance and a lack of suitable dosimetric methods. The reduction of complications after 1923 can be attributed to several factors: systematic training of physics who wished to become roentgenologists, greater care of doctors, the use of an alternative method of radiotherapy according to Coutard's method, the introduction of dosimetry with ionization chambers (after 1924), the consensus reached over the roentgen as a unit of applied dosage (in 1928), and the introduction of absorption curves for radiation quality (in 1933). Around 1920 a high complication rate arose as a result of exposure to radiation emitted by radium. In 1922 the first reliable radium dosimetry method came available. This applied to external radium therapy by regular shaped applicators. After 1938 reliable dosimetry was achieved in the field of interstitial radium therapy (brachytherapy). Injuries from radium therapy, however, persisted till about 1940, caused not only by the delayed availability of radium dosimetry, but also to the use of radium therapy by poorly trained radium therapists. 28 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Radon generator and the method of radium carrier fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radon generator construction and the method of radium carrier fabrication has been the subject of the patent. The generator is a cylindrical vessel with gas valves system and two filters inside. Between them the radium carrier has been located. As a carrier polyurethane foam has been used. The carrier is obtained in a generator vessel from polyester resin in the presence of activated mixture of engine oil, zinc-organic catalyst and toluene. To the obtained mixture the radium chloride in the solution of hydrochloric acid is added. The carrier foam is produced by mechanical stirring of substrates inside the vessel and drying in 50 C in a heater. 1 fig

  7. Florence Kelley and the radium dial painters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutier, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    All health physicists are familiar with the radium dial painter episode of the early 1900s and how one of today's primary radiation limits was set after studying both the health effects of these workers. The social history of this event is not as well known to health physicists. This paper tells of the efforts by Florence Kelley of the National Consumers League and others on behalf of the dial painters and of the events that led to Kelley's interest in the problem. Known as the 'Impatient Crusader', Florence Kelley worked to have legislation passed that would eliminate the radiation hazards of dial painting and to obtain compensation for those who were injured. (author)

  8. Toxicological profile for radium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Radium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substances' toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  9. Biosorption of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of the biosorption of metals by microbial cells were investigated. These studies were carried out in conjunction with efforts to develop a process to utilize microbial cells as biosorbents for the removal of radionuclides from waste streams generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. It was felt that an understanding of the mechanism(s) of metal uptake would potentially enable the enhancement of the metal uptake phenomenon through environmental or genetic manipulation of the microorganisms. Also presented are the results of a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137 cesium and 226 radium from existing waste solutions. The studies were directed primarily at a characterization of uranium uptake by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  10. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described

  11. Factors influencing the parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with parotid-sparing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenshan; Lee Jongkang; Su Maochang; Lee, S.P.; Chen Ginden; Lee Hongshen; Lee Huei

    2006-01-01

    The background of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing post-irradiation parotid gland function in nasopharyngeal cancer treated with parotid-sparing radiotherapy. This study consisted of 45 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy including 3D conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The mean follow-up time was 37.5 months (range: 15-50 months). Objective parotid gland function was assessed by series sialoscintigraphy pre-irradiation and post-irradiation at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. Subjective salivary function was recorded by the LENT/SOMA system. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the secretion ratio (SR) of parotid gland before and after treatment. Mann-Whitney rank-sum test was used to determine the factors influencing the post-irradiated SR. Chi-square test was used to compare the correlation between subjective grading of xerostomia and objective grading of parotid glands. There was a significant difference between the pre-irradiation and post-irradiation parotid gland's SR at 1 (0.30 versus 0.01, P 0.05) and 18 months (0.30 versus 0.18, P>0.05). There was significant correlation between subjective and objective salivary function (P=0.024) at 12 months after radiotherapy. The factor that impacted the preservation of parotid function was mean dose to the parotid gland >38.0 Gy (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that parotid function could recover 1 year after treatment with parotid-sparing radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The most important factor that influenced parotid function was the mean dose to the parotid gland. (author)

  12. Separation of protactinum, actinium, and other radionuclides from proton irradiated thorium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Michael E.; Radchenko, Valery

    2018-04-24

    Protactinium, actinium, radium, radiolanthanides and other radionuclide fission products were separated and recovered from a proton-irradiated thorium target. The target was dissolved in concentrated HCl, which formed anionic complexes of protactinium but not with thorium, actinium, radium, or radiolanthanides. Protactinium was separated from soluble thorium by loading a concentrated HCl solution of the target onto a column of strongly basic anion exchanger resin and eluting with concentrated HCl. Actinium, radium and radiolanthanides elute with thorium. The protactinium that is retained on the column, along with other radionuclides, is eluted may subsequently treated to remove radionuclide impurities to afford a fraction of substantially pure protactinium. The eluate with the soluble thorium, actinium, radium and radiolanthanides may be subjected to treatment with citric acid to form anionic thorium, loaded onto a cationic exchanger resin, and eluted. Actinium, radium and radiolanthanides that are retained can be subjected to extraction chromatography to separate the actinium from the radium and from the radio lanthanides.

  13. The battle against nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne W.M.; Ng, W.T.; Chan, Y.H.; Sze, Henry; Chan, Connie; Lam, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of the evolving efforts to understand and combat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a most peculiar cancer with a distinctly skewed geographic and ethnic distribution. Multifactorial etiology with dynamic interplay of genetic predisposition, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection and environmental carcinogens is suggested. With changing lifestyle in Hong Kong, the age-standardized incidence rate has decreased by more than 50% during the past 30 years. The advent of megavoltage radiotherapy has transformed this once lethal cancer into one that is readily curable. Advances in technology and addition of chemotherapy have led to gratifying improvements. Overall survival exceeding 75% at 5 years could now be achieved; series using advanced technique with intensity-modulation consistently achieved excellent locoregional control. Studies are on-going to develop more potent systemic therapy for distant control. Serious late toxicities remain a serious concern demanding further improvement in radiotherapy technique and optimization of dose fractionation. Translational researches are increasingly important for the ideal goals of prevention, early detection and more accurate prognostication/prediction to work toward personalized medicine. The battle against NPC is one of the most fascinating successes in oncology, it is highly hopeful that with international collaborations and concerted efforts, we can totally conquer this cancer.

  14. Endoscopic surgery of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, Silvio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NAJ is a tumor with vascular component, slow growing, benign but very aggressive because of its local invasiveness. The NAJ is rare, accounting for 0.05% of all head and neck cancers. The classic triad of epistaxis, unilateral nasal obstruction and a mass in the nasopharynx suggests the diagnosis of NAJ and is then supplemented by imaging. Over the past 10 years the treatment of this disease has been discussed with the aim of designing a management protocol. Currently, surgery appears to be the best treatment of the NAJ. Other methods such as hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment modalities are now used occasionally as complementary treatments. Objective: To present the cases of this disease in the Hospital Infantil between October 2007 and August 2008. Methods: A retrospective case study of five cases of NAJ underwent surgery solely with endoscopic technique of two surgeons. Classifieds between IIA and IIIA. All patients underwent angiography with embolization of the tumor 3-4 days before surgery. Follow-up after surgery to detect recurrence. Results: There were two relapses in the following two years after surgery. Conclusion: Given the short period of patient follow-up, there were only two relapses in one year. So there is need for further action to claim that this technique has a low recurrence rate, since the recurrence is probably related to incomplete resection the initial tumor.

  15. CT findings of nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kie Hwan; Byun, Hong Sik; Chin, Soo Yil

    1987-01-01

    CT findings in 64 patients of nasopharyngeal cancer are analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the region of origin and the route of spread. The results are as follows: 1. The most frequently involved wall is lateral well (90%), followed by posterior wall (78%) and superior wall (58%). 2. There are invasion to parapharyngeal space (86%), retropharyngeal and prevertebral space (72%), carotid space (46%), and masticator space (18%) in that order. 3. Involved anatomic sites are Rosenmueller fossa (90%), torus tubarius (78%), E-tube orifice (68%), carotid sheath (46%), soft palate (50%), nasal cavity (36%), skull base (28%), prevertebral muscle (26%) and intracranial fossa (16%). 4. Direct extension to intracranial fossa is via sphenoid sinus (6/8), foramen lacerum (5/8), foramen ovale (4/8), and jugular foramen (4/8) in that order. 5. Invasion to prevertebral space leads to intraspinal extension (3/13). 6. Cervical lymph node metastasis of found in internal jugular (82%),spinal accessory (56%) and retropharyngeal chain (42%) in that order. 7. After radiation therapy, most frequent site of recurrence is posterior wall (10/14) followed by lateral wall (9/14), superior wall (5/14) and cervical lymph node (6/14), but the presence of recurrence is difficult to determine based on CT only

  16. Lead-Radium Activity Ratios From Otoliths of Regional Bottomfishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains lead-radium dating of opakapaka (Pristipomoides filamentosus) otoliths from recent and archival collections (1987-2009).

  17. Some scientific landmarks of the MIT radium toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletskos, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Until the recent forced termination of the studies on radium toxicity, more than six decades of investigation and research have been devoted to them. These studies involve ∼2400 subjects who were exposed to long-term internally deposited radium [high linear energy transfer (LET)], whose health status was evaluated in great detail and whose radiation dosimetry was based on measurements of their actual radium body burdens. The quality and usefulness of these studies are, therefore, in sharp contrast to other human radiation-exposure studies that involve instantaneous or somewhat protracted external low-LET exposures and inferred radiation dose, as in the atomic-bomb survivor studies. As a consequence of national news in 1932 concerning the gruesome death of a prominent Pittsburgh businessman and sportsman, Robley D. Evans became involved with radium toxicity, and its study became an important project when he joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology physics department and set up the interdisciplinary Radioactivity Center

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yasushi; Tamaki, Susumu; Kurata, Kyosuke; Honjo, Iwao; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharynx, the eustachian tube and the middle ear was performed in nine patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI revealed the extent of the tumor more clearly than CT (computed tomography) when the tumor was situated in the parapharyngeal space. But when the tumor extended superficially in the nasopharyngeal mucosa, its margin could not be identified clearly by either MRI or CT because of hypervascularity and long T1 and T2 of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Seven of the nine patients had unilateral otitis media with effusion. Their eustachian tube ventilation function was evaluated by an inflation-deflation technique. Failure of active equalization of negative pressure applied to the middle ear was found to be a characteristic disorder of their eustachian tube ventilation function. This dysfunction seemed to be correlated with the lateral dislocation of the eustachian tube cartilage caused by the tumor. (author)

  19. Conditioning radium needles for long term storage : Sri Lankan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith, H.L.A.; Shantha, T.H.S.; Gunaratne, M.G.J.; De Silva, U.W.K.H.; Perera, H.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Radium the first radioisotope invented by Madame Curie was used for cancer therapy for the intracavitory treatment of cervical cancers and as oral implants etc. Radium needles and other geometries were made in standard strengths and Radium therapy enjoyed a heyday during the 1st half of the 20th century. Radium-226 is a long-lived radioactive material with a half-life of 1600 years. The use of radium was abandoned in the world in 1980s with the invention of short lived radioactive materials offering remote after loading systems which minimise radiation protection and waste disposal problems associated with long lived radioactive materials. This paper reports the conditioning procedure of the spent radium sources for long term storage (less than 20 years) and transport to national/ international stores if needed. The dose received by those involved in this exercise is also discussed in terms of radiation protection. The Ra was contained for long term storage according to international radiation safety regulations with a surface dose of less than 2 mSv per hour in a conditioned package having 17.5 GBq activity and can be transported to national/international stores if needed. The highest dose received during the exercise is well within the recommended dose limits for occupational exposures (20 and 500 mSv per year) for whole body and extremities respectively

  20. Immobilization of radium in uranium mine and mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwick, G.D.; Mosher, J.; Tizzard, R.

    1982-01-01

    Radium has been coprecipitated from solution as the arsenate in which ferric iron, barium, copper and lead are the macro ions. The order of efficiency of the macro ions in removing radium was found to be Ba > Fe > Pb > Cu at a pH of 6. It is expected that at higher pH's i.e., greater than 8, ferric iron will change positions. This change in position will be caused by the formation of ferrate ion hence increasing the solubility of ferric arsenate. The removal of radium from solution by ion exchangers consisting of the arsenates of ferric iron, barium, copper and lead was successful. As the pH is increased from 4 to 10 the efficiency of these exchangers in removing radium increases. The columns removed over 99 percent of the radium at pH's of 5.6 and higher. The order of efficiency of the exchangers in removing radium is not well defined. Thorium has been precipitated as the arsenate over the pH range of 2 to 9.6. This reaction suggests the possibility of using arsenate to remove thorium from uranium mill plant streams and as a reagent to keep thorium in the tailings ponds

  1. Hearing disability before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, W.K.; Fong, K.W. [Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)

    1996-02-01

    This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author).

  2. Hearing disability before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, W.K.; Fong, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author)

  3. Computed tomography of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, J.W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Axial CT findings of 56 patients with biopsy-proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the region of origin of the tumor and the sites of spread of the disease. In all patients asymmetry of the mucosal airway contour with blunting of the fossa of Rosenmueller was seen, usually associated with infiltration of the levator palatini muscle. The earliest lesion of NPC arose in this region, and in 64% of cases the tumor had infiltrated into the adjacent parapharyngeal space with loss of its normal fat density. Superior intracranial extension was the most common site of deep infiltration from here (45% of patients) with opacification of the sphenoid sinus in 41% and bony destruction of the skull base in 29%. Invasion into the retropharyngeal space (38%) and carotid space (23%) were the next most common sites of infiltration. Invasion into the prevertebral space was seen in 14%. Anterior spread to the masticator space including the infratemporal fossa was an uncommon finding (14%). T-staging of these patients by CT was also done using both the AJC and Ho classification systems. Lymph node metastases were found in many patients (38%), most commonly in the retropharyngeal nodes, internal jugular nodes including jugular-digastricus nodes and the spinal assessory nodes, respectively. CT remains the most reliable technique for staging and assessing the extent of NPC, both prior to and after radiotherapy, and should be used not only for T-staging of the disease, but also for N-staging. It is recommended that axial scans should be routinely extended down the neck to the clavicles in all patients with NPC. (orig.)

  4. Contribution of autophagy inhibitor to radiation sensitization in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhirui; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhao Wei; Qu song; Pan Wenyan; Guo Ya; Su Fang; Li Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of autophagy in radiation-induced death response of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Methods: MTT method was used to detect cell viability of CNE-2 cells in different time after irradiation. Clonogenic survival assay was used to evaluate the effect of autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine phosphate) and autophagy inductor (rapamycin) on radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The expressions of LC3 and P62 were measured with Western blot. Cell ultrastructural analysis was performed under an electron microscope.Results Irradiation with 10 Gy induced a massive accumulation of autophagosomes accompanied with up-regulation of LC3-Ⅱ expression in CNE-2 cells. Compared with radiation alone, chloroquine phosphate (CDP) enhanced radiosensitivity significantly by decreasing cell viability (F=25.88, P<0.05), autophagic ratio (F=105.15, P<0.05), and LC3-Ⅱ protein level (F=231.68, P<0.05), while up-regulating the expression of P62 (F=117.52, P<0.05). Inhibition of autophagy increased radiation-induced apoptosis (F=143.72, P<0.05). Rapamycin (RAPA) also significantly decreased cell viability, but increased autophagic ratio and LC3-Ⅱ protein level while down-regulated the expression of P62. Induction of autophagy increased radiation-induced apoptosis (F=167.32, P<0.05). Conclusions: Blockage of autophagy with CDP could enhance radiosensitivity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy could be used as an adjuvant treatment to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  5. Reduced hypothalamic blood flow after radiation treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer: SPECT studies in 34 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieng, P.U.; Huang, T.S.; Chang, C.C.; Chong, P.N.; Tien, R.D.; Su, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effect of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic blood flow, the authors performed 44 regional cerebral blood flow studies with 99mTc hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) on four normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologically proved nasopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three men and 15 women, 30-65 years old, were divided into four study groups: group 1 served as a control and consisted of four normal volunteers and six patients studied prior to cranial irradiation; group 2 patients had cranial irradiation half a year before the SPECT study (n = 12, one from group 1); group 3 patients were irradiated 1 year before the study (n = 13, three from group 1 and two from group 2); and group 4 patients were irradiated at least 5 years before SPECT imaging (n = 9). Six patients were studied twice. Quantification of the 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies was done separately by three radiologists to obtain the hypothalamus/occipital (H/O) and hypothalamus/parasagittal (H/P) ratios. Endocrinologic studies were performed in all cases and the hypothalamus-thyrotroph-thyroid, hypothalamus-gonadotroph-testis (ovary), hypothalamus-lactotroph, hypothalamus-somatotroph, and hypothalamus-corticotroph-adrenal axes were evaluated separately. They determined that regional hypothalamic blood flow was reduced after cranial irradiation in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The H/O ratio of groups 3 and 4 did not differ from that of group 2 (one-half year after cranial irradiation). The H/O ratio was significantly reduced 6 months and 1 year after cranial irradiation; mean ± SD = 0.5801 ± 0.0829 (p less than .025), 0.5725 ± 0.0791 (p less than .01) versus 0.6477 ± 0.0458 before cranial irradiation, respectively

  6. and p53 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Department of Pathology, Ibn Rochd University Medical Center, Casablanca, Morocco. Abstract. Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor intimately associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). NPC is a characteristic tumor displaying epidemiological, genetic and regional ...

  7. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkenborg, M-L; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T; Von Buchwald, C

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning and surgical strategy. A 21-year-old male presented with increasing bilateral nasal obstruction and discharge. Examination revealed tumours bilaterally and imaging demonstrated non-contiguous tumours. Pre-operative angiography showed strictly ipsilateral vascular supplies requiring bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery.

  8. Nasopharyngeal Malignancy Presenting as Proptosis in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients also developed reduced hearing, epistaxis, severe and disturbing headache and neck swelling. There was profound vision loss in three eyes of the three patients. Their eyeballs showed restricted ocular movements. Radiological imaging showed features suggestive of nasopharyngeal cancer involving the ...

  9. Nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma: updating of radiotherapy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma is a uncommon benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and many vascular spaces covered by endothelium. It is almost exclusive of male sex and of adolescents. Choice treatment is the exeresis without obviate other possibilities as the radiotherapy. The aim of present study was to show the results of this latter as therapeutical option

  10. Removal of radium-226 from uranium mining effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, D.W.; Moffett, D.; Webber, R.T.; Whittle, L.; Wood, J.A.

    1984-12-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations usually generate large quantities of solid and liquid waste materials. A slurry, consisting of waste rock and chemical solutions from the milling operation, is discharged to impoundment areas (tailings basins). Most of the radioactive material dissolved in tailings slurries is precipitated by the addition of lime and limestone prior to discharge from the mill. However, the activity of one radioisotope, radium-226, remains relatively high in the tailings basin effluents. In Canada, radium-226 is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate barium-radium sulphate [(Ba,Ra)SO 4 ]. Although dissolved radium-226 activities are generally reduced effectively, the process is considered to have two undesirable characteristics: the first related to suspended radium-226 in the effluents and the second to ultimate disposal of the (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludge. A government-industry mining task force established a radioactivity sub-group in 1974 to assist in the development of effluent guidelines and regulations for the uranium mining industry (Radioactivity Sub-group, 1974). The investigation of more effective removal methods was recommended, including the development of mechanical treatment systems as alternatives to settling ponds. Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) initiated a bench scale study in March, 1976 which was designed to assess the feasibility of using precipitation, coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation for the removal of radium-226. In 1977, the study was accelerated with financial assistance from the Atomic Energy Control Board. The results were favourable, with improved radium removals obtained in bench scale batch tests using barium chloride as the precipitant and either alum or ferric chloride as the coagulant. A more comprehensive bench scale and pilot scale process development and demonstration program was formulated. The results of the joint study

  11. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Timisoara ENT Department's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, Gheorghe; Ruja, Steluta; Cotulbea, Stan

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a histologically benign, but very aggressive and destructive tumor found exclusively in young males. The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has changed in recent years, but it still continues to be a challenge for the multidisciplinary head and neck surgical team. The purpose of this study was to review a series of 30 patients describing the treatment approach used and studying the outcome of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in the ENT Department Timisoara, Romania for a period of 30 years. The patients were diagnosed and treated during the years 1981-2011. All patients were male. Tumors were classified using Radkowski's staging system. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed for accurate diagnosis and staging of the tumors. Biopsies were not performed. Surgery represented the gold standard for treatment of juvenine nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients had the tumor removed by an external approach, endoscopic surgical approach not being employed in this series of patients. All patients were treated surgically. Surgical techniques performed were: Denker-Rouge technique in 13 cases (43.33%), paralateronasal technique in 7 cases (23.33%), retropalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%) and transpalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%). No preoperative tumor embolization was performed. The recurrence rate was 16.66%. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year to 12 years. Management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma remains a surgical challenge. Clinical evaluation and surgical experience are very important in selecting the proper approach. A multidisciplinary team, with an experienced surgeon and good collaboration with the anesthesiologist are needed for successful surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radium-bearing waters in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomza, I.; Lebecka, J.; Pluta, I.

    1986-01-01

    Natural waters with a high radium content occuring in underground workings of coal mines in Upper Silesia are described. Above 1500 water samples from carbonifereous aquifers were taken and the concentration of 226 Ra was measured. In about 100 samples also uranium was determined. The 226 Ra concentration varied in a wide range from 0.01 kBq/m 3 to 270 kBq/m 3 , while the uranium content was usually much lower than one could expect from the equilibrium between radium and uranium. It was observed that the 226 Ra concentration increases with mineralization of water, however the correlation was rather poor. Two types of radium-bearing waters were distinguished. Waters type A - containing Ba 2+ ions and waters type B - containing SO 4 2- ions. Waters type A are always reach in radium and usually have higher concentration of 226 Ra than waters type B. The described waters have one of the highest radium concentration which have been found so far in the natural environment. (author)

  13. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects

  14. Improved method for the determination of dissolved radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, I.C.

    1984-01-01

    Most of the current techniques for radium determination involve chemical separation of radium from major sample constituents by coprecipitation with barium or lead sulfate, followed by further radium purification. However, when samples contain biological materials, such as algae in wastewater from uranium millponds, or brine water from oil fields, the precipitation and purification processes become tedious and time-consuming. An improved method has been developed for the determination of radium-226 in such water samples, which also is applicable to natural waters. This method is based on a radon determination of alpha activity of the radon and its short-lived daughters in an alpha-scintillation cell. The radon-bubbler volume is either 90 millimeters for concentrated samples or 800 milliliters for dilute samples. For radium concentrations less than 1 picocurie per liter, 2 liters of water sample can be concentrated several-fold by simple evaporation, and decreased to 800 milliliters prior to deemanation. Because the process involves no chemical separations, chemical recoveries are nearly 100 percent. The lower limit of detection is 0.05 picocurie per liter for a 1-liter water sample and a counting time of 1000 minutes. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  15. Evaluation of internal alpha-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieve, L.A.; Davis, F.; Freels, S.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effect of internal exposure to α-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of α particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of γ-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. 42 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226 Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H 2 O, which allows one to identify the 222 Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10 5 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H 2 O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ( 226 Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222 Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  17. The behaviour of radium in soil and in uranium mine-tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    The existence of a number of historical wastes has prompted the need to develop a disposal strategy for material contaminated with radium-226. This report reviews the pertinent radiological and chemical properties of radium. Chemical factors that determine the mobility of radium in soil/groundwater environments are discussed. The mineralogy of mine tailings and attempts to leach them are reviewed. Radium levels in leached residues are compared to the standards for radium levels, and realistic targets are suggested for leaching methods. Techniques for scrubbing soil, immobilizing radium and treating wastewater containing radium are reviewed. Recommendations are made for a possible leaching strategy for radium-contaminated soil, and for further research to develop an effective disposal strategy

  18. A brownfield to greenfield success story: Denver Radium Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracani, E.; Bruskin, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver Radium Site consists of forty-nine separate sites divided into 11 operable units throughout the city of Denver, Colorado. The sites contained radioactive soils and residues (310,000 tons) from processing of radium in the early 1900s. The majority of the radioactive material was removed, transported by rail, and disposed offsite in Utah. During radiologic cleanup at the former Robinson Brick Company Site (ROBCO), (OU No. 4/5), metal contaminated soils from previous smelting operations were encountered. The Denver Radium Site was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), and through cooperation of private parties, the state and federal governments, the land was cleaned up and restored to productive use

  19. Physico-chemical forms and migration in continental waters of radium from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.

    1982-01-01

    Recent advances in knowledge of the physico-chemical forms and migration of radium in continental waters are reviewed and recommendations for future research in this field are given. Computations of solution equilibria based on the reported and newly determined stability constants and solubilities of radium compounds show that a significant percentage of dissolved radium can exist in some waste and natural waters as an RaSO 4 ion pair, besides a significant percentage of Ra 2+ ions. The formation of a solid phase consisting mainly of sparingly soluble radium compounds can be excluded in waste and natural waters. Model experiments revealed that radium can be bound in complexes with some as yet unidentified ligands, probably of organic nature. Direct determinations of the physico-chemical forms of radium in surface and groundwaters were mostly confined to the analysis of the ratio of dissolved to particulate forms of radium. Ratios from 0.01 to 100 were found, depending on the type of water examined. Recently a newly suggested method of selective dissolution was applied to characterize the nature of particulate forms of radium in surface waters. Migration of radium is reviewed, covering the release of radium from its source, its transport in ground and surface waters and its deposition in various sinks. Factors influencing radium release from the sources into the hydrosphere are discussed. The following processes affecting radium migration are discussed: adsorption of dissolved radium on suspended solids and bottom sediments, coprecipitation of radium with solids formed in waste waters or in natural waters, sedimentation of particulate forms of radium in reservoirs and streams, resuspension of bottom sediments and dissolution of radium from suspended solids or bottom sediments

  20. Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

    2012-01-01

    What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

  1. Effect of duration of exposure to RaCl2 and a radium apatite from freshwater mussels on intestinal transport and bone deposition of radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domel, R.U.; Beal, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural leaching of uranium ore bodies can result in 226 Ra pollution of adjacent waterways and consequent incorporation of radium into the food chain. Mining has the potential to augment this effect. In the Magela flood plain, Northern Territory, the freshwater mussel (Velesunio angasi) concentrates radium in its tissues as a phosphate compound. The availability of mussel radium for uptake and tissue incorporation was assessed relative to radium chloride using rats. The results were compared for jejunal transport (in situ in vivo, ligated segment using anaesthetised animals) and feed trial experiments. In addition, the influence of age and duration of dosage (hours in the case of the jejunal transport and weeks in the feed trial studies) were investigated. Mussel radium transport across the jejunum of adults and juveniles (<0.3%) was very small when compared to radium chloride (50% injected dose). The amount of mussel radium available for intestinal uptake in the feed trials was also low (<0.5%) but significant when compared to the uptake of radium chloride (< 1.5%). Incorporation of mussel radium into bone was less than that of radium chloride (p=0.0001) for both adults and juveniles. Extrapolation of the data from the animal model to humans suggests that eating these mussels carries with it only a low risk of exceeding the Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) set for members of the public, even in juveniles

  2. Effect of duration of exposure to RaCl{sub 2} and a radium apatite from freshwater mussels on intestinal transport and bone deposition of radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domel, R U [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organsiation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Environment Division; Beal, A M [University of New South Wales, NSW (Australia). Biological Science

    1997-10-01

    Natural leaching of uranium ore bodies can result in {sup 226}Ra pollution of adjacent waterways and consequent incorporation of radium into the food chain. Mining has the potential to augment this effect. In the Magela flood plain, Northern Territory, the freshwater mussel (Velesunio angasi) concentrates radium in its tissues as a phosphate compound. The availability of mussel radium for uptake and tissue incorporation was assessed relative to radium chloride using rats. The results were compared for jejunal transport (in situ in vivo, ligated segment using anaesthetised animals) and feed trial experiments. In addition, the influence of age and duration of dosage (hours in the case of the jejunal transport and weeks in the feed trial studies) were investigated. Mussel radium transport across the jejunum of adults and juveniles (<0.3%) was very small when compared to radium chloride (50% injected dose). The amount of mussel radium available for intestinal uptake in the feed trials was also low (<0.5%) but significant when compared to the uptake of radium chloride (< 1.5%). Incorporation of mussel radium into bone was less than that of radium chloride (p=0.0001) for both adults and juveniles. Extrapolation of the data from the animal model to humans suggests that eating these mussels carries with it only a low risk of exceeding the Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) set for members of the public, even in juveniles 18 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.; Barden, Adam O.; VanMiddlesworth, Lester

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was

  4. Radon/radium detection increases uranium drilling effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, R.H.; Cook, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of portable radon detectors has become routine in reconnaissance uranium surveys where water and sediment samples are analyzed in field labs for radon and radium, and in detailed work where drill hole locations are pinpointed by field determinations of radon in soil gas from shallow holes. During the drilling program itself, however, very few operators are taking advantage of radon and radium analyses to decide whether a barren drill hole was a near miss or whether the immediate area can be written off. The technique, which is outlined here, is effective both above and below the water table

  5. Regularities of radium coprecipitation with barium sulfate from salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavskij, Yu.P.; Rakhimova, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    Coprecipitation of radium with barium sulfate from highly concentrated NaCl solutions is studied, including the effects of the initial solution composition, alkaline reagent (CaO, NaOH), supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration, and pH. The process is promoted by high NaCl concentration in the initial solution, which is due to structural transformation and change in the sorption activity of the BaSO 4 precipitate in salt solutions. The results obtained were applied to recovery of radium from process solutions during the development and introduction of improved procedure for disinfection and decontamination of waste yielded by chlorination of loparite concentrates [ru

  6. [Dynamic observation on the short-term change of xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjie; Zhao, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    To dynamically analyze the change of xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy by DW MRI. Twenty-three nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients confirmed by pathology were enrolled. Male/Female: 19/4. The age was from 37 to 69 years. The patients were divided into two groups: G1, Dmeanxerostomia was assessed. SPSS 13.0 and SAS 8.2 software were used to analyze the data. At the end of IMRT, the change tendency of ADC in parotid and submandibular glands value was different in patients with different degree of xerostomia (F = 11.52, P xerostomia could be found in patients within different irradiation dose groups (Z = -3.622, P xerostomia for patients at the end of IMRT (Z value was -0.791, -0.949, 2.488, all P > 0.05). A significant difference of xerostomia degree in patients was found at the various follow-up time after IMRT (χ(2) = 19.59, P xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. The degrees of salivary gland function and dry mouth in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma damage evaluate with illuminated dose increases. The function of salivary gland gradually restored and the degree of dry mouth gradually reduce with the extension of time after radiotherapy.

  7. Clinical and Histological Characteristics of Nasopharyngeal Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8(26.7%),cranial nerve involvement 7(23.3%) and visual impairment 6(20%). According to the UICC 1997 staging for nasopharyngeal carcinoma,23(76.7%) and 7(23.3%) were T3 and T4 or stages III and IV respectively.The histological diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma 23(76.7%) cases, non-Hodgkins lymphoma ...

  8. Emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lu Zhang,1,2 Qiu-Yan Chen,1,2 Huai Liu,1,2 Lin-Quan Tang,1,2 Hai-Qiang Mai1,21State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is endemic in Asia and is etiologically associated with Epstein–Barr virus. Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality. The role of systemic therapy has become more prominent. Based on multiple phase III studies and meta-analyses, concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is the current standard of care for locally advanced disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer manual [7th edition] stages II–IVb. The reported failure-free survival rates from phase II trials are encouraging for induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Data from ongoing phase III trials comparing induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy will validate the results of these phase II studies. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques are recommended if the resources are available. Locoregional control exceeding 90% and reduced xerostomia-related toxicities can now be achieved using intensity-modulated radiotherapy, although distant control remains the most pressing research problem. The promising results of targeted therapy and Epstein–Barr virus-specific immunotherapy from early clinical trials should be validated in phase III clinical trials. New technology, more effective and less toxic chemotherapy regimens, and targeted therapy offer new opportunities for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, molecular targeted agents, immunotherapy, prognostic markers

  9. Measurement of radium in biological tissues in the radioactive area of Ramsar (Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Levain, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Ramsar area located on the shore of Caspian Sea and the first slopes of the Alborze mountains is interesting on 3 levels: the large variety of plant and animal life in the terrestrial, freshwater and marine environment; the presence of a large sedentary population to which should be added a temporary population attracted by touring activities and thermal springs. The occurrence of a significant natural irradiation mainly due to radium 226. This last point has led to initiate a survey of the area in order to assess all the available information and derive the necessary data so as to ensure a protection level of both population and environment essential to the future of the area [fr

  10. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Our experience and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; de Lima, Francis Vinicius Fontes; Mendonça, Carlos Alberto; de Jesus, Eduardo Passos Fiel; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; Santos, Ronaldo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, and histologically benign tumor, generally observed in male adolescents. It shows very aggressive behavior due to local invasiveness and is associated with various symptoms. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma originates in the sphenopalatine forame, causing epistaxes and nasal obstruction. Objective: To retrospectively describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Scientific drawing: Retrospective, descriptive study conducted after approval from the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (protocol 0114.0.107.000 -11). Methods: We analyzed findings in 20 patients who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2011. Factors analyzed include patient age and gender, symptoms, stages, treatment, length of surgery, intraoperatory bleeding, postoperative need for nasal tampons, hospitalization time, complications, and tumor recurrence. Results: Patients were aged 10–29 years. All patients were treated surgically, including 17 who underwent endoscopic surgery. The mean operation time was 120 min, and the mean bleeding volume was 300 mL. Seventeen patients required clamping of the external carotids and tumor embolization. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery alone or with other conventional techniques was safe for the treatment of angiofibromas of different stages. PMID:25991988

  11. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Our experience and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Júnior, Ronaldo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, and histologically benign tumor, generally observed in male adolescents. It shows very aggressive behavior due to local invasiveness and is associated with various symptoms. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma originates in the sphenopalatine forame, causing epistaxes and nasal obstruction. Objective: To retrospectively describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Scientific drawing: Retrospective, descriptive study conducted after approval from the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (protocol 0114.0.107.000 -11. Methods: We analyzed findings in 20 patients who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2011. Factors analyzed include patient age and gender, symptoms, stages, treatment, length of surgery, intraoperatory bleeding, postoperative need for nasal tampons, hospitalization time, complications, and tumor recurrence. Results: Patients were aged 10-29 years. All patients were treated surgically, including 17 who underwent endoscopic surgery. The mean operation time was 120 min, and the mean bleeding volume was 300 mL. Seventeen patients required clamping of the external carotids and tumor embolization. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery alone or with other conventional techniques was safe for the treatment of angiofibromas of different stages.

  12. Late neurotoxicity after nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siala, W.; Mnejja, W.; Daoud, J.; Khabir, A.; Boudawara, T.; Ben Mahfoudh, K.; Ghorbel, A.; Frikha, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A retrospective analysis of risk factors for late neurological toxicity after nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy. Patients and methods Between 1993 and 2004, 239 patients with non metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy associated or not to chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered with two modalities: hyperfractionated for 82 patients and conventional fractionation for 157 patients. We evaluated the impact of tumour stage, age, gender, radiotherapy schedule and chemotherapy on neurological toxicity. Results After a mean follow-up of 107 months (35-176 months), 21 patients (8.8%) developed neurological complications, such as temporal necrosis in nine cases, brain stem necrosis in five cases, optics nerve atrophy in two cases and myelitis in one case. Five- and ten-year free of toxicity survival was 95 and 84% respectively. Young patients had greater risk of temporal necrosis, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with a significantly higher risk of neurological complications (14.6% vs 5.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, hyperfractionation and age were insignificant. Conclusion Late neurological toxicity after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma was rare. Younger age and hyperfractionation were considered as risk factors of neurological toxicity in our study

  13. Combined teletherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy boost for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouvaris, J.; Plataniotis, G.A.; Sandilos, P.; Dardoufas, C.; Damatopoulou, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavasiliou, C.

    1996-01-01

    For the non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, external beam radiation therapy (median dose 64 Gy) and a boost of intracavitary irradiation (ICRT) has been given. Caesium-137 pellets of 40 mCi were used at a dose rate of 3-3.5 Gy/h, 1 cm from the sources. The median dose was 8.5 Gy. Overall 5-year actuarial survival for the 48 studied patients was 60.4% and LRFS was 64%. The procedure was well tolerated by our patients

  14. Effects of radiation therapy on neuropsychological functioning in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.W.H.; Hung, B.K.M.; Woo, E.K.W.; Tai, P.T.H.; Choi, D.T.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients who had a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with radiation therapy were followed up after a median duration of 5.5 years and given a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results were compared with a comparable group of newly diagnosed NPC patients awaiting radiation therapy. The irradiated group was significantly poorer in overall IQ, non-verbal memory recall, and reported a substantially greater number of memory related complaints. These results contrast with the complacent general assumption that radiation therapy has a negligible effect on adult functioning. (author)

  15. Port Radium Canada's Original Radium/Uranium Mine, The Complete Story of Canada's Historic Radium/Uranium Mine, 1932 to 2012 - 13159

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Doug; Wiatzka, Gerd [SENES Consultants Limited, 121 Granton Drive, Unit 12, Richmond Hill, ON L4B 3N4 (United States); Brown, Steve [SENES Consultants Limited, 8310 South Valley Highway, Suite 3016, Englewood, Colorado 80112 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper provides the life story of Canada's original radium/uranium mine. In addition to the history of operations, it discusses the unique and successful approach used to identify the key issues and concerns associated with the former radium, uranium and silver mining property and the activities undertaken to define the remedial actions and subsequent remedial plan. The Port Radium Mine site, situated approximately 275 km north of Yellowknife on the east shore of Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, was discovered in 1930 and underground mining began in 1932. The mine operated almost continuously from 1932 to 1982, initially for recovery of radium, then uranium and finally, for recovery of silver. Tailings production totaled an estimated 900,000 tons and 800,000 tons from uranium and silver processing operations respectively. In the early days of mining, Port Radium miners were exposed to radon and associated decay product levels (in Working Level Months of exposure - WLM) hundreds of times greater than modern standards. The experience of the Port Radium miners provides important contribution to understanding the risks from radon. While the uranium mine was originally decommissioned in the early 1960's, to the standards of the day, the community of Deline (formerly Fort Franklin) had concerns about residual contamination at the mine site and the potential effects arising from use of traditional lands. The Deline people were also concerned about the possible risks to Deline Dene arising from their work as ore carriers. In the late 1990's, the community of Deline brought these concerns to national attention and consequently, the Government of Canada and the community of Deline agreed to move forward in a collaborative manner to address these concerns. The approach agreed to was to establish the Canada-Deline Uranium Table (CDUT) to provide a joint process by which the people of Deline could have their concerns expressed and addressed. A great

  16. Port Radium Canada's Original Radium/Uranium Mine, The Complete Story of Canada's Historic Radium/Uranium Mine, 1932 to 2012 - 13159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Doug; Wiatzka, Gerd; Brown, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the life story of Canada's original radium/uranium mine. In addition to the history of operations, it discusses the unique and successful approach used to identify the key issues and concerns associated with the former radium, uranium and silver mining property and the activities undertaken to define the remedial actions and subsequent remedial plan. The Port Radium Mine site, situated approximately 275 km north of Yellowknife on the east shore of Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, was discovered in 1930 and underground mining began in 1932. The mine operated almost continuously from 1932 to 1982, initially for recovery of radium, then uranium and finally, for recovery of silver. Tailings production totaled an estimated 900,000 tons and 800,000 tons from uranium and silver processing operations respectively. In the early days of mining, Port Radium miners were exposed to radon and associated decay product levels (in Working Level Months of exposure - WLM) hundreds of times greater than modern standards. The experience of the Port Radium miners provides important contribution to understanding the risks from radon. While the uranium mine was originally decommissioned in the early 1960's, to the standards of the day, the community of Deline (formerly Fort Franklin) had concerns about residual contamination at the mine site and the potential effects arising from use of traditional lands. The Deline people were also concerned about the possible risks to Deline Dene arising from their work as ore carriers. In the late 1990's, the community of Deline brought these concerns to national attention and consequently, the Government of Canada and the community of Deline agreed to move forward in a collaborative manner to address these concerns. The approach agreed to was to establish the Canada-Deline Uranium Table (CDUT) to provide a joint process by which the people of Deline could have their concerns expressed and addressed. A great deal of work was

  17. Encapsulation, shielding, and packaging for conditioning of spent radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, I. S.; Kim, T. K.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, G. J.; Hong, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    The appropriate management and conditioning of spent radium sources have been risen to one of the greatest challenges faced by the international society. The expert teams in Korea were organized to tackle this problem by the request of IAEA and supported to condition sources in Southeastern Asia. The main object of this paper is to apply safely and effectively conditioning of spent sealed sources in our country near future by virtue of describing the technology on conditioning the national inventory of spent radium sources in Singapore. The paper is the result that the Korean expert team successfully carried out the conditioning of spent radium sources in Singapore with accumulated experiences. The conditioning operation was carried out under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer, Mr. Al-Mughrabi and Singapore Nuclear Cancer Centre. The 204 sources of spent radium stored in Singapore were encapsuled and welded in 17 small capsules and a large capsule, and conditioned in 2 lead shields, producing 2 package. As a result of this operation, a total amount of 938.56mg were conditioned and distributed into 2 shielding devices, holding 497.5mg and 441.06mg. In addition, the contaminated objects and the secondary wastes produced during segregation and dismantling of sources were immobilized in a plastic box

  18. The removal of radium during the production of nitrophosphate fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, F.T.; Habashi, F.

    1985-01-01

    In the nitric acid leaching of phosphate rock 20 kg of barium nitrate can be added to the leach solution followed by 20 kg of potassium sulfate per ton rock to produce 23 kg of a precipitate having the composition Basub(0.6)Casub(0.4)SO 4 containing nearly all the radium present in the rock. (orig.)

  19. Marie Sklodowska-Curie, polonium, radium and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the author describes how the methodology developed by Marie Curie in discovering polonium and radium has contributed to greater scientific discoveries and how these discoveries have played a great part in the development of science in general and have particularly enriched chemistry. (O.M.)

  20. Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehney, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening (±S.E.) of 1.8 ±0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of 226 Ra + 228 Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment

  1. Denver Radium Boom and the Colorado School of Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    The November 7, 1985, Rocky Mountain News, proclaimed Radiation hot spot detected at Mines. This hot spot discovery was the result of investigative reports by a local television station, with follow-up radiation monitoring by the Colorado Department of Health. Not an isolated occurrence of alpha and gamma radiation contamination, the School of Mines discovery is only the latest in a five-year series of discoveries of radioactive waste disposal sites in the Denver metropolitan area. These discoveries have involved not only the Colorado Department of Health, but also the Environmental Protection Agency, at least five consulting firms, and numerous businessmen and homeowners. In 1982, the sites were combined into a single project called the Denver Radium Site and selected for clean-up under the Federal Superfund program. This paper reviews the historical aspects of these hot spots by describing the history of radium processing in Denver; early work of the Colorado School of Mines, National Radium Institute, the Golden Experiment Station, and other institutional research; and the commercial production of radium. 20 references

  2. The rays of life, centennial of discovery of Radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Enrique; Plazas, Maria C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors make a recount from the discovery of the rays X for William Conrad Roentgen, in November of 1.985, until our days of the main discoveries and advances in medicine, having like base the radium and their importance in the treatment of the cancer

  3. Searches for permanent electric dipole moments in Radium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Wilschut, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are uniquely sensitive to sources of T and P violation in fundamental interactions. In particular radium isotopes offer the largest intrinsic sensitivity. We want to explore the prospects for utilizing the high intense beams from HIE-ISOLDE to boost the statistical

  4. Ação do radium sôbre o vírus da Coriomeningite linfocitária benigna Radium effect upon the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guilherme Lacorte

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz parte de uma seqüência iniciada em 1953 com a verificação do efeito dos raios X sôbre o vírus da gripe em que observamos que os mesmos, em doses fracas, tem aumentado o seu poder patogênico para camundongos. Posteriormente, verificamos a ação do radium sôbre o vírus da gripe e da poliomielite. Neste último caso, o vírus irradiado mostrou-se ativo durante maior número de dias. Nas pesquisas aqui referidas, submetemos o vírus da coriomeningite linfocitária benigna a ação do radium, usando quatro agulhas de 1 mg desse elemento em dispositivo que idealizamos para êste fim. Depois de irradiada, foi a suspensão de vírus diluida a 10*-1, 10*-2 e 10*-3 para as inoculações em camundongos, juntamente com as diluições testemunhas. Observamos que o vírus resistiu pelo menos 264 dias, à temperatura de 4ºC. Quanto às alterações do poder patogênico provocadas pelo radium verificamos que o mesmo não se altera após 24 horas de irradiação. Diminue após 8 dias para aumentar, de modo seguro, após 20 e 33 dias. Iguala-se ao testemunha depois de 78 dias.In the present paper the authors refered the experiments made with the lymphocytic chriomeningitis virus. We strain, after exposition to 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium. The virus suspension was put into the Carrel flask in a layer of 0,1 cm. The titrations of the irradiated virus suspension were made after 24 hours, 8, 20, 33, 78, 85, 120, 264, 292, 387 and 535 days. the virus was still active after 264 days, not after 292 days. The virus irradiated during 24 hours presented the same pathogenicity form mice than the control but after 8 days it was lesser and after 20 and 33 days it was enchanced (Graphic 10. After 78 days the pathogenic power was the same for the irradiated virus and the control.

  5. Prevalence of technical mesothorium in self-luminous compounds used by New Jersey radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.T.; Holtzmann, R.B.; Rundo, J.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-five sealed glass ampoules containing samples of radium dial paint prepared by the US Radium Corporation (USRC) and used by New Jersey dial workers in the period 1915--1928, were analyzed for radium-226 and radium-228 activity by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Radium-228 was found to be the dominant activating agent at the probable time of use in most of the sampled paints in which the ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 activity was determinable, the calculated radium-228 to radium-226 activity ratio in 1920 in these ranging from 7.2 to 10 (median 8.4), indicating that radium element chemically separated from commercialthorium ores (technical mesothorium) was used as the activator. Published isotopic activity ratios in USRC dial-paint samples that were appreciably in excess of those we found are shown invariably to be due to errors in calculation. Our results and information in the early literature suggested the hypothesis that dial paints used at USRC before July 1919 were activated with isotopically pure radium-226 whereas compounds used thereafter until the year 1925 were activated with technical mesothorium- Isotopic activity ratios predicted by the hypothesis compared well with median ratios observed in two groups of former workers. We conclude that inaccuracies in dates of hire and termination at USRC might well be the principal source of uncertainty in estimates of skeletal dose for former workers in whom the isotopic activity ratio has not been measured

  6. Radium 226 and uranium isotopes simultaneously determination in water samples using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Akel, B.; Saaid, S.; Nashawati, A.

    2007-04-01

    In this work a method has been developed to determine simultaneously Radium 226 and Uranium isotopes in water samples by low back ground Liquid Scintillation Counter. Radium 226 was determined by its progeny Polonium 214 after one month of sample storage in order to achieve the equilibrium between Radium 226 and Polonium 214. Uranium isotopes were determined by subtracting Radium 226 activity from total alpha activity. The method detection limits were 0.049 Bq/L and 0.176 Bq/L for Radium 226 and Uranium isotopes respectively. The repeatability limits were ± 0.32 Bq/L and ± 0.9 Bq/L for Radium 226 and Uranium isotopes respectively. While relative errors were % 9.5 and %18.2 for Radium 226 and Uranium isotopes respectively. On the other hand, the report presented the results of different standard and natural samples.(author)

  7. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of radium-226 by alpha spectrometry has been investigated critically to determine experimental conditions under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids such as soils, ores, and tailings from uranium mills are dissolved completely by fusion with potassium fluoride in the presence of barium-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion with simultaneous volatilization of all silica and fluoride. Radium is precipitated with barium already present in the sample by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute hydrochloric acid solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and the radium and barium sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid. The precipitate is mounted on a membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution of the subsequent alpha spectra is much better than has been achieved previously from barium sulfate, and is almost as good as is obtainable with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates. The resolution is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97% and accuracy is generally as good as the counting statistics obtained will permit. Grossly inaccurate results can be obtained under certain conditions when barium-133 tracer is used to determine the chemical yield of radium-226. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and by recoil products of the radium isotopes being counted is demonstrated, amd methods for virtual elimination of both problems are discussed

  8. Pregnancy and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prognostic evaluation of 27 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie-Hua, Y.; Caisen, L.; Yuhua, H.

    1984-01-01

    In order to study the influence of pregnancy on the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the authors have retrospectively studied 27 patients who either were discovered to be pregnant during radiotherapy (9 patients, herein abbreviated as concurrent group) or became pregnant after treatment (18 patients, herein abbreviated as subsequent group). This material was collected from 811 NPC patients treated in their hospital from March 1958 to 1972. The results obtained are presented as follows: Concurrent pregnancy had a disastrous effect on the prognosis of NPC patients giving a five year survival of only 11% (1/9). This adverse influence was not observed in the subsequent group, yet the time of gestation seemed to be relevant to the prognosis. Two of the three patients who became pregnant within one year of the treatment died of disease, those who became pregnant beyond the second year after irradiation had the best prognosis. All seven patients who became pregnant after the second year of treatment survived. A total of 21 children were born to the patients of these two groups. They have been followed regularly for 10 to 20 years. No deformity, or retardation in growth or mentality was discovered, nor was there any evidence of radiation tumor or leukemia observed

  9. Clinical and evolutive aspects of nasopharyngeal T4 NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalej, M.; Bouaouina, N.; Benna, F.; Frikha, H.; Jallouli, M.; Ellouze, R.; Ben Romdhane, K.; Cammoun, M.; Ben Attia, R.; Daoud, J.

    1995-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the primary cancer of the head and neck localizations in the Salah Azaiz Institute (Tunisia). From 1970 to 1987, 80 patients with histologically proven T4 NO NPC, were treated with exclusive radiation (70-75 Gy to the primary lesion and 50-55 Gy to cervical lymph nodes). The T4 NO represents 7% of all NPC and 16% of the T4 treated in our Institute. Ninety percent of the patients are over 20 years old with a mean age of 52 years. The sex-ration was 4: 1. Extension to the brain was observed in 55% of the cases. Local control was 70% at 2 months after the end of irradiation. The actuarial survival at 5 years was 47%. Distant metastasis represent 13% (30% for all NPC). The main failure of treatment was local recurrence. The T4 NO is probably a particular entity concerning the age, the response to radiotherapy and the low rate of distant metastasis. (authors). 18 refs., 5 figs

  10. The use of radiotherapy as a therapeutic option in the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: An update of results in 11 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Perez Penna, Lourdes; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Garcia Socarras, Debora; Perez Trejo, Migdalia

    2009-01-01

    The juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and abundant vascular spaces lined with endothelium, almost exclusively male and adolescence. The recommended treatment of choice is surgical excision of the tumor after embolization, however, in patients with bulky tumors, in which no surgical treatment is possible or it is refused, or where excision was incomplete, or the case of recurrence, radiation therapy (RT) is a therapeutic option. Results are presented in a series of 11 patients suffering from juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, all male, between 9 and 16 years of age, treated at INOR from 1990 to 2005. Nine patients were used as initial therapy irradiated and 2 relapse treated. The radiation treatment was applied in the irradiation of the entire tumor volume with a margin of safety, dose between 40 and 60 Gy, 1.8 Gy per session, associated with RT, was used postirradiation interferon from 3 to 6 months in 10 poly chemotherapy patients and in 1 patient. They keep 10 of the 11 patients with sustained complete remission (90.9%) without recurrence. In one patient only partial remission was achieved, using then surgical treatment. Early complications were all patients, and late in some. In the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, RT is a treatment that maintains its usefulness, with their specific indications. (Author)

  11. Nasopharyngeal pushback in treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H W; Lee, K J

    1976-02-01

    We describe a new technique for extensive retropositioning of the soft palate for the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency. This technique is identified as a nasopharyngeal pushback, and has been used repeatedly in conjunction with both a Cronin nasal flap and a superiorly based pharyngeal flap when maximum retropositioning was needed. This procedure has been used for over ten years, each time obtaining an additional pushback distance equal to or greater than the distance achieved by freeling the soft palate from the posterior border of the hard palate.

  12. Nasopharyngeal glial heterotopia with delayed postoperative meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kenichi; Furuno, Kenji; Chong, Pin Fee; Morioka, Takato

    2017-06-22

    A male infant, who underwent radical resection of a large glial heterotopia at the nasopharynx at 8 days, developed delayed postoperative bacterial meningitis at 9 months. Neuroradiological examination clearly demonstrated that meningitis had occurred because of the intracranial and extracranial connections, which were scarcely seen in the perioperative period. A transsphenoidal extension of hypothalamic hamartoma is possible because the connection started from the right optic nerve, running through the transsphenoidal canal in the sphenoid bone and terminating at the recurrent mass in the nasopharyngeal region. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. True bilateral nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anupam; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2016-10-01

    This report describes the third case of a true bilateral Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), i.e. two separate JNA arising from both sides simultaneously. The associated multiple recurrences in such a case have not yet been reported. A 21-year-man underwent transpalatal excision and recurred twice. The last 'neo-occurrence' encountered after 2 years was at a different site and was subsequently managed by post-embolization endoscopic resection. A complete report of its clinico-radiological features and management outcome is discussed.

  14. Practical recommendations for radium-223 treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yong; Carrio, Ignasi; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Fanti, Stefano; Ilhan, Harun; Mommsen, Caroline; Nitzsche, Egbert; Sundram, Francis; Vogel, Wouter; Oyen, Wim; Lewington, Val

    2017-01-01

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (radium-223, Xofigo registered) is the first targeted alpha therapy for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases. Radium-223 provides a new treatment option for this setting, but also necessitates a new treatment management approach. We provide straightforward and practical recommendations for European nuclear medicine centres to optimize radium-223 service provision. An independent research consultancy agency observed radium-223 procedures and conducted interviews with all key staff members involved in radium-223 treatment delivery in 11 nuclear medicine centres across six countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the UK) experienced in administering radium-223. The findings were collated and discussed at a meeting of experts from these centres, during which key consensus recommendations were defined. The recommendations cover centre organization and preparation; patient referral; radium-223 ordering, preparation and disposal; radium-223 treatment delivery/administration; and patient experience. Guidance includes structured coordination and communication within centres and multidisciplinary teams, focusing on sharing best practice to provide high-quality, patient-centred care throughout the treatment pathway. These expert recommendations are intended to complement existing management guidelines. Sharing best practice and experience will help nuclear medicine centres to optimize radium-223 service provision and improve patient care. (orig.)

  15. Practical recommendations for radium-223 treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yong [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, London (United Kingdom); Carrio, Ignasi [Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); De Vincentis, Giuseppe [Policlinico Umberto I University Hospital Rome, Rome (Italy); Fanti, Stefano [University Hospital Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Mommsen, Caroline [Praxis fuer diagnostische und therapeutische Nuklearmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Nitzsche, Egbert [Canton Hospital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Sundram, Francis [University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Vogel, Wouter [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, London (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Lewington, Val [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (radium-223, Xofigo registered) is the first targeted alpha therapy for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases. Radium-223 provides a new treatment option for this setting, but also necessitates a new treatment management approach. We provide straightforward and practical recommendations for European nuclear medicine centres to optimize radium-223 service provision. An independent research consultancy agency observed radium-223 procedures and conducted interviews with all key staff members involved in radium-223 treatment delivery in 11 nuclear medicine centres across six countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the UK) experienced in administering radium-223. The findings were collated and discussed at a meeting of experts from these centres, during which key consensus recommendations were defined. The recommendations cover centre organization and preparation; patient referral; radium-223 ordering, preparation and disposal; radium-223 treatment delivery/administration; and patient experience. Guidance includes structured coordination and communication within centres and multidisciplinary teams, focusing on sharing best practice to provide high-quality, patient-centred care throughout the treatment pathway. These expert recommendations are intended to complement existing management guidelines. Sharing best practice and experience will help nuclear medicine centres to optimize radium-223 service provision and improve patient care. (orig.)

  16. Head and neck: treatment of primary and relapsed nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is not a common malignancy of the head and neck in the United States and presents a great challenge to the radiation oncologists in this country. Its management is radiotherapeutic and technically demanding and calls for careful treatment techniques to include the primary and the lymphatic drainage areas to high doses while sparing the neighboring organs such as the spinal cord, eyes, temporal lobes and midrain. This refresher course will review the clinical course, pattern of spread with manifestations of various neurologic syndromes of the disease. The radiotherapeutic management of primary lesion will be discussed in detail including the treatment techniques, placement of the irradiation portals, dose levels, etc. Treatment results as reported in the literature as well as those achieved at the MGH will be presented. Special emphasis will be placed on the routine use of intracavitary implant to boost the primary site and its technical aspects. Relapsed NPC after previous radiation therapy presents a difficult problem in management, but can be re-irradiated with occasional success by observing careful technique and fractionated intracavitary brachytherapy and the local control rates will be briefly covered. Recurrent disease in the neck will be managed by neck dissection. Xerostomia is undesirable and common sequelae following radical radiation therapy for NPC. Efforts are being made to decrease its magnitude by using higher energies of photons, i.e. 10 MV to spare a portion of the parotid glands with some promising results. Because of the unique location of the primary lesion, currently a modified BID program (MBID) is used and its techniques and treatment concept are discussed

  17. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  18. Determination of uranium, thorium and radium isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, Z.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems connected with the study of isotope composition of natural radioactive elements in natural objects are considered. It is pointed out that for minerals, ores and rocks the following ratios are usually determined: 234 U/ 238 U, 230 Th/ 238 U, 226 Ra/ 238 U, 228 Th/ 230 Th, 228 Th/ 232 Th and lead isotopes; for natural waters, besides the enumerated - 226 Ra/ 228 Ra. General content of uranium and thorium in the course of isotope investigations is determined from separate samples, most frequently by the X-ray spectral method, radium content - by usual radiochemical method, uranium and radium content in waters -respectively by calorimetric and emanation methods. Radiochemical preparation of geologic powder and aqueous samples for isotope analysis is described in detail. The technique of measuring and calculating isotope ratios (α-spectrometry for determining isotope composition of uranium and thorium and emanation method for determining 226 Ra/ 228 Ra) is presented

  19. Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of exotic francium and radium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094150

    Two experimental campaigns were performed at the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE radioactive-beam facility. The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of $^{203}$Fr was measured. Its magnitude with respect to the other even-$N$ francium isotopes below $N = 126$ suggests an onset of static deformation. However, calculations of the static and total deformation parameters reveal that it cannot be considered as purely statically deformed. The neutron-rich radium isotopes were investigated. The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of $^{231}$Ra was measured and the continuation of increasing quadrupole deformation with neutron number in neutron-rich radium isotopes was further established. Measurements of the changes in mean-square charge radii of $^{231,233}$Ra allowed the odd-even staggering parameter to be calculated for $^{230-232}$Ra. A normal odd-even staggering which increases in magnitude with neutron number was observed in these isotopes.

  20. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  1. Determination of radium-226 in fresh water, using alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrakdar, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    Four radium isotopes are present in nature, i.e. Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228. The first three are alpha emitters while the last is a beta emitter. Because of the importance of the determination of Alpha isotope emitters in pure water (drinking water), this work focuses on the determination of radium-226 as it has the longest half-life (1600 years, in comparison to 11.4 day, 3.66 days for Ra-223 and Ra-224, respectively) using Alpha spectroscopy. This method has the capability to be applied in sampling fields and low detection limit which in turn makes the analysis of low-level radioactive environmental water samples, with hardness does not exceed 40 French Degree, satisfying for health and environment control programmes. However, counting the samples using Alpha spectroscopy has to be immediate (or within 48 hours). (author)

  2. Radium-226 in waters of the Amazon river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirshova, M.P.; Vinogradova, A.S.; Popov, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the Amazon river waters for 226 Ra content is carried out. Exploration works are carried out in the framework of the soviet investigations of the Amazon river in 1983 by the Academy of Science of USSR on board a research ship ''Professor Schtokman'' with the agreement and participation of brazilian scientists. Radium determination has been carried out in reference with equilibrium radon preliminary accumulated in samples (30 y) tightly closed. The general 226 Ra concentrations observed in the Amazon waters exceed 4-6 times the values known before relating to a ''diluted'' element fraction. It happens due to the presence of the river suspended matter in the water analysed; it is a carrier of additional quantities of 226 Ra, and considerable. The mixture zone of river and ocean waters is shown to be no ''geochemical barrier'' on the way to the ocean for river radium inlike the other microelements of the river run-off

  3. Physicians, reformers and occupational disease: the discovery of radium poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.

    1987-01-01

    Teenage girls and young women, whose job it was to apply luminous paint containing radium to watches during World War I, were among the first industrial radiation poisoning victims in the United States. This paper recounts both the story of how their afflictions became recognized occupational diseases and of the tangled web of governmental-industrial-academic collusion (largely based on industrial funding of research and experts) which delayed this recognition. It shows how these industrial-academic arrangements led to the establishment of the major academic training programs in occupational medical and industrial hygiene still in existence. Using historical sources, this study provides evidence of moral lapses by medical researchers, including directly lying to the victims, withholding data on the true extent of illness and radiation contamination and of distorting evidence. The pivotal role of the Consumers League and of Dr. Alice Hamilton in establishing the truth of the radium dial painting poisonings is discussed

  4. Radium and radium-daughter nuclides in carbonates: a brief overview of strategies for determining chronologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Cochran, J. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Radium isotopes have been used extensively to trace the movement of groundwater as well as oceanic water masses, but these radionuclides (and their daughters) are also useful chronometers for the determination of the time scales of other Earth and environmental processes. The purpose of this overview is to present the application of Ra and Ra daughters in the dating of carbonates. We show that the choice of dating method (decay of excess radionuclide or ingrowth of daughter) depends strongly on the parent/daughter activity ratios in the water in which the carbonate was precipitated. Thus freshly precipitated carbonates uniformly show excesses of 226 Ra relative to its parent 230 Th, and 226 Ra decay can provide ages of carbonates over Holocene time scales. In contrast, carbonates are precipitated in waters of greatly varying 210 Pb/ 226 Ra. Corals, deep-sea hydrothermal vent clams and the shelled cephalopod Nautilus live in waters with significant dissolved 210 Pb and all show excesses of 210 Pb in their carbonate. Bivalve molluscs from nearshore and coastal waters, and carbonates deposited from groundwater environments (e.g. travertines) in which 210 Pb is efficiently scavenged from solution, show deficiencies of 210 Pb relative to 226 Ra. In contrast, fish otoliths strongly discriminate against 210 Pb regardless of the environment in which the fish lives. Deficiencies of 228 Th relative to 228 Ra are common in all carbonates. Useful time ranges for the 210 Pb/ 226 Ra and 228 Th/ 228 Ra chronometers are ∼100 y and ∼10 y, respectively.

  5. Radium - 226 levels in some sudanese plants and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The natural levels of 226 Ra in plant and soil samples have been studied. The field study was mainly conducted in western Sudan (Darfur and Kurdofan) where areas of high natural background radiation have been identified and Khartoum area was taken as a control to (i) assess in natural setting the soil-to-plant concentration ratios (concentration in dry sample / concentration in dry soil) of the naturally occurring radionuclide 226 Ra, (ii) establish base-line data on Radium activity concentration levels in environmental materials and (iii) explore the area of high natural radiation background in western Sudan.Low level gamma spectrometry, employing high purity germanium detector (HPGe) of relative efficiency 12%, has been used for the determination of 226 Ra activity concentrations in plant and soil samples. The mean Radium activity concentration found in soil ranged from 14.41 Bq/Kg to 79.08 Bq/Kg, the values correspond to the reported normal background levels of 226 Ra in soils worldwide. Radium activity concentrations found in Sudanese plants were significantly higher compared to those related to plants from normal background regions and significantly lower than those reported for plants from high background regions in other countries. The mean soil/plant concentration ratios (CRs) found in this study were 0.12, 0.15, 0.17 and 0.08 for whole plants, fruits and leafy vegetables, root vegetables and grains, respectively. These ranges of CR values are comparable with overall range of CR where environmental conditions are normal. The estimated daily intakes by individuals consuming foods of local origin were 1.00, 10.4 and 7.91 Bq/Day of radium Khour Abu Habil, Arkuri and Dumpir, respectively. Since the dietary habits were different, as it was noticed, these results have been much lower in comparison with those obtained from some European countries and United States. (author), 44 refs., 18 tabs., 13 figs

  6. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  7. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters ( 131 I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables

  8. Measurements of radium in water using impregnated fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The technique perfected by Moore and Reid for sampling radium in seawater is well adapted for environmental sampling. Using this method, we have examined runoff from mine tailings and have observed relatively high amounts of 223 Ra (from the 235 U series). Apparently the fiber is able to absorb a precursor, 231 Pa or 227 Ac, and hence retains the 223 Ra concentrations for long storage periods. Examples of high-resolution alpha spectrometry of these activities are presented

  9. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. The Radiotherapy Result of the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Chong Sun; Kim, Noe Kyeong

    1983-01-01

    A total of 47 patients with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was treated in Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital during last 4 years. Of the 47 patients, 23(49%) had undifferentiated carcinoma, 20(43%) had squamous cell carcinoma, while 4(8%) had lymphoepithelioma. Most of the patients(71%) has Stage IV disease, cervical lymph node metastases were found in 36(77%) and distant metastasis was found in 1 at the time of diagnosis. Complete response rate after radiotherapy for 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was 85.1%. The overall actuarial 3 year survival rates was 0.718 and the disease free actuarial 3 year survival rates was 0.468. Nodal involvement and symptom duration were statistically significant influencing factors for actuarial survival rate. Treatment failures were found in 20 patients (42.6%), local recurrence only in 6(30%), local and neck recurrence in 3(15%), local recurrence with metastasis in 4(20%) and distant metastasis only in 7(35%). Local failures were more frequent in the patients with cranial nerve symptoms (P=0.032). Distant metastases were more frequent with T4 lesions (P=0.047), and with nodal involvement (P<0.01). Retreatment after the tumor recurrence was chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, two patients retreated for local recurrence were alive without evidence of disease for more than 19 and 44 months after retreatment

  11. Synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Boruban

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas in a-50-year old male patient with long standing smoking history. The patient was initially presented with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. During staging process, the abdominal computed tomography detected a right renal solid mass, 6.5 cm in diameter, originating from posterior portion of the right renal cortex. Right radical nephrectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma. Smoking was thought to be a risk factor for both cancers. Systemic evaluation of kidney should not be discarded in patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma living in western countries with a smoking history.

  12. Indoor radon and lung cancer in the radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, J.S.; Rundo, J.

    1996-01-01

    Internally deposited radium has long been known to have tumorigenic effects in the form of sarcomas of the bone and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. However, the radium dial workers were also exposed to radiation hazards other than that occurring from ingestion of the radium paint, viz., external gamma radiation and elevated concentrations of airborne radon. The uranium miners were also exposed to high concentrations of radon in the 1950s and later, and numerous cases of lung cancer have occurred in that population. However, unlike the atmosphere in the uranium mines, the air in the dial painting plants was probably rather clean and perhaps not much different from the air in many houses. In view of the current concern over the possibility of lung cancer fin the general population being caused by radon (progeny) in houses, it is important to examine the mortality due to this usually fatal disease in the dial workers and to attempt to relate it to their exposure to radon, to the extent that this is possible

  13. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency's initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries

  14. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta

    1999-01-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the IAEA one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency's initiatives to tackle this problem is the 'Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project', a worldwide project relying on the regional cooperation between countries. A CDTN team was chooses as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since Dec 96 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Ecuador. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,629 mg (approx. 98 GBq) of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes (generated during the operations) and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control, of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries. (author)

  15. Campaign to gather medical devices containing radium: results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, J.P.; Vidal, J.P.; Martin, J.C.; Pasquier, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Campaign to gather medical devices containing radium: results. On December 1, 1999, at the request of the French Health Ministry, OPRI and ANDRA launched a campaign to gather medical devices containing radium, formerly used in brachytherapy. This campaign addressed a public health issue because of the risks actually involved in a careless handling of these objects. Moreover the growing number of reported scattered radium medical devices in the last few years reinforced the necessity of the campaign. The gathering was initiated by a call of the owners (hospitals, caring centers, retired doctors or their heirs) to a toll free number. OPRI or ANDRA then appreciated the situation urgency. Priority was given to private people because most of them did not have suitable storage facilities. OPRI teams operated according a strict protocol guaranteeing their own safety, proper procedures and compliance with transport regulations for radioactive materials. 517 objects amounting to an activity of 1.32 x 10 11 Bq have been gathered in 90 operations. Properly packaged they were transported to and safely stored at the CEA Saclay site before their permanent storage in the ANDRA facilities. (author)

  16. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This review covers studies of the microdistribution of radium and plutonium in human bone, conducted at Argonne with emphasis on the alpha-spectrometric method of measurement. Alpha spectrometry offers high spatial resolution and is well suited to the measurement of radionuclide concentrations near bone surfaces. With these techniques surface deposit thicknesses have been measured to be about 1 μm thick for isotopes of lead, radium and the actinides, and volume deposits of 226 Ra have been found to be quite nonuniform near bone surfaces, leading to endosteal tissue dose rates that are higher than expected under the assumption of uniform volume concentration normally used in radiation protection calculations. With autoradiography, the bony septa of the mastoid air cell system have been found to be depleted in radium relative to the bone tissue surrounding them; this is expected to have a significant influence on the dosimetry of the mastoid epithelia. A combination of autoradiographic and morphometric measurements indicates that specific activities in the axial skeleton are higher than in the appendicular skeleton, primarily because the former has higher bone surface-to-volume ratios and higher bone surface concentrations of plutonium. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  17. Restoring a neighborhood: Radium cleanup eases fears, rebuilds community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, C.A.; Gaddis, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Contaminated property is every homeowner's nightmare. That is even more true if the contamination is radioactive. But for the residents of the Monclair, West Orange, and Glen Ridge neighborhoods in Essex County, New Jersey, the nightmare became reality in the early 1980s. These three communities--representing some 750 modest, neatly kept homes--rested on radium-contaminated soils, the result of backfilling and dumping operations from 80 years ago. Residents first became alarmed in 1984, following regulatory action that triggered public awareness of excessive indoor radon gas readings, ambient gamma radiation 150 times normal levels and soil radium concentrations up to 2000 times greater than background. The worst contamination was limited to about 150 of the homes, but community concern--and the threat of the unknown--was tremendous. Not only were soils contaminated, but radon--a gas that forms during the decay of radium--with readings as high as 300 pCi/L in some homes was affecting air quality as well. Because both surficial and deeper soils were found to contain radioactive wastes, runoff and groundwater contamination was feared

  18. Problems in the separation of radium from uranium ore tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, F.G.

    1976-01-01

    The radium content of a representative sandstone type of uranium ore was found to be distributed uniformly according to particle size before leaching, but in sulfuric acid-leached tailings was found predominantly in the -325 mesh fraction. The radium leaching characteristics from both ore and sulfate-leached tailings were investigated. Several 1 M salt solutions showed poor to moderate RaSO/sub 4/ dissolution from ''slimes solids'' tailings, while 3 M HNO/sub 3/ or HCl solutions dissolved approximately 95% of the radium content of either ore or tailings. Tests are reported in which -325 mesh sand particles were coated with alkaline-earth sulfates by a special technique to simulate slime solids tailings. The dissolution of RaSO/sub 4/ from these coated sands was decreased by the presence of BaSO/sub 4/, but increased by the presence of CaSO/sub 4/. The interrelationships in the dissolution of mixtures of CaSO/sub 5/, SrSO/sub 4/, BaSO/sub 4/, and RaSO/sub 4/ are shown, and a generalized equation for the estimation of the dissolution of a minor component is presented.

  19. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of /sup 226/Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  20. Imaging response during therapy with radium-223 for castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keizman, D; Fosboel, M O; Reichegger, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The imaging response to radium-223 therapy is at present poorly described. We aimed to describe the imaging response to radium-223 treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy response of metastatic castration-resistant prostate c....../or radiological) may be noted during the first 3 months, and should not be confused with progression. Imaging by CT scan should be considered after three and six doses of radium-223 to rule out extraskeletal disease progression....

  1. Eliminating radium from uranium mill acid effluent with barium chloride-sodium carbonate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiayuan

    1998-01-01

    The eliminating radium procedure, barium chloride-sodium carbonate-sand filtering, being used, radium can be eliminated to 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L order of magnitude from uranium mill acid effluents which contain 3.7 Bq/L Ra and pH 6∼9 when Ba 2+ is added by 3∼5 mg per litre, Na 2 CO 3 5mg. The radium elimination rate is more than 90%

  2. Purification of mine water of radium - The implementation of the technology in a coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.

    2002-01-01

    In underground coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin there are inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes. These waters cause radioactive pollution of the natural environment in mining areas. Therefore cleaning of saline waters of radium is very important. Two types of radium-bearing waters were distinguished - one type containing radium and barium ions, but no sulphates (type A) and another one in which radium and sulphate ions are present but no barium (type B). A very efficient and inexpensive method of purification of saline waters, of Ba 2+ and Ra 2+ ions was developed and implemented in two coal mines. As the result of used technology, based on application of phosphogypsum as the cleaning agent, a significant decrease of radium discharge was achieved - daily of about 120 MBq of 226 Ra and 80 MBq of 228 Ra. Another type of radium waters does not contain barium ions, but contains sulphate ions SO 4 2- . There is no carrier for co-precipitation of radium so radium is transported with discharged waters to main rivers. Different method of purification from radium must be applied for such waters. Laboratory and field experiments were performed, and a cleaning method was chosen. For purification of saline waters - waste products from other industrial processes are applied. The method of purification have been applied in full technical scale in coal mine with very good results - of about 6 m 3 /min of radium-bearing waters is cleaned. Whole this process takes place in underground old workings without any contact of mining crew with radioactive deposits, which are produced during the process. As a result radium amount released to the natural environment was significantly diminished - approximately of about 90 MBq of 226 Ra per day and 150 MBq of 228 Ra. (author)

  3. Radiochemical determination and separation or total radium, 226Ra and 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J. A.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Pablo, M. A. de

    1987-01-01

    Radiochemical purification and separation of radium has been carried out and the determination of total radium solubilized in aqueous samples has been studied assuming that all the alpha emitters of the sample have their origin in the 226Ra and elements of its desintegration chain. Also, the activities of 22Ra and 226 Ra have been evaluated separately doing a measurement after the chemical separation of the radium and another one 10 days after. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Comparison of techniques for pre-concentrating radium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourquin, M.; Van Beek, P.; Souhaut, M.; Jeandel, C.; Reyss, J.L.; Charette, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the KEOPS project (Kerguelen: compared study of the Ocean and the Plateau in Surface water), we aimed to provide information on the water mass pathways and vertical mixing on the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Ocean, based on 228 Ra profiles. Because 228 Ra activities are extremely low in this area (∼ 0.1 dpm/100 kg or ∼ 2.10 -18 g kg -1 ), the filtration of large volumes of seawater was required in order to be able to detect it with minimal uncertainty. This challenging study was an opportunity for us to test and compare methods aimed at removing efficiently radium isotopes from seawater. We used Mn-fiber that retains radium and that allows the measurement of all four radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 223 Ra, 224 Ra). First, we used Niskin bottles or the ship's seawater intake to collect large volumes of seawater that were passed onto Mn-fiber in the laboratory. Second, we filled cartridges with Mn-fiber that we placed in tandem on in situ pumps. Finally, we fixed nylon nets filled with Mn-fiber on the frame of in situ pumps to allow the passive filtration of seawater during the pump deployment. Yields of radium fixation on the cartridges filled with Mn-fiber and placed on in situ pumps are ca. 30% when combining the two cartridges. Because large volumes of seawater can be filtered with these pumps, this yields to effective volumes of 177-280 kg (that is, higher than that recovered from fourteen 12-1 Niskin bottles). Finally, the effective volume of seawater that passed through Mn-fiber placed in nylon nets and deployed during 4 h ranged between 125 and 364 kg. Consequently, the two techniques that separate Ra isotopes in situ are good alternatives for pre-concentrating radium from seawater. They can save ship-time by avoiding repeated CTD casts to obtain the large volumes of seawater. This is especially true when in situ pumps are deployed to collect suspended particles. However, both methods only provide 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios. The

  5. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.H.; Chuang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the 228 Th/ 228 Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  6. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Ali, H.M.; Abu, M.P.; Kontol, K.M.; Ahmad, Z.; Ahmad, S.H.S.S.; Sulaiman, I.; Hamzah, R.

    2004-01-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg

  7. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  8. Radium-226 content and emanating power of some timepieces manufactured in the years 1926--1951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.T.; Huff, D.R.

    Thirty-two radium-dial timepieces manufactured in the years 1926 to 1951 by a company in Connecticut were individually sealed in small steel cans for determination of radium-C ( 214 Bi) activity by γ-ray spectroscopy. Each can was counted within a few hours after sealing and again 5 or 6 days later; from the two observations, radium-C activities at time of sealing (nonemanating radium content) and at equilibrium (total radium content) were calculated. The mean radium-226 content of 22 pocket watches was 348 nCi (range, 159 to 606), and the mean emanating power (1-nonemanating Ra/total Ra) was 0.175 (range, 0.09 to 0.33). The mean radium-226 content of 9 wrist watches was 150 nCi (range, 54 to 449), and the mean emanating power was 0.242 (range, 0.12 to 0.34). The radium-226 content of the one small clock was 633 nCi, and its emanating power was 0.15. The concentration of radon-222 in the air of a sealed room of dimensions 3 x 3 x 3 m would be increased by about 3 pCi/l if a watch containing 400 nCi of radium-226 with an emanating power of 0.2 were left in the room for a few weeks. (U.S.)

  9. Breast cancer in female radium dial workers first employed before 1930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.E.; Brues, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Female radium dial workers first employed before 1930 were analyzed for breast cancer mortality and incidence using method and rate tables described by Monson and the Mantel-Haenszel summary chi-square test for significance. Of 1180 located women, 736 were measured to estimate radium intake. This measured group was analyzed for breast cancer mortality and incidence according to four possible risk factors: radium intake dose, duration of employment, age at first exposure, and parity. The measured women showed a significant excess of breast cancer incidence and mortality only among those women with a radium intake of 50 μCi or greater

  10. The adult nasopharyngeal microbiome as a determinant of pneumococcal acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Amelieke Jh; Zomer, Aldert L; Gritzfeld, Jenna F; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Hijum, Sacha Aft; Ferreira, Daniela M; Shak, Joshua R; Klugman, Keith P; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; de Jonge, Marien I; Gordon, Stephen B; Hermans, Peter Wm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several cohort studies have indicated associations between S. pneumoniae and other microbes in the nasopharynx. To study causal relationships between the nasopharyngeal microbiome and pneumococcal carriage, we employed an experimental human pneumococcal carriage model. Healthy adult

  11. Coblation-assisted endonasal endoscopic resection of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L; Zhou, X; Li, J; Jin, J

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma may be successfully resected using endoscopic techniques. However, the use of coblation technology for such resection has not been described. This study aimed to document cases of Fisch class I juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with limited nasopharyngeal and nasal cavity extension, which were completely resected using an endoscopic coblation technique. We retrospectively studied 23 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who underwent resection with either traditional endoscopic instruments (n = 12) or coblation (n = 11). Intra-operative blood loss and overall operative time were recorded. The mean tumour resection time for coblation and traditional endoscopic instruments was 87 and 136 minutes, respectively (t = 9.962, p angiofibroma (Fisch class I), with good surgical margins and minimal blood loss.

  12. Reassessing the Anatomic Origin of the Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Colin D; Parmar, Hemant A; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Mukherji, Suresh K

    A modern imaging review is necessary to further define the anatomic origin of the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. After institutional review board approval, a search from January 1998 to January 2013 yielded 33 male patients (aged 10-23 years) with pathologically proven juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma lesions, as well as pretreatment computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involvement was assessed in the following regions: sphenopalatine foramen, pterygopalatine fossa, vidian canal, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, sphenoid sinus, choana, pterygomaxillary fissure/masticator space, orbit, and sphenoid bone. The choana and nasopharynx were involved in all 33 patients. In contrast, only 22 lesions involved the pterygopalatine fossa, 24 lesions involved the sphenopalatine foramen, and 28 lesions involved the vidian canal. Our results suggest that the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma origin is in the region of the choana and nasopharynx rather than the sphenopalatine foramen or pterygopalatine fossa.

  13. Nasopharyngeal encephalocele: a rare cause of upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Gokhan; Paksu, Sukru; Asilioglu, Nazik; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal encephalocele is a rare, benign congenital anomaly. It has the potential to be fatal due to airway obstruction. Here, we report on a 34-day-old infant with pneumonia who underwent mechanical ventilation. An upper airway evaluation was performed due to prolonged intubation, and revealed the presence of a nasopharyngeal encephalocele. The patient tolerated extubation and oral feeding after surgical resection of the lesion. Awareness of the condition can help clinicians arrive at an earlier diagnosis and enhance management.

  14. Equine nasopharyngeal cryptococcoma due to Cryptococcus gattii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Sales da Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus gattii is often associated with pulmonary and systemic infections in humans and animals. In this research we report a case of nasopharyngeal cryptococoma caused by C. gatti in an equine. A 10-year-old mare presented a mass obstructing the oropharynx. Macroscopically the mass was asymmetric, and was attached to the ethmoidal sinuses and obstructed the oropharynx. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed multiple yeast cells ranging from spherical to oval, 4-8μm in diameter, with some of them showing narrow base polar budding. Cryptococcus gattii growth in mycological culture (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and was L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue Agar positive. The molecular identification confirmed the isolate as C. gattii by means of the amplification of universal primers. C. gattii is considered an emerging fungal agent, as it affects human and animals and does not respond efficiently to commonly established treatments.

  15. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma staging: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Nada Ali; Eleftheriadou, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Staging of tumors is very important in treatment and surgical decision making, as well as in predicting disease recurrence and prognosis. This review focuses on the different available classifications of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and their impact on the evaluation, management, and prognosis of JNA. The literature was reviewed, and publications on JNA staging were examined. Our MEDLINE search of the entire English-language literature found no review article on the current available staging systems for JNA. In this article, we review the common JNA classification systems that have been published, and we discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used staging systems for JNA are the Radkowski and the Andrews-Fisch staging systems. However, some newer staging systems that are based on advances in technology and surgical approaches-the Onerci, INCan, and UPMC systems-have shown promising utility, and they will probably gain popularity in the future.

  16. Radiation therapy of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, M.; Matayoshi, Y.; Masaki, N.; Fujii, T.; Umatani, K.; Yoshino, K.; Sato, T.

    1993-01-01

    Between September 1977 and December 1989, 89 consecutive patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with radiation therapy. The study comprized of 66 males and 23 females; their ages ranged 17 to 80 years (mean 55 years). Five-years survival rates according to stage were as follows: stages I and II (n=10), 90%; stage III (n=10), 43%; stage IV (n=69), 47%. The important prognostic factors for predicting poor prognostic in this series, which were shown by stepwise proportional hazard (Cox) model, were the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neck node involvement. LDH level also influenced nodal failure (p=0.0002) and distant metastatis (p=0.006). (orig.) [de

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakihara, Junji; Kanoh, Naoyuki; Hayakawa, Katsumi.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used in the examination of three patients with nasopharyngeal malignant tumor and cranial nerve symptoms. Coronal and saggital sections were very useful for determining skull base invasion. Its high contrast resolution enabled us to visualize several cranial nerves directly. Differentiation between tumor and effusion in the paranasal sinuses was easy especially in T2 weighted images. Bone destruction could also be detected as bone marrow replacement by tumor or as interruption of the black line of compact bone. Local relationships of tumor and large blood vessels were visualized by MRI without invasive contrast enhancing methods. Despite such advantages, in one patient whose symptoms were highly suggestive of cranial invasion, no cranial invasion was detected by CT or MRI. (author)

  18. Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas: Prognostic Factors and Treatment Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARIBAS, B.K.; DEMIR, P.; UNLU, D.N.; YOLOGLU, Z.; CETINDAG, F.; OZDOGAN, Z.; DIZMAN, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical, radiological and pathological features determining the prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Ankara Oncology Hospital, Turkey. Material and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine patients, 74 women and 185 males with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated between 1993 and 2008. All imaging data including CT and MRI were reevaluated according to the criteria which determine parapharyngeal, oropharyngeal, nasal, skull-base (bone)/sinus, infra temporal fossa, orbit, intracranial involvements and lymph node metastasis by our radiologists. The patients were re staged using the AJCC 2002 classification with these new radiological findings and clinical data base. We evaluated prognostic factors using univariate Kaplan- Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Gender, age (40-year cut-off), histology, T- and N-stage, tumor size, regional involvement, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and response to therapy were studied as variables. Results: Five-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 45±4% and 72±3%, respectively. We found that age, gender, WHO type, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, N-stage and response to therapy were significant prognostic factors on disease-free survival and overall survival. In the chemo-radiotherapy group, we did not detect any survival difference between patients given four or fewer chemotherapy courses. Conclusions: Radiotherapy improved survival but chemotherapy, in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting, had no added effect to radiotherapy. N-stage and response to treatment were the most important independent predictors on survival. Age, gender, type, therapy and bone/sinus involvement were among the predictive factors on multivariate analysis, as well.

  19. Targeting Rad50 sensitizes human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Lihong; Huang, Jiancong; Wang, Kai; Li, Jingjia; Yan, Ruicheng; Zhu, Ling; Ye, Jin; Wu, Xifu; Zhuang, Shimin; Li, Daqing; Zhang, Gehua

    2016-01-01

    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is well known for its crucial role in initiating DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways to resistant irradiation (IR) injury and thus facilitating radioresistance which severely reduces radiocurability of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Targeting native cellular MRN function would sensitize NPC cells to IR. A recombinant adenovirus containing a mutant Rad50 gene (Ad-RAD50) expressing Rad50 zinc hook domain but lacking the ATPase domain and the Mre11 interaction domain was constructed to disrupt native cellular MRN functions. The effects of Ad-RAD50 on the MRN functions were assessed in NPC cells lines using western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy analyses. The increased radiosensitivity of transient Ad-RAD50 to IR was examined in NPC cells, including MTT assay, colony formation. The molecular mechanisms of radiosensitization were confirmed by neutral comet assay and western bolts. Nude mice subcutaneous injection, tumor growth curve and TUNEL assay were used to evaluate tumor regression and apoptosis in vivo. Rad50 is remarkably upregulated in NPC cells after IR, implying the critical role of Rad50 in MRN functions. The transient expression of this mutant Rad50 decreased the levels of native cellular Rad50, Mre11 and Nbs1, weakened the interactions among these proteins, abrogated the G2/M arrest induced by DSBs and reduced the DNA repair ability in NPC cells. A combination of IR and mutant RAD50 therapy produced significant tumor cytotoxicity in vitro, with a corresponding increase in DNA damage, prevented proliferation and cell viability. Furthermore, Ad-RAD50 sensitized NPC cells to IR by causing dramatic tumor regression and inducing apoptosis in vivo. Our findings define a novel therapeutic approach to NPC radiosensitization via targeted native cellular Rad50 disruption. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2190-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  20. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  1. Preliminary study on proteomic technique in radiobiological characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Yi Xuping; Hu Bingqiang; Zeng Liang; Liu Yisong; Liang Songping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the variation of protein expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines with different biological characteristics and to identify the radiobiological associated proteins. Methods: Biological characteristics of 5-8F and 6-10B were compared by flow cytometry assay after irradiation. The total proteins of 5-8F and 6-10B were separated by immobilized pH gradient(IPG) IEF-SDS two-dimensional gel eleetrophoresis technique. The differentially expressed proteins were cut from the gel and digested into peptides for MALDI-TOF MS and the Q-TOF mass spectrometric analysis. Identification of protein was made through searching in protein sequence database. Protein expressions were examined by western blot and immunohistochemistry method. Results: Nine most differentially expressed proteins between 5-8F cell and 6-10B cell were identified, p73 and CK19 expression examined by western blot were conformal with that by proteomic method, p73 expression in 5-8F cell was higher than in 6-10B cell. CK19 expression in 6- 10B cell was higher than in 5-8F cell. Conclusion: Differentially expression of proteins exist in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines with different biological characteristics. These proteins may be associated with cell radiobiological characteristic with the p73 as a potential biomarker. (authors)

  2. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... centuries, such as radium emanator jars, revigators, radium water jars, radon generators, refrigerator cards..., U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 within 30 days. (2) Shall not abandon...

  3. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of 224 Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on 224 Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of 228 Ra in the estuary and produced the highest 228 Ra/ 226 Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the 228 Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of 224 Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, 224 Ra and 228 Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the 232 Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  4. A radiation protection initiative to map old radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risica, S.; Grisanti, G.; Masi, R.; Melfi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Due to a legacy of past events, the Technology and Health Department of the Instituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) has preserved an old, large archive of the allocation of radium sources in public hospitals. These sources were purchased by the Ministry of Interior first, then by the Ministry of Health, and provided to hospitals for cancer brachytherapy. After a retrieval initiative - organised in the 1980's, but discontinued some years later owing to the saturation of the temporary storage site - a considerable number of these sources remained in the hospitals. As a result of an incomplete transfer of the retrieval data, some events connected with the second world war, and the decision of some hospitals to dispose directly of their sources without informing the ISS, the archive was not completed and a series of initiatives were undertaken by the ISS to update it. On the other hand, following the concerns that arose after September 11th, 2001 about the possible criminal use of radioactive sources, the Carabinieri Environmental Care Command (CCTA) were required by the Minister of Environment to carry out a thorough investigation into all possible nuclear sources and waste in the country. Special attention was devoted to radium sources because of the high risk their loss or theft entails. For this reason, in 2004, the CCTA made an agreement with the ISS to acquire a final, updated picture of the distribution of these radium sources. In March 2007 a comprehensive report on this collaborative action and its conclusions was officially sent to both the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of the Environment. The paper describes the involvement of these two bodies in the issue, their collaborative action and the most relevant results. (author)

  5. Dose-response relationships for radium-induced bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.; Stehney, A.F.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of bone sarcomas among 3055 female radium-dial workers who entered the dial industry before 1950 was used to determine dose-response relationships for the induction of bone sarcomas by radium. Two subpopulations were analyzed: all measured cases who survived at last five years after the start of employment and all cases who survived at least two years after first measurement. The first constituted a group based on year of entry; it contained 1468 women who experienced 42 bone sarcomas; the expected number was 0.4. The second comprised a group based on first measurement; it contained 1257 women who experienced 13 bone sarcomas; the expected number was 0.2. The dose-response function, I = (C + αD + #betta#D 2 )e/sup -#betta#D/, and simplifications of this general form, were fit to each data set. Two functions, I = (C + αD + #betta#D 2 )e/sup -#betta#D/ and I = (C + #betta#D 2 )e/sup -#betta#D/, fit the data for year of entry (p greater than or equal to 0.05); both these functions and I = (C + αD) fit the data for first measurement. The function I = (C + #betta#D 2 )e/sup -#betta#D/ was used to predict the number of bone sarcomas in all other pre-1950 radium cases (medical, laboratory, and other exposure); fewer were actually observed than the fit of this function to the female dial workers predicted

  6. Mad on radium New Zealand in the atomic age

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Although New Zealander Lord Rutherford was the first to split the atom, the country has since been known around the world for its nuclear-free stance. In this engaging and accessible book, an alternative history is revealed of ""nuclear New Zealand""-when there was much enthusiasm for nuclear science and technology. From the first users of X-rays and radium in medicine to the plans for a nuclear power station on the Kaipara Harbour, this account uncovers the long and rich history of New Zealanders' engagement with the nuclear world and the roots

  7. Uranium, thorium and radium in soil and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Eriksson, Aa.

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of the naturally occuring radionuclides uranium, thorium and radium in soil, plant material and drainage water was evaluated. The plant/soil concentration factors showed that very small fractions of the nuclides were available for the plants. The water/soil concentration factors were calculated; the nuclide content in drainage water generally indicated very low leaching rates. The distribution of the radionuclides was utilized with the aim to obtain reliable concentration factors which in turn could be used to calculate the transfer of nuclides within the agricultural ecosystem. Dose calculations were performed using plant/soil concentration factors based on geometric mean values. (authors)

  8. Simultaneous determination of radium and uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Yuki, Eiji; Ishida, Tatsuo

    1977-01-01

    Radium and uranium contents in soil are the fundamental indexes for natural radioactivity. In this connection, the simultaneous determination of Ra and U has been studied. To a soil sample, 133 Ba is added and the mixture is dried. It is decomposed with sulfuric and nitric acids. Then a Ba-carrier is added, and the insoluble residue (Ra analysis sample) and the solution (U analysis sample) are obtained for simultaneous determination of Ra and U. The rates of recovery of Ra and U in soil are both over 90%. (Mori, K.)

  9. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data for 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226 Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226 Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  10. Determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Le Cong; Tao, Chau Van; Thong, Luong Van; Linh, Duong Mong [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics; Dong, Nguyen Van [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    In this study, a simple procedure for the determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy is described. This procedure allows a sequential extraction polonium, uranium, thorium and radium radionuclides from the same sample in two to three days. It was tested and validated with the analysis of certified reference materials from the IAEA. (orig.)

  11. Design of semi industrial radium separator by a new bacterium MGF-48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Emami, M.R.; Farazmand, A.

    1998-01-01

    Following of a research work which has been recently published in AEOI scientific Bulletin no. 14, a semi industrial bioreactor has been designed for separation of radium using a new bacterium MGF-48. This bioreactor could be utilized for a high rate separation of radium in semi industrial scale. (author)

  12. Remediation of soil/concrete contaminated with uranium and radium by biological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gye-Nam Kim; Seung-Su Kim; Hye-Min Park; Won-Suk Kim; Uk-Ryang Park; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2013-01-01

    Biological method was studied for remediation of soil/concrete contaminated with uranium and radium. Optimum experiment conditions for mixing ratios of penatron and soil, and the pH of soil was obtained through several bioremediations with soil contaminated with uranium and radium. It was found that an optimum mixing ratio of penatron for bioremediation of uranium soil was 1 %. Also, the optimum pH condition for bioremediation of soil contaminated with uranium and radium was 7.5. The removal efficiencies of uranium and radium from higher concentration of soil were rather reduced in comparison with those from lower concentration of soil. Meanwhile, the removal of uranium and radium in concrete by bioremediation is possible but the removal rate from concrete was slower than that from soil. The removal efficiencies of uranium and radium from soil under injection of 1 % penatron at pH 7.5 for 120 days were 81.2 and 81.6 %, respectively, and the removal efficiencies of uranium and radium from concrete under the same condition were 63.0 and 45.2 %, respectively. Beyond 30 days, removal rates of uranium and radium from soil and concrete by bioremediation was very slow. (author)

  13. Skeletal and tissue lesions resulting from exposure to radium and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.

    1973-01-01

    The chief effects of absorbed radionuclides and external radiation are radiation osteitis, disturbed bone growth, myelofibrosis, and bone tumors. The lesions in part are dependent on localization and character of the radiation, in part on dose. Data on radium were derived from dial painters, radium chemists and those treated some years ago by oral or parenteral administration. (U.S.)

  14. Method for analysing radium in powder samples and its application to uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xinxi; Hu Minzhi.

    1987-01-01

    The decayed daughter of Rn released from the power sample (soil) in a sealed bottle were collected on a piece of copper and the radium in the sample can be measured by counting α-particles with an Alphameter for uranium prospection, thus it is called the radium method. This method has many advantages, such as high sensitivity (the lowest limit of detection for radium sample per gram is 2.7 x 10 -15 g), high efficiency, low cost and easy to use. On the basis of measuring more than 700 samples taken along 20 sections in 8 deposits, the results show that the radium method is better than γ-measurement and equal to 210 Po method for the capability to descover anomalies. The author also summarizes the anomaly intensities of radium method, 210 Po method and γ-measurement respectively at the surface with deep blind ores, with or without surficial mineralization, and the figures of their profiles and the variation of Ra/ 210 Po ratios. According to the above-mentioned distinguishing features, the uranium mineralization located in deep and/or shallow parts can be distinguishd. The combined application of radium, 210 Po and γ-measurement methods may be regarded as one of the important methods used for anomaly assessment. Based on the experiments of the radium measurements with 771 stream sediments samples in an area of 100 km 2 , it is demonstrated that the radium mehtod can be used in the stages of uranium reconnaissance and prospecting

  15. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    Radium is removed from an inorganic-acid solution contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of 226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings, and thus contain thorium and uranium. The contaminated fly ash may be incorporated in a suitable matrix and stored, and the residual solutions processed to separate uranium and thorium. (author)

  16. Study of possible economical ways of removing radium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, R.L.; Splinter, R.C.; Mulholland, T.S.; Baker, J.M.; Nogaj, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine variables that control the incidental removal of radium that has been observed to occur as a consequence of treatment to remove iron by oxidation--sand filtration. The study also evaluated the possibility of exploiting these factors to provide an inexpensive means of removing radium using existing or modified iron removal facilities. Studies were also conducted to evaluate radium sorption to hydrous manganese oxides and to evaluate the potential of radium sorption to filter sand as a novel removal technology. Results showed that radium sorption to iron and manganese oxides and filter sand appear to be controlled primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium, which are believed to compete for sorption sites

  17. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226; Utilizacion de portadores para electrodepositar radio 226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe, J.L

    1991-10-15

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2{sup +}, for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  18. Removal of radium from aqueous solutions using adsorbent produced from coconut coir pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Muhamat Omar; Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim; Esther Phillip; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Hassan, A.

    2008-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of the coconut coir pith as an adsorbent for the removal of radium from aqueous solutions. Experiments to establish adsorptions as a function of pH and contact time were carried out. The results showed that radium adsorption are dependent upon pH and contact time of coconut coir pith with aqueous solutions. 70-80% of radium were adsorbed in the neutral to alkaline pH range. The amount of radium adsorbed also increased with contact time, reaching an optimum after 250 min. Thus, it can be concluded that the coconut coir pith has the potential to be used as an adsorbent in radium removal from aqueous solutions. (Author)

  19. Determination of radium isotopes by BaSO4 coprecipitation for the preparation of alpha-spectrometric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.C.; Fernandez, F.; Gomez, J.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    A coprecipitation procedure for the preparation of α-spectrometric sources for radium, using BaSO 4 as carrier, has been applied to the determination of alpha radium isotopes in water samples. The use of 133 Ba as a suitable tracer for radium determination and possible losses of radon isotopes from the sources are studied and discussed. (author)

  20. A new method for the determination of radium-228, thorium-228, and radium-224 in groundwaters via thoron (radon-220)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.R.; Lautensleger, A.W.; Laul, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    An improved method for determining radium and thorium from the 232 Th decay series has been developed which measures the activity of 220 Rn as an assay of its parents. Although some ingrowth corrections and minor separation procedures for Th are required, the results to date show that the dynamic counting of 220 Rn via de-emanation and alpha counting by the alpha-scintillation method is preferable. The method for lower limit detection depends on the emanation rate. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  1. Effects of radium-226 on bone from a radium dial painter at 12 years and 55 years after ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of bone from two different sites in a female former radium dial painter, collected 43 years apart, were examined with the electron microscope. The results show further evidence for the presence of a fibrotic layer of tissue covering bone mineral which separates the bone lining cells from the source of the radioactive deposits in bone mineral. This work further confirms our contention that many of the cells at risk for the production of bone tumors probably lie outside the single bone lining cell layer which characteristically lies about 1 to 2 μm away from bone mineral in normal control bone

  2. Behaviour of radium isotopes released with brines and sediments from coal mines in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka, M.; Chalupnik, S.; Mielnikow, A.; Lebecka, J.; Skubacz, K.

    1998-01-01

    Saline waters occurring in underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226 Ra from uranium series and 228 Ra from thorium series. Approximately 40% of total amount of radium remains underground in a form of radioactive deposits, but 225 MBq of 226 Ra and 380 MBq of 228 Ra are released daily to the rivers with mine effluents. Technical measures as spontaneous precipitation of radium in gobs, decreasing of amounts of water inflowing into underground working etc. have been undertaken in several coal mines and in the result total amount of radium released to the surface waters diminished by about 60% during last 5-6 years. Mine waters can cause a severe impact on the natural environment. The enhancement of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation is observed. Sometimes radium concentration in rivers exceeds 0.7 kBq/m 3 , which is due to Polish law a permissible level for liquid radioactive waste. It was necessary to undertake investigations for development the methods of the purification of mine waters from radium. The radium balance in effluents has been calculated and a map of radioactive contamination of river waters have been prepared. Solid wastes with enhanced natural radioactivity have been produced in huge amounts in energy and coal industries in Poland. There are two main sources of these waste products. As a result of combustion of coal in power plants low radioactive waste materials are produced, with 226 Ra concentration seldom exceeding few hundreds of Bq/kg. Different situation is be observed in coal mines, where as a result of precipitation of radium from radium-bearing waters radioactive deposits are formed. Sometimes natural radioactivity of such materials is very high, in case of scaling from coal mines radium concentration may reach 4x10 5 Bq/kg - similar activity as for 3% uranium ore. Therefore maintenance of solid waste with technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR

  3. The Search for Fundamental Symmetry Violation in Radium Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Matthew; Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Greene, John; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Rabga, Tenzin; Ready, Roy; Singh, Jaideep

    2017-09-01

    Electric dipole moments (EDMs) are signatures of time-reversal, parity, and charge-parity (CP) violation, which makes them a sensitive probe of expected new physics beyond the Standard Model. Due to its large nuclear octupole deformation and high atomic mass, the radioactive Ra-225 isotope is a favorable EDM case; it is particularly sensitive to CP-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. We have developed a cold-atom approach of measuring the atomic EDM of atoms held stationary in an optical dipole trap, which we have used to place the only upper limit on the EDM of radium, |d(225Ra)|EDM, but also the first time the EDM of any octupole deformed species has been measured. We will present results on a new approach to spin detection that we expect to improve our EDM sensitivity by a factor of 20. Combined with upcoming improvements to our electric field generation, the next measurement should be competitive with the best neutron EDM result, in terms of sensitivity to CP-violating interactions. The Search for Fudamental Symmetry Violation in Radium Nuclei. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. The radium contamination in the southern Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuttelkopf, H.; Kiefer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The high natural radium contamination in the Southern Black Forest was used to evaluate the extent of contamination in the environment, the mechanisms of radium transport to man, and the radiation burden of the population due to natural Ra-226. Ra-226 was measured in air, soil, sediment and rock samples. Spring, surface and drinking water were examined. The contamination of fish, milk and practically all foodstuffs produced in the Southern Black Forest was measured. Grass and hay samples and many wild plants were also analyzed for Ra-226. Since water and fish samples, grass and milk samples, soil and grass samples were collected jointly in every case, it was possible to calculate the following transfer factors: fish/water, grass/soil, milk/grass, water/sediments, foodstuffs/soil. The latter includes the transfer factors for wheat, barley, oat, eggs, beef and deer, potatoes and vegetables. The natural radiation burden was calculated on the basis of the consumption habits by the average member of the population. Measurement in the body counter of the Ra-226 body burden of 28 persons living in the area under consideration concluded the research program. The radio-ecological and health physics aspects of the results are discussed. (H.K.)

  5. Environmental review of the Radium hill mine site, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Radium Hill uranium deposit, in semi-arid eastern South Australia, was discovered in 1906 and mined for radium between 1906 and 1931 and for uranium between 1954 and 1961 (production of 969,300 t of davidite ore averaging 0.12% U 3 O 8 ). Rehabilitation was limited to removal of mine facilities, sealing of underground workings and capping of selected waste repositories. In 2002, gamma-ray data, plus tailings, uncrushed and crushed waste rock, stream sediment, topsoil and vegetation samples were collected to assist in the examination of the current environmental status of the mine site. The preliminary data indicate that capping of tailings storage facilities did not ensure the long-term containment of the low-level radioactive wastes due to the erosion of sides of the impoundments. Moreover, active wind erosion of waste fines from various, physically unstable waste repositories causes increasing radiochemical (up to 0.94 μSv/h) and geochemical (Ce, La, Sc, Th, U, V, Y) impacts on local soils and sediments. However, measured radiation levels of soils and sediments are at or below Australian Radiation Protection Standards (20 mSv/a averaged over five consecutive years). Additional capping and landform design of the crushed waste and tailings repositories are required in order to minimise erosion and impacts on surrounding soils and sediments. (orig.)

  6. Studies of Stable Octupole Deformations in the Radium Region

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present project is to locate and identify states in the atomic nuclei possessing stable pearshaped octupole deformation. Such states, formally related to the structures known in molecular physics, manifest themselves as families of parity doublets in odd nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ The best possibilities for observing stable octupole deformations are offered in the Ra-region. Both theoretical calculations and experimental indications support such expectations. Such indications are the non-observation of two-phonon octupole vibrational states in the ISOLDE studies of the even-even radium nuclei, and the reversed sign of the decoupling factor of the ground state band in |2|2|5Ra observed in the single-neutron transfer reactions. In order to establish the predicted strong E1 and E3-transitions between the parity doublets in odd nuclei with stable octupole deformations it is proposed to study conversion electrons in odd-mass francium radium and radon isotopes following the @b-decay of francium and astatine. \\...

  7. Radium removal processes capital and operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, F.J.

    1979-09-01

    An estimate of the fixed capital and operating costs for two alternative processes for the removal of dissolved Ra-226 from uranium mill effluent in Elliot Lake, Ontario is presented. Process 1 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Process 2 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by gravity media filtration, sand filter backwashing and sedimentation. Cost estimates were prepared for 18 different plant configurations designed to treat 1000 and 4000 imperial gallons per minute (ig/m) of effluent, 24 hrs per day, 7 days per week and 365 days per year with several equipment options. The estimated fixed capital costs for plants equipped with gravity filters were less than those equipped with circular clarifiers. The capital costs ranged from $552,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $2,578,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m. Estimated annual operating costs, based on a plant life of 10 years, ranged from $298,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $1,061,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m

  8. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  9. The radium contamination in the Southern Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Kiefer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The high natural radium contamination prevailing in the Southern Black Forest was used to assess the degree of contamination of the environment, the mechanisms of radium transport to man, as well as the radiation impact on the population from natural Ra-226. The Ra-226 concentration was determined in samples of soil, river and lake water, ground and spring water, drinking water and foodstuffs including potatoes, corn, flour, meat, milk, vegetables, fish, eggs and entrails; these values were compared to a summary of values taken from the literature. Ra-226 concentrations were also determined in the environmental air, grass and hay samples and wild plants. Transfer factors were calculated for fish/water, sediment/water, grass/milk, grass/soil, milk/soil and the individual foodstuffs. The maximum permissible intake per annum for the population living in this region was calculated to be 7.1 nCi/a, assuming that the total demand for foodstuffs is satisfied by local produces; this corresponds to a body burden of 7.4 nCi of Ra-226. Whole-body counting of a sample of the population showed the calculated level of Ra-226 intake to be an overestimate. (UK)

  10. Biological uptake and transfer of radium-226: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis of the biological uptake of radium is poorly developed. The simple linear concentration factor model has been used almost exclusively and often without any appreciation of its limitations. An analysis of the available data reveals that this model can be adequately validated only for freshwater algae. Deviations from this model are due to non-linearity of uptake response to increased radium concentration in the medium, to the lack of equilibrium being established within the time scale of the food-chain transfer, and to the existence of multiple sources (e.g. food and water) in some of the food-chain compartments. These theoretical weaknesses and the large errors of prediction indicate a need for more rigorous theoretical and experimental work. This need is further supported by the revised dose limits for the long-lived daughter products of uranium recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These revised limits suggest that 226 Ra may no longer be a singularly critical nuclide, and thus dose assessment models will have to incorporate more radionuclide transfer terms, for which the errors are additive, and so should be made as low as possible. (author)

  11. Clinical analysis of cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Katsuro; Tomita, Masahiko; Takahashi, Sugata; Matsuyama, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Forty-one cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in our department between 1991 and 2007 were clinically analyzed. The mean age of the cases was 53 years old, and the male-to female ratio was 3.6:1. The most common chief complaint was ear symptoms followed by neck, eye, and nose symptoms. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma, followed by undifferentiated carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and spindle cell carcinoma. More than half of the cases were classified as clinical stage IV. For squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma cases, concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy was applied. For adenocarcinoma cases, transpalatal resection and postoperative radiotherapy was applied. The five-year overall survival rate was 64.1% and the disease-specific five-year survival rate was 71.2%. No significant statistical differences were seen between early stage (I, II) and late stage (III, IV), between I, II, III stage and IV stage. Recurrence occurred in 24.4% of the cases, and distant metastasis was more dominant than local recurrence. For the diagnosis and treatment of NPC, proper detection of NPC from variegated symptoms, and chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma cases were considered to be important. (author)

  12. Role of chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Paiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a unique malignant head and neck cancer with clinical, demographic, and geographic features distinct from other head and neck epithelial malignancies. Non-keratinizing, poorly differentiated, and undifferentiated WHO types 2 and 3 is the most common subtypes of NPC. NPC is also characterized by its relatively high sensitivity to radiation, so that in the last decades radiotherapy (RT has been the cornerstone of treatment. However, in the majority of cases NPC is discovered at locally advanced stage. The results are disappointing when RT alone is offered. The 5-year survival rates have been reported to be about 34-52%. The poor prognosis for advanced NPC led to increasing interests in exploring the use of chemotherapy (CT. NPC has been considered to be not only radiosensitive but also chemo-sensitive and has shown high response rate to various chemotherapeutic agents. Certainly, the treatment strategies for NPC will continue to change and evolve as a better understanding is gained of the molecular and immune mechanisms that drive this disease. We reviewed the current literature focusing on the role of CT and new-targeted agents.

  13. Important prognostic factors in patients with skull base erosion from nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, T.-X.; Mai, W.-Y.; Teh, Bin S.; Hu, Y.-H.; Lu, Hsin H.; Chiu, J. Kam; Carpenter, L. Steven; Woo, Shiao Y.; Butler, E. Brian

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome and prognostic factors in patients with skull base erosion from nasopharyngeal carcinoma after initial radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: From January 1985 to December 1986, 100 patients (71 males, 29 females) with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were found on computed tomography (CT) to have skull base erosion. The mean age was 41 years (range 16-66). Ninety-six patients had World Health Organization type III undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 had type I. The metastatic workup, including chest radiography, liver ultrasound scanning, and liver function test was negative. All patients underwent external beam RT (EBRT) alone to 66-80 Gy during 6-8 weeks. A daily fraction size of 2 Gy was delivered using 60 Co or a linear accelerator. No patient received chemotherapy. All patients were followed at regular intervals after irradiation. The median follow-up was 22.3 months (range 2-174). Survival of the cohort was computed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The potential prognostic factors of survival were examined. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox regression model. Results: The 1, 2, 5, and 10-year overall survival rate for the cohort was 79%, 41%, 27%, and 13%, respectively. However, the subgroup of patients with both anterior cranial nerve (I-VIII) and posterior cranial nerve (IX-XII) involvement had a 5-year survival of only 7.7%. A difference in the time course of local recurrence and distant metastasis was observed. Both local recurrence and distant metastasis often occurred within the first 2 years after RT. However, local relapse continued to occur after 5 years. In contrast, no additional distant metastases were found after 5 years. The causes of death included local recurrence (n=59), distant metastasis (n=21), both local recurrence and distant metastasis (n = 1), and unrelated causes (n=5). After multivariate analysis, complete recovery of cranial nerve involvement, cranial nerve palsy, and

  14. Radiation-Guided Peptide Delivery in a Mouse Model of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-cheng Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of the HVGGSSV peptide, exploring radiation-guided delivery in a mouse model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods. Mice with CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma were assigned to two different groups treated with Cy7-NHS and Cy7-HVGGSSV, respectively. Meanwhile, each mouse received a single dose of 3 Gy radiation. Biological distribution of the recombinant peptide was assessed on an in vivo small animal imaging system. Results. The experimental group showed maximum fluorescence intensity in irradiated tumors treated with Cy7-labeled HVGGSSV, while untreated (0 Gy control tumors showed lower intensity levels. Fluorescence intensities of tumors in the right hind limbs of experimental animals were 7.84×107±1.13×107, 1.35×108±2.66×107, 4.05×108±1.75×107, 5.57×108±3.47×107, and 9.26×107±1.73×107 photons/s/cm2 higher compared with left hind limb values at 1, 2, 15, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Fluorescence intensities of tumor in the right hind limbs of the experimental group were 1.66×108±1.71×107, 1.51×108±3.23×107, 5.38×108±1.96×107, 5.89×108±3.57×107, and 1.62×108±1.69×107 photons/s/cm2 higher compared with control group values at 1, 2, 15, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Fluorescence was not specifically distributed in the control group. Compared with low fluorescence intensity in the heart, lungs, and tumors, high fluorescence distribution was found in the liver and kidney at 48 h. Conclusions. HVGGSSV was selectively bound to irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, acting as a targeting transport carrier for radiation-guided drugs that are mainly metabolized in the kidney and liver.

  15. Variable expression of molecular markers in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Pandey, A; Mishra, S C

    2017-09-01

    Molecular categorisation may explain the wide variation in the clinical characteristics of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Variations in molecular markers in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in an Indian population were investigated and compared with global reports. Variable molecular marker expression was demonstrated at the regional and global levels. A wide variation in molecular characteristics is evident. Molecular data have been reported for only 11 countries, indicating a clear geographical bias. Only 58 markers have been studied, and most are yet to be validated. Research into the molecular epidemiology of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is still in its infancy. Although the molecular variation is not well understood, data obtained so far have prompted important research questions. Hence, multicentre collaborative molecular studies are needed to establish the aetiopathogenesis and establish molecular surrogates for clinical characteristics.

  16. Evolution and currents in the treatment of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Jimenez, Luis Diego

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, its management and treatment was specified through a literature review on recent results of retrospective clinical history studies. The clinical characteristics of the population with this tumor are described as a function of the location, size and extent of the tumor. Diagnostic imaging techniques such as computerized axial tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance and angiography were used for the diagnosis of tumor extension and invasion. The most frequent differential diagnoses were determined. The three most frequent staging systems for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are shown in tables for better interpretation. The response to the different types and schemes of applied treatment was specified in the revised literature, according to the clinical evolution and the stage of the disease. The characteristics of postoperative evolution and recurrences are described in patients operated on for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. The new treatment modalities are specified and the advantages of these are compared [es

  17. Comparative uptake of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, T J; Mistry, K B

    1970-01-01

    The entry and translocation of /sup 230/thorium, /sup 226/radium, /sup 210/lead, and /sup 210/polonium were examined in nutrient culture experiments. Strontium-89 was included for comparison. Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were treated for a period of 15 days. Results indicate that accumulation of /sup 230/thorium, /sup 210/lead and /sup 210/polonium occurs predominantly in roots and only very small amounts of these nuclides are translocated to shoots. Over comparable periods, the accumulation of /sup 226/radium in roots is 2-3 times lower than that of the other nuclides of uranium series. However, the most significant difference between /sup 226/radium and other nuclides is in the extent of their upward transport which for radium is 50-200 times greater. The amount of radium translocated to shoots is comparable to that of strontium. The present evidence of rapid transfer of /sup 226/radium to shoots suggests that among the nuclides examined, /sup 226/radium is likely to make the major contribution to radioactivity in aerial tissues of plants grown under conditions where root absorption is the principal route of entry of the nuclides.

  18. The uptake of uranium and radium from food and water in relation to calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Observed ratios for dietary radium and calcium suggest that at least a 20 to 70 fold discrimination exists against radium uptake in the skeleton relative to calcium. It has been widely shown in many countries around the world that the relative radium to calcium ratio in the human skeleton varies from country to country, but within geographic areas, it appears to be relatively invariant with age. The ratio of radium-226 to calcium in intake, relative to the radium-226 to calcium value in the skeleton, is called the observed ratio, and varies over the world from a value of 0.013 to 0.039, with a mean of 0.024. In 1975, I inferred a mean observed ratio for uranium of 0.057 for the US. These findings suggest that man is in equilibrium with radium-226 with respect to the calcium in food and water. Most of the calcium would be ingested in diet, as would a significant amount, but not necessarily all, of the radium. The role of calcium for intake in water has not been examined

  19. Bone sarcoma induction by radium 224 in C57BL/Do mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jones, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-five C57BL/Do mice received radium 224 in ten weekly intraperitoneal injections. Doses ranged from 0.5 to 11.6 Gy. Twelve mice developed bone sarcoma. The risk coefficient ±SD was 2.8 ± 0.8%/Gy and the toxicity of shortlived radium 224 relative to longlived radium 226 was 5.4 ± 2.0. Concurrently, a single injection of 33 kBq/kg plutonium 239 was given to 47 similar mice which had a bone sarcoma risk coefficient of 8.4 ± 0.8%/Gy and toxicity relative to longlived radium 226 of 16 ± 4. Based on the studies of Mueller et al that established the increase in effectiveness with increased protraction of radium 224 dose, it is possible, if the radium 224 total dose had been spread continually over about 1 year, that the toxicity of the radium 224 might have been similar to that of plutonium 239. (author)

  20. Full-scale radium-removal system for a small community. Research report, 1 October 1985-30 September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauch, R.P.; Mangelson, K.A.

    1988-08-01

    A radium-removal treatment plant was constructed for the small community of Redhill Forest in the central mountains of Colorado. The plant consists of iron removal using oxidation, filtration, and settling; radium and hardness removal using ion exchange; and radium removal from the waste brine using Dow Chemical Company's Radium Selective Complexer (RSC). The raw water comes from deep wells and has naturally occuring radium and iron concentrations of about 30-40 pC/L and 7-10 mg/L, respectively, and is aerated before entering the main treatment plant to remove radon gas and carbon dioxide. A unique feature of the plant is the process that removes radium from the waste brine. The process removes only radium from the spent ion-exchange regeneration water by permanently complexing the radium on the RSC. The RSC is replaced when exhausted and sent to a final disposal site that is acceptable to state regulatory agencies. The overall plant reduces radium from about 35 pCi/L to less than 4 pCi/L. The RSC system has consistently removed over 99% of the radium from the spent ion exchange regenerant. The average inflow radium concentration to the RSC was about 1180 pCi/L, and the average effluent was about 9 pCi/L

  1. The determination of radium-226 in the tailings of gold mines and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malan, J.J.

    1981-10-01

    Radium-226, a daughter product in the uranium-238 decay series, is present in ore mined for the production of both gold and uranium. In this way the radium-226 finds its way into the tailings of mines and is therefore present in all the mine sand dumps and slimes dams in the Republic. Although this radium-226 is in a relatively stable and practically insoluble matrix, it is nevertheless possible for it to migrate from such slimes dams or sand dumps under the influence of various mechanisms. In order to make a survey in these mining environments, it was necessary to adapt an existing emanometric method. In this method radium-226 is co-precipitated from 5 dm 3 water samples with barium sulphate. An investigation was carried out on the recoverability of the radium-226 in this way and it was found that the best results were achieved at a pH of 1 with co-precipitation from a homogenous or a simulated homogenous medium. The barium sulphate precipitate was dissolved by a sodium carbonate fusion with the resulting carbonates dissolving in hydrochloric acid. The back-ground reading due to the presence of radium-266 in the reagents used and the radium-226 slightly contaminating the glassware, was determined with blank measurements. This mean background value was used to determine the detection limit. In the survey, samples of water, slimes, sand and sediment were taken in the main gold-mining areas of the RSA. From the results of the survey it appears that radium-226 is definitely present in the abovementioned environments, but that the concentrations are very low. It was, furthermore, evident that, in contrast with the relatively high concentrations measured near the pollution source, the measured quantity of radium-226 decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the source

  2. Leaching of radium from mine deposits - application for planning of ground reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.

    2002-01-01

    Saline waters occurring in underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226 Ra from uranium series and 228 Ra from thorium series. Approximately 40% of total amount of radium remains underground in a form of radioactive deposits, but 225 MBq of 226 Ra and 400 MBq of 228 Ra are released daily into the rivers with mine effluents through surface settling ponds. Very peculiar situation is observed in coal mines, where as a result of precipitation of radium from radium-bearing waters radioactive deposits are formed. Sometimes natural radioactivity of such materials is very high, in case of scaling from coal mines radium concentration may reach 400000 Bq/kg - similar activity as for 3% uranium ore. Usually such deposits can be found underground, but sometimes co-precipitation of radium and barium takes place on the surface, in settling pond and in rivers. Therefore maintenance of solid and liquid waste with technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENORM) is a very important subject. Lately another problem appeared - due to the decrease of the production in Poland coal industry and dismantling of several coal mines, also the ground reclamation should be done in their vicinity. But in several cases deposits in the ponds contain enhanced levels of radium concentration. Therefore laboratory tests were done to investigate a possibility of the re-entry of radium into ground water or river waters from such deposits. Results show, that in the case of insoluble barium and radium sulphates co-precipitated out from waters type A, re-entry ratio is very small. Different situation can be observed in case of radium, adsorbed on bottom of sediments from waters type B, because re-entry ratio is much higher. Nevertheless, this phenomenon seems to be not so important and significant for the further pollution of the adjacent areas of the settling ponds in the future. (author)

  3. Massive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: ode to the open surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Ravi; Arora, Nikhil; Bhargava, Eishaan Kamta; Juneja, Ruchika

    2017-08-01

    The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has undergone a significant evolution, with more surgeons moving towards the minimal invasive endoscopic approaches. Although considered the standard of care by most, an endoscopic approach may not be sufficient for extensive tumours, as exemplified by the current case of a young man presenting with the largest juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma described in English literature until the present that was eventually excised via an anterior external approach. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Stridor: an unusual presentation of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hitendra Prakash; Kumar, Sunil; Vashishtha, Madhukar; Agarwal, Satya Prakash

    2014-04-07

    Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare and benign disease, which is mainly found in adolescent male subjects. It is usually diagnosed on clinical grounds on the basis of its presenting symptoms of nasal obstruction, nasal mass and most importantly unprovoked recurrent moderate to severe epistaxis. Imaging studies are only needed to confirm the diagnosis and formulate the management plan. A case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is presented here, which presented to us with severe respiratory distress and stridor. Urgent tracheostomy had to be performed before definitive management could be started. Definitive treatment was excision through modified transpalatal with sublabial route, which resulted in successful outcome.

  5. Chordoma of skull base presenting as nasopharyngeal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant Prakash Kataria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the nasopharynx is most commonly regarded by the otolaryngologist as a primary site of neoplastic involvement, it is also an avenue of spread of base-of-the-skull tumors presenting as bulging nasopharyngeal masses. Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor of the skull base and sacrum thought to originate from embryonic remnants of the notochord. Chordomas arising from the skull base/clivus are typically locally aggressive with lytic bone destruction. The optimal treatment may be photon/proton radiotherapy alone or combined with a gross total resection, when feasible. We report a case of intracranial chordoma presenting as nasopharyngeal mass.

  6. A rapid method of radium-226 analysis in water samples using an alpha spectroscopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    A fast, reliable and accurate method for radium-226 determination in environmental water samples has been devised, using an alpha spectroscopic technique. The correlation between barium-133 and radium-226 in the barium-radium sulphate precipitation mechanism was studied and in the limited experimental recovery range, the coefficient of correlation was r = 0.986. A self-absorption study for various barium carrier concentrations was also undertaken to obtain the least broadening of alpha energy line widths. An optimum value of 0.3 mg barium carrier was obtained for chemical recovery in the range of 85 percent. (auth)

  7. Processes for extracting radium from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirdosh, I.; Baird, M.H.; Muthuswami, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the extraction of radium from uranium mill tailings solids including the steps of contacting the tailings with a liquid leaching agent, leaching the tailings therewith and subsequently separating the leachate liquid and the leached solids. The improvement described here is wherein the leaching agent comprises: (a) a complexing agent in an amount of from 2 to 10 times the stoichiometric amount needed to complex the metal ions to be removed thereby from the tailings; and (b) a reducing agent reducing the hydrolysable ions of the metal ions to be removed to their lower oxidation states, the reduction agent being present in an amount from 2 to 10 times the stoichiometric amount needed for reducing the hydrolysable metals present in the tailings

  8. Radium uptake by recrystallized gypsum: an incorporation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestini, Leslie; Beaucaire, Catherine; Vercouter, Thomas; Descostes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Batch experiments of 226 Ra uptake by recrystallized gypsum CaSO 4 .2H 2 O(s), monitored over 200 days, have shown that the published value for the distribution coefficient of 226 Ra between gypsum and an aqueous phase, 0.03 (Gnanapragasam and Lewis, 1995), is an upper limit. This suggests that this value needs to be confirmed. A solid solution between gypsum and radium sulfate (Ca,Ra)SO 4 .2H 2 O(s) cannot be considered per se, which is not surprising considering gypsum's high solubility product (lg Ks = -4.58) and the ionic radius of VIII Ra (1.48 A), when compared to that of VIII Ca (1.12 A). (authors)

  9. An age dependent model for radium metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R

    1983-01-01

    The model developed by a Task Group of Committee 2 of ICRP to describe Alkaline Earth Metabolism in Adult Man (ICRP Publication 20) has been modified so that recycling is handled explicitly, and retention in mineral bone is represented by second compartments rather than by the product of a power function and an exponential. This model has been extended to include all ages from birth to adult man, and has been coupled with modified "ICRP" lung and G.I. tract models so that activity in organs can be calculated as functions of time during or after exposures. These activities, and age dependent "specific effective energy" factors, are then used to calculate age dependent dose rates, and dose commitments. This presentation describes this work, with emphasis on the model parameters and results obtained for radium.

  10. Origin of radium in high-mineralised waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, J.W.; Sebastian, F.

    2002-01-01

    High-mineralised waters are showing frequently high concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, which are positively correlated with salinity. The investigated pit water is a high mineralised, reducing NaCl-brine (up to 230 g/l), which contains in coexcidence with Ba (up to 2500 ppm) and Sr, high 226 Ra concentrations (up to 63 Bq/l) and 228 Ra concentrations (up to 28 Bq/l). Feeding river systems with this water, the contact of the pit water with sulphate bearing surface water results in a precipitation of Ba and Ra as radiobaryte, with 226 Ra concentrations up to several tens of kBq/kg. The pit waters originate from a mixture of formation and meteoric waters, older than 20 Ma. High concentrations of mainly Na + and C1 - , but K + , Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - as well, are explained by dissolution of Permian salt deposits. Ba 2+ is enriched by sulphate-reducing bacteria, which destroy detrital baryte. Radium enters the water by leaching and alpha-recoil effect, but a large fraction of it is adsorbed at the surfaces of mineral grains. Mainly Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ , but univalent ions like Na + and K + as well, are desorbing Ra 2+ from the surface of minerals and take their place. Elution experiments show that beside the ion exchange of the cations, the type and amount of anions control the radium mobilisation. It seems that large anions like NO 3 - are disturbing the hydrate coat around minerals and therefore, enhance the ion exchange process. (author)

  11. Radium 226 in waters of the Magela creek, Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerland, C.; Medley, P.; Martin, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Magela Creek is located in the tropical monsoonal belt of Australia, which is characterised by contrasting wet (December to March) and dry (April to November) seasons. Magela Creek drains a catchment of which about half of the total area lies upstream of the open-cut Ranger uranium mine. The main risk identified for ecosystems surrounding this mine site is from dispersion of mine waste waters during the wet season. Monitoring of biological indicator organisms, water quality (physical and chemical) and radionuclide concentrations in surface water, groundwater and biota is conducted upstream and downstream of the Ranger mine to measure possible environmental impacts of mining. Of special interest is the radionuclide radium-226, as it is predicted to dominate the effective dose to members of the critical group (i.e. the Aboriginal population living downstream of the mining site) resulting from any release of waters from the mine site, in particular through intake of food items such as freshwater mussels and fish. Receiving water standards for radium-226 have been set for the mine on the basis of radiological dose assessments in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1996). It is proposed in this paper to compare trigger values based on ICRP recommendations with trigger values developed in line with the philosophy of the new Australian Water Quality Guidelines (ANZECC and ARMCANZ 2000). Total Ra-226 activity concentrations were determined in Magela creek both upstream and downstream of the Ranger uranium mine, using alpha spectrometry with a detection limit of about 0.5 mBq/L. According to the new Water Quality Guidelines site-specific trigger values for total Ra-226 activity concentrations were statistically derived from a reference dataset. They are intended to provide an early warning system for the management of a pollutant source for the purpose of environmental protection of downstream ecosystems

  12. Treatment of nasopharyngeal tumors: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, G.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Vignot, S.; Mazeron, J.J.; Noel, G.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The conventional radiotherapy and the associated treatments improved the prognostic of nasopharyngeal cancer. A better selection of the patients who must have a more aggressive treatment also probably contributed to this improvement. Even if a relation could be found between the locoregional relapse rate and the distant relapse rate, these two events remain often independent. It results from it that the improvement of local control rate necessarily does not result in a better control of the disease. The patients with a locally advanced tumor, with or not an invasion of the base of the skull and/or neurological symptoms, must have an aggressive locally treatment. This probably includes the increase in dose delivered to the tumor via a more conformational radiotherapy, a brachytherapy, radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions or other techniques. Dose within the tumor must be at least 70 Gy and the prophylactic nodal dose, at least 50 Gy. CT scan and MRI are essential for delineating the volumes of interest. The protocols of hyperfractionated radiotherapy did not give convincing results. Association with chemotherapy allowed, on the other hand, an improvement of the prognostic locally advanced cancers. Neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was largely used to attempt to limit the risks of systemic dissemination, but an improvement of results was not clearly demonstrated. An improvement of the rates of survival and control of the disease, on the other hand, was observed in a certain number of studies with the chemoradiotherapy. In the event of locoregional relapse, an aggressive attitude can allow the control of the disease in the absence of systemic dissemination. Salvage treatments are, however, disappointing for when distant relapse occurs which suggests. (author)

  13. Oncogene mutational profile in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zi-Chen Zhang,1,* Sha Fu,1,* Fang Wang,1 Hai-Yun Wang,1 Yi-Xin Zeng,2 Jian-Yong Shao11Department of Molecular Diagnostics, 2Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common tumor in Southern China, but the oncogene mutational status of NPC patients has not been clarified. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 238 mutation hotspots in 19 oncogenes were examined in 123 NPC patients. The relationships between mutational status and clinical data were assessed with a χ2 or Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meier method with the log-rank test. In 123 patients, 21 (17.1% NPC tumors were positive for mutations in eight oncogenes: six patients had PIK3CA mutations (4.9%, five NRAS mutations (4.1%, four KIT mutations (3.3%, two PDGFRA mutations (1.6%, two ABL mutations (1.6%, and one with simultaneous mutations in HRAS, EGFR, and BRAF (1%. Patients with mutations were more likely to relapse or develop metastasis than those with wild-type alleles (P=0.019. No differences or correlations were found in other clinical characteristics or in patient survival. No mutations were detected in oncogenes AKT1, AKT2, CDK, ERBB2, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, JAK2, KRAS, MET, and RET. These results demonstrate an association between NPC and mutations in NRAS, KIT, PIK3CA, PDGFRA, and ABL, which are associated with patient relapse and metastasis. Keywords: NPC, oncogene, mutation

  14. Salvage photodynamic therapy for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, Giovanni; Rosso, S; Fadda, G L; Fantini, M; Crosetti, Erika

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of photodynamic therapy (NP-PDT) in the palliative management of recurrent/persistent nasopharyngeal cancer (NFC). Six patients with persistent/recurrent NPC underwent PDT with palliative intent. NP-PDT was delivered by three different methods depending on the localization, size and depth of the lesion: type I NP-PDT: transnasal direct illumination of postero-superior recurrence; type II NP-PDT: transnasal direct illumination of the whole nasopharynx; type III NP-PDT: transoral direct or interstitial illumination of lateral recurrence. In this case, the ENT-magnetic navigation system (MNS) was extremely useful in identifying the tumor and its distance from the ICA. Both patients treated with NP-PDT type I are free from disease at 38 and 71 months after treatment; both patients treated with NP-PDT type II experienced further local and loco-regional recurrence of disease within 16 months; one died of the disease while the second underwent a second palliative treatment, NP-PDT type I, and is currently living with the disease; of the two patients who underwent NP-PDT type III, one died as a result of regional and systemic recurrence without local recurrence while the second experienced a superficial recurrence. He underwent a second NP-PDT type III treatment and is currently free from disease at 21 months. NP-PDT is a non-invasive and simple treatment modality that may have an important role in the treatment of selected cases of persistent/recurrent NPC in its early stage, not suitable for a conventional therapeutic protocol. Coupling NP-PDT with the ENT-MNS can be an effective strategy to obtain more precise light delivery within the tumor, particularly in lateral and parapharyngeal localization. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, T.-W.; Wong, Victy Y.W.; Tung, Stewart Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the treatment outcome in patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with non-metastatic, locally recurrent NPC who were treated with curative intent between 1998 and 2002 were retrospectively analyzed. The International Union Against Cancer T-stage distribution at recurrence (rT) was as follows: rT1-14, rT2-7, rT3-3, and rT4-6. All patients were treated with SRT with a daily fractional dose of 2.5-4.5 Gy (median, 3 Gy) in 8-22 fractions (median, 18 fractions). Total equivalent dose (TED) was calculated by the linear-quadratic formula without a time factor correction. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate, disease-specific survival rate, and local failure-free survival (LFFS) rate for the whole group were 40%, 41.4%, and 56.8%, respectively. The 3-year LFFS rates of rT1-2 and rT3-4 diseases were 65% and 66.7%, respectively. Seven of nine patients who received a TED <55 Gy recurred locally compared with 4 of 21 patients who received ≥55 Gy. Their corresponding 5-year LFFS rates were 22.2% and 75.8% (p = 0.005). The TED was the only factor significant in affecting the local control on univariate analyses. Conclusion: SRT is an effective treatment for locally recurrent NPC. TED ≥55 Gy should be given to secure a higher local control rate. The late complication rates were acceptable for patients with rT1-2 disease. For patients with rT3-4 disease, more works need to be done to further decrease the late complications.

  16. Multiple myeloma, leukemia, and breast cancer among the US radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Lucas, H.F.; Stehney, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of radium exposure to mortality from multiple myeloma, leukemia, and breast cancer were studied in three cohorts of female dial workers defined by year of first employment. A three-fold excess risk of multiple myeloma occurred in the pre-1930 cohort; however, analyses of body burdens and durations of employment suggest that external radiation was more likely to have been responsible than was internal radium. Leukemia incidence and mortality have not been elevated overall among the female dial workers, either in the pre-1930 or the post-1930 cohorts, but cases have tended to occur early and in subjects with higher body burdens of radium. Extensive analyses of breast cancer data have uncovered several observations weighing against a causal interpretation of the association between radium body burdens and breast cancer

  17. Breast cancer in female radium dial workers first employed before 1930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.E.; Brues, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Female radium dial workers first employed before 1930 were analyzed for breast cancer mortality and incidence using method and rate tables described by Manson and the Mantel-Haenszel summary chi-square test for significance. Of 1180 located women, 736 were measured to estimate radium intake. This measured group was analyzed for breast cancer mortality and incidence according to four possible risk factors: radium intake dose, duration of employment, age at first exposure, and parity. The located women had a mortality ratio of 1.51 (p < 0.05). The measured women showed a significant excess of breast cancer incidence and mortality only among those women with a radium intake of 50 μCi or greater. Although not significant, incidence and mortality ratios were slightly higher for nulliparous women

  18. Uranium and radium in Finnsjoen - an experimental approach for calculation of transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Bergman, R.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological safety studies for underground disposal of HLW show that the future individual and collective doses to an important extent may originate from groundwater borne radium and uranium which reach the biosphere. Indications that the dispersion rates presently used give rise to overestimations of calculated doses justified an investigation for more realistic turnover rates of radium and uranium than those which now are in use. Within one of the sites selected for testing, the area around lake Finnsjoen, a small number of environmental samples were collected and analyzed with respect to radium and uranium and the new transfer coefficients between soil and lake water were derived. The dose rates obtained with the new transfer factors show a close agreement for radium and a slight increase for uranium compared with earlier calculations. (Auth.)

  19. Distribution of radon and radium in the ocean and its bearing on some oceanographic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Y.; Sugimura, Y.; Saruhashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and radium contents in seawater near the ocean floor and in the surface layer of the ocean were studied. The results showed a fairly large amount of excess of radon over radium (1520 to 315%) near the ocean floor. The vertical eddy-diffusion coefficient, D, near the seabed was calculated from a vertical distribution of the excess amount of radon. In the surface layer of the ocean, a remarkable deficiency of radon with respect to radium (50 to 70%) was observed. The mass balance of radium in the mixed layer was considered using a box model. The results showed that the residence time of radon in the mixed layer was about 8 days

  20. Radiation-induced xerostomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: This study reports a case of radiation-induced xerstomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer, to emphasize the need for prompt oral care to prevent untoward effects of xerostomia and to improve patients' quality of life. CASE REPORT: A 60 year old man diagnosed of radiation-induced xerostomia, after 6 ...

  1. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... promotes the elevation of interleukin-10 secretion. Cheng-Shi Wang1 ... Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is uncommon in the ... Immune function has close relationship with the patho- genesis of ... Liver is the major organ responsible for the synthesis of primary bile acids, and the function of bacteria in the ...

  2. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas in Denmark 1981-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glad, H; Vainer, B; Buchwald, C

    2007-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare tumor in young males, with a non-negligible potential for recurrence. Preoperative embolization is a safe procedure that diminishes the peroperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion. The endoscopic approach was used...

  3. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a 20 year old Nigerian male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents misdiagnosis of a 20 year old male with Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Methods: The case record of a 20year old male who presented with recurrent spontaneous profuse epistaxis, progressive nasal obstruction, hyponasality and conductive hearing loss with mass in the post nasal space ...

  4. Paediatric nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma: a case series and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.N.; Borg, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue tumour in children, with the head and neck region accounting for 35-40% of cases. Nasopharyngeal RMSs tend to grow rapidly and invade adjacent structures. Both the intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma studies and the European Studies have established that the ideal management of this disease is multimodal, using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This case series examines the role of radiotherapy in the management of paediatric nasopharyngeal RMSs, with particular reference to long-term morbidity and disease-free survival. The cases of five children with nasopharyngeal RMS were reviewed and a systematic review of the literature contained in the PubMed databases was conducted to establish 24 individually detailed cases. Management in all patients was multimodal, using a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy as well as surgery. External beam radiotherapy is an integral component of treatment for nasopharyngeal RMSs. With more patients surviving for longer periods, more long-term sequelae of radiotherapy have been reported. Complications include sensorineural deafness, endocrine manifestations following radiation of the pituitary gland, cranial nerve palsies, second malignancies within the radiation field, cataract formation, retinopathy and growth disturbance. Morbidity from radiotherapy may be considerable and depends on the field and dose of radiation. Current advances in radiotherapy are aimed at improving the rate of tumour control and reducing such complications. Recent improvements in imaging and conformal techniques have the potential to reduce the morbidity associated with radiotherapy in this cohort.

  5. NASOPHARYNGEAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HUMAN VOLUNTEER BREATHING ACETONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to examine the absorption of a common chemical into the nasopharyngeal region in humans, a 57 year old male volunteer inhaled uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at 1.4 ppm for 30 min while performing different breathing maneuvers; nose inhale, nose exhale (NINE); mouth ...

  6. Chemo-radiation in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of a patient with advanced nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, (T4 N2 MO) who had chemo-radiation with Cisplatin based chemotherapy and total midplane dose of 60 Gray external beam radiation. Six years after treatment patient has remained disease free and the primary site histologically confirmed ...

  7. Effectiveness of a multicentre nasopharyngeal carcinoma awareness programme in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fles, R.; Indrasari, S.R.; Herdini, C.; Martini, S.; Isfandiari, A.; Romdhoni, A.C.; Adham, M.; Mayangsari, I.D.; van Werkhoven, E.; Wildeman, M.A.; Hariwiyanto, B.; Hermani, B.; Kentjono, W.A.; Haryana, S.M.; Schmidt, M.K.; Tan, I.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) awareness programme on the short-term and long-term improvement of knowledge and referral of patients with NPC by primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) staff in Indonesia. Design: The NPC awareness programme consisted of 12

  8. Effectiveness of a multicentre nasopharyngeal carcinoma awareness programme in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R.; Herdini, Camelia; Martini, Santi; Isfandiari, Atoillah; Romdhoni, Achmad C.; Adham, Marlinda; Mayangsari, Ika D.; van Werkhoven, Erik; Wildeman, Maarten A.; Hariwiyanto, Bambang; Hermani, Bambang; Kentjono, Widodo A.; Haryana, Sofia M.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Tan, I. Bing

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) awareness programme on the short-term and long-term improvement of knowledge and referral of patients with NPC by primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) staff in Indonesia. The NPC awareness programme consisted of 12 symposia including a

  9. The fantastic history of radium: when a radioactive element becomes a magic potion; La fantastique histoire du radium: Quand un element radioactif devient potion magique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, Jean-Marc; Huynh, Renaud

    2011-04-18

    More than a century after its discovery, radium has never lost its symbolic power: the symbol of scientific perseverance with Marie Curie handling quintals of ore to extract this 'fabulous metal', symbol of radiations efficiency against cancer, symbol of eternity and value - like diamond, and many more. The power of such a symbol led some mercantile minds to make radium a panacea capable to cure any illness. Then between the first and the second World war, radium became a society phenomenon: popular book writers held of the magic name to imagine wild stories and the advertisers started to link it to any type of product (beverages, shoe polish, razor blades, cigarettes, cheese, condoms..). This book relates the story of this symbol over more than a century, with its successes, its excesses and sometimes its dramas. (J.S.)

  10. Consideration of age-dependent radium retention in people on the basis of the beagle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Keane, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    Skeletal calcification as a function of age has been estimated for human females on the basis of the beagle model. The interspecies scaling of radium retention characteristics has been described in terms of skeletal calcium addition rates for beagles and humans. radium retention in humans exposed to less than 200 μCi was greatest in individuals who were less than 18 years old when exposed

  11. Uptake of Radium by Grass and Shrubs Grown on Mineral Heaps: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Yusof, M.A. Wahab; Ibrahim, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the uptake of 226 Ra and 228 Ra by grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps was carried out. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in grass and shrubs were measured using gamma spectrometry. The result showed that grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps contained elevated levels of radium compared to grass and shrubs grown on normal soils. Thus, these plants might be used for phytoremediation of radium contaminated soil. (author)

  12. Calculations of energy levels and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-01-01

    We use the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory to perform accurate calculations of energy levels, transition amplitudes, and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium. Calculations for radium are needed for the planning of measurements of parity- and time-invariance-violating effects which are strongly enhanced in this atom. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy of the calculations

  13. [Clinical efficacy of alternating chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xi; Yang, Yucheng

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effective of alternating Chemo-radiotherapy for locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Retrospective analysis 106 cases of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma between November 2005 and March 2007. All patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy but 15 patients received radiotherapy(RT) alone. Inducing chemotherapy (IC) + RT + adju-vant chemotherapy (AC) regimen in 36 patients, IC+RT regimen was delivered in 25 patients and AC + RT regimen in 30 patients. 61 patients received 1 to 2 cycles of inducing chemotherapy and 66 patients received 3 to 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy after radiotherapy. Chemotherapy started on the first day after the end of the induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy begun after radiotherapy for a week. All patients were treated by radiotherapy using 60 Co r-ray, the nasophyarynx primary site was given a total does of 68 -74 Gy. The lymph nodes of the neck was given 60 to 70 Gy. The prophylactic irradiation does of the neck was 48-50 Gy. RESCULT: The median follow up time was 51 months. A total of 58 patients died, the overall survival rate was 45% in whole groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 33%, 63%, 60% and 50% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT+AC group, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 13%, 56%, 48% and 40% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT + AC group, respectively. The 5-year relapse-free survival rates were 13%, 53%, 48% and 50% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC + RT and RT + AC group, respectively. The 5-year metastasis-free survival rates were 6%, 50%, 44% and 47% in RT, IC + RT + AC, IC+ RT and RT + AC group, respectively. There was significant difference in all groups (P 0.05). IC + RT + AC group had heavier acute toxicity effects than other groups, but it did not affect the treatment process, all patients could be tolerated. This retrospective study has demonstrated that alternating Chemo-radiotherapy and early

  14. Geological implications of radium and helium in oil-field brines: observations, inferences and speculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1993-01-01

    The 1600 yr half-life of radium restricts the time and thus the distance over which radium can migrate in sediments. The dominant source of unsupported radium in sandstone reservoir brines must then be close by and is likely in shales adjacent to the oil-field reservoirs. The chemical similarity of calcium and radium can be used to argue for a local shale-source contribution to the calcium in reservoir sands -suggesting the probability of calcite cementation early in the sedimentary sequence. Helium production by radium decay increases with time. Concentrations of helium found in reservoir oil field brines are then used to suggest that: (a) such reservoirs are dominantly closed systems over geological times; (b) neither methane nor helium in the reservoirs have migrated any significant distance; and (c) the mechanism responsible for the observed helium in the brine is a continuous on-going process operative today. Diagenetic studies should then deal with both sands and shales interdependently, the two are not separable. Shales control the transport mechanisms of migration so that the primary migration of hydrocarbons, the result of kerogen catagenesis in shales, should occur sufficiently early in the sedimentary sequence in order to avoid exclusion from the reservoir by calcite cementation in association with radium transport. (author)

  15. Dose-response relationships for female radium dial workers: A new look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The values of initial systemic intake and of skeletal dose for all of the U.S. radium cases have recently been revised. This revision was required following the demonstrations by Rundo and by Keane that humans who were exposed to radium as adults lost radium at a rate that depended on the quantity of radium originally deposited within their bodies. These new values have been used to define new dose-response relationships for both the bone sarcomas and the carcinomas arising in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells induced by internally deposited radium. The population examined was employed in the U.S. dial painting industry prior to 1950 and consisted of 1530 female dial workers for whom radium body burden measurements were available. By the end of 1990, 46 cases of bone sarcomas and 19 cases of head carcinomas had been diagnosed in this cohort. The head carcinoma incidence can be adequately fitted by a simple linear function, as was found in previous analyses. The bone sarcoma cases were previously fitted by a dose-squared-exponential function. With the revised values of systemic intake, the sarcoma results could not be satisfactorily fitted with this expression. When the exponent on D was increased to larger values, excellent fits were obtained

  16. Long term consumption of mineral spring water containing natural radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulenbach, D.B.; Davis, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring 226 radium in several of the spring waters of Saratoga Springs, New York has been known for some time. However, recently the recommended maximum acceptable limit for consumption of water containing radium has been lowered to the point that the limits are now lower than the concentration of radium observed in several of the wells. A survey was made of 27 individuals who have consumed water from the Hathorn No. 1 Spring for periods varying from 5-65 years. A calculation was made of the 226 radium body burden from equations provided in the literature. The calcium concentration of the springs was determined in consideration of the still unknown comparative selectivity of the body between radium and calcium. Waters from two of the springs were analzyed for 226 radium using the radon emanation method. No adverse effects of consuming the mineral water were observed in the individuals interviewed nor were there any increased incidences of broken or brittle bones among these individuals

  17. Removal of Radium isotopes from oil co-produced water using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Masri, M.S.; Al Attar, L.; Budeir, Y.; Al Chayah, O.

    2010-01-01

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO 3 , in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters pH over other comparable parameters. (author)

  18. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were approx. 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973. It is shown that analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting 228 Ra vs 226 Ra from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf. (author)

  19. Alteration of the retinoblastoma gene locus in radium-exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, J.P.; Schlenker, R.; Huberman, E.

    1991-01-01

    This study was performed to determine if the retinoblastoma suppressor gene was altered in individuals exposed to radium. We analyzed the Rb gene in 30 individuals, 17 of whom were exposed to radium either occupationally or iatrogenically. In the kidney DNA from four of nine radium-exposed individuals, the Rb gene was deleted. Three of these alterations in the Rb gene were internal deletions, which resulted in the absence of Rb mRNA accumulation. These results imply that the Rb gene is susceptible to radium-induced damage and confirm previous showing that radiation preferentially causes genomic deletions. The pronounced alterations in the non-tumorigenic femurs from radium-exposed individuals suggests that in the many years of exposure there was a selection of cells with alterations, presumably because of their growth advantage. Also it implies that deletions of one of the Rb alleles can be one of the events (perhaps an initial one) in the progression of radium-induced sarcomas. 11 refs., 2 figs

  20. Radiobiological Parameters in Human Cancers Attributable to Long-Term Radium Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkel, A. J.; Miller, C. E.; Hasterlik, R. J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1969-11-15

    A mixed population of about 300 persons that acquired appreciable body burdens of radium 35 to 50 years ago has been followed by our group for the past 20 years. Radium was acquired by these patients by occupational exposure and from administration orally and intravenously by their physicians. To date, a number of these patients have developed fibrosarcomas and osteogenic sarcomas of skeletal tissues, carcinomas and sarcomas of the mastoids and paranasal sinuses, and serious blood dyscrasias. In many cases, analysis of the exposure history and of contemporary, body burdens has enabled us to reconstruct the patterns of radium retention. From these computations, we have been able to analyse the appearance of neoplasms in terms of: (1) contemporary or terminal radium burdens, (2) estimated maximum (i.e. peak initial) radium burdens, and (3) estimated daily and total amounts of radium entering the blood stream during exposure. The ranges of values of these various indices for groups of patients with and without malignant disease and other disabling conditions may serve to characterize the likelihood of radiation carcinogenesis in these and similar patients. (author)

  1. Environmental considerations on uranium and radium from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioroianu, T.M.; Bunus, F.; Filip, D.; Filip, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    In the process of fertilizer production from natural phosphates of sedimentary origin, most of the existing radioactivity will be found in the final product. The phosphates exploited for fertilizer production at about 150 mill. tons/year are processed by two chemical methods: sulphuric and nitric acid attack. In the process of sulphuric acid attack of the phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum are produced. The first product is used for fertilizer production, either as triplesuperphosphate (TSP) or diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphogypsum waste is deposited on stacks thus becoming a source of concern. In the case of nitric acid attack, the result is a phosphonitric (PN) solution, which is used to produce a complex fertilizer NPK. Uranium and 226Ra (usually in secular equilibrium) are dissolved and distributed between the intermediary products. Thus the average concentration of 100 mg/kg U in the phosphate rock is dissolved in 90-95 % in phosphoric acid while the 226Ra of initial 1000 / 2000 Bq/kg concentration is completely precipitated together with phosphogypsum. Therefore phosphogypsum waste has 1000-1500 Bq/kg 226Ra. The TSP fertilizer being produced by partial neutralization of phosphoric acid with phosphate rock with 100-150 mg/kg U, while 226Ra is only introduced in the neutralization process i.e. 500-800 Bq/kg. In the case of DAP, the uranium content is 140-170 mg/kg without the present of 226Ra. The complex fertilizer obtained through the process of nitric acid attack will have the whole uranium and radium of the phosphate rock (both are dissolved in nitric acid) with uranium and radium contents of 120-160 mg/kg, 1000-1500 Bq/kg respectively. The radioactivities of fertilizers produced may be a source of concern since both uranium and radium are exceeding the present accepted limits for their disposal in the environment. About 10,000-15,000 tons/yr. of uranium is spread every year on the agricultural lands worldwide by the use of phosphate

  2. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  3. Metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical study and therapeutic results of 95 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanfir, A.; Frikha, M.; Ghorbel, A.; Drira, M.M.; Karray, H.; Daoud, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. -- The objective of this retrospective study was to discuss the epidemio-clinical criteria and the therapeutic results of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and methods. - The current study concerned 95 patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were metastatic at diagnosis or who had developed late metastasis. We reviewed the epidemio-clinical records of all the patients. Patients were treated with chemotherapy (BEC regimen: bleomycin, epirubicin and cisplatin or PBF regimen: bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) and radiotherapy of pauci metastatic localizations (single or double) or bone metastasis with high risk of compression or fracture ±associated with locoregional radiotherapy for patients who were metastatic at diagnosis. Response was assessed according to the WHO criteria. Overall survival was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. A long-term disease-free survival was defined from 36 months. Results. - There were 34 patients who were metastatic at diagnosis and 61 patients who had developed late metastasis. The mean age was 41.5 years (sex-ratio: 3.1). Bone metastases were the most frequent (83%). Objective and complete response rates were respectively 75% and 70%, and 32% and 16% for BEC and PBF regimens. Twenty-five patients received radiotherapy for pauci metastatic localizations, among whom 19 patients who were metastatic at diagnosis received locoregional irradiation. The overall survival probability was of 15% for three years. Eleven patients were long survivors (extremes: 36 and 134 months). Conclusion. - Therapeutic results were comparable to those reported in other series using platin combination chemotherapy. Radiotherapy of metastasis yielded to long-term survival. (authors)

  4. Nasopharyngeal Epstein-Barr Virus Load: An Efficient Supplementary Method for Population-Based Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Chen

    Full Text Available Serological detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies is frequently used in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC mass screening. However, the large number of seropositive subjects who require close follow-up is still a big burden. The present study aimed to detect the nasopharyngeal EBV load in a high-risk population seropositive for antibodies against EBV, as well as to examine whether assay for nasopharyngeal EBV DNA load might reduce the number of high-risk subjects for follow-up and improve early detection of NPC. A prospective and population-based cohort study was conducted in southern China from 2006 through 2013. Among 22,186 participants, 1045 subjects with serum immunoglobulin A (IgA antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA titers ≥ 1:5 were defined as high-risk group, and were then followed-up for NPC occurrence. Qualified nasopharyngeal swab specimens were available from 905 participants and used for quantitative PCR assay. Our study revealed that 89% (802/905 subjects showed positive EBV DNA in nasopharyngeal swab. The nasopharyngeal EBV load in females was higher than that in males. The nasopharyngeal EBV load increased with increasing serum VCA/IgA titers. Eight cases of newly diagnosed NPC showed an extremely elevated EBV load, and 87.5% (7 of 8 patients were early-stage NPCs. The EBV loads of 8 NPCs were significantly higher than those of 897 NPC-free subjects (mean, 2.8 × 10(6 copies/swab [range 4.8 × 10(4-1.1 × 10(8] vs. 5.6 × 10(3 [range 0-3.8 × 10(6]. Using mean EBV load in NPC-free population plus two standard deviations as cut-off value, a higher diagnostic performance was obtained for EBV load test than serum VCA/IgA test (area under ROC, 0.980 vs 0.895. In conclusion, in a prospective and population-based study we demonstrated that an additional assay of EBV load in the nasopharynx among high-risk individuals may reduce the number of subjects needed to be closely followed up and could serve as part of a NPC

  5. Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine water of India - Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine environment of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Sartandel, S.; Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, there has also been an increased recognition of the radiological significance of non-nuclear process of natural radioactivity in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb produced, for example by Phosphate processing plants, offshore oil and gas installations and ceramic industries etc. Keeping this in mind, special distribution of radium was carried out to generate region specific values of Radium. The Indian Ocean differs from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in its limited northward extent, to only 25 deg. N. Indian subcontinent divides the Indian ocean in the north into two tropical basin namely Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal both being located within same latitude and being under the direct influence of monsoon. For measurements of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration in the coastal marine waters of India, MnO{sub 2} impregnated cartridge based in-situ pre-concentration technique was applied by passing 1000 liters of seawater at thirty locations covering Arabian Sea in the west of India and Bay of Bengal in the east. {sup 226}Ra was estimated using gamma ray peak of its daughter radionuclides {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb while {sup 228}Ra was estimated from its daughter {sup 228}Ac. {sup 214}Pb emissions occur at 295 and 352 keV; {sup 214}Bi has an emission at 609 keV. For {sup 228}Ac gamma emissions at 911 keV, 968 keV and 338 keV were used. In the coastal waters, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration was observed to be in the range of 0.69 to 4.10 mBql{sup -1} and 0.70 to 8 Bq m{sup -3} respectively with an average of 1.52 and 4.53 Bq m{sup -3}. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra was observed to be more than {sup 226}Ra in all the locations. The activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in coastal marine water from the Bay of Bengal showed a ratio varying from 0.8 to 2.4 with a mean of 2.1.In the present study, activity ratio varies from 1.9 to 2.4 at Karaikkal. But the regions of Rameswaram and

  6. Conditioning and storage of spent sealed radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholerzynski, A.; Tomczak, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland sealed radioactive sources (SRS) are extensively used in medicine and in industry. There are mainly Co-60, Cs-137, lr-192 and also historical sources contain in Ra-226. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (ZDUOP) of the Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk is the only organization licensed for the management, storage and disposal of radioactive waste in Poland. ZDUOP deals with all radioactive waste in the country. Storage and disposal of SRS is one of the most important part of its activity. Every year ZDUOP collects about 1000 spent SRS which total activity is near 600 GBq. Spent Ra-226 sources are a special case and therefore are required suitable procedures. Due to their production according to earlier standards and their undesirable characteristics, leakage of these sources is highly possible and practically observed. For this reason conditioning of radium sources needs strict requirements and quality assurance procedure to guarantee their safe storage for an extended period of time (e.g. 40-70 years). The National Radioactive Waste Repository is superficial type repository and considered as temporary storage site for long-lived waste. A storage facility for spent SRS has been properly prepared and licensed by the regulatory body. This facility consist of several concrete chambers which floor is lined stainless steel. The existing regulatory framework for sealed radioactive sources entered into force with issue of the Atomic Law in 1986

  7. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Condition were determined under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids are dissolved completely by fusion with KF and Ba-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion. Radium is precipitated with barium by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute HCl solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of DTPA and the Ra and Ba sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid to produce very small crystals. The precipitate is mounted on 0.1-μm membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution, almost as good as with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates, is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97%. One solid sample can be prepared for counting in less than 2 hours. Methods are discussed for ensuring reliability of the results. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and recoil products is discussed

  8. Estimating remediation costs for the Montclair radium superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites, located in Essex County, NJ, are contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials. The waste originated from radium processing facilities prevalent in the area during the early 1900s. The design for remediation of these sites is managed by Bechtel National, Inc. on behalf of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District, which administers the project through an interagency agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Design efforts for the project began in 1990. A portion of the scope, which is the topic of this article, was preparing the remediation costs estimates. These estimates were to be prepared from the detailed design packages; the Corps of Engineers required that the estimates were prepared using the Micro Computer-Aided Cost Estimating System (MCACES). This article discusses the design methods used, provides an overview of MCACES, and discusses the structure and preparation of the cost estimate and its uses. However, the main focus of the article is the methods used to generate the required project-specific cost estimate format for this project. 6 figs

  9. Radium-224, 226 and 228 activity in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Martins, Maristela; Pacheco, Ariane Mendonca

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Recently, Brazil nuts have received a special attention because they contain large quantities of omega 6, antioxidant fat and selenium. Omega 6 and antioxidant fat prevent body cells inflammation and selenium combats cellular aging, guaranteeing a long and healthy life. One cashew per day is sufficient to assure the minimum amount of selenium necessary to the body. The aim of this work was to study radium (224, 226 and 228) concentration in Brazil nuts of the Amazon region. Thirty samples of different size (10 small, 10 medium and 10 large) exportation-type Brazil nuts, peeled and dehydrated, from the 2009 harvest, were analysed. Each sample, with 1.8 kg mass, was milled and then incinerated, resulting in 48 grams of ashes, that were placed in a 300 ml cylindrical recipient for gamma-ray spectrometry. Ra-224, Ra-226 and Ra-228 activities were determined using the gamma-rays of 234 keV following Pb-214 decay, 352 keV and 609 keV from Pb-212 and Bi-212, and the 911 keV from Ac-228, respectively. The incinerated samples average activities were 1100 Bq/kg for Ra-224, 4500 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and 3500 Bq/kg for Ra-228, corresponding to activities of 29.3 Bq/kg for Ra-224, 120 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and 93.9 Bq/kg for Ra-228 in raw Brazil nuts. (author)

  10. Haemangiopericytoma - Queensland Radium Institute experience and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, V.A.; Roberts, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, management, relapse patterns and survival of 17 patients with haemangiopericytoma treated at the Queensland Radium Institute, Australia from 1962 to 1989 are reported. Twelve patients were referred at the time of first diagnosis and were treated with curative intent. Three patients were treated with palliative intent when referred following initial diagnosis, and the remaining two patients were referred at the time of relapse. Disease was metastatic at presentation in 4 patients. Radiotherapy was used as a component of primary treatment of disease in 11 patients, in both patients referred for management of local relapse of haemangiopericytoma, and for palliation of metastatic disease. One patient received chemotherapy as part of initial treatment. Nine patients have died with survival from first treatment ranging from 3 to 139 months. All 8 surviving patients remain free of disease at 6 to 94 months from first treatment. It is concluded that haemangiopericytoma has an unpredictable clinical course, and may be indolent in some patients thus validating intensive local therapy and that there is no apparent benefit from incorporating chemotherapy in the primary management of haemangiopericytoma, although it may provide worth-while palliation in selected patients. Surgery combined with pre-or post-operative radiotherapy is recommended. 30 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Radium on soil mineral surfaces: Its mobility under environmental conditions and its role in radon emanation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate source of 222 Rn to the atmosphere is, of course, 226 Ra. Tracking the mobility of radium therefore is part of the story of radon flux assessment. The study of radium mobility and radon flux measurements has involved virtually all the reservoirs at the Earth's surface. These include soils, groundwaters, coastal waters and the atmosphere. The attempt to understand the mobility of radium involved the study of almost all the radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra) and the parent and daughters of these isotopes

  12. Denver Radium Site -- Operable Unit I closeout report for the US Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Denver Radium Site consists of properties in the Denver, Colorado, area having radioactive contamination left from radium processing in the early 1900s. The properties are divided into 11 gaps or operable units to facilitate remedial action of the Site. Operable Unit I is an 8-acre block bounded by Quivas Street to the east, Shoshone Street to the west, West 12th Avenue to the south, and West 13th Avenue to the north. The primary focus of interest concerning investigations of radiological contamination was a radium, vanadium, and uranium processing facility at 1201 Quivas Street owned by the Pittsburgh Radium Company (PRC) from 1925 until 1926. The Radium Ores Company, which was associated with PRC, operated the facility until 1927. A Remedial investigation (RI) of Operable Unit I was prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill on behalf of EPA in April 1986. The draft Feasibility Study (FS), prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill, was issued in July 1987 (the final FS is the Community Relations Responsiveness Summary with an errata to the draft, issued September 1987). The RI focused on radium uranium processing residues discarded in the early 1900s. These residues contained uranium, radium, and thorium. EPA s Community Relations Plan involved the community in the decision-making process relating to the remedy to be implemented at Operable Unit X, and promoted communications among interested parties throughout the course of the project. The remedial action alternative preferred by EPA for Operable Unit I was Off-Site Permanent Disposal. Because a permanent disposal facility was not available at the time the Record of Decision was issued in September 1987, EPA selected the On-Site Temporary Containment (capping) with the Off-Site Permanent Disposal alternative

  13. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Co-precipitation of radium with barium and strontium sulfate and its impact on the fate of radium during treatment of produced water from unconventional gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Gregory, Kelvin; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2014-04-15

    Radium occurs in flowback and produced waters from hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas extraction along with high concentrations of barium and strontium and elevated salinity. Radium is often removed from this wastewater by co-precipitation with barium or other alkaline earth metals. The distribution equation for Ra in the precipitate is derived from the equilibrium of the lattice replacement reaction (inclusion) between the Ra(2+) ion and the carrier ions (e.g., Ba(2+) and Sr(2+)) in aqueous and solid phases and is often applied to describe the fate of radium in these systems. Although the theoretical distribution coefficient for Ra-SrSO4 (Kd = 237) is much larger than that for Ra-BaSO4 (Kd = 1.54), previous studies have focused on Ra-BaSO4 equilibrium. This study evaluates the equilibria and kinetics of co-precipitation reactions in Ra-Ba-SO4 and Ra-Sr-SO4 binary systems and the Ra-Ba-Sr-SO4 ternary system under varying ionic strength (IS) conditions that are representative of brines generated during unconventional gas extraction. Results show that radium removal generally follows the theoretical distribution law in binary systems and is enhanced in the Ra-Ba-SO4 system and restrained in the Ra-Sr-SO4 system by high IS. However, the experimental distribution coefficient (Kd') varies widely and cannot be accurately described by the distribution equation, which depends on IS, kinetics of carrier precipitation and does not account for radium removal by adsorption. Radium removal in the ternary system is controlled by the co-precipitation of Ra-Ba-SO4, which is attributed to the rapid BaSO4 nucleation rate and closer ionic radii of Ra(2+) with Ba(2+) than with Sr(2+). Carrier (i.e., barite) recycling during water treatment was shown to be effective in enhancing radium removal even after co-precipitation was completed. Calculations based on experimental results show that Ra levels in the precipitate generated in centralized waste treatment facilities far

  15. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  16. Imaging of nasopharyngeal diseases; Bildgebung bei Erkrankungen des Nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, S.; Hofmockel, T. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Halle (Germany); Knipping, S. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen-, Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie, Halle (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    This article gives an overview about the main nasopharyngeal pathologies and incidental findings, which a radiologist could be confronted with in daily practice. These include nasopharyngeal cysts, lymphoid hyperplasia, juvenile angiofibroma, carcinomas and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Typical radiological findings, possibilities for making a specific diagnosis, differential diagnosis and description of the spread of a neoplasm are the central points. Investigation techniques and clinical signs are briefly summarized. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber nasopharyngeale Erkrankungen und Zufallsbefunde, mit denen der Radiologe haeufig und weniger haeufig konfrontiert werden kann. Dazu zaehlen zystische Raumforderungen, die hyperplastische Rachenmandel, das juvenile Nasenrachenfibrom, Nasopharynxkarzinom und Non-Hodgkin-Lymphom. Im Vordergrund stehen dabei das radiologische Erscheinungsbild, Moeglichkeiten einer artdiagnostischen Zuordnung, differenzialdiagnostische Aspekte und bei Neoplasien Aussagen zur Ausbreitungsdiagnostik. Untersuchungstechnische und klinische Aspekte sowie die Diagnosesicherung werden kurz erwaehnt. (orig.)

  17. Correlative study on anemia and radiotherapy effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinsheng; Jiang Yuanshi; Cao Xibiao; Zhan Yongzhong; Yang Liye; Chen Jianxiu; Chen Chengwu; Li Yang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of oxygen-carrying ability of blood efficacy of radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Altogether 161 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were classified according to severity of anemia, and Hb, RBC, MCH, HCT, MCV, MCHC and RDW were tested before, during and after radiotherapy. The patients were followed-up for up to 5 years, the relationship and mechanism among anemia, radiotherapy effects and survival rate was discussed. Results: The survival rate between anemia group and non-anemia group was different significantly (P<0.05). Anemia before radiotherapy, anemia appearance or anemia deterioration during radiotherapy were sensitive factors affecting radiotherapy results. The anemia more severe, the radiotherapy worse. Conclusion: Anemia-hypohemoglobinemia leads to decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, resulting in oxygen deficiency of tumor cells and their radiotherapy resistance. Therefore this method is worthy of further studies

  18. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Cite as: Wang C-S, Liu S-H, Peng J, Tang C, Zhu W-G. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients .... stein-Barr virus in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chin. J. Cancer 2014; 33(11): 556 PubMed. -568. 2. Mrizak D, Martin N, Barjon C, Jimenez-Pailhes AS,. Mustapha R, Niki T, Guigay J, Pancre V, ...

  19. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Presenting with Acute Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikoti Wheat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 24-year-old male presenting urgently with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA with difficulty breathing, inability to swallow, and respiratory distress following throat swelling. The swelling was reduced with administration of dexamethasone and the JNA was surgically resected within 48 hours. This presentation was atypical given the acuity of presentation and the patient’s older age.

  20. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pa...

  1. Retention of radium from thermal waters on sand filters and adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elejalde, C.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.; Romero, F.; Baeza, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study was focussed on laboratory experiences of retention of radium from one thermal water on sand filters and adsorbents, trying to find an easy method for the elimination in drinkable waters polluted with this natural radio-nuclide. A thermal water from Cantabria (Spain) was selected for this work. Retention experiences were made with columns of 35 mm of diameter containing 15 cm layers of washed river sand or 4 cm layers of zeolite A3, passing known volumes of thermal water at flows between 4 and 40 ml/min with control of the retained radium by determining the amount in the water after the treatment. The statistical analysis of data suggests that retention depends on the flow and the volume passed through the columns. As additional adsorbents were used kaolin and a clay rich in illite. Jar-test experiences were made agitating known weights of adsorbents with the selected thermal water, with addition of flocculants and determination of radium in filtrated water after the treatment. Data suggest that retention is related to the weight of adsorbent used, but important quantities of radium seem remain in solution for higher amounts of adsorbents, according to the statistical treatment of data. The elution of retained radium from columns or adsorbents, previously used in experiences, should be the aim of a future research

  2. Retention of radium from thermal waters on sand filters and adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elejalde, C. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: inpelsac@bi.ehu.es; Herranz, M. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Romero, F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Baeza, A. [Dpto. de Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2007-06-18

    This study was focussed on laboratory experiences of retention of radium from one thermal water on sand filters and adsorbents, trying to find an easy method for the elimination in drinkable waters polluted with this natural radio-nuclide. A thermal water from Cantabria (Spain) was selected for this work. Retention experiences were made with columns of 35 mm of diameter containing 15 cm layers of washed river sand or 4 cm layers of zeolite A3, passing known volumes of thermal water at flows between 4 and 40 ml/min with control of the retained radium by determining the amount in the water after the treatment. The statistical analysis of data suggests that retention depends on the flow and the volume passed through the columns. As additional adsorbents were used kaolin and a clay rich in illite. Jar-test experiences were made agitating known weights of adsorbents with the selected thermal water, with addition of flocculants and determination of radium in filtrated water after the treatment. Data suggest that retention is related to the weight of adsorbent used, but important quantities of radium seem remain in solution for higher amounts of adsorbents, according to the statistical treatment of data. The elution of retained radium from columns or adsorbents, previously used in experiences, should be the aim of a future research.

  3. Natural radium and radon tracers to quantify water exchange and movement in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Radon and radium isotopes are routinely used to quantify exchange rates between different hydrologic reservoirs. Since their recognition as oceanic tracers in the 1960s, both radon and radium have been used to examine processes such as air-sea exchange, deep oceanic mixing, benthic inputs, and many others. Recently, the application of radon-222 and the radium-quartet (223,224,226,228Ra) as coastal tracers has seen a revelation with the growing interest in coastal groundwater dynamics. The enrichment of these isotopes in benthic fluids including groundwater makes both radium and radon ideal tracers of coastal benthic processes (e.g. submarine groundwater discharge). In this chapter we review traditional and recent advances in the application of radon and radium isotopes to understand mixing and exchange between various hydrologic reservoirs, specifically: (1) atmosphere and ocean, (2) deep and shallow oceanic water masses, (3) coastal groundwater/benthic pore waters and surface ocean, and (4) aquifer-lakes. While the isotopes themselves and their distribution in the environment provide qualitative information about the exchange processes, it is mixing/exchange and transport models for these isotopes that provide specific quantitative information about these processes. Brief introductions of these models and mixing parameters are provided for both historical and more recent studies.

  4. Long-term loss of radium in 63 subjects first exposed at ages 6 to 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.T.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The absorbed dose to bone following the deposition of radium in the skeleton is principally determined by its long-term rate of clearance. In mice, rats, and dogs injected with alkaline-earth radionuclides at various ages between puberty and young adulthood, a negative correlation was observed between the age at injection and the skeletal uptake of the radionuclide and, at short times after injection, a positive correlation was observed between the age at injection and the fraction of the contemporary body content of the radionuclide excreted per unit of time, whereas at long times after injection the fractional clearance rate was found to be largely independent of the age at injection. Age-dependent models of radium retention proposed for man conform to the metabolic observations in animals in their assumption that at long times after intake the fraction of the contemporary body content of radium excreted per unit of time is independent of the age at intake. In this paper, we investigate whether this assumption is supported by the data on the long-term retention of radium in radium-exposed persons

  5. Long-term retention of radium in female former dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Keane, A.T.; Essling, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of measurements of radium contents in 13 women made over 20 years or more were used to measure radium retention. The women were all employed at different studios of the same Illinois plant as luminous dial workers for up to 4 years. The data for each woman were fitted to an exponential function of time, yielding a biological half-life of approximately 30 to 60 years. There was a strong negative correlation between elimination rate and body content, suggesting an effect of radiation of bone resorption or remodelling. A strong negative correlation was observed between the elimination rate and the reduced x-ray score, a measure of bone damage observed radiographically in the same subjects. Age at first exposure and duration of exposure were not significantly correlated with the elimination rate. The concentration of radium in soft tissues from eight other subjects, expressed as a percentage of the terminal radium content, decreased with increasing body content, providing further evidence that radiation was affecting the elimination rate. An effect of radiation on the late retention of radium has been demonstrated. 10 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  6. Clinical application of preoperative TAE in the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu'e; Zhang Jingxian; Tang Wenheng; Yan Zhiping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of the preoperative intra-arterial embolization of the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas. Methods: The treatment group of 7 male patients with the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas were undergone angiographic evaluation and embolization of tumor-feeding vessels before surgery. All patients were embolized with gelfoam particles and PVA. The control group of 7 patients received surgical treatment without preoperative embolization. The authors compared the volumes of intraoperative bleeding and the blood transfusions during operations between the two groups. Results: All patients achieved symptomatic remission, with no complications. Comparing with the control group, the amount of intraoperative bleeding and the blood transfusions during operations were much less in the treatment group submitted to endovascular embolization. Marked edema in the peripheral region of tumor of the treatment group made the tumor easy to be dissociated. Conclusion: The intraoperative bleeding can be reduced significantly by preoperative embolization of supplying arteries to the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, therefore it should be used routinely as an adjunct to surgery. (authors)

  7. Role of surgical approaches: influencing tumour recurrence in nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, R.; Khan, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon tumour constituting less than 1% of all head and neck tumours. This tumour has an aggressive local behaviour if left untreated. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with no common consensus on a single approach. Tumour stage and surgical approaches are the major determinants of outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of surgical approaches on tumour recurrence in patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, PIMS, Islamabad and Ayub Medical Institution, Abbottabad from Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 consisting of 34 diagnosed cases of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients were treated surgically while radiotherapy was given in a few. All patients were followed up for one year. Results: Among 34 patients, 25 were treated by lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy, 5 by mid-facial degloving approach and 3 by transpalatine approach. One patient with cavernous sinus involvement was treated by radiotherapy. Patients were followed up for one year both by clinical examination and imaging if needed. Recurrence was found in 15% (5/33) patients and postop radiotherapy was given to them. Conclusion: Lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy is highly effective even in advanced stage JNA for complete removal of the disease. Postoperative radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant. (author)

  8. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sai Wah; Tsang, Chi Man; Lo, Kwok Wai

    2017-10-19

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. The closest association with EBV infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is endemic in the southern Chinese population. A strong association between NPC risk and the HLA locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of EBV antigens to host immune cells and NPC risk. EBV infection in NPC is clonal in origin, strongly suggesting that NPC develops from the clonal expansion of a single EBV-infected cell. In epithelial cells, the default program of EBV infection is lytic replication. However, latent infection is the predominant mode of EBV infection in NPC. The establishment of latent EBV infection in pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelium is believed to be an early stage of NPC pathogenesis. Recent genomic study of NPC has identified multiple somatic mutations in the upstream negative regulators of NF-κB signalling. Dysregulated NF-κB signalling may contribute to the establishment of latent EBV infection in NPC. Stable EBV infection and the expression of latent EBV genes are postulated to drive the transformation of pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelial cells to cancer cells through multiple pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Puspitasari, D.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of head and neck cancer with a poor prognosis because of the position of the tumor adjacent to the skull base and vital structures. Degradation of extracellular matrix that will cause tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues, vascular or lymphatic vessels. One that plays a role in the extracellular matrix degradation process is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). MMP-9 plays a role in tumor invasion process, metastasis and induction of tumor tissue vascularization. To determine the expression of MMP-9 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a descriptive study was conducted by examining immunohistochemistry MMP-9 in 30 NPC tissues that had never received radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combination. Frequency distribution of NPC patient mostly in the age group 41-50 years old and 51-60 years were nine people (30.0%); men (73.3%) and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (53.3%) histopathology type. The overexpression of MMP-9 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were mostly found in advance stage.

  10. Prognostic value of Chinese race in nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Catherine K.; Wang, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States and common in southern China. Evaluating American patients treated using a uniform technique and staged with CT scanning, we determined whether Chinese and non-Chinese patients differ in presentation and outcome. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1996, 172 patients treated at Massachusetts General Hospital received primary radiotherapy with curative intent for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty-one patients (24%) were of Chinese descent, and 41% of cancers were classified as having lymphoepithelioma histologic features. Most patients received twice-daily radiotherapy and a brachytherapy boost, receiving a median dose of 72 Gy to the nasopharynx. Results: At the initial presentation, the Chinese patients were significantly younger, less likely to smoke, more likely to have Stage IV disease, and more likely to have cancer with lymphoepithelioma histologic features. After controlling for stage, age, histologic type, and treatment variables, Chinese patients were significantly more likely to develop distant metastases (p<0.05). Although Chinese race does not predict for local control or overall survival, a younger age, continued tobacco use, total radiation dose, and lymphoepithelioma histologic features do. Conclusion: In a large retrospective analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Chinese and non-Chinese patients differed significantly in presentation--age, stage, and histologic features--and outcome. We suggest as an explanation differences in intrinsic tumor biology rather than differences in treatment techniques or staging systems. Additional trials in endemic countries are needed to confirm the optimal treatment of Chinese and Chinese-American patients

  11. Dosimetry of parotid glands in IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiancheng; Yu Xinsheng; Jiang Guoliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan on the dosimetry of parotid in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Under the same constraints and objections, the IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid and the IMRT plan added plan tumor volume (PTV) margin for parotid gland was investigated. Results: Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan spared unilateral parotid, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. On PTV 60 , D min in the plan of sparing one parotid gland was more than that in normal IMRT plan (P 95 in the plan of sparing one parotid gland have improved (P 50%VOL and D mean of parotid gland were similar between the two plans. Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan added 2 or 3 mm margin for parotid gland, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. D min , D mean and D 95 of PTV 60 have decreased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. D max of brainstem and spine cord have increased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. Conclusions: The IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid may be adopted not to protect both two parotids, while PTV margin for parotid added as parotid move. (authors)

  12. Trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma surgery: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpee Bhatia; Janakiram, Trichy Narayanan; Baxi, Hina; Chinnasamy, Balamurugan

    2017-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive benign tumour which has propensity to erode the skull base. The tumour spreads along the pathways of least resistance and is in close proximity to the extracranial part of trigeminal nerve. Advancements in expanded approaches for endoscopic excision of tumours in infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa increase the vulnerability for the trigeminocardiac reflex. The manipulation of nerve and its branches during tumour dissection can lead to sensory stimulation and thus inciting the reflex. The aim of our study is to report the occurrence of trigeminocardiac reflex in endoscopic excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. To describe the occurence of trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic endonasal excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. We studied the occurrence of TCR in 15 patients (out of 242 primary cases and 52 revision cases) operated for endoscopic endonasal excision of JNA. The drop in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were observed and measured. To the best of our knowledge of English literature, this is the first case series reporting TCR as complication in endoscopic excision of JNA. occurence of this reflex has been mentioned in various occular, maxillofacial surgeries but its occurence during endoscopic excision of JNA has never been reported before. Manifestation of trigeminocardiac reflex during surgery can alter the course of the surgery and is a potential threat to life. It is essential for the anesthetist and surgeons to be familiar with the presentations, preventive measures and management protocols.

  13. ROLE OF SURGICAL APPROACHES INFLUENCING TUMOUR RECURRENCE IN NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Raza; Hussain, Altaf; Rehman, Fazal; Iqbal, Johar; Khan, Munib; Ullah, Gohar; Khan, Zakir

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon tumour constituting less than 1% of all head & neck tumours. This tumour has an aggressive local behaviour if left untreated. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with no common consensus on a single approach. Tumour stage and surgical approaches are the major determinants of outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of surgical approaches on tumour recurrence in patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, PIMS, Islamabad and Ayub Medical Institution, Abbottabad from Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 consisting of 34 diagnosed cases of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients were treated surgically while radiotherapy was given in a few. All patients were followed up for one year. Among 34 patients, 25 were treated by lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy, 5 by mid-facial degloving approach and 3 by transpalatine approach. One patient with cavernous sinus involvement was treated by radiotherapy. Patients were followed up for one year both by clinical examination and imaging if needed. Recurrence was found in 15% (5/33) patients and postop radiotherapy was given to them. Lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy is highly effective even in advanced stage JNA for complete removal of the disease. Postoperative radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant.

  14. The adult nasopharyngeal microbiome as a determinant of pneumococcal acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Amelieke Jh; Zomer, Aldert L; Gritzfeld, Jenna F; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Hijum, Sacha Aft; Ferreira, Daniela M; Shak, Joshua R; Klugman, Keith P; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; de Jonge, Marien I; Gordon, Stephen B; Hermans, Peter Wm

    2014-01-01

    Several cohort studies have indicated associations between S. pneumoniae and other microbes in the nasopharynx. To study causal relationships between the nasopharyngeal microbiome and pneumococcal carriage, we employed an experimental human pneumococcal carriage model. Healthy adult volunteers were assessed for pneumococcal carriage by culture of nasal wash samples (NWS). Those without natural pneumococcal carriage received an intranasal pneumococcal inoculation with serotype 6B or 23F. The composition of the nasopharyngeal microbiome was longitudinally studied by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing on NWS collected before and after challenge. Among 40 selected volunteers, 10 were natural carriers and 30 were experimentally challenged. At baseline, five distinct nasopharyngeal microbiome profiles were identified. The phylogenetic distance between microbiomes of natural pneumococcal carriers was particularly large compared to non-carriers. A more diverse microbiome prior to inoculation was associated with the establishment of pneumococcal carriage. Perturbation of microbiome diversity upon pneumococcal challenge was strain specific. Shifts in microbiome profile occurred after pneumococcal exposure, and those volunteers who acquired carriage more often diverted from their original profile. S. pneumoniae was little prominent in the microbiome of pneumococcal carriers. Pneumococcal acquisition in healthy adults is more likely to occur in a diverse microbiome and appears to promote microbial heterogeneity.

  15. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  16. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  17. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe; Deniak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  18. Preparation of 227Ac by neutron irradiation of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukleva, E.; Kozempel, J.; Vlk, M.; Micolova, P.; Vopalka, D.

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223 is prospective alpha-emitting therapeutic radionuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy. Although 223 Ra is formed naturally by the decay of 235 U, for practical reasons its preparation involves neutron irradiation of 226 Ra. The α-decay of the 227 Ra (T 12 = 43 min.) produced via 226 Ra(n,γ) 227 Ra reaction leads to 227 Ac, a mother nuclide of 227 Th and 223 Ra subsequently. Irradiation target radium material is generally available in multi-gram quantities from historical stock. Main aim of this study was to experimentally and theoretically evaluate and verify available literature data on production of 223 Ra. According to data obtained from γ-spectra, the approximate yield values were determined and effective cross-section for the 223 Ra production was calculated. (authors)

  19. Relationships between genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related factor gene and the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan-Li; Yu, Hong; Chen, Yan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Chen, Guang-Jun; Bai, Lu; Liu, Dan; Su, Hong-Xin; Wang, He-Tong

    2014-09-01

    Our study aims to discuss the association between inflammation-related factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility and recurrence in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We used Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to characterize the genetic variation of five SNPs in 194 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 231 healthy subjects. All statistical analysis is performed with statistical product and service solutions v13.0; odds ratio (OR) value and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. There is no relationship between TGFβ1 -869 T/C, IL-6 -634C/G, TGFβ1 -509C/T, IL1 -511C/T and nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility. Both single factor and multiple factors analysis showed that IL1a -889 T/T genotype is significantly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in decreasing the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A highly significant association was found between IL1a -889 T/T genotype and protective genotype as defined by various pathological types. This is more obvious in the protective genotype of the non-keratin-type squamous carcinoma undifferentiated type. We also discovered that genotype G/G and C/G + G/G of IL6 -634 gene are associated with reduced recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. IL1a -889 gene polymorphism and susceptibility is related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma and can potentially decrease the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Han Chinese population in north China. IL1-889 TT genotype is protective genotype for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have provided evidence that the GG genotype of the IL6 -634 gene is associated with recurrent risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The G allele is the protective gene of nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence.

  20. Bone scans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: local experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, S.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tops the list of malignancy in Malaysia and ranks first in male malignancy in the state of Sarawak. The majority of the NPC patients presented in the advanced stages and often with distal metastasis usually to the bones. In our local hospital is the new practice of bone scan using Tc99 started last year. Over a period of 9 months from July 2003 to March 2004, 41 NPC patients had the bone scans and our experience in these are reviewed and presented. Method: The NPC patients are selected consecutively including both new and treated patients. The scanner used is Siemen E.cam plus and Technecium (Tc99) the radio-active isotope used. The scan images are read and reported by qualified and trained Radiologists. The bone scans are requested from the ENT Specialist of the ENT department of the Hospital. The bone scan reports are checked by the ENT Specialists and the decisions made as to clinical correlation and further definitive imaging studies. Results: 41 NPC patients were included in the studies, 29 newly diagnosed and bone-canned before treatment started and 12 treated of which 3 being diagnosed having recurrent NPC. Of the 29 newly diagnosed patients, one was found true positive bone scan having increased radio-tracer uptake and confirmed Xray imagings. 3 of the treated patients had true positive bone scan with increased radio-tracer uptake and confirmed Xray imagings. Hence a total of 4 out of the 41 patients (9.8%) had bone metastasis on positive bone scans. Of the 29 newly diagnosed patients, 14 were found false positive bone scan having increased radio-tracer uptake but no confirmed X ray imagings. 4 of the treated patients had false positive bone scan with increased radio-tracer uptake but no confirmed X ray imagings. Hence a total of 18 out of the 41 patients (44%) had no bone metastasis on positive bone scans. There were 6 patients with symptoms referable to the bones' distal to the head and 2 had true positive bone

  1. Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes over Time in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Alamri, Lamia; Crandall, Keith A; Freishtat, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome of infants and adults during health and disease; less is known, however, about the composition and temporal dynamics (i.e., longitudinal variation) of microbiotas from children and adolescents. Here we use NGS technology to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of asthmatic children and adolescents (6 to 18 years) and determine their stability over time. Two nasopharyngeal washes collected 5.5 to 6.5 months apart were taken from 40 children and adolescents with asthma living in the Washington D.C. area. Sequence data from the 16S-V4 rRNA gene region (~250 bp) were collected from the samples using the MiSeq platform. Raw data were processed in mothur (SILVA123 reference database) and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU)-based alpha- and beta-diversity metrics were estimated. Relatedness among samples was assessed using PCoA ordination and Procrustes analyses. Differences in microbial diversity and taxon mean relative proportions were assessed using linear mixed effects models. Core microbiome analyses were also performed to identify stable and consistent microbes of the nasopharynx. A total of 2,096,584 clean 16S sequences corresponding to an average of 167 OTUs per sample were generated. Representatives of Moraxella*, Staphylococcus*, Dolosigranulum, Corynebacterium, Prevotella, Streptococcus*, Haemophilus*, Fusobacterium* and a Neisseriaceae genus accounted for 86% of the total reads. These nine genera have been previously found in the nasopharynxes of both infants and adults, but in different proportions. OTUs from the five genera highlighted (*) above defined the nasopharyngeal core microbiome at the 95% level. No significant differences in alpha- and beta-diversity were observed between seasons, but bacterial mean relative proportions of Haemophilus, Moraxella

  2. Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes over Time in Children with Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pérez-Losada

    Full Text Available The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome of infants and adults during health and disease; less is known, however, about the composition and temporal dynamics (i.e., longitudinal variation of microbiotas from children and adolescents. Here we use NGS technology to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of asthmatic children and adolescents (6 to 18 years and determine their stability over time.Two nasopharyngeal washes collected 5.5 to 6.5 months apart were taken from 40 children and adolescents with asthma living in the Washington D.C. area. Sequence data from the 16S-V4 rRNA gene region (~250 bp were collected from the samples using the MiSeq platform. Raw data were processed in mothur (SILVA123 reference database and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU-based alpha- and beta-diversity metrics were estimated. Relatedness among samples was assessed using PCoA ordination and Procrustes analyses. Differences in microbial diversity and taxon mean relative proportions were assessed using linear mixed effects models. Core microbiome analyses were also performed to identify stable and consistent microbes of the nasopharynx.A total of 2,096,584 clean 16S sequences corresponding to an average of 167 OTUs per sample were generated. Representatives of Moraxella*, Staphylococcus*, Dolosigranulum, Corynebacterium, Prevotella, Streptococcus*, Haemophilus*, Fusobacterium* and a Neisseriaceae genus accounted for 86% of the total reads. These nine genera have been previously found in the nasopharynxes of both infants and adults, but in different proportions. OTUs from the five genera highlighted (* above defined the nasopharyngeal core microbiome at the 95% level. No significant differences in alpha- and beta-diversity were observed between seasons, but bacterial mean relative proportions of Haemophilus

  3. Current and emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spratt DE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Spratt, Nancy LeeDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: In this article, we focus on the current and emerging treatments in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC. A detailed evolution of the current standard of care, and new techniques and treatment options will be reviewed. Intergroup 0099 established the role for chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Multiple randomized Phase III trials have shown the benefit of chemo-RT; however, none of these studies utilized modern radiotherapy (RT techniques of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. IMRT has the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to the target structures while sparing adjacent bystander healthy tissues, and has now become the preferred RT treatment modality. Chemotherapy also has had a shifting paradigm of induction and/or adjuvant chemotherapy combined with RT alone, to the investigation with concurrent chemo-RT. New treatment options including targeted monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being studied in NPC. These new biologic therapies have promising in vitro activity for NPC, and emerging clinical studies are beginning to define their role. RT continues to expand its capabilities, and since IMRT and particle therapy, specifically intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT, has reports of impressive dosimetric efficacy in-silica. Adaptive RT is attempting to reduce toxicity while maintaining treatment efficacy, and the clinical results are still in their youth. Lastly, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV DNA has recently been studied for prediction of tumor response and its use as a biomarker is increasingly promising to aid in early detection as well as supplementing the current staging system. RT with or without chemotherapy remains the standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Advances in RT technique, timing of chemotherapy, biologically

  4. Differential diagnosis of primary nasopharyngeal lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma focusing on CT, MRI, and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Kang, Dae-Woon; Kim, Hak-Jin; Lee, Jong-Kil; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2012-04-01

    No study has done a comparative analysis of radiologic imaging findings between primary nasopharyngeal lymphoma (PNL) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to analyze computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images and to evaluate the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max) of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT between PNL and NPC, knowing the imaging features that distinguish PNL from NPC. Cross-sectional study. University tertiary care facility. The authors analyzed the features on CT, MR imaging, and PET/CT of 16 patients diagnosed with PNL and 32 patients diagnosed with NPC histopathologically. Patients with PNL had a larger tumor volume and showed symmetry of tumor shape than did patients with NPC. Patients with PNL also had higher tumor homogeneity than NPC patients on CT, T2-weighted, and postcontrast MR images. All PNL patients showed a high degree of enhancement without invasion to the adjacent deep structure. The involvement of the Waldeyer ring was significantly higher in PNL patients. Cervical and retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy and PET/CT SUV max showed no significant difference between PNL and NPC. If the images present a bulky, symmetric nasopharyngeal mass with marked homogeneity, a high degree of enhancement, and a higher Waldeyer ring involvement combined with no invasion into the deep structure, PNL should be considered over NPC.

  5. Some similarities of radium and plutonium toxicity in the beagle and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Mays, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The value of many toxicity studies, involving various experimental animals, is contingent on how reliably the data can be related to man. An equation has been proposed for extrapolating the Pu syndrome from dog studies to man. It employs the extensive human radium experience and a plutonium-radium toxicity ratio in the dog. The validity of this method is contingent on similar target tissues for both Pu and Ra and approximately equal RBE's for Pu relative to Ra in both man and the dog. Thus, although the radiosensitivity might be significantly different, the endpoints within a given tissue in man and the animal model must necessarily be comparative. The degree of parallelism in the radium-induced syndromes of man and the beagle are examined in order to assess the practicability of estimating Pu risk in man through use of a Pu-Ra toxicity ratio in the beagles

  6. The fantastic history of radium: when a radioactive element becomes a magic potion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, Jean-Marc; Huynh, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    More than a century after its discovery, radium has never lost its symbolic power: the symbol of scientific perseverance with Marie Curie handling quintals of ore to extract this 'fabulous metal', symbol of radiations efficiency against cancer, symbol of eternity and value - like diamond, and many more. The power of such a symbol led some mercantile minds to make radium a panacea capable to cure any illness. Then between the first and the second World war, radium became a society phenomenon: popular book writers held of the magic name to imagine wild stories and the advertisers started to link it to any type of product (beverages, shoe polish, razor blades, cigarettes, cheese, condoms..). This book relates the story of this symbol over more than a century, with its successes, its excesses and sometimes its dramas. (J.S.)

  7. Radiological health risk evaluation of radium contaminated land: A real life implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2005-01-01

    A plot of land, currently used for dairy farming, has been contaminated over the years with radium due to the operation of one of the world's largest radium production plants. Within the framework of a global remediation approach for the plant surroundings, the land owner needed advice for a future destination of the land. Therefore, the radium contamination was accurately mapped, and on the basis of its severity a practically feasible subdivision of the land into four plots was proposed. For all four plots, the radiological risk was evaluated for the current type of land use and for possible alternative types. Hence a clear and usable advice could be formulated to the authorities reconciling public health, economic and practical issues. (authors)

  8. Analytical Methodology for the Determination of Radium Isotopes in Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are an essential requirement for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for production of such analytical measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated, and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. Since 2004, the environment programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the determination of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. Measurements of radium isotopes are important for radiological and environmental protection, geochemical and geochronological investigations, hydrology, etc. The suite of isotopes creates and stimulates continuing interest in the development of new methods for determination of radium in various media. In this publication, the four most routinely used analytical methods for radium determination in biological and environmental samples, i.e. alpha spectrometry, gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation spectrometry and mass spectrometry, are reviewed

  9. Method for determination of radium-226 in water by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1993-07-01

    The chemical procedure involves the isolation or radium from the sample solution by co-precipitation with lead sulphate. The precipitate is dissolved in alkaline DTPA. The radium isotopes are separated from other radionuclides by co-precipitation with barium sulphate. The barium/radium precipitate is dissolved in alkaline EDTA, the solution is transfered to a liquid scintillation vial and the organic scintillant is added. After sealing, the sample is left until equilibrium between Ra-226 and Rn-222 is established or until a suitable ingrowth time has elapsed. The alpha activity of Rn-222 and its short-lived daughters, Po-218 and Po-214, are measured by the use of a commercial liquid scintillation counter. By using the following procedure and a low level LSC a lover limit of detection of 2 mBq/sample can be achieved

  10. Clinical results in carcinoma of the cervix: radium compared to caesium using remote afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.; Fairey, R.N.; Kornelsen, R.O.; Young, M.E.J.; Wong, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    In 1979 the Cancer Control Agency of British Columbia changed from radium to remote controlled afterloaded caesium in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. In 3 years prior to the change, 139 patients received radium as part of their treatment and in the 3 years after the change, 158 patients received caesium. Overall referral patterns, patient and cancer demographics, and treatment policies were stable throughout the 6-year period. Radiotherapy technique, dose, dose distribution and dose rate were comparable for both radium and caesium treated patients. The results of treatment in the two time periods showed no difference in survival, local tumour control or complications. The use of afterloading has not compromised treatment results and has allowed better nursing care for patients and protection from radiation for all staff. (author)

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Glen Ridge Radium, NJ. (First Remedial Action), June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Glen Ridge Radium site is in the Borough of Glen Ridge and the town of East Orange in Essex County, New Jersey. The soil at the site is contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive waste materials suspected to have originated from radium processing or utilization facilities located nearby during the early 1900s. Temporary radon ventilation systems and gamma-radiation shielding have been installed and maintained by EPA and the State to reduce indoor exposures. The primary contaminant of concern affecting the soil and structures in radium 226 which delays to radon gas. The selected remedial action includes excavation of approximately 41,000 cu yd of highly contaminated soil and an unspecified amount of debris followed by offsite disposal; installation and maintenance of indoor engineering controls at less contaminated properties; environmental monitoring to ensure remedy effectiveness; and continuation of a treatment technology study for future actions

  12. ''Normal'' tissues from humans exposed to radium contain an alteration in the c-mos locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Schlenker, R.A.; Hardwick, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of a number of human proto-oncogenes from persons with internal systemic exposure to radium were analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and southern blotting of their DNA. Two extra c-mos Eco R1 restriction-fragment-length bands of 5.0 kb and 5.5 kb were found in tissue DNA from six of seven individuals. The extra c-mos bands were detected in DNA from many, but not all, of the tissues of the individuals exposed to radium. Our results suggest that the c-mos restriction-fragment-length alterations (RFLA) found in individuals exposed to radium were induced rather than inherited, are epigenetic in origin, and most likely result from changes in the methylation of bases surrounding the single exon of the c-mos proto-oncogene. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed

  14. Human health effects of radium: an epidemiologic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the classical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed

  15. Uranium and radium content in the soil solutions of the south-western part of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Vojnikova, E.V.; Popenya, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    The contents of uranium and radium in the pore soil solutions, which are the main chain in the geochemical and biological migration of the chemical elements, has been determined for the first time in Belarus. The control sites have been located outside the zone of Chernobyl fallout radionuclide contamination, that allowed evaluating the current background level of uranium and radium content in the soil solutions. The data on accumulation of the radioactive elements in the pore solutions give the opportunity to estimate the reserve of the radioactive elements in the migratory active forms in the soils. In the majority of soils studied, uranium content in the pore solution is higher than radium content, that points to the higher migratory ability of uranium. The direct correlation between content of fulvic acids' components in the soil solutions and accumulation of uranium in such solutions has been established. (authors)

  16. Uranium, radium and radon exhalation study in some soil samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanjit, Singh; Joga, Singh; Surinder, Singh; Bajwa, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Uranium, radium concentration and radon exhalation rates have been determined in the soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab using the L.R.-115 nuclear track detectors. Radium concentration in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.80 to 5.34 Bq Kg-1. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.99 to 6.60 mBq Kg -1 h -1 (32.82 to 218.49 mBqm -2 h -1 ). A good correlation has been observed between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration observed in the soil samples. The uranium concentration in all these samples is being carried out and the other correlations will also be established. (authors)

  17. Myeloid leukaemia/osteosarcoma ratio in CBA/H mice given radium 224

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, E.R.; Stones, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Four groups of 400 12-week-old CBA/H mice were injected intraperitoneally with mean amounts of 69, 139, 280 and 550 Bq/g -1 radium 224. A further group of 400 mice were injected intraperitoneally with diluting solution only. The mice were allowed unrestricted access to food and water until they died or were killed. To date (September 1988) about 40% of the mice are dead, and 28 cases of myeloid leukaemia and four cases of osteosarcoma have been diagnosed in the animals given radium 224. The relationship between the yield of myeloid leukaemia and the amount of radium 224 injected was found to be curvilinear. The determined value of the myeloid leukaemia:osteosarcoma ratio is discussed. (author)

  18. Interaction of radium with freshwater sediments and their mineral components Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.; Strejc, P.

    1986-01-01

    A radiotracer method was used for investigating the adsorption and desorption of radium on stream sediments under conditions similar to those prevailing in waste and surface waters. The effects of pH, ionic strength and Casup(2+) or SOsub(4)sup(2+) ions were studied. The results were compared with analogous data characterizing radium interaction with model solids representing components of the sediments. It was found that the adsorption affinity of the sediments for radium cannot be easily derived from their composition or other properties. No simple correlation with specific surface area, organic matter, oxidic coatings or other components of the sediments was observed. However, an exceptional role of barite (barium sulfate) in the sediments was noted. (author)

  19. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed.

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Denver Radium Site Streets, Colorado, March 1986. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Denver Radium Site Streets is located in Denver, Colorado. The operable unit is comprised of eight street segments in the Cheesman Park area and one segment in the upper downtown area. The nine contaminated street segments are owned by the City and County of Denver and extend approximately 4.5 miles through largely residential areas. The Denver Radium Site Streets contain a 4- to 6-inch layer of radium-contaminated asphalt. The contaminated layer is underlain by compacted gravel road base and is usually overlain by 4 to 12 inches of uncontaminated asphalt pavement. There is an estimated 38,500 cubic yards of contaminated material covering approximately 832,000 square feet. The selected remedial action for the site includes: leaving the contaminated material in place; improving institutional controls; and removing any contaminated material excavated during routine maintenance, repair, or construction activities in the affected streets to a facility approved for storage or disposal of contaminated material

  1. Quantitative laws governing the migration of magnesium, calcium, radium-226, thorium-228 in the link between soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkinazi, E.I.

    1982-02-01

    Concentrations of magnesium, calcium, radium 226 and thorium 228 in podsolized chernozem and medium-loamy soils and in agricultural plants (wheat, barley, peas, potatoes, beets, and carrots) were determined. Transition coefficients of magnesium, calcium and radium 226 from soils to plants were calculated

  2. Determination of radon and radium concentrations in drinking water samples around the city of Kutahya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, L.; Cetinkaya, H.; Murat Sac, M.; Ichedef, M.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of radium and radon has been determined in drinking water samples collected from various locations of Kutahya city, Turkey. The water samples are taken from public water sources and tap water, with the collector chamber method used to measure the radon and radium concentration. The radon concentration ranges between 0.1 and 48.6±1.7 Bq l -1 , while the radium concentration varies from a minimum detectable activity of -1 in Kutahya city. In addition to the radon and radium levels, parameters such as pH, conductivity and temperature of the water, humidity, pressure, elevation and the coordinates of the sampling points have also been measured and recorded. The annual effective dose from radon and radium due to typical water usage has been calculated. The resulting contribution to the annual effective dose due to radon ingestion varies between 0.3 and 124.2 μSv y -1 ; the contribution to the annual effective dose due to radium ingestion varies between 0 and 143.3 μSv y -1 ; the dose contribution to the stomach due to radon ingestion varies between 0.03 and 14.9 μSv y -1 . The dose contribution due to radon inhalation ranges between 0.3 and 122.5 μSv y -1 , assuming a typical transfer of radon in water to the air. For the overwhelming majority of the Kutahya population, it is determined that the average radiation exposure from drinking water is less than 73.6μmSv y -1 . (authors)

  3. Radium and uranium concentrations and associated hydrogeochemistry in ground water in southwestern Pueblo County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmlee, J. Karen; Cadigan, Robert Allen

    1979-01-01

    Radium and uranium concentrations in water from 37 wells tapping the aquifer system of the Dakota Sandstone and Purgatoire Formation in southwestern Pueblo County, Colorado, have a wide range of values and define several areas of high radioactivity in the ground water. Radium ranges from 0.3 to 420 picocuries per liter and has a median value of 8.8, and uranium ranges from 0.02 to 180 micrograms per liter and has a median value of 2.4. Radon concentrations, measured in 32 of the 37 wells, range from less than 100 picocuries per liter to as much as 27,000 and have a median value of 580. Relationships among the radioactive elements and 28 other geochemical parameters were studied by using correlation coefficients and R-mode factor analysis. Five factor groups were determined to represent major influences on water chemistry: (1) short-term solution reactions, (2) oxidation reactions, (3) hydrolysis reactions, (4) uranium distribution, and (5) long-term solution reactions. Uranium concentrations are most strongly influenced by oxidation reactions but also are affected by solution reactions and distribution of uranium in the rocks of the aquifer system. Radon and radium concentrations are mostly controlled by uranium distribution; radium also shows a moderate negative relationship with oxidation. To explain the statistical and spatial relationships among the parameters, a model was developed involving the selective leaching of uranium-bearing phases and metal sulfides which occur in discontinuous zones in sandstone and shale. When reducing conditions prevail, uranium is immobile, but radium can be taken into solution. When faults and associated fractured rocks allow oxidizing conditions to dominate, uranium can be taken into solution; radium can also be taken into solution, or it may become immobilized by coprecipitation with iron and manganese oxides or with barite. Several areas within the study area are discussed in terms of the model.

  4. Central nervous system changes complicating the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of a nasopharyngeal neoplasm in a diabetic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.M.; McGinnis, W.; Cook, J.; Latourette, H.

    1979-01-01

    A case is reported of a diabetic patient with a nasopharyngeal neoplasm who developed radiation induced brainstem damage even though irradiated at a conventional time-dose-volume relationship. The clinical course was correlated with autopsy findings which revealed radiation changes in the brainstem consisting primarily of vascular hyalinization with foci of infarction, edema, and demyelination. Atherosclerotic changes were conspicuously absent and therefore not the cause of the alterations. The changes occurred three months after completion of therapy, which was more rapid than expected for radiation injury. It is hypothesized that diabetes may have predisposed the patient to this severe complication of standard therapy. More needs to be learned concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and radiation complications. Perhaps a modified time-dose relationship should be considered

  5. The concentration of radon in a town where radium-activated paints were used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffenburger, T.; Auf der Maur, A.

    1984-01-01

    In a particular town in the Swiss Jura, important for its watch industry, probably 20 workshops existed between 1920 and 1963, where dials and faces were painted with radium-activated paints. Some workshops produced even their own paints. After removal of the radium and complete decontamination of such workshops, which presents its own problems, one sometimes still finds a high radon concentration in the cellar of such a workshop. Similar high values are sometimes found also in adjacent houses. In that particular town, however, a larger area was concerned. (orig.)

  6. Experimental study of radium partitioning between anorthite and melt at 1 atm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S; Burnett, D; Asimow, P; Phinney, D; Hutcheon, I

    2007-03-08

    We present the first experimental radium mineral/melt partitioning data, specifically between anorthite and a CMAS melt at atmospheric pressure. Ion microprobe measurement of coexisting anorthite and glass phases produces a molar D{sub Ra} = 0.040 {+-} 0.006 and D{sub Ra}/D{sub Ba} = 0.23 {+-} 0.05 at 1400 C. Our results indicate that lattice strain partitioning models fit the divalent (Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) partition coefficient data of this study well, supporting previous work on crustal melting and magma chamber dynamics that has relied on such models to approximate radium partitioning behavior in the absence of experimentally determined values.

  7. Quantitative regularities of magnesium, calcium, radium-226, and thorium migration from soils to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkinazi, Eh.I.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of magnesium, calcium, radium 226, thorium 228 in podsolized chernozem and grey medium-loamy soils were determined under conditions of ordinary farming. Concentrations of these elements were determined in soils and main agricultural plants: wheat, barley, peas, potatoes, beets, and carrots. Transition coefficients of magnesium, calcium, and radium 226 from soils to plants were calculated and the following series of transition coefficients were determined: to Mg> to Ca> to Ra. Transition coefficients from dern-podsolic soils were 3-27 times higher than from chernozem

  8. Radium remediation - History and Present Day. A Worldwide Overview Compendium (DVD) first Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelmer, Robert; Ouzounian, Gerald; Cochard, Guillaume; Huchette, Nathalie; Fowlie, Glenna

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impact of radium remains even today. The legacy of radio-luminescent paints, radium therapy needles, mining and processing and associated contamination has long been pursued in France, Belgium, Canada, the USA and other countries. The management of these tasks provides a rich and fascinating history as well as successes and lessons learned in environmental remediation. This Compendium provides an immediate resource to those who wish to investigate these subjects further and a means of adding to the resource. It contains links, movies, documents and references

  9. Collecting campaign for dials and hands with radium or tritium paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammans, M.; Grunder, R.; Schaellibaum, H.

    2005-01-01

    The production of radium paint has been stopped in Switzerland nearly 40 years ago. Nevertheless high quantities of dials and hands with radium paint could be found in the stocks of watch companies. In addition these parts of watches were thrown away illegally as scrap metal or as rubbish. As a consequence the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (Suva) has organized a collecting campaign in collaboration with the Federal Office of Public Health (BAG). It was the fourth one during the last 20 years. The procedure and the experiences will be described in more details. (orig.)

  10. The use of radium isotopic ratio in groundwater as a tool for pollution source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Goncalves, S.; Francisco, J.T.; Shinomiya, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    Radium isotopes in groundwater, with concentration above natural values have been measured near a radioactive material storage facility, with underground sealed concrete reservoirs, containing pasty residues from monazite sand industrial processing. This situation became a problem last decade, because of general public concern with radium contamination as being a consequence of leaks in reservoirs that could spread in the environment the contained radioactivity. There is a general claim against this stored material, because rain and underground water drain into a nearby creek, which flows to a river, that is used for public water supply of Itu city, (Sao Paulo state, Brazil), some 12 km away. (author)

  11. Environmental consequences of the placement of radium-barium sludge in tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, P.M.; Brown, J.R.; Multimaki, G.; Murphy, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation was made of the implications of placing radium-barium sludge in tailings areas. The study was restricted to a consideration of possible increases in the quantities of radionuclides escaping to the environment through either groundwater or surface water, considering the types of tailings treated and the effluent treatment systems currently operating in Canada. It was concluded that the placement of radium/barium sludge in tailings areas should not adversely affect the long-term stability of the radionuclides in the tailings or sludge, based on geochemical inorganic reactions

  12. Post-radiation mucocele in two patients treated for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnejja, M.; Hammami, B.; Achour, I.; Chakroun, A.; Charfeddine, I.; Ghorbel, A.; Frikha, M.; Daoud, J.

    2011-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman, with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which was treated by radiotherapy nine years previously, presented with occasional diplopia and recent headaches. A nasopharyngeal biopsy showed no recurrence. The imaging revealed a sphenoidal sinus mucocele. Endoscopic marsupialization of the mucocele allowed clinical improvement. A 56-year-old woman presented, five years after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with a fronto-orbital mass. CT-scan revealed a fronto-ethmoidal mucocele. Nasopharyngeal biopsy showed tumour recurrence. Marsupialization of mucocele was performed. Recurrence of the carcinoma was treated by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Sphenoidal sinus mucocele developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma has rarely been reported. CT scan and MRI are useful tools in making the diagnosis. Biopsy is required to diagnose recurrence or associated radio-induced tumor. Endoscopic approach gives good results. (authors)

  13. Nasopharyngeal cancer mimicking otitic barotrauma in a resource-challenged center: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adekunle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Nasopharyngeal cancer commonly manifests with cervical lymphadenopathy, recurrent epistaxis and progressive nasal obstruction. Neuro-ophthalmic and otologic manifestations can also occur. Isolated otologic presentations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare and the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer may not be foremost in the list of differentials. Case presentation We present the case of a 29-year-old Nigerian woman with bilateral conductive hearing loss and tinnitus after air travel. There were no other symptoms. The persistence of the symptoms after adequate treatment for otitic barotrauma necessitated re-evaluation, which led to a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer. Conclusion Isolated otologic manifestations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare in regions with low incidence of the disease. There is a need for it to be considered as a possible differential in patients presenting with bilateral serous otitis media.

  14. Locoregional control after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with an anatomy-based target definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ariji, Takaki; Kameoka, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate locoregional control after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer using a target definition along with anatomical boundaries. Forty patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell or non-keratinizing carcinoma of the nasopharynx who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy between April 2006 and November 2009 were reviewed. There were 10 females and 30 males with a median age of 48 years (range, 17-74 years). More than half of the patients had T3/4 (n=21) and/or N2/3 (n=24) disease. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was administered as 70 Gy/33 fractions with or without concomitant chemotherapy. The clinical target volume was contoured along with muscular fascia or periosteum, and the prescribed radiotherapy dose was determined for each anatomical compartment and lymph node level in the head and neck. One local recurrence was observed at Meckel's cave on the periphery of the high-risk clinical target volume receiving a total dose of <63 Gy. Otherwise, six locoregional failures were observed within irradiated volume receiving 70 Gy. Local and nodal control rates at 3 years were 91 and 89%, respectively. Adverse events were acceptable, and 25 (81%) of 31 patients who were alive without recurrence at 2 years had xerostomia of ≤ Grade 1. The overall survival rate at 3 years was 87%. Target definition along with anatomically defined boundaries was feasible without compromise of the therapeutic ratio. It is worth testing this method further to minimize the unnecessary irradiated volume and to standardize the target definition in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer. (author)

  15. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, C., E-mail: ccanjuan@gmail.com [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Karlsson, M. [Division of Radiological Sciences, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE 581 85 (Sweden); Lundell, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE 171 76 (Sweden); Ballester, F. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Tedgren, Å. Carlsson [Division of Radiological Sciences, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE 581 85, Sweden and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm SE 171 16 (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  16. Radium removal for a small community water-supply system. Research report, 1 October 1985-30 September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelson, K.A.

    1988-07-01

    In 1984, a radium-removal treatment plant was constructed for the small community of Redhill Forest located in the central mountains of Colorado. The treatment plant consists of a process for removing iron and manganese ahead of an ion-exchange process for the removal of radium. The raw water comes from deep wells and has naturally occurring radium and iron concentrations of about 30-40 pCi/L and 7-10 mg/L, respectively. Before the raw water enters the main treatment plant, the raw water is aerated to remove radon gas and carbon dioxide. The unique features of the Redhill Forest Treatment Plant are related to the ways in which the radium removed from the raw water is further treated and eventually disposed of as treatment plant waste. A separate system removes only radium from the backwash/regeneration water of the ion exchange process and the radium is permanently complexed on a Radium Selective Complexer (RSC) resin made by Dow Chemical. The RSC resin containing radium is replaced with virgin resin as needed and the resin waste transported to a permanent final disposal site in Beatty, NV. This report presents a detailed description of the Redhill Forest treatment system and the results of in-depth monitoring of the processes and other factors relating to the overall operation of the radium-removal system. Included are descriptions of modifications made in the plant operation to improve the overall system operation and of the procedures for final disposal of the RSC resin-containing radium

  17. Delayed radiation injury of brain stem after radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yunli; Liu Yingxin; Xie Dong; Su Danke; Chen Mingzhong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, MRI findings, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic factors of patients with radiation induced brain stem injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: From January 1991 to January 2001, 24 patients with radiation injury of brain stem were treated, 14 males and 10 females. The latency ranged from 6 to 38 months, with a median of 18 months. The lesions were located in the pons in 10 patients, mesencephalon + pons in 4, pons + medulla oblongata in 5, medulla oblongata in 2 and mesencephalon + pons + medulla oblongata in 3. MRI findings showed that the injury was chiefly presented as hypointensity foci on T 1 WI and hyperintensity foci on T 2 WI. Results: Eighteen patients were treated with dexamethasone in the early phase, with symptoms relieved in 12 patients but unimproved in 6 patients. Eight 44% patients died within the 8-38 months, leaving 16 patients surviving for 0.5 to 6.0 years. Conclusions: Radiation injury of brain stem has a short latency with severe symptoms, signifying poor prognosis. It is suggested that adequate reduction of irradiation volume and dose at the brain stem should be able to lower the incidence of brain stem injury

  18. Effect of time, dose and fractionation on local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne W.M.; Chan, David K.K.; Poon, Y.F.; Foo, William; Law, Stephen C.K.; O, S.K.; Tung, Stewart Y.; Fowler, Jack F.; Chappell, Rick

    1995-01-01

    To study the effect of radiation factors on local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 1008 patients with similarly staged T1N0-3M0 disease (Ho's classification) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated by megavoltage irradiation alone using the same technique. Four different fractionation schedules had been used sequentially during 1976-1985: with total dose ranging from 45.6 to 60 Gy and fractional dose from 2.5 to 4.2 Gy. The median overall time was 39 days (range = 38-75 days). Both for the whole series and 763 patients with nodal control, total dose was the most important radiation factor. The hazard of local failure decreased by 9% per additional Gy (p < 0.01). Biological equivalents expressed in terms of Biologically Effective Dose or Nominal Standard Dose also showed strong correlation. Fractional dose had no significant impact. The effect of overall treatment time was insignificant for the whole series, but almost reached statistical significance for those with nodal control (p = 0.06). Further study is required for elucidation, as 85% of patients completed treatment within a very narrow range (38-42 days), and the possible hazard is clinically too significant to be ignored

  19. Influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the result of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Beiwa; Zhang Guofen; Zhao Yutian; Wang Zhenwu; Xu Min; Hu Yulin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiotherapy result of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From January 1989 to December 1998, 304 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC received radical radiation. There were 209 males and 95 females. The ages ranged from 16 to 77 years with a median of 42. All patients were irradiated by 60 Co or 6 MV external beam with a total dose of 64 - 76 Gy for the primary tumor and 46 - 77 Gy for the cervical lymph nodes. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration for all patients was measured before, during and after radiotherapy. These patients were divided into three groups according to the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration before radiotherapy: anemia ( 160 g/L), and into two groups according to the change in the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration during radiotherapy as increased and decreased groups. Results: All patients were followed with a follow-up rate of 90.5%. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration had a significant effect on the survival of NPC patients. Its decrease or increase during radiotherapy affected the survival and local control rates of NPC patients. Conclusions: The change of peripheral hemoglobin concentration affecting the oxygen content in the blood, can influence the local control and survival rates of NPC patients. Increase results in higher survival

  20. Long-term treatment results for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: The Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri-Kadkhoda, Zahra; Bjoerk-Eriksson, Thomas; Mercke, Claes [Dept. of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Dept. of Radiophysics, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Nc) is a rare disease in Sweden. For evaluation of the treatment outcomes in our NPC patients, 52 new cases that were referred to our department between 1991 and 2002 were retrospectively analysed. Tumor stage, according to the 1997 AJCC staging system, was I in five, II in ten, III in 12 and IV in 25 patients. Majority of the patients (87%) had World Health Organization type II-III tumors. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 33 patients. Thirty-two patients received hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy with a median dose of 64.6Gy (1.7Gy/fr bid). Conventional external irradiation with a median dose of 66Gy (2Gy/fr) was delivered to 18 patients. An intracavitary brachy-boost of 4.5-12Gy was delivered to 40 patients. Two patients were excluded from the analysis due to treatment refusal. For the patients with tumor stages I-IVB, the 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 61% and 55%, respectively. The 5-year local, regional, and distant relapse-free survival rates were 70%, 92% and 77%, respectively. The most frequent late side effects were xerostomia (98%), otitis (70%) and hearing deterioration (64%). Our data suggest that optimization of the treatment outcomes in NPC patients requires implementation of new therapeutic strategies.

  1. Otitis Media and Nasopharyngeal Colonization in ccl3-/- Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniffel, Dominik; Nuyen, Brian; Pak, Kwang; Suzukawa, Keigo; Hung, Jun; Kurabi, Arwa; Wasserman, Stephen I; Ryan, Allen F

    2017-11-01

    We previously found CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) to be a potent effector of inflammation during otitis media (OM): exogenous CCL3 rescues the OM phenotype of tumor necrosis factor-deficient mice and the function of macrophages deficient in several innate immune molecules. To further delineate the role of CCL3 in OM, we evaluated middle ear (ME) responses of ccl3 -/- mice to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). CCL chemokine gene expression was evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice during the complete course of acute OM. OM was induced in ccl3 -/- and WT mice, and infection and inflammation were monitored for 21 days. Phagocytosis and killing of NTHi by macrophages were evaluated by an in vitro assay. The nasopharyngeal bacterial load was assessed in naive animals of both strains. Many CCL genes showed increased expression levels during acute OM, with CCL3 being the most upregulated, at levels 600-fold higher than the baseline. ccl3 -/- deletion compromised ME bacterial clearance and prolonged mucosal hyperplasia. ME recruitment of leukocytes was delayed but persisted far longer than in WT mice. These events were linked to a decrease in the macrophage capacity for NTHi phagocytosis and increased nasopharyngeal bacterial loads in ccl3 -/- mice. The generalized impairment in inflammatory cell recruitment was associated with compensatory changes in the expression profiles of CCL2, CCL7, and CCL12. CCL3 plays a significant role in the clearance of infection and resolution of inflammation and contributes to mucosal host defense of the nasopharyngeal niche, a reservoir for ME and upper respiratory infections. Therapies based on CCL3 could prove useful in treating or preventing persistent disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. [Endoscopic transnasal approach for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma without arterial embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Donghui; Qiu, Qianhui; Liang, Minzhi; Tan, Xianggao; Xia, Guangsheng

    2014-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of endoscopic resection without arterial embolism for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and the strategy of decreasing the bleeding during the operation. The clinical data of twenty-five cases of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma were retrospective analyzed, including 3 cases of Radowski stageIIa, 5 cases of stageIIb, 4 cases of stageIIc and with 13 cases of stage IIIa. All cases did not receive the arterial embolism, and controlled hypotension were adopted under endoscopic transnasal approach during the tumor resection. Two cases were added the labiogingival incision. During the operation, under the opening vision, cutting out the outside of the infratemporal fossa, and the pterygoid process to adequate exposure the pterygopalatine fossa and infratemporal fossa.Early recognition of anatomical landmarks and establish the safety plane, along the periphery of the tumor to proceed with micro-separation, early blocking tumor nutrient vessels, en bloc resection of the tumor and some other ways to reduce bleeding and tumor resection. Amount of bleeding during operation was 600-1500 ml, none of them had internal carotid artery injury and intracranial injury or some other complication.Follow-up 2-3 years was available in all patients, except 1 case with residual of tumor surrounding the optic nerve, the other 24 cases had no residual tumor and relapses. The preoperative occlusion and artery ligation may not be needed.Surgical technique is the key to reduce blood loss, and it is feasible to have endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with proper operating technique.

  3. Radium 226 and lead 210 water extraction from mill tailings samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourcade, N.; Zettwoog, P.; Mery, G.

    1994-01-01

    Depositories for waste from the processing of uranium ore may release seepage waters into the environment through their impoundments. Seepage waters, when percolating through the wastes, extract radium 226. In the design or rehabilitation stage of such depositories, the exposure of critical groups of the population to radium 226 from the ground water pathway must be assessed. The same applies to lead 210. The first step is to assess the possibility of extracting the radium 226 and the lead 210 from samples of solid wastes and sludges in laboratory tests using water from the site. Extensive tests of this type were carried out in our laboratories between 1982 and 1991 on samples of mill tailings which had been collected in six installations of COGEMA and its subsidiaries. The main results are presented and analyzed. Physical, chemical and mineralogical factors influencing the leaching rates and the total quantity of water-extractable radium 226 are identified. In the case of a wet storage option, a tentative modelling of the water extraction phenomenon is proposed for the prediction of the source term both in the short term, and in the long term when all more or less soluble salts have been eliminated from the solid wastes

  4. From the Lost Radium Files: Misadventures in the Absence of Training, Regulation, and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronowitz, Jesse N., E-mail: jesse.aronowitz@umassmemorial.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Lubenau, Joel O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Radium was the foundation of brachytherapy in the early decades of the 20th century. Despite being a most precious and perilous substance, it was mislaid with surprising frequency. This essay explores how it was lost, the efforts taken to recover it, and measures instituted to prevent mishandling. Methods and Materials: Review of contemporary literature, government publications, archives, and lay press. Results: Radium is a particularly dangerous substance because of its long half-life, its gaseous daughter (radon), and the high-energy emissions of its decay products. Despite the hazard, it was unregulated for most of the century. Any physician could obtain and administer it, and protocols for safe handling were generally lacking. Change came with appreciation of the danger, regulation, mandated training, and the institution of a culture of accountability. Unfortunately, careless management of medical radionuclides remains a global hazard. Conclusion: Responsible stewardship of radioactive material was not a high priority, for practitioners or the federal government, for much of the 20{sup th} century. As a result, large quantities of radium had gone astray, possibly subjecting the general public to continued radiation exposure. Lessons from the radium era remain relevant, as medical radionuclides are still mishandled.

  5. Uranium,Radium and Iron Absorption from Liquid Waste Uranium Ore Processing by Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wismawati, T; Sorot sudiro, A; Herjati, T

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine zeolites sorption capacity and the distribution coefficient of uranium, radium, and iron in zeolite-liquid waste system. Mineralogical composition of zeolite used in the experiment has been determine by examining the thin sections of zeolite grains under a microscope. Zeolite has ben activated by the dilute sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide solution. The results show that the use of 0.25 N sodium hydroxide solution could be optimizing the zeolite for uranium and iron ions sorption and that of 0.1 N sulfuric acid solution is for radium sorption. The re-activation process has been carried out in three hours. Under such a condition, the sorption efficiency of zeolite to those ions have been known to be 45.85% for uranium, 96.63 % for iron and 87.80 % for radium. The distribution coefficients of uranium, radium and iron ion in zeolite-liquid waste system have been calculated 0.85, 7.02, and 28.65 ml/g respectively

  6. Alpha low activity determination from limitter isotopes of uranium, thorium ands radium in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon, J.L.; Crespo, M.T.; Acena, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A method to concentrate uranium, thorium and radium in natural waters has been developed. The method, based on the adsorbing propert-ies of manganes dioxide, has been applied to determine the alpha emitter isotopes of these elements in drinking water of Madrid. In this work we present the description of the method, the analytical procedu-res and the obtained results. (Author)

  7. Multiple myeloma, leukemia, and breast cancer among the US radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Lucas, H.F.; Stehney, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The relationships of radium exposure to mortality from multiple myeloma, leukemia, and breast cancer were studied in three cohorts of female dial workers defined by year of first employment. Mortality was compared with that expected from US white female rates, with and without adjustment for local mortality rates. Dose-response relationships of these cancers to systemic intake of radium were determined in workers whose body burdens had been measured in vivo since 1955. Incident cases of multiple myeloma occurred in the pre-1930 cohort; however, analyses of body burdens and durations of employment suggest that external radiation was more likely to have been responsible than was internal radium. Leukemia incidence and mortality have not been elevated overall among the female dial workers, either in the pre-1930 or the post-1930 cohorts, but cases have tended to occur early and in subjects with higher body burdens. Extensive analyses of breast cancer data have uncovered several observations weighing against a causal interpretation of the association between radium and breast cancer

  8. Detecting buried radium contamination using soil-gas and surface-flux radon meaurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) has investigated the effectiveness of using radon soil-gas under surface-flux measurments to locate radium contamination that is buried sufficiently deep to be undetectable by surface gamma methods. At the first test site studied, an indication of a buried source was revealed by mapping anomalous surface-flux and soil-gas concentrations in the near surface overburden. The mapped radon anomalies were found to correspond in rough outline to the shape of the areal extent of the deposit as determined by borehole gamma-ray logs. The 5.9pCi/g radium deposit, buried 2 feet below the surface, went undetected by conventional surface gamma measurements. Similar results were obtained at the second test site where radon and conventional surface gamma measurements were taken in an area having radium concentrations ranging from 13.3 to 341.0 pCi/g at a depth of 4 feet below the surface. The radon methods were found to have a detection limit for buried radium lower than that of the surface gamma methods, as evidenced by the discovery of the 13.3 pCi/g deposit which went undetected by the surface gamma methods. 15 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Non-neoplastic calcified tissue pathologies among radium workers and plutonium injectees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Two human studies of deterministic effects of radium and plutonium are summarized. Histopathology data from femurs of New Jersey radium workers demonstrate effects of radium at ∼0.8 Gy skeletal dose. Toxicity ratio data from beagles suggest equivalent histopathological effects from 239 Pu may occur in humans at skeletal doses of ∼0.12 Gy in compact bone or at ∼0.01-0.02 Gy in spongy bone. These results support observations that subjects injected with plutonium in the 1940s showed bone changes typical of alpha radiation exposures, extensive osteoporosis with related fractures, and hearing disorders or vertigo related to bone damage and/or middle ear inflammation, all findings suggested by the clinical radium literature. A probable case of extensive pathologic calcification from a plutonium injection also occurred. In two cases suspect findings occurred at skeletal doses of ∼0.05 Gy. It is hypothesized that subjects with collagen disorders and uremic insufficiencies, as well as females late in life, form subpopulations susceptible to non-stochastic effects of internal alpha-emitters. In general, bone fractures late in life secondary to osteoporosis are associated with increased disability, increased risk of institutionalization, and with diminished survival rates. (author)

  10. New technique of uterine body carcinoma brachytherapy. Pt. 1. Radium chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattka, P.; Jedrus, S. (Instytut Onkologii, Gliwice (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    A simple technique of uterine cavity tamponade with radium charges arranged in a chain has been evolved, establishing at the same time an optimal dose on the basis of computer calculations. Own experiences with the use of this technique in 31 patients are presented.

  11. Radium-228 and -226 levels in a river environment and its modification by human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.; Londhe, V.S.; Pillai, K.C.

    1978-01-01

    The river Periyar is of prime importance in the economy of Kerala State due to the anifold utility of its waters. Consistently high background levels of radium-228 in the river water amounting to 10% of (MPC)sub(w) during the peak and lean flow periods suggest geochemical transport from the drainage areas. Industrial discharges enhance Ra levels by an order of magnitude in downstream locations. Monazite and rockp2hosphate processes, predominently contributing radium-228 and radium-226 respectively, change the nuclide ratio in the river environment due to differential inputs. Contribution of radium-226 through liquid effluents to the river from either process is of the same order of magnitude which together account for only 5% of the process output, the remaining 95%, held in the fertilizer sludges of CaCO 3 /CaCO 4 , disposed off on land, is a potential source of this activity in the environment. River bed sediments carrying bulk of Ra get displaced to backwaters where partial solubilisation takes place due to monsoon flushes. Uptake of Ra by fish in industrial and downstream locations in the river were evident. Analysis of paddy indicates higher uptake by soil and hay due to irrigation by river water drawn from downstream and marginal increase of activity in the fertilizer applied field. (author)

  12. Local bone mineral mass as a function of dose in radium cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Bone mineral mass at specific sites in the forearms and fingers of females with exposure to radium and mesothorium appears to have no dependence on dose. Data analysis is continuing, so these results should be considered preliminary. Future analyses will include males

  13. Influence of mine waste water purification on radium concentration in desalinisation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of mine waste water treatment in the desalination process on radium concentration in final products have been shown on the example of installations working in 'Ziemowit' and 'Piast' Polish coal mines. The environmental impact and health hazard resulting deposition of waste water treatment plant by-products have been also discussed

  14. Lymphoblastogenesis in response to phytohemagglutinin in radium patients: quantitative aspects and reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serio, C.S.; Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocyte stimulation by different concentrations of phytohemmagglutinin (PHA) provided a profile of lymphocyte responsiveness in 5 normal subjects and 40 radium dial painters. This profile will, hopefully, improve detection of lymphocyte defects in patients with impairment of cellular immunity. When a suboptimal dose (0.15 μg PHA-protein) was used, decreased lymphocyte responsiveness was observed in patients with high body burdens of 226 Ra (> 0.1 μCi) compared with patients with low body burdens (< 0.1 μCi) and normal subjects. At all other PHA concentrations, the lymphocyte responsiveness was not significantly different in these three groups. A decrease in lymphocyte response was found with age in both normal controls and in the radium patients, but the decrease appeared to be somewhat greater in the radium patients above 50 years of age. To test the significance of these findings, larger numbers of control subjects in the higher age groups and low body burden radium patients known not to be on any type of medication will have to be examined

  15. Industrial Pollutants and Nasopharyngeal Cancer: An Open Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicagli, Roberto; Bolla, Gianni; Menicagli, Laura; Esseiridou, Anastassia

    2017-05-01

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma represents 0.7% of the total cancer cases in the world with an ASR index of 1.7 and is widely associated with Epstein-Barr virus. It is not common in Italy (ASR index of 0.5) while in China (ASR 1.9), one third of the clinical cases are observed in Guangdong (ASR index 11.3). It is also quite common in Malaysia and Indonesia. The activation of the cancerogenesis process happens after the exposure to some environmental parameters that epidemiological studies have indicated with various dietary habits, mainly for salted fish consumption. The purpose of this work is to highlight such as exposure to compounds, such as formaldehyde, which is present in the different working conditions of these countries and may lead to the real cause to establish the carcinogenic process. The most recent publications regarding the impact of various external factors on Pub Med, Google, TOXLINE, Chem Abstract, were analyzed with the radiological data that were found in Milan hospitals database. The relationship between food consumption and nasopharyngeal cancer are not clear and statistically insignificant in Indonesia. In Malaysia, the preparation of natural rubber for the use of formaldehyde is a dangerous environmental factor. The same exposure is a risk factor in Guangdong, where many workers are employed in the wood panel industry. Incidence of cancer in these Chinese ethnic groups decreases when they migrate to other countries. In the last 5 years, few cases were recorded in Italy, without any apparent change in ethnic environmental factors or HBV infection Discussion: In the production of natural rubber, a lot of people are exposed to formaldehyde during the various steps of preparation and production such as stripping, drying and coagulation without observing proper environmental hygiene precautions. The same working conditions are present in industrial production of wood panels in Guangdong, China. The relationship between exposure to formaldehyde and

  16. Perineural spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Radiological and CT demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandolfo, I.; Gaeta, M.; Longo, M.; Faranda, C.; Blandino, A.

    1988-01-01

    Perineural spread is well known to be the most insidious form of tumour spread of a number of head and neck malignancies. However, perineural extension of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC) is a poorly recognized event. Four cases of perineural metastases from NC have been detected with pluridirectional tomography and CT. In 3 cases involvement of the Vidian nerve (nervus canalis pterygoidei) and pterygoid canal was observed. In a fourth patient, invasion of one pterygopalatine fossa and perineural spread along ipsilateral maxillary nerve with enlargement and erosion of the foramen rotundum was demonstrated. Radiological diagnosis of clinically unsuspected perineural tumour spread is important because it markedly influences treatment planning and prognosis of NC. (orig.)

  17. Perineural spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Radiological and CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfo, I.; Gaeta, M.; Longo, M.; Faranda, C.; Blandino, A.

    1988-11-01

    Perineural spread is well known to be the most insidious form of tumour spread of a number of head and neck malignancies. However, perineural extension of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC) is a poorly recognized event. Four cases of perineural metastases from NC have been detected with pluridirectional tomography and CT. In 3 cases involvement of the Vidian nerve (nervus canalis pterygoidei) and pterygoid canal was observed. In a fourth patient, invasion of one pterygopalatine fossa and perineural spread along ipsilateral maxillary nerve with enlargement and erosion of the foramen rotundum was demonstrated. Radiological diagnosis of clinically unsuspected perineural tumour spread is important because it markedly influences treatment planning and prognosis of NC.

  18. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical and radiographic findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, I.S.; Haller, J.O.; Berdon, W.E.; Barlow, B.; Carsen, G.; Khakoo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in childhood occurs so infrequently that it is not suspected in affected children until the disease has been present for a long time and local spreading has occurred. The survival rates are therefore quite poor. Six children with NPC are described. A massive local lymph node spread simulating lymphoma was present in half of the patients; in the other half the disease was more subtle, presenting with epistaxis and CNS involvement. If an evaluation of the nasopharynx were part of the initial physical examination in children, the diagnosis of NPC would be made earlier and survival rates would improve

  19. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical and radiographic findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, I.S.; Haller, J.O.; Berdon, W.E.; Barlow, B.; Carsen, G.; Khakoo, Y.

    1985-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in childhood occurs so infrequently that it is not suspected in affected children until the disease has been present for a long time and local spreading has occurred. The survival rates are therefore quite poor. Six children with NPC are described. A massive local lymph node spread simulating lymphoma was present in half of the patients; in the other half the disease was more subtle, presenting with epistaxis and CNS involvement. If an evaluation of the nasopharynx were part of the initial physical examination in children, the diagnosis of NPC would be made earlier and survival rates would improve.

  20. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub

  1. Travel report on a preparatory mission to the Agencija RAO, Ljubljana for a radium conditioning operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the trip was to establish the current status of radioactive waste management in Slovenia, to discuss their plans for the future management of their radioactive wastes and to prepare for a radium source conditioning operation to make safe and secure their known inventory of radium withdrawn from service. The IAEA are considering placing a contract on the Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf (OeFZS) to carry out the radium conditioning operation on the agency's behalf in a manner used successfully on a number of previous occasions. In Slovenia responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear applications in medicine research and industry is delegated to 'Agencija Rao'. First a visit was made to the storage building in which such wastes are stored, the building being within the grounds of the Josef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana. The possibility of carrying out the radium conditioning operation in the building and the improvements and modifications necessary was discussed. The inventory of stored waste was reviewed, the packages containing radium were identified and located in the store. Some of these contained radium-beryllium sources. It was agreed that such sources would not be conditioned during the forthcoming operation. Next a visit was made to the chemistry laboratories of the Josef Stefan Institute, these being a possible alternative location for the operation. On returning to the 'Agencija Rao' office in Ljubljana detail discussion of the merits of the alternative locations were discussed. It was realized that the operation could proceed quicker and at less cost if the existing laboratory was chosen, the unknown factor is the time taken to obtain regulatory approval. Next detailed discussion took place of the availability of necessary equipment and consumable items and agreement reached on what should be supplied locally and what should be brought to Slovenia, by the conditioning team. Plans were made to

  2. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  3. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Kuo, S.H. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei (China). Graduate Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Hong, R.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Medical Oncology; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade {>=} 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  4. Significcance of cranial nerve involvement shown by the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Zhouguang; Gao Li; Yi Junlin; Li Suyan; Jin Jing; Huang Xiaodong; Luo Jingwei; Xu Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the cranial nerve involvement in nasophryngeal carcinoma and its relationship with the prognosis with the optimal treatment for such patients studied also. Methods: 935 untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, admitted into our hospital from January 1990 to June 1999, were analyzed retrospectively. These patients were divided into cranial nerve involved group and cranial nerve un- involved group by patients symptoms signs and/or images before the treatment. SPSS10.0 soft package was used to analyze the effect of cranial nerve involvement on the prognosis. Results: The overall percentage of cranial nerve involvement was 20.0%, of which the trigeminal nerve was most common . The 5-year local recurrence rate was 20.1% and 16.8% (P=0.465) in cranial nerve involved group and un-involved group, respectively. In the patients with cranial nerve involved, the 5-year local recurrence rates of patients who received boost skull base irradiation dose <70, 70-79 and ≥80 Gy was 38.1%, 24.5% and 16.0% (P =0.082), respectively. The 5-year distant metastasis rate was 31.6% and 19.5% (P=0.020) in cranial nerve involved group and un-involved group. The corresponding overall survival rates and disease-free survival rate was 62.2% and 78.1% (P=O.000) and 43.2%, 62.4% (P=0.000), respectively. By multivariate analysis, cranial nerve involvement was an independent factor both in overall survival (RR 1.62, P=0.001 ) and disease-free survival (RR=1.40, P=0.020). Conclusions: There are more distant metastasis, worse overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with cranial nerve involved. Boost irradiation to the involved skull base may improve the local control. Radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for these patients may also have brighter future. (authors)

  5. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W.; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F.; Kuo, S.H.; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei; Hong, R.L.; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade ≥ 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  6. High porewater exchange in a mangrove-dominated estuary revealed from short-lived radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Santos, Isaac R.; Tait, Douglas R.; Reading, Michael J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesise that mangroves play an important role in groundwater exchange processes in sub-tropical and tropical estuarine waters. To investigate this, multiple high resolution time series measurements of radium across a tidal estuary (Coffs Creek, NSW, Australia) were performed as well as a spatial survey in both bottom and surface layers. Results from the spatial survey revealed increasing radium concentrations in parts of the estuary surrounded by mangroves. The average radium concentration in estuary areas lined with mangroves was 2.5 times higher than the average concentration at the mouth of the estuary and 6.5-fold higher than upstream freshwater areas. Additionally, the area enriched in radium coincided with low dissolved oxygen concentrations, implying that porewater exchange may drive anoxia. A radium mass balance model based on 223Ra and 224Ra isotopes at different sections of the estuary confirmed higher porewater exchange rates from areas fringed with mangrove vegetation. Estimated porewater exchange rates were 27.8 ± 5.3 and 13.6 ± 2.1 cm d-1 (0.8 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1 m3 s-1) based on 223Ra and 224Ra isotopes, respectively. The average saline porewater exchange was ∼ 10-fold larger than the upstream surface freshwater inputs to the estuary. We suggest that mangrove environments within subtropical estuaries are hotspots for porewater exchange due to the complex belowground structure of crab burrows and the effect of tidal pumping. Because porewater exchange releases carbon and nitrogen from coastal sediments, development and modification of mangrove areas in subtropical estuaries have a significant effect on coastal biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Radium isotopes as a tool for the study of water mixing in the Paraiba do Sul River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Thaisa Abreu de; Moreira, Isabel M.N.S.; Rezende, Carlos E. de

    2008-01-01

    Four isotopes of radium with different half-lives exist in nature. In aquatic systems, radium isotopes present distinct characteristics in salt water and fresh water environments. In fresh waters, radium appears adsorbed to particulate material while in sea water radium presents a conservative behavior, being the concentration of different isotopes of radium governed by the processes of dilution, advection and diffusion, as well as radioactive decay. The four natural isotopes of radium are tracers extensively used to determine ratios of water mixture and to calculate the period since the radium was added to the water column. The short-lived isotopes, 223 Ra (half-life = 11.4 days) and 224 Ra (half-life = 3.66 days), are continually regenerated from decay of their thorium parents, which are perpetually bound to particles surfaces. On the other hand, the long-lived isotopes, 226 Ra (half-life = 1600 yrs) and 228 Ra (half-life = 5.7 yrs), require considerable time for regeneration. These fluxes must be sustained by input water from rivers, sediments, SGD, or other sources. In the present work, developed at the estuary of the Paraiba do Sul River, the short half-lived radium isotopes ( 224 Ra and 223 Ra) were determined using the technique of coincidence delayed developed. The isotopes of long half-lifed ( 22 26Ra and 22 28Ra) were determined by the technique of total alpha and beta counting, after the dissolution of the MnO 2 fiber used to pre-concentrate radium. (author)

  8. Influence of irradiation of bacteria on their thermoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, M.; Stefaniakowa, A.; Tropilo, J.; Stanczak, B.; Peconek, J.; Mierzewska, H.; Bielecka, J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of x-radiation on thermoresistance of bacteria was determined. The studies were carried out on: E. coli, Pr. vulgaris, S. typhimurium, Staph. aureus and Str. faecalis. The bacteria were irradiated in PBS (physiological buffer solution) and in broth (containing about 1% of protein) with x-rays at radium absorbed doses of 100, 1000, 5000 and 10 000, which was followed immediately by heating at temperatures causing death of part of the bacteria. The results obtained indicate that irradiation of bacteria with small x-ray doses distinctly decreases their thermoresistance. Synergetic action of irradiation and heating of bacteria was observed, increasing with increased irradiation dose. The greatest changes of thermoresistance occurred with Pr. vulgaris, the smallest with S. typhimurium. Thermoresistance of bacteria decreased more strongly on their irradiation in protein-free medium (PBS). (author)

  9. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Keyur Kamlesh; Ahmad, Sabina Qureshi; Shah, Vikas; Lee, Haesoon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR) was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  10. Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood: nasopharyngeal carcinoma as a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martinez Vianna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a carcinoma that arises from the nasopharyngeal mucosa and differs from other head and neck carcinomas by its unique histologic, epidemiologic, and biologic characteristics. NPC is rare in most countries, especially Europe and North America. However, it has a high incidence in several regions of South China. The incidence variability of NPC, among different geographical and ethnic groups, indicates a combination of genetic susceptibility, infection by Epstein-Barr virus and environmental factors. NPC is classified into three histological subtypes according to the 1991 World Health Organization classification: squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The symptoms of patients with NPC are related to the primary tumor site and the degree of dissemination. Therefore, patients can remain asymptomatic during a long period of time. Imaging exams and biopsy of the tumor mass generally are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. NPC is a rare disease among children. The authors report a case of a 12-year-old boy who sought medical attention complaining of a progressive growing tumoral mass on the right side of the neck. The computed tomography images of the head and neck and the histological examination of a cervical lymph node biopsy diagnosed a metastatic NPC.

  11. Extra-Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in a Pre-Pubertal Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhro Ganguly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (NA are benign fibro-vascular tumours, predominantly occurring in the region around sphenopalatine foramen of adolescent males. Angiofibromas arising outside nasopharynx are termed as Extra-Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (ENA which often gets misdiagnosed because of its rarity and atypical clinical and biological behaviour. We present a case of angiofibroma of nasal septum in a seven-year-old boy presenting with two months history of left nasal obstruction and occasional nasal bleeding. CECT revealed a contrast enhanced soft tissue mass in left nasal cavity with no extension into the sinuses and nasopharynx. The mass was completely removed by lateral rhinotomy approach and a follow up of ten months showed no recurrence. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of angiofibroma. The age of the patient and the location of the tumour make the case exceptionally rare. We conclude that ENA must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of unilateral vascular nasal mass, and nasal septum should be taken into account as a potential, yet exceptional site for the tumour. Furthermore the age and gender of the patient should not be given utmost importance for diagnosis of angiofibromas.

  12. Prognosis and histology in Stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, D.; Ho, J.H.C.; Fong, M.; Chan, C.L.; Tse, C.H.; Lau, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    During 1969-1975, 212 new patients with Stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with a tumor apparently confined to the nasopharynx were treated at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The initial histologies of 137 patients were available for review and further studies. The primary tumors were histologically classified into two major types - squamous cell carcinoma (35 patients) and undifferentiated carcinoma (102 patients). The latter was further divided into 4 sub-types: lymphoepithelioma of the Schmincke type, lymphoepithelioma of the Regaud type, spindle cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type. Such histological typing of the initial tumor was not of value in predicting the clinical outcome, whether in terms of 5-year crude or disease-free survival rate, or the tendency of the tumor to develop recurrence at the primary site, or distance metastases after a standardized course of radiation therapy. There is not significant correlation between the extent of mononuclear infiltration nor fibrosis in the tumor stroma and the survival or tumor control rates

  13. Choanal stenosis: a rare complication of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfils, P.; Preobrajenski, N. de; Florent, A.; Bensimon, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Choanal stenosis is usually a congenital anomaly in children. Acquired choanal stenosis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a very rare pathology; only two publications report seven cases in the literature. We describe the clinical history, preoperative evaluation, surgical treatment and outcome of a case of acquired choanal stenosis after radiotherapy. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, presented with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (T2- NO-MO) one year before that had been successful treated with radiotherapy (68 Gy). At the end of radiotherapy, she complained of complete nasal obstruction, anosmia and hearing loss due to a bilateral serous otitis media. Bilateral complete choanal stenosis was confirmed by endoscopy and CT scan. Functional endoscopic surgery was performed, and nasal stents were left in place for 3 weeks. One year after, the patient have good airflow, and a patent nasopharynx without choanal stenosis. In conclusion, choanal stenosis is an unusual complication of radiotherapy that can be successfully treated with trans-nasal endoscopic resection. (authors)

  14. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur Kamlesh Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  15. Balloon dilatation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Allyson C; Kinns, Jennifer; Weisse, Chick

    2006-08-01

    A dog was examined because of a 6-month history of upper airway stridor that began after postoperative regurgitation of gastric contents. Constant stridor was evident during inspiration and expiration, although it was worse during inspiration. The stridor was no longer evident when the dog's mouth was manually held open. Computed tomography, rhinoscopy, and fluoroscopy were used to confirm a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis. The dog was anesthetized, and balloon dilatation of the stenosis was performed. Prednisone was prescribed for 4 weeks after the procedure to decrease fibrous tissue formation. Although the dog was initially improved, signs recurred 3.5 weeks later, and balloon dilatation was repeated. This time, however, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Two months later, although the dog did not have clinical signs of stridor, a third dilatation procedure was performed because mild stenosis was seen on follow-up computed tomographic images; again, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Three and 6 months after the third dilatation procedure, the dog reportedly was clinically normal. Findings suggest that balloon dilatation may be an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs.

  16. The prognostic significance of parapharyngeal tumour involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, P.Y.; Lee, W.; Yu, P.

    1996-01-01

    From 1984 to 1989, 903 treatment-naive non-disseminated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) were given primary radical radiotherapy. All patients had computed tomographic and endoscopic evaluation of the primary tumour. Potentially significant parameters were analysed by both univariate and multivariate methods for independent significance. In the whole group of patients, the male sex, skull base and cranial nerve(s) involvement, advanced Ho N-level, presence of fixed or partially fixed nodes and nodes contralateral to the side of the bulk of the nasopharyngeal primary, significantly determined survival and distant metastasis rates, whereas skull base and cranial nerve involvement, advanced age and male sex significantly worsened local control. However in the Ho T2No subgroup, parapharyngeal tumour involvement was the most significant prognosticator that determined distant metastasis and survival rates in the absence of the overriding prognosticators of skull base infiltration, cranial nerve(s) palsy, and cervical nodal metastasis. The local tumour control of the Ho T2No was adversely affected by the presence of oropharyngeal tumour extension. The administration of booster radiotherapy (20 Gy) after conventional radiotherapy (60-62.5 Gy) in tumours with parapharyngeal involvement has led to an improvement in local control, short of statistical significance

  17. Treatment of Snoring with a Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the feasibility of a standard nasopharyngeal airway tube (NPAT as treatment for snoring. Methods. An obese 35-year-old man, who is a chronic, heroic snorer, used NPATs while (1 the patient’s bedpartner scored the snoring and (2 the patient recorded himself with the smartphone snoring app “Quit Snoring.” Baseline snoring was 8–10/10 (10 = snoring that could be heard through a closed door and interrupted the bedpartner’s sleep to the point where they would sometimes have to sleep separately and 60–200 snores/hr. Several standard NPATs were tested, consisting of soft polyvinyl chloride material raging between 24- and 36-French (Fr tubes. Results. The 24 Fr tube did not abate snoring. The 26 Fr tube was able to abate the snoring sound most of the night (smartphone app: 11.4 snores/hr, bedpartner VAS = 2/10. The 28 and 30 Fr tubes abated the snoring sound the entire time worn (smartphone app: 0 snores, bedpartner VAS 0/10 but could not be tolerated more than 2.5 hours. The tube of 36 Fr size could not be inserted, despite several attempts bilaterally. Conclusion. Appropriately sized nasopharyngeal airway tubes may abate the snoring sound; however, as in this patient, they may be too painful and intolerable for daily use.

  18. A case series of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma among Indians, a low risk population, in Perak State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, B; Philip, R; Norain, K; Harvinder, S; Gurdeep, S M

    2012-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare among people of Indian ethnicity. A short retrospective case review of clinical records of Indian patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a period of 5 years was conducted. Their slides were further subjected to EBV encoded RNA (EBER) - In- situ Hybridization (ISH). The histologic subtype was nonkeratinizing carcinoma in all 4 patients. All were Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) positive. We believe that the crucial factor responsible for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is genetics; either a genetic susceptibility among high risk groups or genetic resistance/immunity in low risk groups. Further genetic studies are required to look for somatic or inherited chromosomal mutations among the various risk populations.

  19. A rare case of extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma of the septum in a female child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G B; Shukla, S; Kumari, P; Shukla, I

    2018-02-01

    Extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare but distinct clinical entity, different from juvenile angiofibroma. This clinical record elucidates the only case of extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma arising from the septum in a female child, who presented with epistaxis. The histopathological diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and the case was managed surgically with no recurrence. In a female paediatric patient presenting with epistaxis, extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (of the inferior turbinate) is a rare albeit important differential diagnosis, as it challenges the hormonal theory of angiofibroma aetiopathogenesis.

  20. Assessing the potential water quality hazards caused by disposal of radium-containing waste solids by soil blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Soil blending has recently been proposed as a method for disposal of radium-containing waste solids. This approach is basically the dilution of the waste solids with ''soils'' in order to reduce the concentration of radium-226 to designated levels. While in principle this approach may be satisfactory, in practice appropriate environmental and public health protection will be difficult to achieve with this approach because of the potential for leaching of radium-226 which could contaminate surface and groundwaters, increasing the cancer risk of those using the waters. This paper reviews the factors that should be considered in developing a technically valid program for the disposal of radium-containing waste solids by soil blending that is protective of public health and the environment