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Sample records for nanowire field-effect transistors

  1. Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors : Sensing Simplicity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mescher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are structures made from silicon with at least one spatial dimension in the nanometer regime (1-100 nm). From these nanowires, silicon nanowire field-effect transistors can be constructed. Since their introduction in 2001 silicon nanowire field-effect transistors have been studied

  2. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-09

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  3. Nanowire field effect transistors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.

  4. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Feng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed.

  5. Nanowire Tunnel Field Effect Transistors: Prospects and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Somaia Sarwat

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) has the potential to operate at lower voltages and lower power than the field effect transistor (FET). The TFET can circumvent the fundamental thermal limit of the inverse subthreshold slope (S) by exploiting interband tunneling of non-equilibrium "cold" carriers. The conduction mechanism in the TFET is governed by band-to-band tunneling which limits the drive current. TFETs built with III-V materials like InAs and InSb can produce enough tunneling current because of their small direct bandgap. Our simulation results show that although they require highly degenerate source doping to support the high electric fields in the tunnel region, the devices achieve minimum inverse subthreshold slopes of 30 mV/dec. In subthreshold, these devices experience both regimes of voltage-controlled tunneling and cold-carrier injection. Numerical results based on a discretized 8-band k.p model are compared to analytical WKB theory. For both regular FETs and TFETs, direct channel tunneling dominates the leakage current when the physical gate length is reduced to 5 nm. Therefore, a survey of materials is performed to determine their ability to suppress the direct tunnel current through a 5 nm barrier. The tunneling effective mass gives the best indication of the relative size of the tunnel currents. Si gives the lowest overall tunnel current for both the conduction and valence band and, therefore, it is the optimum choice for suppressing tunnel current at the 5 nm scale. Our numerical simulation shows that the finite number, random placement, and discrete nature of the dopants in the source of an InAs nanowire (NW) TFET affect both the mean value and the variance of the drive current and the inverse subthreshold slope. The discrete doping model gives an average drive current and an inverse subthreshold slope that are less than those predicted from the homogeneous doping model. The doping density required to achieve a target drive current is

  6. Nanowire Tunnel Field Effect Transistors: Prospects and Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia, Somaia Sarwat

    2014-01-01

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) has the potential to operate at lower voltages and lower power than the field effect transistor (FET). The TFET can circumvent the fundamental thermal limit of the inverse subthreshold slope (S) by exploiting interband tunneling of non-equilibrium "cold" carriers. The conduction mechanism in the TFET is governed by band-to-band tunneling which limits the drive current. TFETs built with III-V materials like InAs and InSb can produce enough tunneling cu...

  7. IC Compatible Wafer Level Fabrication of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors for Biosensing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moh, T.S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In biosensing, nano-devices such as Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (SiNW FETs) are promising components/sensors for ultra-high sensitive detection, especially when samples are low in concentration or a limited volume is available. Current processing of SiNW FETs often relies on expensive

  8. Temperature dependent properties of InSb and InAs nanowire field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Henrik A.; Caroff, Philippe; Thelander, Claes; Lind, Erik; Karlström, Olov; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2010-04-01

    We present temperature dependent electrical measurements on InSb and InAs nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs). The FETs are fabricated from InAs/InSb heterostructure nanowires, where one complete transistor is defined within each of the two segments. Both the InSb and the InAs FETs are n-type with good current saturation and low voltage operation. The off-current for the InSb FET shows a strong temperature dependence, which we attribute to a barrier lowering due to an increased band-to-band tunneling in the drain part of the channel.

  9. Silicon Tunneling Field Effect Transistors with a Hemicylindrical Nanowire Channel for Ultra-Low Power Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Gook; Sun, Min-Chul; Kim, Sang Wan

    In order to decrease the threshold voltage while maintaining the OFF current low, reduction of the subthreshold swing is essential in field effect transistors (FETs). To reduce the subthreshold swing below 60 mV/decade, inter-band tunneling can be used for injection of carriers and the device that utilizes such a mechanism is tunneling field effect transistor (TFET). Silicon(Si) TFETs, which are favored due to their compatibility with currently dominant complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, suffer from low ON current because of the relatively large bandgap of Si. The ON current of Si TFETs can be increased by field and area enhancement in a cylindrical nanowire channel. Numerical analysis has confirmed that the cylindrical channel structure shows significantly higher tunneling rate and wider tunneling area than the double gate structure. Si TFETs with a hemicylindrical nanowire channel are fabricated and characterized, and the effectiveness of nanowire channel approach is demonstrated.

  10. An innovative large scale integration of silicon nanowire-based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legallais, M.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Mouis, M.; Salem, B.; Robin, E.; Chenevier, P.; Ternon, C.

    2018-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, silicon nanowire field effect transistors are emerging as ultrasensitive biosensors while offering label-free, portable and rapid detection. Nevertheless, their large scale production remains an ongoing challenge due to time consuming, complex and costly technology. In order to bypass these issues, we report here on the first integration of silicon nanowire networks, called nanonet, into long channel field effect transistors using standard microelectronic process. A special attention is paid to the silicidation of the contacts which involved a large number of SiNWs. The electrical characteristics of these FETs constituted by randomly oriented silicon nanowires are also studied. Compatible integration on the back-end of CMOS readout and promising electrical performances open new opportunities for sensing applications.

  11. Electrical properties of single CuO nanowires for device fabrication: Diodes and field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florica, Camelia; Costas, Andreea; Boni, Andra Georgia; Negrea, Raluca; Preda, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicol@infim.ro, E-mail: encu@infim.ro; Pintilie, Lucian; Enculescu, Ionut, E-mail: nicol@infim.ro, E-mail: encu@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest, Magurele 077125 (Romania); Ion, Lucian [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Atomistilor Street 103, Magurele, Ilfov 77125 (Romania)

    2015-06-01

    High aspect ratio CuO nanowires are synthesized by a simple and scalable method, thermal oxidation in air. The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the semiconducting nanowires were studied. Au-Ti/CuO nanowire and Pt/CuO nanowire electrical contacts were investigated. A dominant Schottky mechanism was evidenced in the Au-Ti/CuO nanowire junction and an ohmic behavior was observed for the Pt/CuO nanowire junction. The Pt/CuO nanowire/Pt structure allows the measurements of the intrinsic transport properties of the single CuO nanowires. It was found that an activation mechanism describes the behavior at higher temperatures, while a nearest neighbor hopping transport mechanism is characteristic at low temperatures. This was also confirmed by four-probe resistivity measurements on the single CuO nanowires. By changing the metal/semiconductor interface, devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors based on single CuO p-type nanowire semiconductor channel are obtained. These devices are suitable for being used in various electronic circuits where their size related properties can be exploited.

  12. Combining axial and radial nanowire heterostructures: radial Esaki diodes and tunnel field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Anil W; Svensson, Johannes; Ek, Martin; Lind, Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing demand on high-performance electronics has generated transistors with very impressive figures of merit (Radosavljevic et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2009, 1-4 and Cho et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2011, 15.1.1-15.1.4). The continued scaling of the supply voltage of field-effect transistors, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), requires the implementation of advanced transistor architectures including FinFETs and nanowire devices. Moreover, integration of novel materials with high electron mobilities, such as III-V semiconductors and graphene, are also being considered to further enhance the device properties (del Alamo, Nature 2011, 479, 317-323, and Liao et al., Nature 2010, 467, 305-308). In nanowire devices, boosting the drive current at a fixed supply voltage or maintaining a constant drive current at a reduced supply voltage may be achieved by increasing the cross-sectional area of a device, however at the cost of deteriorated electrostatics. A gate-all-around nanowire device architecture is the most favorable electrostatic configuration to suppress short channel effects; however, the arrangement of arrays of parallel vertical nanowires to address the drive current predicament will require additional chip area. The use of a core-shell nanowire with a radial heterojunction in a transistor architecture provides an attractive means to address the drive current issue without compromising neither chip area nor device electrostatics. In addition to design advantages of a radial transistor architecture, we in this work illustrate the benefit in terms of drive current per unit chip area and compare the experimental data for axial GaSb/InAs Esaki diodes and TFETs to their radial counterparts and normalize the electrical data to the largest cross-sectional area of the nanowire, i.e. the occupied chip area, assuming a vertical device geometry. Our data on lateral devices show that radial Esaki diodes deliver almost 7 times higher peak

  13. Multiscale modeling of nanowire-based Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors for sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, D; Kunstmann, J; Zoergiebel, F; Cuniberti, G; Weber, W M; Mikolajick, T

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework for the calculation of charge transport through nanowire-based Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors that is conceptually simple but still captures the relevant physical mechanisms of the transport process. Our approach combines two approaches on different length scales: (1) the finite element method is used to model realistic device geometries and to calculate the electrostatic potential across the Schottky barrier by solving the Poisson equation, and (2) the Landauer-Buettiker approach combined with the method of non-equilibrium Green's functions is employed to calculate the charge transport through the device. Our model correctly reproduces typical I-V characteristics of field-effect transistors, and the dependence of the saturated drain current on the gate field and the device geometry are in good agreement with experiments. Our approach is suitable for one-dimensional Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors of arbitrary device geometry and it is intended to be a simulation platform for the development of nanowire-based sensors.

  14. ON current enhancement of nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kohei; Hashimoto, Shuichiro; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Asada, Shuhei; Xu, Taiyu; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Watanabe, Takanobu

    2016-04-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors (NW-SBTFETs) are promising structures for high performance devices. In this study, we fabricated NW-SBTFETs to investigate the effect of nanowire structure on the device characteristics. The NW-SBTFETs were operated with a backgate bias, and the experimental results demonstrate that the ON current density is enhanced by narrowing the width of the nanowire. We confirmed using the Fowler-Nordheim plot that the drain current in the ON state mainly comprises the quantum tunneling component through the Schottky barrier. Comparison with a technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation revealed that the enhancement is attributed to the electric field concentration at the corners of cross-section of the NW. The study findings suggest an effective approach to securing the ON current by Schottky barrier width modulation.

  15. Are Nanotube Architectures More Advantageous Than Nanowire Architectures For Field Effect Transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-06-27

    Decade long research in 1D nanowire field effect transistors (FET) shows although it has ultra-low off-state leakage current and a single device uses a very small area, its drive current generation per device is extremely low. Thus it requires arrays of nanowires to be integrated together to achieve appreciable amount of current necessary for high performance computation causing an area penalty and compromised functionality. Here we show that a FET with a nanotube architecture and core-shell gate stacks is capable of achieving the desirable leakage characteristics of the nanowire FET while generating a much larger drive current with area efficiency. The core-shell gate stacks of silicon nanotube FETs tighten the electrostatic control and enable volume inversion mode operation leading to improved short channel behavior and enhanced performance. Our comparative study is based on semi-classical transport models with quantum confinement effects which offers new opportunity for future generation high performance computation.

  16. An analytic model for gate-all-around silicon nanowire tunneling field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; He, Jin; Chan, Mansun; Du, Cai-Xia; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Wen; Deng, Wan-Ling; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2014-09-01

    An analytical model of gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire tunneling field effect transistors (NW-TFETs) is developted based on the surface potential solutions in the channel direction and considering the band to band tunneling (BTBT) efficiency. The three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved to obtain the surface potential distributions in the partition regions along the channel direction for the NW-TFET, and a tunneling current model using Kane's expression is developed. The validity of the developed model is shown by the good agreement between the model predictions and the TCAD simulation results.

  17. Core-shell homojunction silicon vertical nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jun-Sik; Kim, Kihyun; Baek, Chang-Ki

    2017-01-01

    We propose three-terminal core-shell (CS) silicon vertical nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), which can be fabricated by conventional CMOS technology. CS TFETs show lower subthreshold swing (SS) and higher on-state current than conventional TFETs through their high surface-to-volume ratio, which increases carrier-tunneling region with no additional device area. The on-state current can be enhanced by increasing the nanowire height, decreasing equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) or creating a nanowire array. The off-state current is also manageable for power saving through selective epitaxial growth at the top-side nanowire region. CS TFETs with an EOT of 0.8 nm and an aspect ratio of 20 for the core nanowire region provide the largest drain current ranges with point SS values below 60 mV/dec and superior on/off current ratio under all operation voltages of 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 V. These devices are promising for low-power applications at low fabrication cost and high device density. PMID:28112273

  18. Core-shell homojunction silicon vertical nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jun-Sik; Kim, Kihyun; Baek, Chang-Ki

    2017-01-01

    We propose three-terminal core-shell (CS) silicon vertical nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), which can be fabricated by conventional CMOS technology. CS TFETs show lower subthreshold swing (SS) and higher on-state current than conventional TFETs through their high surface-to-volume ratio, which increases carrier-tunneling region with no additional device area. The on-state current can be enhanced by increasing the nanowire height, decreasing equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) or creating a nanowire array. The off-state current is also manageable for power saving through selective epitaxial growth at the top-side nanowire region. CS TFETs with an EOT of 0.8 nm and an aspect ratio of 20 for the core nanowire region provide the largest drain current ranges with point SS values below 60 mV/dec and superior on/off current ratio under all operation voltages of 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 V. These devices are promising for low-power applications at low fabrication cost and high device density.

  19. Modeling nanowire and double-gate junctionless field-effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Jazaeri, Farzan

    2018-01-01

    The first book on the topic, this is a comprehensive introduction to the modeling and design of junctionless field effect transistors (FETs). Beginning with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the technology, the authors also provide a thorough overview of published analytical models for double-gate and nanowire configurations, before offering a general introduction to the EPFL charge-based model of junctionless FETs. Important features are introduced gradually, including nanowire versus double-gate equivalence, technological design space, junctionless FET performances, short channel effects, transcapacitances, asymmetric operation, thermal noise, interface traps, and the junction FET. Additional features compatible with biosensor applications are also discussed. This is a valuable resource for students and researchers looking to understand more about this new and fast developing field.

  20. Tunnel field-effect transistor using InAs nanowire/Si heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Fukui, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    We report on fabrication of tunnel field-effect transistor with III-V nanowire (NW)/Si heterojunction and surrounding-gate structure. The device fabricated by selective-area growth of an n+-InAs/undoped-InAs axial NW on a p+-Si(111) substrate showed switching behavior with an average subthreshold slope (SS) of 104 mV/dec under reverse bias condition. The switching behavior appeared under small supply voltage (Vds=50 mV). Transmission electron microscopy revealed misfit dislocation formed at the interface degraded the SS and ON-state current. Coherent growth without misfit dislocations would promise realization of steep-slope transistor with a SS of <60 mV/dec.

  1. Local sensor based on nanowire field effect transistor from inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnov, Denis E.; Bozhev, Ivan V.; Miakonkikh, Andrew V.; Simakin, Sergey G.; Trifonov, Artem S.; Krupenin, Vladimir A.

    2018-02-01

    We present the original method for fabricating a sensitive field/charge sensor based on field effect transistor (FET) with a nanowire channel that uses CMOS-compatible processes only. A FET with a kink-like silicon nanowire channel was fabricated from the inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator wafer very close (˜100 nm) to the extremely sharp corner of a silicon chip forming local probe. The single e-beam lithographic process with a shadow deposition technique, followed by separate two reactive ion etching processes, was used to define the narrow semiconductor nanowire channel. The sensors charge sensitivity was evaluated to be in the range of 0.1-0.2 e /√{Hz } from the analysis of their transport and noise characteristics. The proposed method provides a good opportunity for the relatively simple manufacture of a local field sensor for measuring the electrical field distribution, potential profiles, and charge dynamics for a wide range of mesoscopic objects. Diagnostic systems and devices based on such sensors can be used in various fields of physics, chemistry, material science, biology, electronics, medicine, etc.

  2. A sub k{sub B}T/q semimetal nanowire field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, L.; Fagas, G.; Gity, F.; Greer, J. C., E-mail: Jim.Greer@Tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP (Ireland)

    2016-08-08

    The key challenge for nanoelectronics technologies is to identify the designs that work on molecular length scales, provide reduced power consumption relative to classical field effect transistors (FETs), and that can be readily integrated at low cost. To this end, a FET is introduced that relies on the quantum effects arising for semimetals patterned with critical dimensions below 5 nm, that intrinsically has lower power requirements due to its better than a “Boltzmann tyranny” limited subthreshold swing (SS) relative to classical field effect devices, eliminates the need to form heterojunctions, and mitigates against the requirement for abrupt doping profiles in the formation of nanowire tunnel FETs. This is achieved through using a nanowire comprised of a single semimetal material while providing the equivalent of a heterojunction structure based on shape engineering to avail of the quantum confinement induced semimetal-to-semiconductor transition. Ab initio calculations combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for charge transport reveals tunneling behavior in the OFF state and a resonant conduction mechanism for the ON state. A common limitation to tunnel FET (TFET) designs is related to a low current in the ON state. A discussion relating to the semimetal FET design to overcome this limitation while providing less than 60 meV/dec SS at room temperature is provided.

  3. A sub kBT/q semimetal nanowire field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, L.; Fagas, G.; Gity, F.; Greer, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    The key challenge for nanoelectronics technologies is to identify the designs that work on molecular length scales, provide reduced power consumption relative to classical field effect transistors (FETs), and that can be readily integrated at low cost. To this end, a FET is introduced that relies on the quantum effects arising for semimetals patterned with critical dimensions below 5 nm, that intrinsically has lower power requirements due to its better than a "Boltzmann tyranny" limited subthreshold swing (SS) relative to classical field effect devices, eliminates the need to form heterojunctions, and mitigates against the requirement for abrupt doping profiles in the formation of nanowire tunnel FETs. This is achieved through using a nanowire comprised of a single semimetal material while providing the equivalent of a heterojunction structure based on shape engineering to avail of the quantum confinement induced semimetal-to-semiconductor transition. Ab initio calculations combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for charge transport reveals tunneling behavior in the OFF state and a resonant conduction mechanism for the ON state. A common limitation to tunnel FET (TFET) designs is related to a low current in the ON state. A discussion relating to the semimetal FET design to overcome this limitation while providing less than 60 meV/dec SS at room temperature is provided.

  4. Tunnel field-effect transistors based on InP-GaAs heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjipour, Bahram; Wallentin, Jesper; Borgström, Magnus T; Samuelson, Lars; Thelander, Claes

    2012-04-24

    We present tunneling field-effect transistors fabricated from InP-GaAs heterostructure nanowires with an n-i-p doping profile, where the intrinsic InP region is modulated by a top gate. The devices show an inverse subthreshold slope down to 50 mV/dec averaged over two decades with an on/off current ratio of approximately 10(7) for a gate voltage swing (V(GS)) of 1 V and an on-current of 2.2 μA/μm. Low-temperature measurements suggest a mechanism of trap-assisted tunneling, possibly explained by a narrow band gap segment of InGaAsP.

  5. Localized Electrothermal Annealing with Nanowatt Power for a Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Geon-Beom; Bae, Hagyoul; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2018-02-07

    This work investigates localized electrothermal annealing (ETA) with extremely low power consumption. The proposed method utilizes, for the first time, tunneling-current-induced Joule heat in a p-i-n diode, consisting of p-type, intrinsic, and n-type semiconductors. The consumed power used for dopant control is the lowest value ever reported. A metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) composed of a p-i-n silicon nanowire, which is a substructure of a tunneling FET (TFET), was fabricated and utilized as a test platform to examine the annealing behaviors. A more than 2-fold increase in the on-state (I ON ) current was achieved using the ETA. Simulations are conducted to investigate the location of the hot spot and how its change in heat profile activates the dopants.

  6. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project....... The presented research is based on this sensor structure and investigates its potential as a versatile biomarker detection platform by evaluating different functionalization approaches. The functionalization of the silicon sensor surface with organic molecules was investigated in detail to determine...... the suitability of different methods for the preparation of organic interfaces for protein attachment. Oxide-free silicon surfaces offer unique possibilities to create highly sensitive sensor surfaces for charge detection due to the lack of an insulating oxide layer, but the highly reactive surface presents...

  7. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project....... The presented research is based on this sensor structure and investigates its potential as a versatile biomarker detection platform by evaluating different functionalization approaches. The functionalization of the silicon sensor surface with organic molecules was investigated in detail to determine...... the suitability of different methods for the preparation of organic interfaces for protein attachment. Oxide-free silicon surfaces offer unique possibilities to create highly sensitive sensor surfaces for charge detection due to the lack of an insulating oxide layer, but the highly reactive surface presents...

  8. Unipolar and bipolar operation of InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Henrik A.; Caroff, Philippe; Lind, Erik; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2011-09-01

    We present temperature dependent electrical measurements on n-type InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructure field-effect transistors. The barrier height of the heterostructure junction is determined to be 220 meV, indicating a broken bandgap alignment. A clear asymmetry is observed when applying a bias to either the InAs or the InSb side of the junction. Impact ionization and band-to-band tunneling is more pronounced when the large voltage drop occurs in the narrow bandgap InSb segment. For small negative gate-voltages, the InSb segment can be tuned toward p-type conduction, which induces a strong band-to-band tunneling across the heterostructucture junction.

  9. Enhanced impurity-limited mobility in ultra-scaled Si nanowire junctionless field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Akiko; Luisier, Mathieu; Sano, Nobuyuki

    2015-12-01

    We examine the transport properties of heavily doped ultra-scaled Si junctionless nanowire field-effect transistors, by means of atomistic quantum transport simulations based on the s p 3 d 5 s ∗ tight-binding model, the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, and including electron-phonon scattering. Each individual doping atom is treated explicitly and its potential is determined by solving the Poisson equation. The impurity atoms are assumed to be aligned along a single line or to slightly vary from this well-ordered configuration. We find that the impurity-limited mobility enhances as the carrier concentration increases due to the screening effect. The mobility also improves with the doping concentration because closely placed impurities induce resonant tunneling states that positively affect the current magnitude. This behavior is found to persist even in the case of slight disorder.

  10. Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors for the detection of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madler, Carsten

    In this dissertation I present results on our efforts to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of silicon nanowire ion-sensitive field-effect transistors for the detection of biomarkers, as well as a novel method for wireless power transfer based on metamaterial rectennas for their potential use as implantable sensors. The sensing scheme is based on changes in the conductance of the semiconducting nanowires upon binding of charged entities to the surface, which induces a field-effect. Monitoring the differential conductance thus provides information of the selective binding of biological molecules of interest to previously covalently linked counterparts on the nanowire surface. In order to improve on the performance of the nanowire sensing, we devised and fabricated a nanowire Wheatstone bridge, which allows canceling out of signal drift due to thermal fluctuations and dynamics of fluid flow. We showed that balancing the bridge significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Further, we demonstrated the sensing of novel melanoma biomarker TROY at clinically relevant concentrations and distinguished it from nonspecific binding by comparing the reaction kinetics. For increased sensitivity, an amplification method was employed using an enzyme which catalyzes a signal-generating reaction by changing the redox potential of a redox pair. In addition, we investigated the electric double layer, which forms around charges in an electrolytic solution. It causes electrostatic screening of the proteins of interest, which puts a fundamental limitation on the biomarker detection in solutions with high salt concentrations, such as blood. We solved the coupled Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations for the electrolyte under influence of an oscillating electric field and discovered oscillations of the counterion concentration at a characteristic frequency. In addition to exploring different methods for improved sensing capabilities, we studied an innovative method to supply power

  11. Effects of piezoelectric potential on the transport characteristics of metal-ZnO nanowire-metal field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhiyuan

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of piezoelectric potential in a ZnO nanowire on the transport characteristics of the nanowire based field effect transistor through numerical calculations and experimental observations. Under different straining conditions including stretching, compressing, twisting, and their combination, a piezoelectric potential is created throughout the nanowire to modulatealternate the transport property of the metal-ZnO nanowire contacts, resulting in a switch between symmetric and asymmetric contacts at the two ends, or even turning an Ohmic contact type into a diode. The commonly observed natural rectifying behavior of the as-fabricated ZnO nanowire can be attributed to the strain that was unpurposely created in the nanowire during device fabrication and material handling. This work provides further evidence on piezopotential governed electronic transport and devices, e.g., piezotronics.

  12. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu

    2011-06-24

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Zulfiqar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowire (SiNW field effect transistor based biosensors have already been proven to be a promising tool to detect biomolecules. However, the most commonly used fabrication techniques involve expensive Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI wafers, E-beam lithography and ion-implantation steps. In the work presented here, a top down approach to fabricate SiNW junctionless field effect biosensors using novel in-situ doped polysilicon is demonstrated. The p-type polysilicon is grown with an optimum boron concentration that gives a good metal-silicon electrical contact while maintaining the doping level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done by sputtered Si3N4 which is patterned by a lift-off process. The characterization of the critical fabrication steps is done by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS and by statistical analysis of the measurements made on the width of the SiNWs. The electrical characterization of the SiNW in air is done by sweeping the back gate voltage while keeping the source drain potential to a constant value and surface characterization is done by applying liquid gate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution. The fabricated SiNWs sensors functionalized with (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES have demonstrated good sensitivity in detecting different pH buffer solutions.

  14. Unlocking the Origin of Superior Performance of a Si-Ge Core-Shell Nanowire Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Jaishi, Meghnath; Pati, Ranjit

    2016-07-13

    The sustained advancement in semiconducting core-shell nanowire technology has unlocked a tantalizing route for making next generation field effect transistor (FET). Understanding how to control carrier mobility of these nanowire channels by applying a gate field is the key to developing a high performance FET. Herein, we have identified the switching mechanism responsible for the superior performance of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FET over its homogeneous Si counterpart. A quantum transport approach is used to investigate the gate-field modulated switching behavior in electronic current for ultranarrow Si and Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FETs. Our calculations reveal that for the ON state, the gate-field induced transverse localization of the wave function restricts the carrier transport to the outer (shell) layer with the pz orbitals providing the pathway for tunneling of electrons in the channels. The higher ON state current in the Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET is attributed to the pz orbitals that are distributed over the entire channel; in the case of Si nanowire, the participating pz orbital is restricted to a few Si atoms in the channel resulting in a smaller tunneling current. Within the gate bias range considered here, the transconductance is found to be substantially higher in the case of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET than in a Si nanowire FET, which suggests a much higher mobility in the Si-Ge nanowire device.

  15. Modeling of subthreshold characteristics of short channel junctionless cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire metal–oxide–silicon field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xiaoshi; Liu, Xi; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    A subthreshold model of short-channel junctionless field effect transistors with cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire structure has been proposed. It was based on an approximated solution of two-dimensional Poisson's equation. The derivation of this model was introduced and the accuracy of the proposed models have been verified by comparison with both previous models and the SILVACO Atlas TCAD simulation results, which show good agreement. (paper)

  16. Single trap dynamics in electrolyte-gated Si-nanowire field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pud, S.; Gasparyan, F.; Petrychuk, M.; Li, J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Vitusevich, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Liquid-gated silicon nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) are fabricated and their transport and dynamic properties are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Random telegraph signal (RTS) fluctuations were registered in the nanolength channel FETs and used for the experimental and theoretical analysis of transport properties. The drain current and the carrier interaction processes with a single trap are analyzed using a quantum-mechanical evaluation of carrier distribution in the channel and also a classical evaluation. Both approaches are applied to treat the experimental data and to define an appropriate solution for describing the drain current behavior influenced by single trap resulting in RTS fluctuations in the Si NW FETs. It is shown that quantization and tunneling effects explain the behavior of the electron capture time on the single trap. Based on the experimental data, parameters of the single trap were determined. The trap is located at a distance of about 2 nm from the interface Si/SiO2 and has a repulsive character. The theory of dynamic processes in liquid-gated Si NW FET put forward here is in good agreement with experimental observations of transport in the structures and highlights the importance of quantization in carrier distribution for analyzing dynamic processes in the nanostructures.

  17. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  18. High-Current GaSb/InAs(Sb) Nanowire Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Anil; Borg, Mattias; Ganjipour, Bahram; Ek, Martin; Dick Thelander, Kimberly; Lind, Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2013-01-01

    We present electrical characterization of GaSb/InAs(Sb) nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors. The broken band alignment of the GaSb/InAs(Sb) heterostructure is exploited to allow for interband tunneling without a barrier, leading to high ON-current levels. We report a maximum drive current of 310 μA/μm at Vds = 0.5 V. Devices with scaled gate oxides display transconductances up to gm = 250 mS/mm at Vds = 300 mV, which are normalized to the nanowire circumference at the axial heterojunction...

  19. Field effect transistors and phototransistors based upon p-type solution-processed PbS nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Paul; Hou, Bo; Pak, Sangyeon; Inn Sohn, Jung; Morris, Stephen; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of solution processed highly crystalline p-type PbS nanowires via the oriented attachment of nanoparticles. The analysis of single nanowire field effect transistor (FET) devices revealed a hole conduction behaviour with average mobilities greater than 30 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than that reported to date for p-type PbS colloidal nanowires. We have investigated the response of the FETs to near-infrared light excitation and show herein that the nanowires exhibited gate-dependent photo-conductivities, enabling us to tune the device performances. The responsivity was found to be greater than 104 A W-1 together with a detectivity of 1013 Jones, which benefits from a photogating effect occurring at negative gate voltages. These encouraging detection parameters are accompanied by relatively short switching times of 15 ms at positive gate voltages, resulting from a combination of the standard photoconduction and the high crystallinity of the nanowires. Collectively, these results indicate that solution-processed PbS nanowires are promising nanomaterials for infrared photodetectors as well as p-type nanowire FETs.

  20. Coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowires extended-gate field-effect transistor as pH sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hung-Hsien; Yang, Chi-En; Kei, Chi-Chung; Su, Chung-Yi; Dai, Wei-Syuan; Tseng, Jung-Kuei; Yang, Po-Yu; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2013-01-01

    An extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) of coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowires as pH sensor was demonstrated in this paper. The oriented 1-μm-long silicon nanowires with the diameter of about 50 nm were vertically synthesized by the electroless metal deposition method at room temperature and were sequentially capped with the ZnO films using atomic layer deposition at 50 °C. The transfer characteristics (I DS –V REF ) of such ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor exhibited the sensitivity and linearity of 46.25 mV/pH and 0.9902, respectively for the different pH solutions (pH 1–pH 13). In contrast to the ZnO thin-film ones, the ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor achieved much better sensitivity and superior linearity. It was attributed to a high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanowire structures, reflecting a larger effective sensing area. The output voltage and time characteristics were also measured to indicate good reliability and durability for the ZnO/silicon nanowires sensor. Furthermore, the hysteresis was 9.74 mV after the solution was changed as pH 7 → pH 3 → pH 7 → pH 11 → pH 7. - Highlights: ► Coaxial-structured ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET was demonstrated as pH sensor. ► EMD and ALD methods were proposed to fabricate ZnO/silicon nanowires. ► ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor achieved better sensitivity and linearity. ► ZnO/silicon nanowire EGFET sensor had good reliability and durability

  1. Bidirectional mediation of TiO2 nanowires field effect transistor by dipole moment from purple membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Gan, Ye; Song, Qun Liang; Zhu, Zhi Hong; Shi, Jingsheng; Yang, Hongbin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Peng; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-08-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membrane (bR-PM) is one of the most promising biomaterials for various bioelectronics applications. In this work, we demonstrate that a dipole bio-originated from bR-PM can bidirectionally mediate the performance of a bottom-contact TiO2 nanowire field effect transistor (FET) for performance improvement. When negative gate voltage is applied, both transfer and output characteristics of the TiO2 nanowire FET are enhanced by the bR-PM modification, resulting in a hole mobility increased by a factor of 2. The effect of the number of the deposited bR-PM layers on the normalized ΔID of the FET suggests that the additional electric field generated by the dipole moment natively existing in bR-PM actually boosts the performance of the TiO2 nanowires FET.

  2. High performance Si nanowire field-effect-transistors based on a CMOS inverter with tunable threshold voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Whang, Dongmok; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-05-21

    We successfully fabricated nanowire-based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (NWCMOS) inverter devices by utilizing n- and p-type Si nanowire field-effect-transistors (NWFETs) via a low-temperature fabrication processing technique. We demonstrate that NWCMOS inverter devices can be operated at less than 1 V, a significantly lower voltage than that of typical thin-film based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverter devices. This low-voltage operation was accomplished by controlling the threshold voltage of the n-type Si NWFETs through effective management of the nanowire (NW) doping concentration, while realizing high voltage gain (>10) and ultra-low static power dissipation (≤3 pW) for high-performance digital inverter devices. This result offers a viable means of fabricating high-performance, low-operation voltage, and high-density digital logic circuits using a low-temperature fabrication processing technique suitable for next-generation flexible electronics.

  3. All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect transistor devices: Effects of surface preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masood, M.N.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Etching/hydrogen termination of All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect (SiNW-FET) devices developed by conventional photolithography and plane dependent wet etchings is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and

  4. Modeling and performance analysis of GaN nanowire field-effect transistors and band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayer, M. Abul; Lake, Roger K.

    2010-11-01

    The real and imaginary bandstructures of deeply scaled GaN nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs) are calculated with an eight-band k ṡp model. Analysis of the transport properties of both GaN NW FETs and NW band-to-band tunneling FETs (TFETs) is presented. Deeply scaled n-type GaN NW FETs operate in the classical capacitance limit (CCL) in stead of operating in the quantum capacitance limit. This is a result of the high electron effective mass and high density of states. We discuss how the CCL operation of these devices affect the device performance. For the GaN NW FETs, within a source Fermi level of 0.2 eV, the current density varies from 5 to 8.5 A/mm. For the GaN TFETs, we present analysis on the effect of NW diameter on the on-currents, the off-currents, and the required electric fields. We show that a drive current of ˜0.05 A/mm can be achieved for the GaN NW TFETs. These devices show potential for high-speed and high-power applications.

  5. InAs/GaSb heterostructure nanowires for tunnel field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, B Mattias; Dick, Kimberly A; Ganjipour, Bahram; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Wernersson, Lars-Erik; Thelander, Claes

    2010-10-13

    InAs/GaSb nanowire heterostructures with thin GaInAs inserts were grown by MOVPE and characterized by electrical measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Down-scaling of the insert thickness was limited because of an observed sensitivity of GaSb nanowire growth to the presence of In. By employing growth interrupts in between the InAs and GaInAs growth steps it was possible to reach an insert thickness down to 25 nm. Two-terminal devices show a diode behavior, where temperature-dependent measurements indicate a heterostructure barrier height of 0.5 eV, which is identified as the valence band offset between the InAs and GaSb. Three-terminal transistor structures with a top-gate positioned at the heterointerface show clear indications of band-to-band tunnelling.

  6. Strong room-temperature negative transconductance in an axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Le, Son T.; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Zaslavsky, A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, S. T.

    2014-08-01

    We report on room-temperature negative transconductance (NTC) in axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors. The NTC produces a current peak-to-valley ratio >45, a high value for a Si-based device. We characterize the NTC over a range of gate VG and drain VD voltages, finding that NTC persists down to VD = -50 mV. The physical mechanism responsible for the NTC is the VG-induced depletion in the p-Ge section that eventually reduces the maximum electric field that triggers the tunneling ID, as confirmed via three-dimensional (3D) technology computer-aided design simulations.

  7. Nanoampere charge pump by single-electron ratchet using silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Akira; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Ono, Yukinori

    2008-01-01

    Nanoampere single-electron pumping is presented at 20K using a single-electron ratchet comprising silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The ratchet features an asymmetric potential with a pocket that captures single electrons from the source and ejects them to the drain. Directional single-electron transfer is achieved by applying one ac signal with the frequency up to 2.3GHz. We find anomalous shapes of current steps which can be ascribed to nonadiabatic electron capture.

  8. Fabrication of organic field effect transistor by directly grown poly(3 hexylthiophene) crystalline nanowires on carbon nanotube aligned array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Biddut K; Liu, Jianhua; Zhai, Lei; Khondaker, Saiful I

    2011-04-01

    We fabricated organic field effect transistors (OFETs) by directly growing poly (3-hexylthiophne) (P3HT) crystalline nanowires on solution processed aligned array single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) interdigitated electrodes by exploiting strong π-π interaction for both efficient charge injection and transport. We also compared the device properties of OFETs using SWNT electrodes with control OFETs of P3HT nanowires deposited on gold electrodes. Electron transport measurements on 28 devices showed that, compared to the OFETs with gold electrodes, the OFETs with SWNT electrodes have better mobility and better current on-off ratio with a maximum of 0.13 cm(2)/(V s) and 3.1 × 10(5), respectively. The improved device characteristics with SWNT electrodes were also demonstrated by the improved charge injection and the absence of short channel effect, which was dominant in gold electrode OFETs. The enhancement of the device performance can be attributed to the improved interfacial contact between SWNT electrodes and the crystalline P3HT nanowires as well as the improved morphology of P3HT due to one-dimensional crystalline nanowire structure. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Selective sodium sensing with gold-coated silicon nanowire field-effect transistors in a differential setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipf, Mathias; Stoop, Ralph L; Tarasov, Alexey; Bedner, Kristine; Fu, Wangyang; Wright, Iain A; Martin, Colin J; Constable, Edwin C; Calame, Michel; Schönenberger, Christian

    2013-07-23

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors based on silicon nanowires with high dielectric constant gate oxide layers (e.g., Al2O3 or HfO2) display hydroxyl groups which are known to be sensitive to pH variations but also to other ions present in the electrolyte at high concentration. This intrinsically nonselective sensitivity of the oxide surface greatly complicates the selective sensing of ionic species other than protons. Here, we modify individual nanowires with thin gold films as a novel approach to surface functionalization for the detection of specific analytes. We demonstrate sodium ion (Na(+)) sensing by a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thiol-modified crown ethers in a differential measurement setup. A selective Na(+) response of ≈-44 mV per decade in a NaCl solution is achieved and tested in the presence of protons (H(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions, by measuring the difference between a nanowire with a gold surface functionalized by the SAM (active) and a nanowire with a bare gold surface (control). We find that the functional SAM does not affect the unspecific response of gold to pH and background ionic species. This represents a clear advantage of gold compared to oxide surfaces and makes it an ideal candidate for differential measurements.

  10. Experimental Observation of Quantum Confinement Effect in and Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors and Single-Electron/Hole Transistors Operating at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryota; Nozue, Motoki; Saraya, Takuya; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2013-10-01

    The quantum confinement effect (QCE) in ultranarrow silicon nanowire channel field-effect transistors (FETs) as well as single-electron/hole transistors (SET/SHTs) operating at room temperature is intensively investigated for the optimization of device design and fabrication. By adopting a “shared channel” structure with the directions of and , a carrier-dependent QCE is systematically examined. It is found that nanowire pFETs exhibit a smaller threshold voltage (Vth) variability due to a weaker QCE, while nFETs and n/pFETs show comparable Vth variabilities coming from the QCE. It is also found that only SETs exhibit clear Coulomb oscillations in the case of the channel, suggesting the formation of higher tunnel barriers than SHTs. On the other hand, SHTs show undesirable multidot behavior in spite of their comparable QCEs for electrons and holes. It is concluded that -directed nanowire channel SETs and n/pFETs are suitable for the integration of CMOS and SETs.

  11. Repurposing compact discs as master molds to fabricate high-performance organic nanowire field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghun; Cho, Jinhwi; Jhon, Heesauk; Jeon, Jongwook; Kang, Myounggon; Eon Park, Chan; Lee, Jihoon; An, Tae Kyu

    2017-05-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been developed over the past few decades due to their potential applications in future electronics such as wearable and foldable electronics. As the electrical performance of OFETs has improved, patterning organic semiconducting crystals has become a key issue for their commercialization. However, conventional soft lithographic techniques have required the use of expensive processes to fabricate high-resolution master molds. In this study, we demonstrated a cost-effective method to prepare nanopatterned master molds for the fabrication of high-performance nanowire OFETs. We repurposed commercially available compact discs (CDs) as master molds because they already have linear nanopatterns on their surface. Flexible nanopatterned templates were replicated from the CDs using UV-imprint lithography. Subsequently, 6,13-bis-(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene nanowires (NWs) were grown from the templates using a capillary force-assisted lithographic technique. The NW-based OFETs showed a high average field-effect mobility of 2.04 cm2 V-1 s-1. This result was attributed to the high crystallinity of the NWs and to their crystal orientation favorable for charge transport.

  12. High-performance ambipolar self-assembled Au/Ag nanowire based vertical quantum dot field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-10-07

    Most lateral PbSe quantum dot field effect transistors (QD FETs) show a low on current/off current (I on/I off) ratio in charge transport measurements. A new strategy to provide generally better performance is to design PbSe QD FETs with vertical architecture, in which the structure parameters can be tuned flexibly. Here, we fabricated a novel room-temperature operated vertical quantum dot field effect transistor with a channel of 580 nm, where self-assembled Au/Ag nanowires served as source transparent electrodes and PbSe quantum dots as active channels. Through investigating the electrical characterization, the ambipolar device exhibited excellent characteristics with a high I on/I off current ratio of about 1 × 10(5) and a low sub-threshold slope (0.26 V/decade) in the p-type regime. The all-solution processing vertical architecture provides a convenient way for low cost, large-area integration of the device.

  13. Effect of channel orientation in p-type nanowire Schottky barrier metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mincheol

    2010-08-01

    Device performance of p-type nanowire Schotty barrier metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors is investigated focusing on the channel orientation effects. A rigorous quantum-mechanical calculation of hole current based on the multiband k ṡp method is carried out. The [111] oriented devices show the most superior performance, in terms of subthreshold slope, threshold voltage variation, and on-current. In particular, on-current in the [111] oriented devices is about twice as large as that in the [100] oriented devices. Tunneling effective mass, quantization energy, and Schottky barrier thickness are examined as the major factors that influence on the orientation-dependent current injection into the channel.

  14. Ultralow power complementary inverter circuits using axially doped p- and n-channel Si nanowire field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Whang, Dongmok; Kang, Dae Joon

    2016-06-09

    We have successfully synthesized axially doped p- and n-type regions on a single Si nanowire (NW). Diodes and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter devices using single axial p- and n-channel Si NW field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated. We show that the threshold voltages of both p- and n-channel Si NW FETs can be lowered to nearly zero by effectively controlling the doping concentration. Because of the high performance of the p- and n-type Si NW channel FETs, especially with regard to the low threshold voltage, the fabricated NW CMOS inverters have a low operating voltage (power dissipation (≤0.3 pW) at an input voltage of ±3 V. This result offers a viable way for the fabrication of a high-performance high-density logic circuit using a low-temperature fabrication process, which makes it suitable for flexible electronics.

  15. Current increment of tunnel field-effect transistor using InGaAs nanowire/Si heterojunction by scaling of channel length

    OpenAIRE

    Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Fukui, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We report on a fabrication of tunnel field-effect transistors using InGaAs nanowire/Si heterojunctions and the characterization of scaling of channel lengths. The devices consisted of single InGaAs nanowires with a diameter of 30 nm grown on p-type Si(111) substrates. The switch demonstrated steep subthreshold-slope (30 mV/decade) at drain-source voltage (V-DS) of 0.10 V. Also, pinch-off behavior appeared at moderately low VDS, below 0.10 V. Reducing the channel length of the transistors atta...

  16. Dependence of Internal Crystal Structures of InAs Nanowires on Electrical Characteristics of Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangmoon; Choi, Ilgyu; Lee, Kwanjae; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Hwang, Jeongwoo; Chung, Dong Chul; Kim, Jin Soo

    2018-02-01

    We report on the dependence of internal crystal structures on the electrical properties of a catalyst-free and undoped InAs nanowire (NW) formed on a Si(111) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images, obtained from four different positions of a single InAs NW, indicated that the wurtzite (WZ) structure with stacking faults was observed mostly in the bottom region of the NW. Vertically along the InAs NW, the amount of stacking faults decreased and a zinc-blende (ZB) structure was observed. At the top of the NW, the ZB structure was prominently observed. The resistance and resistivity of the top region of the undoped InAs NW with the ZB structure were measured to be 121.5 kΩ and 0.19 Ω cm, respectively, which are smaller than those of the bottom region with the WZ structure, i.e., 251.8 kΩ and 0.39 Ω cm, respectively. The reduction in the resistance of the top region of the NW is attributed to the improvement in the crystal quality and the change in the ZB crystal structure. For a field effect transistor with an undoped InAs NW channel, the drain current versus drain-source voltage characteristic curves under various negative gate-source voltages were successfully observed at room temperature.

  17. CdSe Nanowire-Based Flexible Devices: Schottky Diodes, Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors, and Inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weifeng; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Zhiwei; Li, Yanping; Yao, Li; Wang, Yilun; Dai, Lun

    2015-06-24

    Novel CdSe nanowire (NW)-based flexible devices, including Schottky diodes, metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs), and inverters, have been fabricated and investigated. The turn-on voltage of a typical Schottky diode is about 0.7 V, and the rectification ratio is larger than 1 × 10(7). The threshold voltage, on/off current ratio, subthreshold swing, and peak transconductance of a typical MESFET are about -0.3 V, 4 × 10(5), 78 mV/dec, and 2.7 μS, respectively. The inverter, constructed with two MESFETs, exhibits clear inverting behavior with the gain to be about 28, 34, and 38, at the supply voltages (V(DD)) of 3, 5, and 7 V, respectively. The inverter also shows good dynamic behavior. The rising and falling times of the output signals are about 0.18 and 0.09 ms, respectively, under 1000 Hz square wave signals input. The performances of the flexible devices are stable and reliable under different bending conditions. Our work demonstrates these flexible NW-based Schottky diodes, MESFETs, and inverters are promising candidate components for future portable transparent nanoelectronic devices.

  18. Multiple Schottky Barrier-Limited Field-Effect Transistors on a Single Silicon Nanowire with an Intrinsic Doping Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Jorge L; Keiper, Timothy D; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Peng

    2017-04-05

    In comparison to conventional (channel-limited) field-effect transistors (FETs), Schottky barrier-limited FETs possess some unique characteristics which make them attractive candidates for some electronic and sensing applications. Consequently, modulation of the nano Schottky barrier at a metal-semiconductor interface promises higher performance for chemical and biomolecular sensor applications when compared to conventional FETs with ohmic contacts. However, the fabrication and optimization of devices with a combination of ideal ohmic and Schottky contacts as the source and drain, respectively, present many challenges. We address this issue by utilizing Si nanowires (NWs) synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process which yields a pronounced doping gradient along the length of the NWs. Devices with a series of metal contacts on a single Si NW are fabricated in a single lithography and metallization process. The graded doping profile of the NW is manifested in monotonic increases in the channel and junction resistances and variation of the nature of the contacts from ohmic to Schottky of increasing effective barrier height along the NW. Hence multiple single Schottky junction-limited FETs with extreme asymmetry and high reproducibility are obtained on an individual NW. A definitive correlation between increasing Schottky barrier height and enhanced gate modulation is revealed. Having access to systematically varying Schottky barrier contacts on the same NW device provides an ideal platform for identifying optimal device characteristics for sensing and electronic applications.

  19. Size-effects in indium gallium arsenide nanowire field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zota, Cezar B., E-mail: cezar.zota@eit.lth.se; Lind, E. [Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Lund University, Lund 22101 (Sweden)

    2016-08-08

    We fabricate and analyze InGaAs nanowire MOSFETs with channel widths down to 18 nm. Low-temperature measurements reveal quantized conductance due to subband splitting, a characteristic of 1D systems. We relate these features to device performance at room-temperature. In particular, the threshold voltage versus nanowire width is explained by direct observation of quantization of the first sub-band, i.e., band gap widening. An analytical effective mass quantum well model is able to describe the observed band structure. The results reveal a compromise between reliability, i.e., V{sub T} variability, and on-current, through the mean free path, in the choice of the channel material.

  20. In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Patou, François; Pfreundt, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done...... by sputtered Si3N4 which is patterned by a lift-off process. The characterization of the critical fabrication steps is done by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and by statistical analysis of the measurements made on the width of the SiNWs. The electrical characterization of the SiNW in air is done...

  1. Electrical characterization of Ω-gated uniaxial tensile strained Si nanowire-array metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors with - and channel orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habicht, Stefan; Feste, Sebastian; Zhao, Qing-Tai; Buca, Dan; Mantl, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Nanowire-array metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated along and crystal directions on (001) un-/strained silicon-on-insulator substrates. Lateral strain relaxation through patterning was employed to transform biaxial tensile strain into uniaxial tensile strain along the nanowire. Devices feature ideal subthreshold swings and maximum on-current/off-current ratios of 10 11 for n and p-type transistors on both substrates. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted by split C–V method. For p-MOSFETs an increased mobility is observed for channel direction devices compared to devices. The n-MOSFETs showed a 45% increased electron mobility compared to devices. The comparison of strained and unstrained n-MOSFETs along and clearly demonstrates improved electron mobilities for strained channels of both channel orientations.

  2. Current increment of tunnel field-effect transistor using InGaAs nanowire/Si heterojunction by scaling of channel length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Fukui, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    We report on a fabrication of tunnel field-effect transistors using InGaAs nanowire/Si heterojunctions and the characterization of scaling of channel lengths. The devices consisted of single InGaAs nanowires with a diameter of 30 nm grown on p-type Si(111) substrates. The switch demonstrated steep subthreshold-slope (30 mV/decade) at drain-source voltage (VDS) of 0.10 V. Also, pinch-off behavior appeared at moderately low VDS, below 0.10 V. Reducing the channel length of the transistors attained a steep subthreshold slope (<60 mV/decade) and enhanced the drain current, which was 100 higher than that of the longer channels.

  3. The ITO-capped WO{sub 3} nanowires biosensor based on field-effect transistor in label-free protein sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati, Mohsen [Sharif University of Technology, Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The fabrication of ITO-capped WO{sub 3} nanowires associated with their bio-sensing properties in field-effect transistor diagnostics basis as a biosensor has been reported. The bio-sensing property for manipulated nanowires elucidated that the grown nanostructures were very sensitive to protein. The ITO-capped WO{sub 3} nanowires biosensor showed an intensive bio-sensing activity against reliable protein. Polylysine strongly charged bio-molecule was applied as model system to demonstrate the implementation of materialized biosensor. The employed sensing mechanism was 'label-free' and depended on bio-molecule's intrinsic charge. For nanowires synthesis, the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was used. Nanowires were beyond a few hundred nanometers in lengths and around 15-20 nm in diameter, while the globe cap's size on the nanowires was around 15-25 nm. The indium tin oxide (ITO) played as catalyst in nanofabrication for WO{sub 3} nanowires growth and had outstanding role in bio-sensing especially for bio-molecule adherence. In applied electric field presence, the fabricated device showed the great potential to enhance medical diagnostics. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of analog/RF performance of staggered heterojunctions based nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Avik; Sarkar, Angsuman

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the analog/RF performance of an III-V semiconductor based staggered hetero-tunnel-junction (HETJ) n-type nanowire (NW) tunneling FET (n-TFET) is investigated, for the first time. The device performance figure-of-merits governing the analog/RF performance such as transconductance (gm), transconductance-to-drive current ratio (gm/IDS), output resistance (Rout), intrinsic gain and unity-gain cutoff frequency (fT) have been studied. The analog/RF performance parameters is compared between HETJ NW TFET and a homojunction (HJ) NW n-type TFET of similar dimensions. In addition to enhanced ION and subthreshold swing, a significant improvement in the analog/RF performance parameters obtained by the HETJ n-TFET over HJ counterpart for use in analog/mixed signal System-on-Chip (SoC) applications is reported. Moreover, the analog/RF performance parameters of a III-V based staggered HETJ NW TFET is also compared with a heterojunction (HETJ) NW n-type MOSFET having same material as HETJ n-TFET and equal dimension in order to provide a systematic comparison between HETJ-TFET and HETJ-MOSFET for use in analog/mixed-signal applications. The results reveal that HETJ n-TFET provides higher Rout and hence, a higher intrinsic gain, an improved gm/IDS ratio, and reasonable fT at lower values of gate-overdrive voltage as compared to the HETJ NW n-MOSFET.

  5. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  6. Hybrid Electrothermal Simulation of a 3-D Fin-Shaped Field-Effect Transistor Based on GaN Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Zhao, Hongbo; Xiao, Yue; Wang, Quan; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional GaN-based transistors have been intensively studied for their dramatically improved output power, better gate controllability, and shorter channels for speedup and miniaturization. However, thermal analysis of such devices is often oversimplified using the conventional Fourier's law and bulk material properties in thermal simulations. In this aspect, accurate temperature predictions can be achieved by coupled phonon and electron Monte Carlo simulations that track the movement and scattering of individual phonons and electrons. However, the heavy computational load often restricts such simulations to nanoscale devices, while a real chip is of millimeter to centimeter sizes. This issue can be addressed by a hybrid simulation technique that employs the Fourier's law for regions away from the hot spot. Using this technique, accurate electrothermal simulations are carried out on a nanowire-based GaN transistor to reveal the temperature rise in such devices.

  7. Ultralow-power non-volatile memory cells based on P(VDF-TrFE) ferroelectric-gate CMOS silicon nanowire channel field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Whang, Dongmok; Kang, Dae Joon

    2015-07-21

    Nanowire-based ferroelectric-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (NW FeCMOS) nonvolatile memory devices were successfully fabricated by utilizing single n- and p-type Si nanowire ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors (NW FeFETs) as individual memory cells. In addition to having the advantages of single channel n- and p-type Si NW FeFET memory, Si NW FeCMOS memory devices exhibit a direct readout voltage and ultralow power consumption. The reading state power consumption of this device is less than 0.1 pW, which is more than 10(5) times lower than the ON-state power consumption of single-channel ferroelectric memory. This result implies that Si NW FeCMOS memory devices are well suited for use in non-volatile memory chips in modern portable electronic devices, especially where low power consumption is critical for energy conservation and long-term use.

  8. Effect of intravalley acoustic phonon scattering on quantum transport in multigate silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Nima Dehdashti; Afzalian, Aryan; Lee, Chi-Woo; Yan, Ran; Ferain, Isabelle; Razavi, Pedram; Yu, Ran; Fagas, Giorgos; Colinge, Jean-Pierre

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of intravalley acoustic phonon scattering on the quantum transport and on the electrical characteristics of multigate silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. We show that acoustic phonons cause a shift and broadening of the local DOS in the nanowire, which modifies the electrical characteristics of the device. The influence of scattering on off-state and on-state currents is investigated for different values of channel length. In the ballistic transport regime, source-to-drain tunneling current is predominant, whereas in the presence of acoustic phonons, diffusion becomes the dominant current transport mechanism. A three-dimensional quantum mechanical device simulator based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism in uncoupled-mode space has been developed to extract device parameters in the presence of electron-phonon interactions. Electron-phonon scattering is accounted for by adopting the self-consistent Born approximation and using the deformation potential theory.

  9. Chemical Gated Field Effect Transistor by Hybrid Integration of One-Dimensional Silicon Nanowire and Two-Dimensional Tin Oxide Thin Film for Low Power Gas Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Rim, Taiuk; Baek, Chang-Ki; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-30

    Gas sensors based on metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with the polysilicon gate replaced by a gas sensitive thin film have been around for over 50 years. These are not suitable for the emerging mobile and wearable sensor platforms due to operating voltages and powers far exceeding the supply capability of batteries. Here we present a novel approach to decouple the chemically sensitive region from the conducting channel for reducing the drive voltage and increasing reliability. This chemically gated field effect transistor uses silicon nanowire for the current conduction channel with a tin oxide film on top of the nanowire serving as the gas sensitive medium. The potential change induced by the molecular adsorption and desorption allows the electrically floating tin oxide film to gate the silicon channel. As the device is designed to be normally off, the power is consumed only during the gas sensing event. This feature is attractive for the battery operated sensor and wearable electronics. In addition, the decoupling of the chemical reaction and the current conduction regions allows the gas sensitive material to be free from electrical stress, thus increasing reliability. The device shows excellent gas sensitivity to the tested analytes relative to conventional metal oxide transistors and resistive sensors.

  10. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  11. The field effect transistor DNA biosensor based on ITO nanowires in label-free hepatitis B virus detecting compatible with CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohsen

    2018-05-15

    In this paper the field-effect transistor DNA biosensor for detecting hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on indium tin oxide nanowires (ITO NWs) in label free approach has been fabricated. Because of ITO nanowires intensive conductance and functional modified surface, the probe immobilization and target hybridization were increased strongly. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurement showed that ITO nanowires were crystalline and less than 50nm in diameter. The single-stranded hepatitis B virus DNA (SS-DNA) was immobilized as probe on the Au-modified nanowires. The DNA targets were measured in a linear concentration range from 1fM to 10µM. The detection limit of the DNA biosensor was about 1fM. The time of the hybridization process for defined single strand was 90min. The switching ratio of the biosensor between "on" and "off" state was ~ 1.1 × 10 5 . For sensing the specificity of the biosensor, non-complementary, mismatch and complementary DNA oligonucleotide sequences were clearly discriminated. The HBV biosensor confirmed the highly satisfied specificity for differentiating complementary sequences from non-complementary and the mismatch oligonucleotides. The response time of the DNA sensor was 37s with a high reproducibility. The stability and repeatability of the DNA biosensor showed that the peak current of the biosensor retained 98% and 96% of its initial response for measurements after three and five weeks, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tunneling field effect transistor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.

  13. Fabrication and electrical characterization of homo- and hetero-structure Si/SiGe nanowire Tunnel Field Effect Transistor grown by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouzet, V.; Salem, B.; Periwal, P.; Alcotte, R.; Chouchane, F.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and electrical characterization of Ω -gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (TFET) based on p-Si/i-Si/n+Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructure nanowires grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The electrical performances of the p-Si/i-Si/n+Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructure TFET device are presented and compared to Si and Si0.7Ge0.3 homostructure nanowire TFETs. We observe an improvement of the electrical performances of TFET with p-Si/i-Si/n+Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructure nanowire (HT NW). The optimized devices present an Ion current of about 245 nA at VDS = -0.5 V and VGS = -3 V with a subthreshold swing around 135 mV/dec. Finally, we show that the electrical results are in good agreement with numerical simulation using Kane's Band-to-Band Tunneling model.

  14. Effect of liquid gate bias rising time in pH sensors based on Si nanowire ion sensitive field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jungkyu; Choi, Sungju; Kim, Jungmok; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Dae Hwan; Mo, Hyun-Sun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of rising time (TR) of liquid gate bias (VLG) on transient responses in pH sensors based on Si nanowire ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). As TR becomes shorter and pH values decrease, the ISFET current takes a longer time to saturate to the pH-dependent steady-state value. By correlating VLG with the internal gate-to-source voltage of the ISFET, we found that this effect occurs when the drift/diffusion of mobile ions in analytes in response to VLG is delayed. This gives us useful insight on the design of ISFET-based point-of-care circuits and systems, particularly with respect to determining an appropriate rising time for the liquid gate bias.

  15. Comparison of phonon scattering in nanowire field effect transistors with Si, GaAs and InGaAs cores using the NEGF formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.; Martinez, A.

    2015-10-01

    Using the Non-equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formalism, the impact of electron- phonon scattering on the performance of different core nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs) has been investigated. Three core materials have been considered: Si, GaAs and InGaAs. The effective mass approximation has been used, with masses extracted from tight- binding simulations. The ID-VG characteristics at low and high drain bias are shown. It was found that at low drain bias, scattering caused a 86%, 72% and 50% percentage reduction in the current at high gate bias in the Si, GaAs and InGaAs core, 2.2 × 2.2 nm2 cross-section NWFETs respectively. The phonon-limited mobility and percentage tunnelling have also been calculated.

  16. A reliable extraction method for source and drain series resistances in silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) based on radio-frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Hwan Gi; Yoo, Gwan Min; Cho, Eou-Sik; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, In Man

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new extraction method for source and drain (S/D) series resistances of silicon nanowire (SNW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on small-signal radio-frequency (RF) analysis. The proposed method can be applied to the extraction of S/D series resistances for SNW MOSFETs with finite off-state channel resistance as well as gate bias-dependent on-state resistive components realized by 3-dimensional (3-D) device simulation. The series resistances as a function of frequency and gate voltage are presented and compared with the results obtained by an existing method with infinite off-state channel resistance model. The accuracy of the newly proposed parameter extraction method has been successfully verified by Z22- and Y-parameters up to 100 GHz operation frequency.

  17. Effective mass approximation versus full atomistic model to calculate the output characteristics of a gate-all-around germanium nanowire field effect transistor (GAA-GeNW-FET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Amir Hossein; Voves, Jan; Dideban, Daryoosh

    2018-01-01

    Here, we compare the output characteristics of a gate-all-around germanium nanowire field effect transistor (GAA-GeNW-FET) with 2.36 nm2 square cross-section area using tight-binding (TB) sp3d5s∗ model (full atomistic model (FAM)) and effective mass approximation (EMA). Synopsys/QuantumWise Atomistix ToolKit (ATK) and Silvaco Atlas3D are used to consider the TB model and EMA, respectively. Results show that EMA predicted only one quantum state (QS) for quantum transport, whereas FAM predicted three QSs. A cosine function behavior is obtained by both methods for the first quantum state. The calculated bandgap value by EMA is almost twice smaller than that of the FAM. Also, a fluctuating current is predicted by both methods but in different oscillation values.

  18. Field Effect Transistor in Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    significant alteration in transport behaviour of these molecular junctions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Theory , Nanoscale, Field Effect Transistor (FET), Devices...Density Functional Theory (DFT), Non-equilibrium Green Function 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES     13...Keep in mind the amount of funding you received relative to the amount of effort you put into the report. References: 1. J. R. Heath and M

  19. Individual Defects in InAs/InGaAsSb/GaSb Nanowire Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors Operating below 60 mV/decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Elvedin; Hellenbrand, Markus; Lind, Erik; Persson, Axel R; Sant, Saurabh; Schenk, Andreas; Svensson, Johannes; Wallenberg, Reine; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2017-07-12

    Tunneling field-effect transistors (TunnelFET), a leading steep-slope transistor candidate, is still plagued by defect response, and there is a large discrepancy between measured and simulated device performance. In this work, highly scaled InAs/In x Ga 1-x As y Sb 1-y /GaSb vertical nanowire TunnelFET with ability to operate well below 60 mV/decade at technically relevant currents are fabricated and characterized. The structure, composition, and strain is characterized using transmission electron microscopy with emphasis on the heterojunction. Using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations and Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise measurements, effects of different type of defects are studied. The study reveals that the bulk defects have the largest impact on the performance of these devices, although for these highly scaled devices interaction with even few oxide defects can have large impact on the performance. Understanding the contribution by individual defects, as outlined in this letter, is essential to verify the fundamental physics of device operation, and thus imperative for taking the III-V TunnelFETs to the next level.

  20. Non-equilibrium Green's function analysis of cross section and channel length dependence of phonon scattering and its impact on the performance of Si nanowire field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldegunde, M.; Martinez, A.; Asenov, A.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of phonon scattering in silicon nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET) using a Non-equilibrium Green's function formalism in the effective mass approximation. The effect of electron-phonon scattering on the current voltage characteristics at high and low drain bias is investigated in detail. A wide range of cross-sections (from 2.2 × 2.2 to 6.2 × 6.2 nm2) and channel lengths (from 6 to 40 nm) are considered. The impact of phonon scattering on the electron current in different regions of the device characteristics is studied. Simulations including scattering in the whole transistor are compared with corresponding simulations in which scattering is only in the channel. Phonon limited mobility dependence on the NWFET cross-section and channel length is studied. The ballisticity coefficient, as a function of the channel length and gate voltage, is also computed for various channel cross-sections and lengths at high drain bias. The paper demonstrates that tunneling plays an important role in understanding the effect of phonon scattering at short channel lengths.

  1. Investigation on phonon scattering in a GaAs nanowire field effect transistor using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, A., E-mail: A.C.PRICE.625036@swansea.ac.uk; Martinez, A. [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-28

    Using quantum transport simulations, the impact of electron-phonon scattering on the transfer characteristic of a gate-all-around nanowire (GaAs) field effect transistor (NWFET) has been thoroughly investigated. The Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism in the effective mass approximation using a decoupled mode decomposition has been deployed. NWFETs of different dimensions have been considered, and scattering mechanisms including acoustic, optical and polar optical phonons have been included. The effective masses were extracted from tight binding simulations. High and low drain bias have been considered. We found substantial source to drain tunnelling current and significant impact of phonon scattering on the performance of the NWFET. At low drain bias, for a 2.2 × 2.2 nm{sup 2} cross-section transistor, scattering caused a 72%, 77%, and 81% decrease in the on-current for a 6 nm, 10 nm, and 20 nm channel length, respectively. This reduction in the current due to scattering is influenced by the increase in the tunnelling current. We include the percentage tunnelling for each valley at low and high drain bias. It was also found that the strong quantisation caused the relative position of the valleys to vary with the cross-section. This had a large effect on the overall tunnelling current. The phonon-limited mobility was also calculated, finding a mobility of 950 cm{sup 2}/V s at an inversion charge density of 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} for a 4.2 × 4.2 nm{sup 2} cross-section device.

  2. Investigation on phonon scattering in a GaAs nanowire field effect transistor using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.; Martinez, A.

    2015-04-01

    Using quantum transport simulations, the impact of electron-phonon scattering on the transfer characteristic of a gate-all-around nanowire (GaAs) field effect transistor (NWFET) has been thoroughly investigated. The Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism in the effective mass approximation using a decoupled mode decomposition has been deployed. NWFETs of different dimensions have been considered, and scattering mechanisms including acoustic, optical and polar optical phonons have been included. The effective masses were extracted from tight binding simulations. High and low drain bias have been considered. We found substantial source to drain tunnelling current and significant impact of phonon scattering on the performance of the NWFET. At low drain bias, for a 2.2 × 2.2 nm2 cross-section transistor, scattering caused a 72%, 77%, and 81% decrease in the on-current for a 6 nm, 10 nm, and 20 nm channel length, respectively. This reduction in the current due to scattering is influenced by the increase in the tunnelling current. We include the percentage tunnelling for each valley at low and high drain bias. It was also found that the strong quantisation caused the relative position of the valleys to vary with the cross-section. This had a large effect on the overall tunnelling current. The phonon-limited mobility was also calculated, finding a mobility of 950 cm2/V s at an inversion charge density of 1012 cm-2 for a 4.2 × 4.2 nm2 cross-section device.

  3. Isolation and Identification of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing-Related Micro-RNAs by Functionalized Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-I.; Pan, Chien-Yuan; Li, Keng-Hui; Huang, Ying-Chih; Lu, Chia-Wei; Tang, Chuan-Yi; Su, Ya-Wen; Tseng, Ling-Wei; Tseng, Kun-Chang; Lin, Chi-Yun; Chen, Chii-Dong; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many transcribed RNAs are non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), which bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNAs to regulate the translation efficacy. Therefore, identifying the miRNAs expressed in cells/organisms aids in understanding genetic control in cells/organisms. In this report, we determined the binding of oligonucleotides to a receptor-modified silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) by monitoring the changes in conductance of the SiNW-FET. We first modified a SiNW-FET with a DNA probe to directly and selectively detect the complementary miRNA in cell lysates. This SiNW-FET device has 7-fold higher sensitivity than reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in detecting the corresponding miRNA. Next, we anchored viral p19 proteins, which bind the double-strand small RNAs (ds-sRNAs), on the SiNW-FET. By perfusing the device with synthesized ds-sRNAs of different pairing statuses, the dissociation constants revealed that the nucleotides at the 3‧-overhangs and pairings at the terminus are important for the interactions. After perfusing the total RNA mixture extracted from Nicotiana benthamiana across the device, this device could enrich the ds-sRNAs for sequence analysis. Finally, this bionanoelectronic SiNW-FET, which is able to isolate and identify the interacting protein-RNA, adds an additional tool in genomic technology for the future study of direct biomolecular interactions.

  4. Ultrasensitive in situ label-free DNA detection using a GaN nanowire-based extended-gate field-effect-transistor sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Pei; Ganguly, Abhijit; Lu, Ching-Ying; Chen, Ting-Yu; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Chen, Reui-San; Tu, Wen-Hsun; Fischer, Wolfgang B; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2011-03-15

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated that a GaN nanowire (GaNNW) based extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET) biosensor is capable of specific DNA sequence identification under label-free in situ conditions. Our approach shows excellent integration of the wide bandgap semiconducting nature of GaN, surface-sensitivity of the NW-structure, and high transducing performance of the EGFET-design. The simple sensor-architecture, by direct assembly of as-synthesized GaNNWs with a commercial FET device, can achieve an ultrahigh detection limit below attomolar level concentrations: about 3 orders of magnitude higher in resolution than that of other FET-based DNA-sensors. Comparative in situ studies on mismatches ("hotspot" mutations related to human p53 tumor-suppressor gene) and complementary targets reveal excellent selectivity and specificity of the sensor, even in the presence of noncomplementary DNA strands, suggesting the potential pragmatic application in complex clinical samples. In comparison with GaN thin film, NW-based EGFET exhibits excellent performance with about 2 orders higher sensitivity, over a wide detection range, 10(-19)-10(-6) M, reaching about a 6-orders lower detection limit. Investigations illustrate the unique and distinguished feature of nanomaterials. Detailed studies indicate a positive effect of energy band alignment at the biomaterials-semiconductor hybrid interface influencing the effective capacitance and carrier-mobility of the system.

  5. Effect of Phosphate Buffered Saline Solutions on Top-Down Fabricated ZnO Nanowire Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sultan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO based nanowire FETs have been fabricated by implementing a top-down approach, which uses optical photolithography, atomic layer deposition (ALD of ZnO thin film, and anisotropic plasma etching. The effects of Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS solution on the surface of ZnO nanowire were investigated by measuring the FET characteristics at different PBS dilutions. The drain current, ION, exhibited an increase of 39 times in the highest PBS solution concentration compared to measurement in air. From the measured transfer characteristics and output characteristics in various PBS dilutions, the device was found to maintain n-type behaviour. These results indicate that the device can be effectively used for biomolecules sensing.

  6. Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Wakayama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE and light-receiving (LR OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These are categorized according to their functionalities: phototransistors, non-volatile optical memories, and photochromism-based transistors. For both, various device configurations are introduced: thin-film based transistors for practical applications, single-crystalline transistors to investigate fundamental physics, nanowires, multi-layers, and vertical transistors based on new concepts.

  7. Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Yutaka; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Seo, Hoon-Seok

    2014-04-01

    Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE) and light-receiving (LR) OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These are categorized according to their functionalities: phototransistors, non-volatile optical memories, and photochromism-based transistors. For both, various device configurations are introduced: thin-film based transistors for practical applications, single-crystalline transistors to investigate fundamental physics, nanowires, multi-layers, and vertical transistors based on new concepts.

  8. Ambipolar phosphorene field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Demarteau, Marcel; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-11-25

    In this article, we demonstrate enhanced electron and hole transport in few-layer phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) using titanium as the source/drain contact electrode and 20 nm SiO2 as the back gate dielectric. The field effect mobility values were extracted to be ∼38 cm(2)/Vs for electrons and ∼172 cm(2)/Vs for the holes. On the basis of our experimental data, we also comprehensively discuss how the contact resistances arising due to the Schottky barriers at the source and the drain end effect the different regime of the device characteristics and ultimately limit the ON state performance. We also propose and implement a novel technique for extracting the transport gap as well as the Schottky barrier height at the metal-phosphorene contact interface from the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the phosphorene FETs. This robust technique is applicable to any ultrathin body semiconductor which demonstrates symmetric ambipolar conduction. Finally, we demonstrate a high gain, high noise margin, chemical doping free, and fully complementary logic inverter based on ambipolar phosphorene FETs.

  9. Fabrication of a Silicon Nanowire on a Bulk Substrate by Use of a Plasma Etching and Total Ionizing Dose Effects on a Gate-All-Around Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dong-Il; Han, Jin-Woo; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2016-01-01

    The gate all around transistor is investigated through experiment. The suspended silicon nanowire for the next generation is fabricated on bulk substrate by plasma etching method. The scallop pattern generated by Bosch process is utilized to form a floating silicon nanowire. By combining anisotropic and istropic silicon etch process, the shape of nanowire is accurately controlled. From the suspended nanowire, the gate all around transistor is demonstrated. As the silicon nanowire is fully surrounded by the gate, the device shows excellent electrostatic characteristics.

  10. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz

    2017-06-29

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer; source (or drain) contact stacks disposed on portions of the first i-layer; a second i-layer of organic semiconductor material disposed on the first i-layer surrounding the source (or drain) contact stacks; an n-doped organic semiconductor layer disposed on the second i-layer; and a drain (or source) contact layer disposed on the n-doped organic semiconductor layer. The source (or drain) contact stacks can include a p-doped injection layer, a source (or drain) contact layer, and a contact insulating layer. In another example, a method includes disposing a first i-layer over a gate insulating layer; forming source or drain contact stacks; and disposing a second i-layer, an n-doped organic semiconductor layer, and a drain or source contact.

  11. Ambipolar Phosphorene Field Effect Transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Saptarshi [Center for Nanoscale Material and ‡Division of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Demarteau, Marcel [Center for Nanoscale Material and ‡Division of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Roelofs, Andreas [Center for Nanoscale Material and ‡Division of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2014-10-23

    Two dimensional materials provide an intriguing platform to investigate rich physical phenomena which could ultimately lead to the development of innovative nanotechnologies (1-17). Semiconducting black phosphorous (BP) with high carrier mobility (18-20), anisotropic transport (21, 22) and tunable bandgap (23, 24) is the most recent addition to this exotic class of two dimensional materials. In this article we experimentally demonstrate room temperature quasi ballistic transport of both holes and electrons in ionic liquid gated black phosphorous (BP) field effect transistors (FET) with sub-100nm channel length. The carrier mean free path (mfp) was found to be 15nm for the holes and 5nm for the electrons. By improving the carrier injection through superior electrostatic gate control (EOT=1.5nm), highly symmetric ambipolar conduction with record high hole current of ~0.78mA/µm and electron current of ~0.68mA/µm are achieved for VDD=0.2V. The extracted record low contact resistance of 220Ω-µm is similar to the state of the art Si technology. This is also the best contact resistance value achieved for any two dimensional metal-semiconductor interfaces. Finally, we provide an analytical framework to compare the experimental results with ballistic simulations which includes quantum capacitance considerations.

  12. A Resonant Tunneling Nanowire Field Effect Transistor with Physical Contractions: A Negative Differential Resistance Device for Low Power Very Large Scale Integration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei Imen Abadi, Rouzbeh; Saremi, Mehdi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the influence of ultra-scaled physical symmetrical contraction on electrical characteristics of ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator nanowires with circular gate-all-around structure is investigated by using a 3D Atlas numerical quantum simulator based on non-equilibrium green's function formalism. It is demonstrated that local cross-section variation in a nanowire transistor results in the establishment of tunnel energy barriers at the source-channel and drain-channel junctions which change device physics and cause a transmission from a quantum wire (1-D) to a floating quantum dot nanowire (0-D) introducing a resonant tunneling nanowire FET (RT-NWFET) as an interesting concept of nanoscale MOSFETs. The barriers construct resonance energy levels in the channel region of nanowires because of the longitudinal confinement in three directions causing some fluctuation in I D- V GS characteristic. In addition, these barriers remarkably improve the subthreshold swing and minimize the ON/OFF-current ratio degradation at a low operation voltage of 0.5 V. As a result, RT-NWFETs are intrinsically preserved from drain-source tunneling and are an interesting candidate for developing the roadmap below 10 nm.

  13. Graphene Field Effect Transistors for Radiation Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is propose to develop Graphene Field Effect Transistor based Radiation Sensors (GFET-RS) for NASA Manned Spaceflight Missions anticipated in next several...

  14. Influence of channel material properties on performance of nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Pedram; Fagas, Giorgos; Ferain, Isabelle; Yu, Ran; Das, Samaresh; Colinge, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The performance of germanium and silicon inversion-mode and junctionless nanowire field-effect transistors are investigated using three-dimensional quantum mechanical simulations in the ballistic transport regime and within the framework of effective-mass theory for different channel materials and orientations. Our study shows that junctionless nanowire transistors made using n-type Ge or Si nanowires as a channel material are more immune to short-channel effects than conventional inversion-mode nanowire field-effect transistors. As a result, these transistors present smaller subthreshold swing, less drain-induced barrier-lowering, lower source-to-drain tunneling, and higher Ion/Ioff ratio for the same technology node and low standby power technologies. We also show that the short-channel characteristics of Ge and Si junctionless nanowire transistors, unlike the inversion-mode nanowire transistors, are very similar. The results are explained through a detailed analysis on the effect of the channel crystallographic orientation, effective masses, and dielectric constant on electrical characteristics.

  15. Graphene Field Effect Transistor for Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary J. (Inventor); Chen, Zhihong (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a graphene field effect transistor-based radiation sensor for use in a variety of radiation detection applications, including manned spaceflight missions. The sensing mechanism of the radiation sensor is based on the high sensitivity of graphene in the local change of electric field that can result from the interaction of ionizing radiation with a gated undoped silicon absorber serving as the supporting substrate in the graphene field effect transistor. The radiation sensor has low power and high sensitivity, a flexible structure, and a wide temperature range, and can be used in a variety of applications, particularly in space missions for human exploration.

  16. Fundamentals of nanoscaled field effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors gives comprehensive coverage of the fundamental physical principles and theory behind nanoscale transistors. The specific issues that arise for nanoscale MOSFETs, such as quantum mechanical tunneling and inversion layer quantization, are fully explored. The solutions to these issues, such as high-κ technology, strained-Si technology, alternate devices structures and graphene technology are also given. Some case studies regarding the above issues and solution are also given in the book. In summary, this book: Covers the fundamental principles behind nanoelectronics/microelectronics Includes chapters devoted to solutions tackling the quantum mechanical effects occurring at nanoscale Provides some case studies to understand the issue mathematically Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors is an ideal book for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in the field of microelectronics, nanoelectronics, and electronics.

  17. Dielectric Engineered Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Ameen, Tarek A.; Klimeck, Gerhard; Appenzeller, Joerg; Rahman, Rajib

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric engineered tunnel field-effect transistor (DE-TFET) as a high performance steep transistor is proposed. In this device, a combination of high-k and low-k dielectrics results in a high electric field at the tunnel junction. As a result a record ON-current of about 1000 uA/um and a subthreshold swing (SS) below 20mV/dec are predicted for WTe2 DE-TFET. The proposed TFET works based on a homojunction channel and electrically doped contacts both of which are immune to interface stat...

  18. Planar graphene tunnel field-effect transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Katkov, V. L.; Osipov, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a concept for a graphene tunnel field-effect transistor. The main idea is based on the use of two graphene electrodes with zigzag termination divided by a narrow gap under the influence of the common gate. Our analysis shows that such device will have a pronounced switching effect at low gate voltage and high on/off current ratio at room temperature.

  19. A simple and controlled single electron transistor based on doping modulation in silicon nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Hofheinz, M.; Jehl, X.; Sanquer, M.; Molas, G.; Vinet, M.; Deleonibus, S.

    2006-01-01

    A simple and highly reproducible single electron transistor (SET) has been fabricated using gated silicon nanowires. The structure is a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor made on silicon-on-insulator thin films. The channel of the transistor is the Coulomb island at low temperature. Two silicon nitride spacers deposited on each side of the gate create a modulation of doping along the nanowire that creates tunnel barriers. Such barriers are fixed and controlled, like in metallic...

  20. Individual SnO2 nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO 2 nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO 2 nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10 6 and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  1. Functional organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunlong; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi

    2010-10-25

    Functional organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have attracted increasing attention in the past few years due to their wide variety of potential applications. Research on functional OFETs underpins future advances in organic electronics. In this review, different types of functional OFETs including organic phototransistors, organic memory FETs, organic light emitting FETs, sensors based on OFETs and other functional OFETs are introduced. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of this field, the history, current status of research, main challenges and prospects for functional OFETs are all discussed.

  2. Pressure Sensitive Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminto, James Tjan-Meng

    A pressure sensitive insulated gate field effect transistor has been developed. The device is an elevated gate field-effect-transistor. It consists of a p-type silicon substrate in which two n^+ region, the source and drain, are formed. The gate electrode is a metal film sandwiched in an insulated micro-diaphragm resembling a pill-box which covers the gate oxide, drain, and source. The space between the gate electrode and the oxide is vacuum or an air-gap. When pressure is applied on the diaphragm it deflects and causes a change in the gate capacitance, and thus modulates the conductance of the channel between source and drain. A general theory dealing with the characteristic of this pressure sensitive insulated gate field effect transistor has been derived, and the device fabricated. The fabrication process utilizes the standard integrated circuit fabrication method. It features a batch fabrication of field effect devices followed by the batch fabrication of the deposited diaphragm on top of each field effect device. The keys steps of the diaphragm fabrication are the formation of spacer layer, formation of the diaphragm layer, and the subsequent removal of the spacer layer. The chip size of the device is 600 μm x 1050 mum. The diaphragm size is 200 μm x 200 mum. Characterization of the device has been performed. The current-voltage characteristics with pressure as parameters have been demonstrated and the current-pressure transfer curves obtained. They show non-linear characteristics as those of conventional capacitive pressure sensors. The linearity of threshold voltage versus pressure transfer curves has been demonstrated. The temperature effect on the device performances has been tested. The temperature coefficient of threshold voltage, rather than the electron mobility, has dominated the temperature coefficient of the device. Two temperature compensation schemes have been tested: one method is by connecting two identical PSIGFET in a differential amplifier

  3. Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, A. C., E-mail: ab2106@cam.ac.uk; Broström, M.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F. [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Tagliaferri, M. L. V. [Laboratorio MDM, CNR-IMM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universit di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Vinet, M. [CEA/LETI-MINATEC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Sanquer, M. [SPSMS, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferguson, A. J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-16

    We present a reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consists of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired with improved silicon fabrication techniques, makes the corner state quantum dot approach a promising candidate for a scalable quantum information architecture.

  4. Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, A. C.; Broström, M.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Tagliaferri, M. L. V.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consists of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired with improved silicon fabrication techniques, makes the corner state quantum dot approach a promising candidate for a scalable quantum information architecture.

  5. Individual SWCNT based ionic field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Pei; He, Jin; Park, Jae Hyun; Krstic, Predrag; Lindsay, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Here we report that the ionic current through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) can be effectively gated by a perpendicular electrical field from a top gate electrode, working as ionic field effect transistor. Both our experiment and simulation confirms that the electroosmotic current (EOF) is the main component in the ionic current through the SWCNT and is responsible for the gating effect. We also studied the gating efficiency as a function of solution concentration and pH and demonstrated that the device can work effectively in the physiological relevant condition. This work opens the door to use CNT based nanofluidics for ion and molecule manipulation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01), Arizona Technology Enterprises and the Biodesign Institute.

  6. Antiferromagnetic Spin Wave Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Daniels, Matthew W.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di

    2016-01-01

    In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry dictates that the spin wave modes must be doubly degenerate. Theses two modes, distinguished by their opposite polarization and available only in antiferromagnets, give rise to a novel degree of freedom to encode and process information. We show that the spin wave polarization can be manipulated by an electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropy. We propose a prototype spin wave field-effect transistor which realizes a gate-tunable magnonic analog of the Faraday effect, and demonstrate its application in THz signal modulation. Our findings open up the exciting possibility of digital data processing utilizing antiferromagnetic spin waves and enable the direct projection of optical computing concepts onto the mesoscopic scale. PMID:27048928

  7. Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Troger, C

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coeffi...

  8. Fully transparent thin-film transistor devices based on SnO2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, Eric N; Wan, Qing; Guo, Wei; Chen, Yanbin; Pan, Xiaoqing; Lu, Wei

    2007-08-01

    We report on studies of field-effect transistor (FET) and transparent thin-film transistor (TFT) devices based on lightly Ta-doped SnO2 nano-wires. The nanowire-based devices exhibit uniform characteristics with average field-effect mobilities exceeding 100 cm2/V x s. Prototype nano-wire-based TFT (NW-TFT) devices on glass substrates showed excellent optical transparency and transistor performance in terms of transconductance, bias voltage range, and on/off ratio. High on-currents and field-effect mobilities were obtained from the NW-TFT devices even at low nanowire coverage. The SnO2 nanowire-based TFT approach offers a number of desirable properties such as low growth cost, high electron mobility, and optical transparency and low operation voltage, and may lead to large-scale applications of transparent electronics on diverse substrates.

  9. Light-emitting ambipolar organic heterostructure field-effect transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rost, Constance; Karg, Siegfried; Riess, Walter; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Murgia, Mauro; Muccini, Michele

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated ambipolar charge injection and transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as prerequisites for a light-emitting organic field-effect transistor (LEOFET). OFETs containing a single material as active layer generally function either as a p- or an n-channel device.

  10. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for high performance as well as low standby power devices has been the main reason for the aggressive scaling of conventional CMOS transistors. Current devices are at the 32nm technology node. However, due to physical limitations as well as increase in short-channel effects, leakage, power dissipation, this scaling trend cannot continue and will eventually hit a barrier. In order to overcome this, alternate device topologies have to be considered altogether. Extensive research on ultra thin body double gate FETs and gate all around nanowire FETs has shown a lot of promise. Under strong inversion, these devices have demonstrated increased performance over their bulk counterparts. This is mainly attributed to full carrier inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors) which also like the above, relies on complete inversion of carriers in the body/bulk. Using dual gates; an outer and an inner gate, full-volume inversion is possible with benefits such as enhanced drive currents, high Ion/Ioff ratios and reduced short channel effects.

  11. Direct coupled amplifiers using field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1964-03-01

    The concept of the uni-polar field effect transistor (P.E.T.) was known before the invention of the bi-polar transistor but it is only recently that they have been made commercially. Being produced as yet only in small quantities, their price imposes a restriction on use to circuits where their peculiar properties can be exploited to the full. One such application is described here where the combination of low voltage drift and relatively low input leakage current are necessarily used together. One of the instruments used to control nuclear reactors has a logarithmic response to the mean output current from a polarised ionisation chamber. The logarithmic signal is then differentiated electrically, the result being displayed on a meter calibrated to show the reactor divergence or doubling time. If displayed in doubling time the scale is calibrated reciprocally. Because of the wide range obtained in the logarithmic section and the limited supply voltage, an output of 1 volt per decade change in ionisation current is used. Differentiating this gives a current of 1.5 x 10 -8 A for p.s.D. (20 sec. doubling time) in the differentiating amplifier. To overcome some of the problems of noise due to statistical variations in input current, the circuit design necessitates a resistive path to ground at the amplifier input of 20 M.ohms. A schematic diagram is shown. 1. It is evident that a zero drift of 1% can be caused by a leakage current of 1.5 x 10 -10 A or an offset voltage of 3 mV at the amplifier input. Although the presently used electrometer valve is satisfactory from the point of view of grid current, there have been sudden changes in grid to grid voltage (the valve is a double triode) of up to 10 m.V. It has been found that a pair of F.E.T's. can be used to replace the electrometer valve so long as care is taken in correct balance of the two devices. An investigation has been made into the characteristics of some fourteen devices to see whether those with very

  12. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, A. N.; Hussain, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd = 1 V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60 mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5 V.

  13. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.

    2015-01-07

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd-=-1-V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60-mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5-V.

  14. Fabrication of ambipolar gate-all-around field-effect transistors using silicon nanobridge arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin Yong; Park, Jong-Tae; Islam, M. Saif

    2013-09-01

    Nanowire bridges have been almost dormant in a nanostructured device community due to the challenges in reproducible growth and device fabrication. In this work, we present simple methods for creating silicon nanobridge arrays with repeatability, and demonstrate integration of gate-all-around field-effect-transistors in the arrays. P-type silicon nanowires air-bridges were synthesized using gold nanoparticles via the VLS technique on the array of predefined silicon electrode-pairs, and then surrounding gates were formed on the suspended air-bridge nanowires. The nanowire air-bridge field-effect-transistors with the surrounding gate exhibited p-type accumulation-mode characteristics with a subthreshold swing of 187 mV/dec and an on/off current ratio of 1.6×106. Despite the surrounding gate that helps gate biases govern the channel, off current substantially increased as drain bias increases. This ambipolar current-voltage property was attributable to gate-induced-drain-leakage at the overlap of gate and drain electrodes and trap-assisted tunneling at the nanowire and electrode connection.

  15. High mobility polymer gated organic field effect transistor using zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic semiconductor; field effect transistor; phthalocyanine; high mobility. Abstract. Organic thin film transistors were fabricated using evaporated zinc phthalocyanine as the active layer. Parylene film prepared by chemical vapour deposition was used as the organic gate insulator. The annealing of the samples was ...

  16. Ambipolar transistor behavior in p-doped InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B. S.; Aagesen, M.; Soerensen, C. B.; Lindelof, P. E.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygaard, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the electric properties of p-InAs nanowire field-effect transistors showing ambipolar conduction. Be doped nanowires are grown by the vapor-solid-solid mechanism using molecular beam epitaxy with in situ deposited Au catalyst particles. P-type conduction in InAs nanowires is challenging because of the Fermi-level pinning above the conduction band edge at the nanowire surface that leads to creation of an electron inversion layer. We demonstrate that this task is possible without a modified surface and report a strong temperature dependence (10-10 5 ) of the on-off ratio caused by the surface inversion layer

  17. Individual SnO{sub 2} nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)], E-mail: wanqing7686@hotmail.com

    2009-06-24

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO{sub 2} nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10{sup 6} and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  18. Electrical performance of III-V gate-all-around nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Pedram; Fagas, Giorgos

    2013-08-01

    The performance of III-V inversion-mode and junctionless nanowire field-effect transistors are investigated using quantum simulations and are compared with those of silicon devices. We show that at ultrascaled dimensions silicon can offer better electrical performance in terms of short-channel effects and drive current than other materials. This is explained simply by suppression of source-drain tunneling due to the higher effective mass, shorter natural length, and the higher density of states in the confined channel. We also confirm that III-V junctionless nanowire transistors are more immune to short-channel effects than conventional inversion-mode III-V nanowire field-effect transistors.

  19. Assessment of Phospohrene Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-28

    Promising transistors based on a few layers of phosphorus atoms," in IEEE MTT-5 IMWS- AMP , Suzhou, China, Jul. 2015, pp. 1-3. DOI: 10.1109/LED...2014.2362841. DOI: 10.1109/IMWS- AMP .2015.7324944. Keywords: Contacts, dielectric films, MOSFETs, passivation, stability. [5] X. Luo, K. Xiong, J.C. M. Hwang, Y

  20. Cylindrical-shaped nanotube field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-29

    A cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may be manufactured on silicon (Si) substrates as a ring etched into a gate stack and filled with semiconductor material. An inner gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack inside the inner circumference of the ring. An outer gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack outside the outer circumference of the ring. The multi-gate cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET operates in volume inversion for ring widths below 15 nanometers. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET demonstrates better short channel effect (SCE) mitigation and higher performance (I.sub.on/I.sub.off) than conventional transistor devices. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may also be manufactured with higher yields and cheaper costs than conventional transistors.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of semiconducting nanowires for tunnel field transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallett, Aaron Lee

    The scaling of traditional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is hitting a limit, not due to difficulties in fabricating short gate lengths, but rather to an ongoing power crisis. As channel lengths have been reduced power densities of integrated circuits have risen dramatically. While supply voltage scaling would alleviate many power concerns, the MOSFET structure fundamentally limits the amount that voltages can be reduced. Because MOSFET operation is governed by thermal emission of carriers over a potential barrier, the subthreshold swing from the off to on current is limited to a minimum of 60 mV/decade of current. Therefore, reductions in the supply voltage will degrade the on/off current ratio. The tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) has emerged as a potential solution to these problems. Current is controlled by band-to-band tunneling through a barrier that is modulated by the gate, and subthreshold swings below 60 mV/dec. can be achieved. While TFET simulations are quite promising, subthreshold swings below 60 mV/dec. at technically relevant on-currents have yet to be demonstrated experimentally. Nanowire geometries and III-V semiconductor channel materials are predicted to improve TFET performance by increasing gate control and tunneling current. In this dissertation the fabrication of TFETs from semiconducting nanowires will be investigated. First, axially doped silicon (Si) nanowire in situ p-n junctions will be studied. By controlling the nanowire growth, separate p and n-type segments can be formed to create a rectifying junction. While as-grown nanowire junctions do not have the abruptness necessary to facilitate band-to-band tunneling, thermally oxidized nanowires are shown to have a p-n-n+ profile with an abrupt n-n+ junction. By gating the nanowires an abrupt electrostatically-doped p +- n+ junction can be formed that permits reverse-biased tunneling. These p-n-n+ nanowires will be integrated into a top-gated lateral TFET

  2. Phonon-assisted Zener tunneling in a cylindrical nanowire transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Magnus, Wim; Vandenberghe, William G.; Sorée, Bart; Peeters, François M.

    2013-05-01

    The tunneling current has been computed for a cylindrical nanowire tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) with an all-round gate that covers the source region. Being the underlying mechanism, band-to-band tunneling, mediated by electron-phonon interaction, is pronouncedly affected by carrier confinement in the radial direction and, therefore, involves the self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations. The latter has been accomplished by exploiting a non-linear variational principle within the framework of the modified local density approximation taking into account the nonparabolicity of both the valence band and conduction band in relatively thick wires. Moreover, while the effective-mass approximation might still provide a reasonable description of the conduction band in relatively thick wires, we have found that the nonparabolicity of the valence band needs to be included. As a major conclusion, it is observed that confinement effects in nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors have a stronger impact on the onset voltage of the tunneling current in comparison with planar TFETs. On the other hand, the value of the onset voltage is found to be overestimated when the valence band nonparabolicity is ignored.

  3. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed.

  4. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A

  5. High mobility polymer gated organic field effect transistor using zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mater. Sci., Vol. 37, No. 1, February 2014, pp. 95–99. c Indian Academy of Sciences. High mobility polymer gated organic field effect transistor using zinc phthalocyanine. K R RAJESH. ∗. , V KANNAN, M R KIM, Y S CHAE and J K RHEE. Millimeter- Wave Innovation Technology Research Centre (MINT), Dongguk University,.

  6. Ambipolar light-emitting organic field-effect transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rost, Constance; Karg, Siegfried; Riess, Walter; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Murgia, Mauro; Muccini, Michele

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate a light-emitting organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with pronounced ambipolar current characteristics. The ambipolar transport layer is a coevaporated thin film of α-quinquethiophene (α-5T) as hole-transport material and N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide

  7. Bimolecular recombination in ambipolar organic field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrier, D.S.H.; Vries, T. de; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Geluk, E.-J.; Smits, E.C.P.; Kemerink, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In ambipolar organic field effect transistors (OFET) the shape of the channel potential is intimately related to the recombination zone width W, and hence to the electron–hole recombination strength. Experimentally, the recombination profile can be assessed by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

  8. Electronic properties of germanane field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madhushankar, B.N.; Kaverzin, A.; Giousis, T.; Potsi, G.; Gournis, D.; Rudolf, P.; Blake, G.R.; van der Wal, C.H.; van Wees, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    A new two dimensional (2D) material—germanane—has been synthesised recently with promising electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report the first realisation of germanane field-effect transistors fabricated from multilayer single crystal flakes. Our germanane devices show transport in

  9. Single-molecule probes in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolet, Aurélien Armel Louis

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to study charge transport phenomena in organic materials. This is done optically by means of single-molecule spectroscopy in a field-effect transistor based on a molecular crystal. We present (in Chapter 2) a fundamental requirement for single-molecule spectroscopy

  10. Physics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, J.J.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    Most of the envisaged applications of organic electronics require a nonvolatile memory that can be programmed, erased, and read electrically. Ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFET) are especially suitable due to the nondestructive read-out and low power consumption. Here, an analytical model

  11. Nanoscaled biological gated field effect transistors for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Andersen, Karsten Brandt

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is the study of chromosome structure and function, and is often used in cancer diagnosis, as many chromosome abnormalities are linked to the onset of cancer. A novel label free detection method for chromosomal translocation analysis using nanoscaled field effect transistors...

  12. Reaching saturation in patterned source vertical organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Michael; Sheleg, Gil; Keum, Chang-min; Zucker, Jonathan; Lussem, Bjorn; Tessler, Nir

    2017-05-01

    Like most of the vertical transistors, the Patterned Source Vertical Organic Field Effect Transistor (PS-VOFET) does not exhibit saturation in the output characteristics. The importance of achieving a good saturation is demonstrated in a vertical organic light emitting transistor; however, this is critical for any application requiring the transistor to act as a current source. Thereafter, a 2D simulation tool was used to explain the physical mechanisms that prevent saturation as well as to suggest ways to overcome them. We found that by isolating the source facet from the drain-source electric field, the PS-VOFET architecture exhibits saturation. The process used for fabricating such saturation-enhancing structure is then described. The new device demonstrated close to an ideal saturation with only 1% change in the drain-source current over a 10 V change in the drain-source voltage.

  13. Vertical architecture for enhancement mode power transistors based on GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F.; Rümmler, D.; Hartmann, J.; Caccamo, L.; Schimpke, T.; Strassburg, M.; Gad, A. E.; Bakin, A.; Wehmann, H.-H.; Witzigmann, B.; Wasisto, H. S.; Waag, A.

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration of vertical GaN wrap-around gated field-effect transistors using GaN nanowires is reported. The nanowires with smooth a-plane sidewalls have hexagonal geometry made by top-down etching. A 7-nanowire transistor exhibits enhancement mode operation with threshold voltage of 1.2 V, on/off current ratio as high as 108, and subthreshold slope as small as 68 mV/dec. Although there is space charge limited current behavior at small source-drain voltages (Vds), the drain current (Id) and transconductance (gm) reach up to 314 mA/mm and 125 mS/mm, respectively, when normalized with hexagonal nanowire circumference. The measured breakdown voltage is around 140 V. This vertical approach provides a way to next-generation GaN-based power devices.

  14. Simple and controlled single electron transistor based on doping modulation in silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, M.; Jehl, X.; Sanquer, M.; Molas, G.; Vinet, M.; Deleonibus, S.

    2006-10-01

    A simple and highly reproducible single electron transistor (SET) has been fabricated using gated silicon nanowires. The structure is a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor made on silicon-on-insulator thin films. The channel of the transistor is the Coulomb island at low temperature. Two silicon nitride spacers deposited on each side of the gate create a modulation of doping along the nanowire that creates tunnel barriers. Such barriers are fixed and controlled, like in metallic SETs. The period of the Coulomb oscillations is set by the gate capacitance of the transistor and therefore controlled by lithography. The source and drain capacitances have also been characterized. This design could be used to build more complex SET devices.

  15. Advances in nanowire transistors for biological analysis and cellular investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bor-Ran; Chen, Chiao-Chen; Kumar, U Rajesh; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2014-04-07

    Electrical biosensors based on silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) have attracted enormous interest in the biosensing field. SiNW-FETs have proven to be significant and efficient in detecting diverse biomolecular species with the advantages of high probing sensitivity, target selectivity, real-time recording and label-free detection. In recent years, significant advances in biosensors have been achieved, particularly for cellular investigation and biomedical diagnosis. In this critical review, we will report on the latest developments in biosensing with SiNW-FETs and discuss recent advancements in the innovative designs of SiNW-FET devices. This critical review introduces the basic instrumental setup and working principle of SiNW-FETs. Technical approaches that attempted to enhance the detection sensitivity and target selectivity of SiNW-FET sensors are discussed. In terms of applications, we review the recent achievements with SiNW-FET biosensors for the investigations of protein-protein interaction, DNA/RNA/PNA hybridization, virus detection, cellular recording, biological kinetics, and clinical diagnosis. In addition, the novel architecture designs of the SiNW-FET devices are highlighted in studies of live neuron cells, electrophysiological measurements and other signal transduction pathways. Despite these remarkable achievements, certain improvements remain necessary in the device performance and clinical applications of FET-based biosensors; thus, several prospects about the future development of nanowire transistor-based instruments for biosensing employments are discussed at the end of this review.

  16. Charge carrier velocity in graphene field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmann, Marlene; Vorobiev, Andrei; Andersson, Michael A.; Stake, Jan

    2017-12-01

    To extend the frequency range of transistors into the terahertz domain, new transistor technologies, materials, and device concepts must be continuously developed. The quality of the interface between the involved materials is a highly critical factor. The presence of impurities can degrade device performance and reliability. In this paper, we present a method that allows the study of the charge carrier velocity in a field-effect transistor vs impurity levels. The charge carrier velocity is found using high-frequency scattering parameter measurements followed by delay time analysis. The limiting factors of the saturation velocity and the effect of impurities are then analysed by applying analytical models of the field-dependent and phonon-limited carrier velocity. As an example, this method is applied to a top-gated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET). We find that the extracted saturation velocity is ca. 1.4 ×107 cm/s and is mainly limited by silicon oxide substrate phonons. Within the considered range of residual charge carrier concentrations, charged impurities do not limit the saturation velocity directly by the phonon mechanism. Instead, the impurities act as traps that emit charge carriers at high fields, preventing the current from saturation and thus limiting power gain of the GFETs. The method described in this work helps to better understand the influence of impurities and clarifies methods of further transistor development. High quality interfaces are required to achieve current saturation via velocity saturation in GFETs.

  17. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A novel top-down fabrication technique was presented for single-crystal Si-NW fabrication realized with conventional microfabrication technique. High quality triangular Si-NWs were made with high wafer-s...

  18. Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Wakayama, Yutaka; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Seo, Hoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE) and light-receiving (LR) OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These ar...

  19. Understanding the electrolyte background for biochemical sensing with ion-sensitive field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Alexey; Wipf, Mathias; Stoop, Ralph L; Bedner, Kristine; Fu, Wangyang; Guzenko, Vitaliy A; Knopfmacher, Oren; Calame, Michel; Schönenberger, Christian

    2012-10-23

    Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors have attracted substantial interest for various biochemical sensing applications, yet there remains uncertainty concerning their response to changes in the supporting electrolyte concentration. In this study, we use silicon nanowires coated with highly pH-sensitive hafnium oxide (HfO(2)) and aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) to determine their response to variations in KCl concentration at several constant pH values. We observe a nonlinear sensor response as a function of ionic strength, which is independent of the pH value. Our results suggest that the signal is caused by the adsorption of anions (Cl(-)) rather than cations (K(+)) on both oxide surfaces. By comparing the data to three well-established models, we have found that none of those can explain the present data set. Finally, we propose a new model which gives excellent quantitative agreement with the data.

  20. Properties of polymer light-emitting transistors with Ag-nanowire source/drain electrodes fabricated on polymer substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Kusumoto, Yusuke; Ikezoe, Ikuya; Kajii, Hirotake, E-mail: kajii@oled.eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ohmori, Yutaka

    2014-03-03

    The properties of polymer light-emitting transistors with Ag-nanowire (AgNW) source/drain electrodes fabricated on a polymer substrate are investigated. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) with AgNW source/drain electrodes exhibit ambipolar characteristics. For an ambipolar F8BT OFET, yellow-green light emission is observed. The maximum external quantum efficiency is 0.6%. We demonstrate the possibility of producing flexible polymer light-emitting transistors using AgNW electrodes. - Highlights: • Fluorene-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are investigated. • We use Ag-nanowire (AgNW) source/drain electrodes in the OFETs. • These OFETs exhibit ambipolar and light-emitting characteristics. • The maximum external quantum efficiency is 0.6%. • We demonstrate flexible polymer light-emitting transistors using AgNW electrodes.

  1. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2012-10-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been developed using pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes. The source and drain were vertically stacked, separated by a dielectric, and the carbon nanotubes were placed on the sidewall of the stack to bridge the source and drain. Both the effective gate dielectric and gate electrode were normal to the substrate surface. The channel length is determined by the dielectric thickness between source and drain electrodes, making it easier to fabricate sub-micrometer transistors without using time-consuming electron beam lithography. The transistor area is much smaller than the planar CNTFET due to the vertical arrangement of source and drain and the reduced channel area. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vertical Ge/Si Core/Shell Nanowire Junctionless Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Cai, Fuxi; Otuonye, Ugo; Lu, Wei D

    2016-01-13

    Vertical junctionless transistors with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure based on Ge/Si core/shell nanowires epitaxially grown and integrated on a ⟨111⟩ Si substrate were fabricated and analyzed. Because of efficient gate coupling in the nanowire-GAA transistor structure and the high density one-dimensional hole gas formed in the Ge nanowire core, excellent P-type transistor behaviors with Ion of 750 μA/μm were obtained at a moderate gate length of 544 nm with minimal short-channel effects. The experimental data can be quantitatively modeled by a GAA junctionless transistor model with few fitting parameters, suggesting the nanowire transistors can be fabricated reliably without introducing additional factors that can degrade device performance. Devices with different gate lengths were readily obtained by tuning the thickness of an etching mask film. Analysis of the histogram of different devices yielded a single dominate peak in device parameter distribution, indicating excellent uniformity and high confidence of single nanowire operation. Using two vertical nanowire junctionless transistors, a PMOS-logic inverter with near rail-to-rail output voltage was demonstrated, and device matching in the logic can be conveniently obtained by controlling the number of nanowires employed in different devices rather than modifying device geometry. These studies show that junctionless transistors based on vertical Ge/Si core/shell nanowires can be fabricated in a controlled fashion with excellent performance and may be used in future hybrid, high-performance circuits where bottom-up grown nanowire devices with different functionalities can be directly integrated with an existing Si platform.

  3. Field-effect transistor memories based on ferroelectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Wang, Haiyang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaomeng; Guo, Yu; Sun, Huabin; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Field-effect transistors based on ferroelectrics have attracted intensive interests, because of their non-volatile data retention, rewritability, and non-destructive read-out. In particular, polymeric materials that possess ferroelectric properties are promising for the fabrications of memory devices with high performance, low cost, and large-area manufacturing, by virtue of their good solubility, low-temperature processability, and good chemical stability. In this review, we discuss the material characteristics of ferroelectric polymers, providing an update on the current development of ferroelectric field-effect transistors (Fe-FETs) in non-volatile memory applications. Program supported partially by the NSFC (Nos. 61574074, 61774080), NSFJS (No. BK20170075), and the Open Partnership Joint Projects of NSFC-JSPS Bilateral Joint Research Projects (No. 61511140098).

  4. Graphene-based field-effect transistor biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; , Junhong; Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua

    2017-06-14

    The disclosure provides a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor and uses thereof. In particular, to FET-based biosensors using thermally reduced graphene-based sheets as a conducting channel decorated with nanoparticle-biomolecule conjugates. The present disclosure also relates to FET-based biosensors using metal nitride/graphene hybrid sheets. The disclosure provides a method for detecting a target biomolecule in a sample using the FET-based biosensor described herein.

  5. Electromechanical field effect transistors based on multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.T., E-mail: jiangzhaotan@hotmail.com; Lv, Z.T.; Zhang, X.D.

    2017-06-21

    Based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian approach, we demonstrate that the electromechanical field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized by using the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs). The synergistic combination of the electric field and the external strains can establish the on–off switching since the electric field can shift or split the energy band, and the mechanical strains can widen or narrow the band widths. This kind of multilayer PNR FETs, much solider than the monolayer PNR one and more easily biased by different electric fields, has more transport channels consequently leading to the higher on–off current ratio or the higher sensitivity to the electric fields. Meanwhile, the strain-induced band-flattening will be beneficial for improving the flexibility in designing the electromechanical FETs. In addition, such electromechanical FETs can act as strain-controlled FETs or mechanical detectors for detecting the strains, indicating their potential applications in nano- and micro-electromechanical fields. - Highlights: • Electromechanical transistors are designed with multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons. • Electromechanical synergistic effect can establish the on–off switching more flexibly. • Multilayer transistors, solider and more easily biased, has more transport channels. • Electromechanical transistors can act as strain-controlled transistors or mechanical detectors.

  6. A detailed coupled-mode-space non-equilibrium Green's function simulation study of source-to-drain tunnelling in gate-all-around Si nanowire metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, N.; Martinez, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we present a 3D quantum transport simulation study of source-to-drain tunnelling in gate-all-around Si nanowire transistors by using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The impact of the channel length, device cross-section, and drain and gate applied biases on the source-to-drain tunnelling is examined in detail. The overall effect of tunnelling on the ID-VG characteristics is also investigated. Tunnelling in devices with channel lengths of 10 nm or less substantially enhances the off-current. This enhancement is more important at high drain biases and at larger cross-sections where the sub-threshold slope is substantially degraded. A less common effect is the increase in the on-current due to the tunnelling which contributes as much as 30% of the total on-current. This effect is almost independent of the cross-section, and it depends weakly on the studied channel lengths.

  7. Interdigitated Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor Without Reference Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghusoon M.

    2017-02-01

    An interdigitated extended gate field effect transistor (IEGFET) has been proposed as a modified pH sensor structure of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET). The reference electrode and the extended gate in the conventional device have been replaced by a single interdigitated extended gate. A metal-semiconductor-metal interdigitated extended gate containing two multi-finger Ni electrodes based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a pH-sensitive membrane. ZnO thin film was grown on a p-type Si (100) substrate by the sol-gel technique. The fabricated extended gate is connected to a commercial metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor device in CD4007UB. The experimental data show that this structure has real time and linear pH voltage and current sensitivities in a concentration range between pH 4 and 11. The voltage and current sensitivities are found to be about 22.4 mV/pH and 45 μA/pH, respectively. Reference electrode elimination makes the IEGFET device simple to fabricate, easy to carry out the measurements, needing a small volume of solution to test and suitable for disposable biosensor applications. Furthermore, this uncomplicated structure could be extended to fabricate multiple ions microsensors and lab-on-chip devices.

  8. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm 2 Vs -1 , achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  9. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Hasegawa and Jun Takeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs, the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20–40 cm2 Vs−1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  10. Lead iodide perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Xin Yu; Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare

    2015-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of solution-processable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites in photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, determination of their intrinsic charge transport parameters has been elusive due to the variability of film preparation and history-dependent device performance. Here we show that screening effects associated to ionic transport can be effectively eliminated by lowering the operating temperature of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) field-effect transistors. Field-effect carrier mobility is found to increase by almost two orders of magnitude below 200 K, consistent with phonon scattering-limited transport. Under balanced ambipolar carrier injection, gate-dependent electroluminescence is also observed from the transistor channel, with spectra revealing the tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition. This demonstration of CH3NH3PbI3 light-emitting field-effect transistors provides intrinsic transport parameters to guide materials and solar cell optimization, and will drive the development of new electro-optic device concepts, such as gated light-emitting diodes and lasers operating at room temperature.

  11. Understanding noise suppression in heterojunction field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The enhanced transport properties displayed by quantum-well-confined, two-dimensional, electron systems underpin the success of heterojunction, field-effect transistors. At cryogenic temperatures, these devices exhibit impressive mobilities and, as a result, high signal gain and low noise. Conventional wisdom has it that the same favourable conditions also hold for normal room-temperature operation. In that case, however, high mobilities are precluded by abundant electron-phonon scattering. Our recent study of nonequilibrium current noise shows that quantum confinement, not high mobility, is the principal source of noise in these devices; this opens up new and exciting opportunities in low-noise transistor design. As trends in millimetre-wave technology push frequencies beyond 100 GHz, it is essential to develop a genuine understanding of noise processes in heterojunction devices

  12. Graphene-graphite oxide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Brian; Mendez, Anthony; Schmidgall, Emma; Bockrath, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Graphene's high mobility and two-dimensional nature make it an attractive material for field-effect transistors. Previous efforts in this area have used bulk gate dielectric materials such as SiO(2) or HfO(2). In contrast, we have studied the use of an ultrathin layered material, graphene's insulating analogue, graphite oxide. We have fabricated transistors comprising single or bilayer graphene channels, graphite oxide gate insulators, and metal top-gates. The graphite oxide layers show relatively minimal leakage at room temperature. The breakdown electric field of graphite oxide was found to be comparable to SiO(2), typically ~1-3 × 10(8) V/m, while its dielectric constant is slightly higher, κ ≈ 4.3. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Top- and side-gated epitaxial graphene field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuebin; Wu, Xiaosong; Sprinkle, Mike; Ming, Fan; Ruan, Ming; Hu, Yike; De Heer, Walt A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Berger, Claire [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Atlanta, GA (United States); CNRS-Institut Neel, Grenoble (France)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of first generation epitaxial graphene (EG) field effect transistors (FET) are presented and their relative merits are discussed. Graphene is epitaxially grown on both the carbon and silicon faces of hexagonal silicon carbide and patterned with electron beam lithography. The channels have a Hall bar geometry to facilitate magnetoresistance measurements. FETs patterned on the Si-face exhibit off-to-on channel resistance ratios that exceed 30. C-face FETs have lower off-to-on resistance ratios, but their mobilities (up to 5000 cm{sup 2}/Vs) are much larger than that for Si-face transistors. Initial investigations into all-graphene side-gate FET structures are promising. Conductivity (left panel) and transport resistances {rho}{sub xx} and {rho}{sub xy} of a top gate graphene Hall bar on SiC Si-face, showing a sign reversal of the hall coefficient at the resistance peak. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Biomolecular detection using a metal semiconductor field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Saab, Marie-Belle; Buzatu, Petre; Aulombard, Roger; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.; Gergely, Csilla; Cloitre, Thierry

    2010-04-01

    In this work, our attention was drawn towards developing affinity-based electrical biosensors, using a MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). Semiconductor (SC) surfaces must be prepared before the incubations with biomolecules. The peptides route was adapted to exceed and bypass the limits revealed by other types of surface modification due to the unwanted unspecific interactions. As these peptides reveal specific recognition of materials, then controlled functionalization can be achieved. Peptides were produced by phage display technology using a library of M13 bacteriophage. After several rounds of bio-panning, the phages presenting affinities for GaAs SC were isolated; the DNA of these specific phages were sequenced, and the peptide with the highest affinity was synthesized and biotinylated. To explore the possibility of electrical detection, the MESFET fabricated with the GaAs SC were used to detect the streptavidin via the biotinylated peptide in the presence of the bovine Serum Albumin. After each surface modification step, the IDS (current between the drain and the source) of the transistor was measured and a decrease in the intensity was detected. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy was used in order to prove the specificity of this peptide and the specific localisation of biomolecules. In conclusion, the feasibility of producing an electrical biosensor using a MESFET has been demonstrated. Controlled placement, specific localization and detection of biomolecules on a MESFET transistor were achieved without covering the drain and the source. This method of functionalization and detection can be of great utility for biosensing application opening a new way for developing bioFETs (Biomolecular Field-Effect Transistor).

  15. Directly grown nanocrystalline diamond field-effect transistor microstructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozak, Halyna; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2010), s. 482-487 ISSN 1546-198X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00100902; GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * microstructures * atomic force microscopy * surface conductivity * field-effect transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2010

  16. Ultrathin regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, H.G.O.; Frey, G.L.; Shkunov, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrathin films of regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (RR-P3HT) were deposited through a dip-coating technique and utilized as the semiconducting film in field-effect transistors (FETs). Proper selection of the substrate and solution concentration enabled the growth of a monolayer-thick RR-P3HT...... film. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), U-V-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and grazing incidence diffraction were used to study the growth mechanism, thickness and orientation of self-organized monolayer thick RR-P3HT films on SiO2 surfaces. Films were found to adopt a Stranski...

  17. ReS2-based interlayer tunnel field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Omar B.; Movva, Hema C. P.; Prasad, Nitin; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Kang, Sangwoo; Corbet, Chris M.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Register, Leonard F.; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report the fabrication and characterization of a vertical resonant interlayer tunneling field-effect transistor created using exfoliated, few-layer rhenium disulfide (ReS2) flakes as the electrodes and hexagonal boron nitride as the tunnel barrier. Due to the Γ-point conduction band minimum, the ReS2 based system offers the possibility of resonant interlayer tunneling and associated low-voltage negative differential resistance (NDR) without rotational alignment of the electrode crystal orientations. Substantial NDR is observed, which appears consistent with in-plane crystal momentum conserving tunneling, although considerably broadened by scattering consistent within low mobility ReS2 flakes.

  18. Laser patterned polymer/nanotube composite electrodes for nanowire transistors on flexible substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail

    2017-01-01

    almost four orders of magnitude after adding f-MWCNT. Work function of PEDOT:PSS/f-MWCNT films was ~ 0.5eV higher as compared to the work function of pure PEDOT:PSS films, determined by Kelvin probe method. Field-effect transistors source-drain electrodes were prepared on PET plastic substrates where...... transistors were completed by depositing parylene C as polymer gate dielectric and gold as the top-gate electrode. Transistor characteristics showed p-type conduction with excellent gate electrode coupling, with an ON/OFF ratio of ~ 200. Thereby, we demonstrate the feasibility of using high workfunction......, printable PEDOT:PSS/MWCNT composite inks for patterning source/drain electrodes for nanowire transistors on flexible substrates....

  19. Liquid Crystals for Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary; Kelly, Stephen M.

    Columnar, smectic and lamellar polymeric liquid crystals are widely recognized as very promising charge-transporting organic semiconductors due to their ability to spontaneously self-assemble into highly ordered domains in uniform thin films over large areas. The transport properties of smectic and columnar liquid crystals are discussed in Chaps. 2 (10.1007/978-90-481-2873-0_2) and 3 (10.1007/978-90-481-2873-0_3). Here we examine their application to organic field-effect transistors (OFETs): after a short introduction in Sect. 9.1 we introduce the OFET configuration and show how the mobility is measured in Sect. 9.2. Section 9.3 discusses polymeric liquid crystalline semiconductors in OFETs. We review research that shows that annealing of polymers in a fluid mesophase gives a more ordered microcrystalline morphology on cooling than that kinetically determined by solution processing of the thin film. We also demonstrate the benefits of monodomain alignment and show the application of liquid crystals in light-emitting field-effect transistors. Some columnar and smectic phases are highly ordered with short intermolecular separation to give large π-π coupling. We discuss their use in OFETs in Sects. 9.4, and 9.5 respectively. Section 9.6 summarises the conclusions of the chapter.

  20. Potential of carbon nanotube field effect transistors for analogue circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khizar Hayat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This Letter presents a detailed comparison of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs with special focus on carbon nanotube FET's potential for implementing analogue circuits in the mm-wave and sub-terahertz range. The latest CNFET lithographic dimensions place it at-par with complementary metal oxide semiconductor in terms of current handling capability, whereas the forecasted improvement in the lithography enables the CNFETs to handle more than twice the current of MOSFETs. The comparison of RF parameters shows superior performance of CNFETs with a g(m, f(T and f(max of 2.7, 2.6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively. MOSFET- and CNFET-based inverter, three-stage ring oscillator and LC oscillator have been designed and compared as well. The CNFET-based inverters are found to be ten times faster, the ring oscillator demonstrates three times higher oscillation frequency and CNFET-based LC oscillator also shows improved performance than its MOSFET counterpart.

  1. Potential of carbon nanotube field effect transistors for analogue circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hayat, Khizar

    2013-05-11

    This Letter presents a detailed comparison of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with special focus on carbon nanotube FET\\'s potential for implementing analogue circuits in the mm-wave and sub-terahertz range. The latest CNFET lithographic dimensions place it at-par with complementary metal oxide semiconductor in terms of current handling capability, whereas the forecasted improvement in the lithography enables the CNFETs to handle more than twice the current of MOSFETs. The comparison of RF parameters shows superior performance of CNFETs with a g m , f T and f max of 2.7, 2.6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively. MOSFET- and CNFET-based inverter, three-stage ring oscillator and LC oscillator have been designed and compared as well. The CNFET-based inverters are found to be ten times faster, the ring oscillator demonstrates three times higher oscillation frequency and CNFET-based LC oscillator also shows improved performance than its MOSFET counterpart.

  2. Gate-Sensing Coherent Charge Oscillations in a Silicon Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M Fernando; Shevchenko, Sergey N; Barraud, Sylvain; Johansson, J Robert; Ferguson, Andrew J; Nori, Franco; Betz, Andreas C

    2016-03-09

    Quantum mechanical effects induced by the miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology hamper the performance and scalability prospects of field-effect transistors. However, those quantum effects, such as tunneling and coherence, can be harnessed to use existing CMOS technology for quantum information processing. Here, we report the observation of coherent charge oscillations in a double quantum dot formed in a silicon nanowire transistor detected via its dispersive interaction with a radio frequency resonant circuit coupled via the gate. Differential capacitance changes at the interdot charge transitions allow us to monitor the state of the system in the strong-driving regime where we observe the emergence of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference on the phase response of the resonator. A theoretical analysis of the dispersive signal demonstrates that quantum and tunneling capacitance changes must be included to describe the qubit-resonator interaction. Furthermore, a Fourier analysis of the interference pattern reveals a charge coherence time, T2 ≈ 100 ps. Our results demonstrate charge coherent control and readout in a simple silicon transistor and open up the possibility to implement charge and spin qubits in existing CMOS technology.

  3. Selective-Area Growth of InAs Nanowires on Ge and Vertical Transistor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Izhizaka, Fumiya; Fukui, Takashi

    2015-11-11

    III-V compound semiconductor and Ge are promising channel materials for future low-power and high-performance integrated circuits. A heterogeneous integration of these materials on the same platform, however, raises serious problem owing to a huge mismatch of carrier mobility. We proposed direct integration of perfectly vertically aligned InAs nanowires on Ge as a method for new alternative integrated circuits and demonstrated a high-performance InAs nanowire-vertical surrounding-gate transistor. Virtually 100% yield of vertically aligned InAs nanowires was achieved by controlling the initial surface of Ge and high-quality InAs nanowires were obtained regardless of lattice mismatch (6.7%). The transistor performance showed significantly higher conductivity with good gate control compared to Si-based conventional field-effect transistors: the drain current was 0.65 mA/μm, and the transconductance was 2.2 mS/μm at drain-source voltage of 0.50 V. These demonstrations are a first step for building alternative integrated circuits using vertical III-V/multigate planar Ge FETs.

  4. Highly Sensitive Ammonia Gas Sensor Based on Single-Crystal Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) Organic Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Seohyun; Park, Yoonkyung; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Sung, Myung Mo

    2017-11-28

    A highly sensitive organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based sensor for ammonia in the range of 0.01 to 25 ppm was developed. The sensor was fabricated by employing an array of single-crystal poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanowires as the organic semiconductor (OSC) layer of an OFET with a top-contact geometry. The electrical characteristics (field-effect mobility, on/off current ratio) of the single-crystal P3HT nanowire OFET were about 2 orders of magnitude larger than those of the P3HT thin film OFET with the same geometry. The P3HT nanowire OFET showed excellent sensitivity to ammonia, about 3 times higher than that of the P3HT thin film OFET at 25 ppm ammonia. The ammonia response of the OFET was reversible and was not affected by changes in relative humidity from 45 to 100%. The high ammonia sensitivity of the P3HT nanowire OFET is believed to result from the single crystal nature and high surface/volume ratio of the P3HT nanowire used in the OSC layer.

  5. Electromechanical field effect transistors based on multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z. T.; Lv, Z. T.; Zhang, X. D.

    2017-06-01

    Based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian approach, we demonstrate that the electromechanical field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized by using the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs). The synergistic combination of the electric field and the external strains can establish the on-off switching since the electric field can shift or split the energy band, and the mechanical strains can widen or narrow the band widths. This kind of multilayer PNR FETs, much solider than the monolayer PNR one and more easily biased by different electric fields, has more transport channels consequently leading to the higher on-off current ratio or the higher sensitivity to the electric fields. Meanwhile, the strain-induced band-flattening will be beneficial for improving the flexibility in designing the electromechanical FETs. In addition, such electromechanical FETs can act as strain-controlled FETs or mechanical detectors for detecting the strains, indicating their potential applications in nano- and micro-electromechanical fields.

  6. Gas Sensors Based on Polymer Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on polymer field-effect transistor (PFET based gas sensor with polymer as the sensing layer, which interacts with gas analyte and thus induces the change of source-drain current (ΔISD. Dependent on the sensing layer which can be semiconducting polymer, dielectric layer or conducting polymer gate, the PFET sensors can be subdivided into three types. For each type of sensor, we present the molecular structure of sensing polymer, the gas analyte and the sensing performance. Most importantly, we summarize various analyte–polymer interactions, which help to understand the sensing mechanism in the PFET sensors and can provide possible approaches for the sensor fabrication in the future.

  7. Touching polymer chains by organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Dong, Huanli; Wang, Zhigang; Hu, Wenping

    2014-09-17

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are used to directly "touch" the movement and dynamics of polymer chains, and then determine Tg. As a molecular-level probe, the conducting channel of OFETs exhibits several unique advantages: 1) it directly detects the motion and dynamics of polymer chain at Tg; 2) it allows the measurement of size effects in ultrathin polymer films (even down to 6 nm), which bridges the gap in understanding effects between surface and interface. This facile and reliable determination of Tg of polymer films and the understanding of polymer chain dynamics guide a new prospect for OFETs besides their applications in organic electronics and casting new light on the fundamental understanding of the nature of polymer chain dynamics.

  8. Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.

  9. Recent Trends in Field-Effect Transistors-Based Immunosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Mazarin de Moraes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunosensors are analytical platforms that detect specific antigen-antibody interactions and play an important role in a wide range of applications in biomedical clinical diagnosis, food safety, and monitoring contaminants in the environment. Field-effect transistors (FET immunosensors have been developed as promising alternatives to conventional immunoassays, which require complicated processes and long-time data acquisition. The electrical signal of FET-based immunosensors is generated as a result of the antigen-antibody conjugation. FET biosensors present real-time and rapid response, require small sample volume, and exhibit higher sensitivity and selectivity. This review brings an overview on the recent literature of FET-based immunosensors, highlighting a diversity of nanomaterials modified with specific receptors as immunosensing platforms for the ultrasensitive detection of various biomolecules.

  10. A tunable colloidal quantum dot photo field-effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Subir

    2011-01-01

    We fabricate and investigate field-effect transistors in which a light-absorbing photogate modulates the flow of current along the channel. The photogate consists of colloidal quantum dots that efficiently transfer photoelectrons to the channel across a charge-separating (type-II) heterointerface, producing a primary and sustained secondary flow that is terminated via electron back-recombination across the interface. We explore colloidal quantum dot sizes corresponding to bandgaps ranging from 730 to 1475 nm and also investigate various stoichiometries of aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) channel materials. We investigate the role of trap state energies in both the colloidal quantum dot energy film and the AZO channel. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.

  12. Intrinsic noise in aggressively scaled field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albareda, G; Jiménez, D; Oriols, X

    2009-01-01

    According to roadmap projections, nanoscale field-effect transistors (FETs) with channel lengths below 30 nm and several gates (for improving their gate control over the source–drain conductance) will come to the market in the next few years. However, few studies deal with the noise performance of these aggressively scaled FETs. In this work, a study of the effect of the intrinsic (thermal and shot) noise of such FETs on the performance of an analog amplifier and a digital inverter is carried out by means of numerical simulations with a powerful Monte Carlo (quantum) simulator. The numerical data indicate important drawbacks in the noise performance of aggressively scaled FETs that could invalidate roadmap projections as regards analog and digital applications

  13. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A review of III-V planar nanowire arrays: selective lateral VLS epitaxy and 3D transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Miao, Xin; Chabak, Kelson D.; Li, Xiuling

    2017-10-01

    Nanowires have long been regarded as a promising architecture for beyond Si CMOS logic, future III-V RF electronics, next generation optoelectronic applications, as well as heterogeneous integration. The inherent 3D structure also enables new device concepts that are otherwise not accessible with conventional technology. Nanowires grown using bottom-up epitaxial methods such as metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are free of ion-induced damage, which is especially critical for III-V because of the irreversibility of such damage, and can be scaled to dimensions smaller than lithographically defined. The challenges for nanowire based devices have been the controllability and compatibility with Si CMOS manufacturing. The discovery of parallel arrays of planar III-V nanowire growth mode provides an in-plane nanowire configuration that is perfectly compatible with existing planar processing technology for industry. The selective lateral epitaxy nature guided by the metal nanoparticles via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism opens up a new paradigm of crystal growth and consequently enabled in situ lateral and radial junctions. In this article, we review the planar nanowire based transistor development, particularly, planar III-As compound semiconductor based transistors enabled by this bottom-up self-assembled selective lateral VLS mechanism. We first review the characteristics and mechanism of planar nanowire growth, then focus on the growth, fabrication, and DC and RF performance of metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors, metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors, and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), before providing our perspective on future development.

  15. Silicon junctionless field effect transistors as room temperature terahertz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczewski, J.; Knap, W.; Tomaszewski, D.; Zaborowski, M.; Zagrajek, P.

    2015-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation detection by junctionless metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (JL MOSFETs) was studied and compared with THz detection using conventional MOSFETs. It has been shown that in contrast to the behavior of standard transistors, the junctionless devices have a significant responsivity also in the open channel (low resistance) state. The responsivity for a photolithographically defined JL FET was 70 V/W and the noise equivalent power 460 pW/√Hz. Working in the open channel state may be advantageous for THz wireless and imaging applications because of its low thermal noise and possible high operating speed or large bandwidth. It has been proven that the junctionless MOSFETs can also operate in a zero gate bias mode, which enables simplification of the THz array circuitry. Existing models of THz detection by MOSFETs were considered and it has been demonstrated that the process of detection by these junctionless devices cannot be explained within the framework of the commonly accepted models and therefore requires a new theoretical approach.

  16. Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.

  17. Slowing DNA Translocation in a Nanofluidic Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Yobas, Levent

    2016-04-26

    Here, we present an experimental demonstration of slowing DNA translocation across a nanochannel by modulating the channel surface charge through an externally applied gate bias. The experiments were performed on a nanofluidic field-effect transistor, which is a monolithic integrated platform featuring a 50 nm-diameter in-plane alumina nanocapillary whose entire length is surrounded by a gate electrode. The field-effect transistor behavior was validated on the gating of ionic conductance and protein transport. The gating of DNA translocation was subsequently studied by measuring discrete current dips associated with single λ-DNA translocation events under a source-to-drain bias of 1 V. The translocation speeds under various gate bias conditions were extracted by fitting event histograms of the measured translocation time to the first passage time distributions obtained from a simple 1D biased diffusion model. A positive gate bias was observed to slow the translocation of single λ-DNA chains markedly; the translocation speed was reduced by an order of magnitude from 18.4 mm/s obtained under a floating gate down to 1.33 mm/s under a positive gate bias of 9 V. Therefore, a dynamic and flexible regulation of the DNA translocation speed, which is vital for single-molecule sequencing, can be achieved on this device by simply tuning the gate bias. The device is realized in a conventional semiconductor microfabrication process without the requirement of advanced lithography, and can be potentially further developed into a compact electronic single-molecule sequencer.

  18. Nanowire-nanopore transistor sensor for DNA detection during translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Xiong, Qihua; Fang, Ying; Qing, Quan; Lieber, Charles

    2011-03-01

    Nanopore sequencing, as a promising low cost, high throughput sequencing technique, has been proposed more than a decade ago. Due to the incompatibility between small ionic current signal and fast translocation speed and the technical difficulties on large scale integration of nanopore for direct ionic current sequencing, alternative methods rely on integrated DNA sensors have been proposed, such as using capacitive coupling or tunnelling current etc. But none of them have been experimentally demonstrated yet. Here we show that for the first time an amplified sensor signal has been experimentally recorded from a nanowire-nanopore field effect transistor sensor during DNA translocation. Independent multi-channel recording was also demonstrated for the first time. Our results suggest that the signal is from highly localized potential change caused by DNA translocation in none-balanced buffer condition. Given this method may produce larger signal for smaller nanopores, we hope our experiment can be a starting point for a new generation of nanopore sequencing devices with larger signal, higher bandwidth and large-scale multiplexing capability and finally realize the ultimate goal of low cost high throughput sequencing.

  19. Fringing field effects in negative capacitance field-effect transistors with a ferroelectric gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Junichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Ikegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyuki; Migita, Shinji; Asai, Hidehiro; Toriumi, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We study the effects of fringing electric fields on the behavior of negative-capacitance (NC) field-effect transistors (FETs) with a silicon-on-insulator body and a gate stack consisting of an oxide film, an internal metal film, a ferroelectric film, and a gate electrode using our own device simulator that can properly handle the complicated relationship between the polarization and the electric field in ferroelectric materials. The behaviors of such NC FETs and the corresponding metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FETs are simulated and compared with each other to evaluate the effects of the NC of the ferroelectric film. Then, the fringing field effects are evaluated by comparing the NC effects in NC FETs with and without gate spacers. The fringing field between the gate stack, especially the internal metal film, and the source/drain region induces more charges at the interface of the film with the ferroelectric film. Accordingly, the function of the NC to modulate the gate voltage and the resulting function to improve the subthreshold swing are enhanced. We also investigate the relationships of these fringing field effects to the drain voltage and four design parameters of NC FETs, i.e., gate length, gate spacer permittivity, internal metal film thickness, and oxide film thickness.

  20. Oxygen plasma exposure effects on indium oxide nanowire transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongmin; Delker, Collin; Janes, David B; Chen Pochiang; Zhou Chongwu; Ju, Sanghyun

    2010-01-01

    In 2 O 3 nanowire transistors are fabricated with and without oxygen plasma exposure of various regions of the nanowire. In two-terminal devices, exposure of the channel region results in an increased conductance of the channel region. For In 2 O 3 nanowire transistors in which the source/drain regions are exposed to oxygen plasma, the mobility, on-off current ratio and subthreshold slope, are improved with respect to those of non-exposed devices. Simulations using a two-dimensional device simulator (MEDICI) show that improved device performance can be quantified in terms of changes in interfacial trap, shifts in fixed charge densities and the corresponding reduction in Schottky barrier height at the contacts.

  1. Single-crystalline Ni2Ge/Ge/Ni2Ge nanowire heterostructure transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Xiu, Faxian; Hong, Augustin J; Chen, Shengyu; Wang, Minsheng; Zeng, Caifu; Yang, Hong-Jie; Tuan, Hsing-Yu; Tsai, Cho-Jen; Chen, Lih Juann; Wang, Kang L

    2010-12-17

    In this study, we report on the formation of a single-crystalline Ni(2)Ge/Ge/Ni(2)Ge nanowire heterostructure and its field effect characteristics by controlled reaction between a supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) synthesized Ge nanowire and Ni metal contacts. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal a wide temperature range to convert the Ge nanowire to single-crystalline Ni(2)Ge by a thermal diffusion process. The maximum current density of the fully germanide Ni(2)Ge nanowires exceeds 3.5 × 10(7) A cm(-2), and the resistivity is about 88 μΩ cm. The in situ reaction examined by TEM shows atomically sharp interfaces for the Ni(2)Ge/Ge/Ni(2)Ge heterostructure. The interface epitaxial relationships are determined to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Back-gate field effect transistors (FETs) were also fabricated using this low resistivity Ni(2)Ge as source/drain contacts. Electrical measurements show a good p-type FET behavior with an on/off ratio over 10(3) and a one order of magnitude improvement in hole mobility from that of SFLS-synthesized Ge nanowire.

  2. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adzhri, R., E-mail: adzhri@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Md Arshad, M.K., E-mail: mohd.khairuddin@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Microelectronic Engineering (SoME), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Gopinath, Subash C.B., E-mail: subash@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Bioprocess Engineering (SBE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ruslinda, A.R., E-mail: ruslinda@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Fathil, M.F.M., E-mail: faris.fathil@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Ayub, R.M., E-mail: ramzan@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Nor, M. Nuzaihan Mohd, E-mail: m.nuzaihan@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Voon, C.H., E-mail: chvoon@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-04-21

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications. - Highlights: • Performance of FET-based biosensors for the detection of biomolecules is presented. • Silicon nanowire, polyaniline and graphene are the highlighted nanoscaled materials as sensing transducers. • The importance of surface material interaction with the surrounding environment is discussed. • Different device structure architectures for ease in fabrication and high sensitivity of sensing are presented.

  3. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzhri, R.; Md Arshad, M.K.; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Ruslinda, A.R.; Fathil, M.F.M.; Ayub, R.M.; Nor, M. Nuzaihan Mohd; Voon, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications. - Highlights: • Performance of FET-based biosensors for the detection of biomolecules is presented. • Silicon nanowire, polyaniline and graphene are the highlighted nanoscaled materials as sensing transducers. • The importance of surface material interaction with the surrounding environment is discussed. • Different device structure architectures for ease in fabrication and high sensitivity of sensing are presented.

  4. Unique Characteristics of Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistors on Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2014-07-01

    A vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) based on silicon (Si) substrate has been proposed and simulated using a semi-classical theory. A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and an n-type Si nanowire in series construct the channel of the transistor. The CNTFET presents ambipolar characteristics at positive drain voltage (Vd) and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The current is significantly influenced by the doping level of n-Si and the SWNT band gap. The n-branch current of the ambipolar characteristics increases with increasing doping level of the n-Si while the p-branch current decreases. The SWNT band gap has the same influence on the p-branch current at a positive Vd and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The lower the SWNT band gap, the higher the current. However, it has no impact on the n-branch current in the ambipolar characteristics. Thick oxide is found to significantly degrade the current and the subthreshold slope of the CNTFETs.

  5. SiC Optically Modulated Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2009-01-01

    An optically modulated field-effect transistor (OFET) based on a silicon carbide junction field-effect transistor (JFET) is under study as, potentially, a prototype of devices that could be useful for detecting ultraviolet light. The SiC OFET is an experimental device that is one of several devices, including commercial and experimental photodiodes, that were initially evaluated as detectors of ultraviolet light from combustion and that could be incorporated into SiC integrated circuits to be designed to function as combustion sensors. The ultraviolet-detection sensitivity of the photodiodes was found to be less than desired, such that it would be necessary to process their outputs using high-gain amplification circuitry. On the other hand, in principle, the function of the OFET could be characterized as a combination of detection and amplification. In effect, its sensitivity could be considerably greater than that of a photodiode, such that the need for amplification external to the photodetector could be reduced or eliminated. The experimental SiC OFET was made by processes similar to JFET-fabrication processes developed at Glenn Research Center. The gate of the OFET is very long, wide, and thin, relative to the gates of typical prior SiC JFETs. Unlike in prior SiC FETs, the gate is almost completely transparent to near-ultraviolet and visible light. More specifically: The OFET includes a p+ gate layer less than 1/4 m thick, through which photons can be transported efficiently to the p+/p body interface. The gate is relatively long and wide (about 0.5 by 0.5 mm), such that holes generated at the body interface form a depletion layer that modulates the conductivity of the channel between the drain and the source. The exact physical mechanism of modulation of conductivity is a subject of continuing research. It is known that injection of minority charge carriers (in this case, holes) at the interface exerts a strong effect on the channel, resulting in amplification

  6. Robust mode space approach for atomistic modeling of realistically large nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun Z.; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Nanoelectronic transistors have reached 3D length scales in which the number of atoms is countable. Truly atomistic device representations are needed to capture the essential functionalities of the devices. Atomistic quantum transport simulations of realistically extended devices are, however, computationally very demanding. The widely used mode space (MS) approach can significantly reduce the numerical cost, but a good MS basis is usually very hard to obtain for atomistic full-band models. In this work, a robust and parallel algorithm is developed to optimize the MS basis for atomistic nanowires. This enables engineering-level, reliable tight binding non-equilibrium Green's function simulation of nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with a realistic cross section of 10 nm × 10 nm using a small computer cluster. This approach is applied to compare the performance of InGaAs and Si nanowire n-type MOSFETs (nMOSFETs) with various channel lengths and cross sections. Simulation results with full-band accuracy indicate that InGaAs nanowire nMOSFETs have no drive current advantage over their Si counterparts for cross sections up to about 10 nm × 10 nm.

  7. Polymer-electrolyte-gated nanowire synaptic transistors for neuromorphic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Can; Sun, Jia; Gou, Guangyang; Kong, Ling-An; Qian, Chuan; Dai, Guozhang; Yang, Junliang; Guo, Guang-hua

    2017-09-01

    Polymer-electrolytes are formed by dissolving a salt in polymer instead of water, the conducting mechanism involves the segmental motion-assisted diffusion of ion in the polymer matrix. Here, we report on the fabrication of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowire synaptic transistors using polymer-electrolyte gating. A thin layer of poly(ethylene oxide) and lithium perchlorate (PEO/LiClO4) was deposited on top of the devices, which was used to boost device performances. A voltage spike applied on the in-plane gate attracts ions toward the polymer-electrolyte/SnO2 nanowire interface and the ions are gradually returned after the pulse is removed, which can induce a dynamic excitatory postsynaptic current in the nanowire channel. The SnO2 synaptic transistors exhibit the behavior of short-term plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation and self-adaptation, which is related to the electric double-effect regulation. In addition, the synaptic logic functions and the logical function transformation are also discussed. Such single SnO2 nanowire-based synaptic transistors are of great importance for future neuromorphic devices.

  8. Performance improvement of junctionless field effect transistors using p-GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajelan, F.; Goharrizi, A. Yazdanpanah; Faez, R.; Darvish, G.

    2017-10-01

    The performance analysis of junctionless (JL) gate-all-around (GAA) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) is investigated using the Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formalism. The main problem of JL transistors is found to be the OFF-state current. In the present work, the OFF-state current of such devices is decreased by choosing channel materials with a large band gap and heavy effective mass. Our simulation results show that the OFF-state current of JL transistors with p-type GaAs is less than that of n-type GaAs. Plus, the heterostructure (HES) channel is proposed in this study for improving the device characteristics of JL-FETs as compared to homostructure (HOS). Therefore, p-type GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs are used as the channel material for HOS and HES devices, respectively. The simulation is performed for different thicknesses of GaAs and AlGaAs with a fixed diameter of 5 nm for the nanowire. It is shown that the optimum electronic characteristics of HES devices is achieved when the thicknesses of GaAs and AlGaAs layers are chosen to be 0.5 nm and 4 nm, respectively. OFF-state current (IOFF) of 5.32 × 10-16 A, ON-state current (ION) of 6.44 × 10-6 A, ON/OFF current ratio (ION/IOFF) of 1.21 × 1010, subthreshold slope (SS) of 60.8 mV/dec, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 4.6 mV/V, and threshold voltage (VTH) of 330 mV are obtained for the proposed HES JL-GAA-FET.

  9. Tailoring Functional Interlayers in Organic Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliulo, Maria; Manoli, Kyriaki; Macchia, Eleonora; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-12-09

    This review aims to provide an update on the development involving dielectric/organic semiconductor (OSC) interfaces for the realization of biofunctional organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Specific focus is given on biointerfaces and recent technological approaches where biological materials serve as interlayers in back-gated OFETs for biosensing applications. Initially, to better understand the effects produced by the presence of biomolecules deposited at the dielectric/OSC interfacial region, the tuning of the dielectric surface properties by means of self-assembled monolayers is discussed. Afterward, emphasis is given to the modification of solid-state dielectric surfaces, in particular inorganic dielectrics, with biological molecules such as peptides and proteins. Special attention is paid on how the presence of an interlayer of biomolecules and bioreceptors underneath the OSC impacts on the charge transport and sensing performance of the device. Moreover, naturally occurring materials, such as carbohydrates and DNA, used directly as bulk gating materials in OFETs are reviewed. The role of metal contact/OSC interface in the overall performance of OFET-based sensors is also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Organic field-effect transistor-based gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Penglei; Hu, Wenping

    2015-04-21

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are one of the key components of modern organic electronics. While the past several decades have witnessed huge successes in high-performance OFETs, their sophisticated functionalization with regard to the responses towards external stimulations has also aroused increasing attention and become an important field of general concern. This is promoted by the inherent merits of organic semiconductors, including considerable variety in molecular design, low cost, light weight, mechanical flexibility, and solution processability, as well as by the intrinsic advantages of OFETs including multiparameter accessibility and ease of large-scale manufacturing, which provide OFETs with great potential as portable yet reliable sensors offering high sensitivity, selectivity, and expeditious responses. With special emphases on the works achieved since 2009, this tutorial review focuses on OFET-based gas sensors. The working principles of this type of gas sensors are discussed in detail, the state-of-the-art protocols developed for high-performance gas sensing are highlighted, and the advanced gas discrimination systems in terms of sensory arrays of OFETs are also introduced. This tutorial review intends to provide readers with a deep understanding for the future design of high-quality OFET gas sensors for potential uses.

  11. Low frequency noise in tunneling field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, S. T.; Huang, D. M.; Jiao, G. F.; Yu, H. Y.; Li, Ming-Fu

    2017-11-01

    An analytical model is developed for the fluctuation of the electrostatic potential induced by a charged trap in the gate oxide in tunneling field effect transistor (TFET). The model is applied to get the fluctuation of the drain current induced by an interface trap in TFET. A low frequency noise model based on the current transportation through the tunneling and the channel is proposed. The dependency of the normalized power spectra SId/Id2 on the frequency f and the gate bias Vg for TFET is obtained. The noise spectra in TFET are found to be very different from those of conventional MOSFETs, and have the superposition of Lorentzian and 1/f lineshapes with the former associated with tunneling and the later with channel transportation. The potential and current models are compared with TCAD simulation. The calculated IdVg and the noise spectra are also compared with our experimental observations. The results show that the normalized spectra of the current noise due to the tunneling are more significantly affected by Vg than that due to the transportation through the channel. The results also show that the noise from the channel is dominated by the mobility fluctuation rather than the carrier number fluctuation.

  12. Tunnel field-effect transistor with two gated intrinsic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose and validate (using simulations a novel design of silicon tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET, based on a reverse-biased p+-p-n-n+ structure. 2D device simulation results show that our devices have significant improvements of switching performance compared with more conventional devices based on p-i-n structure. With independent gate voltages applied to two gated intrinsic regions, band-to-band tunneling (BTBT could take place at the p-n junction, and no abrupt degenerate doping profile is required. We developed single-side-gate (SSG structure and double-side-gate (DSG structure. SSG devices with HfO2 gate dielectric have a point subthreshold swing of 9.58 mV/decade, while DSG devices with polysilicon gate electrode material and HfO2 gate dielectric have a point subthreshold swing of 16.39 mV/decade. These DSG devices have ON-current of 0.255 μA/μm, while that is lower for SSG devices. Having two nano-scale independent gates will be quite challenging to realize with good uniformity across the wafer and the improved behavior of our TFET makes it a promising steep-slope switch candidate for further investigations.

  13. Intrinsic Charge Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzorov, Vitaly

    2005-03-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential components of modern electronics. Despite the rapid progress of organic electronics, understanding of fundamental aspects of the charge transport in organic devices is still lacking. Recently, the OFETs based on highly ordered organic crystals have been fabricated with innovative techniques that preserve the high quality of single-crystal organic surfaces. This technological progress facilitated the study of transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors [1-4]. It has been demonstrated that the intrinsic polaronic transport, not dominated by disorder, with a remarkably high mobility of ``holes'' μ = 20 cm^2/Vs can be achieved in these devices at room temperature [4]. The signatures of the intrinsic polaronic transport are the anisotropy of the carrier mobility and an increase of μ with cooling. These and other aspects of the charge transport in organic single-crystal FETs will be discussed. Co-authors are Etienne Menard, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Valery Kiryukhin, Rutgers University; John Rogers, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Michael Gershenson, Rutgers University. [1] V. Podzorov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1739 (2003); ibid. 83, 3504 (2003). [2] V. C. Sundar et al., Science 303, 1644 (2004). [3] R. W. I. de Boer et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 1302 (2004). [4] V. Podzorov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 086602 (2004).

  14. Low frequency noise sources and mechanisms in semiconductor nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, Collin James

    Semiconductor nanowires are attractive candidates for use in future high-speed electronics, transparent/flexible devices, and chemical sensors. Among other materials, III-V semiconductors have gained considerable interest for their high bulk mobility and low band gap, making them promising for high-speed nanoscale devices. However, nanowire devices also exhibit high levels of low-frequency noise due to their low band gap and high surface-to-volume ratio. The sources and mechanisms of this noise must be understood and controlled in order to realize practical applications of nanowire electronics. This work seeks to understand the underlying noise mechanisms of nanowire transistors in order discover ways to reduce noise levels. It also demonstrates how noise can provide a spectroscopy for analyzing device quality. Most traditional noise studies tend to apply standard MOSFET models to nanowire noise and transport, which lump together all possible independent noise sources in a nanowire, ignoring effects of the contacts or multiple gates, and could lead to misestimation of the noise figures for a device. This work demonstrates how noise in a nanowire transistor can stem from the channel, ungated access regions, metal- semiconductor contacts, and tunnel barriers, all independently adding to the total noise. Each source of noise can contribute and may dominate the overall noise behavior under certain bias regimes and temperatures, as demonstrated in this work through various device structures and measurements. For example, the contacts can influence noise even below the threshold voltage under certain conditions, emphasizing the need for high-quality metal-semiconductor interface technology.

  15. Low Temperature Characterization of PMOS-type Gate-all-around Silicon nanowire FETs as single-hole-transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, B. H.; Hwang, S. W.; Lee, Y. Y.; Son, M. H.; Ahn, D.; Cho, K. H.; Yeo, K. H.; Kim, D.-W.; Jin, G. Y.; Park, D.

    2011-12-01

    We report the single hole tunneling characteristics observed from a PMOS-type gate-all-around silicon nanowire field-effect-transistor with the radius 5 nm and the length 44 nm. The total capacitance of the quantum dot obtained from the measured Coulomb oscillations and Coulomb diamonds matches with the ideal capacitance of the silicon cylinder. It suggests that the observed single hole tunneling is originated from the fabricated structure.

  16. Nanowire transistors physics of devices and materials in one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Colinge, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    From quantum mechanical concepts to practical circuit applications, this book presents a self-contained and up-to-date account of the physics and technology of nanowire semiconductor devices. It includes a unified account of the critical ideas central to low-dimensional physics and transistor physics which equips readers with a common framework and language to accelerate scientific and technological developments across the two fields. Detailed descriptions of novel quantum mechanical effects such as quantum current oscillations, the metal-to-semiconductor transition and the transition from classical transistor to single-electron transistor operation are described in detail, in addition to real-world applications in the fields of nanoelectronics, biomedical sensing techniques, and advanced semiconductor research. Including numerous illustrations to help readers understand these phenomena, this is an essential resource for researchers and professional engineers working on semiconductor devices and materials in ...

  17. Simulation of nanowire tunneling transistors: From the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to full-band phonon-assisted tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-04-01

    Nanowire band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) are simulated using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation and an atomistic, full-band quantum transport solver including direct and phonon-assisted tunneling (PAT). It is found that the WKB approximation properly works if one single imaginary path connecting the valence band (VB) and the conduction band (CB) dominates the tunneling process as in direct band gap semiconductors. However, PAT is essential in Si and Ge nanowire TFETs where multiple, tightly-coupled, imaginary paths exist between the VB and the CB.

  18. Non-Planar Nanotube and Wavy Architecture Based Ultra-High Performance Field Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2016-11-01

    This dissertation presents a unique concept for a device architecture named the nanotube (NT) architecture, which is capable of higher drive current compared to the Gate-All-Around Nanowire architecture when applied to heterostructure Tunnel Field Effect Transistors. Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, heterostructure NT TFET leverages physically larger tunneling area thus achieving higher driver current (ION) and saving real estates by eliminating arraying requirement. We discuss the physics of p-type (Silicon/Indium Arsenide) and n-type (Silicon/Germanium hetero-structure) based TFETs. Numerical TCAD simulations have shown that NT TFETs have 5x and 1.6 x higher normalized ION when compared to GAA NW TFET for p and n-type TFETs, respectively. This is due to the availability of larger tunneling junction cross sectional area, and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination, while achieving sub 60 mV/dec performance for more than 5 orders of magnitude of drain current, thus enabling scaling down of Vdd to 0.5 V. This dissertation also introduces a novel thin-film-transistors architecture that is named the Wavy Channel (WC) architecture, which allows for extending device width by integrating vertical fin-like substrate corrugations giving rise to up to 50% larger device width, without occupying extra chip area. The novel architecture shows 2x higher output drive current per unit chip area when compared to conventional planar architecture. The current increase is attributed to both the extra device width and 50% enhancement in field effect mobility due to electrostatic gating effects. Digital circuits are fabricated to demonstrate the potential of integrating WC TFT based circuits. WC inverters have shown 2× the peak-to-peak output voltage for the same input, and ~2× the operation frequency of the planar inverters for the same peak-to-peak output voltage. WC NAND circuits have shown 2× higher peak-to-peak output voltage, and 3× lower high-to-low propagation

  19. CHEMICALLY MODIFIED FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS - POTENTIOMETRIC AG+ SELECTIVITY OF PVC MEMBRANES BASED ON MACROCYCLIC THIOETHERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRZOZKA, Z; COBBEN, PLHM; REINHOUDT, DN; EDEMA, JJH; KELLOGG, RM

    1993-01-01

    A chemically modified field-effect transistor (CHEMFET) with satisfactory Ag+ selectivity is described. The potentiometric Ag+ selectivities of CHEMFETs with plasticized PVC membranes based on macrocyclic thioethers have been determined. All the macrocyclic thioethers tested showed silver response

  20. Comparison between Field Effect Transistors and Bipolar Junction Transistors as Transducers in Electrochemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sufi; Lu, Minhua; Jagtiani, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Field effect transistors (FET) have been widely used as transducers in electrochemical sensors for over 40 years. In this report, a FET transducer is compared with the recently proposed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) transducer. Measurements are performed on two chloride electrochemical sensors that are identical in all details except for the transducer device type. Comparative measurements show that the transducer choice significantly impacts the electrochemical sensor characteristics. Signal to noise ratio is 20 to 2 times greater for the BJT sensor. Sensitivity is also enhanced: BJT sensing signal changes by 10 times per pCl, whereas the FET signal changes by 8 or less times. Also, sensor calibration curves are impacted by the transducer choice. Unlike a FET sensor, the calibration curve of the BJT sensor is independent of applied voltages. Hence, a BJT sensor can make quantitative sensing measurements with minimal calibration requirements, an important characteristic for mobile sensing applications. As a demonstration for mobile applications, these BJT sensors are further investigated by measuring chloride levels in artificial human sweat for potential cystic fibrosis diagnostic use. In summary, the BJT device is demonstrated to be a superior transducer in comparison to a FET in an electrochemical sensor.

  1. Solution-processed ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and inverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.J.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Setayesh, S.; Veenendaal, E. van; Huisman, B.H.; Blom, P.W.M.; Hummelen, J.C.; Scherf, U.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    There is ample evidence that organic field-effect transistors have reached a stage where they can be industrialized, analogous to standard metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. Monocrystalline silicon technology is largely based on complementary MOS (CMOS) structures that use both n-type and

  2. Fabrication of a vertical channel field effect transistor and a study of its electrical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    A vertical channel field effect transistor on silicon was fabricated by diffusion technique and its electrical characteristics were studied as a function of voltage and temperature. It was found that this transistor has relatively high breakdown voltage of 65 volts for drain source and of 7.5 volts for gate source terminals. (author)

  3. Analysis of long-channel nanotube field-effect-transistors (NT FETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an analysis of long-channel nanotube (NT) field effect transistors (FET) from NASA's Ames Research Center. The structure of such a transistor including the electrode contact, 1D junction, and the planar junction is outlined. Also mentioned are various characteristics of a nanotube tip-equipped scanning tunnel microscope (STM).

  4. Two Dimensional Modeling of III-V Heterojunction Gate All Around Tunnel Field Effect Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Vijh; R.S. Gupta; Sujata Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Tunnel Field Effect Transistor is one of the extensively researched semiconductor devices, which has captured attention over the conventional Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. This device, due to its varied advantages, is considered in applications where devices are scaled down to deep sub-micron level. Like MOSFETs, many geometries of TFETs have been studied and analyzed in the past few years. This work, presents a two dimensional analytical model for a III-V Heterojunction ...

  5. Investigation of the Novel Attributes of a Dual Material Gate Nanoscale Tunnel Field Effect Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh, Sneh; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the application of a Dual Material Gate (DMG) in a Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) to simultaneously optimize the on-current, the off-current and the threshold voltage, and also improve the average subthreshold slope, the nature of the output characteristics and the immunity against the DIBL effects. We demonstrate that if appropriate work-functions are chosen for the gate materials on the source side and the drain side, the tunnel field effect transistor shows...

  6. Differential Releases of Dopamine and Neuropeptide Y from Histamine-Stimulated PC12 Cells Detected by an Aptamer-Modified Nanowire Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subhasree; Hsieh, Ying-Jhu; Liu, Chia-Rung; Yeh, Nai-Hsing; Hung, Hui-Hsing; Lai, Yew-Seng; Chou, Ai-Chuan; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Pan, Chien-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors modified with specific aptamers can directly detect the minute dopamine and neuropeptide Y released from cells. The binding of these molecules to the aptamers results in a conductance change of the transistor biosensor and illustrates the differential releasing mechanisms of these molecules stored in various vesicle pools. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High frequency III-V nanowire MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Erik

    2016-09-01

    III-V nanowire transistors are promising candidates for very high frequency electronics applications. The improved electrostatics originating from the gate-all-around geometry allow for more aggressive scaling as compared with planar field-effect transistors, and this can lead to device operation at very high frequencies. The very high mobility possible with In-rich devices can allow very high device performance at low operating voltages. GaN nanowires can take advantage of the large band gap for high voltage operation. In this paper, we review the basic physics and device performance of nanowire field- effect transistors relevant for high frequency performance. First, the geometry of lateral and vertical nanowire field-effect transistors is introduced, with special emphasis on the parasitic capacitances important for nanowire geometries. The basic important high frequency transistor metrics are introduced. Secondly, the scaling properties of gate-all-around nanowire transistors are introduced, based on geometric length scales, demonstrating the scaling possibilities of nanowire transistors. Thirdly, to model nanowire transistor performance, a two-band non-parabolic ballistic transistor model is used to efficiently calculate the current and transconductance as a function of band gap and nanowire size. The intrinsic RF metrics are also estimated. Finally, experimental state-of-the-art nanowire field-effect transistors are reviewed and benchmarked, lateral and vertical transistor geometries are explored, and different fabrication routes are highlighted. Lateral devices have demonstrated operation up to 350 GHz, and vertical devices up to 155 GHz.

  8. Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ralph L; Wipf, Mathias; Müller, Steffen; Bedner, Kristine; Wright, Iain A; Martin, Colin J; Constable, Edwin C; Fanget, Axel; Schönenberger, Christian; Calame, Michel

    2016-05-06

    Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on silicon (Si) nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs) have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species.

  9. Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph L. Stoop

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs based on silicon (Si nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species.

  10. Representation of type I heterostructure junctionless tunnel field effect transistor for high-performance logic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei Imen Abadi, Rouzbeh; Sedigh Ziabari, Seyed Ali

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a gate-all-around junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (JLTFET) based on heterostructure of compound and group III-V semiconductors is introduced and simulated. In order to blend the high tunneling efficiency of narrow band gap material JLTFETs and the high electron mobility of III-V JLTFETs, a type I heterostructure junctionless TFET adopting Ge-AlxGa1- xAs-Ge system has been optimized by numerical simulation in terms of aluminum (Al) composition. To improve device performance, we considered a nanowire structure, and it was illustrated that high-performance logic technology can be achieved by the proposed device. The optimal Al composition founded to be around 20 % ( x = 0.2). The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed device has low leakage current I OFF of ~1.9 × 10-17, I ON of 4 µA/µm, I ON/ I OFF current ratio of 1.7 × 1011 and subthreshold swing SS of 12.6 mV/decade at the 40 nm gate length and temperature of 300 K.

  11. Light Scattering Studies of Organic Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Danish

    Organic semiconductors hold a great promise of enabling new technology based on low cost and flexible electronic devices. While much work has been done in the field of organic semiconductors, the field is still quite immature when compared to that of traditional inorganic based devices. More work is required before the full potential of organic field effect transistors (OFETs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is realized. Among such work, a further development of diagnostic tools that characterize charge transport and device robustness more efficiently is required. Charge transport in organic semiconductors is limited by the nature of the metal-semiconductor interfaces where charge is injected into the semiconductor film and the semiconductor-dielectric interface where the charge is accumulated and transported. This, combined with that fact that organic semiconductors are especially susceptible to having structural defects induced via oxidation, charge transport induced damage, and metallization results in a situation where a semiconductor film's ability to conduct charge can degrade over time. This degradation manifests itself in the electrical device characteristics of organic based electronic devices. OFETs, for example, may display changes in threshold voltage, lowering of charge carrier mobilities, or a decrease in the On/Off ratio. All these effects sum together to result in degradation in device performance. The work begins with a study where matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition (MAPLE), an alternative organic semiconductor thin film deposition method, is used to fabricate OFETs with improved semiconductor-dielectric interfaces. MAPLE allows for the controlled layer-by-layer growth of the semiconductor film. Devices fabricated using this technique are shown to exhibit desirable characteristics that are otherwise only achievable with additional surface treatments. MAPLE is shown to be viable alternative to other

  12. Electrical coupling of single cardiac rat myocytes to field-effect and bipolar transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Thomas; Issing, Matthias; Arnold, Rüdiger; Müller, Bernt

    2002-12-01

    A novel bipolar transistor for extracellular recording the electrical activity of biological cells is presented, and the electrical behavior compared with the field-effect transistor (FET). Electrical coupling is examined between single cells separated from the heart of adults rats (cardiac myocytes) and both types of transistors. To initiate a local extracellular voltage, the cells are periodically stimulated by a patch pipette in voltage clamp and current clamp mode. The local extracellular voltage is measured by the planar integrated electronic sensors: the bipolar and the FET. The small signal transistor currents correspond to the local extracellular voltage. The two types of sensor transistors used here were developed and manufactured in the laboratory of our institute. The manufacturing process and the interfaces between myocytes and transistors are described. The recordings are interpreted by way of simulation based on the point-contact model and the single cardiac myocyte model.

  13. Detailed investigation of the conducting channel in poly(3-hexylthiophene) field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Hauff, Elizabeth; Johnen, Fabian; Tunc, Ali Veysel; Govor, Leonid; Parisi, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the conducting channel in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) organic field effect transistors (OFETs) was investigated. The effect of varying the P3HT layer thickness on the OFET parameters was studied. The threshold voltage and the field effect mobility were determined from both the

  14. Silicon nanowires as field-effect transducers for biosensor development: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2014-05-12

    The unique electronic properties and miniaturized dimensions of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attractive for label-free, real-time and sensitive detection of biomolecules. Sensors based on SiNWs operate as field effect transistors (FETs) and can be fabricated either by top-down or bottom-up approaches. Advances in fabrication methods have allowed for the control of physicochemical and electronic properties of SiNWs, providing opportunity for interfacing of SiNW-FET probes with intracellular environments. The Debye screening length is an important consideration that determines the performance and detection limits of SiNW-FET sensors, especially at physiologically relevant conditions of ionic strength (>100mM). In this review, we discuss the construction and application of SiNW-FET sensors for detection of ions, nucleic acids and protein markers. Advantages and disadvantages of the top-down and bottom-up approaches for synthesis of SiNWs are discussed. An overview of various methods for surface functionalization of SiNWs for immobilization of selective chemistry is provided in the context of impact on the analytical performance of SiNW-FET sensors. In addition to in vitro examples, an overview of the progress of use of SiNW-FET sensors for ex vivo studies is also presented. This review concludes with a discussion of the future prospects of SiNW-FET sensors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Practical guide to organic field effect transistor circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Sou, Antony

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic electronics spans a very wide range of disciplines from physics and chemistry to hardware and software engineering. This makes the field of organic circuit design a daunting prospect full of intimidating complexities, yet to be exploited to its true potential. Small focussed research groups also find it difficult to move beyond their usual boundaries and create systems-on-foil that are comparable with the established silicon world.This book has been written to address these issues, intended for two main audiences; firstly, physics or materials researchers who have thus far designed circuits using only basic drawing software; and secondly, experienced silicon CMOS VLSI design engineers who are already knowledgeable in the design of full custom transistor level circuits but are not familiar with organic devices or thin film transistor (TFT) devices.In guiding the reader through the disparate and broad subject matters, a concise text has been written covering the physics and chemistry of the...

  16. Bipolar single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Babic, Bakir; Iqbal, Mahdi; Schonenberger, Christian

    2002-01-01

    We use a simultaneous flow of ethylene and hydrogen gases to grow single wall carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition. Strong coupling to the gate is inferred from transport measurements for both metallic and semiconducting tubes. At low-temperatures, our samples act as single-electron transistors where the transport mechanism is mainly governed by Coulomb blockade. The measurements reveal very rich quantized energy level spectra spanning from valence to conduction band. The Coulomb dia...

  17. Novel Organic Field Effect Transistors via Nano-Modification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wen, Ten-Chin; Chou, Wei-Yang; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2005-01-01

    .... The performance of organic FETs is determined primarily by the field effect mobility of the carriers in the organic semiconductor layers and by the efficiency of injecting and extracting carriers...

  18. On the drain bias dependence of long-channel silicon-on-insulator-based tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Koichi; Mori, Takahiro; Asai, Hidehiro; Hattori, Junichi; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Morita, Yukinori; Fuketa, Hiroshi; Migita, Shinji; Ota, Hiroyuki; Masahara, Meishoku; Endo, Kazuhiko; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    The drain bias dependence of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) is examined on the basis of the measured characteristics and device simulation to understand the electrical behavior of TFETs. Our analyses focus on the long-channel silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based TFETs as a good basis for further studies of short-channel effects, scaling issues, and more complicated device structures, such as multigate or nanowire TFETs. By device simulation, it is revealed that the drain bias dependence of the transfer characteristics of the measured TFETs is governed by two physical mechanisms: the density of states (DOS) occupancy factor, which depends on drain-to-source bias voltage, and channel electrostatic potential, which is limited by the drain bias through strong carrier accumulation. These mechanisms differ from the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs), and cause a significant impact even in long-channel SOIs. Finally, the obtained insights are successfully implemented in a TFET compact model.

  19. High mobility graphene ion-sensitive field-effect transistors by noncovalent functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, W; Nef, C; Tarasov, A; Wipf, M; Stoop, R; Knopfmacher, O; Weiss, M; Calame, M; Schönenberger, C

    2013-12-21

    Noncovalent functionalization is a well-known nondestructive process for property engineering of carbon nanostructures, including carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, it is not clear to what extend the extraordinary electrical properties of these carbon materials can be preserved during the process. Here, we demonstrated that noncovalent functionalization can indeed delivery graphene field-effect transistors (FET) with fully preserved mobility. In addition, these high-mobility graphene transistors can serve as a promising platform for biochemical sensing applications.

  20. Characterization of field effect transistor with TiO{sub 2} nanotube channel fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M; Yoshimura, T; Fujimura, N [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Terauchi, M; Nakayama, T, E-mail: tyoshi@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Extreme Energy-Density Research Institute, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Field effect transistor with TiO{sub 2} nanotube channel was fabricated by dielectrophoresis. Although TiO{sub 2} nanotube channel is not formed at 10 MHz of the dielectrophoresis, the channel is formed at 100 kHz. It is suggested that migration distance is not enough at 10MHz. The drain current-drain voltage characteristics of the transistor and the temperature dependence indicate that the electric transport is dominated by double Schottky barrier.

  1. Effect of edge vacancies on performance of planar graphene tunnel field-effect transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Glebov, A. A.; Katkov, V. L.; Osipov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of edge vacancies on the working ability of the planar graphene tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) is studied at various concentrations and distributions (normal, uniform, periodic) of defects. All calculations are performed by using the Green's function method and the tight-binding approximation. It is shown that the transistor performance depends critically on two important factors associated with the defects: the destruction of the edge-localized electronic states and the ...

  2. Tuning the threshold voltage in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergoat, Loïg; Herlogsson, Lars; Piro, Benoit; Pham, Minh Chau; Horowitz, Gilles; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) promise for low power consumption logic circuits. To enhance the efficiency of the logic circuits, the control of the threshold voltage of the transistors are based on is crucial. We report the systematic control of the threshold voltage of electrolyte-gated OFETs by using various gate metals. The influence of the work function of the metal is investigated in metal-electrolyte-organic semiconductor diodes and electrolyte-gated OFETs. A good correlation is found between the flat-band potential and the threshold voltage. The possibility to tune the threshold voltage over half the potential range applied and to obtain depletion-like (positive threshold voltage) and enhancement (negative threshold voltage) transistors is of great interest when integrating these transistors in logic circuits. The combination of a depletion-like and enhancement transistor leads to a clear improvement of the noise margins in depleted-load unipolar inverters. PMID:22586088

  3. Silicon nanowires as field-effect transducers for biosensor development: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M. Omair; Krull, Ulrich J., E-mail: ulrich.krull@utoronto.ca

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Nanoscale field-effect transducers interrogate surface charge by conductivity changes. • The nanometer dimensions of SiNWs facilitate sensitive detection of biomolecules. • SiNWs can be fabricated by bottom–up or top–down approaches. • Device parameters and solution-phase conditions strongly influence analytical performance. - Abstract: The unique electronic properties and miniaturized dimensions of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attractive for label-free, real-time and sensitive detection of biomolecules. Sensors based on SiNWs operate as field effect transistors (FETs) and can be fabricated either by top–down or bottom–up approaches. Advances in fabrication methods have allowed for the control of physicochemical and electronic properties of SiNWs, providing opportunity for interfacing of SiNW-FET probes with intracellular environments. The Debye screening length is an important consideration that determines the performance and detection limits of SiNW-FET sensors, especially at physiologically relevant conditions of ionic strength (>100 mM). In this review, we discuss the construction and application of SiNW-FET sensors for detection of ions, nucleic acids and protein markers. Advantages and disadvantages of the top–down and bottom–up approaches for synthesis of SiNWs are discussed. An overview of various methods for surface functionalization of SiNWs for immobilization of selective chemistry is provided in the context of impact on the analytical performance of SiNW-FET sensors. In addition to in vitro examples, an overview of the progress of use of SiNW-FET sensors for ex vivo studies is also presented. This review concludes with a discussion of the future prospects of SiNW-FET sensors.

  4. Highly stable organic polymer field-effect transistor sensor for selective detection in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopfmacher, Oren; Hammock, Mallory L.; Appleton, Anthony L.; Schwartz, Gregor; Mei, Jianguo; Lei, Ting; Pei, Jian; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the susceptibility to degradation in both ambient and aqueous environments has prevented organic electronics from gaining rapid traction for sensing applications. Here we report an organic field-effect transistor sensor that overcomes this barrier using a solution-processable isoindigo-based polymer semiconductor. More importantly, these organic field-effect transistor sensors are stable in both freshwater and seawater environments over extended periods of time. The organic field-effect transistor sensors are further capable of selectively sensing heavy-metal ions in seawater. This discovery has potential for inexpensive, ink-jet printed, and large-scale environmental monitoring devices that can be deployed in areas once thought of as beyond the scope of organic materials.

  5. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamilton, Allister B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  6. Enhanced transconductance in a double-gate graphene field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byeong-Woon; Yeom, Hye-In; Kim, Daewon; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2018-03-01

    Multi-gate transistors, such as double-gate, tri-gate and gate-all-around transistors are the most advanced Si transistor structure today. Here, a genuine double-gate transistor with a graphene channel is experimentally demonstrated. The top and bottom gates of the double-gate graphene field-effect transistor (DG GFET) are electrically connected so that the conductivity of the graphene channel can be modulated simultaneously by both the top and bottom gate. A single-gate graphene field-effect transistor (SG GFET) with only the top gate is also fabricated as a control device. For systematical analysis, the transfer characteristics of both GFETs were measured and compared. Whereas the maximum transconductance of the SG GFET was 17.1 μS/μm, that of the DG GFET was 25.7 μS/μm, which is approximately a 50% enhancement. The enhancement of the transconductance was reproduced and comprehensively explained by a physics-based compact model for GFETs. The investigation of the enhanced transfer characteristics of the DG GFET in this work shows the possibility of a multi-gate architecture for high-performance graphene transistor technology.

  7. MoS₂ field-effect transistor for next-generation label-free biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Deblina; Liu, Wei; Xie, Xuejun; Anselmo, Aaron C; Mitragotri, Samir; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2014-04-22

    Biosensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) have attracted much attention, as they offer rapid, inexpensive, and label-free detection. While the low sensitivity of FET biosensors based on bulk 3D structures has been overcome by using 1D structures (nanotubes/nanowires), the latter face severe fabrication challenges, impairing their practical applications. In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate FET biosensors based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), which provides extremely high sensitivity and at the same time offers easy patternability and device fabrication, due to its 2D atomically layered structure. A MoS2-based pH sensor achieving sensitivity as high as 713 for a pH change by 1 unit along with efficient operation over a wide pH range (3-9) is demonstrated. Ultrasensitive and specific protein sensing is also achieved with a sensitivity of 196 even at 100 femtomolar concentration. While graphene is also a 2D material, we show here that it cannot compete with a MoS2-based FET biosensor, which surpasses the sensitivity of that based on graphene by more than 74-fold. Moreover, we establish through theoretical analysis that MoS2 is greatly advantageous for biosensor device scaling without compromising its sensitivity, which is beneficial for single molecular detection. Furthermore, MoS2, with its highly flexible and transparent nature, can offer new opportunities in advanced diagnostics and medical prostheses. This unique fusion of desirable properties makes MoS2 a highly potential candidate for next-generation low-cost biosensors.

  8. Photo-assisted hysteresis of electronic transport for ZnO nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qianqian; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zhu, Shunming; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zheng, Youdou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, ZnO nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) have received renewed interest due to their extraordinary low dimensionality and high sensitivity to external chemical environments and illumination conditions. These prominent properties have promising potential in nanoscale chemical and photo-sensors. In this article, we have fabricated ZnO nanowire FETs and have found hysteresis behavior in their transfer characteristics. The mechanism and dynamics of the hysteresis phenomena have been investigated in detail by varying the sweeping rate and range of the gate bias with and without light irradiation. Significantly, light irradiation is of great importance on charge trapping by regulating adsorption and desorption of oxygen at the interface of ZnO/SiO2. Carriers excited by light irradiation can dramatically promote trapping/detrapping processes. With the assistance of light illumination, we have demonstrated a photon-assisted nonvolatile memory which employs the ZnO nanowire FET. The device exhibits reliable programming/erasing operations and a large on/off ratio. The proposed proto-type memory has thus provided a possible novel path for creating a memory functionality to other low-dimensional material systems.

  9. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2011-10-12

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Multi-functional integration of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs): advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chong-an; Zhang, Fengjiao; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-01-18

    Multi-functional organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), an emerging focus of organic optoelectronic devices, hold great potential for a variety of applications. This report introduces recent progress on multi-functional OFETs including OFETs based sensors, phototransistors, light-emitting transistors, memory cells, and magnetic field-effect OFETs. Key strategies towards multi- functional integration of OFETs, which involves the exploration of functional materials, interfaces modifications, modulation of condensed structures, optimization of device geometry, and device integration, are summarized. Furthermore, remaining challenges and perspectives are discussed, giving a comprehensive overview of multi-functional OFETs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  12. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-01-01

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  13. Development and characterization of vertical double-gate MOS field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trellenkamp, S.

    2004-07-01

    Planar MOS-field-effect transistors are common devices today used by the computer industry. When their miniaturization reaches its limit, alternate transistor concepts become necessary. In this thesis the development of vertical Double-Gate-MOS-field-effect transistors is presented. These types of transistors have a vertically aligned p-n-p junction (or n-p-n junction, respectively). Consequently, the source-drain current flows perpendicular with respect to the surface of the wafer. A Double-Gate-field-effect transistor is characterized by a very thin channel region framed by two parallel gates. Due to the symmetry of the structure and less bulk volume better gate control and hence better short channel behavior is expected, as well as an improved scaling potential. Nanostructuring of the transistor's active region is very challenging. Approximately 300 nm high and down to 30 nm wide silicon ridges are requisite. They can be realized using hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) as inorganic high resolution resist for electron beam lithography. Structures defined in HSQ are then transferred with high anisotropy and selectivity into silicon using ICP-RIE (reactive ion etching with inductive coupled plasma). 25 nm wide and 330 nm high silicon ridges are achieved. Different transistor layouts are realized. The channel length is defined by epitaxial growth of doped silicon layers before or by ion implantation after nanostructuring, respectively. The transistors show source-drain currents up to 380 μA/μm and transconductances up to 480 μS/μm. Improved short channel behavior for decreasing width of the silicon ridges is demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Solution-processed ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, E J; de Leeuw, D M; Setayesh, S; van Veenendaal, E; Huisman, B H; Blom, P W M; Hummelen, J C; Scherf, U; Kadam, J; Klapwijk, T M

    2003-10-01

    There is ample evidence that organic field-effect transistors have reached a stage where they can be industrialized, analogous to standard metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. Monocrystalline silicon technology is largely based on complementary MOS (CMOS) structures that use both n-type and p-type transistor channels. This complementary technology has enabled the construction of digital circuits, which operate with a high robustness, low power dissipation and a good noise margin. For the design of efficient organic integrated circuits, there is an urgent need for complementary technology, where both n-type and p-type transistor operation is realized in a single layer, while maintaining the attractiveness of easy solution processing. We demonstrate, by using solution-processed field-effect transistors, that hole transport and electron transport are both generic properties of organic semiconductors. This ambipolar transport is observed in polymers based on interpenetrating networks as well as in narrow bandgap organic semiconductors. We combine the organic ambipolar transistors into functional CMOS-like inverters.

  15. Ferroelectric-gate field effect transistor memories device physics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Masanori; Sakai, Shigeki; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the materials characteristics, process technologies, and device operations for memory field-effect transistors employing inorganic or organic ferroelectric thin films. This transistor-type ferroelectric memory has interesting fundamental device physics and potentially large industrial impact. Among the various applications of ferroelectric thin films, the development of nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has progressed most actively since the late 1980s and has achieved modest mass production levels for specific applications since 1995. There are two types of memory cells in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. One is the capacitor-type FeRAM and the other is the field-effect transistor (FET)-type FeRAM. Although the FET-type FeRAM claims ultimate scalability and nondestructive readout characteristics, the capacitor-type FeRAMs have been the main interest for the major semiconductor memory companies, because the ferroelectric FET has fatal handic...

  16. Hysteresis in single-layer MoS2 field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Dattatray J; Liu, Bin; Matte, H S S Ramakrishna; Dravid, Vinayak P; Rao, C N R

    2012-06-26

    Field effect transistors using ultrathin molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) have recently been experimentally demonstrated, which show promising potential for advanced electronics. However, large variations like hysteresis, presumably due to extrinsic/environmental effects, are often observed in MoS(2) devices measured under ambient environment. Here, we report the origin of their hysteretic and transient behaviors and suggest that hysteresis of MoS(2) field effect transistors is largely due to absorption of moisture on the surface and intensified by high photosensitivity of MoS(2). Uniform encapsulation of MoS(2) transistor structures with silicon nitride grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is effective in minimizing the hysteresis, while the device mobility is improved by over 1 order of magnitude.

  17. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) Polymer as Amphibious Buffer Layer for Graphene Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Jianjun; Huo, Shuai; Lu, Haiyan; Kong, Yuecan; Chen, Tangshen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jingxia

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the scattering and trapping effects, the interfaces of dielectric/graphene or substrate/graphene can tailor the performance of field-effect transistor (FET). In this letter, the polymer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) was used as an amphibious buffer layer and located at between the layers of substrate and graphene and between the layers of dielectric and graphene. Interestingly, with the help of nonpolar and hydrophobic BCB buffer layer, the large-scale top-gated, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene transistors was prepared on Si/SiO2 substrate, its cutoff frequency (fT) and the maximum cutoff frequency (fmax) of the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) can be reached at 12 GHz and 11 GHz, respectively.

  18. Wide-bandwidth charge sensitivity with a radio-frequency field-effect transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishiguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Fujiwara, A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate high-speed charge detection at room temperature with single-electron resolution by using a radio-frequency field-effect transistor (RF-FET). The RF-FET combines a nanometer-scale silicon FET with an impedance-matching circuit composed of an inductor and capacitor. Driving the RF-FET

  19. Device characteristics of polymer dual-gate field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddalena, F.; Spijkman, M.; Brondijk, J. J.; Fonteijn, P.; Brouwer, F.; Hummelen, J. C.; de Leeuw, D. M.; Blom, P. W. M.; de Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated by solution processing using different p-type polymer semiconductors and polymer top-dielectric materials on prefabricated substrates with gold source-drain contacts defined by photolithography. The semiconductors and top dielectrics

  20. Ambipolar Cu- and Fe-phthalocyanine single-crystal field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, R.W.I.; Stassen, A.F.; Craciun, M.F.; Mulder, C.L.; Molinari, A.; Rogge, S.; Morpurgo, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation of ambipolar transport in field-effect transistors fabricated on single crystals of copper- and iron-phthalocyanine, using gold as a high work-function metal for the fabrication of source and drain electrodes. In these devices, the room-temperature mobility of holes reaches

  1. Charge transport in dual-gate organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, J.J.; Spijkman, M.; Torricelli, F.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    The charge carrier distribution in dual-gate field-effect transistors is investigated as a function of semiconductor thickness. A good agreement with 2-dimensional numerically calculated transfer curves is obtained. For semiconductor thicknesses larger than the accumulation width, two spatially

  2. Thiadiazoloquinoxaline-Fused Naphthalenediimides for n-Type Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ben-Lin; Zhang, Ke; An, Cunbin; Pisula, Wojciech; Baumgarten, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Thiadiazoloquinoxaline-fused naphthalenediimides (TQ-f-NDIs) are designed and synthesized. They show high electron affinities (EAs) of ∼4.5 eV. Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices, fabricated by dip-coating, provided maximum high electron mobilities of 0.03 cm 2 /(V·s) with an on/off ratio of 2 × 10 5 .

  3. Gate-bias assisted charge injection in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, J. J.; Torricelli, F.; Smits, E. C. P.; Blom, P. W. M.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    The charge injection barriers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) seem to be far less critical as compared to organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Counter intuitively, we show that the origin is image-force lowering of the barrier due to the gate bias at the source contact, although the

  4. N-type self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringk, A.; Li, X.; Gholamrezaie, F.; Smits, E.C.P.; Neuhold, A.; Moser, A.; Gelinck, G.H.; Resel, R.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Strohriegl, P.

    2012-01-01

    Within this work we present the synthesis and applications of a novel material designed for n-type self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors (SAMFETs). Our novel perylene bisimide based molecule was obtained in six steps and is functionalized with a phosphonic acid linker which enables a

  5. Ambipolar organic field-effect transistors based on a solution-processed methanofullerene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Tanase, Cristina; Setayesh, Sepas; Meijer, Eduard J.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Blom, Paul W.M.; de Leeuw, Dagobert

    2004-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, see Figure), based on the solution-processible methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), have been fabricated in a bottom-contact device configuration using gold electrodes. The OFET functions either as a p- or n-channel device,

  6. Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Ambipolar Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E.C.P.; Setayesh, S.; Anthopoulos, T.D.; Buechel, M.; Nijssen, W.; Coehoorn, R.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous advances in the area of organic-based optoelectronic devices and several applications previously envisioned are now reaching the stage of commercial exploitation.[1] Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are among these devices and can be arguably viewed as a

  7. Gate-bias assisted charge injection in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, J.J.; Torricelli, F.; Smits, E.C.P.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    The charge injection barriers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) seem to be far less critical as compared to organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Counter intuitively, we show that the origin is image-force lowering of the barrier due to the gate bias at the source contact, although the

  8. The ion-sensitive field effect transistor in rapid acid-base titrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Bergveld, Piet; van Veen-Blaauw, A.M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) are used as the pH sensor in rapid acid—base titrations. Titration speeds at least five times greater than those with glass electrodes are possible for accuracies better than ±1%.

  9. Intrinsic hydrogen-terminated diamond as ion-sensitive field effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Shin, D.; Watanabe, H.; Nebel, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 122, - (2007), s. 596-599 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond film * surface electronic properties * field effect transistor * pH sensor * semiconductor-electrolyte interface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.934, year: 2007

  10. Microstructure-mobility correlation in self-organised, conjugated polymer field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirringhaus, H.; Brown, P.J.; Friend, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the correlation between polymer microstructure and charge carrier mobility in high-mobility, self-organised field-effect transistors of poly-3-hexyl-thiophene (P3HT). Two different preferential orientations of the microcrystalline P3HT domains with respect to the substrate have...

  11. Proton migration mechanism for operational instabilities in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Smits, E.C.P.; Kemerink, M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Bobbert, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors exhibit operational instabilities involving a shift of the threshold gate voltage when a gate bias is applied. For a constant gate bias the threshold voltage shifts toward the applied gate bias voltage, an effect known as the bias-stress effect. Here, we report on a

  12. Monolithic junction field-effect transistor charge preamplifier for calorimetry at high luminosity hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Rehn, L.A.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1991-11-01

    The outstanding noise and radiation hardness characteristics of epitaxial-channel junction field-effect transistors (JFET) suggest that a monolithic preamplifier based upon them may be able to meet the strict specifications for calorimetry at high luminosity colliders. Results obtained so far with a buried layer planar technology, among them an entire monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier, are described

  13. The Influence of Morphology on High-Performance Polymer Field-Effect Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsao, Hoi Nok; Cho, Don; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2009-01-01

    The influence of molecular packing on the performance of polymer organic field-effect transistors is illustrated in this work. Both close -stacking distance and long-range order are important for achieving high mobilities. By aligning the polymers from solution, long-range order is induced...

  14. Organic nanofibers integrated by transfer technique in field-effect transistor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Thilsing-Hansen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    The electrical properties of self-assembled organic crystalline nanofibers are studied by integrating these on field-effect transistor platforms using both top and bottom contact configurations. In the staggered geometries, where the nanofibers are sandwiched between the gate and the source-drain...

  15. Graphene electrodes for n-type organic field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Boggild, P.

    2010-01-01

    field-effect transistor configuration (OFET). Single tip tungsten as well as microscale multi-point probes were used to electrically contact individual devices, making permanent connections unnecessary. The device platform has been tested with a thin film of para-hexaphenylene (p6P...

  16. High Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor of Random Network Carbon Nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Gao, Jia; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Gomulya, Widianta; Iezhokin, Igor; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Herrmann, Andreas; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2012-01-01

    Ambipolar field-effect transistors of random network carbon nanotubes are fabricated from an enriched dispersion utilizing a conjugated polymer as the selective purifying medium. The devices exhibit high mobility values for both holes and electrons (3 cm(2)/V.s) with a high on/off ratio (10(6)). The

  17. Ternary logic implemented on a single dopant atom field effect silicon transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.; Mol, J.A.; Verduijn, J.; Lansbergen, G.P.; Rogge, S.; Levine, R.D.; Remacle, F.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an experimental proof of principle for a ternary multiplier realized in terms of the charge state of a single dopant atom embedded in a fin field effect transistor (Fin-FET). Robust reading of the logic output is made possible by using two channels to measure the current flowing through

  18. A simple model for atomic layer doped field-effect transistor (ALD-FET) electronic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora R, M.E.; Gaggero S, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a simple potential model based on the Thomas-Fermi approximation to reproduce the main properties of the electronic structure of an atomic layer doped field effect transistor. Preliminary numerical results for a Si-based ALD-FET justify why bound electronic states are not observed in the experiment. (Author)

  19. Gas sensing with self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; van Hal, Paul A.; Setayesh, Sepas; Willard, Nico P.; Borshchev, Oleg V.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    A new sensitive gas sensor based on a self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistor (SAMFET) was used to detect the biomarker nitric oxide. A SAMFET based sensor is highly sensitive because the analyte and the active channel are separated by only one monolayer. SAMFETs were functionalised for

  20. Reproducibility and stability of C60 based organic field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Sams, Michael; Simbrunner, Clemens; Ullah, Mujeeb; Rehman, Kamila; Schwabegger, Günther; Sitter, H.; Ostermann, Timm

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive study concerning the reproducibility and stability of organic n-type field effect transistors is presented. C60 based OFETs were chosen to investigate the fabrication reproducibility and the long term stability because C60 is a high mobility n-type material. We fabricated 48 transistors and each transistor was measured for 24 h inside the glove box. To test for life time stability – long term measurements up to three months have been undertaken. We report about the fluctuations in the device parameters of all investigated transistors by comparing the transfer characteristics, and on/off ratio for short time and long time measurements. C60 based OFETs showed good reproducibility and stability for short time measurements and a decay for long time measurements. PMID:22368321

  1. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  2. Vertical InAs/InGaAs Heterostructure Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors on Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpi, Olli-Pekka; Svensson, Johannes; Wu, Jun; Persson, Axel R; Wallenberg, Reine; Lind, Erik; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2017-10-11

    III-V compound semiconductors offer a path to continue Moore's law due to their excellent electron transport properties. One major challenge, integrating III-V's on Si, can be addressed by using vapor-liquid-solid grown vertical nanowires. InAs is an attractive material due to its superior mobility, although InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) typically suffer from band-to-band tunneling caused by its narrow band gap, which increases the off-current and therefore the power consumption. In this work, we present vertical heterostructure InAs/InGaAs nanowire MOSFETs with low off-currents provided by the wider band gap material on the drain side suppressing band-to-band tunneling. We demonstrate vertical III-V MOSFETs achieving off-current below 1 nA/μm while still maintaining on-performance comparable to InAs MOSFETs; therefore, this approach opens a path to address not only high-performance applications but also Internet-of-Things applications that require low off-state current levels.

  3. Mode tunable p-type Si nanowire transistor based zero drive load logic inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Lee, Tae-Il; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Han, Young-Uk; Ham, Moon-Ho; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-07-25

    A design platform for a zero drive load logic inverter consisting of p-channel Si nanowire based transistors, which controlled their operating mode through an implantation into a gate dielectric layer was demonstrated. As a result, a nanowire based class D inverter having a 4.6 gain value at V(DD) of -20 V was successfully fabricated on a substrate.

  4. The Development and Study of Molecular Electronic Switches and their Field-Effect Transistor (FET) Device Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    used in molecular switches, electro- and photochromatic materials, field-effect transistors (FETs), OLEDs, and photovoltaic and solar cells . We are...materials that have interesting properties as photovoltaic or materials suitable in field-effect transistor (FET). (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed...effect transistors (FETs), electrochromic materials and solar cells . The goal of this research project is to synthesize fluorene- and perylene-based

  5. Radio-frequency dispersive detection of donor atoms in a field-effect transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Verduijn, J.; Vinet, M.; Rogge, S.

    2013-01-01

    Radio-frequency dispersive read-out can provide a useful probe to nano-scale structures such as nano-wire devices, especially when the implementation of charge sensing is not straightforward. Here we demonstrate dispersive `gate-only' read-out of phosphor donors in a silicon nano-scale transistor. The technique enables access to states that are only tunnel-coupled to one contact, which is not easily achievable by other methods. This allows us to locate individual randomly placed donors in the...

  6. 3D Hollow Framework Silver Nanowire Electrodes for High-Performance Bottom-Contact Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Lee, So Hee; Kim, Haekyoung; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Chan Eon

    2015-07-08

    We successfully fabricated high performance bottom-contact organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using silver nanowire (AgNW) network electrodes by spray deposition. The synthesized AgNWs have the dimensions of 40-80 nm in diameter and 30-80 μm in length and are randomly distributed and interconnected to form a 3D hollow framework. The AgNWs networks, deposited by spray coating, yield an average optical transmittance of up to 88% and a sheet resistance as low as 10 ohm/sq. For using AgNWs as source/drain electrodes of OFETs with a bottom-contact configuration, the large contact resistance at the AgNWs/organic channel remains a critical issue for charge injection. To enhance charge injection, we fabricate semiconductor crystals on the AgNW using an adsorbed residual poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) layer. The resulting bottom-contact OFETs exhibit high mobility up to 1.02 cm(2)/(V s) and are similar to that of the top-contact Au electrodes OFETs with low contact resistance. A morphological study shows that the pentacene crystals coalesced to form continuous morphology on the nanowires and are highly interconnected with those on the channel. These features contribute to efficient charge injection and encourage the improvement of the bottom-contact device performance. Furthermore, the large contact area of individual AgNWs spreading out to the channel at the edge of the electrode also improves device performance.

  7. High-gain subnanowatt power consumption hybrid complementary logic inverter with WSe2 nanosheet and ZnO nanowire transistors on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouh, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Pezeshki, Atiye; Ali Raza, Syed Raza; Lee, Hee Sung; Min, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Shin, Jae Min; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-07

    A 1D-2D hybrid complementary logic inverter comprising of ZnO nanowire and WSe2 nanosheet field-effect transistors (FETs) is fabricated on glass, which shows excellent static and dynamic electrical performances with a voltage gain of ≈60, sub-nanowatt power consumption, and at least 1 kHz inverting speed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Modeling of strain effects on the device behaviors of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Feng; Hu, Guangda; Wu, Weibing; Yang, Changhong; Wu, Haitao; Tang, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    The influence of strains on the channel current–gate voltage behaviors and memory windows of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors (FeMFETs) were studied using an improved model based on the Landau–Devonshire theory. ‘Channel potential–gate voltage’ ferroelectric polarization and silicon surface potential diagrams were constructed for strained single-domain BaTiO 3 FeMFETs. The compressive strains can increase (or decrease) the amplitude of transistor currents and enlarge memory windows. However, tensile strains only decrease the maximum value of transistor currents and compress memory windows. Mismatch strains were found to have a significant influence on the electrical behaviors of the devices, therefore, they must be considered in FeMFET device designing. (fast track communication)

  9. Unidirectional coating technology for organic field-effect transistors: materials and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huabin; Wang, Qijing; Qian, Jun; Yin, Yao; Shi, Yi; Li, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential for developing organic electronics. The encouraging development in solution-processed OFETs has attracted research interest because of their potential in low-cost devices with performance comparable to polycrystalline-silicon-based transistors. In recent years, unidirectional coating technology, featuring thin-film coating along only one direction and involving specific materials as well as solution-assisted fabrication methods, has attracted intensive interest. Transistors with organic semiconductor layers, which are deposited via unidirectional coating methods, have achieved high performance. In particular, carrier mobility has been greatly enhanced to values much higher than 10 cm2 V-1 s-1. Such significant improvement is mainly attributed to better control in morphology and molecular packing arrangement of organic thin film. In this review, typical materials that are being used in OFETs are discussed, and demonstrations of unidirectional coating methods are surveyed.

  10. Fabrication of metal nanopatterns for organic field effect transistor electrodes by cracking and transfer printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Fu, Tingting; Wang, Zhe

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method for fabricating metal nanopatterns using cracking to address the limitations of traditional techniques. Parallel crack arrays were created in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold using a combination of surface modification and control of strain fields. The elastic PDMS containing the crack arrays was subsequently used as a stamp to prepare nanoscale metal patterns on a substrate by transfer printing. To illustrate the functionality of this technique, we employed the metal patterns as the source and drain contacts of an organic field effect transistor. Using this approach, we fabricated transistors with channel lengths ranging from 70–600 nm. The performance of these devices when the channel length was reduced was studied. The drive current density increases as expected, indicating the creation of operational transistors with recognizable properties.

  11. Space charge field effect on light emitting from tetracene field-effect transistor under AC electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Yuki; Kohn, Hideki; Manaka, Takaaki [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.j [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    By applying square wave AC voltage to the Au source electrode of tetracene based field-effect transistor (FET), electroluminescence (EL) was obtained. The results suggest that electrons and holes were injected alternately from the source electrode and recombined each other, and lead to the EL. This type of EL was localized at the interface between the source electrode and tetracene, and enhanced periodically with two relaxation times in accordance with the applied AC voltage cycle. We modeled the carrier behavior in the FET and explained the decay of EL, taking into account the space charge field contribution. Finally, using an AC voltage superposed on DC bias voltage, it was shown that electron injection was prompted only by space charge field.

  12. Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors for Point-Of-Care Testing of Uric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Weihua; Reed, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    An enzyme-free redox potential sensor using off-chip extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) with a ferrocenyl-alkanethiol modified gold electrode has been used to quantify uric acid concentration in human serum and urine. Hexacyanoferrate (II) and (III) ions are used as redox reagent. The potentiometric sensor measures the interface potential on the ferrocene immobilized gold electrode, which is modulated by the redox reaction between uric acid and hexacyanoferrate ions. The device shows a near Nernstian response to uric acid and is highly specific to uric acid in human serum and urine. The interference that comes from glucose, bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and hemoglobin is negligible in the normal concentration range of these interferents. The sensor also exhibits excellent long term reliability and is regenerative. This extended gate field effect transistor based sensor is promising for point-of-care detection of uric acid due to the small size, low cost, and low sample volume consumption.

  13. Dual origin of room temperature sub-terahertz photoresponse in graphene field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurin, D. A.; Gayduchenko, I.; Cao, Y.; Moskotin, M.; Principi, A.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Goltsman, G.; Fedorov, G.; Svintsov, D.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising platform for detectors of high-frequency radiation up to the terahertz (THz) range due to its superior electron mobility. Previously, it has been shown that graphene field effect transistors (FETs) exhibit room temperature broadband photoresponse to incoming THz radiation, thanks to the thermoelectric and/or plasma wave rectification. Both effects exhibit similar functional dependences on the gate voltage, and therefore, it was difficult to disentangle these contributions in previous studies. In this letter, we report on combined experimental and theoretical studies of sub-THz response in graphene field-effect transistors analyzed at different temperatures. This temperature-dependent study allowed us to reveal the role of the photo-thermoelectric effect, p-n junction rectification, and plasmonic rectification in the sub-THz photoresponse of graphene FETs.

  14. Vacuum-processed polyethylene as a dielectric for low operating voltage organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbur, Yasin; Irimia-Vladu, Mihai; Głowacki, Eric D.; Voss, Gundula; Baumgartner, Melanie; Schwabegger, Günther; Leonat, Lucia; Ullah, Mujeeb; Sarica, Hizir; Erten-Ela, Sule; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Sitter, Helmut; Küçükyavuz, Zuhal; Bauer, Siegfried; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and performance of vacuum-processed organic field effect transistors utilizing evaporated low-density polyethylene (LD-PE) as a dielectric layer. With C60 as the organic semiconductor, we demonstrate low operating voltage transistors with field effect mobilities in excess of 4 cm2/Vs. Devices with pentacene showed a mobility of 0.16 cm2/Vs. Devices using tyrian Purple as semiconductor show low-voltage ambipolar operation with equal electron and hole mobilities of ∼0.3 cm2/Vs. These devices demonstrate low hysteresis and operational stability over at least several months. Grazing-angle infrared spectroscopy of evaporated thin films shows that the structure of the polyethylene is similar to solution-cast films. We report also on the morphological and dielectric properties of these films. Our experiments demonstrate that polyethylene is a stable dielectric supporting both hole and electron channels. PMID:23483783

  15. Graphene Field Effect Transistor-Based Detectors for Detection of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, Igor; Cazalas, Edward; Childres, I.; Patil, A.; Koybasi, O.; Chen, Y-P.

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of our recent efforts to develop novel ionizing radiation sensors based on the nano-material graphene. Graphene used in the field effect transistor architecture could be employed to detect the radiation-induced charge carriers produced in undoped semiconductor absorber substrates, even without the need for charge collection. The detection principle is based on the high sensitivity of graphene to ionization-induced local electric field perturbations in the electrically biased substrate. We experimentally demonstrated promising performance of graphene field effect transistors for detection of visible light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and alpha particles. We propose improved detector architectures which could result in a significant improvement of speed necessary for pulsed mode operation. (authors)

  16. Controlling field-effect mobility in pentacene-based transistors by supersonic molecular-beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toccoli, T.; Pallaoro, A.; Coppede, N.; Iannotta, S.; De Angelis, F.; Mariucci, L.; Fortunato, G.

    2006-01-01

    We show that pentacene field-effect transistors, fabricated by supersonic molecular beams, have a performance strongly depending on the precursor's kinetic energy (K E ). The major role played by K E is in achieving highly ordered and flat films. In the range K E ≅3.5-6.5 eV, the organic field effect transistor linear mobility increases of a factor ∼5. The highest value (1.0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) corresponds to very uniform and flat films (layer-by-layer type growth). The temperature dependence of mobility for films grown at K E >6 eV recalls that of single crystals (bandlike) and shows an opposite trend for films grown at K E ≤5.5 eV

  17. Germanium field-effect transistor made from a high-purity substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Goulding, F.S.; Haller, E.E.

    1978-11-01

    Field effect transistors have been fabricated on high-purity germanium substrates using low-temperature technology. The aim of this work is to preserve the low density of trapping centers in high-quality starting material by low-temperature ( 0 C) processing. The use of germanium promises to eliminate some of the traps which cause generation-recombination noise in silicon field-effect transistors (FET's) at low temperatures. Typically, the transconductance (g/sub m/) in the germanium FET's is 10 mA/V and the gate leakage can be less than 10 -12 A. Present devices exhibit a large 1/f noise component and most of this noise must be eliminated if they are to be competitive with silicon FET's commonly used in high-resolution nuclear spectrometers

  18. High-performance molybdenum disulfide field-effect transistors with spin tunnel contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankert, André; Langouche, Lennart; Kamalakar, Mutta Venkata; Dash, Saroj Prasad

    2014-01-28

    Molybdenum disulfide has recently emerged as a promising two-dimensional semiconducting material for nanoelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications. Here, we investigate the field-effect transistor behavior of MoS2 with ferromagnetic contacts to explore its potential for spintronics. In such devices, we elucidate that the presence of a large Schottky barrier resistance at the MoS2/ferromagnet interface is a major obstacle for the electrical spin injection and detection. We circumvent this problem by a reduction in the Schottky barrier height with the introduction of a thin TiO2 tunnel barrier between the ferromagnet and MoS2. This results in an enhancement of the transistor on-state current by 2 orders of magnitude and an increment in the field-effect mobility by a factor of 6. Our magnetoresistance calculation reveals that such integration of ferromagnetic tunnel contacts opens up the possibilities for MoS2-based spintronic devices.

  19. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated copolymer for high-mobility organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Kanimozhi, Catherine K.

    2012-10-10

    In this communication, we report the synthesis of a novel diketopyrrolopyrrole-diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-DPP)-based conjugated copolymer and its application in high-mobility organic field-effect transistors. Copolymerization of DPP with DPP yields a copolymer with exceptional properties such as extended absorption characteristics (up to ∼1100 nm) and field-effect electron mobility values of >1 cm 2 V -1 s -1. The synthesis of this novel DPP-DPP copolymer in combination with the demonstration of transistors with extremely high electron mobility makes this work an important step toward a new family of DPP-DPP copolymers for application in the general area of organic optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. A Single Polyaniline Nanofiber Field Effect Transistor and Its Gas Sensing Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dajing; Lei, Sheng; Chen, Yuquan

    2011-01-01

    A single polyaniline nanofiber field effect transistor (FET) gas sensor fabricated by means of electrospinning was investigated to understand its sensing mechanisms and optimize its performance. We studied the morphology, field effect characteristics and gas sensitivity of conductive nanofibers. The fibers showed Schottky and Ohmic contacts based on different electrode materials. Higher applied gate voltage contributes to an increase in gas sensitivity. The nanofiber transistor showed a 7% reversible resistance change to 1 ppm NH3 with 10 V gate voltage. The FET characteristics of the sensor when exposed to different gas concentrations indicate that adsorption of NH3 molecules reduces the carrier mobility in the polyaniline nanofiber. As such, nanofiber-based sensors could be promising for environmental and industrial applications. PMID:22163969

  1. Transport properties of hydrogen passivated silicon nanotubes and silicon nanotube field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2017-01-24

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of silicon nanotubes attached to metallic electrodes from first principles, using density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function method. The influence of the surface termination is studied as well as the dependence of the transport characteristics on the chirality, diameter, and length. Strong electronic coupling between nanotubes and electrodes is found to be a general feature that results in low contact resistance. The conductance in the tunneling regime is discussed in terms of the complex band structure. Silicon nanotube field effect transistors are simulated by applying a uniform potential gate. Our results demonstrate very high values of transconductance, outperforming the best commercial silicon field effect transistors, combined with low values of sub-threshold swing.

  2. Multifunctional Self-Assembled Monolayers for Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernetic, Nathan

    Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) have the potential to reach commercialization for a wide variety of applications such as active matrix display circuitry, chemical and biological sensing, radio-frequency identification devices and flexible electronics. In order to be commercially competitive with already at-market amorphous silicon devices, OFETs need to approach similar performance levels. Significant progress has been made in developing high performance organic semiconductors and dielectric materials. Additionally, a common route to improve the performance metric of OFETs is via interface modification at the critical dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interface which often play a significant role in charge transport properties. These metal oxide interfaces are typically modified with rationally designed multifunctional self-assembled monolayers. As means toward improving the performance metrics of OFETs, rationally designed multifunctional self-assembled monolayers are used to explore the relationship between surface energy, SAM order, and SAM dipole on OFET performance. The studies presented within are (1) development of a multifunctional SAM capable of simultaneously modifying dielectric and metal surface while maintaining compatibility with solution processed techniques (2) exploration of the relationship between SAM dipole and anchor group on graphene transistors, and (3) development of self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistor in which the traditional thick organic semiconductor is replaced by a rationally designed self-assembled monolayer semiconductor. The findings presented within represent advancement in the understanding of the influence of self-assembled monolayers on OFETs as well as progress towards rationally designed monolayer transistors.

  3. Transient nature of negative capacitance in ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kwok; Hillenius, Steven J.; Gruverman, Alexei

    2017-10-01

    Negative capacitance (NC) in ferroelectrics, which stems from the imperfect screening of polarization, is considered a viable approach to lower voltage operation in the field-effect transistors (FETs) used in logic switches. In this paper, we discuss the implications of the transient nature of negative capacitance for its practical application. It is suggested that the NC effect needs to be characterized at the proper time scale to identify the type of circuits where functional NC-FETs can be used effectively.

  4. Organic Field Effect Transistors with Dipole-Polarized Polymer Gate Dielectrics for Control of Threshold Voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Heisuke; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Murata, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    The authors demonstrate organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a dipole-polarized polyurea for the gate dielectrics. In the dielectrics, the internal electric field induces the mobile charge carrier in the semiconductor layer to the semiconductor-dielectric interface. OFETs with dipole-polarized gate dielectrics exhibit lower threshold voltage. With nonpolarized gate dielectrics, the threshold voltage was -11.4 V, whereas that decreased to -5.3 V with polarized gate dielectrics. In a...

  5. Charge carrier transport in polycrystalline organic thin film based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The charge carrier transport mechanism in polycrystalline thin film based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been explained using two competing models, multiple trapping and releases (MTR) model and percolation model. It has been shown that MTR model is most suitable for explaining charge carrier transport in grainy polycrystalline organic thin films. The energetic distribution of traps determined independently using Mayer-Neldel rule (MNR) is in excellent agreement with the values obtained by MTR model for copper phthalocyanine and pentacene based OFETs.

  6. Organic Field Effect Transistors Based on Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seok Ju; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Yu, Young-Jun; Zhao, Yue; Kim, Bumjung; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hone, James; Kim, Philip; Nuckolls, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the device performance of single crystal organic field effect transistors (OFETs) requires both optimized engineering of efficient injection of the carriers through the contact and improvement of the dielectric interface for reduction of traps and scattering centers. Since the accumulation and flow of charge carriers in operating organic FETs takes place in the first few layers of the semiconductor next to the dielectric, the mobility can be easily degraded by surface roughness, cha...

  7. Organic phthalocyanine films with high mobilities for efficient field-effect transistor switches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, F.; Zhivkov, I.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    266-269, 1-3 (2000), s. 999-1003 ISSN 0022-3093. [International Conference on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors /18./. Snowbird, 23.08.1999-27.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 518.10; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : phthalocyanine * charge mobility * field-effect transistor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2000

  8. Gate-induced carrier delocalization in quantum dot field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Michael E; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Oh, Soong Ju; Fafarman, Aaron T; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R; Kikkawa, James M

    2014-10-08

    We study gate-controlled, low-temperature resistance and magnetotransport in indium-doped CdSe quantum dot field effect transistors. We show that using the gate to accumulate electrons in the quantum dot channel increases the "localization product" (localization length times dielectric constant) describing transport at the Fermi level, as expected for Fermi level changes near a mobility edge. Our measurements suggest that the localization length increases to significantly greater than the quantum dot diameter.

  9. Direct-current amplifier using a field effect transistor as entrance element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenee, R.; Vaux, Ch.

    1967-01-01

    The difficulties associated with the construction of amplifier for small direct-currents using presently available semi-conductors are first pointed out. A detailed description is given of an amplifier with direct connections making use of a MOS-type field-effect transistor, and average characteristics for six amplifiers are then presented. The various causes of drift and their corrections are analyzed in the appendix, as well as the possibilities of measuring very small currents. (authors) [fr

  10. Atomic-Monolayer MoS2 Band-to-Band Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann Wen

    2016-09-05

    The experimental observation of band-to-band tunneling in novel tunneling field-effect transistors utilizing a monolayer of MoS2 as the conducting channel is demonstrated. Our results indicate that the strong gate-coupling efficiency enabled by two-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2, results in the direct manifestation of a band-to-band tunneling current and an ambipolar transport.

  11. Incorporating TCNQ into thiophene-fused heptacene for n-channel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Qun

    2012-06-01

    Incorporation of electron-deficient tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) into electron-rich thiophene-fused heptacene was successfully achieved for the purpose of stabilizing longer acenes and generating new n-type organic semiconductors. The heptacene-TCNQ derivative 1 was found to have good stability and an expected electron transporting property. Electron mobility up to 0.01 cm 2 V -1 s -1 has been obtained for this novel material in solution processed organic field effect transistors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Ferroelectric-Driven Performance Enhancement of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors Based on Vertical Tunneling Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuoguo; Yang, Zhibin; Xie, Chao; Yan, Feng; Dai, Jiyan; Lau, Shu Ping; Chan, Helen L W; Hao, Jianhua

    2016-12-01

    A vertical graphene heterostructure field-effect transistor (VGHFET) using an ultrathin ferroelectric film as a tunnel barrier is developed. The heterostructure is capable of providing new degrees of tunability and functionality via coupling between the ferroelectricity and the tunnel current of the VGHFET, which results in a high-performance device. The results pave the way for developing novel atomic-scale 2D heterostructures and devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Graphene-based field effect transistors for radiation-induced field sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gaspare, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.digaspare@lnf.infn.it [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Valletta, Antonio [CNR-Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, TorVergata, Rome (Italy); Fortunato, Guglielmo [CNR-Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, TorVergata, Rome (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Larciprete, Rosanna [CNR-Istituto di Sistemi Complessi, TorVergata, Rome (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Mariucci, Luigi [CNR-Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, TorVergata, Rome (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Notargiacomo, Andrea [CNR-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Rome (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Cimino, Roberto [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-11

    We propose the implementation of graphene-based field effect transistor (FET) as radiation sensor. In the proposed detector, graphene obtained via chemical vapor deposition is integrated into a Si-based field effect device as the gate readout electrode, able to sense any change in the field distribution induced by ionization in the underneath absorber, because of the strong variation in the graphene conductivity close to the charge neutrality point. Different 2-dimensional layered materials can be envisaged in this kind of device.

  14. Bisacenaphthopyrazinoquinoxaline derivatives: Synthesis, physical properties and applications as semiconductors for n-channel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Chenhua

    2013-01-01

    Several bisacenaphthopyrazinoquinoxaline (BAPQ) based derivatives 1-3 were synthesized by condensation between the acenaphthenequinones and 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene tetrahydrochloride. Their optical, electrochemical and self-assembling properties are tuned by different substituents. Among them, compound 3 possesses a homogeneously distributed low-lying LUMO due to the peripheral substitution with four cyano groups. The corresponding n-channel field effect transistors showed a field effect electron mobility of 5 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Measurement and Analysis of a Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor NAND Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeond, Todd C.; Sayyah, Rana; Ho, Fat Duen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research investigated expanding the use of Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors (FFET) to other electronic devices beyond memory circuits. Ferroelectric based transistors possess unique characteris tics that give them interesting and useful properties in digital logic circuits. The NAND gate was chosen for investigation as it is one of the fundamental building blocks of digital electronic circuits. In t his paper, NAND gate circuits were constructed utilizing individual F FETs. N-channel FFETs with positive polarization were used for the standard CMOS NAND gate n-channel transistors and n-channel FFETs with n egative polarization were used for the standard CMOS NAND gate p-chan nel transistors. The voltage transfer curves were obtained for the NA ND gate. Comparisons were made between the actual device data and the previous modeled data. These results are compared to standard MOS logic circuits. The circuits analyzed are not intended to be fully opera tional circuits that would interface with existing logic circuits, bu t as a research tool to look into the possibility of using ferroelectric transistors in future logic circuits. Possible applications for th ese devices are presented, and their potential benefits and drawbacks are discussed.

  16. Novel field-effect schottky barrier transistors based on graphene-MoS 2 heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, He

    2014-08-11

    Recently, two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2) have been demonstrated to realize field effect transistors (FET) with a large current on-off ratio. However, the carrier mobility in backgate MoS2 FET is rather low (typically 0.5-20 cm2/V.s). Here, we report a novel field-effect Schottky barrier transistors (FESBT) based on graphene-MoS2 heterojunction (GMH), where the characteristics of high mobility from graphene and high on-off ratio from MoS2 are properly balanced in the novel transistors. Large modulation on the device current (on/off ratio of 105) is achieved by adjusting the backgate (through 300 nm SiO2) voltage to modulate the graphene-MoS2 Schottky barrier. Moreover, the field effective mobility of the FESBT is up to 58.7 cm2/V.s. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the thickness of oxide is further reduced, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 40 mV/decade can be maintained within three orders of drain current at room temperature. This provides an opportunity to overcome the limitation of 60 mV/decade for conventional CMOS devices. The FESBT implemented with a high on-off ratio, a relatively high mobility and a low subthreshold promises low-voltage and low-power applications for future electronics.

  17. Tunable SnSe2/WSe2Heterostructure Tunneling Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Li, Chao; Bao, Wenzhong; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhou, Peng

    2017-09-01

    The burgeoning 2D semiconductors can maintain excellent device electrostatics with an ultranarrow channel length and can realize tunneling by electrostatic gating to avoid deprivation of band-edge sharpness resulting from chemical doping, which make them perfect candidates for tunneling field effect transistors. Here this study presents SnSe 2 /WSe 2 van der Waals heterostructures with SnSe 2 as the p-layer and WSe 2 as the n-layer. The energy band alignment changes from a staggered gap band offset (type-II) to a broken gap (type-III) when changing the negative back-gate voltage to positive, resulting in the device operating as a rectifier diode (rectification ratio ~10 4 ) or an n-type tunneling field effect transistor, respectively. A steep average subthreshold swing of 80 mV dec -1 for exceeding two decades of drain current with a minimum of 37 mV dec -1 at room temperature is observed, and an evident trend toward negative differential resistance is also accomplished for the tunneling field effect transistor due to the high gate efficiency of 0.36 for single gate devices. The I ON /I OFF ratio of the transfer characteristics is >10 6 , accompanying a high ON current >10 -5 A. This work presents original phenomena of multilayer 2D van der Waals heterostructures which can be applied to low-power consumption devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nanopore extended field-effect transistor for selective single-molecule biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ren; Zhang, Yanjun; Nadappuram, Binoy Paulose; Akpinar, Bernice; Klenerman, David; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Edel, Joshua B; Korchev, Yuri

    2017-09-19

    There has been a significant drive to deliver nanotechnological solutions to biosensing, yet there remains an unmet need in the development of biosensors that are affordable, integrated, fast, capable of multiplexed detection, and offer high selectivity for trace analyte detection in biological fluids. Herein, some of these challenges are addressed by designing a new class of nanoscale sensors dubbed nanopore extended field-effect transistor (nexFET) that combine the advantages of nanopore single-molecule sensing, field-effect transistors, and recognition chemistry. We report on a polypyrrole functionalized nexFET, with controllable gate voltage that can be used to switch on/off, and slow down single-molecule DNA transport through a nanopore. This strategy enables higher molecular throughput, enhanced signal-to-noise, and even heightened selectivity via functionalization with an embedded receptor. This is shown for selective sensing of an anti-insulin antibody in the presence of its IgG isotype.Efficient detection of single molecules is vital to many biosensing technologies, which require analytical platforms with high selectivity and sensitivity. Ren et al. combine a nanopore sensor and a field-effect transistor, whereby gate voltage mediates DNA and protein transport through the nanopore.

  19. Modeling of pH Dependent Electrochemical Noise in Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors ISFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available pH ISFETs are very important sensor for in vivo continuous monitoring application of physiological and environmental system. The accuracy of Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET output measurement is greatly affected by the presences of noise, drift and slow response of the device. Although the noise analysis of ISFET so far performed in different literature relates only to sources originated from Field Effect Transistor (FET structure which are almost constant for a particular device, the pH dependent electrochemical noise has not been substantially explored and analyzed. In this paper we have investigated the low frequency pH dependent electrochemical noise that originates from the ionic conductance of the electrode-electrolyte-Field Effect Transistor structure of the device and that the noise depends on the concentration of the electrolyte and 1/f in nature. The statistical and frequency analysis of this electrochemical noise of a commercial ISFET sensor, under room temperature has been performed for six different pH values ranging from pH2 to pH9.2. We have also proposed a concentration dependent a/f & b/f2 model of the noise with different values of the coefficients a, b.

  20. Investigations on field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finge, T.; Riederer, F.; Grap, T.; Knoch, J. [Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mueller, M.R. [Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Infineon Technologies, Villach (Austria); Kallis, K. [Intelligent Microsystems Chair, TU Dortmund University (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    In the present article, experimental and theoretical investigations regarding field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional (2D) materials are presented. First, the properties of contacts between a metal and 2D material are discussed. To this end, metal-to-graphene contacts as well to transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are studied. Whereas metal-graphene contacts can be tuned with an appropriate back-gate, metal-TMD contacts exhibit strong Fermi level pinning showing substantially limited maximum possible drive current. Next, tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) field-effect transistors are presented. Employing buried-triple-gate substrates allows tuning source, channel and drain by applying appropriate gate voltages so that the device can be reconfigured to work as n-type, p-type and as so-called band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistor on the same WSe{sub 2} flake. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Silicon on ferroelectic insulator field effect transistor (SOF-FET) a new device for the next generation ultra low power circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sakhi, Azzedin D.

    Field effect transistors (FETs) are the foundation for all electronic circuits and processors. These devices have progressed massively to touch its final steps in sub-nanometer level. Left and right proposals are coming to rescue this progress. Emerging nano-electronic devices (resonant tunneling devices, single-atom transistors, spin devices, Heterojunction Transistors rapid flux quantum devices, carbon nanotubes, and nanowire devices) took a vast share of current scientific research. Non-Si electronic materials like III-V heterostructure, ferroelectric, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and other nanowire based designs are in developing stage to become the core technology of non-classical CMOS structures. FinFET present the current feasible commercial nanotechnology. The scalability and low power dissipation of this device allowed for an extension of silicon based devices. High short channel effect (SCE) immunity presents its major advantage. Multi-gate structure comes to light to improve the gate electrostatic over the channel. The new structure shows a higher performance that made it the first candidate to substitute the conventional MOSFET. The device also shows a future scalability to continue Moor's Law. Furthermore, the device is compatible with silicon fabrication process. Moreover, the ultra-low-power (ULP) design required a subthreshold slope lower than the thermionic-emission limit of 60mV/ decade (KT/q). This value was unbreakable by the new structure (SOI-FinFET). On the other hand most of the previews proposals show the ability to go beyond this limit. However, those pre-mentioned schemes have publicized a very complicated physics, design difficulties, and process non-compatibility. The objective of this research is to discuss various emerging nano-devices proposed for ultra-low-power designs and their possibilities to replace the silicon devices as the core technology in the future integrated circuit. This thesis proposes a novel design that exploits the

  2. Nature of size effects in compact models of field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkhov, N. A., E-mail: trkf@mail.ru [Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Scientific-Research Institute of Semiconductor Devices, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Babak, L. I.; Kokolov, A. A.; Salnikov, A. S.; Dobush, I. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Novikov, V. A., E-mail: novikovvadim@mail.ru; Ivonin, I. V. [Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-07

    Investigations have shown that in the local approximation (for sizes L < 100 μm), AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures satisfy to all properties of chaotic systems and can be described in the language of fractal geometry of fractional dimensions. For such objects, values of their electrophysical characteristics depend on the linear sizes of the examined regions, which explain the presence of the so-called size effects—dependences of the electrophysical and instrumental characteristics on the linear sizes of the active elements of semiconductor devices. In the present work, a relationship has been established for the linear model parameters of the equivalent circuit elements of internal transistors with fractal geometry of the heteroepitaxial structure manifested through a dependence of its relative electrophysical characteristics on the linear sizes of the examined surface areas. For the HEMTs, this implies dependences of their relative static (A/mm, mA/V/mm, Ω/mm, etc.) and microwave characteristics (W/mm) on the width d of the sink-source channel and on the number of sections n that leads to a nonlinear dependence of the retrieved parameter values of equivalent circuit elements of linear internal transistor models on n and d. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the size effects in semiconductors determined by the fractal geometry must be taken into account when investigating the properties of semiconductor objects on the levels less than the local approximation limit and designing and manufacturing field effect transistors. In general, the suggested approach allows a complex of problems to be solved on designing, optimizing, and retrieving the parameters of equivalent circuits of linear and nonlinear models of not only field effect transistors but also any arbitrary semiconductor devices with nonlinear instrumental characteristics.

  3. On device architectures, subthreshold swing, and power consumption of the piezoelectric field-effect transistor (π-FET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; van Hemert, T.; Kaleli, B.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of tunable strain in field-effect transistors to boost performance of digital logic. Voltage-controlled strain can be imposed on a semiconductor body by the integration of a piezoelectric material improving transistor performance. In this paper, we derive the

  4. PH MEASUREMENTS WITH AN ION SENSITIVE FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR IN THE MOUTH OF PATIENTS WITH XEROSTOMIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VISCH, LL; BERGVELD, P; LAMPRECHT, W; SGRAVENMADE, EJ

    A transistor pH electrode (ion sensitive field effect transistor), placed in the upper dentures of eleven xerostomia patients and five healthy volunteers, was used to register pH changes in five-, six- and seven-day-old dental plaque. A mouth rinse with a 10% sucrose solution caused a pH fall of

  5. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Prediction of the threshold voltage of GaAs ion-implanted metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorev N. B.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the threshold voltage of a GaAs ion-implanted metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor corresponds with a good accuracy to the voltage at which an inflection point appears in the capacitance-voltage characteristic. A method for predicting the threshold voltage of ion-implanted field-effect transistors using capacitance-voltage measurements prior to contact formation is proposed.

  7. Patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystal field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Sun, Huabin; Shi, Yi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are fundamental building blocks for various state-of-the-art electronic devices. Solution-processed organic crystals are appreciable materials for these applications because they facilitate large-scale, low-cost fabrication of devices with high performance. Patterning organic crystal transistors into well-defined geometric features is necessary to develop these crystals into practical semiconductors. This review provides an update on recentdevelopment in patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystals and their applications in field-effect transistors. Typical demonstrations are discussed and examined. In particular, our latest research progress on the spin-coating technique from mixture solutions is presented as a promising method to efficiently produce large organic semiconducting crystals on various substrates for high-performance OFETs. This solution-based process also has other excellent advantages, such as phase separation for self-assembled interfaces via one-step spin-coating, self-flattening of rough interfaces, and in situ purification that eliminates the impurity influences. Furthermore, recommendations for future perspectives are presented, and key issues for further development are discussed. PMID:27877656

  8. Patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystal field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs are fundamental building blocks for various state-of-the-art electronic devices. Solution-processed organic crystals are appreciable materials for these applications because they facilitate large-scale, low-cost fabrication of devices with high performance. Patterning organic crystal transistors into well-defined geometric features is necessary to develop these crystals into practical semiconductors. This review provides an update on recent development in patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystals and their applications in field-effect transistors. Typical demonstrations are discussed and examined. In particular, our latest research progress on the spin-coating technique from mixture solutions is presented as a promising method to efficiently produce large organic semiconducting crystals on various substrates for high-performance OFETs. This solution-based process also has other excellent advantages, such as phase separation for self-assembled interfaces via one-step spin-coating, self-flattening of rough interfaces, and in situ purification that eliminates the impurity influences. Furthermore, recommendations for future perspectives are presented, and key issues for further development are discussed.

  9. Low dielectric constant-based organic field-effect transistors and metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukah, Ndubuisi Benjamin

    This thesis describes a study of PFB and pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors (OFET) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors with low dielectric constant (k) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) and cross-linked PVP (c-PVP) gate dielectrics. A physical method -- matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) -- of fabricating all-polymer field-effect transistors and MIS capacitors that circumvents inherent polymer dissolution and solvent-selectivity problems, is demonstrated. Pentacene-based OFETs incorporating PMMA and PVP gate dielectrics usually have high operating voltages related to the thickness of the dielectric layer. Reduced PMMA layer thickness (≤ 70 nm) was obtained by dissolving the PMMA in propylene carbonate (PC). The resulting pentacene-based transistors exhibited very low operating voltage (below -3 V), minimal hysteresis in their transfer characteristics, and decent electrical performance. Also low voltage (within -2 V) operation using thin (≤ 80 nm) low-k and hydrophilic PVP and c-PVP dielectric layers obtained via dissolution in high dipole moment and high-k solvents -- PC and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), is demonstrated to be a robust means of achieving improved electrical characteristics and high operational stability in OFETs incorporating PVP and c-PVP dielectrics.

  10. Photo-excited charge collection spectroscopy probing the traps in field-effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Seongil; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Solid state field-effect devices such as organic and inorganic-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been expected to promote advances in display and sensor electronics. The operational stabilities of such TFTs are thus important, strongly depending on the nature and density of charge traps present at the channel/dielectric interface or in the thin-film channel itself. This book contains how to characterize these traps, starting from the device physics of field-effect transistor (FET). Unlike conventional analysis techniques which are away from well-resolving spectral results, newly-introduced photo-excited charge-collection spectroscopy (PECCS) utilizes the photo-induced threshold voltage response from any type of working transistor devices with organic-, inorganic-, and even nano-channels, directly probing on the traps. So, our technique PECCS has been discussed through more than ten refereed-journal papers in the fields of device electronics, applied physics, applied chemistry, nano-devices and materia...

  11. Photoionization spectroscopy of deep defects responsible for current collapse in nitride-based field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P B; Binari, S C

    2003-01-01

    This review is concerned with the characterization and identification of the deep centres that cause current collapse in nitride-based field effect transistors. Photoionization spectroscopy is an optical technique that has been developed to probe the characteristics of these defects. Measured spectral dependences provide information on trap depth, lattice coupling and on the location of the defects in the device structure. The spectrum of an individual trap may also be regarded as a 'fingerprint' of the defect, allowing the trap to be followed in response to the variation of external parameters. The basis for these measurements is derived through a modelling procedure that accounts quantitatively for the light-induced drain current increase in the collapsed device. Applying the model to fit the measured variation of drain current increase with light illumination provides an estimate of the concentrations and photoionization cross-sections of the deep defects. The results of photoionization studies of GaN metal-semiconductor field effect transistors and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) are presented and the conclusions regarding the nature of the deep traps responsible are discussed. Finally, recent photoionization studies of current collapse induced by short-term (several hours) bias stress in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are described and analysed for devices grown by both MOCVD and molecular beam epitaxy. (topical review)

  12. SiC Field Effect Transistor Technology Demonstrating Prolonged Stable Operation at 500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Okojie, Robert S.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Meredith, Roger; Ferrier, Terry

    2006-01-01

    While there have been numerous reports of short-term transistor operation at 500 degree C or above, these devices have previously not demonstrated sufficient long-term operational durability at 500 degree C to be considered viable for most envisioned applications. This paper reports the development of Silicone Carbi field effect transistors capable of long-term electrical operation at 500 degree C. A 6H-SiC MESFET was packaged and subjected to continuous electrical operation while residing in a 500 degree C oven in oxidizing air atmosphere for over 2400 hours. The transistor gain, saturation current (IDSS), and on-resistance (RDS) changed by less than 20% from initial values throughout the duration of the biased 500 degree C test. Another high-temperature packaged 6H-SiC MESFET was employed to form a simple one-stage high-temperature low-frequency voltage amplifier. This single-stage common-source amplifier demonstrated stable continuous electrical operation (negligible changes to gain and operating biases) for over 600 hours while residing in a 500 degree C air ambient oven. In both cases, increased leakage from annealing of the Schottky gate-to-channel diode was the dominant transistor degradation mechanism that limited the duration of 500 degree C electrical operation.

  13. Characterisation of organic field-effect transistors using metal phthalocyanines as active layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korodi, Iulia G.; Lehmann, Daniel; Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Tippo, Tossapol [Faculty of Engineering and College of Data Storage Technology and Applications, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Ladkrabang Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Hietschold, Michael [Solid Surface Analysis Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    In this work the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) as active layers is compared. Current/voltage measurements were first performed in vacuum and later under ambient conditions. The highest hole mobility {mu}{sub vac} = (1.5 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/Vs was obtained for the CuPc OFETs. The mobility remained constant within the error bar after exposing the OFETs to atmosphere ({mu}{sub atm} = (1.2 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/Vs). For the TiOPc transistors a hole mobility of {mu}{sub vac} = (7.2 {+-} 4.0) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs was found in vacuum. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Studies on different configurations of cobalt phthalocyanine based flexible organic field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Jha, P.; Samanta, S.; Singh, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFETs) are being investigated for a number of low-cost, large area applications; particularly those that are compatible with flexible plastic substrates. Development of low temperature processes can make way for OFETs to be integrated on flexible plastic substrates. Here we have made systematic studies on OFETs in different configurations wherein we have chosen Cobalt Phthalocyanine (CoPc) as active material. We have found the best mobility (1.86 × 10-5 cm2/V-s) in Bottom Gate Top Contact configuration. However, threshold voltage (-5V) and On off ratio (62)were found to be better in Top Gate Bottom Contact configuration The electromechanical properties of the Bottom Gate Top Contact transistors were studied by measuring the transfer characteristics of the devices in bend condition and thereby calculating mobility under different radii of bending. No significant change in the mobility of the device was observed under bent conditions.

  15. Plasmon Field Effect Transistor for Plasmon to Electric Conversion and Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri Kojori, Hossein; Yun, Ju-Hyung; Paik, Younghun; Kim, Joondong; Anderson, Wayne A; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-01-13

    Direct coupling of electronic excitations of optical energy via plasmon resonances opens the door to improving gain and selectivity in various optoelectronic applications. We report a new device structure and working mechanisms for plasmon resonance energy detection and electric conversion based on a thin film transistor device with a metal nanostructure incorporated in it. This plasmon field effect transistor collects the plasmonically induced hot electrons from the physically isolated metal nanostructures. These hot electrons contribute to the amplification of the drain current. The internal electric field and quantum tunneling effect at the metal-semiconductor junction enable highly efficient hot electron collection and amplification. Combined with the versatility of plasmonic nanostructures in wavelength tunability, this device architecture offers an ultrawide spectral range that can be used in various applications.

  16. Removing the current-limit of vertical organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheleg, Gil; Greenman, Michael; Lussem, Bjorn; Tessler, Nir

    2017-11-01

    The reported Vertical Organic Field Effect Transistors (VOFETs) show either superior current and switching speeds or well-behaved transistor performance, especially saturation in the output characteristics. Through the study of the relationship between the device architecture or dimensions and the device performance, we find that achieving a saturation regime in the output characteristics requires that the device operates in the injection limited regime. In current structures, the existence of the injection limited regime depends on the source's injection barrier as well as on the buried semiconductor layer thickness. To overcome the injection limit imposed by the necessity of injection barrier, we suggest a new architecture to realize VOFETs. This architecture shows better gate control and is independent of the injection barrier at the source, thus allowing for several A cm-2 for a semiconductor having a mobility value of 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  17. Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  18. Dithiopheneindenofluorene (TIF) Semiconducting Polymers with Very High Mobility in Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hu

    2017-07-19

    The charge-carrier mobility of organic semiconducting polymers is known to be enhanced when the energetic disorder of the polymer is minimized. Fused, planar aromatic ring structures contribute to reducing the polymer conformational disorder, as demonstrated by polymers containing the indacenodithiophene (IDT) repeat unit, which have both a low Urbach energy and a high mobility in thin-film-transistor (TFT) devices. Expanding on this design motif, copolymers containing the dithiopheneindenofluorene repeat unit are synthesized, which extends the fused aromatic structure with two additional phenyl rings, further rigidifying the polymer backbone. A range of copolymers are prepared and their electrical properties and thin-film morphology evaluated, with the co-benzothiadiazole polymer having a twofold increase in hole mobility when compared to the IDT analog, reaching values of almost 3 cm2 V−1 s−1 in bottom-gate top-contact organic field-effect transistors.

  19. Producing of pover GaAs structures of bipolar and field-effect transistor by CVD-method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin V. A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation results in technology of doping Sn and Bi of perfect GaAs structures preparation by the lowe-temperature isothermal chloride epitaxy method are presented. A complex problem has been solved to obtain planar layers of the n+–n–n0–p type bipolar transistors and planar layers of the i–n0–n–n+ type Schottky field-effect transistors. Heterogenetty in the thickness less than 3% and doping level less than 5% has been achieved. This allowed to get the discrete Schottky field-effect transistors with improved operation characteristics.

  20. 25th Anniversary Article: Organic Field-Effect Transistors: The Path Beyond Amorphous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirringhaus, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have witnessed impressive improvements in materials performance by 3–4 orders of magnitude, and many of the key materials discoveries have been published in Advanced Materials. This includes some of the most recent demonstrations of organic field-effect transistors with performance that clearly exceeds that of benchmark amorphous silicon-based devices. In this article, state-of-the-art in OFETs are reviewed in light of requirements for demanding future applications, in particular active-matrix addressing for flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. An overview is provided over both small molecule and conjugated polymer materials for which field-effect mobilities exceeding > 1 cm2 V–1 s–1 have been reported. Current understanding is also reviewed of their charge transport physics that allows reaching such unexpectedly high mobilities in these weakly van der Waals bonded and structurally comparatively disordered materials with a view towards understanding the potential for further improvement in performance in the future. PMID:24443057

  1. P-type field effect transistor based on Na-doped BaSnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeaju; Hong, Sungyun; Park, Jisung; Char, Kookrin

    We fabricated field effect transistors (FET) based on the p-type Na-doped BaSnO3 (BNSO) channel layer. The properties of epitaxial BNSO channel layer were controlled by the doping rate. In order to modulate the p-type FET, we used amorphous HfOx and epitaxial BaHfO3 (BHO) gate oxides, both of which have high dielectric constants. HfOx was deposited by atomic-layer-deposition and BHO was epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition. The pulsed laser deposited SrRuO3 (SRO) was used as the source and the drain contacts. Indium-tin oxide and La-doped BaSnO3 were used as the gate electrodes on top of the HfOx and the BHO gate oxides, respectively. We will analyze and present the performances of the BNSO field effect transistor such as the IDS-VDS, the IDS-VGS, the Ion/Ioff ratio, and the field effect mobility. Samsung Science and Technology Foundation.

  2. A subthermionic tunnel field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Deblina; Xie, Xuejun; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wei; Kang, Jiahao; Gong, Yongji; Kraemer, Stephan; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2015-10-01

    The fast growth of information technology has been sustained by continuous scaling down of the silicon-based metal-oxide field-effect transistor. However, such technology faces two major challenges to further scaling. First, the device electrostatics (the ability of the transistor's gate electrode to control its channel potential) are degraded when the channel length is decreased, using conventional bulk materials such as silicon as the channel. Recently, two-dimensional semiconducting materials have emerged as promising candidates to replace silicon, as they can maintain excellent device electrostatics even at much reduced channel lengths. The second, more severe, challenge is that the supply voltage can no longer be scaled down by the same factor as the transistor dimensions because of the fundamental thermionic limitation of the steepness of turn-on characteristics, or subthreshold swing. To enable scaling to continue without a power penalty, a different transistor mechanism is required to obtain subthermionic subthreshold swing, such as band-to-band tunnelling. Here we demonstrate band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors (tunnel-FETs), based on a two-dimensional semiconductor, that exhibit steep turn-on; subthreshold swing is a minimum of 3.9 millivolts per decade and an average of 31.1 millivolts per decade for four decades of drain current at room temperature. By using highly doped germanium as the source and atomically thin molybdenum disulfide as the channel, a vertical heterostructure is built with excellent electrostatics, a strain-free heterointerface, a low tunnelling barrier, and a large tunnelling area. Our atomically thin and layered semiconducting-channel tunnel-FET (ATLAS-TFET) is the only planar architecture tunnel-FET to achieve subthermionic subthreshold swing over four decades of drain current, as recommended in ref. 17, and is also the only tunnel-FET (in any architecture) to achieve this at a low power-supply voltage of 0.1 volts. Our

  3. Field-effect and capacitive properties of water-gated transistors based on polythiophene derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Porrazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, water-gated organic field-effect transistors (WGOFET have been intensively studied for their application in the biological field. Surprisingly, a very limited number of conjugated polymers have been reported so far. Here, we systematically explore a series of polythiophene derivatives, presenting different alkyl side chains lengths and orientation, and characterized by various morphologies: comparative evaluation of their performances allows highlighting the critical role played by alkyl side chains, which significantly affects the polymer/water interface capacitance. Reported results provide useful guidelines towards further development of WGOFETs and represent a step forward in the understanding of the polymer/water interface phenomena.

  4. High Current Density InAsSb/GaSb Tunnel Field Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Anil; Borg, Mattias; Ganjipour, Bahram; Ek, Martin; Dick Thelander, Kimberly; Lind, Erik; Nilsson, Peter; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Steep-slope devices, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), have recently gained interest due to their potential for low power operation at room temperature. The devices are based on inter-band tunneling which could limit the on-current since the charge carriers must tunnel through a barrier to traverse the device. The InAs/GaSb heterostructure forms a broken type II band alignment which enables inter-band tunneling without a barrier, allowing high on-currents. We ha...

  5. Extended-gate organic field-effect transistor for the detection of histamine in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-04-01

    As part of our ongoing research program to develop health care sensors based on organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices, we have attempted to detect histamine using an extended-gate OFET. Histamine is found in spoiled or decayed fish, and causes foodborne illness known as scombroid food poisoning. The new OFET device possesses an extended gate functionalized by carboxyalkanethiol that can interact with histamine. As a result, we have succeeded in detecting histamine in water through a shift in OFET threshold voltage. This result indicates the potential utility of the designed OFET devices in food freshness sensing.

  6. Scheme for the fabrication of ultrashort channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, J.; Martel, R.; Solomon, P.; Chan, K.; Avouris, Ph.; Knoch, J.; Benedict, J.; Tanner, M.; Thomas, S.; Wang, K. L.

    2000-01-01

    We present a scheme for the fabrication of ultrashort channel length metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) involving nanolithography and molecular-beam epitaxy. The active channel is undoped and is defined by a combination of nanometer-scale patterning and anisotropic etching of an n ++ layer grown on a silicon on insulator wafer. The method is self-limiting and can produce MOSFET devices with channel lengths of less than 10 nm. Measurements on the first batch of n-MOSFET devices fabricated with this approach show very good output characteristics and good control of short-channel effects. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. High performance solution-processable tetrathienoacene (TTAR) based small molecules for organic field effect transistors (OFETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegiraju, Sureshraju; Huang, Deng-Yi; Priyanka, Pragya; Li, Yo-Shan; Luo, Xian-Lun; Hong, Shao-Huan; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Tung, Shih-Huang; Wang, Chien-Lung; Lien, Wei-Chieh; Yau, Shueh Lin; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Ming-Chou

    2017-05-30

    Three new organic semiconductors with alkyl chain-substituted tetrathienoacene (TTAR) as the central core and both ends capped with thiophene (DT-TTAR), thienothiophene (DTT-TTAR) and dithienothiophene (DDTT-TTAR) have been synthesized and characterized for organic field effect transistor (OFET) applications. A hole mobility of 0.81 cm 2 V -1 s -1 was achieved for the DDTT-TTAR film, which represents the highest mobility yet found for a solution-processable p-type TTAR-based small molecular semiconductors.

  8. Top-gate organic field-effect transistors fabricated on shape-memory polymer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Wei, Andrew; Voit, Walter; Zhang, Yadong; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.; Kippelen, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a bilayer gate dielectric and doped contacts fabricated on shape-memory polymer (SMP) substrates. SMPs exhibit large variations in Young's modulus dependent on temperature and have the ability to fix two or more geometric configurations when a proper stimulus is applied. These unique properties make SMPs desirable for three-dimensional shape applications of OFETs. The electrical properties of OFETs on SMP substrates are presented and compared to those of OFETs on traditional glass substrates.

  9. 25th anniversary article: key points for high-mobility organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huanli; Fu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jie; Wang, Zongrui; Hu, Wenping

    2013-11-20

    Remarkable progress has been made in developing high performance organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and the mobility of OFETs has been approaching the values of polycrystalline silicon, meeting the requirements of various electronic applications from electronic papers to integrated circuits. In this review, the key points for development of high mobility OFETs are highlighted from aspects of molecular engineering, process engineering and interface engineering. The importance of other factors, such as impurities and testing conditions is also addressed. Finally, the current challenges in this field for practical applications of OFETs are further discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ultra Thin Poly-Si Nanosheet Junctionless Field-Effect Transistor with Nickel Silicide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Wan-Ting; Wu, Yung-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsien

    2017-11-07

    This study demonstrated an ultra thin poly-Si junctionless nanosheet field-effect transistor (JL NS-FET) with nickel silicide contact. For the nickel silicide film, two-step annealing and a Ti capping layer were adopted to form an ultra thin uniform nickel silicide film with low sheet resistance (Rs). The JL NS-FET with nickel silicide contact exhibited favorable electrical properties, including a high driving current (>10⁷A), subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec.), and low parasitic resistance. In addition, this study compared the electrical characteristics of JL NS-FETs with and without nickel silicide contact.

  11. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kotakoski, Jani [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Roche, Stephan [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08070 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-01-27

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices.

  12. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney; Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh; Kotakoski, Jani; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices

  13. Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm2/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. The implant-free quantum well field-effect transistor: Harnessing the power of heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellings, Geert; Hikavyy, Andriy; Mitard, Jerome; Witters, Liesbeth; Benbakhti, Brahim; Alian, AliReza; Waldron, Niamh; Bender, Hugo; Eneman, Geert; Krom, Raymond; Schulze, Andreas; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Loo, Roger; Heyns, Marc; Meuris, Marc; Hoffmann, Thomas; De Meyer, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The Implant-Free Quantum Well Field-Effect Transistor (FET) offers enhanced scalability in a planar architecture through the integration of heterostructures. The Implant-Free architecture fully utilizes the band offsets between different materials, whereby charge carriers are effectively confined to a thin channel layer. This prevents sub-surface source/drain leakage observed in classical bulk Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor FETs at small gate lengths. An investigation of the V T -tuning capabilities of this technology reveals sensitivity to both well doping and bulk voltage.

  15. Ultra Thin Poly-Si Nanosheet Junctionless Field-Effect Transistor with Nickel Silicide Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated an ultra thin poly-Si junctionless nanosheet field-effect transistor (JL NS-FET with nickel silicide contact. For the nickel silicide film, two-step annealing and a Ti capping layer were adopted to form an ultra thin uniform nickel silicide film with low sheet resistance (Rs. The JL NS-FET with nickel silicide contact exhibited favorable electrical properties, including a high driving current (>107A, subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec., and low parasitic resistance. In addition, this study compared the electrical characteristics of JL NS-FETs with and without nickel silicide contact.

  16. Characteristic Variations of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors Induced by CF4 Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehoon; Park, Kun-Sik; Jeong, Ye-Sul; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Kuk Lee, Bong; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Ryu, Jin-Hwa; Do, Lee-Mi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Yase, Kiyoshi; Choi, Jong Sun

    2012-08-01

    The influence of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) gas on the electrical characteristics of monolithic graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) is reported. Compared with the results in nitrogen ambient, FETs in CF4 ambient exhibit a positive shift in the Dirac point voltage and an increase in drain current. These changes are ascribed to the electronegative nature of the fluorine atoms in CF4 gas, which is found to induce p-type doping and excess charge carriers in graphene. The electrical response to CF4 gas exposure demonstrates the feasibility of using monolithic graphene FETs as chemical sensors.

  17. Field-effect transistors based on self-organized molecular nanostripes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavallini, M.; Stoliare, P.; Moulin, J.-F.

    2005-01-01

    Charge transport properties in organic semiconductors depend strongly on molecular order. Here we demonstrate field-effect transistors where drain current flows through a precisely defined array of nanostripes made of crystalline and highly ordered molecules. The molecular stripes are fabricated ...... by the menisci once the critical concentration is reached and self-organizes into molecularly ordered stripes 100-200 nm wide and a few monolayers high. The charge mobility measured along the stripes is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the values measured for spin-coated thin films....

  18. High temperature study of flexible silicon-on-insulator fin field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Diab, Amer El Hajj

    2014-09-29

    We report high temperature electrical transport characteristics of a flexible version of the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced architecture: fin field-effect transistor on silicon-on-insulator with sub-20 nm fins and high-κ/metal gate stacks. Characterization from room to high temperature (150 °C) was completed to determine temperature dependence of drain current (Ids), gate leakage current (Igs), transconductance (gm), and extracted low-field mobility (μ0). Mobility degradation with temperature is mainly caused by phonon scattering. The other device characteristics show insignificant difference at high temperature which proves the suitability of inorganic flexible electronics with advanced device architecture.

  19. A disorder induced field effect transistor in bilayer and trilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dongwei; Liu Haiwen; Sacksteder IV, Vincent; Sun Qingfeng; Song Juntao; Jiang Hua; Xie, X C

    2013-01-01

    We propose using disorder to produce a field effect transistor (FET) in biased bilayer and trilayer graphene. Modulation of the bias voltage can produce large variations in the conductance when the effects of disorder are confined to only one of the graphene layers. This effect is based on the ability of the bias voltage to select which of the graphene layers carries current, and is not tied to the presence of a gap in the density of states. In particular, we demonstrate this effect in models of gapless ABA-stacked trilayer graphene, gapped ABC-stacked trilayer graphene and gapped bilayer graphene. (paper)

  20. Gate sensing coherent charge oscillations in a silicon field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M. Fernando; Shevchenko, Sergey; Barraud, Sylvain; Johansson, J. Robert; Ferguson, Andrew; Nori, Franco; Betz, Andreas

    We report the observation of coherent charge oscillations in a double quantum dot formed in a silicon nanowire transistor detected via its dispersive interaction with a radio-frequency resonant circuit coupled via the gate. Differential capacitance changes at the inter-dot charge transitions allow us to monitor the state of the system in the strong-driving regime where we observe the emergence of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference on the phase response of the resonator. A theoretical analysis of the dispersive signal demonstrates that quantum and tunnelling capacitance changes must be included to describe the qubit-resonator interaction. Furthermore, a Fourier analysis of the interference pattern reveals a charge coherence time, T2 = 100 ps. Our results demonstrate charge coherent control and readout in a simple silicon transistor and open up the possibility to implement charge and spin qubits in existing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. We thank FP7 318397, RIKEN iTHES project, AFOSR FA9550-14-1-0040, IMPACT program of JST and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research.

  1. Thienoacene-fused pentalenes: Syntheses, structures, physical properties and applications for organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Gaole

    2014-11-27

    Three soluble and stable thienoacene-fused pentalene derivatives (1-3) with different π-conjugation lengths were synthesized. X-ray crystallographic analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed their unique geometric and electronic structures due to the interaction between the aromatic thienoacene units and antiaromatic pentalene moiety. As a result, they all possess a small energy gap and show amphoteric redox behaviour. Time dependent (TD) DFT calculations were used to explain their unique electronic absorption spectra. These new compounds exhibited good thermal stability and ordered packing in solid state and thus their applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were also investigated. The highest field-effect hole mobility of 0.016, 0.036 and 0.001 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achieved for solution-processed thin films of 1-3, respectively.

  2. Field effect transistors and RC filters from pencil-trace on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurra, Narendra; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2013-06-07

    We report the fabrication of Resistor-Capacitor (RC) filters and field effect transistors (FETs) based on pencil drawings on paper, which contain turbostratic graphite crystallites as evidenced from Raman analysis. Pencil drawings have been employed as resistor and an ion gel, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate mixed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as dielectric, for the fabrication of RC filters with a cut-off frequency of 9 kHz. With ion gel as gate dielectric, an ambipolar electric field effect has been obtained from the pencil-trace at low operating voltages. The carrier mobilities were found to be ∼106 and 59 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for holes and electrons, respectively. The mobility value showed only 15% variation among the devices tested, truly remarkable given the simplicity of the fabrication process.

  3. Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors based on dinaphthothienothiophene precursor with chemically modified electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Takashi; Abe, Souichiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kimura, Yu; Hamaguchi, Azusa; Ikeda, Yoshinori; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Bottom-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on a soluble precursor of dinaphtho[2,3-b:2’,3’-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) with bottom-contact source-drain electrodes chemically modified with pentafluorobenzenethiol (PFBT) have been fabricated. The preparation of DNTT films using CYTOP overcoat layers allows the solution processing of bottom-gate/bottom-contact DNTT FETs with good electrical contacts between the PFBT-treated Au electrodes and the DNTT molecules. The DNTT FETs processed using CYTOP overcoat layers exhibit the field-effect mobilities of up to 0.37 cm2 V‑1 s‑1. High maximum mobility of 0.29 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 has been achieved in solution-processed DNTT FETs with channel length of 5 μm.

  4. Nature of electronic states in atomically thin MoS₂ field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Subhamoy; Pal, Atindra Nath; Ghosh, Arindam

    2011-10-25

    We present low-temperature electrical transport experiments in five field-effect transistor devices consisting of monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer MoS(2) films, mechanically exfoliated onto Si/SiO(2) substrate. Our experiments reveal that the electronic states in all films are localized well up to room temperature over the experimentally accessible range of gate voltage. This manifests in two-dimensional (2D) variable range hopping (VRH) at high temperatures, while below ∼30 K, the conductivity displays oscillatory structures in gate voltage arising from resonant tunneling at the localized sites. From the correlation energy (T(0)) of VRH and gate voltage dependence of conductivity, we suggest that Coulomb potential from trapped charges in the substrate is the dominant source of disorder in MoS(2) field-effect devices, which leads to carrier localization, as well.

  5. Dianthraceno[a,e]pentalenes: Synthesis, crystallographic structures and applications in organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Gaole

    2015-01-01

    Two soluble and stable dianthraceno[a,e]pentalenes with two (DAP1) and six (DAP2) phenyl substituents were synthesized. Both compounds possess a small energy band gap and show amphoteric redox behaviour due to intramolecular donor-accepter interactions. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that DAP2 has a closely packed structure with multi-dimensional [C-H⋯π] interactions although there are no π-π interactions between the dianthraceno[a,e]pentalene cores. As a result, solution-processed field effect transistors based on DAP2 exhibited an average hole mobility of 0.65 cm2 V-1 s-1. Under similar conditions, DAP1 showed an average field effect hole mobility of 0.001 cm2 V-1 s-1. This journal is

  6. Dirac-Point Shift by Carrier Injection Barrier in Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Operation at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia; Alexander-Webber, Jack; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Sagade, Abhay A; Lu, Haichang; Hasko, David; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan

    2018-03-21

    A positive shift in the Dirac point in graphene field-effect transistors was observed with Hall-effect measurements coupled with Kelvin-probe measurements at room temperature. This shift can be explained by the asymmetrical behavior of the contact resistance by virtue of the electron injection barrier at the source contact. As an outcome, an intrinsic resistance is given to allow a retrieval of an intrinsic carrier mobility found to be decreased with increasing gate bias, suggesting the dominance of short-range scattering in a single-layer graphene field-effect transistor. These results analytically correlate the field-effect parameters with intrinsic graphene properties.

  7. Observation of diameter dependent carrier distribution in nanowire-based transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A.; Hantschel, T.; Eyben, P.; Verhulst, A. S.; Rooyackers, R.; Vandooren, A.; Mody, J.; Nazir, A.; Leonelli, D.; Vandervorst, W.

    2011-05-01

    The successful implementation of nanowire (NW) based field-effect transistors (FET) critically depends on quantitative information about the carrier distribution inside such devices. Therefore, we have developed a method based on high-vacuum scanning spreading resistance microscopy (HV-SSRM) which allows two-dimensional (2D) quantitative carrier profiling of fully integrated silicon NW-based tunnel-FETs (TFETs) with 2 nm spatial resolution. The key elements of our characterization procedure are optimized NW cleaving and polishing steps, the use of in-house fabricated ultra-sharp diamond tips, measurements in high vacuum and a dedicated quantification procedure accounting for the Schottky-like tip-sample contact affected by surface states. In the case of the implanted TFET source regions we find a strong NW diameter dependence of conformality, junction abruptness and gate overlap, quantitatively in agreement with process simulations. In contrast, the arsenic doped drain regions reveal an unexpected NW diameter dependent dopant deactivation. The observed lower drain doping for smaller diameters is reflected in the device characteristics by lower TFET off-currents, as measured experimentally and confirmed by device simulations.

  8. Discrete random distribution of source dopants in nanowire tunnel transistors (TFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Somaia; Abul Khayer, M.; Alam, Khairul; Park, Hong-Hyun; Klimeck, Gerhard; Lake, Roger

    2013-03-01

    InAs and InSb nanowire (NW) tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) require highly degenerate source doping to support the high electric fields in the tunnel region. For a target on-current of 1 μA , the doping requirement may be as high as 1 . 5 ×1020cm-3 in a NW with diameter as low as 4 nm. The small size of these devices demand that the dopants near tunneling region be treated discretely. Therefore, the effects resulting from the random distribution of dopant atoms in the source of a TFET are studied for 30 test devices. Comparing with the transfer characteristics of the same device simulated with a continuum doping model, our results show (1) a spread of I - V toward the positive gate voltage axis, (2) the same average threshold voltage, (3) an average 62% reduction in the on current, and (4) a slight degradation of the subthreshold slope. Random fluctuations in both the number and placement of dopants will be discussed. Also, as the channel length is scaled down, direct tunneling through the channel starts limiting the device performance. Therefore, a comparison of materials is also performed, showing their ability to block direct tunneling for sub-10 nm channel FETs and TFETs. This work was supported in part by the Center on Functional Engineered Nano Architectonics and the Materials, Structures and Devices Focus Center, under the Focus Center Research Program, and by the National Science Foundation under Grant OCI-0749140

  9. Multiple silicon nanowire complementary tunnel transistors for ultralow-power flexible logic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Jeon, Y.; Jung, J.-C.; Koo, S.-M.; Kim, S.

    2012-06-01

    Based on experimental and simulation studies to gain insight into the suppression of ambipolar conduction in two distinct tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) devices (that is, an asymmetric source-drain doping or a properly designed gate underlap), here we report on the fabrication and electrical/mechanical characterization of a flexible complementary TFET (c-TFET) inverter on a plastic substrate using multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as the channel material. The static voltage transfer characteristic of the SiNW c-TFET inverter exhibits a full output voltage swing between 0 V and Vdd with a high voltage gain of ˜29 and a sharp transition of 0.28 V at Vdd = 3 V. A leakage power consumption of the SiNW c-TFET inverter in the standby state is as low as 17.1 pW for Vdd = 3 V. Moreover, its mechanical bendability indicates that it has good fatigue properties, providing an important step towards the realization of ultralow-power flexible logic circuits.

  10. Atomistic boron-doped graphene field-effect transistors: a route toward unipolar characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconcini, Paolo; Cresti, Alessandro; Triozon, François; Fiori, Gianluca; Biel, Blanca; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Macucci, Massimo; Roche, Stephan

    2012-09-25

    We report fully quantum simulations of realistic models of boron-doped graphene-based field-effect transistors, including atomistic details based on DFT calculations. We show that the self-consistent solution of the three-dimensional (3D) Poisson and Schrödinger equations with a representation in terms of a tight-binding Hamiltonian manages to accurately reproduce the DFT results for an isolated boron-doped graphene nanoribbon. Using a 3D Poisson/Schrödinger solver within the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism, self-consistent calculations of the gate-screened scattering potentials induced by the boron impurities have been performed, allowing the theoretical exploration of the tunability of transistor characteristics. The boron-doped graphene transistors are found to approach unipolar behavior as the boron concentration is increased and, by tuning the density of chemical dopants, the electron-hole transport asymmetry can be finely adjusted. Correspondingly, the onset of a mobility gap in the device is observed. Although the computed asymmetries are not sufficient to warrant proper device operation, our results represent an initial step in the direction of improved transfer characteristics and, in particular, the developed simulation strategy is a powerful new tool for modeling doped graphene nanostructures.

  11. Memristive device based on a depletion-type SONOS field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, N.; Ziegler, M.; Mähne, H.; Thiem, S.; Winterfeld, H.; Kohlstedt, H.

    2017-06-01

    State-of-the-art SONOS (silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-polysilicon) field effect transistors were operated in a memristive switching mode. The circuit design is a variation of the MemFlash concept and the particular properties of depletion type SONOS-transistors were taken into account. The transistor was externally wired with a resistively shunted pn-diode. Experimental current-voltage curves show analog bipolar switching characteristics within a bias voltage range of ±10 V, exhibiting a pronounced asymmetric hysteresis loop. The experimental data are confirmed by SPICE simulations. The underlying memristive mechanism is purely electronic, which eliminates an initial forming step of the as-fabricated cells. This fact, together with reasonable design flexibility, in particular to adjust the maximum R ON/R OFF ratio, makes these cells attractive for neuromorphic applications. The relative large set and reset voltage around ±10 V might be decreased by using thinner gate-oxides. The all-electric operation principle, in combination with an established silicon manufacturing process of SONOS devices at the Semiconductor Foundry X-FAB, promise reliable operation, low parameter spread and high integration density.

  12. Coupling between electrolyte and organic semiconductor in electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Fabio; Di Lauro, Michele; Berto, Marcello; Bortolotti, Carlo A.; Geerts, Yves H.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    Organic field effect transistors (OFET) operated in aqueous environments are emerging as ultra-sensitive biosensors and transducers of electrical and electrochemical signals from a biological environment. Their applications range from detection of biomarkers in bodily fluids to implants for bidirectional communication with the central nervous system. They can be used in diagnostics, advanced treatments and theranostics. Several OFET layouts have been demonstrated to be effective in aqueous operations, which are distinguished either by their architecture or by the respective mechanism of doping by the ions in the electrolyte solution. In this work we discuss the unification of the seemingly different architectures, such as electrolyte-gated OFET (EGOFET), organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) and dual-gate ion-sensing FET. We first demonstrate that these architectures give rise to the frequency-dependent response of a synapstor (synapse-like transistor), with enhanced or depressed modulation of the output current depending on the frequency of the time-dependent gate voltage. This behavior that was reported for OFETs with embedded metal nanoparticles shows the existence of a capacitive coupling through an equivalent network of RC elements. Upon the systematic change of ions in the electrolyte and the morphology of the charge transport layer, we show how the time scale of the synapstor is changed. We finally show how the substrate plays effectively the role of a second bottom gate, whose potential is actually fixed by the pH/composition of the electrolyte and the gate voltage applied.

  13. Regulating charge injection in ambipolar organic field-effect transistors by mixed self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Park, Won-Tae; Cho, Ara; Choi, Eun-Young; Noh, Yong-Young

    2014-08-27

    We report on a technique using mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to finely regulate ambipolar charge injection in polymer organic field-effect transistors. Differing from the other works that employ single SAM specifically for efficient charge injection in p-type and n-type transistors, we blend two different SAMs of alkyl- and perfluoroalkyl thiols at different ratios and apply them to ambipolar OFETs and inverter. Thanks to the utilization of ambipolar semiconductor and one SAM mixture, the device and circuit fabrications are facile with only one step for semiconductor deposition and another for SAM treatment. This is much simpler with respect to the conventional scheme for the unipolar-device-based complementary circuitry that demands separate deposition and processing for individual p-channel and n-channel transistors. Our results show that the mixed-SAM treatments not only improve ambipolar charge injection manifesting as higher hole- and electron-mobility and smaller threshold voltage but also gradually tune the device characteristics to reach a desired condition for circuit application. Therefore, this simple but useful approach is promising for ambipolar electronics.

  14. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arbiol, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); CELLS-ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-11-30

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.

  15. Steep switching devices for low power applications: negative differential capacitance/resistance field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunah; Shin, Jaemin; Shin, Changhwan

    2018-01-01

    Simply including either single ferroelectric oxide layer or threshold selector, we can make conventional field effect transistor to have super steep switching characteristic, i.e., sub-60-mV/decade of subthreshold slope. One of the representative is negative capacitance FET (NCFET), in which a ferroelectric layer is added within its gate stack. The other is phase FET (i.e., negative resistance FET), in which a threshold selector is added to an electrode (e.g., source or drain) of conventional field effect transistor. Although the concept of the aforementioned two devices was presented more or less recently, numerous studies have been published. In this review paper, by reviewing the published studies over the last decade, we shall de-brief and discuss the history and the future perspectives of NCFET/phase FET, respectively. The background, experimental investigation, and future direction for developing the aforementioned two representative steep switching devices (i.e., NCFET and phase FET/negative resistance FET) are to be discussed in detail.

  16. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  17. Metal oxide-graphene field-effect transistor: interface trap density extraction model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Najam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple to implement model is presented to extract interface trap density of graphene field effect transistors. The presence of interface trap states detrimentally affects the device drain current–gate voltage relationship Ids–Vgs. At the moment, there is no analytical method available to extract the interface trap distribution of metal-oxide-graphene field effect transistor (MOGFET devices. The model presented here extracts the interface trap distribution of MOGFET devices making use of available experimental capacitance–gate voltage Ctot–Vgs data and a basic set of equations used to define the device physics of MOGFET devices. The model was used to extract the interface trap distribution of 2 experimental devices. Device parameters calculated using the extracted interface trap distribution from the model, including surface potential, interface trap charge and interface trap capacitance compared very well with their respective experimental counterparts. The model enables accurate calculation of the surface potential affected by trap charge. Other models ignore the effect of trap charge and only calculate the ideal surface potential. Such ideal surface potential when used in a surface potential based drain current model will result in an inaccurate prediction of the drain current. Accurate calculation of surface potential that can later be used in drain current model is highlighted as a major advantage of the model.

  18. Fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGOFET) based biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, A. Diyana [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh, Perlis (Malaysia); Ruslinda, A. Rahim, E-mail: ruslinda@unimap.edu.my; Fatin, M. F. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh, Perlis (Malaysia); Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGO-FET) were demonstrated using a spray deposition method for biological sensing device purpose. A spray method is a fast, low-cost and simple technique to deposit graphene and the most promising technology due to ideal coating on variety of substrates and high production speed. The fabrication method was demonstrated for developing a label free aptamer reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor biosensor. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained by heating on hot plate fixed at various temperatures of 100, 200 and 300°C, respectively. The surface morphology of RGO were examined via atomic force microscopy to observed the temperature effect of produced RGO. The electrical measurement verify the performance of electrical conducting RGO-FET at temperature 300°C is better as compared to other temperature due to the removal of oxygen groups in GO. Thus, reduced graphene oxide was a promising material for biosensor application.

  19. Charge transport behavior of benodithiophene-diketopyrrololpyrrole-based conjugated polymer in organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kuen [Dept. of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Organic optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes, organic solar cells (OSCs), and organic field effect transistors (OFETs), have emerged due to the development of π-conjugated polymers. Because the delocalized π-framework can significantly reduce the energy gap between the highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), their intrinsic optoelectronic properties can be tunable with their conjugation length in terms of average molecular weights and their π-backbone structures. The new type of low bandgap conjugated polymer (P1) has been successively polymerized via a palladium- catalyzed Stille cross-coupling reaction with bis-ethylhexyl BDT and bis-n-decane DPP. With a linear alkyl chain in the DPP units, the intermolecular packing structure was thought to be enhanced by proving the UV–Vis and UPS spectra. In addition, the electronic properties of P1 via field-effect transistors well illustrate the typical p-type semiconducting property without showing the significant improvement by thermal annealing. From a broader perspective, this research indicates that a wider choice of linear alkyl chain length in DPP units and modification of the interface between dielectric and active layers should be sought to further optimize device performance. Hence, progressive works with the strategy presented in this report will be pursued to address the different challenges in attaining target OFET performances.

  20. A Water-Soluble Polythiophene for Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Ming [ORNL; He, Youjun [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of a non-ionic, water-soluble poly(thiophene) (PT) derivative, poly(3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy)ethoxy) methylthiophene) (P3TEGT) with a hydrophilic tri-ethylene glycol side group, is reported and thin films of the polymer suitable for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are characterized by combining analysis techniques that include UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. After thermal annealing, P3TEGT films exhibit a well-organized nanofibrillar lamellar nanostructure that originates from the strong - stacking of the thiophene backbones. P-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with hole mobilities of 10-5 cm2V-1s-1 were fabricated from this water-soluble poly(thiophene) derivative, demonstrating the possibility that environmentally-friendly solvents may be promising alternatives for the low-cost, green solution-based organic electronic device manufacturing of OFETs, organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and biosensors.

  1. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically doped organic field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumusak, Cigdem, E-mail: yumusak@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Esenler, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey); Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Abbas, Mamatimin; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    Mixed ionic/electronic conduction in conducting polymers introduces new physics/chemistry and an additional functionality in organic optoelectronic devices. The incorporation of an ionic species in a conjugated polymer matrix results in the increase in electrical conductivity associated with the electrochemical doping of the material. In recent years polymer light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have been demonstrated. In such electrochemical optoelectronic devices, mobile ions facilitate the efficient injection of electronic charge carriers creating 'in situ' doping regions near the electrodes and lead to efficient electroluminescence light emission. Here, we introduce the same concept of an LEC in the organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The presence of both electronic and ionic charge carriers in the active layers of OFETs brings high charge carrier mobility and light emission even using symmetric source and drain metal electrodes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light emission from an electrochemically doped organic field effect transistor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High charge carrier mobility as high as 3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light emission intensity can be controlled by the gate as well as drain voltages.

  2. Semiconducting thin films of fluorinated and unsubstituted phthalocyanines for applications in organic field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Harry; Keil, Christopher; Schlettwein, Derck [Institute of Applied Physics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany); Tsaryova, Olga; Woehrle, Dieter [Institute of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Perfluorinated phthalocyanines (F{sub 16}Pc) show n-type characteristics as active layers in organic field transistors while organic field transistors with unsubstituted phthalocyanines (Pc) exhibit p-type characteristics. The growth of F{sub 16}Pc and Pc films has been studied in OFETs on organic (polyimide, PMMA) and inorganic insulating layers (SiO{sub 2}) with different surface modifications (HMDS treatments). We report here about the dependence of the growth mode of the films and the field effect mobility on the used substrate for the copper complexes. The development of the electrical conduction was studied in-situ during film growth and the field effect mobility was determined for various film thicknesses in different regimes of the Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism that led to the formation of ultrathin conductive layers in the monolayer range followed by reorganization towards island growth. Optical absorbance was measured in reflection or transmission in dependence of the used substrate to investigate details of the intermolecular coupling.

  3. A Micro-Machined Microphone Based on a Combination of Electret and Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kumjae; Jeon, Junsik; West, James Edward; Moon, Wonkyu

    2015-08-18

    Capacitive-type transduction is now widely used in MEMS microphones. However, its sensitivity decreases with reducing size, due to decreasing air gap capacitance. In the present study, we proposed and developed the Electret Gate of Field Effect Transistor (ElGoFET) transduction based on an electret and FET (field-effect-transistor) as a novel mechanism of MEMS microphone transduction. The ElGoFET transduction has the advantage that the sensitivity is dependent on the ratio of capacitance components in the transduction structure. Hence, ElGoFET transduction has high sensitivity even with a smaller air gap capacitance, due to a miniaturization of the transducer. A FET with a floating-gate electrode embedded on a membrane was designed and fabricated and an electret was fabricated by ion implantation with Ga(+) ions. During the assembly process between the FET and the electret, the operating point of the FET was characterized using the static response of the FET induced by the electric field due to the trapped positive charge at the electret. Additionally, we evaluated the microphone performance of the ElGoFET by measuring the acoustic response in air using a semi-anechoic room. The results confirmed that the proposed transduction mechanism has potential for microphone applications.

  4. A scanning probe mounted on a field-effect transistor: Characterization of ion damage in Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kumjae; Lee, Hoontaek; Sung, Min; Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Hyunjung; Moon, Wonkyu

    2017-10-01

    We have examined the capabilities of a Tip-On-Gate of Field-Effect Transistor (ToGoFET) probe for characterization of FIB-induced damage in Si surface. A ToGoFET probe is the SPM probe which the Field Effect Transistor(FET) is embedded at the end of a cantilever and a Pt tip was mounted at the gate of FET. The ToGoFET probe can detect the surface electrical properties by measuring source-drain current directly modulated by the charge on the tip. In this study, a Si specimen whose surface was processed with Ga+ ion beam was prepared. Irradiation and implantation with Ga+ ions induce highly localized modifications to the contact potential. The FET embedded on ToGoFET probe detected the surface electric field profile generated by schottky contact between the Pt tip and the sample surface. Experimentally, it was shown that significant differences of electric field due to the contact potential barrier in differently processed specimens were observed using ToGOFET probe. This result shows the potential that the local contact potential difference can be measured by simple working principle with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fabrication, electrical characterization and device simulation of vertical P3HT field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical organic field-effect transistors (VOFETs provide an advantage over lateral ones with respect to the possibility to conveniently reduce the channel length. This is beneficial for increasing both the cut-off frequency and current density in organic field-effect transistor devices. We prepared P3HT (poly[3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl] VOFETs with a surrounding gate electrode and gate dielectric around the vertical P3HT pillar junction. Measured output and transfer characteristics do not show a distinct gate effect, in contrast to device simulations. By introducing in the simulations an edge layer with a strongly reduced charge mobility, the gate effect is significantly reduced. We therefore propose that a damaged layer at the P3HT/dielectric interface could be the reason for the strong suppression of the gate effect. We also simulated how the gate effect depends on the device parameters. A smaller pillar diameter and a larger gate electrode-dielectric overlap both lead to better gate control. Our findings thus provide important design parameters for future VOFETs.

  6. A Micro-Machined Microphone Based on a Combination of Electret and Field-Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumjae Shin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive-type transduction is now widely used in MEMS microphones. However, its sensitivity decreases with reducing size, due to decreasing air gap capacitance. In the present study, we proposed and developed the Electret Gate of Field Effect Transistor (ElGoFET transduction based on an electret and FET (field-effect-transistor as a novel mechanism of MEMS microphone transduction. The ElGoFET transduction has the advantage that the sensitivity is dependent on the ratio of capacitance components in the transduction structure. Hence, ElGoFET transduction has high sensitivity even with a smaller air gap capacitance, due to a miniaturization of the transducer. A FET with a floating-gate electrode embedded on a membrane was designed and fabricated and an electret was fabricated by ion implantation with Ga+ ions. During the assembly process between the FET and the electret, the operating point of the FET was characterized using the static response of the FET induced by the electric field due to the trapped positive charge at the electret. Additionally, we evaluated the microphone performance of the ElGoFET by measuring the acoustic response in air using a semi-anechoic room. The results confirmed that the proposed transduction mechanism has potential for microphone applications.

  7. Strategies for Improving the Performance of Sensors Based on Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohan; Mao, Shun; Chen, Junhong; Huang, Jia

    2018-01-29

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have been extensively studied as sensing channel materials in field-effect transistors due to their unique charge transport properties. Stimulation caused by its environmental conditions can readily change the charge-carrier density and mobility of OSCs. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) can act as both signal transducers and signal amplifiers, which greatly simplifies the device structure. Over the past decades, various sensors based on OFETs have been developed, including physical sensors, chemical sensors, biosensors, and integrated sensor arrays with advanced functionalities. However, the performance of OFET-based sensors still needs to be improved to meet the requirements from various practical applications, such as high sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid response speed. Tailoring molecular structures and micro/nanofilm structures of OSCs is a vital strategy for achieving better sensing performance. Modification of the dielectric layer and the semiconductor/dielectric interface is another approach for improving the sensor performance. Moreover, advanced sensory functionalities have been achieved by developing integrated device arrays. Here, a brief review of strategies used for improving the performance of OFET sensors is presented, which is expected to inspire and provide guidance for the design of future OFET sensors for various specific and practical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Temperature sensitivity analysis of polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-09-01

    The conventional tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-22 nm regime due to its lower sub-threshold slope and robustness against short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards temperature variation is a major concern. Therefore, for the first time, we investigate temperature sensitivity analysis of a polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor (ED-TFET). Different performance metrics and analog/RF figure-of-merits were considered and compared for both devices, and simulations were performed using Silvaco ATLAS device tool. We found that the variation in ON-state current in ED-TFET is almost temperature independent due to electrostatically doped mechanism, while, it increases in conventional TFET at higher temperature. Above room temperature, the variation in ION, IOFF, and SS sensitivity in ED-TFET are only 0.11%/K, 2.21%/K, and 0.63%/K, while, in conventional TFET the variations are 0.43%/K, 2.99%/K, and 0.71%/K, respectively. However, below room temperature, the variation in ED-TFET ION is 0.195%/K compared to 0.27%/K of conventional TFET. Moreover, it is analysed that the incomplete ionization effect in conventional TFET severely affects the drive current and the threshold voltage, while, ED-TFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed ED-TFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be used for cryogenics as well as for high temperature applications.

  9. Diazaisoindigo bithiophene and terthiophene copolymers for application in field-effect transistors and solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan

    2017-06-10

    Two donor–acceptor conjugated polymers with azaisoindigo as acceptor units and bithiophene and terthiophene as donor units have been synthesized by Stille polymerization. These two polymers have been successfully applied in field-effect transistors and polymer solar cells. By changing the donor component of the conjugated polymer backbone from bithiophene to terthiophene, the density of thiophene in the backbone is increased, manifesting as a decrease in both ionization potential and in electron affinity. Therefore, the charge transport in field-effect transistors switches from ambipolar to predominantly hole transport behavior. PAIIDTT exhibits hole mobility up to 0.40 cm2/Vs and electron mobility of 0.02 cm2/Vs, whereas PAIIDTTT exhibits hole mobility of 0.62 cm2/Vs. Polymer solar cells were fabricated based on these two polymers as donors with PC61BM and PC71BM as acceptor where PAIIDTT shows a modest efficiency of 2.57% with a very low energy loss of 0.55 eV, while PAIIDTTT shows a higher efficiency of 6.16% with a higher energy loss of 0.74 eV. Our results suggest that azaisoindgo is a useful building block for the development of efficient polymer solar cells with further improvement possibility by tuning the alternative units on the polymer backbone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2017

  10. Geometry and temperature effects on the threshold voltage characteristics of silicon nanowire MOS transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hei; Yu, Qanqun; Dong, Shurong; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Iwai, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    This work reports the observations of different geometry and temperature dependencies of electrical characteristics of silicon nanowire transistors with gate length of a couple microns. Several abnormal characteristics degradations were observed. As the gate lengths as well as the source/drain doping level of the devices under investigation were well beyond the punchthrough conditions, these observed characteristic degradations should not be due to conventional short-channel effects. We ascribed these observations to the charge transport along the corners/boundaries of the nanowires. Current enhancements were observed because of the higher mobility and larger density of states at the corners where the surface states have opposite effects on these parameters. Temperature dependence of the threshold voltage shows a linear decrease as the temperature increases. This trend is ascribed to the charge states at oxide/nanowire interfaces. Corners and surfaces of nanowire thus should play an important role for ultra-short nanowire transistors and that calls for shape of nanowire optimization for device design.

  11. Controllable electrical properties of metal-doped In2O3 nanowires for high-performance enhancement-mode transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xuming; Liu, Xingqiang; Wang, Chunlan; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Xiangheng; Ho, Johnny C; Li, Jinchai; Jiang, Changzhong; Xiong, Qihua; Liao, Lei

    2013-01-22

    In recent years, In(2)O(3) nanowires (NWs) have been widely explored in many technological areas due to their excellent electrical and optical properties; however, most of these devices are based on In(2)O(3) NW field-effect transistors (FETs) operating in the depletion mode, which induces relatively higher power consumption and fancier circuit integration design. Here, n-type enhancement-mode In(2)O(3) NW FETs are successfully fabricated by doping different metal elements (Mg, Al, and Ga) in the NW channels. Importantly, the resulting threshold voltage can be effectively modulated through varying the metal (Mg, Ga, and Al) content in the NWs. A series of scaling effects in the mobility, transconductance, threshold voltage, and source-drain current with respect to the device channel length are also observed. Specifically, a small gate delay time (0.01 ns) and high on-current density (0.9 mA/μm) are obtained at 300 nm channel length. Furthermore, Mg-doped In(2)O(3) NWs are then employed to fabricate NW parallel array FETs with a high saturation current (0.5 mA), on/off ratio (>10(9)), and field-effect mobility (110 cm(2)/V·s), while the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage do not show any significant changes. All of these results indicate the great potency for metal-doped In(2)O(3) NWs used in the low-power, high-performance thin-film transistors.

  12. Recent progress in integration of III-V nanowire transistors on Si substrate by selective-area growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Fukui, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    We report on the recent progress in electronic applications using III-V nanowires (NWs) on Si substrates using the selective-area growth method. This method could align vertical III-V NWs on Si under specific growth conditions. Detailed studies of the III-V NW/Si heterointerface showed the possibility of achieving coherent growth regardless of misfit dislocations in the III-V/Si heterojunction. The vertical III-V NWs grown using selective-area growth were utilized for high performance vertical field-effect transistors (FETs). Furthermore, III-V NW/Si heterointerfaces with fewer misfit dislocations provided us with a unique band discontinuity with a new functionality that can be used for the application of tunnel diodes and tunnel FETs. These demonstrations could open the door to a new approach for creating low power switches using III-V NWs as building-blocks of future nanometre-scaled electronic circuits on Si platforms.

  13. Non-classical logic inverter coupling a ZnO nanowire-based Schottky barrier transistor and adjacent Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2014-08-21

    On a single ZnO nanowire (NW), we fabricated an inverter-type device comprising a Schottky diode (SD) and field-effect transistor (FET), aiming at 1-dimensional (1D) electronic circuits with low power consumption. The SD and adjacent FET worked respectively as the load and driver, so that voltage signals could be easily extracted as the output. In addition, NW FET with a transparent conducting oxide as top gate turned out to be very photosensitive, although ZnO NW SD was blind to visible light. Based on this, we could achieve an array of photo-inverter cells on one NW. Our non-classical inverter is regarded as quite practical for both logic and photo-sensing due to its performance as well as simple device configuration.

  14. Precision X-ray Measurement of the Position Sensitivity of Graphene Field Effect Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazalas, Edward [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. (United States); Sarker, Biddut K. [Department of Physics and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. (United States); Moore, Michael [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States); Childres, Isaac [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Chen, Yong P. [Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We have been exploring the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) as a platform for detection of ionizing radiation, whereby the detection is achieved indirectly by use of the field effect in graphene, which is induced by the generation and transport of ionized charge carriers in the underlying undoped semiconductor substrate. An important characteristic of such a detector is scalability to large areas. Previous experimental studies suggest that the effective area significantly exceeds the size of graphene for field effect-based architectures, and this is also predicted from the operational principle of these devices. We describe the results of the experimental studies of GFETs on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates by use a microbeam Xray facility, provided by the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The results confirm that the effective area of the GFET is significantly larger than that of graphene with response measured at distances as large as 1000 μm from 10-μm size graphene. A simple transport model has been developed and is used to explain the spatial dependence of the GFET response. (authors)

  15. Sensing with Advanced Computing Technology: Fin Field-Effect Transistors with High-k Gate Stack on Bulk Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigante, Sara; Scarbolo, Paolo; Wipf, Mathias; Stoop, Ralph L; Bedner, Kristine; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Bazigos, Antonios; Bouvet, Didier; Calame, Michel; Schönenberger, Christian; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2015-05-26

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) form an established technology for sensing applications. However, recent advancements and use of high-performance multigate metal-oxide semiconductor FETs (double-gate, FinFET, trigate, gate-all-around) in computing technology, instead of bulk MOSFETs, raise new opportunities and questions about the most suitable device architectures for sensing integrated circuits. In this work, we propose pH and ion sensors exploiting FinFETs fabricated on bulk silicon by a fully CMOS compatible approach, as an alternative to the widely investigated silicon nanowires on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We also provide an analytical insight of the concept of sensitivity for the electronic integration of sensors. N-channel fully depleted FinFETs with critical dimensions on the order of 20 nm and HfO2 as a high-k gate insulator have been developed and characterized, showing excellent electrical properties, subthreshold swing, SS ∼ 70 mV/dec, and on-to-off current ratio, Ion/Ioff ∼ 10(6), at room temperature. The same FinFET architecture is validated as a highly sensitive, stable, and reproducible pH sensor. An intrinsic sensitivity close to the Nernst limit, S = 57 mV/pH, is achieved. The pH response in terms of output current reaches Sout = 60%. Long-term measurements have been performed over 4.5 days with a resulting drift in time δVth/δt = 0.10 mV/h. Finally, we show the capability to reproduce experimental data with an extended three-dimensional commercial finite element analysis simulator, in both dry and wet environments, which is useful for future advanced sensor design and optimization.

  16. Strain-gated piezotronic transistors based on vertical zinc oxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weihua; Zhou, Yusheng; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Cheng-Ying; Lin, Long; Wang, Xue; Wang, Sihong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-05-22

    Strain-gated piezotronic transistors have been fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs), which were grown on GaN/sapphire substrates using a vapor-liquid-solid process. The gate electrode of the transistor is replaced by the internal crystal potential generated by strain, and the control over the transported current is at the interface between the nanowire and the top or bottom electrode. The current-voltage characteristics of the devices were studied using conductive atomic force microscopy, and the results show that the current flowing through the ZnO NWs can be tuned/gated by the mechanical force applied to the NWs. This phenomenon was attributed to the piezoelectric tuning of the Schottky barrier at the Au-ZnO junction, known as the piezotronic effect. Our study demonstrates the possibility of using Au droplet capped ZnO NWs as a transistor array for mapping local strain. More importantly, our design gives the possibility of fabricating an array of transistors using individual vertical nanowires that can be controlled independently by applying mechanical force/pressure over the top. Such a structure is likely to have important applications in high-resolution mapping of strain/force/pressure.

  17. Growth and structural characterization of III-V semiconductor nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the growth and structural properties of III-V semiconductor nanowires and nanowire heterostructures are studied. These nanowires represent structures suitable for both fundamental physics and applications in electronic devices such as (tunnel) field effect transistors. The III-V nanowires are grown with molecular beam epitaxy, high κ dielectric layers are deposited conformally around the nanowires by atomic layer deposition. The morphological and structural characteristics of ...

  18. Enhanced stability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors with SiO₂ passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Bensong; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Junying; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong

    2015-10-30

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has attracted much attention due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential applic5ations in optoelectronics and flexible devices. However, its instability under ambient conditions limits its practical applications. Our investigations indicate that by passivation of the mechanically exfoliated BP flakes with a SiO2 layer, the fabricated BP field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit greatly enhanced environmental stability. Compared to the unpassivated BP devices, which show a fast drop of on/off current ratio by a factor of 10 after one week of ambient exposure, the SiO2-passivated BP devices display a high retained on/off current ratio of over 600 after one week of exposure, just a little lower than the initial value of 810. Our investigations provide an effective route to passivate the few-layer BPs for enhancement of their environmental stability.

  19. Ferroelectric gate tunnel field-effect transistors with low-power steep turn-on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a ferroelectric PbZrTiO3 gate stack, the range of the steep subthreshold swing in tunnel field-effect transistors was extended by 3.5 orders of magnitude demonstrating an improvement in the swing (by approximately double the slope. The drain conductance (gd shows only 16% enhancement with large V DS (∼−1.5V indicates internal voltage amplification with ferroelectric negative capacitance effect beneficial to small lateral drain-source bias voltages (−0.1 V. The concept of coupling the ferroelectric polarization is proposed. The power consumption is also discussed in low-power applications of steep subthreshold slope devices.

  20. Gate controlled magnetoresistance in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, C.; Park, B. G.; Ogawa, S.; Ferguson, A. J.; Wunderlich, J.

    2010-08-01

    We present a study of the magnetoresistance (MR) of a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) at the break-down regime when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the device. We have identified two different regimes where we observe a large and gate-voltage dependent MR. We suggest two different mechanisms which can explain the observed high MR. Moreover, we have studied how the MR of the MOSFET scales with the dimensions of the channel for gate voltages below the threshold. We observed a decrease in the MR by two orders of magnitude by reducing the dimensions of the channel from 50×280 μm2 to 5×5 μm2.

  1. All-carbon-based field effect transistors fabricated by aerosol jet printing on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Shen, Fangping; Ding, Haiyan; Gu, Wen; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Jian; Cui, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    An all-carbon-based field effect transistor (FET) was fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates by the aerosol jet printing method described in this paper. Three different types of homogeneous conductive inks were made and then printed layer-by-layer to form the FET chips. The conducting-reduced graphene oxide was used as electrodes (source and drain) and channel, respectively. Graphene oxide was used as dielectrics while multi-walled carbon nanotubes acted as the gate electrode. The all-carbon-based FET shows a good mobility of 350 cm 2 (V s) –1 at a drain bias of −1 V. This simple and novel method explores a promising way to fabricate all-carbon-based, flexible and low-cost electronic devices. (paper)

  2. Modeling of lightly doped drain and source graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Mehdi; Saremi, Maryam; Niazi, Hamid; Goharrizi, Arash Yazdanpanah

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, to minimize the tunneling leakage current, we propose a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) field effect transistor (FET) using lightly doped drain and source (LDDS) between intrinsic channel region and highly doped source and drain regions. By using a nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method, the transport characteristics of LDDS-GNRFET in comparison to those of conventional GNRFET are investigated. According to simulation results, LDDS-GNRFET with proper doping in LDDS regions, demonstrates much less leakage current, larger ON-OFF ratio (Ion/Ioff), better subthreshold-swing (SS), no ambipolar characteristic, and better switching parameters. These advantages represent the proposed structure as a suitable candidate for low-power and high-speed applications.

  3. Auger generation as an intrinsic limit to tunneling field-effect transistor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teherani, James T., E-mail: j.teherani@columbia.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Agarwal, Sapan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Chern, Winston; Antoniadis, Dimitri A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Solomon, Paul M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Yablonovitch, Eli [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    Many in the microelectronics field view tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) as society's best hope for achieving a >10× power reduction for electronic devices; however, despite a decade of considerable worldwide research, experimental TFET results have significantly underperformed simulations and conventional MOSFETs. To explain the discrepancy between TFET experiments and simulations, we investigate the parasitic leakage current due to Auger generation, an intrinsic mechanism that cannot be mitigated with improved material quality or better device processing. We expose the intrinsic link between the Auger and band-to-band tunneling rates, highlighting the difficulty of increasing one without the other. From this link, we show that Auger generation imposes a fundamental limit on ultimate TFET performance.

  4. Top-gate pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with amorphous rubrene gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroki, Mizuha; Maeda, Yasutaka; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro

    2018-02-01

    The scaling of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is necessary for high-density integration and for this, OFETs with a top-gate configuration are required. There have been several reports of damageless lithography processes for organic semiconductor or insulator layers. However, it is still difficult to fabricate scaled OFETs with a top-gate configuration. In this study, the lift-off process and the device characteristics of the OFETs with a top-gate configuration utilizing an amorphous (α) rubrene gate insulator were investigated. We have confirmed that α-rubrene shows an insulating property, and its extracted linear mobility was 2.5 × 10‑2 cm2/(V·s). The gate length and width were 10 and 60 µm, respectively. From these results, the OFET with a top-gate configuration utilizing an α-rubrene gate insulator is promising for the high-density integration of scaled OFETs.

  5. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically doped organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Cigdem; Abbas, Mamatimin; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Mixed ionic/electronic conduction in conducting polymers introduces new physics/chemistry and an additional functionality in organic optoelectronic devices. The incorporation of an ionic species in a conjugated polymer matrix results in the increase in electrical conductivity associated with the electrochemical doping of the material. In recent years polymer light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have been demonstrated. In such electrochemical optoelectronic devices, mobile ions facilitate the efficient injection of electronic charge carriers creating “in situ” doping regions near the electrodes and lead to efficient electroluminescence light emission. Here, we introduce the same concept of an LEC in the organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The presence of both electronic and ionic charge carriers in the active layers of OFETs brings high charge carrier mobility and light emission even using symmetric source and drain metal electrodes. PMID:23482672

  6. Current-voltage characteristics in organic field-effect transistors. Effect of interface dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworakowski, Juliusz

    2015-07-01

    The role of polar molecules present at dielectric/semiconductor interfaces of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) has been assessed employing the electrostatic model put forward in a recently published paper (Sworakowski et al., 2014). The interface dipoles create dipolar traps in the surface region of the semiconductor, their depths decreasing with the distance from the interface. This feature results in appearance of mobility gradients in the direction perpendicular to the dielectric/semiconductor interface, manifesting themselves in modification of the shapes of current-voltage characteristics. The effect may account for differences in carrier mobilities determined from the same experimental data using methods scanning different ranges of channel thicknesses (e.g., transconductances vs. transfer characteristics), differences between turn-on voltages and threshold voltages, and gate voltage dependence of mobility.

  7. Photopatternable Conducting Polymer Nanocomposite with Incorporated Gold Nanoparticles for Use in Organic Field Effect Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sung; Choi, Hyun Ho; Cho, Kil Won; Kim, Seung Bin [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    We investigated a new method for patterning organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using a photopatternable conducting polymer nanocomposite, consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that had been modified with a photoreactive cinnamate group, to form P3HT-AuNP-CI. We found that the addition of the cinnamate group to the nanoparticle surface assisted the preparation of a solvent resistive semiconducting film and preserved the P3HT ordering, which was interrupted by Au-P3HT interactions, as well as provided UV-controllable electrical properties. The P3HT-AuNPs-CI films could be microscale-patterned via a UV crosslinking photoreaction, represented as a promising photopatternable semiconductor material for use in advanced applications, with tunable electrical properties for fabrication of sub-micron and microscale electronic devices

  8. Organic semiconductors for solution-processable field-effect transistors (OFETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sybille; Forster, Michael; Souharce, Benjamin; Thiem, Heiko; Scherf, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    The cost-effective production of flexible electronic components will profit considerably from the development of solution-processable, organic semiconductor materials. Particular attention is focused on soluble semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). The hitherto differentiation between "small molecules" and polymeric materials no longer plays a role, rather more the ability to process materials from solution to homogeneous semiconducting films with optimal electronic properties (high charge-carrier mobility, low threshold voltage, high on/off ratio) is pivotal. Key classes of materials for this purpose are soluble oligoacenes, soluble oligo- and polythiophenes and their respective copolymers, and oligo- and polytriarylamines. In this context, micro- or nanocrystalline materials have the general advantage of somewhat higher charge-carrier mobilities, which, however, could be offset in the case of amorphous, glassy materials by simpler and more reproducible processing.

  9. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley O. Stone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET, covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  10. ZnO nanorods array based field-effect transistor biosensor for phosphate detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Ahn, Min-Sang; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2017-07-15

    A promising field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor has been fabricated based on pyruvate oxidase (PyO) functionalized ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array grown on seeded SiO 2 /Si substrate. The direct and vertically grown ZnO NRs on the seeded SiO 2 /Si substrate offers high surface area for enhanced PyO immobilization, which further helps to detect phosphate with higher specificity. Under optimum conditions, the fabricated FET biosensor provided a convenient method for phosphate detection with high sensitivity (80.57μAmM -1 cm -2 ) in a wide-linear range (0.1µM-7.0mM). Additionally, it also showed very low effect of electroactive species, stability and good reproducibility. Encouraging results suggest that this approach presents a promising method to be used for field measurements to detect phosphate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hysteresis mechanism and control in pentacene organic field-effect transistors with polymer dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis mechanism of pentacene organic field-effect transistors (OFETs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and/or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA dielectrics is studied. Through analyzing the electrical characteristics of OFETs with various PVA/PMMA arrangements, it shows that charge, which is trapped in PVA bulk and at the interface of pentacene/PVA, is one of the origins of hysteresis. The results also show that memory window is proportional to both trap amount in PVA and charge density at the gate/PVA or PVA/pentacene interfaces. Hence, the controllable memory window of around 0 ∼ 10 V can be realized by controlling the thickness and combination of triple-layer polymer dielectrics.

  12. Vinyl Flanked Difluorobenzothiadiazole-Dithiophene Conjugated Polymer for High Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xianfeng; Sun, Wandong; Chen, Yanlin; Tan, Luxi; Cai, Zheng-Xu; Liu, Zitong; Wang, Lin; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Dong, Lichun

    2018-02-21

    Fluorine containing conjugated polymers have been widely applied in high performance organic solar cells, but their use in field-effect transistors is still quite limited. In this work, a conjugated polymer PTFBTV based on difluorobenzothiadiazole (DFBT) and dithiophene was synthesized, utilizing multiple vinylene as linkers. The polymer exhibits a relatively high hole mobility up to 2.0 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) compared with the reported DFBT-oligothiophene based polymers, yet its structural complexity is much simpler. The polymer thin film exhibits a typical 'face on' molecular orientation. A single crystal of its monomer revealed a non-covalent intramolecular contact between fluorine and the neighbouring proton, which strengthens the backbone co-planarity. Meanwhile an intermolecular F...F contact was also observed, which might cause rather scattered lamellar crystallinity for PTFBTV in the solid state.

  13. Photopatternable Conducting Polymer Nanocomposite with Incorporated Gold Nanoparticles for Use in Organic Field Effect Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Sung; Choi, Hyun Ho; Cho, Kil Won; Kim, Seung Bin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated a new method for patterning organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using a photopatternable conducting polymer nanocomposite, consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that had been modified with a photoreactive cinnamate group, to form P3HT-AuNP-CI. We found that the addition of the cinnamate group to the nanoparticle surface assisted the preparation of a solvent resistive semiconducting film and preserved the P3HT ordering, which was interrupted by Au-P3HT interactions, as well as provided UV-controllable electrical properties. The P3HT-AuNPs-CI films could be microscale-patterned via a UV crosslinking photoreaction, represented as a promising photopatternable semiconductor material for use in advanced applications, with tunable electrical properties for fabrication of sub-micron and microscale electronic devices

  14. Switching Kinetics in Nanoscale Hafnium Oxide Based Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaosmanovic, Halid; Ocker, Johannes; Müller, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Müller, Johannes; Polakowski, Patrick; Flachowsky, Stefan; van Bentum, Ralf; Mikolajick, Thomas; Slesazeck, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The recent discovery of ferroelectricity in thin hafnium oxide films has led to a resurgence of interest in ferroelectric memory devices. Although both experimental and theoretical studies on this new ferroelectric system have been undertaken, much remains to be unveiled regarding its domain landscape and switching kinetics. Here we demonstrate that the switching of single domains can be directly observed in ultrascaled ferroelectric field effect transistors. Using models of ferroelectric domain nucleation we explain the time, field and temperature dependence of polarization reversal. A simple stochastic model is proposed as well, relating nucleation processes to the observed statistical switching behavior. Our results suggest novel opportunities for hafnium oxide based ferroelectrics in nonvolatile memory devices.

  15. Threshold voltage roll-off modelling of bilayer graphene field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeidmanesh, M; Ismail, Razali; Khaledian, M; Karimi, H; Akbari, E

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model is presented for threshold voltage roll-off of double gate bilayer graphene field-effect transistors. To this end, threshold voltage models of short- and long-channel states have been developed. In the short-channel case, front and back gate potential distributions have been modelled and used. In addition, the tunnelling probability is modelled and its effect is taken into consideration in the potential distribution model. To evaluate the accuracy of the potential model, FlexPDE software is employed with proper boundary conditions and a good agreement is observed. Using the proposed models, the effect of several structural parameters on the threshold voltage and its roll-off are studied at room temperature. (paper)

  16. Hole states in diamond p-delta-doped field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Orozco, J C; Rodriguez-Vargas, I [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, CP 98060 Zacatecas, ZAC. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M E, E-mail: jcmover@correo.unam.m [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, MOR. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The p-delta-doping in diamond allows to create high density two-dimensional hole gases. This technique has already been applied in the design and fabrication of diamond-based field effect transistors. Consequently, the knowledge of the electronic structure is of significant importance to understand the transport properties of diamond p-delta-doped systems. In this work the hole subbands of diamond p-type delta-doped quantum wells are studied within the framework of a local-density Thomas-Fermi-based approach for the band bending profile. The calculation incorporates an independent three-hole-band scheme and considers the effects of the contact potential, the delta-channel to contact distance, and the ionized impurity density.

  17. Method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from graphene field-effect transistors using a physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscá, A., E-mail: alberto.bosca@upm.es [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pedrós, J. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Campus de Excelencia Internacional, Campus Moncloa UCM-UPM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Martínez, J. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ciencia de Materiales, E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Calle, F. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Campus de Excelencia Internacional, Campus Moncloa UCM-UPM, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-01-28

    Due to its intrinsic high mobility, graphene has proved to be a suitable material for high-speed electronics, where graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has shown excellent properties. In this work, we present a method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from GFET devices using a simple electrical characterization and a model fitting. With experimental data from the device output characteristics, the method allows to calculate parameters such as the mobility, the contact resistance, and the fixed charge. Differentiated electron and hole mobilities and direct connection with intrinsic material properties are some of the key aspects of this method. Moreover, the method output values can be correlated with several issues during key fabrication steps such as the graphene growth and transfer, the lithographic steps, or the metalization processes, providing a flexible tool for quality control in GFET fabrication, as well as a valuable feedback for improving the material-growth process.

  18. Exploration of conductance peak splitting in carbon nanotube field effect transistors at critical field strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jeffrey D.; Licini, Jerome C.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Strachan, Doug R.; Johnston, Danvers E.; Khamis, Sam

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotube field effect transistors were produced by chemical vapor deposition growth of nanotubes on oxidized silicon substrate. Samples were back gated on doped silicon and contacted with gold/chrome contacts. Conductance measurements were performed at low temperature and high magnetic field using a dilution refrigerator and a superconducting magnet. Data was taken at 0.5 Tesla increments from 0-11Tesla. The differential conductance (dI/dV) shows an interesting asymmetry with bias voltage as well as a near zero bias conductance peak. The near zero bias conductance peak demonstrates splitting at two critical magnetic field strengths on the 0.5T scale. These two critical regimes are further explored on a finer magnetic field scale.

  19. Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicarelli, L.; Vitiello, M. S.; Coquillat, D.; Lombardo, A.; Ferrari, A. C.; Knap, W.; Polini, M.; Pellegrini, V.; Tredicucci, A.

    2012-10-01

    The unique optoelectronic properties of graphene make it an ideal platform for a variety of photonic applications, including fast photodetectors, transparent electrodes in displays and photovoltaic modules, optical modulators, plasmonic devices, microcavities, and ultra-fast lasers. Owing to its high carrier mobility, gapless spectrum and frequency-independent absorption, graphene is a very promising material for the development of detectors and modulators operating in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum (wavelengths in the hundreds of micrometres), still severely lacking in terms of solid-state devices. Here we demonstrate terahertz detectors based on antenna-coupled graphene field-effect transistors. These exploit the nonlinear response to the oscillating radiation field at the gate electrode, with contributions of thermoelectric and photoconductive origin. We demonstrate room temperature operation at 0.3 THz, showing that our devices can already be used in realistic settings, enabling large-area, fast imaging of macroscopic samples.

  20. Theoretical investigation of performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Deok-Kee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the highest possible expected performance for graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (GNRFETs) for a wide range of operation voltages and device structure parameters, such as the width of the graphene nanoribbon and gate length. We formulated a self-consistent, non-equilibrium Green’s function method in conjunction with the Poisson equation and modeled the operation of nanometer sized GNRFETs, of which GNR channels have finite bandgaps so that the GNRFET can operate as a switch. We propose a metric for competing with the current silicon CMOS high performance or low power devices and explain that this can vary greatly depending on the GNRFET structure parameters.

  1. Applications of interface controlled pulsed-laser deposited polymer films in field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Danish; Ukah, Ndubuisi; Guha, Suchi; Gupta, Ram; Ghosh, Kartik

    2010-03-01

    Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation, a derivative of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), is an alternative method of depositing polymer and biomaterial films that allows homogeneous film coverage of high molecular weight organic materials for layer-by-layer growth without any laser induced damage. Polyfluorene (PF)-based conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention in organic field-effect transistors (FETs). A co-polymer of PF (PFB) was deposited as a thin film using matrix assisted PLD employing a KrF excimer laser. Electrical characteristics of FETs fabricated using these PLD grown films were compared to those of FETs using spin-coated films. We show that threshold voltages, on/off ratios, and charge carrier motilities are significantly improved in PLD grown films. This is attributed to an improved dielectric-polymer interface.

  2. A simple drain current model for Schottky-barrier carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, D; Cartoixa, X; Miranda, E; Sune, J; Chaves, F A; Roche, S

    2007-01-01

    We report on a new computational model to efficiently simulate carbon nanotube-based field effect transistors (CNT-FET). In the model, a central region is formed by a semiconducting nanotube that acts as the conducting channel, surrounded by a thin oxide layer and a metal gate electrode. At both ends of the semiconducting channel, two semi-infinite metallic reservoirs act as source and drain contacts. The current-voltage characteristics are computed using the Landauer formalism, including the effect of the Schottky barrier physics. The main operational regimes of the CNT-FET are described, including thermionic and tunnel current components, capturing ambipolar conduction, multichannel ballistic transport and electrostatics dominated by the nanotube capacitance. The calculations are successfully compared to results given by more sophisticated methods based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF)

  3. Detection of influenza A virus using carbon nanotubes field effect transistor based DNA sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Luyen; Nguyen, Thi Thuy; Huyen Tran, Thi Thu; Chu, Van Tuan; Thinh Tran, Quang; Tuan Mai, Anh

    2017-09-01

    The carbon nanotubes field effect transistor (CNTFET) based DNA sensor was developed, in this paper, for detection of influenza A virus DNA. Number of factors that influence the output signal and analytical results were investigated. The initial probe DNA, decides the available DNA strands on CNTs, was 10 μM. The hybridization time for defined single helix was 120 min. The hybridization temperature was set at 30 °C to get a net change in drain current of the DNA sensor without altering properties of any biological compounds. The response time of the DNA sensor was less than one minute with a high reproducibility. In addition, the DNA sensor has a wide linear detection range from 1 pM to 10 nM, and a very low detection limit of 1 pM. Finally, after 7-month storage in 7.4 pH buffer, the output signal of DNA sensor recovered 97%.

  4. Modeling Radiation-Induced Degradation in Top-Gated Epitaxial Graphene Field-Effect-Transistors (FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-S. Moon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates total ionizing dose (TID effects in top-gated epitaxial graphene field-effect-transistors (GFETs. Measurements reveal voltage shifts in the current-voltage (I-V characteristics and degradation of carrier mobility and minimum conductivity, consistent with the buildup of oxide-trapped charges. A semi-empirical approach for modeling radiation-induced degradation in GFETs effective carrier mobility is described in the paper. The modeling approach describes Coulomb and short-range scattering based on calculations of charge and effective vertical field that incorporate radiation-induced oxide trapped charges. The transition from the dominant scattering mechanism is correctly described as a function of effective field and oxide trapped charge density. Comparison with experimental data results in good qualitative agreement when including an empirical component to account for scatterer transparency in the low field regime.

  5. Design of double gate vertical tunnel field effect transistor using HDB and its performance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema; Chauhan, Sudakar Singh

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the double gate vertical tunnel field-effect transistor using homo/hetero dielectric buried oxide (HDB) to obtain the optimized device characteristics. In this concern, the existence of double gate, HDB and electrode work-function engineering enhances DC performance and Analog/RF performance. The use of electrostatic doping helps to achieve higher on-current owing to occurrence of higher tunneling generation rate of charge carriers at the source/epitaxial interface. Further, lightly doped drain region and high- k dielectric below channel and drain region are responsible to suppress the ambipolar current. Simulated results clarifies that proposed device have achieved the tremendous performance in terms of driving current capability, steeper subthreshold slope (SS), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), hot carrier effects (HCEs) and high frequency parameters for better device reliability.

  6. Optimal design of an electret microphone metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor preamplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donk, A G; Bergveld, P

    1992-04-01

    A theoretical noise analysis of the combination of a capacitive microphone and a preamplifier containing a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and a high-value resistive bias element is given. It is found that the output signal-to-noise ratio for a source follower and for a common-source circuit is almost the same. It is also shown that the output noise can be reduced by making the microphone capacitance as well as the bias resistor as large as possible, and furthermore by keeping the parasitic gate capacitances as low as possible and finally by using an optimum value for the gate area of the MOSFET. The main noise source is the thermal noise of the gate leakage resistance of the MOSFET. It is also shown that short-channel MOSFETs produce more thermal channel noise than longer channel devices.

  7. A numerical study of the nanoribbon field-effect transistors under the ballistic and dissipative transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Yousefi, Reza; Saghafi, Kamyar; Aderang, Habib

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a detailed performance comparison is made between ballistic and dissipative quantum transport of metal oxide semicondutor-like graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistor, in ON and OFF-state conditions. By the self-consistent mode-space non-equilibrium Green's function approach, inter- and intraband scattering is accounted and the role of acoustic and optical phonon scattering on the performance of the devices is evaluated. We found that in this structure the dominant mechanism of scattering changes according to the ranges of voltage bias. Under large biasing conditions, the influence of optical phonon scattering becomes important. Also, the ambipolar and OFF-current are impressed by the phonon-assisted band-to-band tunneling and increased considerably compared to the ballistic conditions, although sub-threshold swing degrades due to optical phonon scattering.

  8. Impact of momentum mismatch on 2D van der Waals tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiang; Logoteta, Demetrio; Pala, Marco G.; Cresti, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    We numerically investigate electron quantum transport in 2D van der Waals tunnel field-effect-transistors in the presence of lateral momentum mismatch induced by lattice mismatch or rotational misalignment between the two-dimensional layers. We show that a small momentum mismatch induces a threshold voltage shift without altering the subthreshold swing. On the contrary, a large momentum mismatch produces significant potential variations and ON-current reduction. Short-range scattering, such as that due to phonons or system edges, enables momentum variations, thus enhancing interlayer tunneling. The coupling of electrons with acoustic phonons is shown to increase the ON current without affecting the subthreshold swing. In the case of optical phonons, the ON-current increase is accompanied by a subthreshold swing degradation due to the inelastic nature of the scattering.

  9. Enhanced intrinsic voltage gain in artificially stacked bilayer CVD graphene field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Himadri; Kataria, Satender [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Electronic Devices, Aachen (Germany); University of Siegen, School of Science and Technology, Siegen (Germany); Aguirre-Morales, Jorge-Daniel; Fregonese, Sebastien; Zimmer, Thomas [IMS Laboratory, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Bordeaux, Talence (France); Passi, Vikram [University of Siegen, School of Science and Technology, Siegen (Germany); AMO GmbH, Advanced Microelectronics Center Aachen (Germany); Iannazzo, Mario; Alarcon, Eduard [Technical University of Catalonia, Department of Electronics Engineering, UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Lemme, Max C. [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Electronic Devices, Aachen (Germany); University of Siegen, School of Science and Technology, Siegen (Germany); AMO GmbH, Advanced Microelectronics Center Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We report on electronic transport in dual-gate, artificially stacked bilayer graphene field effect transistors (BiGFETs) fabricated from large-area chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. The devices show enhanced tendency to current saturation, which leads to reduced minimum output conductance values. This results in improved intrinsic voltage gain of the devices when compared to monolayer graphene FETs. We employ a physics based compact model originally developed for Bernal stacked bilayer graphene FETs (BSBGFETs) to explore the observed phenomenon. The improvement in current saturation may be attributed to increased charge carrier density in the channel and thus reduced saturation velocity due to carrier-carrier scattering. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Chemical oxidative and solid state synthesis of low molecular weight polymers for organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Rajashree Y.; Dharmapurikar, Satej S.; Chini, Mrinmoy Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Solution processability of the precursor molecules is a major issue owing to their limited solubility for the synthesis of conjugated polymers. Therefore, we favour the solvent free solid state chemical oxidative polymerization route for the synthesis of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based donor-acceptor (D-A) type conjugated polymers. D-A type polymer Poly(S-OD-EDOT) which contains DPP coupled with EDOT donor units is synthesized via solid state polymerization method. The polymer is employed as an active layer for organic field-effect transistors to measure charge transport properties. The Polymer shows good hole mobility 3.1 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1, with a on/off ratio of 1.1 × 103.

  11. Method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from graphene field-effect transistors using a physical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscá, A.; Pedrós, J.; Martínez, J.; Calle, F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its intrinsic high mobility, graphene has proved to be a suitable material for high-speed electronics, where graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has shown excellent properties. In this work, we present a method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from GFET devices using a simple electrical characterization and a model fitting. With experimental data from the device output characteristics, the method allows to calculate parameters such as the mobility, the contact resistance, and the fixed charge. Differentiated electron and hole mobilities and direct connection with intrinsic material properties are some of the key aspects of this method. Moreover, the method output values can be correlated with several issues during key fabrication steps such as the graphene growth and transfer, the lithographic steps, or the metalization processes, providing a flexible tool for quality control in GFET fabrication, as well as a valuable feedback for improving the material-growth process

  12. In situ measurements and transmission electron microscopy of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Seongwon; Olson, Eric; Zuo Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    We present the design and operation of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET). The device is configured with microfabricated slits, which allows direct observation of CNTs in a FET using TEM and measurement of electrical transport while inside the TEM. As demonstrations of the device architecture, two examples are presented. The first example is an in situ electrical transport measurement of a bundle of carbon nanotubes. The second example is a study of electron beam radiation effect on CNT bundles using a 200 keV electron beam. In situ electrical transport measurement during the beam irradiation shows a signature of wall- or tube-breakdown. Stepwise current drops were observed when a high intensity electron beam was used to cut individual CNT bundles in a device with multiple bundles

  13. Multiple-trapping in pentacene field-effect transistors with a nanoparticles self-assembled monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keanchuan Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A silver nanoparticles self-assembled monolayer (SAM was incorporated in pentacene field-effect transistor and its effects on the carrier injection and transport were investigated using the current-voltage (I − V and impedance spectroscopy (IS measurements. The I − V results showed that there was a significant negative shift of the threshold voltage, indicating the hole trapping inside the devices with about two orders higher in the contact resistance and an order lower in the effective mobility when a SAM was introduced. The IS measurements with the simulation using a Maxwell-Wagner equivalent circuit model revealed the existence of multiple trapping states for the devices with NPs, while the devices without NPs exhibited only a single trap state.

  14. InGaP/InGaAs field-effect transistor typed hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jung-Hui; Liou, Syuan-Hao; Lin, Pao-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Chi

    2018-02-01

    In this article, the Pd-based mixture comprising silicon dioxide (SiO2) is applied as sensing material for the InGaP/InGaAs field-effect transistor typed hydrogen sensor. After wet selectively etching the SiO2, the mixture is turned into Pd nanoparticles on an interlayer. Experimental results depict that hydrogen atoms trapped inside the mixture could effectively decrease the gate barrier height and increase the drain current due to the improved sensing properties when Pd nanoparticles were formed by wet etching method. The sensitivity of the gate forward current from air (the reference) to 9800 ppm hydrogen/air environment approaches the high value of 1674. Thus, the studied device shows a good potential for hydrogen sensor and integrated circuit applications.

  15. Robust thresholdlike effect of internal noise on stochastic resonance in an organic field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Asakawa, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    The application of noise to a nonlinear system can have the effect of increasing the signal transmission of the system through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR). This paper presents an analytical characterization of the dependence of the signal transmission performance of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) on external noise. Similarly to the threshold of a nonlinear system, the additive internal noise of the system can be used to control the emergence of SR. Internal noise or the addition of random numbers to the system enables one to observe the SR phenomenon in an OFET under an intrinsically nonresonant condition. Internal noise plays a thresholdlike role, but it functions in a different manner. The fluctuations in performance due to external noise become smaller when the effect of internal noise becomes dominant compared with that of the threshold. In conclusion, it is found that internal noise plays a robust thresholdlike role with respect to variations in external noise intensity.

  16. Transparent p-type SnO nanowires with unprecedented hole mobility among oxide semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2013-11-25

    p-type tin monoxide (SnO) nanowire field-effect transistors with stable enhancement mode behavior and record performance are demonstrated at 160 °C. The nanowire transistors exhibit the highest field-effect hole mobility (10.83 cm2 V−1 s−1) of any p-type oxide semiconductor processed at similar temperature. Compared to thin film transistors, the SnO nanowire transistors exhibit five times higher mobility and one order of magnitude lower subthreshold swing. The SnO nanowire transistors show three times lower threshold voltages (−1 V) than the best reported SnO thin film transistors and fifteen times smaller than p-type Cu 2O nanowire transistors. Gate dielectric and process temperature are critical to achieving such performance.

  17. Photojunction Field-Effect Transistor Based on a Colloidal Quantum Dot Absorber Channel Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Adinolfi, Valerio

    2015-01-27

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The performance of photodetectors is judged via high responsivity, fast speed of response, and low background current. Many previously reported photodetectors based on size-tuned colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have relied either on photodiodes, which, since they are primary photocarrier devices, lack gain; or photoconductors, which provide gain but at the expense of slow response (due to delayed charge carrier escape from sensitizing centers) and an inherent dark current vs responsivity trade-off. Here we report a photojunction field-effect transistor (photoJFET), which provides gain while breaking prior photoconductors\\' response/speed/dark current trade-off. This is achieved by ensuring that, in the dark, the channel is fully depleted due to a rectifying junction between a deep-work-function transparent conductive top contact (MoO3) and a moderately n-type CQD film (iodine treated PbS CQDs). We characterize the rectifying behavior of the junction and the linearity of the channel characteristics under illumination, and we observe a 10 μs rise time, a record for a gain-providing, low-dark-current CQD photodetector. We prove, using an analytical model validated using experimental measurements, that for a given response time the device provides a two-orders-of-magnitude improvement in photocurrent-to-dark-current ratio compared to photoconductors. The photoJFET, which relies on a junction gate-effect, enriches the growing family of CQD photosensitive transistors.

  18. Investigation of the dimensionality of charge transport in organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Fabiano, Simone; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-02-01

    Ever since the first experimental investigations of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) the dimensionality of charge transport has alternately been described as two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D). More recently, researchers have turned to an analytical analysis of the temperature-dependent transfer characteristics to classify the dimensionality as either 2D or 3D as well as to determine the disorder of the system, thereby greatly simplifying dimensionality investigations. We applied said analytical analysis to the experimental results of our OFETs comprising molecularly well-defined polymeric layers as the active material as well as to results obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and found that it was not able to correctly distinguish between 2D and 3D transports or give meaningful values for the disorder and should only be used for quasiquantitative and comparative analysis. We conclude to show that the dimensionality of charge transport in OFETs is a function of the interplay between transistor physics and morphology of the organic material.

  19. High-mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaure, Nandu B [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Cammidge, Andrew N; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cook, Michael J [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cain, Markys G; Murphy, Craig E [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Pal, Chandana; Ray, Asim K, E-mail: Asim.Ray@brunel.ac.uk [The Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Solution-processed films of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(hexyl) copper phthalocyanine (CuPc{sub 6}) were utilized as an active semiconducting layer in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the bottom-gate configurations using chemical vapour deposited silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) as gate dielectrics. The surface treatment of the gate dielectric with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) resulted in values of 4x10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 10{sup 6} for saturation mobility and on/off current ratio, respectively. This improvement was accompanied by a shift in the threshold voltage from 3 V for untreated devices to -2 V for OTS treated devices. The trap density at the interface between the gate dielectric and semiconductor decreased by about one order of magnitude after the surface treatment. The transistors with the OTS treated gate dielectrics were more stable over a 30-day period in air than untreated ones.

  20. Ambipolar Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Semiconductors for Solution-Processable Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Hwang, Hansu; Park, Won-Tae; Khim, Dongyoon; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Yunseul; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-01-25

    We report on the fabrication of an organic thin-film semiconductor formed using a blend solution of soluble ambipolar small molecules and an insulating polymer binder that exhibits vertical phase separation and uniform film formation. The semiconductor thin films are produced in a single step from a mixture containing a small molecular semiconductor, namely, quinoidal biselenophene (QBS), and a binder polymer, namely, poly(2-vinylnaphthalene) (PVN). Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on QBS/PVN blend semiconductor are then assembled using top-gate/bottom-contact device configuration, which achieve almost four times higher mobility than the neat QBS semiconductor. Depth profile via secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy images indicate that the QBS domains in the films made from the blend are evenly distributed with a smooth morphology at the bottom of the PVN layer. Bias stress test and variable-temperature measurements on QBS-based OFETs reveal that the QBS/PVN blend semiconductor remarkably reduces the number of trap sites at the gate dielectric/semiconductor interface and the activation energy in the transistor channel. This work provides a one-step solution processing technique, which makes use of soluble ambipolar small molecules to form a thin-film semiconductor for application in high-performance OFETs.

  1. Spearhead Nanometric Field-Effect Transistor Sensors for Single-Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Ainara López; Ali, Tayyibah; Shevchuk, Andrew; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Novak, Pavel; Edwards, Christopher; Lab, Max; Gopal, Sahana; Chiappini, Ciro; Anand, Uma; Magnani, Luca; Coombes, R. Charles; Gorelik, Julia; Matsue, Tomokazu; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Klenerman, David; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Korchev, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Nanometric field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors are made on the tip of spear-shaped dual carbon nanoelectrodes derived from carbon deposition inside double-barrel nanopipettes. The easy fabrication route allows deposition of semiconductors or conducting polymers to comprise the transistor channel. A channel from electrodeposited poly pyrrole (PPy) exhibits high sensitivity toward pH changes. This property is exploited by immobilizing hexokinase on PPy nano-FETs to give rise to a selective ATP biosensor. Extracellular pH and ATP gradients are key biochemical constituents in the microenvironment of living cells; we monitor their real-time changes in relation to cancer cells and cardiomyocytes. The highly localized detection is possible because of the high aspect ratio and the spear-like design of the nano-FET probes. The accurately positioned nano-FET sensors can detect concentration gradients in three-dimensional space, identify biochemical properties of a single living cell, and after cell membrane penetration perform intracellular measurements. PMID:26816294

  2. Field Effect Transistor Biosensor Using Antigen Binding Fragment for Detecting Tumor Marker in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanshan; Hotani, Kaori; Hideshima, Sho; Kuroiwa, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Takuya; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Mori, Yasuro; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Detection of tumor markers is important for cancer diagnosis. Field-effect transistors (FETs) are a promising method for the label-free detection of trace amounts of biomolecules. However, detection of electrically charged proteins using antibody-immobilized FETs is limited by ionic screening by the large probe molecules adsorbed to the transistor gate surface, reducing sensor responsiveness. Here, we investigated the effect of probe molecule size on the detection of a tumor marker, α-fetoprotein (AFP) using a FET biosensor. We demonstrated that the small receptor antigen binding fragment (Fab), immobilized on a sensing surface as small as 2–3 nm, offers a higher degree of sensitivity and a wider concentration range (100 pg/mL–1 μg/mL) for the FET detection of AFP in buffer solution, compared to the whole antibody. Therefore, the use of a small Fab probe molecule instead of a whole antibody is shown to be effective for improving the sensitivity of AFP detection in FET biosensors. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that a Fab-immobilized FET subjected to a blocking treatment, to avoid non-specific interactions, could sensitively and selectively detect AFP in human serum. PMID:28788579

  3. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo; Kim, Hwajeong; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4 ′ -pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm 2 /Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (V D ) and gate (V G ) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of V D and V G . The best voltage combination was V D = −0.2 V and V G = −1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors

  4. Experimental apparatus for teaching electrostatic topics: the electroscope with field-effect transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Alves de Sá Muniz Sampaio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular school labs lack experiments that can properly identify many of the phenomena present in the electrostatic study. This paper proposes the implementation of a new kind of simple experimental apparatus for teaching topics in this area of physics, consisting of an electroscope kind that uses the field-effect transistor for detecting electric charges coming from electrified bodies. An explanation is given on the principles that makes this type of transistor an effective device due to its high sensitivity to electrostatic fields, as well as an analysis of the usefulness of this project for viewing many peculiar phenomena, such as polarization and induction. Based on this, we propose some simple activities that can be done in the classroom to involve students in the initial subject of electrostatics. We expect that this form of teaching along with experimental and explanatory approach of the phenomena in the classroom can bring to students a better learning of these concepts, demonstrating the utility of experimentation on teaching electrostatics.

  5. Field Effect Transistors Based on Composite Films of Poly(4-vinylphenol) with ZnO Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughias, Ouiza; Belkaid, Mohammed Said; Zirmi, Rachid; Trigaud, Thierry; Ratier, Bernard; Ayoub, Nouh

    2018-01-01

    In order to adjust the characteristic of pentacene thin film transistor, we modified the dielectric properties of the gate insulator, poly(4-vinylphenol), or PVP. PVP is an organic polymer with a low dielectric constant, limiting the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). To increase the dielectric constant of PVP, a controlled amount of ZnO nanoparticles was homogeneously dispersed in a dielectric layer. The effect of the concentration of ZnO on the relative permittivity of PVP was measured using impedance spectroscopy and it has been demonstrated that the permittivity increases from 3.6 to 5.5 with no percolation phenomenon even at a concentration of 50 vol.%. The performance of OTFTs in terms of charge carrier mobility, threshold voltage and linkage current was evaluated. The results indicate a dramatic increase in both the field effect mobility and the linkage current by a factor of 10. It has been demonstrated that the threshold voltage can be adjusted. It shifts from 8 to 0 when the volume concentration of ZnO varied from 0 vol.% to 50 vol.%.

  6. High-mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu B Chaure, Andrew N Cammidge, Isabelle Chambrier, Michael J Cook, Markys G Cain, Craig E Murphy, Chandana Pal and Asim K Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed films of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(hexyl copper phthalocyanine (CuPc6 were utilized as an active semiconducting layer in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs in the bottom-gate configurations using chemical vapour deposited silicon dioxide (SiO2 as gate dielectrics. The surface treatment of the gate dielectric with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS resulted in values of 4×10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 106 for saturation mobility and on/off current ratio, respectively. This improvement was accompanied by a shift in the threshold voltage from 3 V for untreated devices to -2 V for OTS treated devices. The trap density at the interface between the gate dielectric and semiconductor decreased by about one order of magnitude after the surface treatment. The transistors with the OTS treated gate dielectrics were more stable over a 30-day period in air than untreated ones.

  7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection Using Au-Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Ju Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that Au-cluster-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs may be used to discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. Nanoscale Au clusters were formed on the side walls of carbon nanotubes in a transistor geometry using electrochemical deposition. The effect of Au cluster decoration appeared as hole doping when electrical transport characteristics were examined. Thiolated single-stranded probe peptide nucleic acid (PNA was successfully immobilized on Au clusters decorating single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs, resulting in a conductance decrease that could be explained by a decrease in Au work function upon adsorption of thiolated PNA. Although a target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA with a single mismatch did not cause any change in electrical conductance, a clear decrease in conductance was observed with matched ssDNA, thereby showing the possibility of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism detection using Au-cluster-decorated SWNT-FETs. However, a power to discriminate SNP target is lost in high ionic environment. We can conclude that observed SNP discrimination in low ionic environment is due to the hampered binding of SNP target on nanoscale surfaces in low ionic conditions.

  8. Electrostatic melting in a single-molecule field-effect transistor with applications in genomic identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Sefi; Trocchia, Scott M.; Warren, Steven B.; Young, Erik F.; Bouilly, Delphine; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Nuckolls, Colin; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2017-05-01

    The study of biomolecular interactions at the single-molecule level holds great potential for both basic science and biotechnology applications. Single-molecule studies often rely on fluorescence-based reporting, with signal levels limited by photon emission from single optical reporters. The point-functionalized carbon nanotube transistor, known as the single-molecule field-effect transistor, is a bioelectronics alternative based on intrinsic molecular charge that offers significantly higher signal levels for detection. Such devices are effective for characterizing DNA hybridization kinetics and thermodynamics and enabling emerging applications in genomic identification. In this work, we show that hybridization kinetics can be directly controlled by electrostatic bias applied between the device and the surrounding electrolyte. We perform the first single-molecule experiments demonstrating the use of electrostatics to control molecular binding. Using bias as a proxy for temperature, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting various concentrations of 20-nt target sequences from the Ebolavirus nucleoprotein gene in a constant-temperature environment.

  9. A method for direct contact resistance evaluation in low voltage coplanar organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S.; Cosseddu, P.; Bonfiglio, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a method for the extrapolation of contact resistance in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) from a single transfer characteristic curve in the linear regime is proposed. The method, namely DIrect Contact Resistance Extrapolation (DICRE), is based on the idea of making the current dependent only on contact resistance by setting the device in large over-threshold conditions. Constant contact resistance with respect to gate-to-source voltage is considered as an acceptable approximation, as confirmed by other examples in the literature. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by extrapolating the contact resistance of two different OFET structures (self-aligned and not self-aligned) and comparing the results with standard reference techniques, namely the Modified Transmission Line Method (M-TLM) and the Y function method. The results demonstrate that the DICRE method can be applied to low voltage devices without any damage to the gate insulator, even if the applied gate-to-source voltage drop is well beyond the values normally employed for transistor operation. The proposed method allows extrapolating a value of contact resistance comparable with the ones derived by TLM, with restrained variability. Moreover, the capability of properly recognizing the differences in contact resistance values between OFET structures with different features in terms of source/drain-gate overlap is reported. Finally, the possibility of correctly deriving the contact resistance dependence on drain-to-source voltage using DICRE is discussed.

  10. Influence of contact height on the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been experimentally demonstrated (J. Li et al., Carbon, 2012, 50, 4628-4632). The source and drain contact heights in vertical CNTFETs could be much higher than in flat CNTFETs if the fabrication process is not optimized. To understand the impact of contact height on transistor performance, we use a semi-classical method to calculate the characteristics of CNTFETs with different contact heights. The results show that the drain current decreases with increasing contact height and saturates at a value governed by the thickness of the oxide. The current reduction caused by the increased contact height becomes more significant when the gate oxide is thicker. The higher the drain voltage, the larger the current reduction. It becomes even worse when the band gap of the carbon nanotube is larger. The current can differ by a factor of more than five between the CNTEFTs with low and high contact heights when the oxide thickness is 50 nm. In addition, the influence of the contact height is limited by the channel length. The contact height plays a minor role when the channel length is less than 100 nm. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Uncovering edge states and electrical inhomogeneity in MoS2 field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Li, Xiao; Luan, Lan; Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Wei; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Ghosh, Rudresh; Chu, Zhaodong; Akinwande, Deji; Niu, Qian; Lai, Keji

    2016-08-02

    The understanding of various types of disorders in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including dangling bonds at the edges, chalcogen deficiencies in the bulk, and charges in the substrate, is of fundamental importance for TMD applications in electronics and photonics. Because of the imperfections, electrons moving on these 2D crystals experience a spatially nonuniform Coulomb environment, whose effect on the charge transport has not been microscopically studied. Here, we report the mesoscopic conductance mapping in monolayer and few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors by microwave impedance microscopy (MIM). The spatial evolution of the insulator-to-metal transition is clearly resolved. Interestingly, as the transistors are gradually turned on, electrical conduction emerges initially at the edges before appearing in the bulk of MoS2 flakes, which can be explained by our first-principles calculations. The results unambiguously confirm that the contribution of edge states to the channel conductance is significant under the threshold voltage but negligible once the bulk of the TMD device becomes conductive. Strong conductance inhomogeneity, which is associated with the fluctuations of disorder potential in the 2D sheets, is also observed in the MIM images, providing a guideline for future improvement of the device performance.

  12. MOBILITAS PEMBAWA MUATAN PADA OFET (ORGANIC FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR BERBASIS FILM TIPIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarwata -

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Tujuan penelitian ini adalah pembuatan dan karakterisasi pada OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor berbasis film tipis dengan struktur bottom-contact. Pembuatan OFET dilakukan dengan cara pencucian substrat dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, kemudian dilakukan deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat SiO2 dengan metode  penguapan hampa udara pada suhu ruang dan teknik lithography. Selanjutnya dilakukan deposisi film tipis CuPc diantara source (S dan drain (D sebagai panjang saluran (channel dan diakhiri dengan deposisi elektrode gate (G. Karakterisai OFET berbasis film tipis dilakukan dengan El-Kahfi 100, untuk menentukan karakteristik keluaran V-I. Hasil karakterisasi OFET dengan panjang channel (L 100 μm dan lebar (W 1 mm, mempunyai daerah aktif, yaitu: 2,80 V sampai dengan 3,42. Mobilitas pembawa muatan OFET untuk daerah saturasi, µ = 0,00182278 cm2 /Vs dan untuk daerah linier, µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ The purpose of this research is to produce and characterize the OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor based on thin film with bottom-contact structure. The OFET production consists of the substract wash by using ethanol in the ultrasonic cleaner, then electrode deposition of source and drain on the SiO2 substract by using vacuum evaporation in the room temperature and lithography technique.  Then, the deposition of thin film of CuPc between source (S and drain (D was done as the channel length and ended with electrode gate (G deposition. The OFET characterization  with channel length (L  100 μm and wide (W 1 mm  obtained the active area of 2,80 - 3,42 v. While the mobility of OFET charge carrier  obtained µ =  0,00182278 cm2 /Vs for the saturation area and µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs for linier area.

  13. Graphene-based field effect transistor in two-dimensional paper networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagang, Aldrine Abenoja; Abidi, Irfan Haider; Tyagi, Abhishek [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Hu, Jie; Xu, Feng [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, Tian Jian [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Luo, Zhengtang, E-mail: keztluo@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2016-04-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) incorporated in a two-dimensional paper network format (2DPNs). Paper serves as both a gate dielectric and an easy-to-fabricate vessel for holding the solution with the target molecules in question. The choice of paper enables a simpler alternative approach to the construction of a GFET device. The fabricated device is shown to behave similarly to a solution-gated GFET device with electron and hole mobilities of ∼1256 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and ∼2298 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} respectively and a Dirac point around ∼1 V. When using solutions of ssDNA and glucose it was found that the added molecules induce negative electrolytic gating effects shifting the conductance minimum to the right, concurrent with increasing carrier concentrations which results to an observed increase in current response correlated to the concentration of the solution used. - Highlights: • A graphene-based field effect transistor sensor was fabricated for two-dimensional paper network formats. • The constructed GFET on 2DPN was shown to behave similarly to solution-gated GFETs. • Electrolyte gating effects have more prominent effect over adsorption effects on the behavior of the device. • The GFET incorporated on 2DPN was shown to yield linear response to presence of glucose and ssDNA soaked inside the paper.

  14. 3D NANOTUBE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS FOR HYBRID HIGH-PERFORMANCE AND LOW-POWER OPERATION WITH HIGH CHIP-AREA EFFICIENCY

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-03-01

    scaling on silicon, the amount of current generated per device has to be increased while keeping short channel effects and off-state leakage at bay. The objective of this doctoral thesis is the investigation of an innovative vertical silicon based architecture called the silicon nanotube field effect transistor (Si NTFET). This topology incorporates a dual inner/outer core/shell gate stack strategy to control the volume inversion properties in a hollow silicon 1D quasi-nanotube under a tight electrostatic configuration. Together with vertically aligned source and drain, the Si NTFET is capable of very high on-state performance (drive current) in an area-efficient configuration as opposed to arrays of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining leakage characteristics similar to a single nanowire. Such a device architecture offsets the need of device arraying that is needed with fin and nanowire architectures. Extensive simulations are used to validate the potential benefits of Si NTFETs over GAA NWFETs on a variety of platforms such as conventional MOSFETs, tunnel FETs, junction-less FETs. This thesis demonstrates a novel CMOS compatible process flow to fabricate vertical nanotube transistors that offer a variety of advantages such as lithography-independent gate length definition, integration of epitaxially grown silicon nanotubes with spacer based gate dielectrics and abrupt in-situ doped source/drain junctions. Experimental measurement data will showcase the various materials and processing challenges in fabricating these devices. Finally, an extension of this work to topologically transformed wavy channel FinFETs is also demonstrated keeping in line with the theme of area efficient high-performance electronics.

  15. Analytical Model of Subthreshold Drain Current Characteristics of Ballistic Silicon Nanowire Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A physically based subthreshold current model for silicon nanowire transistors working in the ballistic regime is developed. Based on the electric potential distribution obtained from a 2D Poisson equation and by performing some perturbation approximations for subband energy levels, an analytical model for the subthreshold drain current is obtained. The model is further used for predicting the subthreshold slopes and threshold voltages of the transistors. Our results agree well with TCAD simulation with different geometries and under different biasing conditions.

  16. Scaling behavior of hysteresis in multilayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tao; Du, Gang; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming, E-mail: zmzeng2012@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Extrinsic hysteresis effects are often observed in MoS{sub 2} field effect devices due to adsorption of gas molecules on the surface of MoS{sub 2} channel. Scaling is a common method used in ferroics to quantitatively study the hysteresis. Here, the scaling behavior of hysteresis in multilayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors with a back-gated configuration was investigated. The power-law scaling relations were obtained for hysteresis area (〈A〉) and memory window (ΔV) with varying the region of back-gate voltage (V{sub bg,max}). It is interesting to find that the transition voltage in the forward sweep (V{sub FW}) and in the backward sweep (V{sub BW}) shifted to the opposite directions of back-gate voltage (V{sub bg}) with increasing V{sub bg,max}. However, when decreasing V{sub bg,max}, V{sub FW} shifted to positive and reversibly recovered, but V{sub BW} almost kept unchanged. The evolution of 〈A〉, ΔV, V{sub FW,} and V{sub BW} with V{sub bg,max} were discussed by the electrons transferring process between the adsorbate and MoS{sub 2} channel.

  17. Dynamic character of charge transport parameters in disordered organic semiconductor field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Lee, B; Yi, H T; Lee, S S; Payne, M M; Pola, S; Kuo, C-H; Loo, Y-L; Anthony, J E; Tao, Y T; Podzorov, V

    2012-11-07

    In this perspective article, we discuss the dynamic instability of charge carrier transport in a range of popular organic semiconductors. We observe that in many cases field-effect mobility, an important parameter used to characterize the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), strongly depends on the rate of the gate voltage sweep during the measurement. Some molecular systems are so dynamic that their nominal mobility can vary by more than one order of magnitude, depending on how fast the measurements are performed, making an assignment of a single mobility value to devices meaningless. It appears that dispersive transport in OFETs based on disordered semiconductors, those with a high density of localized trap states distributed over a wide energy range, is responsible for the gate voltage sweep rate dependence of nominal mobility. We compare such rate dependence in different materials and across different device architectures, including pristine and trap-dominated single-crystal OFETs, as well as solution-processed polycrystalline thin-film OFETs. The paramount significance given to a single mobility value in the organic electronics community and the practical importance of OFETs for applications thus suggest that such an issue, previously either overlooked or ignored, is in fact a very important point to consider when engaging in fundamental studies of charge carrier mobility in organic semiconductors or designing applied circuits with organic semiconductors.

  18. Electrospray-processed soluble acenes toward the realization of high-performance field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsalidis, Charalampos; Pappa, Anna-Maria; Hunter, Simon; Payne, Marcia M; Anthony, John E; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Logothetidis, Stergios

    2015-04-01

    Functionalized acenes have proven to be promising compounds in the field of molecular electronics because of their unique features in terms of the stability, performance, and ease of processing. The emerging concept of large-area-compatible techniques for flexible electronics has brought about a wide variety of well-established techniques for the deposition of soluble acenes, with spray-coating representing an especially fruitful approach. In the present study, electrostatic spray deposition is proposed as an alternative to the conventional spray-coating processes, toward the realization of high-performance organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), on both rigid and flexible substrates. Particularly, a thorough study on the effect of the solvent and spraying regime on the resulting crystalline film's morphology is performed. By optimization of the process conditions in terms of control over the size as well as the crystallization scheme of the droplets, desirable morphological features along with high-quality crystal domains are obtained. The fabricated OFETs exhibit excellent electrical characteristics, with high field-effect mobility up to 0.78 cm(2)/(V s), I(on)/I(off) >10(4), and near-zero threshold voltages. Additionally, the good performance of the OFETs realized on plastic substrates gives great potentiality to the proposed method for applications in the challenging field of large-area electronics.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition grown monolayer graphene field-effect transistors with reduced impurity concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae-Jun; Lee, Alvin

    2015-07-01

    We report on the restoration of the electronic characteristics of waferscale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) monolayer graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) by reducing the impurity concentration. An optimized electropolishing process on copper foils combined with carbon-fluorine encapsulation using a suitable amorphous fluoropolymer enables reducing the surface roughness of graphene and screening out interfacial impurity scattering, which leads to an improvement in all key device metrics. The conductivity at the Dirac point is substantially reduced, resulting in an increase in the on-off current ratio. In addition, the field-effect mobility increased from 1817 to 3918 cm2/V-s, the impurity concentration decreased from 1.1 × 1012 to 2.1 × 1011 cm-2 and the electron and hole transport became more symmetric. Significantly, favorable shifts toward zero voltage were observed in the Dirac point. We postulate that the smoother surface due to electropolishing and a pool of strong dipole-dipole moments in the flouropolymer coating provide a charge buffer that relaxes the fluctuation in the electron-hole puddles. We also investigate the long-term stability in GFETs encapsulated with fluoropolymer, which exhibit a high hydrophobicity that suppresses the chemical interaction with water molecules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Ultrasmall magnetic field-effect and sign reversal in transistors based on donor/acceptor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reichert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present magnetoresistive organic field-effect transistors featuring ultrasmall magnetic field-effects as well as a sign reversal. The employed material systems are coevaporated thin films with different compositions consisting of the electron donor 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methylphenylamino-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB and the electron acceptor 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN. Intermolecular charge transfer between Spiro-TTB and HAT-CN results in a high intrinsic charge carrier density in the coevaporated films. This enhances the probability of bipolaron formation, which is the process responsible for magnetoresistance effects in our system. Thereby even ultrasmall magnetic fields as low as 0.7 mT can influence the resistance of the charge transport channel. Moreover, the magnetoresistance is drastically influenced by the drain voltage, resulting in a sign reversal. An average B0 value of ≈2.1 mT is obtained for all mixing compositions, indicating that only one specific quasiparticle is responsible for the magnetoresistance effects. All magnetoresistance effects can be thoroughly clarified within the framework of the bipolaron model.

  1. Interface engineering: an effective approach toward high-performance organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chong-an; Liu, Yunqi; Yu, Gui; Zhu, Daoben

    2009-10-20

    By virtue of their excellent solution processibility and flexibility, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are considered outstanding candidates for application in low-cost, flexible electronics. Not only does the performance of OFETs depend on the molecular properties of the organic semiconductors involved, but it is also dramatically affected by the nature of the interfaces present. Therefore, interface engineering, a novel approach towards high-performance OFETs, has attracted considerable attention. In this Account, we focus on recent advances in the study of OFET interfaces--including electrode/organic layer interfaces, dielectric/organic layer interfaces, and organic/organic layer interfaces--that have resulted in improved device performance, enhanced stability, and the realization of organic light-emitting transistors. The electrode/organic layer interface, one of the most important interfaces in OFETs, usually determines the carrier injection characteristics. Focusing on OFETs with copper and silver electrodes, we describe effective modification approaches of the electrode/organic layer interfaces. Furthermore, the influence of electrode morphology on device performance is demonstrated. These results provide novel approaches towards high-performance, low-cost OFETs. The dielectric/organic layer interface is a vital interface that dominates carrier transport; modification of this interface therefore offers a general way to improve carrier transport accordingly. The dielectric layer also affects the device stability of OFETs. For example, high-performance pentacene OFETs with excellent stability are obtained by the selection of a dielectric layer with an appropriate surface energy. The organic/organic layer interface is a newly investigated topic in OFETs. Introduction of organic/organic layer interfaces, such as heterojunctions, can improve device performance and afford ambipolar OFETs. By designing laterally arranged heterojunctions made of organic

  2. Large-signal model of the bilayer graphene field-effect transistor targeting radio-frequency applications: Theory versus experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasadas, Francisco, E-mail: Francisco.Pasadas@uab.cat; Jiménez, David [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2015-12-28

    Bilayer graphene is a promising material for radio-frequency transistors because its energy gap might result in a better current saturation than the monolayer graphene. Because the great deal of interest in this technology, especially for flexible radio-frequency applications, gaining control of it requires the formulation of appropriate models for the drain current, charge, and capacitance. In this work, we have developed them for a dual-gated bilayer graphene field-effect transistor. A drift-diffusion mechanism for the carrier transport has been considered coupled with an appropriate field-effect model taking into account the electronic properties of the bilayer graphene. Extrinsic resistances have been included considering the formation of a Schottky barrier at the metal-bilayer graphene interface. The proposed model has been benchmarked against experimental prototype transistors, discussing the main figures of merit targeting radio-frequency applications.

  3. Gate-bias controlled charge trapping as a mechanism for NO2 detection with field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, A.-M.; Meijboom, J.R.; Smits, E.C.P.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Detection of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is required to monitor the air-quality for human health and safety. Commercial sensors are typically chemiresistors, however field-effect transistors are being investigated. Although numerous investigations have been reported, the NO2 sensing mechanism is not

  4. Dynamics of charge carrier trapping in NO2 sensors based on ZnO field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, A.; Vlietstra, N.; Smits, E.C.P.; Spijkman, M.J.; Gomes, H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) detection with ZnO field-effect transistors is based on changes in the threshold voltage caused by charge carriertrapping. Here we investigate the dynamics of charge trapping and recovery as a function of temperature. The threshold voltage shifts for both trapping and recovery

  5. Gate-Bias Controlled Charge Trapping as a Mechanism for NO2 Detection with Field-Effect Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Meijboom, Juliaan R.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is required to monitor the air-quality for human health and safety. Commercial sensors are typically chemiresistors, however field-effect transistors are being investigated. Although numerous investigations have been reported, the NO2 sensing mechanism is not

  6. Influence of molecular weight on the short-channel effect in polymer-based field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tunc, Ali Veysel; Ecker, Bernhard; Dogruyol, Zekeriya; Juechter, Sabrina; Ugur, Ahmet Lutfi; Erdogmus, Ali; San, Sait Eren; Parisi, Juergen; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate how the intrinsic properties of a polymer can influence the electrical characteristics of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). OFETs fabricated with three batches of poly[2-methoxy,5-(3′,7′-dimethyl-octyloxy)]-p-phenylene vinylene (MDMO-PPV) were investigated. The

  7. Stable Low-Voltage Operation Top-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistors on Cellulose Nanocrystal Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Yin Wang; Canek Fuentes-Hernandez; Jen-Chieh Liu; Amir Dindar; Sangmoo Choi; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon; Bernard Kippelen

    2015-01-01

    We report on the performance and the characterization of top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), comprising a bilayer gate dielectric of CYTOP/ Al2O3 and a solution-processed semiconductor layer made of a blend of TIPS-pentacene:PTAA, fabricated on recyclable cellulose nanocrystal−glycerol (CNC/glycerol...

  8. Controlling of the surface energy of the gate dielectric in organic field-effect transistors by polymer blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jia; Asadi, Kamal; Xu, Jian Bin; An, Jin

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that by blending insulating polymers, one can fabricate an insulating layer with controllable surface energy for organic field-effect transistors. As a model system, we used copper phthalocyanine evaporated on layers of polymethyl metacrylate blended with polystyrene

  9. A simple ionizing radiation spectrometer/dosimeter based on radiation sensing field effect transistors (RadFETs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, D.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Jenkins, M.W.; Drumm, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the processing steps in a silicon foundry leading to improved performance of the Radiation Sensing Field Effect Transistor (RadFET) and the use of multiple RadFETs in a handheld, battery operated, combination spectrometer/dosimeter

  10. Effect of Coulomb scattering from trapped charges on the mobility in an organic field-effect transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Janssen, N.M.A.; Matthijssen, S.J.G.; de Leeuw, D.M.; Kemerink, M.; Bobbert, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of Coulomb scattering from trapped charges on the mobility in the two-dimensional channel of an organic field-effect transistor. The number of trapped charges can be tuned by applying a prolonged gate bias. Surprisingly, after increasing the number of trapped charges to a

  11. High I on/I off current ratio graphene field effect transistor: the role of line defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajarrod, Mohammad Hadi; Saghai, Hassan Rasooli

    2015-01-01

    The present paper casts light upon the performance of an armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) field effect transistor in the presence of one-dimensional topological defects. The defects containing 5-8-5 sp(2)-hybridized carbon rings were placed in a perfect graphene sheet. The atomic scale behavior of the transistor was investigated in the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) and tight-binding Hamiltonian frameworks. AGNRFET basic terms such as the on/off current, transconductance and subthreshold swing were investigated along with the extended line defect (ELD). The results indicated that the presence of ELDs had a significant effect on the parameters of the GNRFET. Compared to conventional transistors, the increase of the I on/I off ratio in graphene transistors with ELDs enhances their applicability in digital devices.

  12. Surface potential variations on a silicon nanowire transistor in biomolecular modification and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chia-Chang; Chiang, Pei-Ling; Lin, Tsung-Wu; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Sun, Chih-Jung; Tsai, Ming-Hsueh; Chang, Yun-Chorng

    2011-01-01

    Using a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) for biomolecule detections, we selected 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), N-[6-(biotinamido)hexyl]-3 ' -(2 ' -pyridyldithio) propionamide (biotin-HPDP), and avidin, respectively, as the designated linker, receptor, and target molecules as a study model, where the biotin molecules were modified on the SiNW-FET to act as a receptor for avidin. We applied high-resolution scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to detect the modified/bound biomolecules by measuring the induced change of the surface potential (ΔΦ s ) on the SiNW-FET under ambient conditions. After biotin-immobilization and avidin-binding, the ΔΦ s on the SiNW-FET characterized by KPFM was demonstrated to correlate to the conductance change inside the SiNW-FET acquired in aqueous solution. The ΔΦ s values on the SiNW-FET caused by the same biotin-immobilization and avidin-binding were also measured from drain current versus gate voltage curves (I d -V g ) in both aqueous condition and dried state. For comparison, we also study the ΔΦ s values on a Si wafer caused by the same biotin-immobilization and avidin-binding through KPFM and ζ potential measurements. This study has demonstrated that the surface potential measurement on a SiNW-FET by KPFM can be applied as a diagnostic tool that complements the electrical detection with a SiNW-FET sensor. Although the KPFM experiments were carried out under ambient conditions, the measured surface properties of a SiNW-FET are qualitatively valid compared with those obtained by other biosensory techniques performed in liquid environment.

  13. Trivalued Memory Circuit Using Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Bipolar-Junction-Transistor Negative-Differential-Resistance Circuits Fabricated by Standard SiGe Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Kwang-Jow; Tsai, Cher-Shiung; Liang, Dong-Shong; Wen, Chun-Ming; Chen, Yaw-Hwang

    2006-09-01

    A trivalued memory circuit based on two cascoded metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor bipolar-junction-transistor negative-differential-resistance (MOS-BJT-NDR) devices is investigated. The MOS-BJT-NDR device is made of MOS and BJT devices, but it can show the NDR current-voltage characteristic by suitably arranging the MOS parameters. We demonstrate a trivalued memory circuit using the two-peak MOS-BJT-NDR circuit as the driver and a resistor as the load. The MOS-BJT-NDR devices and memory circuits are fabricated by the standard 0.35 μm SiGe process.

  14. Thiophene-Thiazole-Based Semiconducting Copolymers for High-Performance Polymer Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jong Won; Park, Won-Tae; Park, Jeong-Il; Yun, Youngjun; Gu, Xiaodan; Lee, Jiyoul; Noh, Yong-Young

    2017-11-08

    We report a newly synthesized donor (D)-acceptor (A)type semiconducting copolymer, consisting of thiophene as an electron-donating unit and thiazole as an electron-accepting unit (PQTBTz-TT-C8) for the active layer of the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Specifically, this study investigates the structure and electrical property relationships of PQTBTz-TT-C8 with comprehensive analyses on the charge-transporting properties corresponding to the spin rate of the spin coater during the formation of the PQTBTz-TT-C8 film. The crystallinity of PQTBTz-TT-C8 films is examined with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Temperature-dependent transfer measurements of the OFETs are conducted to extract the density of states (DOS) and characterize the charge-transport properties. Comparative analyses on charge transports within the framework of the physical model, based on polaron hopping and Gaussian DOS, reveal that the prefactors of both physical charge-transport models are independent of the spin-coating condition for the films. For staggered structural transistors, however, the thickness of the PQTBTz-TT-C8 films, which strongly affect the series resistance along the charge-transfer path in a vertical direction, is changed in accordance with the spin-coating rate. In other words, the spin-coating rate of the PQTBTz-TT-C8 films influences the thickness of the polymer films, yet any significant changes in the crystallinity of the film or electronic coupling between the neighboring molecules upon the spin-coating condition were barely noticeable. Because the PQTBTz-TT-C8 backbone chains inside the thin film are stacked up with the edge-on, the series resistances are changed according to the thickness of the film and thus the performance of the device varies depending on the thickness.

  15. Lifetime of Poly(triaryl amine) Based Organic Field Effect Transistors under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tobias; Lorenz, Enno; Koyuncu, Metin

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of reliability and lifetime is a key issue on the way to commercialization of products based on organic electronics. Prediction of the lifetime requires the understanding of failure mechanisms and the circumstances leading to failure. In this work the stability of poly(triaryl amine) (PTAA) based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) on a poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) substrate is investigated under environmental stressing. PTAA is known to form amorphous thin films after spin coating and to be air stable for extended periods of time. This inherent air stability makes it a good candidate for testing of environmental influences. The samples were electrically characterized regularly between storage cycles at 85 °C and 85 °C/85% relative humidity (RH). Samples stored under dry atmosphere and inert gas were used as reference. More than 1700 OFETs were produced in multiple batches and measured using an automated measurement system to collect statistically significant data. Circuit-relevant OFET parameters such as on- and off-current, mobility, threshold voltage and gate leakage current were extracted applying a thin film transistor (TFT) device model to the measured transfer and output curves. The threshold voltage is found to be the most sensitive parameter especially for the samples stored at 85 °C. The effect of storage under 85 °C/85%RH is observed to be comparably small. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements of the aged OFET samples indicate a correlation between the shift of the electrical parameters and the appearance of carbonyl groups in the dielectric layer of the devices. Possible degradation mechanisms are discussed based on this observation.

  16. Tuning the tunneling probability by mechanical stress in Schottky barrier based reconfigurable nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tim; Heinzig, André; Trommer, Jens; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter Michael

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical stress is an established and important tool of the semiconductor industry to improve the performance of modern transistors. It is well understood for the enhancement of carrier mobility but rather unexplored for the control of the tunneling probability for injection dominated research devices based on tunneling phenomena, such as tunnel FETs, resonant tunnel FETs and reconfigurable Schottky FETs. In this work, the effect of stress on the tunneling probability and overall transistor characteristics is studied by three-dimensional device simulations in the example of reconfigurable silicon nanowire Schottky barrier transistors using two independently gated Schottky junctions. To this end, four different stress sources are investigated. The effects of mechanical stress on the average effective tunneling mass and on the multi-valley band structure applying the deformation potential theory are being considered. The transfer characteristics of strained transistors in n- and p-configuration and corresponding charge carrier tunneling are analyzed with respect to the current ratio between electron and hole conduction. For the implementation of these devices into complementary circuits, the mandatory current ratio of unity can be achieved by appropriate mechanical stress either by nanowire oxidation or the application of a stressed top layer.

  17. Highly aligned conjugated polymer films prepared by rotation coating for high-performance organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tho, Luu; Park, Won-Tae; Choi, Eun-Young; Noh, Yong-Young

    2017-04-01

    Recently, exceptionally high field-effect mobility in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) has been fabricated using semiconducting films with one-dimensionally aligned, highly planar electron donor-acceptor copolymers, within the channel of transistors. Here, we propose an extremely simple coating method, called rotation coating, for preparing highly aligned, conjugated polymer thin films for applications in various organic electronic devices. We realize highly aligned polymer films using various conjugated polymers and applied the films as active layers for high-performance OFETs. Significantly high field-effect mobility values of 1.45 ± 0.46 cm2/Vs have been achieved for rotation coated diketopyrrolopyrrole-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene copolymer films.

  18. Correlation between crystal structure and mobility in organic field-effect transistors based on single crystals of tetrathiafulvalene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Torrent, Marta; Hadley, Peter; Bromley, Stefan T; Ribas, Xavi; Tarrés, Judit; Mas, Montserrat; Molins, Elies; Veciana, Jaume; Rovira, Concepció

    2004-07-14

    Recently, it was reported that crystals of the organic material dithiophene-tetrathiafulvalene (DT-TTF) have a high field-effect charge carrier mobility of 1.4 cm(2)/(V x s). These crystals were formed by a simple drop-casting method, making this material interesting to investigate for possible applications in low-cost electronics. Here, organic single-crystal field-effect transistors based on materials related to DT-TTF are presented and a clear correlation between the crystal structure and the electrical characteristics is observed. The observed relationship between the mobilities in the different crystal structures is strongly corroborated by calculations of both the molecular reorganization energies and the maximum intermolecular transfer integrals. The most suitable materials described here exhibit mobilities that are among the highest reported for organic field-effect transistors and that are the highest reported for solution-processed materials.

  19. Velocity overshoot decay mechanisms in compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with a submicron characteristic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyegal, Jang

    2015-01-01

    Velocity overshoot is a critically important nonstationary effect utilized for the enhanced performance of submicron field-effect devices fabricated with high-electron-mobility compound semiconductors. However, the physical mechanisms of velocity overshoot decay dynamics in the devices are not known in detail. Therefore, a numerical analysis is conducted typically for a submicron GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms. It is found that there exist three different mechanisms, depending on device bias conditions. Specifically, at large drain biases corresponding to the saturation drain current (dc) region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid decrease of the momentum relaxation time, not the mobility, arising from the effect of velocity-randomizing intervalley scattering. It then continues to drop rapidly and decays completely by severe mobility reduction due to intervalley scattering. On the other hand, at small drain biases corresponding to the linear dc region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid increase of thermal energy diffusion by electrons in the channel of the gate. It then continues to drop rapidly for a certain channel distance due to the increasing thermal energy diffusion effect, and later completely decays by a sharply decreasing electric field. Moreover, at drain biases close to a dc saturation voltage, the mechanism is a mixture of the above two bias conditions. It is suggested that a large secondary-valley energy separation is essential to increase the performance of submicron devices

  20. Bipolar redox behaviour, field-effect mobility and transistor switching of the low-molecular azo glass AZOPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Michael; Scheffler, Ayna; Suske, Irina; Eschner, Michael; Saragi, Tobat P I; Salbeck, Josef; Fuhrmann-Lieker, Thomas

    2010-11-07

    We present electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data for the bipolar azo compound N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis[4-(phenylazo)phenyl]-4,4'diaminobiphenyl (AZOPD) demonstrating reversible bipolar redox behaviour with a bandgap of 2.1 eV. The reduced species formed upon two-electron transfer can be described as bis(radical anion) as was confirmed by comparison with a reference compound with only one azo chromophore. Hole and electron transport behaviour in amorphous films was demonstrated by the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors using gold and magnesium contacts, respectively. The transistors are sensitive to light due to E-Z photoisomerization.

  1. Toward a very low-power integrated charge preamplifier by using III-V field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geronimo, G. de; Longoni, A.

    1998-01-01

    The future high-energy physics experiments, based on the new high-luminosity accelerators, will require a new generation of front-end monolithic electronics characterized, in particular, by high speed and low-power dissipation. In this perspective, the performances of Si and GaAs field effect transistors (FETs) are compared here in conditions of low-power dissipation. The advantages of solutions based on GaAs FETs, in applications requiring fast shaping times, are presented and experimental results are reported. The criteria for the optimum choice of the input transistor dimension and of its bias point are discussed

  2. Two-dimensional negative capacitance field-effect transistor with organic ferroelectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Chen, Yan; Ding, Shi-Jin; Wang, Jianlu; Bao, Wen-Zhong; Zhang, David Wei; Zhou, Peng

    2018-03-27

    In the past fifty years, the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor(CMOS) integrated circuits have got great development, but Moore's law will soon come to an end. In order to break through the physical limit of Moore's law, two-dimensional materials have been widely used in many electronic devices because of its high mobility and large quantum capacitances. And the emergence of negative capacitance field-effect transistor(FET) could not only break the thermal limit of conventional devices, but also reduce operating voltage and power consumption. This paper demonstrates a two-dimensional negative capacitance FET treating molybdenum disulfide(MoS2) as channel material and organic P(VDF-TrFE) as gate dielectric directly, which makes a new attempt for preparation of negative capacitance FETs and producing flexible electronic devices. It exhibited 10^6 on-/off-current ratio. And the minimum subthreshold swing(SS) of 21mV/decade and average subthreshold swing of 44mV/decade in four orders magnitude of drain current were also observed at room temperature of 300K. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Strain and deformations engineered germanene bilayer double gate-field effect transistor by first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher Abhinav, E.; Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan; Kasmir Raja, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    Germanene, silicene, stanene, phosphorene and graphene are some of single atomic materials with novel properties. In this paper, we explored bilayer germanene-based Double Gate-Field Effect Transistor (DG-FET) with various strains and deformations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Green's approach by first-principle calculations. The DG-FET of 1.6 nm width, 6 nm channel length (Lch) and HfO2 as gate dielectric has been modeled. For intrinsic deformation of germanene bilayer, we have enforced minute mechanical deformation of wrap and twist (5°) and ripple (0.5 Å) on germanene bilayer channel material. By using NEGF formalism, I-V Characteristics of various strains and deformation tailored DG-FET was calculated. Our results show that rough edge and single vacancy (5-9) in bilayer germanene diminishes the current around 47% and 58% respectively as compared with pristine bilayer germanene. In case of strain tailored bilayer DG-FET, multiple NDR regions were observed which can be utilized in building stable multiple logic states in digital circuits and high frequency oscillators using negative resistive techniques.

  4. Graphene Field Effect Transistors for Biomedical Applications: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannan Forsyth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the two-dimensional (2D carbon material, graphene, just over a decade ago, the development of graphene-based field effect transistors (G-FETs has become a widely researched area, particularly for use in point-of-care biomedical applications. G-FETs are particularly attractive as next generation bioelectronics due to their mass-scalability and low cost of the technology’s manufacture. Furthermore, G-FETs offer the potential to complete label-free, rapid, and highly sensitive analysis coupled with a high sample throughput. These properties, coupled with the potential for integration into portable instrumentation, contribute to G-FETs’ suitability for point-of-care diagnostics. This review focuses on elucidating the recent developments in the field of G-FET sensors that act on a bioaffinity basis, whereby a binding event between a bioreceptor and the target analyte is transduced into an electrical signal at the G-FET surface. Recognizing and quantifying these target analytes accurately and reliably is essential in diagnosing many diseases, therefore it is vital to design the G-FET with care. Taking into account some limitations of the sensor platform, such as Debye–Hükel screening and device surface area, is fundamental in developing improved bioelectronics for applications in the clinical setting. This review highlights some efforts undertaken in facing these limitations in order to bring G-FET development for biomedical applications forward.

  5. Impact of substrate on performance of band gap engineered graphene field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Durgesh Laxman; Sivasankaran, K.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the graphene field effect transistor (G-FET) to enhance the drain current saturation and to minimize the drain conductance (gd) using numerical simulation. This work focus on suppressing the drain conductance using silicon substrate. We studied the impact of different substrate on the performance of band gap engineered G-FET device. We used a non-equilibrium green function with mode space (NEGF_MS) to model the transport behavior of carriers for 10 nm channel length G-FET device. We compared the drain current saturation of G-FET at higher drain voltage regime on silicon, SiC, and the SiO2 substrate. This paper clearly demonstrates the effect of substrate on an electric field near drain region of G-FET device. It is shown that the substrate of G-FET is not only creating a band gap in graphene, which is important for current saturation and gd minimization, but also selection of suitable substrate can suppress generation of carrier concentration near drain region is also important.

  6. Nitrogen plasma-treated multilayer graphene-based field effect transistor fabrication and electronic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Jhih; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Honda, Shin-ichi; Lin, Pao-Hung; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi

    2017-08-01

    Chemical doping with hetero-atoms is an effective method used to change the characteristics of materials. Nitrogen doping technology plays a critical role in regulating the electronic properties of graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment was used in this work to dope nitrogen atoms to modulate multilayer graphene electrical properties. The measured I-V multilayer graphene-base field-effect transistor characteristics (GFETs) showed a V-shaped transfer curve with the hole and electron region separated from the measured current-voltage (I-V) minimum. GFETs fabricated with multilayer graphene from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibited p-type behavior because of oxygen adsorption. After using different nitrogen plasma treatment times, the minimum in I-V characteristic shifted into the negative gate voltage region with increased nitrogen concentration and the GFET channel became an n-type semiconductor. GFETs could be easily fabricated using this method with potential for various applications. The GFET transfer characteristics could be tuned precisely by adjusting the nitrogen plasma treatment time.

  7. A CMOS-MEMS arrayed resonant-gate field effect transistor (RGFET) oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chi-Hang; Li, Ming-Huang; Chen, Chao-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Li, Sheng-Shian

    2015-11-01

    A high-frequency CMOS-MEMS arrayed resonant-gate field effect transistor (RGFET) fabricated by a standard 0.35 μm 2-poly-4-metal CMOS-MEMS platform is implemented to enable a Pierce-type oscillator. The proposed arrayed RGFET exhibits low motional impedance of only 5 kΩ under a purely capacitive transduction and decent power handling capability. With such features, the implemented oscillator shows impressive phase noise of  -117 dBc Hz-1 at the far-from-carrier offset (1 MHz). In this work, we design a clamped-clamped beam (CCB) arrayed resonator utilizing a high-velocity mechanical coupling scheme to serve as the resonant-gate array. To achieve a functional arrayed RGFET, a corresponding FET array is directly placed underneath the resonant gate array to convert the motional current on the resonant-gate array into a voltage output with a tunable transconductance gain. To understand the behavior of the proposed device, an equivalent circuit model consisting of the resonant unit and FET is also provided. To verify the effects of the post-CMOS process on device performance, a conventional MOS I D current measurement is carried out. Finally, a CMOS-MEMS arrayed RGFET oscillator is realized by utilizing a Pierce oscillator architecture, showing decent phase noise performance that benefits from the array design to alleviate the nonlinear effect of the resonant gate.

  8. Structure-Property Relationships of Semiconducting Polymers for Flexible and Durable Polymer Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Je; Jung, A-Ra; Lee, Myeongjae; Kim, Dongjin; Ro, Suhee; Jin, Seon-Mi; Nguyen, Hieu Dinh; Yang, Jeehye; Lee, Kyung-Koo; Lee, Eunji; Kang, Moon Sung; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Kim, BongSoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2017-11-22

    We report high-performance top-gate bottom-contact flexible polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated by flow-coating diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based polymers (P(DPP2DT-T2), P(DPP2DT-TT), P(DPP2DT-DTT), P(NDI2OD-T2), P(NDI2OD-F2T2), and P(NDI2OD-Se2)) as semiconducting channel materials. All of the polymers displayed good FET characteristics with on/off current ratios exceeding 10 7 . The highest hole mobility of 1.51 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and the highest electron mobility of 0.85 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were obtained from the P(DPP2DT-T2) and P(NDI2OD-Se2) polymer FETs, respectively. The impacts of the polymer structures on the FET performance are well-explained by the interplay between the crystallinity, the tendency of the polymer backbone to adopt an edge-on orientation, and the interconnectivity of polymer fibrils in the film state. Additionally, we demonstrated that all of the flexible polymer-based FETs were highly resistant to tensile stress, with negligible changes in their carrier mobilities and on/off ratios after a bending test. Conclusively, these high-performance, flexible, and durable FETs demonstrate the potential of semiconducting conjugated polymers for use in flexible electronic applications.

  9. Few-Layer Black Phosphorus Carbide Field-Effect Transistor via Carbon Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee Chong; Cai, Yongqing; Ng, Rui Jie; Huang, Li; Feng, Xuewei; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Nijhuis, Christian A; Liu, Xinke; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2017-06-01

    Black phosphorus carbide (b-PC) is a new family of layered semiconducting material that has recently been predicted to have the lightest electrons and holes among all known 2D semiconductors, yielding a p-type mobility (≈10 5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) at room temperature that is approximately five times larger than the maximum value in black phosphorus. Here, a high-performance composite few-layer b-PC field-effect transistor fabricated via a novel carbon doping technique which achieved a high hole mobility of 1995 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature is reported. The absorption spectrum of this material covers an electromagnetic spectrum in the infrared regime not served by black phosphorus and is useful for range finding applications as the earth atmosphere has good transparency in this spectral range. Additionally, a low contact resistance of 289 Ω µm is achieved using a nickel phosphide alloy contact with an edge contacted interface via sputtering and thermal treatment. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Relation between film thickness and surface doping of MoS2 based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart de la Rosa, César J.; Arutchelvan, Goutham; Leonhardt, Alessandra; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Radu, Iuliana; Heyns, Marc; De Gendt, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin MoS2 film doping through surface functionalization with physically adsorbed species is of great interest due to its ability to dope the film without reduction in the carrier mobility. However, there is a need for understanding how the thickness of the MoS2 film is related to the induced surface doping for improved electrical performance. In this work, we report on the relation of MoS2 film thickness with the doping effect induced by the n-dopant adsorbate poly(vinyl-alcohol). Field effect transistors built using MoS2 films of different thicknesses were electrically characterized, and it was observed that the ION/OFF ratio after doping in thin films is more than four orders of magnitudes greater when compared with thick films. Additionally, a semi-classical model tuned with the experimental devices was used to understand the spatial distribution of charge in the channel and explain the observed behavior. From the simulation results, it was revealed that the two-dimensional carrier density induced by the adsorbate is distributed rather uniformly along the complete channel for thin films (<5.2 nm) contrary to what happens for thicker films.

  11. Radical Polymer Utilization for Interfacial Improvement of Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Seung Hyun; Bajaj, Nikhil; Rhoads, Jeffrey; Chiu, George; Boudouris, Bryan

    Metal-semiconductor interfacial contact is one of the crucial factors for high-performance organic electronic device applications. In particular, the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is critically dependent on the engineering of the interface between the organic semiconductor and the source/drain electrodes. Here, we modulate the performance of pentacene-based OFETs through the inclusion of a specific radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl methacrylate) (PTMA), at the pentacene-gold electrode interface. Using a simple and fast inkjet printing method, the OFET performance is highly enhanced by the systematic deposition of a thin PTMA layer. The insertion of the radical polymer has an impact on the highly-improved OFET performance due to its redox charge transport ability and the amorphous nature allowing the stable growth of the pentacene. The synergistic effect facilitates the charge injection at the interface of the metal and organic semiconductor, resulting in the highly improved OFET performance. As such, the fundamental insights associated with radical polymers can be widened and their utilization as a highly-improved, low-cost interfacial modifier in myriad organic electronic devices is of great promise.

  12. Investigation of protein detection parameters using nanofunctionalized organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Mallory L; Knopfmacher, Oren; Naab, Benjamin D; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-28

    Biodetection using organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is gaining increasing interest for applications as diverse as food security, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics. However, there still lacks a comprehensive, empirical study on the fundamental limits of OFET sensors. In this paper, we present a thorough study of the various parameters affecting biosensing using an OFET decorated with gold nanoparticle (AuNP) binding sites. These parameters include the spacing between receptors, pH of the buffer, and ionic strength of the buffer. To this end, we employed the thrombin protein and its corresponding DNA binding aptamer to form our model detection system. We demonstrate a detection limit of 100 pM for this protein with high selectivity over other proteases in situ. We describe herein a feasible approach for protein detection with OFETs and a thorough investigation of parameters governing biodetection events using OFETs. Our obtained results should provide important guidelines to tailor the sensor's dynamic range to suit other desired OFET-based biodetection applications.

  13. Characteristics of carrier-generated field-effect transistors with pentacene/vanadium pentoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minagawa, M. [Nagaoka National College of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Nakai, K.; Baba, A.; Shinbo, K.; Kato, K.; Kaneko, F. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Lee, C. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, the driving mechanism of carrier-generated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with pentacene and vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) layers is discussed. In this study, large on-currents were observed in an OFET with a 35-nm V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer. Devices with aluminum (Al)/pentacene/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al layer structures were also prepared. These devices exhibited a large current density in spite of their high carrier injection barriers between each layer and the Al electrodes. Moreover, new absorption bands corresponding to the radical cation absorption of pentacene were observed within the absorption spectrum of the pentacene and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixed layers. It was inferred that the charge transfer (CT) complexes that formed at the interface between the pentacene and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers were dissociated by the applied gate voltage and that the generated holes contributed to driving the OFETs.

  14. An analytical solution for contact resistance of staggered organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, Hamidreza; Katebi-Jahromi, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    We have developed analytical models for bias dependent contact resistance (RC) and output characteristics of staggered organic field-effect transistors (OFETS) based on a bulk resistance-approximated and mobility-modified current-crowding method. Numerical evaluations of RC and its resistive components show that the bias dependency of the bulk resistance is negligible. Consequently, the properties of the active layer interfaces determine RC and its characteristics. Effective parameters include a normally constant charge injection barrier at the organic-metal interface (Eb) and a gate induced surface carrier-concentration (PS0) at the organic-insulator boundary. The energy barrier pertains to the fabrication process, and its related resistance (rc) can be determined as the fitting parameter of the theoretical model. However, PS0 is strongly gate bias dependent and the results of the numerical model indicate that the resulting component (rch) is dominant and has a considerable effect on RC and its characteristics. More importantly, PS0 as the key parameter of the contact resistance is analytically expressible and by using a proposed mobility-modified current-crowding model, the contact resistance can be analytically formulated. Accordingly, the output characteristics of the OFETs in the triode region can be also analytically modeled using the developed relation of RC.

  15. Kelvin-probe studies of n-conductive organic field-effect transistors during operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettich, Franziska; Graaf, Harald; Borczyskowski, Christian von [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Optical Spectroscopy and Molecular Physics, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Lehmann, Daniel; Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Semiconductor Physics, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We report on our investigations of the structural and electronic properties of n-conductive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). For this purpose we employed the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin-probe force microscopy (KPFM) in dual frequency mode. This study facilitates the determination of the local potential in the channel of active OFETs. We studied the influence of insulator treatment on the electrical potential and field distribution within the channel using a self-assembled monolayer of N-octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). For the investigated OFETs we used air-stable and electron conducting N,N{sup '}-bis(n-octyl)-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI-8CN{sub 2}). It appears that the insulator treatment improves the performance even if the surface topography did not change. These results can lead to a better understanding of the charge transport and injection and pave the way towards the optimisation of the electronical properties of active organic devices (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Interfacial electronic effects in functional biolayers integrated into organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angione, Maria Daniela; Cotrone, Serafina; Magliulo, Maria; Mallardi, Antonia; Altamura, Davide; Giannini, Cinzia; Cioffi, Nicola; Sabbatini, Luigia; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Biosystems integration into an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) structure is achieved by spin coating phospholipid or protein layers between the gate dielectric and the organic semiconductor. An architecture directly interfacing supported biological layers to the OFET channel is proposed and, strikingly, both the electronic properties and the biointerlayer functionality are fully retained. The platform bench tests involved OFETs integrating phospholipids and bacteriorhodopsin exposed to 1–5% anesthetic doses that reveal drug-induced changes in the lipid membrane. This result challenges the current anesthetic action model relying on the so far provided evidence that doses much higher than clinically relevant ones (2.4%) do not alter lipid bilayers’ structure significantly. Furthermore, a streptavidin embedding OFET shows label-free biotin electronic detection at 10 parts-per-trillion concentration level, reaching state-of-the-art fluorescent assay performances. These examples show how the proposed bioelectronic platform, besides resulting in extremely performing biosensors, can open insights into biologically relevant phenomena involving membrane weak interfacial modifications. PMID:22493224

  17. Influence of nickel(II) oxide nanoparticle addition on the performance of organic field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyeong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Joonhyeon; Seo, Jooyeok; Jeong, Jaehoon; Woo, Sungho; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2013-09-01

    Here, the improved performance of organic field effect transistors (OFET) by doping inorganic nanoparticles into a semiconducting polymer as a channel layer is briefly reported. Nickel(II) oxide nanoparticle (NiOnp) was used as an inorganic dopant while regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was used as a matrix polymer for the channel layer in the OFETs. The doping ratio of NiOnp was made 1 wt.% so that it would minimally influence the nanostructure of the P3HT channel layer. The results showed that the optical absorption spectrum of the P3HT film was slightly red-shifted by the NiOnp doping, which reflects the improved crystallinity of the P3HT domains in the P3HT:NiOnp films. The drain current of the OFETs with the P3HT:NiOnp films was significantly enhanced ca. three-to-seven fold by the NiOnp doping under appying gate voltages while the hole mobility of the OFETs P3HT:NiOnp films was improved as much as three fold by the NiOnp doping. The enhanced performance has been assigned to the role of NiOnp that has relatively higher hole mobility than the P3HT polymer.

  18. Development of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Liu, Chuan; Khim, Dongyoon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-10-28

    Organic electronics is regarded as an important branch of future microelectronics especially suited for large-area, flexible, transparent, and green devices, with their low cost being a key benefit. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the primary building blocks of numerous expected applications, have been intensively studied, and considerable progress has recently been made. However, there are still a number of challenges to the realization of high-performance OFETs and integrated circuits (ICs) using printing technologies. Therefore, in this perspective article, we investigate the main issues concerning developing high-performance printed OFETs and ICs and seek strategies for further improvement. Unlike many other studies in the literature that deal with organic semiconductors (OSCs), printing technology, and device physics, our study commences with a detailed examination of OFET performance parameters (e.g., carrier mobility, threshold voltage, and contact resistance) by which the related challenges and potential solutions to performance development are inspected. While keeping this complete understanding of device performance in mind, we check the printed OFETs' components one by one and explore the possibility of performance improvement regarding device physics, material engineering, processing procedure, and printing technology. Finally, we analyze the performance of various organic ICs and discuss ways to optimize OFET characteristics and thus develop high-performance printed ICs for broad practical applications.

  19. Vacuum-and-solvent-free fabrication of organic semiconductor layers for field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Esaki, Yu; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate that cold and hot isostatic pressing (CIP and HIP) is a novel, alternative method for organic semiconductor layer fabrication, where organic powder is compressed into a layer shape directly on a substrate with 200 MPa pressure. Spatial gaps between powder particles and the other particles, substrates, or electrodes are crushed after CIP and HIP, making it possible to operate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) containing the compressed powder as the semiconductor. The CIP-compressed powder of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) had a hole mobility of (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10-2 cm2/Vs. HIP of C8-BTBT powder increased the hole mobility to an amorphous silicon-like value (0.22 ± 0.07 cm2/Vs) because of the growth of the C8-BTBT crystallites and the improved continuity between the powder particles. The vacuum and solution processes are not involved in our CIP and HIP techniques, offering a possibility of manufacturing OFETs at low cost.

  20. Reduced contact resistance in top-contact organic field-effect transistors by interface contact doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ji-Ling; Kasemann, Daniel; Widmer, Johannes; Günther, Alrun A.; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2016-03-01

    Emerging organic integrated electronics require capability of high speed and the compatibility with high-resolution structuring processes such as photolithography. When downscaling the channel length, the contact resistance is known to limit the performance of the short channel devices. In this report, orthogonal photolithography is used for the patterning of the source/drain electrodes of the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as well as the interface dopant insertion layers for further modifications of the contact resistance. Bottom-gate top-contact pentacene OFETs with different thicknesses of the p-dopant 2,2'-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile under the Au electrodes show a significant decrease in threshold voltage from -2.2 V to -0.8 V and in contact resistance from 55 k Ω cm to 10 k Ω cm by adding a 1 nm thin dopant interlayer. The influence of doping on charge carrier injection is directly visible in the temperature-dependent output characteristics and a charge-transfer activation energy of ˜20 meV is obtained. Our results provide a systematic study of interface contact doping and also show the connection between interface contact doping and improved charge carrier injection by the activation of charge transfer process.

  1. Label-free detection of interleukin-6 using electrolyte gated organic field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diacci, Chiara; Berto, Marcello; Di Lauro, Michele; Bianchini, Elena; Pinti, Marcello; Simon, Daniel T; Biscarini, Fabio; Bortolotti, Carlo A

    2017-09-27

    Cytokines are small proteins that play fundamental roles in inflammatory processes in the human body. In particular, interleukin (IL)-6 is a multifunctional cytokine, whose increased levels are associated with infection, cancer, and inflammation. The quantification of IL-6 is therefore of primary importance in early stages of inflammation and in chronic diseases, but standard techniques are expensive, time-consuming, and usually rely on fluorescent or radioactive labels. Organic electronic devices and, in particular, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been proposed in the recent years as novel platforms for label-free protein detection, exploiting as sensing unit surface-immobilized antibodies or aptamers. Here, the authors report two electrolyte-gated OFETs biosensors for IL-6 detection, featuring monoclonal antibodies and peptide aptamers adsorbed at the gate. Both strategies yield biosensors that can work on a wide range of IL-6 concentrations and exhibit a remarkable limit of detection of 1 pM. Eventually, electrolyte gated OFETs responses have been used to extract and compare the binding thermodynamics between the sensing moiety, immobilized at the gate electrode, and IL-6.

  2. Detection of heart failure-related biomarker in whole blood with graphene field effect transistor biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong-Min; Xiao, Meng-Meng; Li, Yu-Tao; Xu, Li; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2017-05-15

    Since brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has become internationally recognized biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure (HF), it is highly desirable to search for a novel sensing tool for detecting the patient's BNP level at the early stage. Here we report a platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) field effect transistor (FET) biosensor coupled with a microfilter system for label-free and highly sensitive detection of BNP in whole blood. The PtNPs-decorated rGO FET sensor was obtained by drop-casting rGO onto the pre-fabricated FET chip and subsequently assembling PtNPs on the graphene surface. After anti-BNP was bound to the PtNPs surface, BNP was successfully detected by the anti-BNP immobilized FET biosensor. It was found that the developed FET biosensor was able to achieve a low detection limitation of 100fM. Moreover, BNP was successfully detected in human whole blood sample treated by a custom-made microfilter, suggesting the sensor's capability of working in a complex sample matrix. The developed FET biosensor provides a new sensing platform for protein detection, showing its potential applications in clinic sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interface-Dependent Effective Mobility in Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Patrik; Hinnemo, Malkolm; Zhang, Shi-Li; Olsson, Jörgen

    2018-03-01

    By pretreating the substrate of a graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET), a stable unipolar transfer characteristic, instead of the typical V-shape ambipolar behavior, has been demonstrated. This behavior is achieved through functionalization of the SiO2/Si substrate that changes the SiO2 surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, in combination with postdeposition of an Al2O3 film by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Consequently, the back-gated G-FET is found to have increased apparent hole mobility and suppressed apparent electron mobility. Furthermore, with addition of a top-gate electrode, the G-FET is in a double-gate configuration with independent top- or back-gate control. The observed difference in mobility is shown to also be dependent on the top-gate bias, with more pronounced effect at higher electric field. Thus, the combination of top and bottom gates allows control of the G-FET's electron and hole mobilities, i.e., of the transfer behavior. Based on these observations, it is proposed that polar ligands are introduced during the ALD step and, depending on their polarization, result in an apparent increase of the effective hole mobility and an apparent suppressed effective electron mobility.

  4. Nozzle-jet printed flexible field-effect transistor biosensor for high performance glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Kiesar Sideeq; Ahmad, Rafiq; Yoo, Jin-Young; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2017-11-15

    Printable electronics is a subject of great interest for low-cost, facile and environmentally-friendly large scale device production. But, it still remains challenging for printable biosensor development. Herein, we present the fabrication of nozzle-jet printed flexible field-effect transistor (FET) glucose biosensor. The silver source-drain electrodes and ZnO seed layers were printed on flexible substrate by nozzle-jet printer followed by ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) synthesis and glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Utilization of nozzle-jet printing methods resulted in highly reproducible electrodes with well-defined vertical grown ZnO NRs for high GOx loading and enhanced glucose sensing performance in a wide glucose detection range. The stability, anti-interference ability, reproducibility, reusability, and applicability in human serum samples were also assessed. Overall, biosensor fabrication using nozzle-jet printer will not only provide large scale production of highly reproducible electrodes but also reduce the fabrication cost. Additionally, printed electrodes can be modified accordingly for different analyte detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simplified detection of the hybridized DNA using a graphene field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Arun Kumar; Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Jayavel, Ramasamy; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Detection of disease-related gene expression by DNA hybridization is a useful diagnostic method. In this study a monolayer graphene field effect transistor (GFET) was fabricated for the detection of a particular single-stranded DNA (target DNA). The probe DNA, which is a single-stranded DNA with a complementary nucleotide sequence, was directly immobilized onto the graphene surface without any linker. The VDirac was shifted to the negative direction in the probe DNA immobilization. A further shift of VDirac in the negative direction was observed when the target DNA was applied to GFET, but no shift was observed upon the application of non-complementary mismatched DNA. Direct immobilization of double-stranded DNA onto the graphene surface also shifted the VDirac in the negative direction to the same extent as that of the shift induced by the immobilization of probe DNA and following target DNA application. These results suggest that the further shift of VDirac after application of the target DNA to the GFET was caused by the hybridization between the probe DNA and target DNA. PMID:28179957

  6. Molecular recognition by synthetic receptors: Application in field-effect transistor based chemosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskierko, Zofia; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Sharma, Piyush Sindhu

    2018-03-06

    Molecular recognition, i.e., ability of one molecule to recognize another through weak bonding interactions, is one of the bases of life. It is often implemented to sensing systems of high merits. Preferential recognition of the analyte (guest) by the receptor (host) induces changes in physicochemical properties of the sensing system. These changes are measured by using suitable signal transducers. Because of possibility of miniaturization, fast response, and high sensitivity, field-effect transistors (FETs) are more frequently being used for that purpose. A FET combined with a biological material offers the potential to overcome many challenges approached in sensing. However, low stability of biological materials under measurement conditions is a serious problem. To circumvent this problem, synthetic receptors were integrated with the gate surface of FETs to provide robust performance. In the present critical review, the approach utilized to devise chemosensors integrating synthetic receptors and FET transduction is discussed in detail. The progress in this field was summarized and important outcome was provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-Time Monitoring of Insulin Using a Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Aptameric Nanosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhuang; Zhu, Yibo; Wang, Xuejun; Rotti, Pavana G; DiMarco, Christopher; Tyler, Scott R; Zhao, Xuezeng; Engelhardt, John F; Hone, James; Lin, Qiao

    2017-08-23

    This paper presents an approach to the real-time, label-free, specific, and sensitive monitoring of insulin using a graphene aptameric nanosensor. The nanosensor is configured as a field-effect transistor, whose graphene-based conducting channel is functionalized with a guanine-rich IGA3 aptamer. The negatively charged aptamer folds into a compact and stable antiparallel or parallel G-quadruplex conformation upon binding with insulin, resulting in a change in the carrier density, and hence the electrical conductance, of the graphene. The change in the electrical conductance is then measured to enable the real-time monitoring of insulin levels. Testing has shown that the nanosensor offers an estimated limit of detection down to 35 pM and is functional in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, a standard pancreatic islet perfusion medium. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this approach in label-free monitoring of insulin and in timely prediction of accurate insulin dosage in clinical diagnostics.

  8. Low-Voltage Organic Single-Crystal Field-Effect Transistor with Steep Subthreshold Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangxu; Sun, Lingjie; Han, Jiangli; Li, Baili; Yu, Xi; Zhang, Xiaotao; Ren, Xiaochen; Hu, Wenping

    2018-03-06

    Anodization is a promising technique to form high- k dielectrics for low-power organic field-effect transistor (OFET) applications. However, the surface quality of the dielectric, which is mainly inherited from the metal electrode, can be improved further than other fabrication techniques, such as sol-gel. In this study, we applied the template stripping method to fabricate a low-power single-crystalline OFET based on the anodized AlO x dielectric. We found that the template stripping method largely improves the surface roughness of the deposited Al and allows for the formation of a high-quality AlO x high- k dielectric by anodization. The ultraflat AlO x /SAM dielectric combined with a single-crystal 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA) semiconductor produced a nearly defect-free interface with a steep subthreshold swing (SS) of 66 mV/decade. The current device is a promising candidate for future ultralow-power applications. Other than metal deposition, template stripping could provide a general approach to improve thin-film quality for many other types of materials and processes.

  9. A high sensitivity field effect transistor biosensor for methylene blue detection utilize graphene oxide nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Chun; Li, Yan-Sheng; Chiang, Wei-Hung; Pei, Zingway

    2017-03-15

    In this work, we developed a field effect transistor (FET) biosensor utilizing solution-processed graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR) for methylene blue (MB) sensing. MB is a unique material; one of its crucial applications is as a marker in the detection of biomaterials. Therefore, a highly sensitive biosensor with a low detection limit that can be fabricated simply in a noncomplex detection scheme is desirable. GONR is made by unzipping multiwall carbon nanotubes, which can be mass-produced at low temperature. The GONR-FET biosensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 12.5μA/mM (determined according to the drain current difference caused by the MB concentration change). The Raman spectra indicate that the materials quality of the GONR and the domain size for the C=C sp 2 bonding were both improved after MB detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the GONR were removed by the reductive MB. According to XPS and Raman, the positive charge is proposed to transfer from MB to GONR during sensing. This transfer causes charge in-neutrality in the GONR which is compensated by releasing •OH functional groups. With high sensitivity, a low detection limit, and a simple device structure, the GONR-FET sensor is suitable for sensing biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Throughput Peptide Epitope Mapping Using Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steingrimur Stefansson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Label-free and real-time detection technologies can dramatically reduce the time and cost of pharmaceutical testing and development. However, to reach their full promise, these technologies need to be adaptable to high-throughput automation. To demonstrate the potential of single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWCNT-FETs for high-throughput peptide-based assays, we have designed circuits arranged in an 8 × 12 (96-well format that are accessible to standard multichannel pipettors. We performed epitope mapping of two HIV-1 gp160 antibodies using an overlapping gp160 15-mer peptide library coated onto nonfunctionalized SWCNTs. The 15-mer peptides did not require a linker to adhere to the non-functionalized SWCNTs, and binding data was obtained in real time for all 96 circuits. Despite some sequence differences in the HIV strains used to generate these antibodies and the overlapping peptide library, respectively, our results using these antibodies are in good agreement with known data, indicating that peptides immobilized onto SWCNT are accessible and that linear epitope mapping can be performed in minutes using SWCNT-FET.

  11. Completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in a silicene field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    One-atom-thick silicene is a silicon-based hexagonal-lattice material with buckled structure, where an electron fuses multiple degrees of freedom including spin, sublattice pseudospin and valley. We here demonstrate that a valley-selective spin filter (VSSF) that supports single-valley and single-spin transport can be realized in a silicene field effect transistor constructed of an npn junction, where an antiferromagnetic exchange field and a perpendicular electric field are applied in the p -doped region. The nontrivial VSSF property benefits from an electrically controllable state of spin-polarized single-valley Dirac cone. By reversing the electric field direction, the device can operate as a spin-reversed but valley-unreversed filter due to the dependence of band gap on spin and valley. Further, we find that all the possible spin-valley configurations of VSSF can be achieved just by tuning the electric field. Our findings pave the way to the realization of completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in silicene circuits. (paper)

  12. Crosslinkable high k polymer dielectrics for low voltage organic field-effect transistor memories (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Chin; Hung, Chih-Chien; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Tung, Shih-Huang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2016-09-01

    High Performance organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory devices were successfully prepared using new dielectric materials, poly(N-(hydroxymethyl)acrylamide-co-5 -(9-(5-(diethylamino)pentyl)-2-(4-vinylphenyl)-9H-fluorene (P(NMA-co-F6NSt)), which contained chemical cross-linkable segment (NMA) and hole trapping building block (F6NSt). The high k characteristics of P(NMA-co-F6NSt)) led to a low voltage operation, a small power consumption, and a good digital information storage capacity. Such P(NMA-co-F6NSt) dielectrics in OFET memories with variant NMA/F6NSt molar ratios (100/0 (P1), 95/5 (P2), 80/20 (P3), and 67/33 (P4)) showed excellent insulating properties and good charge storage performance under a low operating voltage below ±5V, due to the tightly network structures after crosslinking and well-dispersed trapping cites (i.e. fluorene moieties). P3-based memory device, in particular, exhibited largest memory window of 4.13 V among the studied polymers, and possessed stable data retention stability over 104 s with a high on/off current ratio (i.e. 104) and good endurance characteristics of more than 200 write-read-write-erase (WRER) cycles. The above results suggested that a high-performance OFET memory device could be facilely achieved using the novel synthesized high-k copolymers.

  13. Valence band states in Si-based p-type delta-doped field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Orozco, J C; Vlaev, Stoyan J, E-mail: jcmover@correo.unam.m [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    We present tight-binding calculations of the hole level structure of delta-doped Field Effect Transistor in a Si matrix within the first neighbors sp{sup 3}s* semi-empirical tight-binding model including spin. We employ analytical expressions for Schottky barrier potential and the p-type delta-doped well based on a Thomas-Fermi approximation, we consider these potentials as external ones, so in the computations they are added to the diagonal terms of the tight-binding Hamiltonian, by this way we have the possibility to study the energy levels behavior as we vary the backbone parameters in the system: the two-dimensional impurity density (p{sub 2d}) of the p-type delta-doped well and the contact voltage (V{sub c}). The aim of this calculation is to demonstrate that the tight-binding approximation is suitable for device characterization that permits us to propose optimal values for the input parameters involved in the device design.

  14. Optical AND operation in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, T.; Noda, T.; Sakuma, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The near-infrared photoresponses of an n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction field-effect transistor (FET) were investigated for the irradiation of two lights: (A) a laser beam with the energy above the Schottky-barrier which uniformly illuminates the gate region and (B) a laser beam with the energy above the GaAs bandgap which locally illuminates the ungate region. We measured a lateral photocurrent in the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel at the n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction and found that the FET acts as an optical AND element; the lateral photocurrent is generated only when both the light A and B simultaneously illuminate the FET. The lateral current flows from left to right when the left side of the FET is illuminated with the light B, while the right side irradiation leads to the current from right to left. The experimental findings are well explained by a theory based on the current-continuity equation, where the lateral current in the 2DEG channel is driven by an asymmetric electron transfer resulting from the simultaneous irradiation of the light A and B.

  15. Current trends in nanomaterial embedded field effect transistor-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Anuj; Pal Singh, Krishna

    2015-12-15

    Recently, as metal-, polymer-, and carbon-based biocompatible nanomaterials have been increasingly incorporated into biosensing applications, with various nanostructures having been used to increase the efficacy and sensitivity of most of the detecting devices, including field effect transistor (FET)-based devices. These nanomaterial-based methods also became the ideal for the amalgamation of biomolecules, especially for the fabrication of ultrasensitive, low-cost, and robust FET-based biosensors; these are categorically very successful at binding the target specified entities in the confined gated micro-region for high functionality. Furthermore, the contemplation of nanomaterial-based FET biosensors to various applications encompasses the desire for detection of many targets with high selectivity, and specificity. We assess how such devices have empowered the achievement of elevated biosensor performance in terms of high sensitivity, selectivity and low detection limits. We review the recent literature here to illustrate the diversity of FET-based biosensors, based on various kinds of nanomaterials in different applications and sum up that graphene or its assisted composite based FET devices are comparatively more efficient and sensitive with highest signal to noise ratio. Lastly, the future prospects and limitations of the field are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors regrown on nitrogen implanted templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, W; Reuters, B; Fahle, D; Behmenburg, H; Hahn, H; Kalisch, H; Heuken, M; Vescan, A; Wang, K R; Trampert, A; Holländer, B

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of nitrogen (N) implantation in GaN as a current-blocking layer. In a first step, vertical current-blocking behavior was confirmed by processing quasi-vertical Schottky diodes with full-area N-implantation. The leakage current was only 10 −6 A cm −2 in forward and reverse directions. Also, the regrowth of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors on N-implanted and, for reference, non-implanted GaN templates is demonstrated. Even though a decrease in the mobility and sheet carrier density of the two-dimensional electron gas was observed, excellent off-state properties were achieved. Regrown devices exhibited leakage currents as low as 10 −7 mA mm −1 , showing very good quality of the regrowth interface. However, a detailed analysis with pulsed I–V and C–V measurements suggest an increased presence of traps due to regrowth, especially on N-implanted templates. (paper)

  17. Buffer transport mechanisms in intentionally carbon doped GaN heterojunction field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, Michael J.; Cäsar, Markus; Kuball, Martin; Gajda, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature dependent pulsed and ramped substrate bias measurements are used to develop a detailed understanding of the vertical carrier transport in the buffer layers in a carbon doped GaN power heterojunction field effect transistor. Carbon doped GaN and multiple layers of AlGaN alloy are used in these devices to deliver an insulating and strain relieved buffer with high breakdown voltage capability. However, understanding of the detailed physical mechanism for its operation is still lacking. At the lowest electric fields (<10 MV/m), charge redistribution within the C doped layer is shown to occur by hole conduction in the valence band with activation energy 0.86 eV. At higher fields, leakage between the two-dimensional electron gas and the buffer dominates occurring by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism with activation energy ∼0.65 eV, presumably along threading dislocations. At higher fields still, the strain relief buffer starts to conduct by a field dependent process. Balancing the onset of these leakage mechanisms is essential to allow the build-up of positive rather than negative space charge, and thus minimize bulk-related current-collapse in these devices.

  18. Nonvolatile field effect transistors based on protons and Si/SiO2Si structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Schwank, J.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Knoll, M.G.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the authors have demonstrated that annealing Si/SiO 2 /Si structures in a hydrogen containing ambient introduces mobile H + ions into the buried SiO 2 layer. Changes in the H + spatial distribution within the SiO 2 layer were electrically monitored by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The ability to directly probe reversible protonic motion in Si/SiO 2 /Si structures makes this an exemplar system to explore the physics and chemistry of hydrogen in the technologically relevant Si/SiO 2 structure. In this work, they illustrate that this effect can be used as the basis for a programmable nonvolatile field effect transistor (NVFET) memory that may compete with other Si-based memory devices. The power of this novel device is its simplicity; it is based upon standard Si/SiO 2 /Si technology and forming gas annealing, a common treatment used in integrated circuit processing. They also briefly discuss the effects of radiation on its retention properties

  19. Fabrication of an organic field effect transistor using nano imprinting of Ag inks and semiconducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, PingAn; Li, Kun; O'Neill, William; Chen, Weilin; Peng, Li; Chu, Daping

    2010-01-01

    A simple and cheap procedure for flexible electronics fabrication was demonstrated by imprinting metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on flexible substrates. Silver NPs with an average diameter of 10 nm were prepared via an improved chemical approach and Ag Np ink was produced in α-terpineol with a concentration up to 15%. Silver micro/nanostructures with a dimension varying from nanometres to microns were produced on a flexible substrate (polyimide) by imprinting the as-prepared silver ink. The fine fluidic properties of an Ag NP/α-terpineol solution and low melting temperatures of silver nanoparticles render a low pressure and low temperature procedure, which is well suited for flexible electronics fabrication. The effects of sintering and mechanical bending on the conductivity of imprinted silver contacts were also investigated. Large area organic field effect transistors (OFET) on flexible substrates were fabricated using an imprinted silver electrode and semiconducting polymer. The OFET with silver electrodes imprinted from our prepared oleic acid stabilized Ag nanoparticle ink show an ideal ohmic contact; therefore, the OFET exhibit high performance (I on /I off ratio: 1 × 10 3 ; mobility: 0.071 cm 2 V −1 s −1 ).

  20. Temperature Dependence of Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors: A Quantum Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naderi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By developing a two-dimensional (2D full quantum simulation, the attributes of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs in different temperatures have been comprehensively investigated. Simulations have been performed by employing the self-consistent solution of 2D Poisson-Schrödinger equations within the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF formalism. Principal characteristics of CNTFETs such as current capability, drain conductance, transconductance, and subthreshold swing (SS have been investigated. Simulation results present that as temperature raises from 250 to 500 K, the drain conductance and on-current of the CNTFET improved; meanwhile the on-/off-current ratio deteriorated due to faster growth in off-current. Also the effects of temperature on short channel effects (SCEs such as drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL and threshold voltage roll-off have been studied. Results show that the subthreshold swing and DIBL parameters are almost linearly correlated, so the degradation of these parameters has the same origin and can be perfectly influenced by the temperature.