WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanotips antireflection surface

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic metal nanotips with tunable sharpness

    Linn, Nicholas C; Sun, C-H; Arya, Ajay; Jiang Peng; Jiang Bin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a scalable bottom-up technology for producing periodic gold nanotips with tunable sharpness as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Inverted silicon pyramidal pits, which are templated from non-close-packed colloidal crystals prepared by a spin-coating technology, are used as structural templates to replicate arrays of polymer nanopyramids with nanoscale sharp tips. The deposition of a thin layer of gold on the polymer nanopyramids leads to the formation of SERS-active substrates with a high enhancement factor (up to 10 8 ). The thickness of the deposited metal determines the sharpness of the nanotips and the resulting Raman enhancement factor. Finite-element electromagnetic modeling shows that the nanotips can significantly enhance the local electromagnetic field and the sharpness of nanotips greatly affects the SERS enhancement.

  2. An ultrafast nanotip electron gun triggered by grating-coupled surface plasmons

    Schröder, Benjamin; Sivis, Murat; Bormann, Reiner; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus, E-mail: cropers@gwdg.de [4th Physical Institute - Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate multiphoton photoelectron emission from gold nanotips induced by nanofocusing surface plasmons, resonantly excited on the tip shaft by a grating coupler. The tip is integrated into an electron gun assembly, which facilitates control over the spatial emission sites and allows us to disentangle direct grating emission from plasmon-triggered apex emission. The nanoscale source size of this electron gun concept enables highly coherent electron pulses with applications in ultrafast electron imaging and diffraction.

  3. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic hybrid nanotip and nanopore arrays as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates

    Li, Yuxin; Li, Juan; Wang, Tiankun; Zhang, Zhongyue; Bai, Yu; Hao, Changchun; Feng, Chenchen; Ma, Yingjun; Sun, Runguang

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of superhydrophobic hybrid nanotip and nanopore arrays (NTNPAs) that can act as sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. The large-area substrates were fabricated by following a facile, low-cost process consisting of the one-step voltage-variation anodization of Al foil, followed by Ag nanoparticle deposition and fluorosilane (FS) modification. Uniformly distributed, large-area (5 × 5 cm2) NTNPAs can be obtained rapidly by anodizing Al foil for 1560 s followed by Ag deposition for 400 s, which showed good SERS reproducibility as using1 μM Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as analyte. SERS performances of superhydrophobic NTNPAs with different FS modification and Ag nanoparticle deposition orders were also studied. The nanosamples with FS modification followed by Ag nanoparticle deposition (FS-Ag) showed better SERS sensitivity than the nanosamples with Ag nanoparticle deposition followed by FS modification (Ag-FS). The detection limit of a directly dried R6G droplet can reach 10-8 M on the FS-Ag nanosamples. The results can help create practical high sensitive SERS substrates, which can be used in developing advanced bio- and chemical sensors.

  4. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles....... The two glasses are identical, except for the fact that one of them is equipped with antireflection surfaces by the company SunArc A/ S. The transmittance was increased by 5–9%-points due to the antireflection surfaces. The increase depends on the incidence angle. The efficiency at incidence angles of 08...... and the incidence angle modifier were measured for a flat-plate solar collector with the two cover plates. The collector efficiency was increased by 4–6%-points due to the antireflection surfaces, depending on the incidence angle. The thermal advantage with using a glass cover with antireflection surfaces...

  5. Design and fabrication of a nanostructured surface combining antireflective and enhanced-hydrophobic effects

    Chang, Y C; Mei, G H; Chang, T W; Wang, T J; Lin, D Z; Lee, C K

    2007-01-01

    Herein, we propose a special type of periodic subwavelength structure, which is optically an effective gradient-index (GRIN) antireflective surface that also exhibits enhanced-hydrophobic behaviour. Our new concept was developed adopting both the effective medium theory (EMT) and Wenzel's wettability model. To demonstrate the concept, an inverted pyramid structure was fabricated by electron beam (EB) lithography and anisotropic etching. The experimental data was found to be in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Some potential applications that can benefit from this combination of antireflection and enhanced-hydrophobicity features are discussed

  6. Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures.

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Chattopadhyay, Surojit; Jen, Yi-Jun; Peng, Cheng-Yu; Liu, Tze-An; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Pan, Ci-Ling; Lo, Hung-Chun; Hsu, Chih-Hsun; Chang, Yuan-Huei; Lee, Chih-Shan; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2007-12-01

    Nature routinely produces nanostructured surfaces with useful properties, such as the self-cleaning lotus leaf, the colour of the butterfly wing, the photoreceptor in brittlestar and the anti-reflection observed in the moth eye. Scientists and engineers have been able to mimic some of these natural structures in the laboratory and in real-world applications. Here, we report a simple aperiodic array of silicon nanotips on a 6-inch wafer with a sub-wavelength structure that can suppress the reflection of light at a range of wavelengths from the ultraviolet, through the visible part of the spectrum, to the terahertz region. Reflection is suppressed for a wide range of angles of incidence and for both s- and p-polarized light. The antireflection properties of the silicon result from changes in the refractive index caused by variations in the height of the silicon nanotips, and can be simulated with models that have been used to explain the low reflection from moth eyes. The improved anti-reflection properties of the surfaces could have applications in renewable energy and electro-optical devices for the military.

  7. Plasma-assisted self-formation of nanotip arrays on the surface of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Zimin, Sergey P.; Mokrov, Dmitry A. [Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation); Gorlachev, Egor S.; Amirov, Ildar I.; Naumov, Viktor V. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation); Gremenok, Valery F. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center, NAS of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Bente, Klaus [Applied Mineralogy, University Tuebingen (Germany); Kim, Woo Y. [Fusion Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan-City (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, we report on the phenomenon of nanostructure self-formation on the surface of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films during inductively coupled argon plasma treatment with its duration varied from 10 to 120 s. The initial films were grown on glass substrates using the selenization technique. During the CIGS film surface treatment in the high-density low-pressure radio-frequency inductively coupled argon plasma there took place a formation of arrays of uniform vertical nanostructures, which shape with increasing processing duration changed from nanocones to nanorods and back to nanocones. A model of the nanotip plasma-assisted self-formation associated with the implementation of micromasking and vapor-liquid-solid mechanisms involving metallic In-Ga (In-Ga-Cu) liquid alloy droplets is proposed. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Nanoscale silver-assisted wet etching of crystalline silicon for anti-reflection surface textures.

    Li, Rui; Wang, Shuling; Chuwongin, Santhad; Zhou, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    We report here an electro-less metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) process as light management surface-texturing technique for single crystalline Si photovoltaics. Random Silver nanostructures were formed on top of the Si surface based on the thin film evaporation and annealing process. Significant reflection reduction was obtained from the fabricated Si sample, with approximately 2% reflection over a wide spectra range (300 to 1050 nm). The work demonstrates the potential of MacEtch process for anti-reflection surface texture fabrication of large area, high efficiency, and low cost thin film solar cell.

  9. Broadband antireflective silicon carbide surface produced by cost-effective method

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    A cost-effective method for fabricating antireflective subwavelength structures on silicon carbide is demonstrated. The nanopatterning is performed in a 2-step process: aluminum deposition and reactive ion etching. The effect, of the deposited aluminum film thickness and the reactive ion etching...... conditions, on the average surface reflectance and nanostructure landscape have been investigated systematically. The average reflectance of silicon carbide surface is significantly suppressed from 25.4% to 0.05%, under the optimal experimental conditions, in the wavelength range of 390-784 nm. The presence...... of stochastic nanostructures also changes the wetting properties of silicon carbide surface from hydrophilic (47°) to hydrophobic (108°)....

  10. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  11. Antireflective surface structures in glass by self-assembly of SiO2 nanoparticles and wet etching.

    Maier, Thomas; Bach, David; Müllner, Paul; Hainberger, Rainer; Brückl, Hubert

    2013-08-26

    We describe the fabrication of an antireflective surface structure with sub-wavelength dimensions on a glass surface using scalable low-cost techniques involving sol-gel coating, thermal annealing, and wet chemical etching. The glass surface structure consists of sand dune like protrusions with 250 nm periodicity and a maximum peak-to-valley height of 120 nm. The antireflective structure increases the transmission of the glass up to 0.9% at 700 nm, and the transmission remains enhanced over a wide spectral range and for a wide range of incident angles. Our measurements reveal a strong polarization dependence of the transmission change.

  12. One-step Maskless Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Silicon Surfaces with Antireflective Properties and a White Color Appearance

    Sun, Ling; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Telecka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple one-step maskless fabrication of inverted pyramids on silicon wafers by reactive ion etching. The fabricated surface structures exhibit excellent anti-reflective properties: The total reflectance of the nano inverted pyramids fabricated by our method can be as low as 12% withou...... milky white color....

  13. Surface Passivation and Antireflection Behavior of ALD on n-Type Silicon for Solar Cells

    Ing-Song Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition, a method of excellent step coverage and conformal deposition, was used to deposit TiO2 thin films for the surface passivation and antireflection coating of silicon solar cells. TiO2 thin films deposited at different temperatures (200°C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C on FZ n-type silicon wafers are in the thickness of 66.4 nm ± 1.1 nm and in the form of self-limiting growth. For the properties of surface passivation, Si surface is effectively passivated by the 200°C deposition TiO2 thin film. Its effective minority carrier lifetime, measured by the photoconductance decay method, is improved 133% at the injection level of  cm−3. Depending on different deposition parameters and annealing processes, we can control the crystallinity of TiO2 and find low-temperature TiO2 phase (anatase better passivation performance than the high-temperature one (rutile, which is consistent with the results of work function measured by Kelvin probe. In addition, TiO2 thin films on polished Si wafer serve as good ARC layers with refractive index between 2.13 and 2.44 at 632.8 nm. Weighted average reflectance at AM1.5G reduces more than half after the deposition of TiO2. Finally, surface passivation and antireflection properties of TiO2 are stable after the cofire process of conventional crystalline Si solar cells.

  14. Topological characterization of antireflective and hydrophobic rough surfaces: are random process theory and fractal modeling applicable?

    Borri, Claudia; Paggi, Marco

    2015-02-01

    The random process theory (RPT) has been widely applied to predict the joint probability distribution functions (PDFs) of asperity heights and curvatures of rough surfaces. A check of the predictions of RPT against the actual statistics of numerically generated random fractal surfaces and of real rough surfaces has been only partially undertaken. The present experimental and numerical study provides a deep critical comparison on this matter, providing some insight into the capabilities and limitations in applying RPT and fractal modeling to antireflective and hydrophobic rough surfaces, two important types of textured surfaces. A multi-resolution experimental campaign using a confocal profilometer with different lenses is carried out and a comprehensive software for the statistical description of rough surfaces is developed. It is found that the topology of the analyzed textured surfaces cannot be fully described according to RPT and fractal modeling. The following complexities emerge: (i) the presence of cut-offs or bi-fractality in the power-law power-spectral density (PSD) functions; (ii) a more pronounced shift of the PSD by changing resolution as compared to what was expected from fractal modeling; (iii) inaccuracy of the RPT in describing the joint PDFs of asperity heights and curvatures of textured surfaces; (iv) lack of resolution-invariance of joint PDFs of textured surfaces in case of special surface treatments, not accounted for by fractal modeling.

  15. Multifunctional porous silicon nanopillar arrays: antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Kiraly, Brian; Yang, Shikuan; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated porous silicon nanopillar arrays over large areas with a rapid, simple, and low-cost technique. The porous silicon nanopillars show unique longitudinal features along their entire length and have porosity with dimensions on the single-nanometer scale. Both Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence data were used to determine the nanocrystallite size to be <3 nm. The porous silicon nanopillar arrays also maintained excellent ensemble properties, reducing reflection nearly fivefold from planar silicon in the visible range without any optimization, and approaching superhydrophobic behavior with increasing aspect ratio, demonstrating contact angles up to 138°. Finally, the porous silicon nanopillar arrays were made into sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by depositing metal onto the pillars. The SERS performance of the substrates was demonstrated using a chemical dye Rhodamine 6G. With their multitude of properties (i.e., antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and sensitive SERS), the porous silicon nanopillar arrays described here can be valuable in applications such as solar harvesting, electrochemical cells, self-cleaning devices, and dynamic biological monitoring. (paper)

  16. Minimizing scattering from antireflective surfaces replicated from low-aspect-ratio black silicon

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    The scattering properties of randomly structured antireflective black silicon polymer replica have been investigated. Using a two-step casting process, the structures can be replicated in Ormocomp on areas of up to 3 in. in diameter. Fourier analysis of scanning electron microscopy images...

  17. Optical performance of random anti-reflection structured surfaces (rARSS) on spherical lenses

    Taylor, Courtney D.

    Random anti-reflection structured surfaces (rARSS) have been reported to improve transmittance of optical-grade fused silica planar substrates to values greater than 99%. These textures are fabricated directly on the substrates using reactive-ion/inductively-coupled plasma etching (RIE/ICP) techniques, and often result in transmitted spectra with no measurable interference effects (fringes) for a wide range of wavelengths. The RIE/ICP processes used in the fabrication process to etch the rARSS is anisotropic and thus well suited for planar components. The improvement in spectral transmission has been found to be independent of optical incidence angles for values from 0° to +/-30°. Qualifying and quantifying the rARSS performance on curved substrates, such as convex lenses, is required to optimize the fabrication of the desired AR effect on optical-power elements. In this work, rARSS was fabricated on fused silica plano-convex (PCX) and plano-concave (PCV) lenses using a planar-substrate optimized RIE process to maximize optical transmission in the range from 500 to 1100 nm. An additional set of lenses were etched in a non-optimized ICP process to provide additional comparisons. Results are presented from optical transmission and beam propagation tests (optimized lenses only) of rARSS lenses for both TE and TM incident polarizations at a wavelength of 633 nm and over a 70° full field of view in both singlet and doublet configurations. These results suggest optimization of the fabrication process is not required, mainly due to the wide angle-of-incidence AR tolerance performance of the rARSS lenses. Non-optimized recipe lenses showed low transmission enhancement, and confirmed the need to optimized etch recipes prior to process transfer of PCX/PCV lenses. Beam propagation tests indicated no major beam degradation through the optimized lens elements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed different structure between optimized and non-optimized samples

  18. Plasma-Induced, Self-Masking, One-Step Approach to an Ultrabroadband Antireflective and Superhydrophilic Subwavelength Nanostructured Fused Silica Surface.

    Ye, Xin; Shao, Ting; Sun, Laixi; Wu, Jingjun; Wang, Fengrui; He, Junhui; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Wei-Dong; Zheng, Wanguo

    2018-04-25

    In this work, antireflective and superhydrophilic subwavelength nanostructured fused silica surfaces have been created by one-step, self-masking reactive ion etching (RIE). Bare fused silica substrates with no mask were placed in a RIE vacuum chamber, and then nanoscale fluorocarbon masks and subwavelength nanostructures (SWSs) automatically formed on these substrate after the appropriate RIE plasma process. The mechanism of plasma-induced self-masking SWS has been proposed in this paper. Plasma parameter effects on the morphology of SWS have been investigated to achieve perfect nanocone-like SWS for excellent antireflection, including process time, reactive gas, and pressure of the chamber. Optical properties, i.e., antireflection and optical scattering, were simulated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Calculated data agree well with the experiment results. The optimized SWS show ultrabroadband antireflective property (up to 99% from 500 to 1360 nm). An excellent improvement of transmission was achieved for the deep-ultraviolet (DUV) range. The proposed low-cost, highly efficient, and maskless method was applied to achieve ultrabroadband antireflective and superhydrophilic SWSs on a 100 mm optical window, which promises great potential for applications in the automotive industry, goggles, and optical devices.

  19. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles.

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-10

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip ('dendritic nanotip') with a single terminal nanotip ('single nanotip') for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10(4) particles ml(-1). The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  20. Facile Deposition of Ultrafine Silver Particles on Silicon Surface Not Submerged in Precursor Solutions for Applications in Antireflective Layer

    Bing Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile deposition method, the ultrafine silver particles are successfully deposited on the Si surface that is not submerged in precursor solutions. The ultrafine silver particles have many advantages, such as quasiround shape, uniformity in size, monodisperse distribution, and reduction of agglomeration. The internal physical procedure in the deposition is also investigated. The results show that there are more particles on the rough Si surface due to the wetting effect of solid-liquid interface. The higher concentration of ethanol solvent can induce the increase of quantity and size of particles on Si surface not in solutions. The ultrafine particles can be used to prepare porous Si antireflective layer in solar cell applications.

  1. Porous Nanomaterials for Ultrabroadband Omnidirectional Anti-Reflection Surfaces with Applications in High Concentration Photovoltaics

    Yao, Yuan

    2016-12-06

    Materials for nanoporous coatings that exploit optimized chemistries and self-assembly processes offer capabilities to reach ≈98% transmission efficiency and negligible scattering losses over the broad wavelength range of the solar spectrum from 350 nm to 1.5 μm, on both flat and curved glass substrates. These nanomaterial anti-reflection coatings also offer wide acceptance angles, up to ±40°, for both s- and p-polarization states of incident light. Carefully controlled bilayer films have allowed for the fabrication of dual-sided, gradient index profiles on plano-convex lens elements. In concentration photovoltaics platforms, the resultant enhancements in the photovoltaics efficiencies are ≈8%, as defined by experimental measurements on systems that use microscale triple-junction solar cells. These materials and their applications in technologies that require control over interface reflections have the potential for broad utility in imaging systems, photolithography, light-emitting diodes, and display technologies.

  2. Apparatus and method of manufacture for depositing a composite anti-reflection layer on a silicon surface

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and associated method are provided. A first silicon layer having at least one of an associated passivation layer and barrier is included. Also included is a composite anti-reflection layer including a stack of layers each with a different thickness and refractive index. Such composite anti-reflection layer is disposed adjacent to the first silicon layer.

  3. Ta2O5/ Al2O3/ SiO2 - antireflective coating for non-planar optical surfaces by atomic layer deposition

    Pfeiffer, K.; Schulz, U.; Tünnermann, A.; Szeghalmi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Antireflective coatings are essential to improve transmittance of optical elements. Most research and development of AR coatings has been reported on a wide variety of plane optical surfaces; however, antireflection is also necessary on nonplanar optical surfaces. Physical vapor deposition (PVD), a common method for optical coatings, often results in thickness gradients on strongly curved surfaces, leading to a failure of the desired optical function. In this work, optical thin films of tantalum pentoxide, aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is based on self-limiting surface reactions. The results demonstrate that ALD optical layers can be deposited on both vertical and horizontal substrate surfaces with uniform thicknesses and the same optical properties. A Ta2O5/Al2O3/ SiO2 multilayer AR coating (400-700 nm) was successfully applied to a curved aspheric glass lens with a diameter of 50 mm and a center thickness of 25 mm.

  4. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip (‘dendritic nanotip’) with a single terminal nanotip (‘single nanotip’) for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4–5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10 4 particles ml −1 . The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles. (paper)

  5. Novel anti-reflection technology for GaAs single-junction solar cells using surface patterning and Au nanoparticles.

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Sangin; Rotermund, Fabian; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Jaejin

    2012-07-01

    Single-junction GaAs solar cell structures were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs (100) substrates. Micro-rod arrays with diameters of 2 microm, 5 microm, and 10 microm were fabricated on the surfaces of the GaAs solar cells via photolithography and wet chemical etching. The patterned surfaces were coated with Au nanoparticles using an Au colloidal solution. Characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles were investigated. The short-circuit current density of the GaAs solar cell with 2 microm rod arrays and Au nanoparticles increased up to 34.9% compared to that of the reference cell without micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell that was coated with Au nanoparticles on the patterned surface with micro-rod arrays can be improved from 14.1% to 19.9% under 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination. These results show that micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticle coating can be applied together in surface patterning to achieve a novel cost-effective anti-reflection technology.

  6. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  7. Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography.

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-12-02

    We report the total and diffuse transmission enhancement of sapphires with the ultraviolet curable SU8 polymer surface structures consisting of conical subwavelength gratings (SWGs) at one- and both-side surfaces for different periods. The SWGs patterns on the silicon templates were transferred into the SU8 polymer film surface on sapphires by a simple and cost-effective soft lithography technique. For the fabricated samples, the surface morphologies, wetting behaviors, and optical characteristics were investigated. For theoretical optical analysis, a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method was used. At a period of 350 nm, the sample with SWGs on SU8 film/sapphire exhibited a hydrophobic surface and higher total transmittance compared to the bare sapphire over a wide wavelength of 450-1000 nm. As the period of SWGs was increased, the low total transmittance region of < 85% was shifted towards the longer wavelengths and became broader while the diffuse transmittance was increased (i.e., larger haze ratio). For the samples with SWGs at both-side surfaces, the total and diffuse transmittance spectra were further enhanced compared to the samples with SWGs at one-side surface. The theoretical optical calculation results showed a similar trend to the experimentally measured data.

  8. Moth eye-inspired anti-reflective surfaces for improved IR optical systems & visible LEDs fabricated with colloidal lithography and etching.

    Chan, Lesley W; Morse, Daniel E; Gordon, Michael J

    2018-05-08

    Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g. insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes. Light-matter interactions at structured and heterogeneous surfaces over different length scales are discussed, as are the various methods used to create ME-inspired surfaces. Special interest is placed on a simple, scalable, and tunable method, namely colloidal lithography with plasma dry etching, to fabricate ME-inspired nanostructures in a vast suite of materials. Anti-reflective surfaces and coatings for IR devices and enhancing light extraction from visible light emitting diodes are highlighted.

  9. Improved antireflection based on biomimetic nanostructures at material interface

    Zhang, Lingyu; Song, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Reducing light reflections on the surface of materials has important applications in many fields, such as solar cells, photodetectors, and optical sensors, etc. An effective method of decreasing reflection is using the anti-reflective coating with a gradient refractive index. In this study, we designed a nanostructure composed of optimized cone arrays on the flat thin film surface. The tapered nanostructure forms an anti-reflection layer. The effective refractive index of the anti-reflection layer changes smoothly with the depth so that the surface can efficiently reduce the reflection in a wide visible light range. Moreover, the reflection can also be modulated by adjusting the height and the period of the nanocones. Furthermore, there is an optimal wavelength at which the highest anti-reflection efficiency is achieved. The results here provide a theoretical guidance for the practical design of broadband anti-reflection nanostructures at the device surface.

  10. Site-controlled fabrication of silicon nanotips by indentation-induced selective etching

    Jin, Chenning; Yu, Bingjun; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Xiao, Chen; Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Shulan; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Huiyun; Qian, Linmao

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the indentation-induced selective etching approach is proposed to fabricate site-controlled pyramidal nanotips on Si(100) surface. Without any masks, the site-controlled nanofabrication can be realized by nanoindentation and post etching in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. The effect of indentation force and etching time on the formation of pyramidal nanotips was investigated. It is found that the height and radius of the pyramidal nanotips increase with the indentation force or etching time, while long-time etching can lead to the collapse of the tips. The formation of pyramidal tips is ascribed to the anisotropic etching of silicon and etching stop of (111) crystal planes in KOH aqueous solution. The capability of this fabrication method was further demonstrated by producing various tip arrays on silicon surface by selective etching of the site-controlled indent patterns, and the maximum height difference of these tips is less than 10 nm. The indentation-induced selective etching provides a new strategy to fabricate well site-controlled tip arrays for multi-probe SPM system, Si nanostructure-based sensors and high-quality information storage.

  11. Optothermal response of a single silicon nanotip

    Vella, A.; Shinde, D.; Houard, J.; Silaeva, E.; Arnoldi, L.; Blum, I.; Rigutti, L.; Pertreux, E.; Maioli, P.; Crut, A.; Del Fatti, N.

    2018-02-01

    The optical properties and thermal dynamics of conical single silicon nanotips are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The spectral and spatial dependencies of their optical extinction are quantitatively measured by spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS). A nonuniform optical extinction along the tip axis and an enhanced near-infrared absorption, as compared to bulk crystalline silicon, are evidenced. This information is a key input for computing the thermal response of single silicon nanotips under ultrafast laser illumination, which is investigated by laser assisted atom probe tomography (La-APT) used as a highly sensitive temperature probe. A combination of these two experimental techniques and comparison with modeling also permits us to elucidate the impact of thermal effects on the laser assisted field evaporation process. Extension of this coupled approach opens up future perspectives for the quantitative study of the optical and thermal properties of a wide class of individual nano-objects, in particular elongated ones such as nanotubes, nanowires, and nanocones, which constitute promising nanosources for electron and/or ion emission.

  12. Preparation of composite micro/nano structure on the silicon surface by reactive ion etching: Enhanced anti-reflective and hydrophobic properties

    Zeng, Yu; Fan, Xiaoli; Chen, Jiajia; He, Siyu; Yi, Zao; Ye, Xin; Yi, Yougen

    2018-05-01

    A silicon substrate with micro-pyramid structure (black silicon) is prepared by wet chemical etching and then subjected to reactive ion etching (RIE) in the mixed gas condition of SF6, CHF3 and He. We systematically study the impacts of flow rates of SF6, CHF3 and He, the etching pressure and the etching time on the surface morphology and reflectivity through various characterizations. Meanwhile, we explore and obtain the optimal combination of parameters for the preparation of composite structure that match the RIE process based on the basis of micro-pyramid silicon substrate. The composite sample prepared under the optimum parameters exhibits excellent anti-reflective performance, hydrophobic, self-cleaning and anti-corrosive properties. Based on the above characteristics, the composite micro/nano structure can be applied to solar cells, photodetectors, LEDs, outdoor devices and other important fields.

  13. Investigation of sol-gel antireflective coatings

    Schmid, A.; Guardalben, M.; Chipp, T.

    1984-03-01

    Very high power laser systems present material design challenges which often approach the inherent optical survival strength of components. Optical coatings in the UV region suffer from anomalously high absorption and scattering in the deposited layers. The losses caused by these effects are often unacceptable or, in the case of absorption, usually fatal to the absorbing coatings. Unfortunately, no metals exist that have high enough reflectivities in the UV to serve as uncoated mirrors as they normally do in the CO 2 region of the infrared. Adequate multilayer dielectric coatings are therefore critically important for the development and utilization of UV lasers. The same could be said for relfection suppressing antireflective coatings in that wavelength range. Antireflective properties of gradientindex designs have been rediscovered and their potential for resolving UV laser design difficulties has been vigorously tested. These antireflective properties have been attained on glass or fused silica surfaces by chemical surface treatments

  14. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Wintec

    Antireflection coatings (ARCs) are deposited on the surfaces of optical elements like spectacle lenses to increase light transmission and improve their performance. In the ophthalmic .... silica layer (Zajickova et al 1998, 2001; Benitez et al. 2000; Kuhr et al 2003 .... by the contact angle of a water drop on the surface. Due to its ...

  15. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  16. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  17. Broadband antireflection nanodome structures on SiC substrate

    Ou, Yiyu; Zhu, Xiaolong; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    Nanodome structures are demonstrated on the SiC substrate by using nanosphere lithography and dry etching. Significant surface antireflection has been observed over a broad spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm....

  18. Functionalization of optical nanotip arrays with an electrochemical microcantilever for multiplexed DNA detection.

    Descamps, Emeline; Duroure, Nathalie; Deiss, Frédérique; Leichlé, Thierry; Adam, Catherine; Mailley, Pascal; Aït-Ikhlef, Ali; Livache, Thierry; Nicu, Liviu; Sojic, Neso

    2013-08-07

    Optical nanotip arrays fabricated on etched fiber bundles were functionalized with DNA spots. Such unconventional substrates (3D and non-planar) are difficult to pattern with standard microfabrication techniques but, using an electrochemical cantilever, up to 400 spots were electrodeposited on the nanostructured optical surface in 5 min. This approach allows each spot to be addressed individually and multiplexed fluorescence detection is demonstrated. Finally, remote fluorescence detection was performed by imaging through the optical fiber bundle itself after hybridisation with the complementary sequence.

  19. Antireflective glass nanoholes on optical lenses.

    Lee, Youngseop; Bae, Sang-In; Eom, Jaehyeon; Suh, Ho-Cheol; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2018-05-28

    Antireflective structures, inspired from moth eyes, are still reserved for practical use due to their large-area nanofabrication and mechanical stability. Here we report an antireflective optical lens with large-area glass nanoholes. The nanoholes increase light transmission due to the antireflective effect, depending on geometric parameters such as fill factor and height. The glass nanoholes of low effective refractive index are achieved by using solid-state dewetting of ultrathin silver film, reactive ion etching, and wet etching. An ultrathin silver film is transformed into nanoholes for an etch mask in reactive ion etching after thermal annealing at a low temperature. Unlike conventional nanopillars, nanoholes exhibit high light transmittance with enhancement of ~4% over the full visible range as well as high mechanical hardness. Also, an antireflective glass lens is achieved by directly employing nanoholes on the lens surface. Glass nanoholes of highly enhanced optical and mechanical performance can be directly utilized for commercial glass lenses in various imaging and lighting applications.

  20. Biomimetic approaches to create anti-reflection glass surfaces for solar cells using self-organizing techniques

    Achtelik, J.; Sievers, W.; Lindner, J.K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructured glass surfaces with theoretically near-to-zero reflectivity in the UVNIR region. ► Simple fabrication process using self-organization during reactive ion etching proposed. ► Prediction of optical reflectivity from AFM measured surface morphology. -- Abstract: Aiming to diminish the reflection losses of glass covered light harvesting devices, the optical reflectivity of nanostructured glass surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The work is inspired by the nanoscale roughness of insect eyes, which is tried to be replicated on a technical glass surface. To this end, the reflectivity of glass surfaces with topographies represented by linear, parabolic and Fermi-shaped glass/air fill factor profiles is calculated for normal incidence. It is shown that using the latter ones, an almost complete suppression of reflections can be achieved. A simple, self-organization technique to create such Fermi-shaped filling factor profiles in glass experimentally is also presented

  1. Biomimetic approaches to create anti-reflection glass surfaces for solar cells using self-organizing techniques

    Achtelik, J.; Sievers, W. [University of Paderborn, Department of Physics, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Center of Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn CeOPP, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Lindner, J.K.N., E-mail: lindner@physik.uni-paderborn.de [University of Paderborn, Department of Physics, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Center of Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn CeOPP, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Nanostructured glass surfaces with theoretically near-to-zero reflectivity in the UVNIR region. ► Simple fabrication process using self-organization during reactive ion etching proposed. ► Prediction of optical reflectivity from AFM measured surface morphology. -- Abstract: Aiming to diminish the reflection losses of glass covered light harvesting devices, the optical reflectivity of nanostructured glass surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The work is inspired by the nanoscale roughness of insect eyes, which is tried to be replicated on a technical glass surface. To this end, the reflectivity of glass surfaces with topographies represented by linear, parabolic and Fermi-shaped glass/air fill factor profiles is calculated for normal incidence. It is shown that using the latter ones, an almost complete suppression of reflections can be achieved. A simple, self-organization technique to create such Fermi-shaped filling factor profiles in glass experimentally is also presented.

  2. Anti-reflection textured structures by wet etching and island lithography for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Chao, Bo-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsin-Hung [Department of Marine Engineering, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Taipei 11174, Taiwan (China); Nien, Li-Wei; Chen, Miin-Jang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nagao, Tadaaki [Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Li, Jia-Han [Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Chun-Hway, E-mail: hsuehc@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We fabricated textured SERS substrate with a high surface area and low reflectance. • Large surface area of substrate contains more gold nanodroplets to absorb analytes. • Low reflectance of textured SERS substrate enabled multiple reflections of incident laser light. • We obtained strong SERS enhancement from nanopillar-on-pyramid SERS substrate. - Abstract: A high surface area and low reflection textured surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with plasmonic gold nanodroplets fabricated by wet etching and island lithography was reported in the present study. Specifically, four textured substrates, planar, pyramid, nanopillar, and nanopillar-on-pyramid, were fabricated. The fabricated structures were simulated using the finite-difference time-domain method and the results agreed with the reflection and dark-field scattering measurements. Although the SERS signals varied in different measured regions because of the random nanostructure, the SERS substrates with nanopillar-on-pyramid structure always have the stronger enhancement factor than the SERS substrates with only pyramids or nanopillars. Based on the atomic force microscope and reflection measurements, the nanopillar-on-pyramid structure provided a large surface area and multiple reflections for SERS enhancement, which was about 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the planar substrate. Our results can be applied to fabricate the inexpensive, large surface area, and high SERS enhancement substrates.

  3. Graphene-Tapered ZnO Nanorods Array as a Flexible Antireflection Layer

    Taeseup Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible solar cells have drawn a great deal of attention due to their various advantages including deformable and wearable characteristics. In the solar cells, the antireflection layer plays an important role in the improvement in the conversion efficiency by increasing the light transmission and suppressing the Fresnel refraction. For the successful implantation of the antireflection layer into the flexible solar cells, the flexible mechanical property of the antireflection layer is also necessary. However, the study on flexible antireflection layer for the flexible solar cells or optoelectronics is still lacking. In this study, we report the graphene-tapered ZnO nanorods array as a flexible antireflection layer for the application in flexible solar cells. Flexible two-dimensional graphene sheet and the tapered morphology of ZnO nanorods enable conformal coverage on the flexible substrate with curved surface and significant improvements in antireflection properties, respectively.

  4. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar–O 2 ) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (θ = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar–O 2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°. (paper)

  5. Comparison of Anti-Reflective Coated and Uncoated Surfaces Figured by Pitch-Polishing and Magneto-Rheological Processes

    Chow, R.; Thomas, M.D.; Bickel, R.; Taylor, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    When completed, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will provide laser energies in the Mega-joule range. Successful pulse amplification to these extremely high levels requires that all small optics, found earlier in the beamline, have stringent surface and laser fluence requirements. In addition, they must operate reliably for 30 years constituting hundreds of thousands of shots. As part of the first four beamlines, spherical and aspherical lenses were required for the beam relaying telescopes. The magneto-rheological technique allows for faster and more accurate finishing of aspheres. The spherical and aspherical lenses were final figured using both conventional-pitch polishing processes for high quality laser optics and the magneto-rheological finishing process. The purpose of this paper is to compare the surface properties between these two finishing processes. Some lenses were set aside from production for evaluation. The surface roughness in the mid-frequency range was measured and the scatter was studied. Laser damage testing at 1064 nm (3-ns pulse width) was performed on surfaces in both the uncoated and coated condition.

  6. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  7. Bio-inspired, sub-wavelength surface structures for ultra-broadband, omni-directional anti-reflection in the mid and far IR.

    Gonzalez, Federico Lora; Gordon, Michael J

    2014-06-02

    Quasi-ordered moth-eye arrays were fabricated in Si using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering was explored experimentally and modeled quantitatively using effective medium theory. The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for λ = 7-30 μm. A detailed photon balance was constructed by measuring transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior anti-reflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0-60° incidence). The colloidal lithography method presented here is scalable and substrate-independent, providing a general approach to realize moth-eye structures and anti-reflection in many IR-compatible material systems.

  8. Optical Fiber Nanotips Coated with Molecular Beacons for DNA Detection

    Ambra Giannetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber sensors, thanks to their compactness, fast response and real-time measurements, have a large impact in the fields of life science research, drug discovery and medical diagnostics. In recent years, advances in nanotechnology have resulted in the development of nanotools, capable of entering the single cell, resulting in new nanobiosensors useful for the detection of biomolecules inside living cells. In this paper, we provide an application of a nanotip coupled with molecular beacons (MBs for the detection of DNA. The MBs were characterized by hybridization studies with a complementary target to prove their functionality both free in solution and immobilized onto a solid support. The solid support chosen as substrate for the immobilization of the MBs was a 30 nm tapered tip of an optical fiber, fabricated by chemical etching. With this set-up promising results were obtained and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.57 nM was reached, opening up the possibility of using the proposed nanotip to detect mRNAs inside the cytoplasm of living cells.

  9. Self-Cleaning Antireflective Optical Coatings

    Guldin, Stefan

    2013-11-13

    Low-cost antireflection coatings (ARCs) on large optical surfaces are an ingredient-technology for high-performance solar cells. While nanoporous thin films that meet the zero-reflectance conditions on transparent substrates can be cheaply manufactured, their suitability for outdoor applications is limited by the lack of robustness and cleanability. Here, we present a simple method for the manufacture of robust self-cleaning ARCs. Our strategy relies on the self-assembly of a block-copolymer in combination with silica-based sol-gel chemistry and preformed TiO2 nanocrystals. The spontaneous dense packing of copolymer micelles followed by a condensation reaction results in an inverse opal-type silica morphology that is loaded with TiO2 photocatalytic hot-spots. The very low volume fraction of the inorganic network allows the optimization of the antireflecting properties of the porous ARC despite the high refractive index of the embedded photocatalytic TiO2 nanocrystals. The resulting ARCs combine high optical and self-cleaning performance and can be deposited onto flexible plastic substrates. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Surface Nanostructures Formed by Phase Separation of Metal Salt-Polymer Nanocomposite Film for Anti-reflection and Super-hydrophobic Applications

    Con, Celal; Cui, Bo

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a simple and low-cost fabrication method for multi-functional nanostructures with outstanding anti-reflective and super-hydrophobic properties. Our method employed phase separation of a metal salt-polymer nanocomposite film that leads to nanoisland formation after etching away the polymer matrix, and the metal salt island can then be utilized as a hard mask for dry etching the substrate or sublayer. Compared to many other methods for patterning metallic hard mask structures, such as the popular lift-off method, our approach involves only spin coating and thermal annealing, thus is more cost-efficient. Metal salts including aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) and chromium nitrate nonahydrate (CNN) can both be used, and high aspect ratio (1:30) and high-resolution (sub-50 nm) pillars etched into silicon can be achieved readily. With further control of the etching profile by adjusting the dry etching parameters, cone-like silicon structure with reflectivity in the visible region down to a remarkably low value of 2% was achieved. Lastly, by coating a hydrophobic surfactant layer, the pillar array demonstrated a super-hydrophobic property with an exceptionally high water contact angle of up to 165.7°.

  11. Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells.

    Rahman, Atikur; Ashraf, Ahsan; Xin, Huolin; Tong, Xiao; Sutter, Peter; Eisaman, Matthew D; Black, Charles T

    2015-01-21

    Materials providing broadband light antireflection have applications as highly transparent window coatings, military camouflage, and coatings for efficiently coupling light into solar cells and out of light-emitting diodes. In this work, densely packed silicon nanotextures with feature sizes smaller than 50 nm enhance the broadband antireflection compared with that predicted by their geometry alone. A significant fraction of the nanotexture volume comprises a surface layer whose optical properties differ substantially from those of the bulk, providing the key to improved performance. The nanotexture reflectivity is quantitatively well-modelled after accounting for both its profile and changes in refractive index at the surface. We employ block copolymer self-assembly for precise and tunable nanotexture design in the range of ~10-70 nm across macroscopic solar cell areas. Implementing this efficient antireflection approach in crystalline silicon solar cells significantly betters the performance gain compared with an optimized, planar antireflection coating.

  12. Techniques for optimizing nanotips derived from frozen taylor cones

    Hirsch, Gregory

    2017-12-05

    Optimization techniques are disclosed for producing sharp and stable tips/nanotips relying on liquid Taylor cones created from electrically conductive materials with high melting points. A wire substrate of such a material with a preform end in the shape of a regular or concave cone, is first melted with a focused laser beam. Under the influence of a high positive potential, a Taylor cone in a liquid/molten state is formed at that end. The cone is then quenched upon cessation of the laser power, thus freezing the Taylor cone. The tip of the frozen Taylor cone is reheated by the laser to allow its precise localized melting and shaping. Tips thus obtained yield desirable end-forms suitable as electron field emission sources for a variety of applications. In-situ regeneration of the tip is readily accomplished. These tips can also be employed as regenerable bright ion sources using field ionization/desorption of introduced chemical species.

  13. Structure and photoluminescence properties of carbon nanotip-vertical graphene nanohybrids

    Wang, B. B. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, 69 Hongguang Rd., Lijiatuo, Banan District, Chongqing 400054 (China); Institute for Future Environments and School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Zhu, K. [Division of Technical Support, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 10091 (China); Ostrikov, K., E-mail: kostya.ostrikov@qut.edu.au [Institute for Future Environments and School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P. O. Box 218, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Shao, R. W.; Zheng, K. [Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2016-01-14

    We report on the effective enhancement and tuning of photoluminescence (PL) by combining vertical graphene nanoflakes (VGs) and carbon nanotips (CNTPs). The VGs are grown on the vertical CNTPs by hot filament chemical vapor deposition in the methane environment, where the CNTPs are synthesized on silicon substrates by CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that the VGs can be grown on the CNTP and silicon substrate surfaces with the orientation perpendicular to the surfaces of CNTPs and silicon substrates. The PL properties of VG, CNTP, and CNTP-VG structures are studied using a 325 nm line of He-Cd laser as the excitation source. The PL results indicate that the PL of VGs is enhanced by the CNTPs due to the increasing density of PL emitters, while the PL properties of the nanohybrid system can be tuned. Furthermore, the potential applications of CNTP-VG structures in optoelectronic devices are analyzed. These results contribute to the design of functional graphene-based materials and the development of next-generation optoelectronic devices.

  14. Surfactant-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of CdS nanotips: optical and magnetic properties

    Mondal, Biswajit; Saha, Shyamal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    CdS nanotips with size 5–8 nm are synthesized by hydrothermal process using polyacrylamide (PAM) as surfactant. The shape of nanocrystals (NCs) changes from particles to nanorods or nanotips depending upon the amount of PAM used. Optical properties of the CdS NCs vary with hydrothermal temperature (T H ) due to formation of “S” vacancies. The Rietveld refinement of XRD data shows that “S” site occupancy decreases with increase in T H and amount of PAM indicating the formation of “S” vacancies. Size-dependent magnetic properties in these NCs indicate that the micron-size rods are diamagnetic in nature while the microrods ended with sharp tips show ferromagnetism even at room temperature. The origin of this ferromagnetism in nanotips is explained by the variation in density of “S” defects at the nanotips as well as in the nanorods. These ferromagnetic nanotips grown in the rods as side growth have potential applications in magnetic force microscopes.

  15. Integrated Multilayer Nanogenerator Fabricated Using Paired Nanotip-to-Nanowire Brushes

    Xu, Sheng

    2008-11-12

    We present a new approach to a nanogenerator (NG) that is composed of integrated, paired nanobrushes made of pyramid-shaped metal-coated ZnO nanotip (NTP) arrays and hexagonal-prism-shaped ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays, which were synthesized using a chemical approach at <100 °C on the two surfaces of a common substrate, respectively. The operation of the NGs relies on mechanical deflection/bending of the NWs, in which resonance of NWs is not required to activate the NG. This largely expands the application of the NGs from low frequency (approximately the hertz range) to a relatively high frequency (approximately the megahertz range) for effectively harvesting mechanical energies in our living environment. With one piece of such a structure stacked in close proximity over another to form a layer-by-layer matched brush architecture, direct current is generated by exciting the architecture using ultrasonic waves. A four-layer integrated NG is demonstrated to generate an output power density of 0.11 μW/cm 2 at 62 mV. The layer-by-layer assembly provides a feasible technology for building three-dimensional NGs for applications where force or pressure variations are available, such as a shoe pad, an underskin layer for airplanes, and next to a vibration source such as a car engine or tire. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Thermal runaway of metal nano-tips during intense electron emission

    Kyritsakis, A.; Veske, M.; Eimre, K.; Zadin, V.; Djurabekova, F.

    2018-06-01

    When an electron emitting tip is subjected to very high electric fields, plasma forms even under ultra high vacuum conditions. This phenomenon, known as vacuum arc, causes catastrophic surface modifications and constitutes a major limiting factor not only for modern electron sources, but also for many large-scale applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although vacuum arcs have been studied thoroughly, the physical mechanisms that lead from intense electron emission to plasma ignition are still unclear. In this article, we give insights to the atomic scale processes taking place in metal nanotips under intense field emission conditions. We use multi-scale atomistic simulations that concurrently include field-induced forces, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that when a sufficiently high electric field is applied to the tip, the emission-generated heat partially melts it and the field-induced force elongates and sharpens it. This initiates a positive feedback thermal runaway process, which eventually causes evaporation of large fractions of the tip. The reported mechanism can explain the origin of neutral atoms necessary to initiate plasma, a missing key process required to explain the ignition of a vacuum arc. Our simulations provide a quantitative description of in the conditions leading to runaway, which shall be valuable for both field emission applications and vacuum arc studies.

  17. Standing Wave Field Distribution in Graded-Index Antireflection Coatings

    Hongxiang Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Standing wave field distributions in three classic types of graded-index antireflection coatings are studied. These graded-index antireflection coatings are designed at wavelengths from 200 nm to 1200 nm, which is the working wavelength range of high energy laser system for inertial-fusion research. The standing wave field distributions in these coatings are obtained by the numerical calculation of electromagnetic wave equation. We find that standing wave field distributions in these three graded-index anti-reflection coatings are quite different. For the coating with linear index distribution, intensity of standing wave field decreases periodically from surface to substrate with narrow oscillation range and the period is proportional to the incident wavelength. For the coating with exponential index distribution, intensity of standing wave field decreases periodically from surface to substrate with large oscillation range and the period is also proportional to the incident wavelength. Finally, for the coating with polynomial index, intensity of standing wave field is quickly falling down from surface to substrate without an obvious oscillation. We find that the intensity of standing wave field in the interface between coating and substrate for linear index, exponential index and polynomial index are about 0.7, 0.9 and 0.7, respectively. Our results indicate that the distributions of standing wave field in linear index coating and polynomial index coating are better than that in exponential index coating for the application in high energy laser system. Moreover, we find that the transmittance of linear index coating and polynomial index coating are also better than exponential index coating at the designed wavelength range. Present simulation results are useful for the design and application of graded-index antireflection coating in high energy laser system.

  18. Anti-reflection coatings applied by acid leaching process

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Magicote C process developed by S.M. Thompsen was evaluated for use in applying an antireflective coating to the cover plates of solar panels. The process uses a fluosilicic acid solution supersaturated with silica at elevated temperature to selectively attack the surface of soda-lime glass cover plates and alter the physical and chemical composition of a thin layer of glass. The altered glass layer constitutes an antireflective coating. The process produces coatings of excellent optical quality which possess outstanding resistance to soiling and staining. The coatings produced are not resistant to mechanical abrasion and are attacked to some extent by glass cleansers. Control of the filming process was found to be difficult.

  19. Antireflection/Passivation Step For Silicon Cell

    Crotty, Gerald T.; Kachare, Akaram H.; Daud, Taher

    1988-01-01

    New process excludes usual silicon oxide passivation. Changes in principal electrical parameters during two kinds of processing suggest antireflection treatment almost as effective as oxide treatment in passivating cells. Does so without disadvantages of SiOx passivation.

  20. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  1. ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} core/shell nanorods array as excellent anti-reflection layers on silicon solar cells

    Lung, Chun-Ming; Wang, Wei-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ching-Hsiang [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Liang-Yih, E-mail: sampras@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Miin-Jang, E-mail: mjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-01

    A simple, low-temperature hydrothermal method and atomic layer deposition (ALD) were used to fabricate ZnO nanostructures as subwavelength-structure antireflection layers (SWS ARLs) on Si solar cells. ZnO seed layers with wafer-scale uniformity were prepared, and ALD was used to reproduce two types of ZnO-based structures, nanorod arrays (NRAs) and nanotip arrays (NTAs). The study examined diammonium phosphate concentrations during growth, conducted simulations based on three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and reflection analyses, performed X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope characterizations, measured total reflectance spectra by using a spectrophotometer with integrated spheres, and ran solar simulations to determine the efficiency of the Si solar cells. Coating the ZnO NTAs on the Si solar cells yielded a low total reflectance over a broad band range and produced omnidirectional light scattering on the cells, causing incident light to have a shallow penetration depth near the p–n junction and leading to an increase in short current density ({sub Jsc}). Coating the ZnO NTAs with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell induced continuous variation in the refractive index, further decreasing the total reflectance to approximately 5.5%, and protected the ZnO NTAs from the harmful acidic environment. Significantly increasing the J{sub sc} and η levels of the Si solar cells, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}@ZnO-NTA antireflection structure produced a high efficiency of 17.79%. Its superior performance, including low and wideband reflectance, a low process temperature, and a significant increase in efficiency, indicates the potential of this antireflective structure for enhancing solar cell efficiency in photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • ZnO nanotip arrays were synthesized by hydrothermal methods as antireflection layer. • The total reflectance is low around 7.8% from 400 nm to 1000

  2. Cantilever arrays with self-aligned nanotips of uniform height

    Koelmans, W W; Peters, T; Berenschot, E; De Boer, M J; Siekman, M H; Abelmann, L

    2012-01-01

    Cantilever arrays are employed to increase the throughput of imaging and manipulation at the nanoscale. We present a fabrication process to construct cantilever arrays with nanotips that show a uniform tip–sample distance. Such uniformity is crucial, because in many applications the cantilevers do not feature individual tip–sample spacing control. Uniform cantilever arrays lead to very similar tip–sample interaction within an array, enable non-contact modes for arrays and give better control over the load force in contact modes. The developed process flow uses a single mask to define both tips and cantilevers. An additional mask is required for the back side etch. The tips are self-aligned in the convex corner at the free end of each cantilever. Although we use standard optical contact lithography, we show that the convex corner can be sharpened to a nanometre scale radius by an isotropic underetch step. The process is robust and wafer-scale. The resonance frequencies of the cantilevers within an array are shown to be highly uniform with a relative standard error of 0.26% or lower. The tip–sample distance within an array of up to ten cantilevers is measured to have a standard error around 10 nm. An imaging demonstration using the AFM shows that all cantilevers in the array have a sharp tip with a radius below 10 nm. The process flow for the cantilever arrays finds application in probe-based nanolithography, probe-based data storage, nanomanufacturing and parallel scanning probe microscopy. (paper)

  3. Solar cells based upon multicrystalline Si with DLC antireflection and passivating coatings

    Klyui, N.; Litovchenko, V.; Neselevska, L.; Kostylyov, V.; Sarikov, A.; Taraschenko, N.; Kittler, M.; Seifert, W.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of multicrystalline Si solar cells covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC) antireflection coatings been experimentally studied. It has been shown that this kind of coating provides a significant increase of the efficiency of solar cells mainly due to the increase of the short-circuit current density. The effects of antireflection and of the surface and bulk passivation on the SC current-voltage characteristics due to the DLC deposition have been investigated theoretically. Physical mechanisms underlying the observed effects have been proposed

  4. Omnidirectional luminescence enhancement of fluorescent SiC via pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Yakimova, Rositza

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, an approach of fabricating pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures (ARS) on fluorescent SiC by using self-assembled etch mask is demonstrated. By applying the pseudoperiodic (ARS), the average surface reflectance at 6° incidence over the spectral range of 390...

  5. Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis

    Decombe , Jean-Baptiste; Huant , Serge; Fick , Jochen

    2013-01-01

    International audience; An original optical tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano-tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping of 1 micrometer polystyrene spheres at optical powers down to 2 mW. Harmonic trap potentials were found in the case of dual fiber tweezers by analyzing the trapped particle position fluctuations. The trap stiffness was deduced using three different models. Consistent values of up to 1 fN/nm were found. The stiffness linearly decreases with decre...

  6. Subwavelength single layer absorption resonance antireflection coatings

    Huber, S. P.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Yakshin, A. E.; Zoethout, E.; Boller, K.-J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2014-01-01

    We present theoretically derived design rules for an absorbing resonance antireflection coating for the spectral range of 100 &\\#x02013; 400 nm, applied here on top of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirror (Mo/Si MLM) as commonly used in extreme ultraviolet lithography. The design rules for

  7. Subwavelength single layer absorption resonance antireflection coatings

    Huber, Sebastiaan; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Zoethout, E.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    We present theoretically derived design rules for an absorbing resonance antireflection coating for the spectral range of 100−400 nm, applied here on top of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirror (Mo/Si MLM) as commonly used in extreme ultraviolet lithography. The design rules for optimal

  8. Ellipsometry of single-layer antireflection coatings on transparent substrates

    Azzam, R. M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The complex reflection coefficients of p- and s-polarized light and ellipsometric parameters of a transparent substrate of refractive index n2, which is coated by a transparent thin film whose refractive index n1 =√{n2 } satisfies the anti-reflection condition at normal incidence, are considered as functions of film thickness d and angle of incidence ϕ. A unique coated surface, with n1 =√{n2 } and film thickness d equal to half of the film-thickness period Dϕ at angle ϕ and wavelength λ, reflects light of the same wavelength without change of polarization for all incident polarization states. (The reflection Jones matrix of such coated surface is the 2 × 2 identity matrix pre-multiplied by a scalar, hence tanΨ = 1,Δ = 0.) To monitor the deposition of an antireflection coating, the normalized Stokes parameters of obliquely reflected light (e.g. at ϕ =70∘) are measured until predetermined target values of those parameters are detected. This provides a more accurate means of film thickness control than is possible using a micro-balance technique or an intensity reflectance method.

  9. Ultrathin MoS2 and WS2 layers on silver nano-tips as electron emitters

    Loh, Tamie A. J.; Tanemura, Masaki; Chua, Daniel H. C.

    2016-09-01

    2-dimensional (2D) inorganic analogues of graphene such as MoS2 and WS2 present interesting opportunities for field emission technology due to their high aspect ratio and good electrical conductivity. However, research on 2D MoS2 and WS2 as potential field emitters remains largely undeveloped compared to graphene. Herein, we present an approach to directly fabricate ultrathin MoS2 and WS2 onto Ag nano-tips using pulsed laser deposition at low temperatures of 450-500 °C. In addition to providing a layer of chemical and mechanical protection for the Ag nano-tips, the growth of ultrathin MoS2 and WS2 layers on Ag led to enhanced emission properties over that of pristine nano-tips due to a reduction of the effective barrier height arising from charge injection from Ag to the overlying MoS2 or WS2. For WS2 on Ag nano-tips, the phasic mixture was also an important factor influencing the field emission performance. The presence of 1T-WS2 at the metal-WS2 interface in a hybrid film of 2H/1T-WS2 leads to improvement in the field emission capabilities as compared to pure 2H-WS2 on Ag nano-tips.

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition of Chemical Passivation Layers and High Performance Anti-Reflection Coatings on Back-Illuminated Detectors

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Greer, Frank (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A back-illuminated silicon photodetector has a layer of Al2O3 deposited on a silicon oxide surface that receives electromagnetic radiation to be detected. The Al2O3 layer has an antireflection coating deposited thereon. The Al2O3 layer provides a chemically resistant separation layer between the silicon oxide surface and the antireflection coating. The Al2O3 layer is thin enough that it is optically innocuous. Under deep ultraviolet radiation, the silicon oxide layer and the antireflection coating do not interact chemically. In one embodiment, the silicon photodetector has a delta-doped layer near (within a few nanometers of) the silicon oxide surface. The Al2O3 layer is expected to provide similar protection for doped layers fabricated using other methods, such as MBE, ion implantation and CVD deposition.

  11. A study of the anti-reflection efficiency of natural nano-arrays of varying sizes

    Sun Mingxia; Liang Aiping; Zheng Yongmei; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of optical reflectivity and wettability on the surface topography of 32 species of cicada wing membranes has been investigated using UV-visible spectrophotometry, contact angle measurements and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The nanoscale hexagonally close packed protrusions have been shown to exhibit an anti-reflection and in some cases an anti-wetting function. The parameters of the structures were measured to be 77-148 nm in diameter, 44-117 nm in spacing and 159-481 nm in height. The transmittance spectrum and static contact angles were measured. At a wavelength range of 500-2500 nm, only minor differences in the anti-reflection performance were observed for each cicada species ascribed to the mechanism of impedance matching between cuticle and air. The transmittance properties of cicada wings were altered successfully through the scanning probe microscope-based manipulation by reducing the protrusion height via the contact mode. A near linear dependence was found between a decrease in protuberance height and a resulting increase in reflectance intensity. A diversity of wettability was observed with contact angles varying from 56.5 0 to 146.0 0 . Both effects of anti-reflection and wettability are dependent on the height of protrusions. The anti-reflection is insensitive when the wavelength is larger than the lateral feature size of the nanostructure. The stronger hydrophobic properties are generally associated with a larger diameter, closer spacing and greater height of protrusions when the wing membrane is intact.

  12. Antireflective Boundary Conditions for Deblurring Problems

    Marco Donatelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper deals with the use of antireflective boundary conditions for deblurring problems where the issues that we consider are the precision of the reconstruction when the noise is not present, the linear algebra related to these boundary conditions, the iterative and noniterative regularization solvers when the noise is considered, both from the viewpoint of the computational cost and from the viewpoint of the quality of the reconstruction. In the latter case, we consider a reblurring approach that replaces the transposition operation with correlation. For many of the considered items, the anti-reflective algebra coming from the given boundary conditions is the optimal choice. Numerical experiments corroborating the previous statement and a conclusion section end the paper.

  13. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  14. Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis.

    Decombe, Jean-Baptiste; Huant, Serge; Fick, Jochen

    2013-12-16

    An original optical tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano-tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping of 1 micrometer polystyrene spheres at optical powers down to 2 mW. Harmonic trap potentials were found in the case of dual fiber tweezers by analyzing the trapped particle position fluctuations. The trap stiffness was deduced using three different models. Consistent values of up to 1 fN/nm were found. The stiffness linearly decreases with decreasing light intensity and increasing fiber tip-to-tip distance.

  15. Microelectrode for energy and current control of nanotip field electron emitters

    Lüneburg, S.; Müller, M.; Paarmann, A.; Ernstorfer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging experiments and applications in electron microscopy, holography, and diffraction benefit from miniaturized electron guns for compact experimental setups. We present a highly compact microelectrode integrated field emitter that consists of a tungsten nanotip coated with a few micrometers thick polyimide film followed by a several nanometers thick gold film, both positioned behind the exposed emitter apex by approximately 10–30 μm. The control of the electric field strength at the nanometer scale tip apex allows suppression, extraction, and energy tuning of field-emitted electrons. The performance of the microelectrode is demonstrated experimentally and supported by numerical simulations

  16. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Huang, Q.Z. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shi, J.F., E-mail: shijf@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Xu, G., E-mail: xugang@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  17. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Huang, Q.Z.; Shi, J.F.; Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W.; Xu, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO_2/Na_2O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO_2/Na_2O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  18. Effect of sol aging time on the anti-reflective properties of silica coatings templated with phosphoric acid

    Wen Wen

    Full Text Available Silica anti-reflective coatings have been prepared by a sol–gel dip-coating process using the sol containing phosphoric acid as a pore-forming template. The effect of the aging time of the sol on the anti-reflective properties has been investigated. The surface topography of the silica AR coatings has been characterized. With increasing sol aging time, more over-sized pores larger than 100 nm are formed in the silica coatings. These could act as scattering centers, scattering visible light and thereby lowering transmittance. The optimal aging time was identified as 1 day, and the corresponding silica coatings showed a maximum transmittance of 99.2%, representing an 8% increase compared to the bare glass substrate. Keywords: Thin films, Anti-reflective coatings, Aging, Dip-coating, Sol–gel preparation

  19. Tunable Schottky barrier and high responsivity in graphene/Si-nanotip optoelectronic device

    Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Giubileo, Filippo; Luongo, Giuseppe; Iemmo, Laura; Martucciello, Nadia; Niu, Gang; Fraschke, Mirko; Skibitzki, Oliver; Schroeder, Thomas; Lupina, Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate tunable Schottky barrier height and record photo-responsivity in a new-concept device made of a single-layer CVD graphene transferred onto a matrix of nanotips patterned on n-type Si wafer. The original layout, where nano-sized graphene/Si heterojunctions alternate to graphene areas exposed to the electric field of the Si substrate, which acts both as diode cathode and transistor gate, results in a two-terminal barristor with single-bias control of the Schottky barrier. The nanotip patterning favors light absorption, and the enhancement of the electric field at the tip apex improves photo-charge separation and enables internal gain by impact ionization. These features render the device a photodetector with responsivity (3 {{A}} {{{W}}}-1 for white LED light at 3 {{mW}} {{{cm}}}-2 intensity) almost an order of magnitude higher than commercial photodiodes. We extensively characterize the voltage and the temperature dependence of the device parameters, and prove that the multi-junction approach does not add extra-inhomogeneity to the Schottky barrier height distribution. We also introduce a new phenomenological graphene/semiconductor diode equation, which well describes the experimental I-V characteristics both in forward and reverse bias.

  20. Witness sample preparation for measuring antireflection coatings.

    Willey, Ronald R

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of antireflection coating of witness samples from across the worldwide industry has been shown to have excess variability from a sampling taken for the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings: Measurement Problem. Various sample preparation techniques have been discussed with their limitations, and a preferred technique is recommended with its justification, calibration procedures, and limitations. The common practice of grinding the second side to reduce its reflection is less than satisfactory. One recommended practice is to paint the polished second side, which reduces its reflection to almost zero. A method to evaluate the suitability of given paints is also described.

  1. Organic antireflective coatings for 193-nm lithography

    Trefonas, Peter, III; Blacksmith, Robert F.; Szmanda, Charles R.; Kavanagh, Robert J.; Adams, Timothy G.; Taylor, Gary N.; Coley, Suzanne; Pohlers, Gerd

    1999-06-01

    Organic anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) continue to play an important role in semiconductor manufacturing. These materials provide a convenient means of greatly reducing the resist photospeed swing and reflective notching. In this paper, we describe a novel class of ARC materials optimized for lithographic applications using 193 nm exposure tools. These ARCs are based upon polymers containing hydroxyl-alkyl methacrylate monomers for crosslinkable sites, styrene for a chromophore at 193 nm, and additional alkyl-methacrylate monomers as property modifiers. A glycouril crosslinker and a thermally-activated acidic catalyst provide a route to forming an impervious crosslinked film activate data high bake temperatures. ARC compositions can be adjusted to optimize the film's real and imaginary refractive indices. Selection of optimal target indices for 193 nm lithographic processing through simulations is described. Potential chromophores for 193 nm were explored using ZNDO modeling. We show how these theoretical studies were combined with material selection criteria to yield a versatile organic anti-reflectant film, Shipley 193 G0 ARC. Lithographic process data indicates the materials is capable of supporting high resolution patterning, with the line features displaying a sharp resist/ARC interface with low line edge roughness. The resist Eo swing is successfully reduced from 43 percent to 6 percent.

  2. High gain durable anti-reflective coating

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Colson, Thomas E.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2017-06-27

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane-based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In one embodiment, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, thermal radical initiator, photo radical initiators, crosslinkers, Si--OH condensation catalyst and nano-fillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  3. Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Caringal, Gideon Peter; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    2015-01-01

    Although metals are commonly shiny and highly reflective, we here show that thin metal films appear black when deposited on a dielectric with antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. The nanostructures were tapered and close-packed, with heights in the range 300-600 nm, and a lateral, spatial...... frequency in the range 5-7 mu m(-1). A reflectance in the visible spectrum as low as 6%, and an absorbance of 90% was observed for an Al film of 100 nm thickness. Corresponding experiments on a planar film yielded 80% reflectance and 20% absorbance. The observed absorbance enhancement is attributed...... to a gradient effect causing the metal film to be antireflective, analogous to the mechanism in dielectrics and semiconductors. We find that the investigated nanostructures have too large spatial frequency to facilitate efficient coupling to the otherwise non-radiating surface plasmons. Applications...

  4. Both antireflection and superhydrophobicity structures achieved by direct laser interference nanomanufacturing

    Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn; Maple, Carsten [JR3CN and CNM, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Ziang [JR3CN and CNM, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, 130022 (China); Yue, Yong [JR3CN and CNM, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); DCSSE, Xi' an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi [JR3CN and IRAC, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-21

    Inspired by nature, a number of techniques have been developed to fabricate the bionic structures of lotus leaves and moth eyes in order to realize the extraordinary functions of self-cleaning and antireflection. Compared with the existing technologies, we present a straightforward method to fabricate well-defined micro and nano artificial bio-structures in this work. The proposed method of direct laser interference nanomanufacturing (DLIN) takes a significant advantage of high efficiency as only a single technological procedure is needed without pretreatment, mask, and pattern transfer processes. Meanwhile, the corresponding structures show both antireflection and superhydrophobicity properties simultaneously. The developed four-beam nanosecond laser interference system configuring the TE-TE-TE-TE and TE-TE-TE-TM polarization modes was set up to generate periodic micro cone and hole structures with a huge number of nano features on the surface. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the periodic microcone structure exhibits excellent properties with both a high contact angle (CA = 156.3°) and low omnidirectional reflectance (5.9–15.4%). Thus, DLIN is a novel and promising method suitable for mass production of self-cleaning and antireflection surface structures.

  5. Photocatalysis of zinc oxide nanotip array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Lee, Bo-Wei; Kao, Chen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    A TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass by aqueous solution deposition (ASD) with precursors of ammonium hexafluoro-titanate and boric acid at 40 °C. The photocatalysis of annealed TiO2 film increases with increasing growth time and decreases with increasing growth times longer than 60 min. A ZnO nanotip array was prepared on ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and ammonium hydroxide at 70 °C. The photocatalysis of ASD-ZnO/ASD-TiO2 film/ITO glass can be better than that of P25.

  6. Stable switching of resistive random access memory on the nanotip array electrodes

    Tsai, Kun-Tong

    2016-09-13

    The formation/rupture of conducting filaments (CFs) in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) materials tune the electrical conductivities non-volatilely and are largely affected by its material composition [1], internal configurations [2] and external environments [3,4]. Therefore, controlling repetitive formation/rupture of CF as well as the spatial uniformity of formed CF are fundamentally important for improving the resistive switching (RS) performance. In this context, we have shown that by adding a field initiator, typically a textured electrode, both performance and switching uniformity of ReRAMs can be improved dramatically [5]. In addition, despite its promising characteristics, the scalable fabrication and structural homogeneity of such nanostructured electrodes are still lacking or unattainable, making miniaturization of ReRAM devices an exceeding challenge. Here, we employ nanostructured electrode (nanotip arrays, extremely uniform) formed spontaneously via a self-organized process to improve the ZnO ReRAM switching characteristics.

  7. Field Emission and Radial Distribution Function Studies of Fractal-like Amorphous Carbon Nanotips

    Lebrón-Colón M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The short-range order of individual fractal-like amorphous carbon nanotips was investigated by means of energy-filtered electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The nanostructures were grown in porous silicon substrates in situ within the TEM by the electron beam-induced deposition method. The structure factorS(k and the reduced radial distribution functionG(r were calculated. From these calculations a bond angle of 124° was obtained which suggests a distorted graphitic structure. Field emission was obtained from individual nanostructures using two micromanipulators with sub-nanometer positioning resolution. A theoretical three-stage model that accounts for the geometry of the nanostructures provides a value for the field enhancement factor close to the one obtained experimentally from the Fowler-Nordheim law.

  8. Design principles for morphologies of antireflection patterns for solar absorbing applications.

    Moon, Yoon-Jong; Na, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional surface texturing is a widespread technology for imparting broadband antireflection, yet its design rules are not completely understood. The dependence of the reflectance spectrum of a periodically patterned glass film on various structural parameters (e.g., pitch, height, shape, and fill factor) has been investigated by means of full-vectorial numerical simulations. An average weighted reflectivity accounting for the AM1.5G solar spectrum (λ=300-1000  nm) was sinusoidally modulated by a rod pattern's height, and was minimized for pitches of 400-600 nm. When a rationally optimized cone pattern was used, the average weighted reflectivity was less than 0.5%, for incident angles of up to 40° off normal. The broadband antireflection of a cone pattern was reproduced well by a graded refractive index film model corresponding to its geometry, with the addition of a diffraction effect resulting from its periodicity. The broadband antireflection ability of optimized cone patterns is not limited to the glass material, but rather is generically applicable to other semiconductor materials, including Si and GaAs. The design rules developed herein represent a key step in the development of light-absorbing devices, such as solar cells.

  9. Comparative Study of Antireflection Coating Materials for Solar ...

    yaog

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... Locally available absorber and antireflection coating materials for ... However, a black painted steel sheet metal costs less and is readily available in local ..... Testing of a new solar coating for solar water heating applications.

  10. Advanced Antireflection Coatings for High-Performance Solar Energy Applications

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Phase II objectives: Develop and refine antireflection coatings incorporating lanthanum titanate as an intermediate refractive index material; Investigate wet/dry thermal oxidation of aluminum containing semiconductor compounds as a means of forming a more transparent window layer with equal or better optical properties than its unoxidized form; Develop a fabrication process that allows integration of the oxidized window layer and maintains the necessary electrical properties for contacting the solar cell; Conduct an experimental demonstration of the best candidates for improved antireflection coatings.

  11. Selective dry etching of silicon containing anti-reflective coating

    Sridhar, Shyam; Nolan, Andrew; Wang, Li; Karakas, Erdinc; Voronin, Sergey; Biolsi, Peter; Ranjan, Alok

    2018-03-01

    Multi-layer patterning schemes involve the use of Silicon containing Anti-Reflective Coating (SiARC) films for their anti-reflective properties. Patterning transfer completion requires complete and selective removal of SiARC which is very difficult due to its high silicon content (>40%). Typically, SiARC removal is accomplished through a non-selective etch during the pattern transfer process using fluorine containing plasmas, or an ex-situ wet etch process using hydrofluoric acid is employed to remove the residual SiARC, post pattern transfer. Using a non-selective etch may result in profile distortion or wiggling, due to distortion of the underlying organic layer. The drawbacks of using wet etch process for SiARC removal are increased overall processing time and the need for additional equipment. Many applications may involve patterning of active structures in a poly-Si layer with an underlying oxide stopping layer. In such applications, SiARC removal selective to oxide using a wet process may prove futile. Removing SiARC selectively to SiO2 using a dry etch process is also challenging, due to similarity in the nature of chemical bonds (Si - O) in the two materials. In this work, we present highly selective etching of SiARC, in a plasma driven by a surface wave radial line slot antenna. The first step in the process involves an in-situ modification of the SiARC layer in O2 plasma followed by selective etching in a NF3/H2 plasma. Surface treatment in O2 plasma resulted in enhanced etching of the SiARC layer. For the right processing conditions, in-situ NF3/H2 dry etch process demonstrated selectivity values greater than 15:1 with respect to SiO2. The etching chemistry, however, was sensitive to NF3:H2 gas ratio. For dilute NF3 in H2, no SiARC etching was observed. Presumably, this is due to the deposition of ammonium fluorosilicate layer that occurs for dilute NF3/H2 plasmas. Additionally, challenges involved in selective SiARC removal (selective to SiO2, organic

  12. Near zero reflection by nanostructured anti-reflection coating design for Si substrates

    Al-Fandi, Mohamed; Makableh, Yahia F.; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rabady, Rabi

    2018-05-01

    The nanostructure design of near zero reflection coating for Si substrates by using ZnO Nanoneedles (ZnONN) is performed and optimized for the visible spectral range. The design investigates the ZnONN tip to body ratio effect on the anti-reflection coating properties. Different tip to body ratios are used on Si substrates. Around zero reflection is achieved by the Nanoneedles structure design presented in this work, leading to minimal reflection losses from the Si surface. The current design evolves a solution to optical losses and surface contamination effects associated with Si solar cells.

  13. Development of processing procedures for advanced silicon solar cells. [antireflection coatings and short circuit currents

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Stella, P. M.; Avery, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Ten ohm-cm silicon solar cells, 0.2 mm thick, were produced with short circuit current efficiencies up to thirteen percent and using a combination of recent technical advances. The cells were fabricated in conventional and wraparound contact configurations. Improvement in cell collection efficiency from both the short and long wavelengths region of the solar spectrum was obtained by coupling a shallow junction and an optically transparent antireflection coating with back surface field technology. Both boron diffusion and aluminum alloying techniques were evaluated for forming back surface field cells. The latter method is less complicated and is compatible with wraparound cell processing.

  14. INKJET PRINTING OF ALUMOOXIDE SOL FOR DEPOSITION OF ANTIREFLECTING COATINGS

    E. A. Eremeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. This work describes for the first time the formation of antireflective coating on the base of boehmite phase of AlOOH with low refractive index (1.35 by inkjet printing on the nonporous substrate. This method gives the possibility to increase the contrast of colorful interfering images by 32% obtaining by inkjet printing of titanium dioxide sol. The usage of this technology enables to obtain patterns with wide viewing angle and makes them highly stable. Methods. Traditional sol-gel method with peptizing agents and heating for 90oC was applied for sol synthesis. Then the mixture was under sonic treatment for the obtaining of viscous sol. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and the surface tension by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Aluminum oxide ink was deposited on polished slides (26×76 mm2, Paul Marienfeld, Germany, over titanium oxide layer. To print titania ink, we use a desktop office printer Canon Pixma IP 2840 and Dimatix DMP-2831. The thickness of an inkjet AlOOH layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 150 nm with an RI not less than 1.35 in the entire visible range. Results. The stable colloidal ink was obtained for the first time on the base of aluminum oxide matrix with neutral pH. The rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel method in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The controllable coalesce of drops enables to apply antireflection coating within the thickness accuracy of 10 nm. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopes. Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach to obtain colorful, interference patterns using two types of high refractive inks with different refractive indexes. The inkjet printing method opens new opportunities for

  15. Effective antireflection properties of porous silicon nanowires for photovoltaic applications

    Najar, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching method on the n-Si substrate. The presence of nano-pores with pore size ranging between 10-50nm in SiNWs was confirmed by electron tomography (ET) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PSiNWs give strong photoluminescence peak at red wavelength. Ultra-low reflectance of <5% span over wavelength 250 nm to 1050 nm has been measured. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been employed to model the optical reflectance for both Si wafer and PSiNWs. Our calculation results are in agreement with the measured reflectance from nanowires length of 6 µm and 60% porosity. The low reflectance is attributed to the effective graded index of PSiNWs and enhancement of multiple optical scattering from the pores and nanowires. PSiNW structures with low surface reflectance can potentially serve as an antireflection layer for Si-based photovoltaic devices.

  16. Fabrication of antireflective nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells by reactive ion etching

    Lin, Hsin-Han; Chen, Wen-Hua; Wang, Chi-Jen; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have fabricated large-area (15 × 15 cm 2 ) subwavelength antireflection structure on poly-Si substrates to reduce their solar reflectivity. A reactive ion etching system was used to fabricate nanostructures on the poly-silicon surface. Reactive gases, composed of chlorine (Cl 2 ), sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and oxygen (O 2 ), were activated to fabricate nanoscale pyramids by RF plasma. The poly-Si substrates were etched in various gas compositions for 6–10 min to form nano-pyramids. The sizes of pyramids were about 200–300 nm in heights and about 100 nm in width. Besides the nanoscale features, the high pyramid density on the poly-Si surface is another important factor to reduce the reflectivity. Low-reflectivity surface was fabricated with reflectivity significantly reduced down to < 2% for photons in a wavelength range of 500–900 nm. - Highlights: ► Large-area (15 × 15 cm 2 ) antireflection structures fabricated on poly-Si substrates ► Si nano-pyramids produced by utilizing self-masked reactive ion etching process ► High density of nanoscale pyramids was formed on the entire substrate surface. ► Surface reflectivity below 2% was achieved in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm

  17. Titanium dioxide antireflective coating for silicon solar cells by spinning technique

    Murozono, M; Kitamura, S

    1982-01-01

    Antireflective (AR) TiO2 films for Si solar cells are presently obtained by coating a solution that is derived from organotitanium compounds (with an acetylacetone ligand and an ethanol solvent) on the Si surface using a spinning technique, and then firing at high temperature. AR film thickness can be controlled by up to 1200 A by changing solution concentration and spin speed. Si solar cells with these AR films exhibit as much as a 50 percent improvement in conversion efficiency over uncoated cells. 12 references.

  18. Anti-reflective coating for visible light using a silver nanodisc metasurface with a refractive index of less than 1.0

    Yasuda, Hideki; Matsuno, Ryo; Koito, Naoki; Hosoda, Hidemasa; Tani, Takeharu; Naya, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    Suppression of visible-light reflection from material surfaces is an important technology for many applications such as flat-panel displays, camera lenses, and solar panels. In this study, we developed an anti-reflective coating design based on a silver nanodisc metasurface. The effective refractive index of a 10-nm-thick monolayer of silver nanodiscs was less than 1.0, which enabled strong suppression of reflection from the underlying substrate. The nanodisc structure was easy to fabricate using a conventional roll-to-roll wet-coating method. The anti-reflective structure was fabricated over a large area.

  19. Neutron production with a pyroelectric double-crystal assembly without nano-tip

    Tornow, W.; Corse, W.; Crimi, S.; Fox, J.

    2010-01-01

    Two cylindrical LiTaO 3 crystals facing each other's deuterated circular face were exposed to deuterium gas at an ambient pressure of a few mTorr. With a distance of about 4 cm between the z + and z - cut crystal faces, neutrons were produced via the 2 H(d,n) 3 He fusion reaction upon the heating and cooling of the crystals. The 2.5 MeV neutrons were detected with organic liquid scintillation detectors equipped with neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination electronics to reject pulses generated by the intense X-ray flux. During the cooling phase of naked crystals, deuterium ion-beam (D 2 + ) energies of up to 400 keV were obtained as deduced from the associated electron bremsstrahlung end-point energy. The highest electron-beam energy observed during the heating phase was 360 keV. With a layer of deuterated polyethylene evaporated on the front face of the crystals, the maximal energies were about 10% lower. In contrast to earlier studies, an electric-field enhancing nano-tip was not employed. Neutron yields up to 500 per thermal cycle were observed, resulting in a total neutron production yield of about 1.6x10 4 neutrons per thermal cycle. Our approach has the potential of being substantially improved by reducing the frequency of the discharges we are currently experiencing with our geometry, which was not designed for the unprecedented high potentials produced in the presentwork.

  20. Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography

    Burghoorn, M.M.A.; Roosen-Melsen, D.A.; Riet, J.F.J. de; Sabik, S.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Yakimets, I.; Buskens, P.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) are used to lower the reflection of light on the surface of a substrate. Here, we demonstrate that the two main drawbacks of moth eye-structured ARCs-i.e., the lack of suitable coating materials and a process for large area, high volume applications-can be largely

  1. Application of CBD-Zinc Sulfide Film as an Antireflection Coating on Very Large Area Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    U. Gangopadhyay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD technique is used to prepare CBD-ZnS films as antireflective (AR coating for multicrystalline silicon solar cells. The uniformity of CBD-ZnS film on large area of textured multicrystalline silicon surface is the major challenge of CBD technique. In the present work, attempts have been made for the first time to improve the rate of deposition and uniformity of deposited film by controlling film stoichiometry and refractive index and also to minimize reflection loss by proper optimization of molar percentage of different chemical constituents and deposition conditions. Reasonable values of film deposition rate (12.13 Å′/min., good film uniformity (standard deviation <1, and refractive index (2.35 along with a low percentage of average reflection (6-7% on a textured mc-Si surface are achieved with proper optimization of ZnS bath. 12.24% efficiency on large area (125 mm × 125 mm multicrystalline silicon solar cells with CBD-ZnS antireflection coating has been successfully fabricated. The viability of low-cost CBD-ZnS antireflection coating on large area multicrystalline silicon solar cell in the industrial production level is emphasized.

  2. Antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite

    Babin, A.A.; Konoplev, Yu.N.; Mamaev, Yu.A. [Inst. of Applied Physics, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Broadband antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite are calculated and implemented practically. Their residual reflectance in the liquid with a refracting index of 1.336 is below 0.2% from each face virtually over the entire visible region. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Antireflectance coating on shielding window glasses using glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    High density lead glasses having thickness of several centimeters and large dimensions are used as shielding windows in hot cells. To improve visibility, the reflection of light from its optically polished surfaces needs to be minimized to improve transmission as absorption of light in the thick glasses can not be avoided. Antireflectance coating of a material having low refractive index is required for this purpose. Selective leaching of lead at ambient temperature in glacial acetic acid develops a silica rich leached layer on glass surface. Since silica has low refractive index, the leached layer serves as antireflectance coating. Two optically polished discs of shielding window glasses were leached in glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature for 2, 5 and 10 days and their reflectance and transmittance spectra were taken to find effect of leaching. For transparent glass transmittance could be improved from 78.76% to 85.31% after 10 days leaching. Reflectance from the glass could be decreased from 12.48 to 11.67%. For coloured glass transmittance improved from 87.77% to 88.24% after 5 days leaching while reflectance decreased from 12.28% to 5.6% during same period. Based on data generated, 10 days leaching time is recommended for developing anti reflectance coating on transparent shielding window glass and 5 days for coloured shielding window glass. The procedure can be used for shielding windows of any dimensions by fabrication a PVC tank of slightly high dimensions and filling with acetic acid (author)

  4. Neutron production with a pyroelectric double-crystal assembly without nano-tip

    Tornow, W., E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.ed [Department of Physics, Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Corse, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Crimi, S. [Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, FL 33458 (United States); Fox, J. [Department of Physics, Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2010-12-21

    Two cylindrical LiTaO{sub 3} crystals facing each other's deuterated circular face were exposed to deuterium gas at an ambient pressure of a few mTorr. With a distance of about 4 cm between the z{sup +} and z{sup -} cut crystal faces, neutrons were produced via the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He fusion reaction upon the heating and cooling of the crystals. The 2.5 MeV neutrons were detected with organic liquid scintillation detectors equipped with neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination electronics to reject pulses generated by the intense X-ray flux. During the cooling phase of naked crystals, deuterium ion-beam (D{sub 2}{sup +}) energies of up to 400 keV were obtained as deduced from the associated electron bremsstrahlung end-point energy. The highest electron-beam energy observed during the heating phase was 360 keV. With a layer of deuterated polyethylene evaporated on the front face of the crystals, the maximal energies were about 10% lower. In contrast to earlier studies, an electric-field enhancing nano-tip was not employed. Neutron yields up to 500 per thermal cycle were observed, resulting in a total neutron production yield of about 1.6x10{sup 4} neutrons per thermal cycle. Our approach has the potential of being substantially improved by reducing the frequency of the discharges we are currently experiencing with our geometry, which was not designed for the unprecedented high potentials produced in the presentwork.

  5. Effects of laser radiation on surfaces and coatings

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of the principal aspects of laser-induced damage to polished optical surfaces and dielectric, thin-film, high-reflectivity and antireflective coatings. Methods for producing porous antireflective surfaces and coatings and their damage properties are also reviewed. Finally, new areas of basic research to solve current and future problems are addressed

  6. Dislocation-free Ge Nano-crystals via Pattern Independent Selective Ge Heteroepitaxy on Si Nano-Tip Wafers.

    Niu, Gang; Capellini, Giovanni; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Niermann, Tore; Zaumseil, Peter; Katzer, Jens; Krause, Hans-Michael; Skibitzki, Oliver; Lehmann, Michael; Xie, Ya-Hong; von Känel, Hans; Schroeder, Thomas

    2016-03-04

    The integration of dislocation-free Ge nano-islands was realized via selective molecular beam epitaxy on Si nano-tip patterned substrates. The Si-tip wafers feature a rectangular array of nanometer sized Si tips with (001) facet exposed among a SiO2 matrix. These wafers were fabricated by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible nanotechnology. Calculations based on nucleation theory predict that the selective growth occurs close to thermodynamic equilibrium, where condensation of Ge adatoms on SiO2 is disfavored due to the extremely short re-evaporation time and diffusion length. The growth selectivity is ensured by the desorption-limited growth regime leading to the observed pattern independence, i.e. the absence of loading effect commonly encountered in chemical vapor deposition. The growth condition of high temperature and low deposition rate is responsible for the observed high crystalline quality of the Ge islands which is also associated with negligible Si-Ge intermixing owing to geometric hindrance by the Si nano-tip approach. Single island as well as area-averaged characterization methods demonstrate that Ge islands are dislocation-free and heteroepitaxial strain is fully relaxed. Such well-ordered high quality Ge islands present a step towards the achievement of materials suitable for optical applications.

  7. Argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride (SiN) for improved antireflection coating on c-Si solar cells

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan Kumar; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell. • The reduction in reflection due to the formation of a silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride double layer. • EQE reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in J{sub sc} and 4.46% in conversion efficiency. - Abstract: Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell is presented here. Hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiN:H) layer has been deposited on a silicon substrate by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) using a mixture of silane (SiH{sub 4}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gases followed by a argon plasma treatment. Optical analysis reveals a significant reduction in reflectance after argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride layer. While FESEM shows nanostructures on the surface of the silicon nitride film, FTIR reveals a change in Si−N, Si−O and N−H bonds. On the other hand, ellipsometry shows the variation of refractive index and formation of double layer. Finally, a c-Si solar cell has been fabricated with the said anti-reflection coating. External quantum efficiency reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in the short circuit current density and 4.46% in conversion efficiency over a baseline efficiency of 16.58%.

  8. Sprayed and Spin-Coated Multilayer Antireflection Coating Films for Nonvacuum Processed Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Abdullah Uzum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the simple and cost-effective methods, spin-coated ZrO2-polymer composite/spray-deposited TiO2-compact multilayer antireflection coating film was introduced. With a single TiO2-compact film on the surface of a crystalline silicon wafer, 5.3% average reflectance (the reflectance average between the wavelengths of 300 nm and 1100 nm was observed. Reflectance decreased further down to 3.3% after forming spin-coated ZrO2 on the spray-deposited TiO2-compact film. Silicon solar cells were fabricated using CZ-Si p-type wafers in three sets: (1 without antireflection coating (ARC layer, (2 with TiO2-compact ARC film, and (3 with ZrO2-polymer composite/TiO2-compact multilayer ARC film. Conversion efficiency of the cells improved by a factor of 0.8% (from 15.19% to 15.88% owing to the multilayer ARC. Jsc was improved further by 2 mA cm−2 (from 35.3 mA cm−2 to 37.2 mA cm−2 when compared with a single TiO2-compact ARC.

  9. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled High-Performance Broadband Antireflection Coatings

    Shimomura, Hiroomi

    2010-03-24

    Nanoparticles are indispensable ingredients of solution-processed optical, dielectric, and catalytic thin films. Although solution-based methods are promising low-cost alternatives to vacuum methods, they can have significant limitations. Coating uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique to make uniform, conformal multistack nanoparticle thin films for optical applications with precise thickness control over each stack. Two particularly sought-after optical applications are broadband antireflection and structural color. The effects of interstack and surface roughness on optical properties of these constructs (e.g., haze and spectral response) have been studied quantitatively using a combination of Fourier-transform methods and atomic force microscopy measurements. Deconvoluting root-mean-square roughness into its large-, intermediate-, and small-scale components enables enhanced optical simulations. A 4-stack broadband antireflection coating (<0.5% average reflectance in the visible range, and 0.2% haze) composed of alternating high-index (n ≈ 1.96) and low-index (n ≈ 1.28) stacks has been made on glass substrate. Films calcinated at 550 °C endure a one-hour-long cloth cleaning test under 100 kPa normal stress. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. 3D-Printed Broadband Dielectric Tube Terahertz Waveguide with Anti-Reflection Structure

    Vogt, Dominik Walter; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate broadband, low loss, and close-to-zero dispersion guidance of terahertz (THz) radiation in a dielectric tube with an anti-reflection structure (AR-tube waveguide) in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.0 THz. The anti-reflection structure (ARS) consists of close-packed cones in a hexagonal lattice arranged on the outer surface of the tube cladding. The feature size of the ARS is in the order of the wavelength between 0.2 and 1.0 THz. The waveguides are fabricated with the versatile and cost efficient 3D-printing method. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements as well as 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations (FDTD) are performed to extensively characterize the AR-tube waveguides. Spectrograms, attenuation spectra, effective phase refractive indices, and the group-velocity dispersion parameters β 2 of the AR-tube waveguides are presented. Both the experimental and numerical results confirm the extended bandwidth and smaller group-velocity dispersion of the AR-tube waveguide compared to a low loss plain dielectric tube THz waveguide. The AR-tube waveguide prototypes show an attenuation spectrum close to the theoretical limit given by the infinite cladding tube waveguide.

  11. Deep and tapered silicon photonic crystals for achieving anti-reflection and enhanced absorption.

    Hung, Yung-Jr; Lee, San-Liang; Coldren, Larry A

    2010-03-29

    Tapered silicon photonic crystals (PhCs) with smooth sidewalls are realized using a novel single-step deep reactive ion etching. The PhCs can significantly reduce the surface reflection over the wavelength range between the ultra-violet and near-infrared regions. From the measurements using a spectrophotometer and an angle-variable spectroscopic ellipsometer, the sub-wavelength periodic structure can provide a broad and angular-independent antireflective window in the visible region for the TE-polarized light. The PhCs with tapered rods can further reduce the reflection due to a gradually changed effective index. On the other hand, strong optical resonances for TM-mode can be found in this structure, which is mainly due to the existence of full photonic bandgaps inside the material. Such resonance can enhance the optical absorption inside the silicon PhCs due to its increased optical paths. With the help of both antireflective and absorption-enhanced characteristics in this structure, the PhCs can be used for various applications.

  12. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  13. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  14. Mechanical comparison of a polymer nanocomposite to a ceramic thin-film anti-reflective filter

    Druffel, Thad; Geng Kebin; Grulke, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Thin-film filters on optical components have been in use for decades and, for those industries utilizing a polymer substrate, the mismatch in mechanical behaviour has caused problems. Surface damage including scratches and cracks induces haze on the optical filter, reducing the transmission of the optical article. An in-mold anti-reflective (AR) filter incorporating 1/4-wavelength thin films based on a polymer nanocomposite is outlined here and compared with a traditional vacuum deposition AR coating. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques are used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the resulting indentations and scratches are then compared to the force deflection curves to further explain the phenomena. The traditional coatings fractured by brittle mechanisms during testing, increasing the area of failure, whereas the polymer nanocomposite gave ductile failure with less surface damage

  15. Mechanical comparison of a polymer nanocomposite to a ceramic thin-film anti-reflective filter.

    Druffel, Thad; Geng, Kebin; Grulke, Eric

    2006-07-28

    Thin-film filters on optical components have been in use for decades and, for those industries utilizing a polymer substrate, the mismatch in mechanical behaviour has caused problems. Surface damage including scratches and cracks induces haze on the optical filter, reducing the transmission of the optical article. An in-mold anti-reflective (AR) filter incorporating 1/4-wavelength thin films based on a polymer nanocomposite is outlined here and compared with a traditional vacuum deposition AR coating. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques are used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the resulting indentations and scratches are then compared to the force deflection curves to further explain the phenomena. The traditional coatings fractured by brittle mechanisms during testing, increasing the area of failure, whereas the polymer nanocomposite gave ductile failure with less surface damage.

  16. Gradient SiNO anti-reflective layers in solar selective coatings

    Ren, Zhifeng; Cao, Feng; Sun, Tianyi; Chen, Gang

    2017-08-01

    A solar selective coating includes a substrate, a cermet layer having nanoparticles therein deposited on the substrate, and an anti-reflection layer deposited on the cermet layer. The cermet layer and the anti-reflection layer may each be formed of intermediate layers. A method for constructing a solar-selective coating is disclosed and includes preparing a substrate, depositing a cermet layer on the substrate, and depositing an anti-reflection layer on the cermet layer.

  17. Metasurface-based anti-reflection coatings at optical frequencies

    Monti, Alessio; Alù, Andrea; Toscano, Alessandro; Bilotti, Filiberto

    2018-05-01

    In this manuscript, we propose a metasurface approach for the reduction of electromagnetic reflection from an arbitrary air‑dielectric interface. The proposed technique exploits the exotic optical response of plasmonic nanoparticles to achieve complete cancellation of the field reflected by a dielectric substrate by means of destructive interference. Differently from other, earlier anti-reflection approaches based on nanoparticles, our design scheme is supported by a simple transmission-line formulation that allows a closed-form characterization of the anti-reflection performance of a nanoparticle array. Furthermore, since the working principle of the proposed devices relies on an average effect that does not critically depend on the array geometry, our approach enables low-cost production and easy scalability to large sizes. Our theoretical considerations are supported by full-wave simulations confirming the effectiveness of this design principle.

  18. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    Yoldas, B.E; Partlow, D.P.; Smith, H.D.; Mattox, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO 2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm 2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  19. Antireflection coating on InP for semiconductor detectors

    Hantehzadeh, M.R. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Campus of Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: hanteh@sr.iau.ac.ir; Ghoranneviss, M. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Campus of Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sari, A.H. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Campus of Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahlani, F. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Campus of Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokuhi, A. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Campus of Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariati, M. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Campus of Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-10-25

    Aluminum nitride thin film by RF magnetron sputtering is used to produce antireflection coating on InP. The index of refection variation of aluminum nitride for different thickness at different wavelength in the range of 400 to 1500 nm is investigated using reflection spectroscopy. Subsequent Ar+ ion implantation at 30 keV with different doses on these coated layers has been performed. The morphology of aluminum nitride after ion implantation is characterized using atomic force microscopy AFM.

  20. Antireflection coating on InP for semiconductor detectors

    Hantehzadeh, M.R.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Sari, A.H.; Sahlani, F.; Shokuhi, A.; Shariati, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum nitride thin film by RF magnetron sputtering is used to produce antireflection coating on InP. The index of refection variation of aluminum nitride for different thickness at different wavelength in the range of 400 to 1500 nm is investigated using reflection spectroscopy. Subsequent Ar+ ion implantation at 30 keV with different doses on these coated layers has been performed. The morphology of aluminum nitride after ion implantation is characterized using atomic force microscopy AFM

  1. Graded index and randomly oriented core-shell silicon nanowires for broadband and wide angle antireflection

    P. Pignalosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60º antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.

  2. Multifunctional high-reflective and antireflective layer systems with easy-to-clean properties

    Gloess, D.; Frach, P.; Gottfried, C.; Klinkenberg, S.; Liebig, J.-S.; Hentsch, W.; Liepack, H.; Krug, M.

    2008-01-01

    High-reflective (HR) and even more antireflective (AR) layer systems are in use for widespread applications. Multifunctional layer systems providing high optical functionality with an easy-to-clean or a self-cleaning behaviour would be preferable for many applications to avoid soiling of the surface. In this paper, the feasibility of fabrication by highly productive pulse magnetron sputtering in an in-line coating plant is investigated. Easy-to-clean properties are achieved by a top layer of photocatalytic and photoinduced hydrophilic TiO 2 . Multifunctional HR layer systems were successfully deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at a low deposition temperature of 150 deg. C, demonstrating the possibility of coating certain polymer materials. Double-sided multifunctional AR layer systems with a single-sided photoinduced hydrophilic TiO 2 top coating have a resulting reflectivity of about 3% and transmittance of about 97% in the visible range of light

  3. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel ...

    To date, there is no ideal anti-reflection (AR) coating available on solar glass which can effectively transmit the incident light within the visible wavelength range. However, there is a need to develop multifunctional coatingwith superior anti-reflection properties and self-cleaning ability meant to be used for solar glass panels.

  4. The amplitude modulation of laser diode emission with antireflection piezo films on mirrors

    Abrarov, S.M.; Karimov, Kh.S.; Akhmedov, Kh.M.

    2001-01-01

    Present article is devoted to amplitude modulation of laser diode emission with antireflection piezo films on mirrors. The modulator based on laser diode and the emission amplitude modulation of which is performed by electric field impact on antireflection piezo films applied on mirrors was studied.

  5. Application of CBD-Zinc Sulfide Film as an Antireflection Coating on Very Large Area Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    U. Gangopadhyay; K. Kim; S. K. Dhungel; H. Saha; J. Yi

    2007-01-01

    The low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique is used to prepare CBD-ZnS films as antireflective (AR) coating for multicrystalline silicon solar cells. The uniformity of CBD-ZnS film on large area of textured multicrystalline silicon surface is the major challenge of CBD technique. In the present work, attempts have been made for the first time to improve the rate of deposition and uniformity of deposited film by controlling film stoichiometry and refractive index and also to minimize...

  6. Antireflection coatings with Chebyshev or Butterworth response - Design

    Baumeister, Philip

    1986-12-01

    The approximation of Kard (1971) is used to find values for the refractive indices of nonabsorbing layers with equal optical thickness to produce an antireflection (AR) coating for a dielectric substrate that has a Chebyshev spectral response, with application to the design of bandpass filters. The method is numerically demonstrated with the example of four-layer Chebyshev AR coatings with narrow, medium and wide bandwidths, and substrates of indices 2, 5, and 10. Approximate indices are also given for the case when the radiant reflectance/transmittance of the coating vs frequency is maximally flat (Butterworth response).

  7. Wide-band antireflection coatings; Breitbandige Antireflexbeschichtungen

    Gombert, A.; Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    In most cases, solar receivers - from solar collectors to buildings - have a transparent cover. In order to minimize the losses due to reflection, the aim is to find an AR coating which can be used for the broad bandwidth of the solar spectrum. Conventional solutions like multilayer systems with high and low refractive index layers are not suitable. The main problem is to produce layers with very low refractive indices. One solution which was investigated in the past is to synthesize layers with a low effective refractive index due to porosity; i.e. by mixing the bulk material with air on a subwavelength scale. Another possibility to achieve this mixture is given by subwave length surface-relief structures. Porous sol-gel coatings are suited for glass, subwavelength surface-relief structures can be replicated mainly in polymer materials by cheap embossing processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nahezu alle solaren Empfaenger sind transparent abgedeckt, z.B. durch Glascheiben. An diesen Abdeckungen wird ein Teil der einfallenden Solarstrahlung reflektiert. Diese Verluste koennen durch reflexionsmindernde Oberflaechen reduziert werden. Antireflexbeschichtungen, die z.B. fuer Brillenglaeser eingesetzt werden, eignen sich nicht fuer solare Entspiegelungen, da ihre spektrale Bandbreite nicht ausreicht. Das Hauptproblem liegt darin, dass Materialien mit sehr niedrigen Brechungsindices, wie sie fuer spektral breitbandige Antireflexbeschichtungen benoetigt werden, nicht verfuegbar sind. Der Ausweg besteht in poroesen Beschichtungen bzw. in einer Oberflaechenstrukturierung. Aufgrund des Luftanteils in der Mischung lassen sich sehr niedrige `effektive` Brechungsindices synthetisieren. Poroese Sol-Gel-Schichten eignen sich insbesondere zur Erhoehung der solaren Transmission von anorganischem Glas. Oberflaechenstrukturen sind aufgrund der Herstellbarkeit durch preisguenstige Praegeprozesse vielversprechend, finden aber derzeit ihre Anwendung ueberwiegend bei polymeren Materialien. (orig.)

  8. Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings on glass substrates for self-cleaning photovoltaic cells

    Li, Xiaoyu; He, Junhui; Liu, Weiyi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High performance broadband antireflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates, which can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. - Highlights: • Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated. • Transmittance increased to 99.0%, significantly higher than that of commercial solar glasses. • The performance of standard solar cells with the AR coating was enhanced as much as 6.6%. - Abstract: High performance broadband antireflective (AR) and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates by assembly of silica nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, followed by calcination and hydrophobic modification. A porous poly(diallyladimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/20 nm SiO 2 nanoparticles (S-20) multilayer coating with AR property was prepared first. The maximum transmittance is as high as 99.0%, while that of the glass substrate is only 91.3%. After calcination and hydrophobic modification, the coating became water-repellent while maintaining the good AR property. Such water-repellent AR coatings can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and thickness of coatings. Transmission spectra and reflection spectra were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer. The surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system

  9. A comparative study on omnidirectional anti-reflection SiO2 nanostructure films coating by glancing angle deposition

    Prachachet, R.; Samransuksamer, B.; Horprathum, M.; Eiamchai, P.; Limwichean, S.; Chananonnawathorn, C.; Lertvanithphol, T.; Muthitamongkol, P.; Boonruang, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2018-02-01

    Fabricated omnidirectional anti-reflection nanostructure films as a one of the promising alternative solar cell applications have attracted enormous scientific and industrial research benefits to their broadband, effective over a wide range of incident angles, lithography-free and high-throughput process. Recently, the nanostructure SiO2 film was the most inclusive study on anti-reflection with omnidirectional and broadband characteristics. In this work, the three-dimensional silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanostructured thin film with different morphologies including vertical align, slant, spiral and thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on the glass slide and silicon wafer substrate. The morphological of the prepared samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The transmission, omnidirectional and birefringence property of the nanostructure SiO2 films were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE). The spectrophotometer measurement was performed at normal incident angle and a full spectral range of 200 - 2000 nm. The angle dependent transmission measurements were investigated by rotating the specimen, with incidence angle defined relative to the surface normal of the prepared samples. This study demonstrates that the obtained SiO2 nanostructure film coated on glass slide substrate exhibits a higher transmission was 93% at normal incident angle. In addition, transmission measurement in visible wavelength and wide incident angles -80 to 80 were increased in comparison with the SiO2 thin film and glass slide substrate due to the transition in the refractive index profile from air to the nanostructure layer that improve the antireflection characteristics. The results clearly showed the enhanced omnidirectional and broadband characteristic of the three dimensional Si

  10. Enhancement of the CIGS solar cell's efficiency by anti-reflection coating with teflon AF

    Bae, Hong-Sub; Kim, Chan; Rhee, Il-Su [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Dae-Hwan [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Wook [Daegu University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    An anti-reflection (AR) layer of Teflon AF was deposited on the front surface of a Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cell with a structure of grid/TCO/ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}/Mo/glass by using the spin coating method. This AR layer reduced the front-surface reflection, which resulted in high efficiency for the CIGS solar cell. The thickness of the Teflon AF layer was varied to determine the thickness that gave the highest transmittance of incident light into the active absorber of the CIGS solar cell. The optimum thickness of the Teflon AF layer was found to be 105 nm. CIGS solar cells with a Teflon AF layer of 105 nm were constructed, and their efficiencies were compared with those of solar cells without a Teflon AF layer. The average increase in the relative efficiency of the solar cells was 2.63% due to the inclusion of an anti-reflection layer of Teflon AF.

  11. Antireflective conducting nanostructures with an atomic layer deposited an AlZnO layer on a transparent substrate

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Ji, Seungmuk; Herdini, Diptya Suci; Lim, Hyuneui; Park, Jin-Seong; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We investigated the antireflective conducting nanostructures on a transparent substrate using atomic layer deposited AlZnO films. • The conformal AlZnO layer on a transparent nanostructured substrate exhibited 5.52 × 10 −4 Ω cm in resistivity and 88% in average visible transmittance. • The improvement of transparency was explained by the gradual changes of the refractive index in the film depth direction. • The decrease in electrical resistivity is strongly correlated to the increased surface area with the nanostructure and the change of chemical bonding states. - Abstract: The antireflective conducting nanostructures on a transparent substrate were shown to have enhanced optical and electrical properties via colloidal lithography and atomic layer deposition. The conformal AlZnO layer on a transparent nanostructured substrate exhibited 5.52 × 10 −4 Ω cm in resistivity and 88% in average visible transmittance, both of which were superior to those of a flat transparent conducting substrate. The improvement of transparency was explained by the gradual changes of the refractive index in the film depth direction. The decrease in electrical resistivity is strongly correlated to the increased surface area with the nanostructure and the change of chemical bonding states.

  12. Tunable, flexible antireflection layer of ZnO nanowires embedded in PDMS.

    Kim, Min Kyu; Yi, Dong Kee; Paik, Ungyu

    2010-05-18

    In this article, we report the fabrication of ordered hybrid structures composed of ZnO nanowires and a polymeric matrix with a polymer precursor infiltrating the nanowire arrays. The antireflective properties of the resulting ZnO nanowire-embedded polydimethylsiloxane composite (ZPC) were investigated at various ZnO nanowire lengths and ZPC bending angles. Interestingly, we found that whereas the antireflective properties showed a strong dependence on the length of the embedded ZnO nanowires in PDMS, the bending of ZPC has little effect on the antireflective properties.

  13. Calculation of femtosecond pulse laser induced damage threshold for broadband antireflective microstructure arrays.

    Jing, Xufeng; Shao, Jianda; Zhang, Junchao; Jin, Yunxia; He, Hongbo; Fan, Zhengxiu

    2009-12-21

    In order to more exactly predict femtosecond pulse laser induced damage threshold, an accurate theoretical model taking into account photoionization, avalanche ionization and decay of electrons is proposed by comparing respectively several combined ionization models with the published experimental measurements. In addition, the transmittance property and the near-field distribution of the 'moth eye' broadband antireflective microstructure directly patterned into the substrate material as a function of the surface structure period and groove depth are performed by a rigorous Fourier model method. It is found that the near-field distribution is strongly dependent on the periodicity of surface structure for TE polarization, but for TM wave it is insensitive to the period. What's more, the femtosecond pulse laser damage threshold of the surface microstructure on the pulse duration taking into account the local maximum electric field enhancement was calculated using the proposed relatively accurate theoretical ionization model. For the longer incident wavelength of 1064 nm, the weak linear damage threshold on the pulse duration is shown, but there is a surprising oscillation peak of breakdown threshold as a function of the pulse duration for the shorter incident wavelength of 532 nm.

  14. Fabrication of Antireflection Nanodiamond Particle Film by the Spin Coating Deposition Technique

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-based antireflective (AR coatings were fabricated using a spin coating of diamond suspension at room temperature as nucleation enhancement procedure and microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Various working pressures were used to investigate their effect on the optical characterization of the as-deposited diamond films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic forced microscopy (AFM were employed to analyze the surface properties of the diamond films. Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM also were used for analysis of the microstructure of the films. The results showed that working pressure had a significant effect on thickness, surface roughness, and wettability of the as-deposited diamond films. Deposited under 35 Torr or working pressure, the film possessed a low surface roughness of 13.8 nm and fine diamond grain sizes of 35 nm. Reflectance measurements of the films also were carried out using UV-Vis spectrometer and revealed a low reflectance value of the diamond films. The achievement demonstrated feasibility of the proposed spin-coating procedure for large scale production and thus opens up a prospect application of diamond film as an AR coating in industrial optoelectronic device.

  15. Two-layer anti-reflection strategies for implant applications

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Smith, Tamara; Kato, Masakazu; Kimura, Shigeo; Enomoto, Tomoyuki

    2006-03-01

    A two-layer bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) concept in which a layer that develops slowly is coated on top of a bottom layer that develops more rapidly was demonstrated. Development rate control was achieved by selection of crosslinker amount and BARC curing conditions. A single-layer BARC was compared with the two-layer BARC concept. The single-layer BARC does not clear out of 200-nm deep vias. When the slower developing single-layer BARC was coated on top of the faster developing layer, the vias were cleared. Lithographic evaluation of the two-layer BARC concept shows the same resolution advantages as the single-layer system. Planarization properties of a two-layer BARC system are better than for a single-layer system, when comparing the same total nominal thicknesses.

  16. Multilayer Antireflection Coating for Triple Junction Solar Cells

    Zhan Feng; Wang Hai-Li; He Ji-Fang; Wang Juan; Huang She-Song; Ni Hi-Qiao; Niu Zhi-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    According to the theory of optical films, we simulate the reflectivity of antireflection coatings (ARCs) for solar cells of Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P/GaAs/Ge based on an optical transfer matrix. In order to provide sufficient consideration of the refractive index dispersion effect of multilayer ARCs, we use multi-dimensional matrix data for reliable simulation. After the reflection curves are obtained, the effective average reflectance R e is introduced to optimize the film system by minimizing R e . Optimization of single layer (Al 2 O 3 ), double layer (MgF 2 /ZnS) and triple layer (MgF 2 /Al 2 O 3 /ZnS) ARCs is realized by using this method for space and terrestrial applications. Effects of these ARCs are compared after optimization. These theoretical parameters can be used to guide experiments. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Design Multilayer Antireflection Coatings for Terrestrial Solar Cells

    Feng Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300–870 nm (dual junction and 300–1850 nm (triple junction under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR, shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible.

  18. Adhesion of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Brock, Ryan; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Miller, David C.

    2016-06-16

    The development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method is reported, which allows the measurement of adhesion on the fragile thin substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. We address the adhesion of several antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology, we demonstrate the ensuing effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp Heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We show that even with germanium substrates that fracture easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can still be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  19. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel ...

    2National Centre for Photovoltaic Research & Education, Department of Electrical Engineering,. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 400 076, India. MS received 14 .... improve the anti-reflective property, a low refractive index material like ...

  20. Technical and historical overview of the study at Livermore of porous antireflection coatings

    Milam, D.

    1985-01-01

    The testing program leading to selection of antireflection coatings for the NOVA laser is reviewed. Limiting problems that prevented use of some coating technologies are described, and estimates are made of the current value of pursuing solutions to those problems

  1. Broad Bandwidth Meta-Material Antireflection Coatings for Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop broad-band metamaterial antireflection (AR) coatings for the far-infrared and millimeter wave bands. The proposed coating technology could...

  2. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink Devices will increase the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells by designing and demonstrating advanced anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) that will...

  3. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink and its subcontractor Magnolia Solar will develop and demonstrate advanced anti-reflection coating (ARC) designs that will provide a better broadband and...

  4. Applications of antireflection coatings in sonic crystal-based acoustic devices

    Wang Yun; Deng Ke; Xu Shengjun; Qiu Chunyin; Yang Hai; Liu Zhengyou

    2011-01-01

    The unwanted reflection seriously baffles the practical applications of sonic crystals, such as for various acoustic lenses designed by utilizing the in-band properties of sonic crystals. Herein we introduce the concept of the antireflection coating into the sonic crystal-based devices. The efficiency of such accessorial structures is demonstrated well by an originally high reflection system. Promising perspectives can be anticipated in extending the antireflection coating layers into more general acoustic applications through a flexible design process.

  5. Polarization and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano structures on stainless steel with antireflection property

    Yao, Caizhen; Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Li, Yuan; Ding, Renjie; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Yuxin; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, micro/nano structures on stainless steel were prepared in single spot irradiation mode and scan mode by using femtosecond laser technique. The influence of polarization and fluence on the formation of micro/nano structures were explored. Surface morphology, microstructure, roughness and composition of prepared samples were characterized. The antireflection property and wettability of laser treated samples were also tested and compared with that of original stainless steel.Results showed that the laser-induced spot consists of two distinct regions due to the Gaussian beam profile: a core region of moth-eye-like structure and a peripheral region of nanoparticles-covered laser-induced periodic surface structure (NC-LIPSS). The proportion of the core region and dimension of micro/nano structure increase with increasing laser fluence. Polarization can be used to tune the direction of NC-LIPSS. Atomic ratios of Cr and Mn increase and atomic ratio of Ni decreases after laser irradiation. Oxygen is not detected on laser irradiated samples, indicating that oxidation reactions are not significant during the interaction process between femtosecond laser and 304 stainless steel. These are good for the application of stainless steel as its physical properties would not change or even enhanced. The overlaps between two laser scan lines significantly influence the surface roughness and should be controlled carefully during the preparation process. The laser irradiated surface has a better antireflection property in comparison with that of original stainless steel, which may due to the scattering and absorption of micro/nano structures. Contact angle of micro/nano structured stainless steel decreases with the increase of laser fluence. The hydrophilic property can be explained by Wenzel's model. The interference between the surface plasmon wave and the incident light wave leads to the formation of NC-LIPSS.

  6. Bright Single-Photon Sources Based on Anti-Reflection Coated Deterministic Quantum Dot Microlenses

    Peter Schnauber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency (PEE of deterministic quantum dot (QD microlenses via anti-reflection (AR coating. The AR-coating deposited on top of the curved microlens surface is composed of a thin layer of Ta2O5, and is found to effectively reduce back-reflection of light at the semiconductor-vacuum interface. A statistical analysis of spectroscopic data reveals, that the AR-coating improves the light out-coupling of respective microlenses by a factor of 1.57 ± 0.71, in quantitative agreement with numerical calculations. Taking the enhancement factor into account, we predict improved out-coupling of light with a PEE of up to 50%. The quantum nature of emission from QDs integrated into AR-coated microlenses is demonstrated via photon auto-correlation measurements revealing strong suppression of two-photon emission events with g(2(0 = 0.05 ± 0.02. As such, these bright non-classical light sources are highly attractive with respect to applications in the field of quantum cryptography.

  7. Design and Preparation of a Micro-Pyramid Structured Thin Film for Broadband Infrared Antireflection

    Shaobo Ge

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A micro-pyramid structured thin film with a broad-band infrared antireflection property is designed and fabricated by using the single-point diamond turning (SPDT technique and combined with nano-imprint lithography (NIL. A structure with dimensions of 10 μm pitch and 5 μm height is transferred from the copper mold to the silicon nitride optical film by using NIL and proportional inductively-coupled plasma (ICP etching. Reflectance of the micro-optical surface is reduced below 1.0% over the infrared spectral range (800–2500 nm. A finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD analysis indicates that this micro-structure can localize photons and enhance the absorption inside the micro-pyramid at long wavelengths. As described above, the micro-pyramid array has been integrated in an optical film successfully. Distinguishing from the traditional micro-optical components, considering the effect of refraction and diffraction, it is a valuable and flexible method to take account of the interference effect of optical film.

  8. Anti-reflection coatings for silicon solar cells from hydrogenated diamond like carbon

    Das, Debajyoti; Banerjee, Amit

    2015-08-01

    Aiming towards a specific application as antireflection coatings (ARC) in Si solar cells, the growth of hydrogenated diamond like carbon (HDLC) films, by RF magnetron sputtering, has been optimized through comprehensive optical and structural studies. Various physical properties of the films e.g., (ID/IG) ratio in the Raman spectra, percentage of sp3 hybridization in XPS spectra, H-content in the network, etc., have been correlated with different ARC application properties e.g., transmittance, reflectance, optical band gap, refractive index, surface roughness, etc. The ARC properties have been optimized on unheated substrates, through systematic variations of RF power, gas flow rate, gas pressure and finally controlled introduction of hydrogen to the DLC network at its most favorable plasma parameters. The optimum HDLC films possess (T700)max ∼ 95.8%, (R700)min ∼ 3.87%, (n700)min ∼ 1.62 along with simultaneous (Eg)max ∼ 2.53 eV and ∼75.6% of sp3 hybridization in the C-network, corresponding to a bonded H-content of ∼23 at.%. Encouraging improvements in the ARC properties over the optimized DLC film were obtained with the controlled addition of hydrogen, and the optimum HDLC films appear quite promising for applications in Si solar cells. Systematic materials development has been performed through comprehensive understanding of the parameter space and its optimization, as elaborately discussed.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF PLASMONIC AND DIELECTRIC INCLUSIONS ON ANTIREFLECTIVE PROPERTIES OF HOMOGENEOUS COATINGS FOR SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC STRUCTURES

    K. V. Baryshnikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. Theoretical analysis of the efficiency for the antireflective coatings based on plasmonic silver (Ag and dielectric silicon (Si nanoparticles is presented. We observe the increase of light absorption in the active layer, which is related to the optical resonant properties of considered nanoparticles. Characteristic property of the studied composite layer is its ability to combine the functions of electric contacts and anti-reflective coating. Method. Numerical calculations were performed in CST Microwave Studio with FDFD method (Finite Difference in Frequency Domain. The optical parameters of materials were extracted from the experimentally measured data available in literature. Geometrical parameters of composite layer – size and location of particles – were varied. Comparison of light absorption efficiency for different coatings on top of the active layer is presented: the homogeneous Indium Tin Oxide (ITO layer, ITO layer with the spherical nanoparticle inclusions on the ITO surface, ITO layer with spherical nanoparticle bulk inclusions. Periodical lattices of particles with sizes of range between 15 and 80 nm were considered. Nanoparticles of this size have dominant dipole response. Main Results. Numerical calculations have shown that nanoparticle inclusions cause significant deformation of the absorption spectra with appearing of resonant pecularities in the wavelength range equal to 300-800 nm. It originates from the nanoparticle resonant features, which are similar to the resonant features of isolated nanoparticles. Absorption in the active layer decreases sharply at the resonant wavelength. Resonant response of nanoparticles placed on the ITO surface differs significally from the isolated ones: the resonant frequency and Q-factor decrease. It was shown that absorption in the active layer decreases by 25 % when the size of Ag and Si particles increases. Ag nanoparticles, placed in ITO layer on top of the active layer

  10. Sol-gel derived antireflective coatings for silicon

    Brinker, C J; Harrington, M S

    1981-08-01

    The preparation of TiO2-SiO2 AR coatings, containing from 30 to 95 mol % TiO2, from alkoxide precursor solutions (titanium tetraethoxide and silicon tetraethoxide) by a sol-gel process is presented. The preparation of the solutions is described, which involves the separate partial hydrolysis of one or both alkoxides prior to their mixing (Yoldas, 1980). The solutions are applied to polished, circular (1 and 2 in. diameter) silicon wafers by a spinning process. The coated wafers are successively heated in air at each of the following temperatures: 200, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C, and optical measurements are performed on them after each heat treatment. The durability of 90 and 95% TiO2 coatings is evaluated in both acidic and basic environments, and reflectivity, film thickness, and refractive index are measured as a function of exposure time. It is shown that sol-gel films applied at 400 C reveal broad regions of antireflectance compared to other titanium-based films.

  11. Long term testing and evaluation of PV modules with and without Sunarc antireflective coating of the cover glass

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Han, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    Two Photovoltaic (PV) modules have been manufactured by Swemodule. One with Sunarc antireflective coated glass and one without glass surface treatment. The modules have been tested at DTU during 16 months under realistic outdoor conditions. Exactly the same polycrystalline cells were used...... in the modules. No cleaning of the glass has been made except for removal of bird droppings and leaves on single cells that could give a very wrong comparison. The PV modules were mounted due south at 45 degree tilt angle. They were connected to the electric grid with small 250W module inverters from Involar...... that also realized the MPP tracking to give the maximum output of each module. The electric power output was measured both on the AC and DC side and with different measurement equipment to be sure about the accuracy in improvement. The results indicate a potential long term improvement in a system from 3...

  12. Nanostructured antistatic and antireflective thin films made of indium tin oxide and silica over-coat layer

    Cho, Young-Sang; Hong, Jeong-Jin; Yang, Seung-Man; Choi, Chul-Jin

    2010-08-01

    Stable dispersion of colloidal indium tin oxide nanoparticles was prepared by using indium tin oxide nanopowder, organic solvent, and suitable dispersants through attrition process. Various comminution parameters during the attrition step were studied to optimize the process for the stable dispersion of indium tin oxide sol. The transparent and conductive films were fabricated on glass substrate using the indium tin oxide sol by spin coating process. To obtain antireflective function, partially hydrolyzed alkyl silicate was deposited as over-coat layer on the pre-fabricated indium tin oxide film by spin coating technique. This double-layered structure of the nanostructured film was characterized by measuring the surface resistance and reflectance spectrum in the visible wavelength region. The final film structure was enough to satisfy the TCO regulations for EMI shielding purposes.

  13. Non-Vacuum Processed Polymer Composite Antireflection Coating Films for Silicon Solar Cells

    Abdullah Uzum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-vacuum processing method for preparing polymer-based ZrO2/TiO2 multilayer structure antireflection coating (ARC films for crystalline silicon solar cells by spin coating is introduced. Initially, ZrO2, TiO2 and surface deactivated-TiO2 (SD-TiO2 based films were examined separately and the effect of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 film on the reflectivity on silicon surface was investigated. Degradation of the reflectance performance with increasing reflectivity of up to 2% in the ultraviolet region was confirmed. No significant change of the reflectance was observed when utilizing SD-TiO2 and ZrO2 films. Average reflectance (between 300 nm–1100 nm of the silicon surface coated with optimized polymer-based ZrO2 single or ZrO2/SD-TiO2 multilayer composite films was decreased down to 6.5% and 5.5%, respectively. Improvement of photocurrent density (Jsc and conversion efficiency (η of fabricated silicon solar cells owing to the ZrO2/SD-TiO2 multilayer ARC could be confirmed. The photovoltaic properties of Jsc, the open-circuit photo voltage (VOC, the fill factor (FF, and the η were 31.42 mA cm−2, 575 mV, 71.5% and 12.91%. Efficiency of the solar cells was improved by the ZrO2-polymer/SD-TiO2 polymer ARC composite layer by a factor of 0.8% with an increase of Jsc (2.07 mA cm−2 compared to those of fabricated without the ARC.

  14. Biomimetic Moth-eye Nanofabrication: Enhanced Antireflection with Superior Self-cleaning Characteristic.

    Sun, Jingyao; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chong; Shen, Jingjing; Cooper, Merideth A; Zheng, Xiuting; Liu, Ying; Yang, Zhaogang; Wu, Daming

    2018-04-03

    Sub-wavelength antireflection moth-eye structures were fabricated with Nickel mold using Roll-to-Plate (R2P) ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) on transparent polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Samples with well replicated patterns established an average reflection of 1.21% in the visible light range, 380 to 760 nm, at normal incidence. An excellent antireflection property of a wide range of incidence angles was shown with the average reflection below 4% at 50°. Compared with the unpatterned ultraviolet-curable resin coating, the resulting sub-wavelength moth-eye structure also exhibited increased hydrophobicity in addition to antireflection. This R2P method is especially suitable for large-area product preparation and the biomimetic moth-eye structure with multiple performances can be applied to optical devices such as display screens, solar cells, or light emitting diodes.

  15. Improved HgCdTe detectors with novel antireflection coating

    Babu, Sachi R.; Hu, Kelley; Manthripragada, Sridhar; Martineau, Robert J.; Kotecki, C. A.; Peters, F. A.; Burgess, A. S.; Krebs, Danny J.; Mott, David B.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Miles, A.; Nguyen, Trang L.; Shu, Peter K.

    1996-10-01

    The composite infrared spctrometer (CIRS) is an important instrument for the upcoming Cassini mission for sensing infrared (IR) radiation from the Saturanian planetary system. We have delivered a linear, ten element, mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) photoconductive detector array for use on focal plane 3 (FP3), which is responsible for detecting radiation from the 9.1 micrometer to 16.6 micrometer wavelength range. Reliable HgCdTe detectors require robust passivation, a low-stress zinc sulfide (ZnS) anti-reflection (AR) coating with good adhesion, and a proper optical cavity design to smooth out the resonance in the detector spectral response. During the development of CIRS flight array, we have demonstrated the potential of using an in-situ interfacial layer, such as SiN(subscript x), between ZnS and the anodic oxide. Such an interfacial layer drastically improves the adhesion between the ZnS and oxide, without degrading the minority carrier lifetime. We have also demonstrated the feasibility of applying a SiN(subscript x) 'rain coat' layer over the ZnS to prevent moisture and other chemicals from attacking the AR coating, thus improving the long term reliability. This also enables device operation in a hazardous environment. The alumina/epoxy/HgCdTe/oxide/ZnS structure is a complicated multi-cavity optical system. We have developed an extensive device simulation, which enables us to make the optimal choice of individual cavity thickness for minimizing the resonance and maximizing the quantum efficiency. We have also used 0.05 micrometer alumina powder loaded epoxy to minimize the reflections at the epoxy/HgCdTe interface, thus minimizing the resonance.

  16. The role of random nanostructures for the omnidirectional anti-reflection properties of the glasswing butterfly

    Siddique, Radwanul Hasan; Gomard, Guillaume; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    The glasswing butterfly (Greta oto) has, as its name suggests, transparent wings with remarkable low haze and reflectance over the whole visible spectral range even for large view angles of 80°. This omnidirectional anti-reflection behaviour is caused by small nanopillars covering the transparent regions of its wings. In difference to other anti-reflection coatings found in nature, these pillars are irregularly arranged and feature a random height and width distribution. Here we simulate the optical properties with the effective medium theory and transfer matrix method and show that the random height distribution of pillars significantly reduces the reflection not only for normal incidence but also for high view angles.

  17. Si{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material studied by an atomic force microscope nano-tip

    Liu Yanbo; Min Guoquan; Zhang Jing; Zhou Weimin; Wan Yongzhong; Zhang Jianping; Li Xiaoli [Laboratory of Nano-Technology, Shanghai Nanotechnology Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang Ting; Niu Xiaoming; Song Zhitang; Feng Songlin, E-mail: liuyanbo@snpc.org.c, E-mail: tzhang@mail.sim.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2009-06-01

    The Si{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material has been studied by applying a nano-tip (30 nm in diameter) on an atomic force microscopy system. Memory switching from a high resistance state to a low resistance state has been achieved, with a resistance change of about 1000 times. In a typical I-V curve, the current increases significantly after the voltage exceeds approx4.3 V. The phase transformation of a Si{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film was studied in situ by means of in situ X-ray diffraction and temperature dependent resistance measurements. The thermal stability of Si{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} was characterized and compared as well.

  18. Plasmonic 3D-structures based on silver decorated nanotips for biological sensing

    Coluccio, M. L.; Francardi, M.; Gentile, F.; Candeloro, P.; Ferrara, L.; Perozziello, G.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progresses in nanotechnology fabrication gives the opportunity to build highly functional nano-devices. 3D structures based on noble metals or covered by them can be realized down to the nano-scales, obtaining different devices with the functionalities of plasmonic nano-lenses or nano-probes. Here, nano-cones decorated with silver nano-grains were fabricated using advanced nano-fabrication techniques. In fabricating the cones, the angle of the apex was varied over a significant range and, in doing so, different geometries were realized. In depositing the silver nano-particles, the concentration of solution was varied, whereby different growth conditions were realized. The combined effect of tip geometry and growth conditions influences the size and distribution of the silver nano grains. The tips have the ability to guide or control the growth of the grains, in the sense that the nano-particles would preferentially distribute along the cone, and especially at the apex of the cone, with no o minor concentration effects on the substrate. The arrangement of metallic nano-particles into three-dimensional (3D) structures results in a Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) device with improved interface with analytes compared to bi-dimensional arrays of metallic nanoparticles. In the future, similar devices may find application in microfluidic devices, and in general in flow chambers, where the system can be inserted as to mimic a a nano-bait, for the recognition of specific biomarkers, or the manipulation and chemical investigation of single cells directly in native environments with good sensitivity, repeatability and selectivity.

  19. Plasmonic 3D-structures based on silver decorated nanotips for biological sensing

    Coluccio, M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Recent progresses in nanotechnology fabrication gives the opportunity to build highly functional nano-devices. 3D structures based on noble metals or covered by them can be realized down to the nano-scales, obtaining different devices with the functionalities of plasmonic nano-lenses or nano-probes. Here, nano-cones decorated with silver nano-grains were fabricated using advanced nano-fabrication techniques. In fabricating the cones, the angle of the apex was varied over a significant range and, in doing so, different geometries were realized. In depositing the silver nano-particles, the concentration of solution was varied, whereby different growth conditions were realized. The combined effect of tip geometry and growth conditions influences the size and distribution of the silver nano grains. The tips have the ability to guide or control the growth of the grains, in the sense that the nano-particles would preferentially distribute along the cone, and especially at the apex of the cone, with no o minor concentration effects on the substrate. The arrangement of metallic nano-particles into three-dimensional (3D) structures results in a Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) device with improved interface with analytes compared to bi-dimensional arrays of metallic nanoparticles. In the future, similar devices may find application in microfluidic devices, and in general in flow chambers, where the system can be inserted as to mimic a a nano-bait, for the recognition of specific biomarkers, or the manipulation and chemical investigation of single cells directly in native environments with good sensitivity, repeatability and selectivity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Indoor measurement of angle resolved light absorption by antireflective glass in solar panels

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    measurements with trackers. The experimental results showed optical responses that are stable and suitable for indoor characterization of solar cells. We find the characteristic optical response of six different antireflective glasses, and based on such measurements, we perform PVsyst simulations and present...

  1. Fabrication of p-n heterostructure ZnO/Si moth-eye structures: Antireflection, enhanced charge separation and photocatalytic properties

    Zeng, Yu; Chen, XiFang; Yi, Zao; Yi, Yougen; Xu, Xibin

    2018-05-01

    The pyramidal silicon substrate is formed by wet etching, then ZnO nanorods are grown on the surface of the pyramidal microstructure by a hydrothermal method to form a moth-eye composite heterostructure. The composite heterostructure of this material determines its excellent anti-reflection properties and ability to absorb light from all angles. In addition, due to the effective heterojunction binding area, the composite micro/nano structure has excellent photoelectric conversion performance. Its surface structure and the large specific surface area gives the material super hydrophilicity, excellent gas sensing characteristic, and photocatalytic properties. Based on the above characteristics, the micro/nano heterostructure can be used in solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and photocatalytic fields.

  2. Scale-up of Nano-Engineered Anti-Reflection Coating Process for Large Plastic Optics, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a recently completed NASA SBIR program, Agiltron and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a novel nanoporous UV anti-reflection coating technology...

  3. Lithography-Free Fabrication of Large Area Subwavelength Antireflection Structures Using Thermally Dewetted Pt/Pd Alloy Etch Mask

    Kang Jeong-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have demonstrated lithography-free, simple, and large area fabrication method for subwavelength antireflection structures (SAS to achieve low reflectance of silicon (Si surface. Thin film of Pt/Pd alloy on a Si substrate is melted and agglomerated into hemispheric nanodots by thermal dewetting process, and the array of the nanodots is used as etch mask for reactive ion etching (RIE to form SAS on the Si surface. Two critical parameters, the temperature of thermal dewetting processes and the duration of RIE, have been experimentally studied to achieve very low reflectance from SAS. All the SAS have well-tapered shapes that the refractive index may be changed continuously and monotonously in the direction of incident light. In the wavelength range from 350 to 1800 nm, the measured reflectance of the fabricated SAS averages out to 5%. Especially in the wavelength range from 550 to 650 nm, which falls within visible light, the measured reflectance is under 0.01%.

  4. Understanding deviations in lithographic patterns near interfaces: Characterization of bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARC) and the BARC resist interface

    Lenhart, Joseph L.; Fischer, Daniel; Sambasivan, Sharadha; Lin, Eric K.; Wu, Wen-Li; Guerrero, Douglas J.; Wang, Yubao; Puligadda, Rama

    2007-02-01

    Interactions between a bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) and a photoresist can critically impact lithographic patterns. For example, a lithographic pattern can shrink or spread near a BARC interface, a process called undercutting or footing respectively, due to incompatibility between the two materials. Experiments were conducted on two industrial BARC coatings in an effort to determine the impact of BARC surface chemistry on the footing and undercutting phenomena. The BARC coatings were characterized by near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), contact angle measurements, and neutron and X-ray reflectivity. Contact angle measurement using a variety of fluids showed that the fluid contact angles were independent of the type of BARC coating or the BARC processing temperature. NEXAFS measurements showed that the surface chemistry of each BARC was also independent of the processing temperature. These results suggest that acid-base interactions at the BARC-resist interface are not the cause of the footing-undercutting phenomena encountered in lithographic patterns.

  5. Deposition of gold nanoparticles from colloid on TiO2 surface

    Rehacek, Vlastimil; Hotovy, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, experimental results are presented on the deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles on the surfaces of TiO2 prepared on silicon/silicon dioxide. Important procedures, such as titanium dioxide surface hydrophilization as well as functionalization by an organosilane coupling agent (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane were investigated in order to obtain a metal oxide surface with the most convenient properties for immobilization of gold nanoparticles having a dense and uniform distribution. TiO2 nanotips prepared by reactive ion etching of oxide surface covered with self-mask gold nanoparticles are demonstrated.

  6. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres with C18-TEOS

    Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Lan, Wen-Lin; Chen, Nien-Po; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres applied to cover glass by using the optimal spin-coating method. Because of the hydrolysis and condensation reactions between the SiO2 nanosphere antireflection (AR) coating and n-octadecyltriethoxysilane solution (C18-TEOS), the contact angle of the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment is improved approximately 38%, and the moisture-resistance remains unchanged, which preserved similar transmittance for six weeks. Furthermore, the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment exhibits approximately 3% and 7% improvement in the transmittance at normal and oblique incidence, respectively. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional AR coating with nanoscale SiO2 particles can be fabricated using the proposed simple and economical method.

  7. 3-D Printed Anti-Reflection Structures for the Terahertz Region

    Bomba, Jarosław; Suszek, Jarosław; Makowski, Michał; Sobczyk, Artur; Sypek, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz radiation has a growing number of applications in material characterization, where spectral fingerprinting and diffractive effects are the carriers of information. On the other hand, electromagnetic waves in the range of millimeters exhibit strong unwanted specular reflections, resulting in uncontrolled interferences. This problem is especially disturbing in the goniometric time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) configuration, where angular distribution of the field modified by the sample is altered by unwanted reflections. For this reason, low-cost anti-reflection layers are desired. Here, we present a simple way of designing and manufacturing one-sided and two-sided anti-reflection polyamide layers for the THz range. The structures were fabricated using 3-D printers based on selective laser sintering. We demonstrate experimentally in the goniometric time-domain spectroscopy the significant reduction of wavelength-dependent oscillations in Fabry-Perot configuration in the range between 0.1 and 0.3 THz. We also examine the influence of the anti-reflection layers on the distribution of THz energy in reflected, transmitted, and diffracted fields.

  8. Analysis of an anti-reflecting nanowire transparent electrode for solar cells

    Zhao, Zhexin; Wang, Ken Xingze; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-03-01

    Transparent electrodes are an important component in many optoelectronic devices, especially solar cells. In this paper, we investigate a nanowire transparent electrode that also functions as an anti-reflection coating for silicon solar cells, taking into account the practical constraints that the electrode is typically encapsulated and needs to be in electric contact with the semiconductor. Numerical simulations show that the electrode can provide near-perfect broadband anti-reflection over much of the frequency range above the silicon band gap for both polarizations while keeping the sheet resistance sufficiently low. To provide insights into the physics mechanism of this broadband anti-reflection, we introduce a generalized Fabry-Perot model, which captures the effects of the higher order diffraction channels as well as the modification of the reflection coefficient of the interface introduced by the nanowires. This model is validated using frequency-domain electromagnetic simulations. Our work here provides design guidelines for nanowire transparent electrode in a device configuration that is relevant for solar cell applications.

  9. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  10. Performance of a solar collector with antireflection treated glass cover

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    The spectral transmittances of two different glass types have been measured in a spectrophotometer. Both glass types have been investigated with and without a Sunarc anti reflection surface (AR surface). The transmittance data for the AR treated samples have been used as input to the AR treatment...

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Antireflective ZnO Nanoparticles Coatings Used for Energy Improving Efficiency of Silicone Solar Cells

    Pîslaru-Dǎnescu, Lucian; Chitanu, Elena; El-Leathey, Lucia-Andreea; Marinescu, Virgil; Marin, Dorian; Sbârcea, Beatrice-Gabriela

    2018-03-01

    The paper proposes a new and complex process for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antireflective coating corresponding to silicone solar cells applications. The process consists of two major steps: preparation of seed layer and hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanoparticles. Due to the fact that the seed layer morphology influences the ZnO nanoparticles proprieties, the process optimization of the seed layer preparation is necessary. Following the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanoparticles, antireflective coating of silicone solar cells is achieved. After determining the functional parameters of the solar cells provided either with glass or with ZnO, it is concluded that all the parameters values are superior in the case of solar cells with ZnO antireflection coating and are increasing along with the solar irradiance.

  12. Imprinted and injection-molded nano-structured optical surfaces

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, nanostructured polymer surfaces suitable for up-scalable polymer replication methods, such as imprinting/embossing and injection-molding, are discussed. The limiting case of injection-moulding compatible designs is investigated. Anti-reflective polymer surfaces are realized by replication...

  13. Antireflective bilayer coatings based on Al2O3 film for UV region

    Marszałek Konstanty; Winkowski Paweł; Marszałek Marta

    2015-01-01

    Bilayer antireflective coatings consisting of aluminium oxide Al2O3/MgF2 and Al2O3/SiO2 are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-3 Pa in the presence of oxygen, and magnesium fluoride was prepared by thermal evaporation on heated optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Substrate temperature was maintained at 250 _C during the deposition. Thickness and deposition rate were controlled with a thickness measuring syste...

  14. Epoxy-based broadband anti-reflection coating for millimeter-wave optics

    Rosen, Darin; Suzuki, Aritoki; Keating, Brian; Krantz, William; Lee, Adrian T.; Quealy, Erin; Richards, Paul L.; Siritanasak, Praween; Walker, William

    2013-01-01

    We have developed epoxy-based, broadband anti-reflection coatings for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics. By using multiple-layer coatings where each layer steps in dielectric constant, we achieved low reflection over a wide bandwidth. We suppressed the reflection from an alumina disk to 10% over fractional bandwidths of 92% and 104% using two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively. The dielectric constants of epoxies were tuned between 2.06 and 7.44 by mixin...

  15. Anti-reflecting and passivating coatings for silicon solar cells on a basis of SO2 and TiO2 layers

    Taurbaev, T.I.; Nikulin, V.Eh.; Shorin, V.F.; Topanov, B.G.; Dikhanbaev, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of influence of passivating layer on performance of anti-reflection coating of solar cells is carried out. The introduction of passivating SiO 2 layer between a frontal surface of the solar cell and TiO 2 +SiO 2 anti-reflection coating increase total reflection. If a thickness of a passivating layer no more than 20 Angstrom an increase of reflection does not exceed 0.5 %. However, for effective passivation the thickness of the passivating layer has to be within 100-1000 Angstrom region, thus the interference contribution of the passivating layer becomes essential and the AC is necessary to calculate as triple system SiO 2 -TiO 2 -SiO 2 . Such the three layers system ensuring average coefficient of reflection less of 3.5 % in a range 0.4-1.1 μm if the thickness of passivating SiO 2 layer no more 200 Angstrom. For solar cells with passivating SiO 2 layer thickness of 100 Angstrom and protective glass of non-interference thickness the single layer AC from TiO 2 allows to receive average value of reflection coefficient for a spectral range 0.4-1.1 μm no more than 9.5 %. The introduction of two additional layers SiO 2 and TiO 2 allows to reduce this value on 2.0-3.0 %. The comparison of calculation and experimental results is given. (author)

  16. Novel conformal organic antireflective coatings for advanced I-line lithography

    Deshpande, Shreeram V.; Nowak, Kelly A.; Fowler, Shelly; Williams, Paul; Arjona, Mikko

    2001-08-01

    Flash memory chips are playing a critical role in semiconductor devices due to increased popularity of hand held electronic communication devices such as cell phones and PDAs (personal Digital Assistants). Flash memory offers two primary advantages in semiconductor devices. First, it offers flexibility of in-circuit programming capability to reduce the loss from programming errors and to significantly reduce commercialization time to market for new devices. Second, flash memory has a double density memory capability through stacked gate structures which increases the memory capability and thus saves significantly on chip real estate. However, due to stacked gate structures the requirements for manufacturing of flash memory devices are significantly different from traditional memory devices. Stacked gate structures also offer unique challenges to lithographic patterning materials such as Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) compositions used to achieve CD control and to minimize standing wave effect in photolithography. To be applicable in flash memory manufacturing a BARC should form a conformal coating on high topography of stacked gate features as well as provide the normal anti-reflection properties for CD control. In this paper we report on a new highly conformal advanced i-line BARC for use in design and manufacture of flash memory devices. Conformal BARCs being significantly thinner in trenches than the planarizing BARCs offer the advantage of reducing BARC overetch and thus minimizing resist thickness loss.

  17. Porous Nanomaterials for Ultrabroadband Omnidirectional Anti-Reflection Surfaces with Applications in High Concentration Photovoltaics

    Yao, Yuan; Lee, Kyu Tae; Sheng, Xing; Batara, Nicolas A.; Hong, Nina; He, Junwen; Xu, Lu; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Atwater, Harry A.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Materials for nanoporous coatings that exploit optimized chemistries and self-assembly processes offer capabilities to reach ≈98% transmission efficiency and negligible scattering losses over the broad wavelength range of the solar spectrum from 350

  18. Invited Article: Narrowband terahertz bandpass filters employing stacked bilayer metasurface antireflection structures

    Chang, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Li; Nogan, John; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate high-performance narrowband terahertz (THz) bandpass filters through cascading multiple bilayer metasurface antireflection structures. Each bilayer metasurface, consisting of a square array of silicon pillars with a self-aligned top gold resonator-array and a complementary bottom gold slot-array, enables near-zero reflection and simultaneously close-to-unity single-band transmission at designed operational frequencies in the THz spectral region. The THz bandpass filters based on stacked bilayer metasurfaces allow a fairly narrow, high-transmission passband, and a fast roll-off to an extremely clean background outside the passband, thereby providing superior bandpass performance. The demonstrated scheme of narrowband THz bandpass filtering is of great importance for a variety of applications where spectrally clean, high THz transmission over a narrow bandwidth is desired, such as THz spectroscopy and imaging, molecular detection and monitoring, security screening, and THz wireless communications.

  19. Anti-reflective polymer-nanocomposite coatings fabricated by RIR-MAPLE

    Singaravalu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Haglund, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    There is increasing demand for functional polymeric optical coatings for plastic substrates. In the case of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, this is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. We synthesized a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer:nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrixassisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE). An Er:YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and PMMA, alternating with a low-index solution of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with relative transmission over 94%, scattering less than 5% and a reflection coefficient below 0.8% across the visible range.

  20. An Antireflective Nanostructure Array Fabricated by Nanosilver Colloidal Lithography on a Silicon Substrate

    Park Seong-Je

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An alternative method is presented for fabricating an antireflective nanostructure array using nanosilver colloidal lithography. Spin coating was used to produce the multilayered silver nanoparticles, which grew by self-assembly and were transformed into randomly distributed nanosilver islands through the thermodynamic action of dewetting and Oswald ripening. The average size and coverage rate of the islands increased with concentration in the range of 50–90 nm and 40–65%, respectively. The nanosilver islands were critically affected by concentration and spin speed. The effects of these two parameters were investigated, after etching and wet removal of nanosilver residues. The reflection nearly disappeared in the ultraviolet wavelength range and was 17% of the reflection of a bare silicon wafer in the visible range.

  1. Scalable Production of Mechanically Robust Antireflection Film for Omnidirectional Enhanced Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Wang, Min; Ma, Pengsha; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Lin, Yinyue; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Jia, Wei; Cao, Xinmin; Chang, Paichun; Li, Dongdong

    2017-09-01

    Antireflection (AR) at the interface between the air and incident window material is paramount to boost the performance of photovoltaic devices. 3D nanostructures have attracted tremendous interest to reduce reflection, while the structure is vulnerable to the harsh outdoor environment. Thus the AR film with improved mechanical property is desirable in an industrial application. Herein, a scalable production of flexible AR films is proposed with microsized structures by roll-to-roll imprinting process, which possesses hydrophobic property and much improved robustness. The AR films can be potentially used for a wide range of photovoltaic devices whether based on rigid or flexible substrates. As a demonstration, the AR films are integrated with commercial Si-based triple-junction thin film solar cells. The AR film works as an effective tool to control the light travel path and utilize the light inward more efficiently by exciting hybrid optical modes, which results in a broadband and omnidirectional enhanced performance.

  2. Highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water-related energy reinforced by antireflection coating

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Gu, Yousong; Zhang, Kui; Liang, Mengyuan; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Water-related energy is an inexhaustible and renewable energy resource in our environment, which has huge amount of energy and is not largely dictated by daytime and sunlight. The transparent characteristic plays a key role in practical applications for some devices designed for harvesting water-related energy. In this paper, a highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator (T-TENG) was designed to harvest the electrostatic energy from flowing water. The instantaneous output power density of the T-TENG is 11.56 mW/m2. Moreover, with the PTFE film acting as an antireflection coating, the maximum transmittance of the fabricated T-TENG is 87.4%, which is larger than that of individual glass substrate. The T-TENG can be integrated with silicon-based solar cell, building glass and car glass, which demonstrates its potential applications for harvesting waste water energy in our living environment and on smart home system and smart car system.

  3. Broad-band anti-reflection coupler for a : Si thin-film solar cell

    Lo, S.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Garwe, Frank; Pertch, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This work numerically demonstrates a new anti-reflection coupler (ARC) with high coupling efficiency in a Si substrate solar cell. The ARC in which the grating is integrated on a glass encapsulation and a three-layer impedance match layer is proposed. A coupling efficiency of 90% is obtained at wavelengths between 350 and 1200 nm in the TE and TM modes when the incident angle is less than 30 0 . In comparison with a 1μm absorber layer, the integrated absorption of an a-Si thin-film solar cell without a new ARC is doubled, at long wavelengths (750 nm ≤ λ ≤ 1200 nm), as calculated by FDTD method

  4. Epoxy-based broadband antireflection coating for millimeter-wave optics.

    Rosen, Darin; Suzuki, Aritoki; Keating, Brian; Krantz, William; Lee, Adrian T; Quealy, Erin; Richards, Paul L; Siritanasak, Praween; Walker, William

    2013-11-20

    We have developed epoxy-based, broadband antireflection coatings for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics. By using multiple-layer coatings where each layer steps in dielectric constant, we achieved low reflection over a wide bandwidth. We suppressed the reflection from an alumina disk to 10% over fractional bandwidths of 92% and 104% using two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively. The dielectric constants of epoxies were tuned between 2.06 and 7.44 by mixing three types of epoxy and doping with strontium titanate powder required for the high dielectric mixtures. At 140 K, the band-integrated absorption loss in the coatings was suppressed to less than 1% for the two-layer coating, and below 10% for the three-layer coating.

  5. Self-organized antireflection CuIn(S,Se)_2 nano-protrusions on flexible substrates by ion erosion based on CuInS_2 nanocrystal precursor inks

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yi-Chung; Chen, Chia-Wei; Tsai, Hung-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ze; Hu, Fan; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuIn(S,Se)_2 nano-protrusions were demonstrated on 36-cm"2 flexible substrates. • Nano-protrusions were created by ion erosion on selenized CuInS_2 nanocrystal precursor inks. • Tilt orientations and remarkable anti-reflectance characteristics of nano-protrusions can be precisely controlled. - Abstract: In this work, an approach to achieve surface nano-protrusions on a chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se)_2 thin film was demonstrated. Home-made CuInS_2 nanocrystals with average diameter of 20 nm were prepared and characterized. By applying ion erosion process on the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film, large-area self-aligned nano-protrusions can be formed. Interestingly, the process can be applied on flexible substrate where the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film remains intact with no visible cracking after several bending tests. In addition, reflectance spectra reveal the extraordinary anti-reflectance characteristics of nano-protrusions on the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film with the incident light from 350 to 2000 nm. A 36-cm"2 CuIn(S,Se)_2 film with nano-protrusions on flexible molybdenum foil substrate has been demonstrated, which demonstrated the feasibility of developing low cost with a high optical absorption CuIn(S,Se)_2 flexible thin film.

  6. Optical control of Young's type double-slit interferometer for laser-induced electron emission from a nano-tip

    Yanagisawa, H.; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Hafner, Ch.; Schoetz, J.; Osterwalder, J.; Kling, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Oct (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 12661. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : field-emission * holography * tungsten * transmission * TEM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  7. Performance of "Moth Eye" Anti-Reflective Coatings for Solar Cell Applications

    Clark, E.; Kane, M.; Jiang, P.

    2011-03-14

    An inexpensive, effective anti-reflective coating (ARC) has been developed at the University of Florida to significantly enhance the absorption of light by silicon in solar cells. This coating has nano-scale features, and its microstructure mimics that of various night active insects (e.g. a moth's eye). It is a square array of pillars, each about 700 nm high and having a diameter of about 300 nm. Samples of silicon having this coating were exposed either to various combinations of either elevated temperature and humidity or to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the Savannah River National Laboratory, or to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light and to a 532 nm laser light at the University of Florida. The anti-reflective properties of the coatings were unaffected by any of these environmental stresses, and the microstructure of the coating was also unaffected. In fact, the reflectivity of the gamma irradiated ARC became lower (advantageous for solar cell applications) at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. These results show that this coating is robust and should be tested in actual systems exposed to either weather or a space environment. Structural details of the ARCs were studied to optimize their performance. Square arrays performed better than hexagonal arrays - the natural moth-eye coating is indeed a square array. The optimal depth of the templated nanopillars in the ARC was investigated. A wet etching technology for ARC formation was developed that would be less expensive and much faster than dry etching. Theoretical modeling revealed that dimple arrays should perform better than nipple arrays. A method of fabricating both dimple and nipple arrays having the same length was developed, and the dimple arrays performed better than the nipple arrays, in agreement with the modeling. The commercial viability of the technology is quite feasible, since the technology is scalable and inexpensive. This technology is also compatible with current industrial

  8. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejón, V.; Oliva, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and CS(NH 2 ) 2 were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 °C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300–800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV–Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: ► High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). ► Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. ► Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  9. High Quality Bioreplication of Intricate Nanostructures from a Fragile Gecko Skin Surface with Bactericidal Properties

    Green, David William; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Watson, Jolanta Anna; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Jong-Min; Watson, Gregory Shaun; Jung, Han-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The external epithelial surfaces of plants and animals are frequently carpeted with small micro- and nanostructures, which broadens their adaptive capabilities in challenging physical habitats. Hairs and other shaped protuberances manage with excessive water, light contaminants, predators or parasites in innovative ways. We are interested in transferring these intricate architectures onto biomedical devices and daily-life surfaces. Such a project requires a very rapid and accurate small-scale fabrication process not involving lithography. In this study, we describe a simple benchtop biotemplating method using shed gecko lizard skin that generates duplicates that closely replicate the small nanotipped hairs (spinules) that cover the original skin. Synthetic replication of the spinule arrays in popular biomaterials closely matched the natural spinules in length. More significantly, the shape, curvature and nanotips of the synthetic arrays are virtually identical to the natural ones. Despite some small differences, the synthetic gecko skin surface resisted wetting and bacterial contamination at the same level as natural shed skin templates. Such synthetic gecko skin surfaces are excellent platforms to test for bacterial control in clinical settings. We envision testing the biocidal properties of the well-matched templates for fungal spores and viral resistance in biomedicine as well as co/multi-cultures.

  10. Triple Layer Antireflection Design Concept for the Front Side of c-Si Heterojunction Solar Cell Based on the Antireflective Effect of nc-3C-SiC:H Emitter Layer

    Erick Omondi Ateto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antireflective (AR effect of hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (nc-3C-SiC:H emitter and its application in the triple layer AR design for the front side of silicon heterojunction (SHJ solar cell. We found that the nc-3C-SiC:H emitter can serve both as an emitter and antireflective coating for SHJ solar cell, which enables us to realize the triple AR design by adding one additional dielectric layer to normally used SHJ structure with a transparent conductive oxide (TCO and an emitter layer. The optimized SHJ structure with the triple layer AR coating (LiF/ITO/nc-3C-SiC:H exhibit a short circuit current density (Jsc of 38.65 mA/cm2 and lower reflectivity of about 3.42% at wavelength range of 300 nm–1000 nm.

  11. Functional photocatalytically active and scratch resistant antireflective coating based on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}

    Mazur, M., E-mail: michal.mazur@pwr.edu.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Wojcieszak, D.; Kaczmarek, D.; Domaradzki, J. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Song, S.; Gibson, D.; Placido, F. [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, University of the West of Scotland, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, High Street, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Mazur, P. [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Max Born 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Kalisz, M. [Motor Transport Institute, Centre for Material Testing and Mechatronics, Jagiellonska 80, 03-301 Warsaw (Poland); Poniedzialek, A. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Designed multilayer was deposited by microwave assisted magnetron sputtering method. • AR coating in designed wavelength range had transmittance higher than 97%. • The AR multilayer was hydrophobic and photocatalytically active. • AR coating was scratch resistant. • Deposited multilayer had higher hardness than the glass substrate. - Abstract: Antireflection (AR) multilayer coating, based on combination of five TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} thin films, was deposited by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process on microscope glass substrates. In this work X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability measurements were used to characterize the structural and surface properties of the deposited coating. These studies revealed that prepared coating was amorphous with low surface roughness. Photocatalytic properties were determined based on phenol decomposition reaction. Measurements of optical properties showed that transmittance in the visible wavelength range was increased after the deposition of AR coating as-compared to bare glass substrate. The mechanical properties were determined on the basis of nano-indentation and scratch resistance tests. Performed research has shown that deposition of an additional thin 10 nm thick TiO{sub 2} thin film top layer, the prepared AR coating was photocatalytically active, hydrophobic, scratch resistant and had increased hardness as-compared to bare glass substrate. These results indicate that prepared AR multilayer could be used also as a self-cleaning and protective coating.

  12. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures

    Šály, V; Pern, M; Janíček, F; Mikolášek, M; Packa, J; Huran, J

    2017-01-01

    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements. (paper)

  13. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures

    Šály, V.; Perný, M.; Janíček, F.; Huran, J.; Mikolášek, M.; Packa, J.

    2017-04-01

    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements.

  14. Low-temperature grown indium oxide nanowire-based antireflection coatings for multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Wang, Yu-Cian; Chen, Chih-Yao; Chen, I Chen [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan (China); Kuo, Cheng-Wen; Kuan, Ta-Ming; Yu, Cheng-Yeh [TSEC Corporation, Hsinchu (China)

    2016-08-15

    Light harvesting by indium oxide nanowires (InO NWs) as an antireflection layer on multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells has been investigated. The low-temperature growth of InO NWs was performed in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma with an O{sub 2}-Ar system using indium nanocrystals as seed particles via the self-catalyzed growth mechanism. The size-dependence of antireflection properties of InO NWs was studied. A considerable enhancement in short-circuit current (from 35.39 to 38.33 mA cm{sup -2}) without deterioration of other performance parameters is observed for mc-Si solar cells coated with InO NWs. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Simple, Fast, and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wafer-Scale Nanohole Arrays on Silicon for Antireflection

    Di Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and cost-effective method was developed in this paper for the high-throughput fabrication of nanohole arrays on silicon (Si, which is utilized for antireflection. Wafer-scale polystyrene (PS monolayer colloidal crystal was developed as templates by spin-coating method. Metallic shadow mask was prepared by lifting off the oxygen etched PS beads from the deposited chromium film. Nanohole arrays were fabricated by Si dry etching. A series of nanohole arrays were fabricated with the similar diameter but with different depth. It is found that the maximum depth of the Si-hole was determined by the diameter of the Cr-mask. The antireflection ability of these Si-hole arrays was investigated. The results show that the reflection decreases with the depth of the Si-hole. The deepest Si-hole arrays show the best antireflection ability (reflection 600 nm, which was about 28 percent of the nonpatterned silicon wafer’s reflection. The proposed method has the potential for high-throughput fabrication of patterned Si wafer, and the low reflectivity allows the application of these wafers in crystalline silicon solar cells.

  16. Influence of etching process parameters on the antireflection property of Si SWSs by thermally dewetted Ag and Ag/SiO{sub 2} nanopatterns

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Min; Lee, Yong Tak [Department of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 500-712 Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The etching parameter dependent antireflection characteristics of disordered Si subwavelength structures (SWSs) by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching in a mixture gas of SiCl{sub 4}/Ar using thermally dewetted Ag and Ag/SiO{sub 2} nanopatterns are investigated. The average size and period of Si SWSs are closely correlated with thermal dewetting conditions. For desirable Ag nanoparticle patterns, the profile of Si SWSs is optimized by changing the ICP etching process parameters to obtain the lowest reflectance spectrum. The most tapered SWS with the highest height leads to a relatively low reflectance. The Ag nanopatterns result in more tapered and rough surface SWSs compared to the Ag/SiO{sub 2} nanopatterns, indicating a slightly reduced reflectance. The Si SWS etched using Ag nanopatterns by SiCl{sub 4}/Ar of 5 sccm/10 sccm at 50 W RF power, 200 W ICP power, and 10 mTorr process pressure exhibits a very low total reflectance of <{proportional_to}2.4% in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm, maintaining a specular reflectance of <16% at 350-1100 nm up to the incident angle of {theta}{sub i} = 50 . (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Design of a new bottom antireflective coating composition for KrF resist

    Mizutani, Kazuyoshi; Momota, Makoto; Aoai, Toshiaki; Yagihara, Morio

    1999-06-01

    A study for a new organic bottom antireflective coating (BARC) composition is described. A structural design of a light-absorbing dye was most important because dye structure not only plays a role in eliminating reflection from a substrate but also shows influence on dry etch rate of BARC material to a considerable extent. For example, an anthracene moiety with large absorption at 248 nm had undesirable dry etch resistance. 3-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid moiety was found to be one of suitable dyes for KrF BARC compositions, and the polymer bearing the dye showed enough absorbance and good erodability in dry etch. The BARC polymer was eroded as one and a half times faster than a novolak resin, and a little faster than an anthracene incorporated polymer. The result was discussed from the concepts of Ohnishi parameter and the ring parameter for dry etch durability of resist materials. BARC polymer should be thermoset by hard bake to eliminate intermixing with resist compositions. The BARC polymer bearing hydroxy group which is useful for a crosslinking reaction was thermoset in the presence of melamine-formaldehyde crosslinker and an acid catalyst after baking over 200 degrees C.

  18. Development of Nanostructured Antireflection Coatings for Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems

    Gopal G. Pethuraja

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic infrared technologies and systems operating from ultraviolet (UV to long-wave infrared (LWIR spectra are being developed for a variety of defense and commercial systems applications. Loss of a significant portion of the incident signal due to reflection limits the performance of electro-optic infrared (IR sensing systems. A critical technology being developed to overcome this limitation and enhance the performance of sensing systems is advanced antireflection (AR coatings. Magnolia is actively involved in the development and advancement of nanostructured AR coatings for a wide variety of defense and commercial applications. Ultrahigh AR performance has been demonstrated for UV to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. The AR coatings enhance the optical transmission through optical components and devices by significantly minimizing reflection losses, a substantial improvement over conventional thin-film AR coating technologies. Nanostructured AR coatings have been fabricated using a nanomanufacturable self-assembly process on substrates that are transparent for a given spectrum of interest ranging from UV to LWIR. The nanostructured multilayer structures have been designed, developed and optimized for various optoelectronic applications. The optical properties of optical components and sensor substrates coated with AR structures have been measured and the process parameters fine-tuned to achieve a predicted high level of performance. In this paper, we review our latest work on high quality nanostructure-based AR coatings, including recent efforts on the development of nanostructured AR coatings on IR substrates.

  19. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Mancuso M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% – 35% and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  20. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Mancuso, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Giuliani, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.; Tenconi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers) consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% - 35%) and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  1. Biomimetic nanostructures in ZnS and ZnSe provide broadband anti-reflectivity

    Chan, L.; DeCuir, E. A., Jr.; Fu, R.; Morse, D. E.; Gordon, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    Graded-index, moth eye-inspired anti-reflective features were fabricated in ZnS and ZnSe via nanosphere lithography using a Langmuir-Blodgett dip-coating method with plasma-based mask reduction and pattern transfer. Arrays of hexagonally close-packed conical frusta (top diameter = 300 nm, pitch = 690 nm, height = 2800 nm) were realized by isotropic etching (size-reduction) of the colloidal mask with CF4/Ar, followed by pattern transfer into the substrate using CH4/H2 plasma etching. Substantial increases in broadband transmission were achieved across the 2-20 μm range, yielding 23% and 26% single-side transmission improvement, and 92% and 88% absolute double-side transmission for ZnS and ZnSe, respectively, in excellent agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) optical simulations. Experimental differences in direct versus total transmission, and the general fall off of transmission at short wavelengths, were attributed to diffuse forward scattering and diffractive effects, as predicted by far-field scattering patterns using FDTD. The fabrication method presented can be used to enhance efficiency for multiple IR applications by minimizing reflective losses, while offering the further advantages of scalability and low cost.

  2. Titanium dioxide antireflection coating for silicon solar cells by spray deposition

    Kern, W.; Tracy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-speed production process is described for depositing a single-layer, quarter-wavelength thick antireflection coating of titanium dioxide on metal-patterned single-crystal silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. Controlled atomization spraying of an organotitanium solution was selected as the most cost-effective method of film deposition using commercial automated equipment. The optimal composition consists of titanium isopropoxide as the titanium source, n-butyl acetate as the diluent solvent, sec-butanol as the leveling agent, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to render the material uniformly depositable. Application of the process to the coating of circular, large-diameter solar cells with either screen-printed silver metallization or with vacuum-evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag metallization showed increases of over 40% in the electrical conversion efficiency. Optical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and several other important properties of the spray-deposited film are reported. Experimental evidence indicates a wide tolerance in the coating thickness upon the overall efficiency of the cell. Considerations pertaining to the optimization of AR coatings in general are discussed, and a comprehensive critical survey of the literature is presented.

  3. MULTI-ZONE ANTIREFLECTION COATING ON A SUBSTRATE MADE OF OPTICAL ZINC SULPHIDE

    T. D. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation technique for a multi-zone antireflection coating on a substrate made of the optical zinc sulphide ZnS. The coating effectively operates simultaneously in the following spectral ranges: visible region of 450 - 700 nm, in the near infrared region of 1000 - 1100 nm, at the wavelength of 1.55 μm, and in the mid-infrared (IR spectrum of 3 - 5 microns. Reflection coefficient in the range of 450 - 700 nm is not more than 2%, in the range of 1000 - 1100 nm is less than 0.5%, in the range of 1500 - 1700 nm is close to 1.5% and in the range of 3 - 5 μm is equal to 0.6%. Analysis results of the deviation impact in the thickness of layers on the value changing of the energy reflection coefficient in the considered areas are given. Deviation in the thickness of the layer, contiguous with the air, is shown to have the greatest effect on the spectral characteristics of the obtained coating. Refractive index deviation for this layer influences the magnitude of the residual reflection.

  4. Design and fabrication of anti-reflection coating on Gallium Phosphide, Zinc Selenide and Zinc Sulfide substrates for visible and infrared application

    Mokrý P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of design and fabrication of a dual-band anti-reflection coating on a gallium phosphide (GaP, zinc selenide (ZnSe and zinc sulfide (ZnS substrates are presented. A multilayer stack structure of antireflection coatings made of zinc sulfide and yttrium fluoride (YF3 was theoretically designed for optical bands between 0.8 and 0.9 μm and between 9.5 and 10.5 μm. This stack was designed as efficient for these materials (GaP, ZnS, ZnSe together. Multilayer stack structure was deposited using thermal evaporation method. Theoretically predicted transmittance spectra were compared with transmitted spectra measured on coated substrates. Efficiency of anti-reflection coating is estimated and discrepancies are analyzed and discussed.

  5. Antireflective bilayer coatings based on Al2O3 film for UV region

    Marszałek Konstanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer antireflective coatings consisting of aluminium oxide Al2O3/MgF2 and Al2O3/SiO2 are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-3 Pa in the presence of oxygen, and magnesium fluoride was prepared by thermal evaporation on heated optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS. Substrate temperature was maintained at 250 _C during the deposition. Thickness and deposition rate were controlled with a thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. The experimental results of the optical measurements carried out during and after the deposition process have been presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during the deposition process and resulted in 44 nm/52 nm for Al2O3/MgF2 and 44 nm/50 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 system. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region with minimum of reflectance at 300 nm. The influence of post deposition annealing on the crystal structure was determined by X-ray measurements. In the range from ultraviolet to the beginning of visible region, the reflectance of both systems decreased and reached minimum at 290 nm. The value of reflectance at this point, for the coating Al2O3/MgF2 was equal to R290nm = 0.6 % and for Al2O3/SiO2R290nm = 1.1 %. Despite the difference between these values both are sufficient for applications in the UV optical systems for medicine and UV laser technology.

  6. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, J. M.; Kelley, M. J.; Haglund, R. F.

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer:nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er:YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering nanocomposite.

  7. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Dellieu, Louis, E-mail: louis.dellieu@unamur.be; Sarrazin, Michaël, E-mail: michael.sarrazin@unamur.be; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Department of Physics, University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  8. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  9. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-01-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  10. SiO2 Antireflection Coatings Fabricated by Electron-Beam Evaporation for Black Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Minghua Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we prepared double-layer antireflection coatings (DARC by using the SiO2/SiNx:H heterostructure design. SiO2 thin films were deposited by electron-beam evaporation on the conventional solar cell with SiNx:H single-layer antireflection coatings (SARC, while to avoid the coverage of SiO2 on the front side busbars, a steel mask was utilized as the shelter. The thickness of the SiNx:H as bottom layer was fixed at 80 nm, and the varied thicknesses of the SiO2 as top layer were 105 nm and 122 nm. The results show that the SiO2/SiNx:H DARC have a much lower reflectance and higher external quantum efficiency (EQE in short wavelengths compared with the SiNx:H SARC. A higher energy conversion efficiency of 17.80% was obtained for solar cells with SiO2 (105 nm/SiNx:H (80 nm DARC, an absolute conversion efficiency increase of 0.32% compared with the conventional single SiNx:H-coated cells.

  11. One-Pot Fabrication of Antireflective/Antibacterial Dual-Function Ag NP-Containing Mesoporous Silica Thin Films.

    Wang, Kaikai; He, Junhui

    2018-04-04

    Thin films that integrate antireflective and antibacterial dual functions are not only scientifically interesting but also highly desired in many practical applications. Unfortunately, very few studies have been devoted to the preparation of thin films with both antireflective and antibacterial properties. In this study, mesoporous silica (MSiO 2 ) thin films with uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared through a one-pot process, which simultaneously shows high transmittance, excellent antibacterial activity, and mechanical robustness. The optimal thin-film-coated glass substrate demonstrates a maximum transmittance of 98.8% and an average transmittance of 97.1%, respectively, in the spectral range of 400-800 nm. The growth and multiplication of typical bacteria, Escherichia coli ( E. coli), were effectively inhibited on the coated glass. Pencil hardness test, tape adhesion test, and sponge washing test showed favorable mechanical robustness with 5H pencil hardness, 5A grade adhesion, and functional durability of the coating, which promises great potential for applications in various touch screens, windows for hygiene environments, and optical apparatuses for medical uses such as endoscope, and so on.

  12. Wide band antireflective coatings Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 for UV region

    Winkowski, P.; Marszałek, Konstanty W.

    2013-07-01

    Deposition technology of the three layers antireflective coatings consists of hafnium compound are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5x10-5 mbar in presence of oxygen and fluoride films by thermal evaporation. Substrate temperature was 250°C. Coatings were deposited onto optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Thickness and deposition rate were controlled by thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. Simulations leading to optimization of thickness and experimental results of optical measurements carried during and after deposition process were presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during deposition process and were equal to 43 nm/74 nm/51 nm for Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 respectively. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region from 230nm to the beginning of visible region 400 nm. In this region the average reflectance of the antireflective coating was less than 0.5% in the whole range of application.

  13. Dual functional porous anti-reflective coatings with a photocatalytic effect based on a single layer system

    Jilavi, M. H.; Mousavi, S. H.; Müller, T. S.; de Oliveira, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    Anti-reflection and photocatalytic properties are desirable for improving the optical properties of electronic devices. We describe a method of fabrication a single-layer, anti-reflective (AR) thin film with an additional photocatalytic property. The layer is deposited on glass substrates by means of a low-cost dip-coating method using a SiO2-TiO2 solution. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the effects of TiO2 concentrations on the photocatalytic properties of the film and to determine the optimal balance between transmittance and photocatalysis. The average transmittance increases from T = 90.51% to T = 95.46 ± 0.07% for the wavelengths between 380 and 1200 nm. The structural characterization indicated the formation of thin, porous SiO2-TiO2 films with a roughness of less than 7.5 nm. The quality of the samples was evaluated by a complete test program of the mechanical, chemical and accelerated weathering stability. This results open up new possibilities for cost-effective AR coatings for the glass and solar cell industries.

  14. Self-organized, effective medium black silicon antireflection structures for silicon optics in the mid-infrared

    Steglich, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to its high quality and low cost, silicon is the material of choice for optical devices operating in the mid-infrared (MIR; 2 μm to 6 μm wavelength). Unfortunately in this spectral region, the refractive index is comparably high (about 3.5) and leads to severe reflection losses of about 30% per interface. In this work, we demonstrate that self-organized, statistical Black Silicon structures, fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE), can be used to effectively suppress interface reflection. More importantly, it is shown that antireflection can be achieved in an image-preserving, non-scattering way. This enables Black Silicon antireflection structures (ARS) for imaging applications in the MIR. It is demonstrated that specular transmittances of 97% can be easily achieved on both flat and curved substrates, e.g. lenses. Moreover, by a combined optical and morphological analysis of a multitude of different Black Silicon ARS, an effective medium criterion for the examined structures is derived that can also be used as a design rule for maximizing sample transmittance in a desired wavelength range. In addition, we show that the mechanical durability of the structures can be greatly enhanced by coating with hard dielectric materials like diamond-like carbon (DLC), hence enabling practical applications. Finally, the distinct advantages of statistical Black Silicon ARS over conventional AR layer stacks are discussed: simple applicability to topological substrates, absence of thermal stress and cost-effectiveness.

  15. Improved opto-electronic properties of silicon heterojunction solar cells with SiO x /Tungsten-doped indium oxide double anti-reflective coatings

    Yu, Jian; Zhou, Jie; Bian, Jiantao; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Yucheng; Shi, Jianhua; Meng, Fanying; Liu, Jinning; Liu, Zhengxin

    2017-08-01

    Amorphous SiO x was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form SiO x /tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) double anti-reflective coatings for silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell. The sheet resistance of SiO x /IWO stacks decreases due to plasma treatment during deposition process, which means thinner IWO film would be deposited for better optical response. However, the comparisons of three anti-reflective coating (ARC) structures reveal that SiO x film limits carier transport and the path of IWO-SiO x -Ag structure is non-conductive. The decrease of sheet resistance is defined as pseudo conductivity. IWO film capping with SiO x allows observably reduced reflectance and better response in 300-400 and 600-1200 nm wavelength ranges. Compared with IWO single ARC, the average reflection is reduced by 1.65% with 70 nm SiO x /80 nm IWO double anti-reflective coatings (DARCs) in 500-1200 nm wavelength range, leading to growing external quantum efficiency response, short circuit current density (J sc), and efficiency. After well optimization of SiO x /IWO stacks, an impressive efficiency of 23.08% is obtained with high J sc and without compromising open circuit voltage (V oc) and fill factor. SiO x /IWO DARCs provide better anti-reflective properties over a broad range of wavelength, showing promising application for SHJ solar cells.

  16. Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Flip-Chip White Light-Emitting Diodes with Diffused Nanorod Reflector and with ZnO Nanorod Antireflection Layer

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The GaN-based flip-chip white light-emitting diodes (FCWLEDs with diffused ZnO nanorod reflector and with ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were fabricated. The ZnO nanorod array grown using an aqueous solution method was combined with Al metal to form the diffused ZnO nanorod reflector. It could avoid the blue light emitted out from the Mg-doped GaN layer of the FCWLEDs, which caused more blue light emitted out from the sapphire substrate to pump the phosphor. Moreover, the ZnO nanorod array was utilized as the antireflection layer of the FCWLEDs to reduce the total reflection loss. The light output power and the phosphor conversion efficiency of the FCWLEDs with diffused nanorod reflector and 250 nm long ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were improved from 21.15 mW to 23.90 mW and from 77.6% to 80.1% in comparison with the FCWLEDs with diffused nanorod reflector and without ZnO nanorod antireflection layer, respectively.

  17. Photo-Electrical Characterization of Silicon Micropillar Arrays with Radial p/n Junctions Containing Passivation and Anti-Reflection Coatings

    Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, R.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess the contributions of anti-reflective and passivation effects in microstructured silicon-based solar light harvesting devices, thin layers of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon-rich silicon nitride (SiNx), and indium tin oxide (ITO), with a thickness ranging

  18. Influence of double- and triple-layer antireflection coatings on the formation of photocurrents in multijunction III–V solar cells

    Musalinov, S. B.; Anzulevich, A. P.; Bychkov, I. V. [Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation); Gudovskikh, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University (Russian Federation); Shvarts, M. Z., E-mail: shvarts@scell.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The results of simulation by the transfer-matrix method of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer and TiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} triple-layer antireflection coatings for multijunction InGaP/GaAs/Ge heterostructure solar cells are presented. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer antireflection coating is experimentally developed and optimized. The experimental spectral dependences of the external quantum yield of the InGaP/GaAs/Ge heterostructure solar cell and optical characteristics of antireflection coatings, obtained in the simulation, are used to determine the photogenerated current densities of each subcell in the InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell under AM1.5D irradiation conditions (1000 W/m{sup 2}) and for the case of zero reflection loss. It is shown in the simulation that the optimized TiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} triple-layer antireflection coating provides a 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2} gain in the photocurrent density for the Ge subcell under AM1.5D conditions in comparison with the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer antireflection coating under consideration. This thereby provides an increase in the fill factor of the current–voltage curve and in the output electric power of the multijunction solar cell.

  19. Modelling of solar cells with down-conversion of high energy photons, anti-reflection coatings and light trapping

    Vos, Alexis de; Szymanska, Aleksandra; Badescu, Viorel

    2009-01-01

    In classical solar cells, each absorbed photon gives rise to one electron-hole pair, irrespective of the photon energy. By applying an appropriate photoluminescent layer in front of the solar cell semiconductor, one can convert one high energy photon into two low energy photons (so-called down-conversion). In the present study, we do not consider photoluminescent layers that merely shift down photon energies (without enhancing the number of photons). In principle, these two photons can then generate two electron-hole pairs in the solar cell, thus increasing the efficiency of the device. However, the two photons emitted by the converter, are not necessarily emitted in the direction of the semiconductor: they can also be emitted in the direction 'back to the sun'. As most semiconductors have a high refractive index, in case the luminescent material has a low refractive index, more than half of the photoluminescence emission is lost in the sun direction, resulting in a net loss of light current generated by the solar cell instead of an increase. On the other hand, a high refractive index of the conversion layer (e.g. equal to the solar cell refractive index) will lead to a bad optical coupling with the air and a good optical coupling with the semiconductor, and therefore, more than 50% of the emitted low energy photons will actually reach the solar cell. However, in the latter case, many solar photons do not reach the converter in the first place because of reflection at the air-converter interface. As a result, it turns out that, in the absence of any anti-reflection coating, a refractive index n 2 of the converting layer in the range between n 1 1/2 and n 1 is optimal, where n 1 is the refractive index of the solar cell material. If, however, an anti-reflection coating is applied between air and the converter, the best choice for n 2 is n 1 . Finally, if two anti-reflection coatings are applied (the former between air and the converter, the latter between the

  20. Surface diffusion driven morphological instability in free-standing nickel nanorod arrays

    Alrashid, Ebtihaj; Ye, Dexian [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 842000, Richmond, Virginia 23284-2000 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Metallic nanostructures are thermodynamically unstable due to the excess of energy of large numbers of surface atoms. Morphological instability, such as Rayleigh breakup, sintering, and coalescence, can be observed at a temperature much lower than the bulk melting point of the metal. We study the morphological and crystalline evolution of well-aligned free-standing nickel nanorod arrays at elevated temperatures up to 600 °C. The as-deposited nickel nanorods are faceted with sharp nanotips, which are deformed at annealing temperatures higher than 400 °C due to strong surface diffusion. A mud-crack like pattern is formed in the samples annealed above 400 °C, leading to the generation of interconnected porous structure. Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction reveals the recrystallization of nickel nanocrystals when annealed from 300 to 600 °C.

  1. Stability of anti-reflection coatings via the self-assembly encapsulation of silica nanoparticles by diazo-resins

    Metzman, Jonathan S.; Ridley, Jason I.; Khalifa, Moataz B.; Heflin, James R.

    2015-12-01

    A modified silica nanoparticle (MSNP) solution was formed by the encapsulation of negatively charged silica nanoparticles by the UV-crosslinkable polycation oligomer diazo-resin (DAR). Appropriate DAR encapsulation concentrations were determined by use of zeta-potential and dynamic light scattering measurements. The MSNPs were used in conjunction with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) to grow homogenous ionic self-assembled multilayer anti-reflection coatings. Stability was induced within the films by the exposure of UV-irradiation that allowed for crosslinking of the DAR and PSS. The films were characterized by UV/vis/IR spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The transmission and reflection levels were >98.5% and <0.05%, respectively. The refractive indices resided in the 1.25-1.26 range. The solvent stability was tested by sonication of the films in a ternary solvent (H2O/DMF/ZnCl2 3:5:2 w/w/w).

  2. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M. [W& M, JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [W& M; Haglund, R. F. [VANDERBILT

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  3. Substrate-Versatile Approach to Robust Antireflective and Superhydrophobic Coatings with Excellent Self-Cleaning Property in Varied Environments.

    Ren, Tingting; He, Junhui

    2017-10-04

    Robust antireflective and superhydrophobic coatings are highly desired in wide applications, such as optical devices, solar cell panels, architectural and automotive glasses, lab-on chip systems, and windows for electronic devices. Meanwhile, simple, low-cost, and substrate-versatile fabrication is also essential toward real applications of such coatings. Herein, we developed a substrate-versatile strategy to fabricate robust antireflective and superhydrophobic coatings with excellent self-cleaning property in varied environments, including air and oil and after oil contamination. A mixed ethanol suspension, which consists of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane modified dual-sized silica nanoparticles and acid-catalyzed silica precursor, was first synthesized. The acid-catalyzed silica precursor could help to form a highly cross-linked silica network by connecting the silica nanoparticles, thus significantly enhancing the robustness of coatings. The as-prepared coatings were able to withstand a water drop impact test, sand abrasion test, tape adhesion test, and knife and pencil scratching tests. More importantly, it was also found that the wettability and self-cleaning property of coatings after oil contamination were surprisingly different from those in air and oil. These observations are explainable by the alteration of interface; i.e., the alteration of interface has significant effects on the functional properties of coatings. Additionally, the mixed suspension could be sprayed onto various hard and soft substrates including glass, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), opening up a feasible route toward varied practical applications in solar cell panels, optical devices, architectural and automotive glasses, droplet manipulators, and fluid control.

  4. Study of structure and antireflective properties of LaF3/HfO2/SiO2 and LaF3/HfO2/MgF2 trilayers for UV applications

    Marszalek, K.; Jaglarz, J.; Sahraoui, B.; Winkowski, P.; Kanak, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study antireflective properties of the tree-layer systems LaF3/HfO2/SiO2 and LaF3/HfO2/MgF2 deposited on heated optical glass substrates. The films were evaporated by the use two deposition techniques. In first method oxide films were prepared by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-5 mbar in the presence of oxygen. The second was used for the deposition of fluoride films. They were obtained by means of thermal source evaporation. Simulation of reflectance was performed for 1M2H1L (Quarter Wavelength Optical Thickness) film stack on an optical quartz glass with the refractive index n = 1.46. The layer thickness was optimized to achieve the lowest light scattering from glass surface covered with dioxide and fluoride films. The values of the interface roughness were determined through atomic force microscopy measurements. The essence of performed calculation was to find minimum reflectance of light in wide ultraviolet region. The spectral dispersion of the refractive index needed for calculations was determined from ellipsometric measurements using the spectroscopic ellipsometer M2000. Additionally, the total reflectance measurements in integrating sphere coupled with Perkin Elmer 900 spectrophotometer were performed. These investigations allowed to determine the influence of such film features like surface and interface roughness on light scattering.

  5. Fabrication of Polymeric Antireflection Film Manufactured by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high energy conversion efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were successfully fabricated by attaching a double anti-reflection (AR layer, which is composed of a subwavelength moth-eye structured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA film and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS film. An efficiency of up to 6.79% was achieved. The moth-eye structured PMMA film was fabricated by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template which is simple, low-cost and scalable. The nano-pattern of the AAO template was precisely reproduced onto the PMMA film. The photoanode was composed of Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with a diameter of 25 nm deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate and the sensitizer N3. The double AR layer was proved to effectively improve the short-circuit current density (JSC and conversion efficiency from 14.77 to 15.79 mA/cm2 and from 6.26% to 6.79%, respectively.

  6. Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO2/SiNx:H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings

    Minghua Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a method to use SiO2/SiNx:H double layer antireflection coatings (DARC on acid textures to fabricate colored multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si solar cells. Firstly, we modeled the perceived colors and short-circuit current density (Jsc as a function of SiNx:H thickness for single layer SiNx:H, and as a function of SiO2 thickness for the case of SiO2/SiNx:H (DARC with fixed SiNx:H (refractive index n=2.1 at 633 nm, and thickness = 80 nm. The simulation results show that it is possible to achieve various colors by adjusting the thickness of SiO2 to avoid significant optical losses. Therefore, we carried out the experiments by using electron beam (e-beam evaporation to deposit a layer of SiO2 over the standard SiNx:H for 156×156 mm2 mc-Si solar cells which were fabricated by a conventional process. Semisphere reflectivity over 300 nm to 1100 nm and I-V measurements were performed for grey yellow, purple, deep blue, and green cells. The efficiency of colored SiO2/SiNx:H DARC cells is comparable to that of standard SiNx:H light blue cells, which shows the potential of colored cells in industrial applications.

  7. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Sputtered Silicon Dioxide, Indium Tin Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide/Indium Tin Oxide Antireflection Coating on Single-Junction GaAs Solar Cells

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the electrical and optical properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells coated with antireflective layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2, indium tin oxide (ITO, and a hybrid layer of SiO2/ITO applied using Radio frequency (RF sputtering. The conductivity and transparency of the ITO film were characterized prior to application on GaAs cells. Reverse saturation-current and ideality factor were used to evaluate the passivation performance of the various coatings on GaAs solar cells. Optical reflectance and external quantum efficiency response were used to evaluate the antireflective performance of the coatings. Photovoltaic current-voltage measurements were used to confirm the efficiency enhancement obtained by the presence of the anti-reflective coatings. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs cells with an ITO antireflective coating (23.52% exceeded that of cells with a SiO2 antireflective coating (21.92%. Due to lower series resistance and higher short-circuit current-density, the carrier collection of the GaAs cell with ITO coating exceeded that of the cell with a SiO2/ITO coating.

  8. How to care for and clean optical surfaces

    Ismael Cordero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many ophthalmic devices have optical components such as windows, lenses, mirrors, filters, and prisms; even very small irregularities (such as scratches can cause unwanted scattering of light which reduces quality. The surfaces of lenses, prisms, and windows are often coated with an antireflective layer to prevent loss of light due to reflection. Mirrors have a highly reflecting coating to get maximum reflection of light. Filters have coatings to cut out undesired wavelengths. The coatings are very thin and delicate and can be damaged by improper handling and cleaning.By following these suggestions, you will help ensure that all of the optical surfaces in your eye care equipment perform optimally.

  9. Simple fabrication of antireflective silicon subwavelength structure with self-cleaning properties.

    Kim, Bo-Soon; Ju, Won-Ki; Lee, Min-Woo; Lee, Cheon; Lee, Seung-Gol; Beom-Hoan, O

    2013-05-01

    A subwavelength structure (SWS) was formed via a simple chemical wet etching using a gold (Au) catalyst. Single nano-sized Au particles were fabricated by metallic self-aggregation. The deposition and thermal annealing of the thin metallic film were carried out. Thermal annealing of a thin metallic film enables the creation of metal nano particles by isolating them from each other by means of the self-aggregation of the metal. After annealing, the samples were soaked in an aqueous etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. When silicon (Si) was etched for 2 minutes using the Au nano particles, the reflectance was decreased almost 0% over the entire wavelength range from 300 to 1300 nm due to its deep and steeply double tapered structure. When given varying incident angle degrees from 30 degrees to 60 degrees, the reflectance was also maintained at less than 3%. Following this, the etched silicon was treated with a plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon (PPFC) film of about 5 nm using an ICP reactor for surface modification. The result of this surface treatment, the contact angle increased significantly from 27.5 degrees to 139.3 degrees. The surface modification was successful and maintained almost 0% reflectance because of the thin film deposition.

  10. Preparation and characterization of SiO2:Sm3+ nanotube arrays with 1.06 μm laser antireflective property

    Tan, Wei-min; Huang, Ning; Wang, Li-jun; Song, Tian-shun; Lu, Chun-hua; Wang, Liu-fang; Zhang, Jun-zhi

    2013-01-01

    SiO 2 : Sm 3+ nanotube arrays with excellent antireflective property at 1.06 μm were synthesized by a template-assisted sol–gel process. The molecular structure, morphology and optical properties of the fabricated SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were investigated by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), a Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a spectro-fluorometer, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were formed via the AAO membrane during the sol–gel process. The remarkable antireflective characteristic of about 0.166% at 1.06 μm was attributed to the drastic decrease of effective refraction index which enhances the matching effect between air and substrate. As well as the absorption performance of Sm3+ at 1.06 μm which consumes the energies of incident light. - Graphical abstract: Directional aligned SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays were synthesized in AAO template by sol–gel process, and the antiflective performance of arrays is prominent comparing to the blank AAO template. Highlights: ► SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays are synthesized by a template-assisted sol–gel process. ► SiO 2 :Sm 3+ nanotube arrays have remarkable antireflective properties at 1.06 μm. ► The subwavelength structure results in a decrease of effective refraction index. ► The absorption performance of Sm 3+ at 1.06 μm consume the energies of incident light

  11. Use of ZnO as antireflective, protective, antibacterial, and biocompatible multifunction nanolayer of thermochromic VO2 nanofilm for intelligent windows

    Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Jinhua; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Jian; Liu, Xuanyong; Jin, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A multifunctional VO 2 /ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. • The ZnO top layer can enhance the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions of the VO 2 film. • The ZnO top layer can endow VO 2 film with excellent antibacterial performance. • The ZnO top layer can attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO 2 thin film. - Abstract: A multifunctional VO 2 /ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. The integration of the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions, and antibacterial performance makes the heterostructure film a promising candidate in the energy-saving smart window. The ZnO thin film as the antireflection layer can markedly boost the solar regulation efficiency (ΔT sol ) from 7.7% to 12.2% and possesses excellent luminous transmittance (T lum-L = 50.3%) in the low-temperature semiconductor phase. The ZnO layer as the protection barrier can not only protect VO 2 thin film from oxidation to much toxic V 2 O 5 , but also decrease the release of V ions. Besides, the synergistic effect of releasing killing by Zn 2+ ions and contact killing by ZnO NPs makes ZnO thin film an outstanding antibacterial coating. In terms of the biological safety, ZnO coating with appropriate film thickness can effectively attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO 2 on human HIBEpiC cells. We hope this work can provide new insights for better designing of novel multifunctional VO 2 -based intelligent energy-saving windows.

  12. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode

    Ou, Yiyu; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our...... simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index...

  13. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures.

    Müller, Frank A; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan

    2016-06-15

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  14. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    Frank A. Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS. In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  15. An Evaluation of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma for the Cost-Effective Deposition of Antireflection Coatings

    Rob Sailer; Guruvenket Srinivasan; Kyle W. Johnson; Douglas L. Schulz

    2010-04-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma deposition (APPD) has previously been used to deposit various functional materials including polymeric surface modification layers, transparent conducting oxides, and photo catalytic materials. For many plasma polymerized coatings, reaction occurs via free radical mechanism where the high energy electrons from the plasma activate the olefinic carbon-carbon double bonds - a typical functional group in such precursors. The precursors for such systems are typically inexpensive and readily available and have been used in vacuum PECVD previously. The objectives are to investigate: (1) the effect of plasma power, gas composition and substrate temperature on the Si-based film properties using triethylsilane(TES) as the precursor; and (2) the chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of several experimental matrices based on Design of Experiment (DOE) principals. A simple APPD route has been utilized to deposit Si based films from an inexpensive precursor - Triethylsilane (TES). Preliminary results indicates formation of Si-C & Si-O and Si-O, Si-C & Si-N bonds with oxygen and nitrogen plasmas respectively. N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma showed mixed trend; however oxygen remains a significant portion of all films, despite attempts to minimize exposure to atmosphere. SiN, SiC, and SiO ratios can be modified by the reaction conditions resulting in differing film properties. SE studies revealed that films with SiN bond possess refractive index higher than coatings with Si-O/Si-C bonds. Variable angle reflectance studies showed that SiOCN coatings offer AR properties; however thickness and refractive index optimization of these coatings remains necessary for application as potential AR coatings.

  16. Titanium-based spectrally selective surfaces for solar thermal systems

    Wilson, A D; Holmes, J P

    1983-10-01

    A study of spectrally selective surfaces based on anodic oxide films on titanium is presented. These surfaces have low values of solar absorptance, 0.77, due to the nonideal optical properties of the anodic TiO2 for antireflection of titanium. A simple chemical etching process is described which gives a textured surface with dimensions similar to the wavelengths of solar radiation, leading to spectral selectivity. The performance of this dark-etched surface can be further improved by anodising, and optimum absorbers have been produced with alpha(s) 0.935 and hemispherical emittances (400 K) 0.23. The surface texturing effects a significant improvement in alpha(s) at oblique incidence.

  17. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  18. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Carpick, R. W.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO 2 after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp 2 fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp 2 fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2±2 vs 826±186 mJ/m 2 , respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2±0.4 mJ/m 2 , at the level of van der Waals' interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the

  19. High-etch-rate bottom-antireflective coating and gap-fill materials using dextrin derivatives in via first dual-Damascene lithography process

    Takei, Satoshi; Sakaida, Yasushi; Shinjo, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Nakajima, Yasuyuki

    2008-03-01

    The present paper describes a novel class of bottom antireflective coating (BARC) and gap fill materials using dextrin derivatives. The general trend of interconnect fabrication for such a high performance LSI is to apply cupper (Cu)/ low-dielectric-constant (low-k) interconnect to reduce RC delay. A via-first dual damascene process is one of the most promising processes to fabricate Cu/ low-k interconnect due to its wide miss-alignment margin. The sacrificial materials containing dextrin derivatives under resist for lithography were developed in via-first dual damascene process. The dextrin derivatives in this study was obtained by the esterification of the hydroxyl groups of dextrin resulting in improved solubility in the resist solvents such as propylene glycol monomethylether, propylene glycol monomethylether acetate, and ethyl lactate due to avoid the issue of defects that were caused by incompatability. The etch rate of our developed BARC and gap fill materials using dextrin derivatives was more than two times faster than one of the ArF resists evaluated in a CF4 gas condition using reactive ion etching. The improved etch performance was also verified by comparison with poly(hydroxystyrene), acrylate-type materials and latest low-k materials as a reference. In addition to superior etch performance, these materials showed good resist profiles and via filling performance without voids in via holes.

  20. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    Atyaoui, Malek; Dimassi, Wissem; Atyaoui, Atef; Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n + emitter of silicon n + /p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties

  1. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    Atyaoui, Malek, E-mail: atyaoui.malek@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95, Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Dimassi, Wissem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Atyaoui, Atef [Laboratoire de traitement des eaux usées, Centre de recherches et des technologies des eaux, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB: 273, Soliman 8020 (Tunisia); Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2013-09-15

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n{sup +} emitter of silicon n{sup +}/p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties.

  2. Ordered and disordered evolution of the pore mesostructure in hybrid silica anti-reflective films obtained by one-pot self-assembly method

    Ghazzal, Mohamed N., E-mail: g_nawfel@yahoo.fr; Debecker, Damien P.; Gaigneaux, Eric M.

    2016-07-29

    Hybrid mesoporous silica films were prepared in acid-catalysed medium using a one-pot self-assembly method. A gradual content of methyl groups was introduced into the inorganic framework by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and methyltriethoxysilane. To better understand how the ordered and disordered transition occurs in mesoporous hybrid organosilica sytem as function of the MTES molar ratio in the starting solution, textural, chemical and optical properties of the films were studied by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), grazing-incident small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), transmission Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and UV–visible spectroscopy. Increasing the loading of the incorporated organic groups (up to 40% in the starting solution) led simultaneously to a disorganization of the pore mesostructure and a reduction in the pore diameter. Concomitantly, a disordered domain of the silica rings in the walls was observed, which created bond strains in the silica wall contributing also to the disorganization of the pore mesostructure. Furthermore, an optimal MTES content was identified in order to obtain antireflection coatings, exhibiting low reflection in the visible range. - Highlights: • Mesoporous hybrid silica films where prepared by one-pot co-condensation of MTES and TEOS. • Ordered and disordered mesostructures were studied as function as variable MTES molar ratio. • A rearrangement of the silica cyclic species occurred as the molar ratio of MTES increases. • Transmittance of the silica coatings is affected by the MTES molar ratio.

  3. Variation in the Optical Properties of the SiC-SiO2 Composite Antireflection Layer in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Annealing

    Jannat, Azmira; Li, Zhen Yu; Akhter, M. Shaheer; Yang, O.-Bong

    2017-11-01

    This study showed the effects of annealing on a sol-gel-derived SiC-SiO2 composite antireflection (AR) layer and investigated the optical and photovoltaic properties of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. The SiC-SiO2 composite AR coating showed a considerable decrease in reflectance from 7.18% to 3.23% at varying annealing temperatures of 450-800°C. The refractive indices of the SiC-SiO2 composite AR layer were tuned from 2.06 to 2.45 with the increase in annealing temperature. The analysis of the current density-voltage characteristics indicated that the energy conversion efficiencies of the fabricated Si solar cells gradually increased from 16.99% to 17.73% with increasing annealing temperatures of 450-800°C. The annealing of the SiC-SiO2 composite AR layer in Si solar cells was crucial to improving the optical, morphological, and photovoltaic properties.

  4. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    Controlling the reflection of visible and infrared (IR) light at interfaces is extremely important to increase the power efficiency and performance of optics, electro-optical and (thermo)photovoltaic systems. The eye of the moth has evolved subwavelength protuberances that increase light transmission into the eye tissue and prevent reflection. The subwavelength protuberances effectively grade the refractive index from that of air (n=1) to that of the tissue (n=1.4), making the interface gradual, suppressing reflection. In theory, the moth-eye (ME) structures can be implemented with any material platform to achieve an antireflectance effect by scaling the pitch and size of protuberances for the wavelength range of interest. In this work, a bio-inspired, scalable and substrate-independent surface modification protocol was developed to realize broadband antireflective structures based on the moth-eye principle. Quasi-ordered ME arrays were fabricated in IR relevant materials using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering is explored, with discussion on experimental techniques and effective medium theory (EMT). The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak single-side transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for lambda = 7--30 microns. A detailed photon balance constructed by transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection measurements to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects will be discussed. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior antireflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0--60° incidence). Finally, subwavelength ME structures are incorporated on a Si substrate to enhance the absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in PtSi films to

  5. Silicon nitride and intrinsic amorphous silicon double antireflection coatings for thin-film solar cells on foreign substrates

    Li, Da; Kunz, Thomas; Wolf, Nadine; Liebig, Jan Philipp; Wittmann, Stephan; Ahmad, Taimoor; Hessmann, Maik T.; Auer, Richard; Göken, Mathias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was investigated as a surface passivation method for crystalline silicon thin film solar cells on graphite substrates. The results of the experiments, including quantum efficiency and current density-voltage measurements, show improvements in cell performance. This improvement is due to surface passivation by an a-Si:H(i) layer, which increases the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. In comparison with our previous work, we have achieved an increase of 0.6% absolute cell efficiency for a 40 μm thick 4 cm 2 aperture area on the graphite substrate. The optical properties of the SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stack were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. Scanning transmission electron microscopy inside a scanning electron microscope was applied to characterize the cross section of the SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stack using focus ion beam preparation. - Highlights: • We report a 10.8% efficiency for thin-film silicon solar cell on graphite. • Hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon was applied for surface passivation. • SiN x /a-Si:H(i) stacks were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometer techniques. • Cross-section micrograph was obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. • Quantum efficiency and J-V measurements show improvements in the cell performance

  6. Optical properties of the Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  7. Boosting Light Harvesting in Perovskite Solar Cells by Biomimetic Inverted Hemispherical Architectured Polymer Layer with High Haze Factor as an Antireflective Layer.

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Dudem, Bhaskar; Jung, Jae Woong; Yu, Jae Su

    2018-04-18

    Biomimetic microarchitectured polymer layers, such as inverted hemispherical architectured (IHSA)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hemispherical architectured (HSA)-PDMS layers, were prepared by a simple and cost-effective soft-imprinting lithography method via a hexagonal close-packed polystyrene microsphere array/silicon mold. The IHSA-PDMS/glass possessed superior antireflection (AR) characteristics with the highest/lowest average transmittance/reflectance ( T avg / R avg ) values of approximately 89.2%/6.4% compared to the HSA-PDMS/glass, flat-PDMS/glass, and bare glass ( T avg / R avg ∼88.8%/7.5%, 87.5%/7.9%, and 87.3%/8.8%, respectively). In addition, the IHSA-PDMS/glass also exhibited a relatively strong light-scattering property with the higher average haze ratio ( H avg ) of ∼38% than those of the bare glass, flat-PDMS/glass, and HSA-PDMS/glass (i.e., H avg ≈ 1.1, 1.7, and 34.2%, respectively). At last, to demonstrate the practical feasibility under light control of the solar cells, the IHSA-PDMS was laminated onto the glass substrates of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as an AR layer, and their device performances were explored. Consequently, the short-circuit current density of the PSCs integrated with the IHSA-PDMS AR layer was improved by ∼17% when compared with the device without AR layer, resulting in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 19%. Therefore, the IHSA-PDMS is expected to be applied as an AR layer for solar cells to enhance their light absorption as well as the PCE.

  8. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} spherical particles based anti-reflection and wavelength conversion bi-functional films: Synthesis and application to solar cells

    Miao, Hui [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Ji, Ruonan [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Hu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: hxy3275@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Han, Linzi; Hao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qian [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhang, Dekai [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Fan, Jun [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Bai, Jintao [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); and others

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were successfully prepared. The as prepared particles can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not only a good photoluminescence host material, but also it has high corrosion resistivity, thermal stability, and transparency from violet to infrared light. Cooperated with SiO{sub 2} sols, it could realize a better anti-reflection property. • As a proof-of-concept application, the as prepared bi-functional films could effectively improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by 0.23% compared to pure SiO{sub 2} AR coating film and 0.55% compared to glass. - Abstract: In this study, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were prepared via the simple, cost-effective urea homogeneous precipitation method without additives. The chosen particles were added in the SiO{sub 2} sols to get anti-reflection (AR) and wavelength conversion bi-functional films. Careful investigations were carried out to find the optimum preparation conditions and proper morphology. SEM images showed that the particle sizes reduced as metal ion/urea ratio decreased. Additionally, the extracted particles turned from sphere to lamellar type when the deionized water, which was used as solvent, reduced to a certain extent. The mechanisms of the morphology formation and diversification were proposed as well. The as prepared materials can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. The spherical sample showed better luminescence performance than the one with lamellar morphology. In addition, the optical transmittance spectra indicated that the films adding spherical particles had better anti-reflective performance, and the best adding amount was 0.08 g. Finally, As a proof-of-concept application

  9. Fabrication of a Ni nano-imprint stamp for an anti-reflective layer using an anodic aluminum oxide template.

    Park, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Ra, Senug-Hyun; Suh, Su-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum anodizing can alter pore diameter, density distribution, periodicity and layer thickness in a controlled way. Because of this property, porous type anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a template for nano-structure fabrication. The alumina layer generated at a constant voltage increased the pore size from 120 nm to 205 nm according to an increasing process time from 60 min to 150 min. The resulting fabricated AAO templates had pore diameters at or less than 200 nm. Ni was sputtered as a conductive layer onto this AAO template and electroplated using DC and pulse power. Comparing these Ni stamps, those generated from electroplating using on/reverse/off pulsing had an ordered pillar array and maintained the AAO template morphology. This stamp was used for nano-imprinting on UV curable resin coated glass wafer. Surface observations via electron microscopy showed that the nano-imprinted patterned had the same shape as the AAO template. A soft mold was subsequently fabricated and nano-imprinted to form a moth-eye structure on the glass wafer. An analysis of the substrate transmittance using UV-VIS/NIR spectroscopy showed that the transmittance of the substrate with the moth-eye structure was 5% greater that the non-patterned substrate.

  10. Effect of diffuse roof cover with anti-reflection coating for roses; Effect van diffuus kasdek met Anti Reflectie coating bij Roos

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Kempkes, F.

    2012-10-15

    The rose Red Naomi was cultivated in two greenhouses at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk, Netherlands (August 2010 - September 2011). One greenhouse covered with normal float glass; the other with AR coated diffuse glass (70% haze). This Anti-Reflection coating on both glass sides compensated for the loss in light transmission caused by the diffusing structure in the glass. The diffuse AR glass lead to a 5.2% higher production (>6.1% fresh weight). Sunscreens were necessary in spring and summer to avoid high light levels on the flower buds, as they cause very high bud temperatures leading to quality problems (blue petal edges and burnt leaf tips). The diffuse greenhouse cover allowed a 100 W/m{sup 2} higher screening threshold than the reference glass. This caused a 2.7% higher daily light integral, able to explain part of the extra production obtained. Part of the extra production achieved can not be explained by the measured factors as no differences were found in the amount of light intercepted by the crop or in leaf photosynthesis under both cover types. The light under the diffuse AR cover was nevertheless much smoother, so the crop seemed to suffer less (lower bud temperatures and less burned leaf tips), and this should provide an explanation for the rest of the extra production. The cover properties did not influence disease development (powdery mildew). The obtained extra production makes the tempered, diffuse glass with Anti Reflection coating on both sides economically feasible [Dutch] Tussen augustus 2010 en september 2011 is bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw het effect van diffuus glas, met dubbelzijdige AR coating, op de productie en energiegebruik van roos 'Red Naomi' onderzocht. Onder het diffuse glas werden 5,2% meer bloemtakken geproduceerd, deze rozen waren ook iets langer en zwaarder (6,1% meer versgewicht). Dit verschil kan deels verklaard worden doordat er onder het diffuse glas pas bij hogere stralingsniveau

  11. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films.

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Haynes, J Allen

    2013-08-09

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  12. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Haynes, J. Allen

    2013-08-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  13. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Allen Haynes, J

    2013-01-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie–Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military. (paper)

  14. Laser assisted fabrication of random rough surfaces for optoelectronics

    Brissonneau, V., E-mail: vincent.brissonneau@im2np.fr [Thales Optronique SA, Avenue Gay-Lussac, 78995 Elancourt (France); Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France); Escoubas, L. [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France); Flory, F. [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Ecole Centrale Marseille, Marseille (France); Berginc, G. [Thales Optronique SA, Avenue Gay-Lussac, 78995 Elancourt (France); Maire, G.; Giovannini, H. [Institut Fresnel, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Random rough surfaces are photofabricated using an argon ion laser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speckle and surface correlation function are linked. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure beam is modified allowing tuning the correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical examples are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental results are compared with theoretical expectation. - Abstract: Optical surface structuring shows great interest for antireflective or scattering properties. Generally, fabricated surface structures are periodical but random surfaces that offer new degrees of freedom and possibilities by the control of their statistical properties. We propose an experimental method to create random rough surfaces on silicon by laser processing followed by etching. A photoresist is spin coated onto a silicon substrate and then exposed to the scattering of a modified laser beam. The beam modification is performed by using a micromirror matrix allowing laser beam shaping. An example of tuning is presented. An image composed of two white circles with a black background is displayed and the theoretical shape of the correlation is calculated. Experimental surfaces are elaborated and the correlation function calculated from height mapping. We finally compared the experimental and theoretical correlation functions.

  15. Record high efficiency of screen-printed silicon aluminum back surface field solar cell: 20.29%

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Park, Chang Sub; Doo Lee, Jae; Youb Lim, Jong; Yeon, Je Min; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Cho, Young Hyun

    2017-08-01

    We have achieved a record high cell efficiency of 20.29% for an industrial 6-in. p-type monocrystalline silicon solar cell with a full-area aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) by simply modifying the cell structure and optimizing the process with the existing cell production line. The cell efficiency was independently confirmed by the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS). To increase the cell efficiency, for example, in four busbars, double printing, a lightly doped emitter with a sheet resistance of 90 to 100 Ω/□, and front surface passivation by using silicon oxynitride (SiON) on top of a silicon nitride (SiN x ) antireflection layer were adopted. To optimize front side processing, PC1D simulation was carried out prior to cell fabrication. The resulting efficiency gain is 0.64% compared with that in the reference cells with three busbars, a single antireflection coating layer, and a low-sheet-resistance emitter.

  16. Perfect antireflection via negative refraction

    Monzon, Juan J.; Barriuso, Alberto G.; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a geometrical framework to discuss the action of slabs of negatively refracting materials. We show that these slabs generate the same orbits as normal materials, but traced out in opposite directions. This property allows us to confirm that the action of any lossless multilayer can be optically canceled by putting it together with the multilayer constructed as the inverted mirror image, with ε and μ reversed in sign

  17. AntiReflection Coating D

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  18. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  19. Optimization of the Surface Structure on Black Silicon for Surface Passivation.

    Jia, Xiaojie; Zhou, Chunlan; Wang, Wenjing

    2017-12-01

    Black silicon shows excellent anti-reflection and thus is extremely useful for photovoltaic applications. However, its high surface recombination velocity limits the efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the effective minority carrier lifetime of black silicon is improved by optimizing metal-catalyzed chemical etching (MCCE) method, using an Al 2 O 3 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a passivation layer. Using the spray method to eliminate the impact on the rear side, single-side black silicon was obtained on n-type solar grade silicon wafers. Post-etch treatment with NH 4 OH/H 2 O 2 /H 2 O mixed solution not only smoothes the surface but also increases the effective minority lifetime from 161 μs of as-prepared wafer to 333 μs after cleaning. Moreover, adding illumination during the etching process results in an improvement in both the numerical value and the uniformity of the effective minority carrier lifetime.

  20. Encapsulant Adhesion to Surface Metallization on Photovoltaic Cells

    Tracy, Jared; Bosco, Nick; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2017-11-01

    Delamination of encapsulant materials from PV cell surfaces often appears to originate at regions with metallization. Using a fracture mechanics based metrology, the adhesion of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant to screen-printed silver metallization was evaluated. At room temperature, the fracture energy Gc [J/m2] of the EVA/silver interface (952 J/m2) was ~70% lower than that of the EVA/antireflective (AR) coating (>2900 J/m2) and ~60% lower than that of the EVA to the surface of cell (2265 J/m2). After only 300 h of damp heat aging, the adhesion energy of the silver interface dropped to and plateaued at ~50-60 J/m2 while that of the EVA/AR coating and EVA/cell remained mostly unchanged. Elemental surface analysis showed that the EVA separates from the silver in a purely adhesive manner, indicating that bonds at the interface were likely displaced in the presence of humidity and chemical byproducts at elevated temperature, which in part accounts for the propensity of metalized surfaces to delaminate in the field.

  1. One-step microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) for transparent superhydrophobic surface

    Thongrom, Sukrit; Tirawanichakul, Yutthana; Munsit, Nantakan; Deangngam, Chalongrat

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a rapid and environmental friendly fabrication technique to produce optically clear superhydrophobic surfaces using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a sole coating material. The inert PDMS chain is transformed into a 3-D irregular solid network through microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. Thanks to high electron density in the microwave-activated plasma, coating can be done in just a single step with rapid deposition rate, typically much shorter than 10 s. Deposited layers show excellent superhydrophobic properties with water contact angles of ∼170° and roll-off angles as small as ∼3°. The plasma-deposited films can be ultrathin with thicknesses under 400 nm, greatly diminishing the optical loss. Moreover, with appropriate coating conditions, the coating layer can even enhance the transmission over the entire visible spectrum due to a partial anti-reflection effect.

  2. Nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of plasma nanotextured superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic polymeric surfaces

    Skarmoutsou, A; Charitidis, C A; Gnanappa, A K; Tserepi, A; Gogolides, E

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen plasma-induced surface modification of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), under plasma conditions favouring (maximizing) roughness formation, has been shown to create textured surfaces of roughness size and morphology dependent on the plasma-treatment time and subsequent morphology stabilization procedure. Superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic surfaces can thus be obtained, with potential applications in antireflective self-cleaning surfaces, microfluidics, wetting–dewetting control, anti-icing etc, necessitating determination of their mechanical properties. In this study, nanoindentation is used to determine the reduced modulus and hardness of the surface, while nanoscratch tests are performed to measure the coefficient of friction. The data are combined to assess the wear behaviour of such surfaces as a first guide for their practical applications. Short-time plasma treatment slightly changes mechanical, tribological and wear properties compared to untreated PMMA. However, a significant decrease in the reduced modulus and hardness and an increase in the coefficient of friction are observed after long plasma-treatment times. The C 4 F 8 plasma deposited thin hydrophobic layer on the polymeric surfaces (untreated and treated) reveals good adhesion, while its mechanical properties are greatly influenced by the substrate; it is also found that it effectively protects the polymeric surfaces, reducing plastic deformation. (paper)

  3. Nanostructured Tip-Shaped Biosensors: Application of Six Sigma Approach for Enhanced Manufacturing.

    Kahng, Seong-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2016-12-23

    Nanostructured tip-shaped biosensors have drawn attention for biomolecule detection as they are promising for highly sensitive and specific detection of a target analyte. Using a nanostructured tip, the sensitivity is increased to identify individual molecules because of the high aspect ratio structure. Various detection methods, such as electrochemistry, fluorescence microcopy, and Raman spectroscopy, have been attempted to enhance the sensitivity and the specificity. Due to the confined path of electrons, electrochemical measurement using a nanotip enables the detection of single molecules. When an electric field is combined with capillary action and fluid flow, target molecules can be effectively concentrated onto a nanotip surface for detection. To enhance the concentration efficacy, a dendritic nanotip rather than a single tip could be used to detect target analytes, such as nanoparticles, cells, and DNA. However, reproducible fabrication with relation to specific detection remains a challenge due to the instability of a manufacturing method, resulting in inconsistent shape. In this paper, nanostructured biosensors are reviewed with our experimental results using dendritic nanotips for sequence specific detection of DNA. By the aid of the Six Sigma approach, the fabrication yield of dendritic nanotips increases from 20.0% to 86.6%. Using the nanotips, DNA is concentrated and detected in a sequence specific way with the detection limit equivalent to 1000 CFU/mL. The pros and cons of a nanotip biosensor are evaluated in conjunction with future prospects.

  4. Fabrication of silicon solar cell with >18% efficiency using spin-on-film processing for phosphorus diffusion and SiO{sub 2}/graded index TiO{sub 2} anti-reflective coating

    Lee, Yi-Yu; Ho, Wen-Jeng, E-mail: wjho@ntut.edu.tw; Yeh, Chien-Wu

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Employed SOF technology for both phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer ARCs. • Optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, and SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} films are characterized. • Photovoltaic performances of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. • An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes. - Abstract: This study employed spin-on film (SOF) technology for the fabrication of phosphorus diffusion and multi-layer anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) with a graded index on silicon (Si) wafers. Low cost and high efficiency solar cells are important issues for the operating cost of a photovoltaic system. SOF technology for the fabrication of solar cells can be for the achievement of this goal. This study succeeded in the application of SOF technology in the preparation of both phosphorus diffusion and SiO{sub 2}/graded index TiO{sub 2} ARCs for Si solar cells. Optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, and multi-layer SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} deposition by SOF are characterized. Electrical and optical characteristics of the fabricated solar cells are measured and compared. An impressive efficiency of 18.25% was obtained by using the SOF processes.

  5. Dynamics of graphite flake on a liquid

    Miura, K.; Tsuda, D.; Kaneta, Y.; Harada, R.; Ishikawa, M.; Sasaki, N.

    2006-11-01

    One-directional motion, where graphite flakes are driven by a nanotip on an octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) liquid surface, is presented. A transition from quasiperiodic to chaotic motions occurs in the dynamics of a graphite flake when its velocity is increased. The dynamics of graphite flakes pulled by the nanotip on an OMCTS liquid surface can be treated as that of a nanobody on a liquid.

  6. Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    La, Mao [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Sha, Ren, E-mail: sr@imnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); Bao, Shanhu, E-mail: shanhu.bao@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Jin, Ping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The PTFE films was prepared for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. • The PTFE as an antireflection layer to improve the luminous transmission, and also to enhance the switching durability of the switchable mirrors. • The PTFE film has a superhydrophobic surface, which endows the Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors with self-cleaning properties. - Abstract: The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium–yttrium (Mg–Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  7. Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    La, Mao; Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan; Sha, Ren; Bao, Shanhu; Jin, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The PTFE films was prepared for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. • The PTFE as an antireflection layer to improve the luminous transmission, and also to enhance the switching durability of the switchable mirrors. • The PTFE film has a superhydrophobic surface, which endows the Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors with self-cleaning properties. - Abstract: The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium–yttrium (Mg–Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  8. Superhydrophilic nanopillar-structured quartz surfaces for the prevention of biofilm formation in optical devices

    Han, Soo; Ji, Seungmuk; Abdullah, Abdullah; Kim, Duckil; Lim, Hyuneui; Lee, Donghyun

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation on optical devices such as contact lenses, optical glasses, endoscopic devices, and microscopic slides and lenses are major concerns in the field of medicine and biomedical engineering. To solve these problems, here we present the first report of superhydrophilic transparent nanopillar-structured surfaces with bactericidal properties. To construct bactericidal surfaces, we imitated a topological mechanism found in nature in which nanopillar-structured surfaces cause a mechanical disruption of the outer cell membranes of bacteria, resulting in bacterial cell death. We used nanosphere lithography to fabricate nanopillars with various sharpnesses and heights on a quartz substrate. Water contact angle and light reflectance measurements revealed superhydrophilic, antifogging and antireflective properties, which are important for use in optical devices. To determine bactericidal efficiency, the fabricated surfaces were incubated and tested against two Gram-negative bacteria associated with biofilm formation and various diseases in humans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The highest bactericidal activity was achieved with nanopillars that measured 300 nm in height and 10 nm in apex diameter. Quartz substrates patterned with such nanopillars killed ∼38,000 P. aeruginosa and ∼27,000 E. coli cells cm-2 min-1, respectively. Thus, the newly designed nanopillar-structured bactericidal surfaces are suitable for use in the development of superhydrophilic and transparent optical devices.

  9. Optical and electrical properties of porous silicon layer formed on the textured surface by electrochemical etching

    Weiying, Ou; Lei, Zhao; Hongwei, Diao; Jun, Zhang; Wenjing, Wang

    2011-05-01

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed on textured crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in HF-based electrolyte. Optical and electrical properties of the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation are studied. Moreover, the influences of the initial structures and the anodizing time on the optical and electrical properties of the surfaces after PS formation are investigated. The results show that the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation present a dramatic decrease in reflectance. The longer the anodizing time is, the lower the reflectance. Moreover, an initial surface with bigger pyramids achieved lower reflectance in a short wavelength range. A minimum reflectance of 3.86% at 460 nm is achieved for a short anodizing time of 2 min. Furthermore, the reflectance spectrum of the sample, which was etched in 3 vol.% TMAH for 25 min and then anodized for 20 min, is extremely flat and lies between 3.67% and 6.15% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1040 nm. In addition, for a short anodizing time, a slight increase in the effective carrier lifetime is observed. Our results indicate that PS layers formed on a TMAH textured surface for a short anodization treatment can be used as both broadband antireflection coatings and passivation layers for the application in solar cells.

  10. Optical and electrical properties of porous silicon layer formed on the textured surface by electrochemical etching

    Ou Weiying; Zhao Lei; Diao Hongwei; Zhang Jun; Wang Wenjing, E-mail: wjwangwj@126.com [Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed on textured crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in HF-based electrolyte. Optical and electrical properties of the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation are studied. Moreover, the influences of the initial structures and the anodizing time on the optical and electrical properties of the surfaces after PS formation are investigated. The results show that the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation present a dramatic decrease in reflectance. The longer the anodizing time is, the lower the reflectance. Moreover, an initial surface with bigger pyramids achieved lower reflectance in a short wavelength range. A minimum reflectance of 3.86% at 460 nm is achieved for a short anodizing time of 2 min. Furthermore, the reflectance spectrum of the sample, which was etched in 3 vol.% TMAH for 25 min and then anodized for 20 min, is extremely flat and lies between 3.67% and 6.15% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1040 nm. In addition, for a short anodizing time, a slight increase in the effective carrier lifetime is observed. Our results indicate that PS layers formed on a TMAH textured surface for a short anodization treatment can be used as both broadband antireflection coatings and passivation layers for the application in solar cells. (semiconductor technology)

  11. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    It's About Making Surfaces Invisible: Moth Eye, Antireflective Surfaces, and Soft Lithography · Geethamma V G Kazuki Shigeta John A Rogers · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Antireflection is an essential requirement for certain optoelectronicdevices. Antireflective surfaces can be generatedby different methods.

  12. Fabrication of High Transparency Diamond-Like Carbon Film Coating on D263T Glass at Room Temperature as an Antireflection Layer

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to deposit high transmittance diamond-like carbon (DLC thin films on D263T glass substrate at room temperature via a diamond powder target using the radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique. Moreover, various process parameters were used to tune the properties of the thin films by using the Taguchi method. Experimental results show that the content of sp3 bonded carbon decreases in accordance with the effect of the substrate temperature. In addition, the hardness of all as-deposited single-layer DLC films ranges from 13.2 to 22.5 GPa, and the RMS surface roughness was improved significantly with the decrease in sputtering pressure. The water repellent of the deposited DLC films improved significantly with the increase of the sp3 content, and its contact angle was larger than that of the noncoated one by 1.45 times. Furthermore, the refraction index (n of all as-deposited DLC films ranges from 1.95 to 2.1 at λ = 600 nm. These results demonstrate that the thickness increased as the reflectance increased. DLC film under an RF power of 150 W possesses high transmissive ability (>81% and low average reflectance ability (<9.5% in the visible wavelengths (at λ = 400–700 nm.

  13. Minimal surfaces

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  14. Rumble surfaces

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  15. Surface thermodynamics

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  16. Simulation and fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/graded-index TiO{sub 2} antireflection coating for triple-junction GaAs solar cells by using the hybrid deposition process

    Liu, Jheng-Jie; Ho, Wen-Jeng, E-mail: wjho@ntut.edu.tw; Lee, Yi-Yu; Chang, Chia-Ming

    2014-11-03

    GaAs-based multi-junction solar cells (MJ-SCs) provide a wide solar-energy absorption-band (300–1800 nm), but designing and fabricating a broadband antireflection coating (ARC) are challenging. Because MJ-SCs are typically in a series that connects each subcell, the total output current is limited by the subcell that generates the smallest photocurrent. Thus, the ARC for MJ-SCs must be designed not only to obtain broadband absorption but also to minimize light reflection at the wavelength band of the current-limited cell. This study proposes a broadband SiO{sub 2}/graded-index TiO{sub 2} ARC for improving the current-limited subcell performance by using a hybrid deposition (e-beam evaporation and spin-on coating). A bottom TiO{sub 2} layer and a top SiO{sub 2} layer were deposited through e-beam evaporation, but the middle TiO{sub 2} layer was deposited using spin-on coating because the refractive index values of the TiO{sub 2} films could be tuned by applying the spin speed. Therefore, the graded-index TiO{sub 2} layers were easily obtained using a hybrid deposition method. In addition, a suitable reflectance spectrum of an ARC structure for a middle-cell current-limited triple-junction (3-J) GaAs solar cell was simulated using commercial optical software. The photovoltaic current–voltage and external quantum efficiency (EQE) were measured and compared. The resulting improvements of a short-circuit current of 32.4% and conversion efficiency of 31.8% were attributed to an enhanced EQE of 32.97% as well as a low broadband reflectance exhibited on the middle cell of the 3-J GaAs solar cell with a SiO{sub 2}/graded-index TiO{sub 2} ARC. - Highlights: • A broadband SiO{sub 2}/graded-index TiO{sub 2} ARC obtained by a hybrid deposition • A suitable triple-layer ARC was simulated by a commercial optical software. • Optical reflection, photovoltaic I–V, and EQE of 3-J GaAs solar cell were characterized. • An increased J{sub sc} of 32.4% and an increased

  17. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    Derbali, L., E-mail: rayan.slat@yahoo.fr [Photovoltaiec Laboratory, Research and Technology Center of Energy, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaiec Laboratory, Research and Technology Center of Energy, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 Degree-Sign C. Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C, under O{sub 2} atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  18. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    Derbali, L.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. ► An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. ► Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 °C. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 °C and 800 °C, under O 2 atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  19. Surface mining

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  20. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  1. Surface characterization

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2005-01-01

    Surface properties of wood play an important role when wood is used or processed into different commodities such as siding, joinery, textiles, paper, sorption media or wood composites. Thus, for example, the quality and durability of a wood coating are determined by the surface properties of the wood and the coating. The same is true for wood composites, as the...

  2. Surface plasmon effects in the absorption enhancements of amorphous silicon solar cells with periodical metal nanowall and nanopillar structures.

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Kuo, Yang; Liao, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, C C; Kiang, Yean-Woei

    2012-01-02

    The authors numerically investigate the absorption enhancement of an amorphous Si solar cell, in which a periodical one-dimensional nanowall or two-dimensional nanopillar structure of the Ag back-reflector is fabricated such that a dome-shaped grating geometry is formed after Si deposition and indium-tin-oxide coating. In this investigation, the effects of surface plasmon (SP) interaction in such a metal nanostructure are of major concern. Absorption enhancement in most of the solar spectral range of significant amorphous Si absorption (320-800 nm) is observed in a grating solar cell. In the short-wavelength range of high amorphous Si absorption, the weakly wavelength-dependent absorption enhancement is mainly caused by the broadband anti-reflection effect, which is produced through the surface nano-grating structures. In the long-wavelength range of diminishing amorphous Si absorption, the highly wavelength-sensitive absorption enhancement is mainly caused by Fabry-Perot resonance and SP interaction. The SP interaction includes the contributions of surface plasmon polariton and localized surface plasmon.

  3. Self-Cleaning Antireflective Optical Coatings

    Guldin, Stefan; Kohn, Peter; Stefik, Morgan; Song, Juho; Divitini, Giorgio; Ecarla, Fanny; Ducati, Caterina; Wiesner, Ulrich; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    -copolymer in combination with silica-based sol-gel chemistry and preformed TiO2 nanocrystals. The spontaneous dense packing of copolymer micelles followed by a condensation reaction results in an inverse opal-type silica morphology that is loaded with TiO2 photocatalytic

  4. Silicon Nitride Antireflection Coatings for Photovoltaic Cells

    Johnson, C.; Wydeven, T.; Donohoe, K.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical-vapor deposition adapted to yield graded index of refraction. Silicon nitride deposited in layers, refractive index of which decreases with distance away from cell/coating interface. Changing index of refraction allows adjustment of spectral transmittance for wavelengths which cell is most effective at converting light to electric current. Average conversion efficiency of solar cells increased from 8.84 percent to 12.63 percent.

  5. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    In the ophthalmic industry, plastic lenses are rapidly displacing glass lenses ... Moreover, the plasma polymerization process allows deposition of optical films at room temperature, essential for plastics. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  6. Convex surfaces

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  7. Surface boxplots

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  8. Surface boxplots

    Genton, Marc G.; Johnson, Christopher; Potter, Kristin; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  9. Surface channeling

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  10. Martian surface

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars is characterized on the basis of reformatted Viking remote-sensing data, summarizing results published during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include impact craters, ridges and faults, volcanic studies (modeling of surface effects on volcanic activity, description and interpretation of volcanic features, and calculations on lava-ice interactions), the role of liquid water on Mars, evidence for abundant ground ice at high latitudes, water-cycle modeling, and the composition and dynamics of Martian dust

  11. Surface decontamination

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Surface phonons

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  13. Mostly surfaces

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a number of topics related to surfaces, such as Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic geometry, the fundamental group, universal covering surfaces, Riemannian manifolds, the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem, and the Riemann mapping theorem. The main idea is to get to some interesting mathematics without too much formality. The book also includes some material only tangentially related to surfaces, such as the Cauchy Rigidity Theorem, the Dehn Dissection Theorem, and the Banach-Tarski Theorem. The goal of the book is to present a tapestry of ideas from various areas of mathematics in a clear and rigorous yet informal and friendly way. Prerequisites include undergraduate courses in real analysis and in linear algebra, and some knowledge of complex analysis.

  14. Surface rights

    Regina Célia Corrêa Landim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cities of Brazil, social inequality is illustrated by violence, poverty, and unemployment located next to luxurious residential towers and armored passenger cars. In the face of this situation, the National Movement of Urban Reform encouraged the inclusion of the social function of property in Brazil's new constitution of 1988. Surface rights represent an urbanistic instrument in the city statute that is best aligned to the constitutional principles and urban policies. The current article compares two laws that govern the principle of surface rights and provides a brief history of the evolution of the state based on illuminism and the consequent change in paradigm affecting individual rights, including property and civil rights, and their interpretation under the Constitution. The article concludes by suggesting the use of land surface rights in a joint operation, matching the ownership of the property with urban planning policies and social interest.

  15. Attack surfaces

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  16. Surface smoothness

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Dam, Erik B.

    2010-01-01

    accuracy, such novel markers must therefore be validated against clinically meaningful end-goals such as the ability to allow correct diagnosis. We present a method for automatic cartilage surface smoothness quantification in the knee joint. The quantification is based on a curvature flow method used....... We demonstrate that the fully automatic markers eliminate the time required for radiologist annotations, and in addition provide a diagnostic marker superior to the evaluated semi-manual markers....

  17. Nanostructured polymer- and metal surfaces

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun

    , on wafer scale. The BSi structures were replicated into the UV curable organicinorganic hybrid polymer Ormocomp, in order to further assess the optical properties of the structures. BSi structures with lateral dimensions of around 1 μm would selectively scatter specific bands of wavelengths, resulting...... in a structural colour filter for specularly transmitted light. By reducing the height and lateral size, the structures enter a regime where scattering of visible light becomes insignificant. In this regime, the BSi structures were shown to be antireflective. An empirical relation between the characteristic...... moulding in polypropylene. A Ni shim was electroplated from a BSi master, and inserted in an injection moulding tool. The reflectance of the injection moulded parts was reduced from 4.5 % to 2.5% in the visible spectrum. The reflectance was calculated from the gradient in the refractive index from AFM data...

  18. Optical shaping of a nano-scale tip by femtosecond laser assisted field evaporation

    Di Russo, E.; Houard, J.; Langolff, V.; Moldovan, S.; Rigutti, L.; Deconihout, B.; Blavette, D.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Vella, A.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the morphology of a nanotip under femtosecond laser pulse illumination and a high electric field. We show that both the symmetry and the local radius of the tip change with the direction of laser polarization as against the tip axis. The experiments were performed on the very same GaN nanotip by laser-assisted atom probe tomography and electron tomography. This allowed an accurate assessment of the tip features by following the order of evaporation of single atoms from the surface. A change of atom emission sites was observed when a change of the angle between the tip axis and the linearly polarized electric field of the laser was imposed. This enables an optical control of field-evaporation sites. A close optical control of the tip morphology on a scale below 10 nm is thus achievable. Calculations of the field at nanotip apex and absorption maps support the experimental observations. Based on the present study, methods can be developed for reshaping nanotips at the nanometer level. This finding opens perspectives for numerous applications, making use of nanotips as probes or field emitters, and for plasmonic devices.

  19. Surfaces of Building Practice

    Surynková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    My diploma thesis Surfaces of Building Practice deals with the basic properties of surfaces, their mathematical description, categorization, and application in technical practice. Each studied surface is defined and its process of construction and parametrical description is listed. The thesis studies selected types of surfaces in details - these surfaces include surfaces of revolution, ruled surfaces, screw surfaces, and translational surfaces. An application of each studied surfaces is show...

  20. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008

    2008-01-01

    Topics covered include: Nanotip Carpets as Antireflection Surfaces; Nano-Engineered Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells; Capillography of Mats of Nanofibers; Directed Growth of Carbon Nanotubes Across Gaps; High-Voltage, Asymmetric-Waveform Generator; Magic-T Junction Using Microstrip/Slotline Transitions; On-Wafer Measurement of a Silicon-Based CMOS VCO at 324 GHz; Group-III Nitride Field Emitters; HEMT Amplifiers and Equipment for their On-Wafer Testing; Thermal Spray Formation of Polymer Coatings; Improved Gas Filling and Sealing of an HC-PCF; Making More-Complex Molecules Using Superthermal Atom/Molecule Collisions; Nematic Cells for Digital Light Deflection; Improved Silica Aerogel Composite Materials; Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots; Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust- Measurement System; Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps; A New, Highly Improved Two-Cycle Engine; Flexible Structural-Health-Monitoring Sheets; Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures; Purifying Nucleic Acids from Samples of Extremely Low Biomass; Adjustable-Viewing-Angle Endoscopic Tool for Skull Base and Brain Surgery; UV-Resistant Non-Spore-Forming Bacteria From Spacecraft-Assembly Facilities; Hard-X-Ray/Soft-Gamma-Ray Imaging Sensor Assembly for Astronomy; Simplified Modeling of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons; Near-Field Spectroscopy with Nanoparticles Deposited by AFM; Light Collimator and Monitor for a Spectroradiometer; Hyperspectral Fluorescence and Reflectance Imaging Instrument; Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator; Ultra-Stable Beacon Source for Laboratory Testing of Optical Tracking; Transmissive Diffractive Optical Element Solar Concentrators; Delaying Trains of Short Light Pulses in WGM Resonators; Toward Better Modeling of Supercritical Turbulent Mixing; JPEG 2000 Encoding with Perceptual Distortion Control; Intelligent Integrated Health Management for a System of Systems; Delay Banking for Managing Air Traffic; and Spline

  1. Stable switching of resistive random access memory on the nanotip array electrodes

    Tsai, Kun-Tong; Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Wen-Yuan; Ke, Jr-Jian; Mungan, Elif Selin; Wang, Yuh-Lin; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-01

    ] and external environments [3,4]. Therefore, controlling repetitive formation/rupture of CF as well as the spatial uniformity of formed CF are fundamentally important for improving the resistive switching (RS) performance. In this context, we have shown

  2. Plasmonic 3D-structures based on silver decorated nanotips for biological sensing

    Coluccio, M. L.; Francardi, Marco; Gentile, F.; Candeloro, P.; Ferrara, L.; Perozziello, G.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent progresses in nanotechnology fabrication gives the opportunity to build highly functional nano-devices. 3D structures based on noble metals or covered by them can be realized down to the nano-scales, obtaining different devices

  3. An ultrafast electron microscope gun driven by two-photon photoemission from a nanotip cathode

    Bormann, Reiner; Strauch, Stefanie; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally and numerically investigate the performance of an advanced ultrafast electron source, based on two-photon photoemission from a tungsten needle cathode incorporated in an electron microscope gun geometry. Emission properties are characterized as a function of the electrostatic gun settings, and operating conditions leading to laser-triggered electron beams of very low emittance (below 20 nm mrad) are identified. The results highlight the excellent suitability of optically driven nano-cathodes for the further development of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy

  4. Integrated Multilayer Nanogenerator Fabricated Using Paired Nanotip-to-Nanowire Brushes

    Xu, Sheng; Wei, Yaguang; Liu, Jin; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-01-01

    the application of the NGs from low frequency (approximately the hertz range) to a relatively high frequency (approximately the megahertz range) for effectively harvesting mechanical energies in our living environment. With one piece of such a structure stacked

  5. Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces

    Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an

  6. Propagation of plasmons in designed single crystalline silver nanostructures

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lu, Ying-Wei; Huck, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate propagation of plasmons in single crystalline silver nanostructures fabricated using a combination of a bottom-up and a top-down approach. Silver nanoplates of thickness around 65 nm and a surface area of about 100 μm2 are made using a wet chemical method. Silver nanotips...

  7. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Selective surfaces have wavelength dependent emissivity/absorption. These surfaces can be designed to reflect solar radiation, while maximizing infrared emittance,...

  8. Characterization of solid surfaces

    Kane, Philip F; Larrabee, Graydon B

    1974-01-01

    .... A comprehensive review of surface analysis, this important volume surveys both principles and techniques of surface characterization, describes instrumentation, and suggests the course of future research...

  9. Open algebraic surfaces

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  10. Low temperature surface passivation of crystalline silicon and its application to interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (ibc-shj) solar cell

    Shu, Zhan

    With the absence of shading loss together with improved quality of surface passivation introduced by low temperature processed amorphous silicon crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunction, the interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cell exhibits a potential for higher conversion efficiency and lower cost than a traditional front contact diffused junction solar cell. In such solar cells, the front surface passivation is of great importance to achieve both high open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current (Jsc). Therefore, the motivation of this work is to develop a low temperature processed structure for the front surface passivation of IBC-SHJ solar cells, which must have an excellent and stable passivation quality as well as a good anti-reflection property. Four different thin film materials/structures were studied and evaluated for this purpose, namely: amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H), thick amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H), amorphous silicon/silicon nitride/silicon carbide (a-Si:H/a-SiN x:H/a-SiC:H) stack structure with an ultra-thin a-Si:H layer, and zinc sulfide (ZnS). It was demonstrated that the a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H/a-SiC:H stack surpasses other candidates due to both of its excellent surface passivation quality (SRVSi surface is found to be resulted from (i) field effect passivation due to the positive fixed charge (Q fix~1x1011 cm-2 with 5 nm a-Si:H layer) in a-SiNx:H as measured from capacitance-voltage technique, and (ii) reduced defect state density (mid-gap Dit~4x1010 cm-2eV-1) at a-Si:H/c-Si interface provided by a 5 nm thick a-Si:H layer, as characterized by conductance-frequency measurements. Paralleled with the experimental studies, a computer program was developed in this work based on the extended Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) model of surface recombination. With the help of this program, the experimental injection level dependent SRV curves of the stack passivated c-Si samples were successfully reproduced and

  11. Laser-Assisted Field Evaporation and Three-Dimensional Atom-by-Atom Mapping of Diamond Isotopic Homojunctions.

    Mukherjee, Samik; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2016-02-10

    It addition to its high evaporation field, diamond is also known for its limited photoabsorption, strong covalent bonding, and wide bandgap. These characteristics have been thought for long to also complicate the field evaporation of diamond and make its control hardly achievable on the atomistic-level. Herein, we demonstrate that the unique behavior of nanoscale diamond and its interaction with pulsed laser lead to a controlled field evaporation thus enabling three-dimensional atom-by-atom mapping of diamond (12)C/(13)C homojunctions. We also show that one key element in this process is to operate the pulsed laser at high energy without letting the dc bias increase out of bounds for diamond nanotip to withstand. Herein, the role of the dc bias in evaporation of diamond is essentially to generate free charge carriers within the nanotip via impact ionization. The mobile free charges screen the internal electric field, eventually creating a hole rich surface where the pulsed laser is effectively absorbed leading to an increase in the nanotip surface temperature. The effect of this temperature on the uncertainty in the time-of-flight of an ion, the diffusion of atoms on the surface of the nanotip, is also discussed. In addition to paving the way toward a precise manipulation of isotopes in diamond-based nanoscale and quantum structures, this result also elucidates some of the basic properties of dielectric nanostructures under high electric field.

  12. Surfaces with Natural Ridges

    Brander, David; Markvorsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss surfaces with singularities, both in mathematics and in the real world. For many types of mathematical surface, singularities are natural and can be regarded as part of the surface. The most emblematic example is that of surfaces of constant negative Gauss curvature, all of which...

  13. Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces

    Randrup, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...

  14. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Pottmann, Helmut; Grohs, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ

  15. Surface passivation at low temperature of p- and n-type silicon wafers using a double layer a-Si:H/SiNx:H

    Focsa, A.; Slaoui, A.; Charifi, H.; Stoquert, J.P.; Roques, S.

    2009-01-01

    Surface passivation of bare silicon or emitter region is of great importance towards high efficiency solar cells. Nowadays, this is usually accomplished by depositing an hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) layer on n + p structures that serves also as an excellent antireflection layer. On the other hand, surface passivation of p-type silicon is better assured by an hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer but suffers from optical properties. In this paper, we reported the surface passivation of p-type and n-type silicon wafers by using an a-Si:H/SiNx:H double layer formed at low temperature (50-400 deg. C) with ECR-PECVD technique. We first investigated the optical properties (refraction index, reflectance, and absorbance) and structural properties by FTIR (bonds Si-H, N-H) of the deposited films. The hydrogen content in the layers was determined by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The passivation effect was monitored by measuring the minority carrier effective lifetime vs. different parameters such as deposition temperature and amorphous silicon layer thickness. We have found that a 10-15 nm a-Si film with an 86 nm thick SiN layer provides an optimum of the minority carriers' lifetime. It increases from an initial value of about 50-70 μs for a-Si:H to about 760 and 800 μs for a-Si:H/SiNx:H on Cz-pSi and FZ-nSi, respectively, at an injection level 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . The effective surface recombination velocity, S eff , for passivated double layer on n-type FZ Si reached 11 cm/s and for FZ-pSi-14 cm/s, and for Cz-pSi-16-20 cm/s. Effect of hydrogen in the passivation process is discussed.

  16. Surface Topography Hinders Bacterial Surface Motility.

    Chang, Yow-Ren; Weeks, Eric R; Ducker, William A

    2018-03-21

    We demonstrate that the surface motility of the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is hindered by a crystalline hemispherical topography with wavelength in the range of 2-8 μm. The motility was determined by the analysis of time-lapse microscopy images of cells in a flowing growth medium maintained at 37 °C. The net displacement of bacteria over 5 min is much lower on surfaces containing 2-8 μm hemispheres than on flat topography, but displacement on the 1 μm hemispheres is not lower. That is, there is a threshold between 1 and 2 μm for response to the topography. Cells on the 4 μm hemispheres were more likely to travel parallel to the local crystal axis than in other directions. Cells on the 8 μm topography were less likely to travel across the crowns of the hemispheres and were also more likely to make 30°-50° turns than on flat surfaces. These results show that surface topography can act as a significant barrier to surface motility and may therefore hinder surface exploration by bacteria. Because surface exploration can be a part of the process whereby bacteria form colonies and seek nutrients, these results help to elucidate the mechanism by which surface topography hinders biofilm formation.

  17. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  18. Surface phonons and elastic surface waves

    Büscher, H.; Klein-Heßling, W.; Ludwig, W.

    Theoretical investigations on the dynamics of the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of some cubic metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) will be reviewed. Both, lattice dynamical and continuum theoretical results are obtained via a Green's function formalism. The main attitude of this paper is the comparison of our results with experiments and with results obtained via slab-calculations. The calculation of elastic surface waves has been performed using a modified surface-green-function-matching method. We have used two different approaches of calculation the bulk Green's function (a) using the spectral representation and (b) a method, what works on residues. The investigations are carried out using shortrange phenomenological potentials. The atomic force constants in the first surface layers are modified to describe surface phonon anomalies, observed by experiments. In the case of Ag (100) and Ag(110) we conclude that the detection of odd symmetry shear modes by Erskine et al. [1 a, b] was not very accurate.

  19. Surface phonons and elastic surface waves

    Buescher, H.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Ludwig, W.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical investigations on the dynamics of the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of some cubic metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) will be reviewed. Both, lattice dynamical and continuum theoretical results are obtained via a Green's function formalism. The main attitude of this paper is the comparison of our results with experiments and with results obtained via slab-calculations. The calculation of elastic surface waves has been performed using a modified surface-green-function-matching method. We have used two different approaches of calculation the bulk Green's function (a) using the spectral representation and (b) a method, what works on residues. The investigations are carried out using shortrange phenomenological potentials. The atomic force constants in the first surface layers are modified to describe surface phonon anomalies, observed by experiments. In the case of Ag(100) and Ag(110) we conclude that the detection of odd symmetry shear modes by Erskine et al. was not very accurate. (orig.)

  20. Computer aided surface representation

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  1. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  2. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  3. Advanced Surface Technology

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces.......This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...

  4. Extremal surface barriers

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  5. PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2011-12-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of

  6. Optical, structural and surface characterization of ultrasonically sprayed CdO:F films

    Akyuz, I.; Kose, S.; Ketenci, E.; Bilgin, V.; Atay, F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of F doping on the optical, structural and surface properties of ultrasonically sprayed CdO films has been investigated. F doping affected each of these properties. → The low cost of the production system is an advantage for potential applications of these films. CF4 film caused the transmittance values to increase which is a desired development for transparent conducting oxide industry. → Low reflectance value of CF2 film makes this sample a promising material for anti-reflection coatings. → F doping has found to be an alternative solution to increase the narrow band gap of CdO films. This is an other development of CdO:F films for optoelectronic and photovoltaic solar cell applications. → Rough samples may be an alternative in single-junction μc-Si solar cells having superstrate configuration. When we take into account the refractive index and rough surface of the samples, rough interface between a low refractive index material (CdO:F, n ∼ 1.6) and a high refractive index material (for Si n ∼ 3.7) results in reduced reflection due to gradual refractive index matching. In order to increase this effect high rms roughness (R q ) values needed. Also this will allow light trapping into Si layer and cause back and forth scattering at the interfaces increasing the optical path within the Si layer. - Abstract: In this work, we report the effect of F doping on some physical properties of CdO films. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique has been used to obtain the films. Thicknesses, refractive indices and extinction coefficients of the films have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry technique using Cauchy-Urbach model for fitting. Transmission and reflectance spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer, and band gap values have been determined by optical method. X-ray diffraction patterns have been used to study the structural properties such as crystallinity level, texture coefficient, crystallite size and

  7. Induced surface stress at crystal surfaces

    Dahmen, K.

    2002-05-01

    Changes of the surfaces stress Δτ (s) can be studied by observing the bending of thin crystalline plates. With this cantilever method one can gain the induced change of surface stress Δτ (s) from the bending of plates with the help of elasticity theory. For elastic isotropic substrates the relevant relations are known. Here the relations are generalized to elastic anisotropic crystals with a C 2v - Symmetry. The equilibrium shapes of crystalline plates oriented along the (100)-, (110)-, or (111)-direction which are clamped along one edge are calculated with a numeric method under the load of a homogeneous but pure isotropic or anisotropic surface stress. The results can be displayed with the dimensionality, so that the effect of clamping can be described in a systematic way. With these tabulated values one can evaluate cantilever experiments exactly. These results are generalized to cantilever methods for determining magnetoelastic constants. It is shown which magnetoelastic constants are measured in domains of thin films with ordered structures. The eigenshape and the eigenfrequency of plates constraint through a clamping at one side are calculated. These results give a deeper understanding of the elastic anisotropy. The induced surface stress of oxygen on the (110)-surface of molybdenum is measured along the principle directions Δτ [001] and Δτ [ anti 110] . The anisotropy of the surface stress is found for the p(2 x 2)-reconstruction. Lithium induces a tensile surface stress on the Molybdenum (110)-surface up to a coverage of Θ = 0, 3 monolayer. For a higher coverage the induced stress drops and reaches a level of less than -1, 2 N/m at one monolayer. It is shown, that cobalt induces a linear increasing stress with respect to the coverage on the (100)-surface of copper with a value of 2, 4GPa. The copper (100)-surface is bombarded with accelerated ions in the range between 800-2200 eV. The resulting induced compressive stress (Δτ (s) < 0) of the order

  8. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    Gü nther, Felix; Jiang, Caigui; Pottmann, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  9. Surface Prognostic Charts

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Prognostic Charts are historical surface prognostic (forecast) charts created by the United States Weather Bureau. They include fronts, isobars, cloud, and...

  10. Integrated Surface Dataset (Global)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Surface (ISD) Dataset (ISD) is composed of worldwide surface weather observations from over 35,000 stations, though the best spatial coverage is...

  11. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    Günther, Felix

    2017-03-15

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  12. Surface freezing of water

    P?rez-D?az, J. L.; ?lvarez-Valenzuela, M. A.; Rodr?guez-Celis, F.

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered?exclusively?by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on ...

  13. Biomaterials surface science

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of aging effects on the surface of Au - a-Si:H - Sb-Cr Schottky diodes

    Paquin, L.; Wertheimer, M.R.; Sacher, E.; McIntyre, N.S.

    1989-01-01

    During investigations of Au - a-Si:H - Cr-Sb photovoltaic Schottky diodes, it was observed that photoconversion parameters (I sc ,, V oc , η), improved markedly with time for samples stored for several weeks in ambient air. This was always accompanied by apparent color changes in the area under the top (Au) electrode, from gold to deep purple, and by evolution of its surface conductivity σ from a highly conducting to an insulating state. Profilometry indicated that the colored area rose about 80 nm above the original surface during these changes. These diodes have been examined using depth-profiling surface analytical techniques, namely secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), but primarily the latter. The XPS studies of the entire layer thickness on the gold electrode were carried out using erosion by Ar + ion bombardment. The XPS line positions were used to infer electrical properties of silicon and gold constituents. The results show that Si atoms first diffuse through the gold electrode, where they react with atmospheric constituents to form a thick layer composed mainly of SiO 2 . this layer is responsible for the observed changes in color, σ, and I sc . The latter change, which leads to a maximum rise in η of about 60%, is felt to result from the fact that the SiO 2 layer acts as an antireflection coating. Gold from the electrode layer also diffuses outward, mixed intimately with the silicon oxide. Further aging results in a degradation of the electrical continuity of the Au electrode, which is believed to be responsible for the observed slow drop in σ. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs

  15. Decontamination of floor surfaces

    Smirous, F.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements are presented put on the surfaces of floors of radiochemical workplaces. The mechanism is described of retaining the contaminant in the surface of the flooring, ways of reducing the hazards of floor surface contamination, decontamination techniques and used decontamination agents. (J.P.)

  16. Surface vibrational spectroscopy

    Erskine, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations

  17. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by structure type

  18. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  19. Surface for dummies

    Rathbone, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Make Microsoft's Surface work-and play-just the way you want it to Microsoft's Surface tablet has the features and personality you're looking for, with a robust environment for business computing that doesn't skimp on fun. Surface for Dummies, 2nd Edition explains how Windows 8.1 Pro and Windows RT differ, and helps you decide which Surface model is best for you. Step by step, this book walks you through both the hardware and software features of the Surface, including the touch cover and type cover, Windows RT and Windows 8.1 Pro operating systems, and the coveted Office Home & Student 2013 s

  20. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  1. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (2.series of experiments); La pollution surfacique de la LIL et son evolution sur un composant optique soumis a une irradiation laser (2.serie d'experiences)

    Palmier, S.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Manac' h, P.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I. [Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, Dept. des Lasers de Puissance, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Megajoule project (LMJ), a study has been carried out to understand the effect of particle contamination at the surface of optical components. With the object to achieve this purpose, samples were placed as particles collectors in the LMJ prototype, i.e. the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL). We report more specifically particle contamination in the LIL amplifiers section. Particles densities that we measured show that contamination is independent of the sample location in the amplifiers section and also independent of their surface quality. Chemical analyses of collected particles show a majority of organic compounds. Laser irradiations of the silica samples at various fluence levels between 2 and 15 J/cm{sup 2} at a wavelength o64 nm and a pulse duration of 6.5 ns reveal a weak laser cleaning effect. An irreversible surface modification was sometimes observed on silica samples with antireflection coating. However, this effect does not grow after several laser irradiations at 15 J/cm{sup 2}. (authors)

  2. Surface freezing of water.

    Pérez-Díaz, J L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, M A; Rodríguez-Celis, F

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered-exclusively-by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on humidity, presenting at least three different types of surface crystals. Humidity triggers surface freezing as soon as it overpasses a defined value for a given temperature, generating a plurality of nucleation nodes. An evidence of simultaneous nucleation of surface ice crystals is also provided.

  3. On rationally supported surfaces

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  4. Computer aided surface representation

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  5. Mirror reactor surface study

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  6. Mirror reactor surface study

    Hunt, A.L.; Damm, C.C.; Futch, A.H.; Hiskes, J.R.; Meisenheimer, R.G.; Moir, R.W.; Simonen, T.C.; Stallard, B.W.; Taylor, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  7. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Water at surfaces with tunable surface chemistries

    Sanders, Stephanie E.; Vanselous, Heather; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-03-01

    Aqueous interfaces are ubiquitous in natural environments, spanning atmospheric, geological, oceanographic, and biological systems, as well as in technical applications, such as fuel cells and membrane filtration. Where liquid water terminates at a surface, an interfacial region is formed, which exhibits distinct properties from the bulk aqueous phase. The unique properties of water are governed by the hydrogen-bonded network. The chemical and physical properties of the surface dictate the boundary conditions of the bulk hydrogen-bonded network and thus the interfacial properties of the water and any molecules in that region. Understanding the properties of interfacial water requires systematically characterizing the structure and dynamics of interfacial water as a function of the surface chemistry. In this review, we focus on the use of experimental surface-specific spectroscopic methods to understand the properties of interfacial water as a function of surface chemistry. Investigations of the air-water interface, as well as efforts in tuning the properties of the air-water interface by adding solutes or surfactants, are briefly discussed. Buried aqueous interfaces can be accessed with careful selection of spectroscopic technique and sample configuration, further expanding the range of chemical environments that can be probed, including solid inorganic materials, polymers, and water immiscible liquids. Solid substrates can be finely tuned by functionalization with self-assembled monolayers, polymers, or biomolecules. These variables provide a platform for systematically tuning the chemical nature of the interface and examining the resulting water structure. Finally, time-resolved methods to probe the dynamics of interfacial water are briefly summarized before discussing the current status and future directions in studying the structure and dynamics of interfacial water.

  9. Make your Boy surface

    Ogasa, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    This is an introductory article on the Boy surface. Boy found that RP2 can be immersed into R3 and published it 1901. (The image of) the immersion is called the Boy surface after Boy's discovery. We have created a way to construct the Boy surface by using a pair of scissors, a piece of paper, and a strip of scotch tape. In this article we introduce the way.

  10. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  11. Hot Surface Ignition

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  12. Surface science and catalysis

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Modern surface science studies have explored a large number of metal catalyst systems. Three classes of catalytic reactions can be identified: (1) those that occur over the metal surface; (2) reactions that take place on top of a strongly adsorbed overlayer and (3) reactions that occur on co-adsorbate modified surfaces. Case histories for each class are presented. 44 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Anodized dental implant surface

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. Materials and Methods: A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. Results: The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. Conclusions: The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  14. Surface science an introduction

    Hudson, John

    1991-01-01

    The whole field of surface science is covered in this work. Starting with a description of the structure and thermodynamics of clean surfaces, the book goes on to discuss kinetic theory of gases and molecular beam formation. This is followed by a largesection on gas-surface interactions, and another major section on energetic particle-surface interactions. The final chapter provides the background to crystal nucleation and growth. The approach adopted is interdisciplinary and slanted towards theexperimental side, with practical analytical techniques being used to illustrate general princi

  15. Surface chemistry essentials

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  16. Effective antireflection properties of porous silicon nanowires for photovoltaic applications

    Najar, Adel; Al-Jabr, Ahmad; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Sougrat, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching method on the n-Si substrate. The presence of nano-pores with pore size ranging between 10-50nm in SiNWs was confirmed by electron tomography (ET

  17. Questionable effects of antireflective coatings on inefficiently cooled solar cells

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Galster, Georg; Larsen, Esben

    1998-01-01

    of the output power and efficiency curves throughout the day the coherence between technical parameters of the solar cells and the climate in the operation region is observed and examined. It is shown how the drop in output power around noon can be avoided by fitting technical parameters of the solar cells......A model for temperature effects in p-n junction solar cells is introduced. The temperature of solar cells and the losses in the solar cell junction region caused by elevating temperature are discussed. The model developed is examined for low-cost silicon solar cells. In order to improve the shape...

  18. An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection

    Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Cheng; Cheng, Qiang; Yang, Jin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2018-02-01

    Metamaterial absorbers and diffusers provide powerful routes to decrease the backward reflection significantly with advantages of ultrathin profile and customized bandwidth. Simultaneous control of the absorption and scattering behaviors of the metamaterials which helps to improve the suppression capabilities of backward reflection, however, still remains a challenge. Aiming at this goal, we propose a metasurface constituted by two kinds of elements in a pseudorandom arrangement. By the use of indium tin oxide with moderate sheet resistance in the meta-atoms, enhanced absorption of energy can be achieved in a broad spectrum when interacted with illuminated waves. In the meanwhile, electromagnetic diffusion will be invoked from the destructive interference among the elements, giving rise to significant reduction of specular reflection as a result. Excellent agreements are observed between simulation and experiment with pronounced reflection suppression from 6.8 GHz to 19.4 GHz. In addition, the optical transparence of the patterns and substrates makes the proposed metasurface a promising candidate for future applications like photovoltaic solar cells and electromagnetic shielding glasses.

  19. [Ocular surface system integrity].

    Safonova, T N; Pateyuk, L S

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of different structures belonging to either the anterior segment of the eye or its accessory visual apparatus, which all share common embryological, anatomical, functional, and physiological features, is discussed. Explanation of such terms, as ocular surface, lacrimal functional unit, and ocular surface system, is provided.

  20. Pseudospherical surfaces with singularities

    Brander, David

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of constant Gauss curvature −1 surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, based on Lorentzian harmonic maps, that we call pseudospherical frontals. We analyse the singularities of these surfaces, dividing them into those of characteristic and non-characteristic type. We give methods...

  1. Solar absorption surface panel

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  2. Random surfaces and strings

    Ambjoern, J.

    1987-08-01

    The theory of strings is the theory of random surfaces. I review the present attempts to regularize the world sheet of the string by triangulation. The corresponding statistical theory of triangulated random surfaces has a surprising rich structure, but the connection to conventional string theory seems non-trivial. (orig.)

  3. Stiction in surface micromachining

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Sonnenberg, A.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Legtenberg, R.; Legtenberg, Rob; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1996-01-01

    Due to the smoothness of the surfaces in surface micromachining, large adhesion forces between fabricated structures and the substrate are encountered. Four major adhesion mechanisms have been analysed: capillary forces, hydrogen bridging, electrostatic forces and van der Waals forces. Once contact

  4. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...

  5. Bacteria-surface interactions.

    Tuson, Hannah H; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-05-14

    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field.

  6. Protective Surfacing for Playgrounds.

    Frost, Joe L.

    Noting that 90 percent of serious playground injuries result from falls to hard surfaces, this paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of various playground surfacing materials in terms of cost, climate, durability, aesthetics, and play value. Findings are based on the personal experience of the author, government documents, laboratory…

  7. Chapter 8:Surface Characterization

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Joseph Jakes; Mark R. VanLandingham; Shaoxia Wang; Jouko. Peltonen

    2013-01-01

    Surface properties of wood play an important role when wood is used or processed into different commodities such as siding, joinery, textiles, paper, sorption media, or wood composites. Thus, for example, the quality and durability of a wood coating are determined by the surface properties of the wood and the coating. The same is true for wood composites where the...

  8. Response Surface Methodology

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter first summarizes Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which started with Box and Wilson’s article in 1951 on RSM for real, non-simulated systems. RSM is a stepwise heuristic that uses first-order polynomials to approximate the response surface locally. An estimated polynomial

  9. Surface Loving and Surface Avoiding modes

    Combe, Nicolas; Huntzinger, Jean Roch; Morillo, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We theoretically study the propagation of sound waves in GaAs/AlAs superlattices focussing on periodic modes in the vicinity of the band gaps. Based on analytical and numerical calculations, we show that these modes are the product of a quickly oscillating function times a slowly varying envelope function. We carefully study the phase of the envelope function compared to the surface of a semi-infinite superlattice. Especially, the dephasing of the superlattice compared...

  10. Workbench surface editor of brain cortical surface

    Dow, Douglas E.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Serra, Luis

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a 3D reach-in tool to manually reconstruct 3D cortical surface patches from 2D brain atlas images. The first application of our cortex editor is building 3D functional maps, specifically Brodmann's areas. This tool may also be useful in clinical practice to adjust incorrectly mapped atlas regions due to the deforming effect of lesions. The cortex editor allows a domain expert to control the correlation of control points across slices. Correct correlation has been difficult for 3D reconstruction algorithms because the atlas slices are far apart and because of the complex topology of the cortex which differs so much from slice to slice. Also, higher precision of the resulting surfaces is demanded since these define 3D brain atlas features upon which future stereotactic surgery may be based. The cortex editor described in this paper provides a tool suitable for a domain expert to use in defining the 3D surface of a Brodmann's area.

  11. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all

  12. Rough Surface Contact

    T Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  13. Super Riemann surfaces

    Rogers, Alice

    1990-01-01

    A super Riemann surface is a particular kind of (1,1)-dimensional complex analytic supermanifold. From the point of view of super-manifold theory, super Riemann surfaces are interesting because they furnish the simplest examples of what have become known as non-split supermanifolds, that is, supermanifolds where the odd and even parts are genuinely intertwined, as opposed to split supermanifolds which are essentially the exterior bundles of a vector bundle over a conventional manifold. However undoubtedly the main motivation for the study of super Riemann surfaces has been their relevance to the Polyakov quantisation of the spinning string. Some of the papers on super Riemann surfaces are reviewed. Although recent work has shown all super Riemann surfaces are algebraic, some areas of difficulty remain. (author)

  14. Defects at oxide surfaces

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  15. Surface preparation of niobium

    Kneisel, P.

    1980-01-01

    Any discussion of surface preparation for superconducting rf-surfaces is certainly connected with the question what is the best recipe for achieving high Q-values and high break-down fields. Since the break-down in a cavity is not understood so far and because several mechanisms play a role, it also is not possible to give one recipe which always works. Nevertheless in the past certain preparation techniques for niobium surfaces have been developed and certain rules for preparation can be applied. In the following the to-days state of the art will be described and it is attempted to give a short description of the surface in conjunction with the methods of surface treatments, which generally can be applied to niobium cavities. (orig./WTR)

  16. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  17. Land Surface Data Assimilation

    Houser, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Information about land surface water, energy and carbon conditions is of critical importance to real-world applications such as agricultural production, water resource management, flood prediction, water supply, weather and climate forecasting, and environmental preservation. While ground-based observational networks are improving, the only practical way to observe these land surface states on continental to global scales is via satellites. Remote sensing can make spatially comprehensive measurements of various components of the terrestrial system, but it cannot provide information on the entire system (e.g. evaporation), and the observations represent only an instant in time. Land surface process models may be used to predict temporal and spatial terrestrial dynamics, but these predictions are often poor, due to model initialization, parameter and forcing, and physics errors. Therefore, an attractive prospect is to combine the strengths of land surface models and observations (and minimize the weaknesses) to provide a superior terrestrial state estimate. This is the goal of land surface data assimilation. Data Assimilation combines observations into a dynamical model, using the model's equations to provide time continuity and coupling between the estimated fields. Land surface data assimilation aims to utilize both our land surface process knowledge, as embodied in a land surface model, and information that can be gained from observations. Both model predictions and observations are imperfect and we wish to use both synergistically to obtain a more accurate result. Moreover, both contain different kinds of information, that when used together, provide an accuracy level that cannot be obtained individually. Model biases can be mitigated using a complementary calibration and parameterization process. Limited point measurements are often used to calibrate the model(s) and validate the assimilation results. This presentation will provide a brief background on land

  18. PREFACE: Nanostructured surfaces

    Palmer, Richard E.

    2003-10-01

    We can define nanostructured surfaces as well-defined surfaces which contain lateral features of size 1-100 nm. This length range lies well below the micron regime but equally above the Ångstrom regime, which corresponds to the interatomic distances on single-crystal surfaces. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter presents a collection of twelve papers which together address the fabrication, characterization, properties and applications of such nanostructured surfaces. Taken together they represent, in effect, a status report on the rapid progress taking place in this burgeoning area. The first four papers in this special issue have been contributed by members of the European Research Training Network ‘NanoCluster’, which is concerned with the deposition, growth and characterization of nanometre-scale clusters on solid surfaces—prototypical examples of nanoscale surface features. The paper by Vandamme is concerned with the fundamentals of the cluster-surface interaction; the papers by Gonzalo and Moisala address, respectively, the optical and catalytic properties of deposited clusters; and the paper by van Tendeloo reports the application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to elucidate the surface structure of spherical particles in a catalyst support. The fifth paper, by Mendes, is also the fruit of a European Research Training Network (‘Micro-Nano’) and is jointly contributed by three research groups; it reviews the creation of nanostructured surface architectures from chemically-synthesized nanoparticles. The next five papers in this special issue are all concerned with the characterization of nanostructured surfaces with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The papers by Bolotov, Hamilton and Dunstan demonstrate that the STM can be employed for local electrical measurements as well as imaging, as illustrated by the examples of deposited clusters, model semiconductor structures and real

  19. Surface Habitat Systems

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are

  20. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-07

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.

  1. Electrokinetics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Deng Xu; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    On a superhydrophobic surface a liquid is exposed to a large air-water interface. The reduced wall friction is expected to cause a higher electro-osmotic mobility. On the other hand, the low charge density of a superhydrophobic surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility. Due to a lack of experimental data it has not been clear so far whether the reduced wall friction or the reduced charge density dominate the electrokinetic mobilities. To separate the relative contributions of electrophoresis and electro-osmosis, the mobilities of colloids on a negatively charged hydrophilic, a superhydrophobic (Cassie) and a partially hydrophilized superhydrophobic (Cassie composite) coating were measured. To vary the charge density as well as its sign with respect to those of the colloids the partially hydrophilized surfaces were coated with polyelectrolytes. We analyzed the electrokinetic mobilities of negatively charged polystyrene colloids dispersed in aqueous medium on porous hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces by confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. In all cases, the external electric field was parallel to the surface. The total electrokinetic mobilities on the superhydrophobic (Cassie) and negatively charged partially hydrophilized (Cassie composite) surfaces were similar, showing that electro-osmosis is small compared to electrophoresis. The positively charged Cassie composite surfaces tend to ‘trap’ the colloids due to attracting electrostatic interactions and rough morphology, reducing the mobility. Thus, either the charge density of the coatings in the Cassie composite state or its slip length is too low to enhance electro-osmosis.

  2. Plasma-surface interactions

    Goeckner, M J; Nelson, C T; Sant, S P; Jindal, A K; Joseph, E A; Zhou, B S; Padron-Wells, G; Jarvis, B; Pierce, R; Overzet, L J

    2008-01-01

    Materials processing is at a crossroads. Currently a large fraction of industrially viable materials processing is via plasmas. Until recently it has been economical to just examine the influence the plasma properties on the desired surface processes and through this ultimately optimize manufacturing. For example, it is well known that the surface processes (etch or deposition), occur in the top few mono-layers of the surface. Thus, in film growth one requires that molecules from the gas-phase land and bond on the surface. However as processing has reached the nano-scale, development of viable processes has become more and more difficult. In part, this is because of all of the free parameters that exist in plasmas. To overcome this economic issue, tool vendors and semiconductor companies have turned to complex computational models of processing plasmas. For those models to work, one requires a through understanding of all of the gas-phase and surface-phase processes that are exhibited in plasmas. Unfortunately, these processes, particularly those at the surface, are not well understood. In this article we describe a viable model of the surface-phase based on cross sections for processes that occur. While originally developed of fluorocarbon systems, the model also appears to be applicable to hydrocarbon systems.

  3. Plasma-surface interactions

    Goeckner, M J; Nelson, C T; Sant, S P; Jindal, A K; Joseph, E A; Zhou, B S; Padron-Wells, G; Jarvis, B; Pierce, R; Overzet, L J [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas (United States)], E-mail: goeckner@utdallas.edu

    2008-10-01

    Materials processing is at a crossroads. Currently a large fraction of industrially viable materials processing is via plasmas. Until recently it has been economical to just examine the influence the plasma properties on the desired surface processes and through this ultimately optimize manufacturing. For example, it is well known that the surface processes (etch or deposition), occur in the top few mono-layers of the surface. Thus, in film growth one requires that molecules from the gas-phase land and bond on the surface. However as processing has reached the nano-scale, development of viable processes has become more and more difficult. In part, this is because of all of the free parameters that exist in plasmas. To overcome this economic issue, tool vendors and semiconductor companies have turned to complex computational models of processing plasmas. For those models to work, one requires a through understanding of all of the gas-phase and surface-phase processes that are exhibited in plasmas. Unfortunately, these processes, particularly those at the surface, are not well understood. In this article we describe a viable model of the surface-phase based on cross sections for processes that occur. While originally developed of fluorocarbon systems, the model also appears to be applicable to hydrocarbon systems.

  4. Surface science techniques

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  5. Surface modes in physics

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  6. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  7. Surface physics : experimental

    Padalia, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    In this report, discussion is confined to some important ultra high vacuum surface techniques such as ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the low energy electron diffraction (LEED). An attempt is made to cover the basic principles and the experimental details of XPS and AES. Selected examples illustrating the potentialities of the above techniques to solve the important basic as well as applied problems relating to surfaces are presented. Salient features of the available commercial machines in which UPS, AES and LEED are combined to facilitate surface examination sequentially or simultaneously under identical experimental conditions are indicated. (auth.)

  8. Architectural Knitted Surfaces

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2010-01-01

    WGSN reports from the Architectural Knitted Surfaces workshop recently held at ShenkarCollege of Engineering and Design, Tel Aviv, which offered a cutting-edge insight into interactive knitted surfaces. With the increasing role of smart textiles in architecture, the Architectural Knitted Surfaces...... workshop brought together architects and interior and textile designers to highlight recent developments in intelligent knitting. The five-day workshop was led by architects Ayelet Karmon and Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, together with Amir Cang and Eyal Sheffer from the Knitting Laboratory, in collaboration...

  9. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  10. Surface Weather Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  11. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  12. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  13. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication

  14. Vortices on hyperbolic surfaces

    Manton, Nicholas S; Rink, Norman A

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that Abelian Higgs vortices on a hyperbolic surface M can be constructed geometrically from holomorphic maps f: M → N, where N is also a hyperbolic surface. The fields depend on f and on the metrics of M and N. The vortex centres are the ramification points, where the derivative of f vanishes. The magnitude of the Higgs field measures the extent to which f is locally an isometry. Witten's construction of vortices on the hyperbolic plane is rederived, and new examples of vortices on compact surfaces and on hyperbolic surfaces of revolution are obtained. The interpretation of these solutions as SO(3)-invariant, self-dual SU(2) Yang-Mills fields on R 4 is also given.

  15. Land Surface Weather Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  16. Average nuclear surface properties

    Groote, H. von.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of the nuclear surface energy is discussed for semi-infinite matter. This definition is extended also for the case that there is a neutron gas instead of vacuum on the one side of the plane surface. The calculations were performed with the Thomas-Fermi Model of Syler and Blanchard. The parameters of the interaction of this model were determined by a least squares fit to experimental masses. The quality of this fit is discussed with respect to nuclear masses and density distributions. The average surface properties were calculated for different particle asymmetry of the nucleon-matter ranging from symmetry beyond the neutron-drip line until the system no longer can maintain the surface boundary and becomes homogeneous. The results of the calculations are incorporated in the nuclear Droplet Model which then was fitted to experimental masses. (orig.)

  17. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  18. Switching between pitch surfaces

    Rago, Vincenzo; Silva, João R; Brito, João

    2018-01-01

    Soccer training and completion is conventionally practiced on natural grass (NG) or artificial turf (AT). Recently, AT pitches for training / competition, and of unstable surfaces for injury prevention training has increased. Therefore, soccer players are frequently exposed to variations in pitch...... surface during either training or competition. These ground changes may impact physical and physiological responses, adaptations as well as the injury. The aim of this review was to summarize the acute physical and physiological responses, chronic adaptations, and injury risk associated with exercising...... on different pitch surfaces in soccer. Eligible studies were published in English, had pitch surface as an independent variable, and had physical, physiological or epidemiological information as outcome variables. Specific data extracted from the articles included the training response, training adaptations...

  19. Surface vibrational spectroscopy (EELS)

    Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbed states of hydrogen on metal surfaces have been studied by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In this article, typical spectra and analysis as well as recent development are introduced. (author)

  20. Surface Weather Observations Monthly

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  1. Optimization of surface morphology and scattering properties of TCO/AIT textured glass front electrode for thin film solar cells

    Addonizio, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.addonizio@enea.it; Fusco, L.; Antonaia, A.; Cominale, F.; Usatii, I.

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrates. • The effect of wet etch step on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. • The morphology features have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. • Different ZnO surface textures, depending on the underlying glass substrate structures, are obtained. • The effect of different glass texture on optical confinement has been tested in a-Si:H devices. - Abstract: Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrate suitable for silicon based thin film solar cell technology. Wet etch step parameters of AIT process have been varied and effect of different etchants and different etching times on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. The resulting morphology features (shape, size distribution, inclination angle) have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. ZnO:Ga (GZO) films have been deposited by sputtering technique on AIT-processed glass. Two different ZnO surface morphologies have been obtained, strongly depending on the underlying glass substrate morphology induced by different etching times. Very rough and porous texture (σ{sub rms} ∼ 150 nm) was obtained on glass etched 2 min showing cauliflower-like structure, whereas a softer texture (σ{sub rms} ∼ 78 nm) was obtained on glass etched 7 min giving wider and smoother U-shaped craters. The effect of different glass textures on optical confinement has been tested in amorphous silicon based p-i-n devices. Devices fabricated on GZO/high textured glass showed a quantum efficiency enhancement due to both an effective light trapping phenomenon and an effective anti-reflective optical behaviour. Short etching time produce smaller cavities (<1 μm) with deep U-shape characterized by high roughness, high inclination angle and low autocorrelation

  2. Electron microscopy of surfaces

    Venables, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Electron beam techniques used to study clean surfaces and surface processes on a microscopic scale are reviewed. Recent experimental examples and possible future developments are discussed. Special emphasis is given to (i) transmission diffraction and microscopy techniques, including atomic imaging; (ii) Auger microscopy on bulk and thin film samples; (iii) secondary electron microscopy, especially low energy secondaries for work-function imaging and photoelectron imaging; and (iv) reflection electron microscopy and diffraction. (orig.)

  3. Dyakonov surface waves

    Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2008-01-01

    The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....

  4. Automated galaxy surface photometry

    Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional surface photometry of a very large number of galaxies on a deep Schmidt plate has been obtained using the Automatic Plate Measuring System (APM). A method of photometric calibration, suitable for APM measurements, via pixel-by-pixel comparison with CCD frames of a number of the brighter galaxies is described and its advantages are discussed. The same method is used to demonstrate the consistency of measurement of the APM machine when used for surface photometry. (author)

  5. Surface Relief of Mapping

    Costa, Manuel F.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1989-02-01

    We will describe in this communication a noncont act method of measuring surface profile, it does not require any surface preparation, and it can be used with a very large range of surfaces from highly reflecting to non reflecting ones and as complex as textile surfaces. This method is reasonably immune to dispersion and diffraction, which usually make very difficult the application of non contact profilometry methods to a wide range of materials and situations, namely on quality control systems in industrial production lines. The method is based on the horizontal shift of the bright spot on a horizontal surface when this is illuminated with an oblique beam and moved vertically. in order to make the profilometry the sample is swept by an oblique light beam and the bright spot position is compared with a reference position. The bright spot must be as small as possible, particularly in very irregular surfaces; so the light beam diameter must be as small as possible and the incidence angle must not be too small. The sensivity of a system based on this method will be given, mostly, by the reception optical system.

  6. Modification of rubber surface by UV surface grafting

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Kim, Jin Kuk; Ryu, Sung Hun

    2006-01-01

    Rubber surface is subjected to ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the presence of allylamine and radiation sensitizer benzophenone (BP). Fourier transform infrared spectral studies reveal the presence of allylamine on the surface. The presence of irregular needle shapes on the surface as observed in scanning electron micrographs also confirms the polymerized allylamine on the surface. Allylamine coatings have been further confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that allylamine coating on the rubber surface lowers the thermal degradation rate. The contact angle between the water and rubber surface decreases for the modified rubber surface confirming the surface modification due to UV surface grafting

  7. Glycoprotein on cell surfaces

    Muramatsu, T.

    1975-01-01

    There are conjugated polysaccharides in cell membranes and outside of animal cells, and they play important role in the control of cell behavior. In this paper, the studies on the glycoprotein on cell surfaces are reported. It was found that the glycoprotein on cell surfaces have both N-glycoside type and O-glycoside type saccharic chains. Therefore it can be concluded that the basic structure of the saccharic chains in the glycoprotein on cell surfaces is similar to that of blood serum and body fluid. The main glycoprotein in the membranes of red blood corpuscles has been studied most in detail, and it also has both types of saccharic chains. The glycoprotein in liver cell membranes was found to have only the saccharic chains of acid type and to be in different pattern from that in endoplasmic reticula and nuclear membranes, which also has the saccharic chains of neutral type. The structure of the saccharic chains of H-2 antigen, i.e. the peculiar glycoprotein on the surfaces of lymph system cells, has been studied, and it is similar to the saccharic chains of glycoprotein in blood serum. The saccharic chain structures of H-2 antigen and TL antigen are different. TL, H-2 (D), Lna and H-2 (K) are the glycoprotein on cell surfaces, and are independent molecules. The analysis of the saccharic chain patterns on cell surfaces was carried out, and it was shown that the acid type saccharic chains were similar to those of ordinary glycoprotein, because the enzyme of pneumococci hydrolyzed most of the acid type saccharic chains. The change of the saccharic chain patterns of glycoprotein on cell surfaces owing to canceration and multiplication is complex matter. (Kako, I.)

  8. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  9. Surface chemistry theory and applications

    Bikerman, J J

    2013-01-01

    Surface Chemistry Theory and Applications focuses on liquid-gas, liquid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-solid surfaces. The book first offers information on liquid-gas surfaces, including surface tension, measurement of surface tension, rate of capillarity rise, capillary attraction, bubble pressure and pore size, and surface tension and temperature. The text then ponders on liquid-liquid and solid-gas surfaces. Discussions focus on surface energy of solids, surface roughness and cleanness, adsorption of gases and vapors, adsorption hysteresis, interfacial tension, and interfacial t

  10. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    Kä ferbö ck, Florian; Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties

  11. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  12. Iron oxide surfaces

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  13. Delayed electron emission in strong-field driven tunnelling from a metallic nanotip in the multi-electron regime

    Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Schnepp, Sascha; Hafner, Christian; Hengsberger, Matthias; Kim, Dong Eon; Kling, Matthias F.; Landsman, Alexandra; Gallmann, Lukas; Osterwalder, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Illuminating a nano-sized metallic tip with ultrashort laser pulses leads to the emission of electrons due to multiphoton excitations. As optical fields become stronger, tunnelling emission directly from the Fermi level becomes prevalent. This can generate coherent electron waves in vacuum leading to a variety of attosecond phenomena. Working at high emission currents where multi-electron effects are significant, we were able to characterize the transition from one regime to the other. Specifically, we found that the onset of laser-driven tunnelling emission is heralded by the appearance of a peculiar delayed emission channel. In this channel, the electrons emitted via laser-driven tunnelling emission are driven back into the metal, and some of the electrons reappear in the vacuum with some delay time after undergoing inelastic scattering and cascading processes inside the metal. Our understanding of these processes gives insights on attosecond tunnelling emission from solids and should prove useful in designing new types of pulsed electron sources. PMID:27786287

  14. Surface-water surveillance

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  15. Surface states and spectra

    Jaksic, V.; Last, Y.; California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA

    2001-01-01

    Let Z + d+1 =Z d x Z + , let H 0 be the discrete Laplacian on the Hilbert space l 2 (Z + d+1 ) with a Dirichlet boundary condition, and let V be a potential supported on the boundary ∂Z + d+1 . We introduce the notions of surface states and surface spectrum of the operator H=H 0 +V and explore their properties. Our main result is that if the potential V is random and if the disorder is either large or small enough, then in dimension two H has no surface spectrum on σ(H 0 ) with probability one. To prove this result we combine Aizenman-Molchanov theory with techniques of scattering theory. (orig.)

  16. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  17. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  18. From analysis to surface

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    it with a “ground truth” analysis of the same music pro- duced by a human expert (see, in particular, [5]). In this paper, we explore the problem of generating an encoding of the musical surface of a work automatically from a systematic encoding of an analysis. The ability to do this depends on one having...... an effective (i.e., comput- able), correct and complete description of some aspect of the structure of the music. Generating the surface struc- ture of a piece from an analysis in this manner serves as a proof of the analysis' correctness, effectiveness and com- pleteness. We present a reductive analysis......In recent years, a significant body of research has focused on developing algorithms for computing analyses of mu- sical works automatically from encodings of these works' surfaces [3,4,7,10,11]. The quality of the output of such analysis algorithms is typically evaluated by comparing...

  19. Surface-water surveillance

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  20. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  1. Surface and nanomolecular catalysis

    Richards, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Using new instrumentation and experimental techniques that allow scientists to observe chemical reactions and molecular properties at the nanoscale, the authors of Surface and Nanomolecular Catalysis reveal new insights into the surface chemistry of catalysts and the reaction mechanisms that actually occur at a molecular level during catalysis. While each chapter contains the necessary background and explanations to stand alone, the diverse collection of chapters shows how developments from various fields each contributed to our current understanding of nanomolecular catalysis as a whole. The

  2. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  3. Surface science techniques

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  4. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  5. Surfing surface gravity waves

    Pizzo, Nick

    2017-11-01

    A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.

  6. Hyperpolarized Nanodiamond Surfaces.

    Rej, Ewa; Gaebel, Torsten; Waddington, David E J; Reilly, David J

    2017-01-11

    The widespread use of nanodiamond as a biomedical platform for drug-delivery, imaging, and subcellular tracking applications stems from its nontoxicity and unique quantum mechanical properties. Here, we extend this functionality to the domain of magnetic resonance, by demonstrating that the intrinsic electron spins on the nanodiamond surface can be used to hyperpolarize adsorbed liquid compounds at low fields and room temperature. By combining relaxation measurements with hyperpolarization, spins on the surface of the nanodiamond can be distinguished from those in the bulk liquid. These results are likely of use in signaling the controlled release of pharmaceutical payloads.

  7. Organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces

    Muetterties, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    The organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces is defined as a function of surface crystallography and of surface composition for a set of cyclic hydrocarbons that include benzene, toluene, cyclohexadienes, cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclooctatetraene, cyclooctadienes, cyclooctadiene, cycloheptatriene and cyclobutane. 12 figures

  8. Wetting of real surfaces

    Bormashenko, Edward Yu

    2013-01-01

    The problem of wetting and drop dynamics on various surfaces is very interesting from both the scientificas well as thepractical viewpoint, and subject of intense research.The results are scattered across papers in journals, sothis workwill meet the need for a unifying, comprehensive work.

  9. Optimization of surface maintenance

    Oeverland, E.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference paper deals with methods of optimizing the surface maintenance of steel-made offshore installations. The paper aims at identifying important approaches to the problems regarding the long-range planning of an economical and cost effective maintenance program. The methods of optimization are based on the obtained experiences from the maintenance of installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. 3 figs

  10. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  11. Dynamical triangulated fermionic surfaces

    Ambjoern, J.; Varsted, S.

    1990-12-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of randomly triangulated random surfaces which have fermionic world-sheet scalars θ i associated with each vertex i in addition to the usual bosonic world-sheet scalar χ i μ . The fermionic degrees of freedom force the internal metrics of the string to be less singular than the internal metric of the pure bosonic string. (orig.)

  12. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  13. Music Mixing Surface

    Gelineck, Steven; Büchert, Morten; Andersen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-touch based interface for mixing music. The goal of the interface is to provide users with a more intuitive control of the music mix by implementing the so-called stage metaphor control scheme, which is especially suitable for multi-touch surfaces. Specifically, we...

  14. Surface segregation during irradiation

    Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

    1985-10-01

    Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs

  15. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  16. Surface soil contamination standards

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  17. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a

  18. Laser surface cleaning

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  19. Tritium-surface interactions

    Kirkaldy, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    The report deals broadly with tritium-surface interactions as they relate to a fusion power reactor enterprise, viz., the vacuum chamber, first wall, peripherals, pumping, fuel recycling, isotope separation, repair and maintenance, decontamination and safety. The main emphasis is on plasma-surface interactions and the selection of materials for fusion chamber duty. A comprehensive review of the international (particularly U.S.) research and development is presented based upon a literature review (about 1 000 reports and papers) and upon visits to key laboratories, Sandia, Albuquerque, Sandia, Livermore and EGβG Idaho. An inventory of Canadian expertise and facilities for RβD on tritium-surface interactions is also presented. A number of proposals are made for the direction of an optimal Canadian RβD program, emphasizing the importance of building on strength in both the technological and fundamental areas. A compendium of specific projects and project areas is presented dealing primarily with plasma-wall interactions and permeation, anti-permeation materials and surfaces and health, safety and environmental considerations. Potential areas of industrial spinoff are identified

  20. Surface Water in Hawaii

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  1. Transversal Surfaces of Timelike Ruled Surfaces in Minkowski 3-Space

    Önder, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this study we give definitions and characterizations of transversal surfaces of timelike ruled surfaces. We study some special cases such as the striction curve is a geodesic, an asymptotic line or a line of curvature. Moreover, we obtain developable conditions for transversal surfaces of a timelike ruled surface.

  2. In-surface confinement of topological insulator nanowire surface states

    Chen, Fan W.; Jauregui, Luis A.; Tan, Yaohua; Manfra, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Chen, Yong P.; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    The bandstructures of [110] and [001] Bi 2 Te 3 nanowires are solved with the atomistic 20 band tight binding functionality of NEMO5. The theoretical results reveal: The popular assumption that all topological insulator (TI) wire surfaces are equivalent is inappropriate. The Fermi velocity of chemically distinct wire surfaces differs significantly which creates an effective in-surface confinement potential. As a result, topological insulator surface states prefer specific surfaces. Therefore, experiments have to be designed carefully not to probe surfaces unfavorable to the surface states (low density of states) and thereby be insensitive to the TI-effects

  3. In-surface confinement of topological insulator nanowire surface states

    Chen, Fan W., E-mail: fanchen@purdue.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Jauregui, Luis A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Tan, Yaohua [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Manfra, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Klimeck, Gerhard [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Chen, Yong P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Kubis, Tillmann [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The bandstructures of [110] and [001] Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires are solved with the atomistic 20 band tight binding functionality of NEMO5. The theoretical results reveal: The popular assumption that all topological insulator (TI) wire surfaces are equivalent is inappropriate. The Fermi velocity of chemically distinct wire surfaces differs significantly which creates an effective in-surface confinement potential. As a result, topological insulator surface states prefer specific surfaces. Therefore, experiments have to be designed carefully not to probe surfaces unfavorable to the surface states (low density of states) and thereby be insensitive to the TI-effects.

  4. In-surface confinement of topological insulator nanowire surface states

    Chen, Fan W.; Jauregui, Luis A.; Tan, Yaohua; Manfra, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Chen, Yong P.; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-09-01

    The bandstructures of [110] and [001] Bi2Te3 nanowires are solved with the atomistic 20 band tight binding functionality of NEMO5. The theoretical results reveal: The popular assumption that all topological insulator (TI) wire surfaces are equivalent is inappropriate. The Fermi velocity of chemically distinct wire surfaces differs significantly which creates an effective in-surface confinement potential. As a result, topological insulator surface states prefer specific surfaces. Therefore, experiments have to be designed carefully not to probe surfaces unfavorable to the surface states (low density of states) and thereby be insensitive to the TI-effects.

  5. Characterisation of surface roughness for ultra-precision freeform surfaces

    Li Huifen; Cheung, C F; Lee, W B; To, S; Jiang, X Q

    2005-01-01

    Ultra-precision freeform surfaces are widely used in many advanced optics applications which demand for having surface roughness down to nanometer range. Although a lot of research work has been reported on the study of surface generation, reconstruction and surface characterization such as MOTIF and fractal analysis, most of them are focused on axial symmetric surfaces such as aspheric surfaces. Relative little research work has been found in the characterization of surface roughness in ultra-precision freeform surfaces. In this paper, a novel Robust Gaussian Filtering (RGF) method is proposed for the characterisation of surface roughness for ultra-precision freeform surfaces with known mathematic model or a cloud of discrete points. A series of computer simulation and measurement experiments were conducted to verify the capability of the proposed method. The experimental results were found to agree well with the theoretical results

  6. Evaluation of Surface Fatigue Strength Based on Surface Temperature

    Deng, Gang; Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    Surface temperature is considered to be an integrated index that is dependent on not only the load and the dimensions at the contact point but also the sliding velocity, rolling velocity, surface roughness, and lubrication conditions. Therefore, the surface durability of rollers and gears can be evaluated more exactly and simply by the use of surface temperature rather than Hertzian stress. In this research, surface temperatures of rollers under different rolling and sliding conditions are measured using a thermocouple. The effects of load P, mean velocity Vm and sliding velocity Vs on surface temperature are clarified. An experimental formula, which expresses the linear relationship between surface temperature and the P0.86Vs1.31Vm-0.83 value, is used to determine surface temperature. By comparing calculated and measured temperature on the tooth surface of a gear, this formula is confirmed to be applicable for gear tooth surface temperature calculation.

  7. Approximation of Surfaces by Cylinders

    Randrup, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...

  8. Drop Impact on Superheated Surfaces

    Tran, Tuan; Staat, Erik-Jan; Prosperetti, Andrea; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    At the impact of a liquid droplet on a smooth surface heated above the liquid’s boiling point, the droplet either immediately boils when it contacts the surface (“contact boiling”), or without any surface contact forms a Leidenfrost vapor layer towards the hot surface and bounces back (“gentle film

  9. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    Li, Jing

    2017-10-24

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  10. The surface analysis methods

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  11. Deformations of surface singularities

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  12. Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics

    Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    The development of advanced dielectric photonic structures has enabled tremendous control over the propagation and manipulation of light. Structures such as waveguides, splitters, mixers, and resonators now play a central role in the telecommunications industry. This book will discuss an exciting new class of photonic devices, known as surface plasmon nanophotonic structures. Surface plasmons are easily accessible excitations in metals and semiconductors and involve a collective motion of the conduction electrons. These excitations can be exploited to manipulate electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies ("light") in new ways that are unthinkable in conventional dielectric structures. The field of plasmon nanophotonics is rapidly developing and impacting a wide range of areas including: electronics, photonics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The book will highlight several exciting new discoveries that have been made, while providing a clear discussion of the underlying physics, the nanofabrication issues...

  13. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  14. Hydrological land surface modelling

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  15. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  16. Antibacterial Metallic Touch Surfaces

    Victor M. Villapún

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to present a comprehensive review of the development of modern antibacterial metallic materials as touch surfaces in healthcare settings. Initially we compare Japanese, European and US standards for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. The variations in methodologies defined in these standards are highlighted. Our review will also cover the most relevant factors that define the antimicrobial performance of metals, namely, the effect of humidity, material geometry, chemistry, physical properties and oxidation of the material. The state of the art in contact-killing materials will be described. Finally, the effect of cleaning products, including disinfectants, on the antimicrobial performance, either by direct contact or by altering the touch surface chemistry on which the microbes attach, will be discussed. We offer our outlook, identifying research areas that require further development and an overview of potential future directions of this exciting field.

  17. Tumor cell surface proteins

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  18. Water on graphene surfaces

    Gordillo, M C [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera, km 1, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Marti, J, E-mail: cgorbar@upo.e, E-mail: jordi.marti@upc.ed [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, B4-B5 Campus Nord, E-08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-07-21

    In this paper, we summarize the main results obtained in our group about the behavior of water confined inside or close to different graphene surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. These include the inside and outside of carbon nanotubes, and the confinement inside a slit pore or a single graphene sheet. We paid special attention to some thermodynamical (binding energies), structural (hydrogen-bond distributions) and dynamic (infrared spectra) properties, and their comparison to their bulk counterparts.

  19. Curves and Surfaces

    1990-01-01

    joint work with Bj6rn Jawerth and Brad Lucier. Courbes et Surfaces CHAMONIX - MONT BLANC 21-27juin 1990 QUASI-Eh4TERPOIANT’S DE TYPE DE SZASZ ...t) =ect, c > 0, t e lR, et, G(IR,) = (f e C(1R: IlfiI sup ( if (t)I / (p(t), t e IR+) < +oo) L’opdrateur de Szasz -Mirakyan Sn de C,(IR+) dans G[a,b

  20. Fuzzy Riemann surfaces

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hofer, Laurent; Hoppe, Jens; Bordemann, Martin; Shimada, Hidehiko

    2009-01-01

    We introduce C-Algebras (quantum analogues of compact Riemann surfaces), defined by polynomial relations in non-commutative variables and containing a real parameter that, when taken to zero, provides a classical non-linear, Poisson-bracket, obtainable from a single polynomial C(onstraint) function. For a continuous class of quartic constraints, we explicitly work out finite dimensional representations of the corresponding C-Algebras.

  1. Single Crystal Surfaces

    Aguilar-Santillan, Joaquin

    2014-06-01

    The present work studies (0001) Al2O3 and (111) Al2MgO4 wetting with pure molten Al by the sessile drop technique from 1073 K to 1473 K (800 °C to 1200 °C) under Ar at PO2 10-15 Pa. Al pure liquid wets a smooth and chemically homogeneous surface of an inert solid, the wetting driving force ( t, T) can be readily studied when surface solid roughness increases in the system. Both crystals planes (0001) Al2O3 and (111) Al2MgO4 have crystallographic surfaces with identical O-2 crystalline positions however considering Mg2+ content in Al2MgO4 structure may influence a reactive mode. Kinetic models results under similar experimental conditions show that Al wetting on (0001) Al2O3 is less reactive than (111) Al2MgO4, however at >1273 K (1000 °C) (0001) Al2O3 transformation occurs and a transition of wetting improves. The (111) Al2MgO4 and Al system promotes interface formations that slow its wetting process.

  2. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  3. Microplates with adaptive surfaces.

    Akbulut, Meshude; Lakshmi, Dhana; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletska, Elena V; Chianella, Iva; Güven, Olgun; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2011-11-14

    Here we present a new and versatile method for the modification of the well surfaces of polystyrene microtiter plates (microplates) with poly(N-phenylethylene diamine methacrylamide), (poly-NPEDMA). The chemical grafting of poly-NPEDMA to the surface of microplates resulted in the formation of thin layers of a polyaniline derivative bearing pendant methacrylamide double bonds. These were used as the attachment point for various functional polymers through photochemical grafting of various, for example, acrylate and methacrylate, polymers with different functionalities. In a model experiment, we have modified poly-NPEDMA-coated microplates with a small library of polymers containing different functional groups using a two-step approach. In the first step, double bonds were activated by UV irradiation in the presence of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester (iniferter). This enabled grafting of the polymer library in the second step by UV irradiation of solutions of the corresponding monomers in the microplate wells. The uniformity of coatings was confirmed spectrophotometrically, by microscopic imaging and by contact angle measurements (CA). The feasibility of the current technology has been shown by the generation of a small library of polymers grafted to the microplate well surfaces and screening of their affinity to small molecules, such as atrazine, a trio of organic dyes, and a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The stability of the polymers, reproducibility of measurement, ease of preparation, and cost-effectiveness make this approach suitable for applications in high-throughput screening in the area of materials research.

  4. Mapping stellar surface features

    Noah, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum binaries Sigma Geminorum and UX Arietis are reported along with details of the Doppler-imaging program SPOTPROF. The observations suggest that the starspot activity on Sigma Gem has decreased to 0.05 magnitude in two years. A photometric spot model for September 1984 to January 1985 found that a single spot covering 2% of the surface and 1000 K cooler than the surrounding photosphere could model the light variations. Equivalent-width observations contemporaneous with the photometric observations did not show any significant variations. Line-profile models from SPOTPROF predict that the variation of the equivalent width of the 6393 A Fe I line should be ∼ 1mA. Photometric observations of UX Ari from January 1984 to March 1985 show an 0.3 magnitude variation indicating a large spot group must cover the surface. Contemporaneous spectroscopic observations show asymmetric line profiles. The Doppler imaging and the photometric light-curve models were used in an iterative method to describe the stellar surface-spot distribution and successfully model both the photometric and the spectroscopic variations

  5. Surface roughening under ion bombardment

    Bhatia, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Ion bombardment can cause roughening of a surface. Inadequate step coverage and poor adhesion of films on such surfaces are of concern. An extreme case of surface roughening results in cone formation under ion bombardment. The results of the investigation, using scanning electron microscopy, is discussed in terms of the role of (a) embedded particles, (b) impurities and (c) surface migration in cone formation on the target surface. (Auth.)

  6. Radiative heat exchange between surfaces

    Yener, Y.; Yuncu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The geometrical features of radiative heat exchange between surfaces are discussed first by developing various radiation shape factor relations. The governing equations for enclosures with diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting surfaces, as well as the equations for enclosures with gray surfaces having specular component of reflectivity are introduced next. Finally, a simplified model for enclosures with isothermal surfaces under the assumption of uniform radiosity over the surfaces is discussed, and various working relations for different conditions are presented

  7. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  8. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.

  9. Surface treatment of zirconia ceramics

    1980-01-01

    A method of chemically micropitting and/or microcratering at least a portion of a smooth surface of an impervious zirconia-base ceramic is described, comprising (a) contacting the smooth surface with a liquid leachant selected from concentrated sulphuric acid, ammonium bisulphate, alkali metal bisulphates and mixtures thereof at a temperature of at least 250 0 C for a period of time sufficient to effect micropitting and/or microcratering generally uniformly distributed throughout the microstructure of the resultant leached surface; (b) removing the leached surface from contact with the leachant; (c) contacting the leached surface with hydrochloric acid to effect removal from the leached surface of a residue thereon comprising sulphate of metal elements including zirconium in the ceramic; (d) removing the leached surface from contact with the hydrochloric acid; and (e) rinsing the leached surface with water to effect removal of acid residue from that surface. (author)

  10. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Nina GRIDINA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Performed in this paper is numerical modeling of the angular dependence for light reflectivity R(F in surface plasmon-polariton resonance (SPR realized in Kretschmann geometry when studying the interface gold/suspension of spherical particles (cells in the assumption that the dielectric permittivity of particles suspension is described by the theory of effective medium. It has been shown that availability of suspended particles in solution inevitably results in appearance of an intermediate layer with the ε gradient between gold surface and suspension bulk, as a result of which the SPR angle shifts to lower values. Near the critical angle, the first derivative dR/dF demonstrates a clearly pronounced peak, which allows determining the value for suspension bulk and the gradient in the intermediate layer. Obtained in our experiments were SPR curves for two suspensions of erythrocytes – the dense one (erythrocyte mass after centrifuging and loose solution (whole blood. In the case of erythrocyte mass, fitting the experimental and calculated curves enabled us to quantitatively determine the bulk value for this erythrocyte mass (εb =1.96, thickness of the intermediate layer dm (300…400 nm and gradient in the intermediate layer. On the contrary, the SPR curve for whole blood appeared to be close to that of pure plasma. This fact allows only estimation of the thickness dm~2000...3000 nm as well as minimum ε value in the intermediate layer, which is close to that of plasma (ε = 1.79. Also, discussed is the mechanism of influence of the cell shape near the gold surface on the SPR effect.

  11. Anionic surface binders

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja; Hočevar Nežka

    2004-01-01

    The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer) are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When opt...

  12. Distributed Surface Force

    2014-06-01

    surface missile SSN nuclear powered attack submarine ST Singapore Technologies T-AKE Lewis and Clarke class TDSI Temasek Defense Systems Institute TRL...total of 313 (Department of the Navy N8 Department 2013). This 306-ship plan includes 12 SSBNs, 48 SSNs , 11 aircraft carriers, 88 cruisers and...MoCil • • West Reef Barque Canada Stloal frinc2 of wales Bank • Reef fat Grair9r Bani< Aneoyna Cltf •Mari\\eles • • • • Nlenwl Bank Ardaser n Dalas

  13. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of Metallic Surfaces

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Ferrante, John

    1994-01-01

    The perpendicular and parallel multilayer relaxations of fcc (210) surfaces are studied using equivalent crystal theory (ECT). A comparison with experimental and theoretical results is made for AI(210). The effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the magnitudes and ordering of surface relaxations for this semiempirical method is estimated. A new measure of surface roughness is proposed. Predictions for the multilayer relaxations and surface energies of the (210) face of Cu and Ni are also included.

  14. Concepts in surface physics

    Desjonquères, M -C

    1993-01-01

    This textbook is intended as an introduction to surface science for graduate students. It began as a course of lectures that we gave at the University of Paris (Orsay). Its main objectives are twofold: to provide the reader with a compre­ hensive presentation of the basic principles and concepts of surface physics and to show the usefulness of these concepts in the real world by referring to experiments. It starts at a rather elementary level since it only requires a knowledge of solid state physics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical physics which does not exceed the background usually taught to students early in their university courses. However, since it finally reaches an advanced level, we have tried to render it as self-contained as possible so that it remains accessible even to an unexperienced reader. Furthermore, the emphasis has been put on a pedagogical level rather than on a technical level. In this spirit, whenever possible, models which are simplified, but which contain the featu...

  15. Decontamination of body surface

    Harase, Chieko.

    1989-01-01

    There are two important points for an effective application of decontamination procedures. One is the organizing method of responsible decontamination teams. The team should be directed by medical doctor with the knowledge of decontamination of radionuclides. The other point is the place of application of the decontamination. Hospitals and clinics, especially with a department of nuclear medicine, or specialized units such as an emergency medical center are preferable. Before decontamination procedures are initiated, adequate monitoring of the body surface should be undertaken by a competent person in order to demarcate the areas which are contaminated. There are fundamental principles which are applicable to all decontamination procedures. (1) Precautions must always be taken to prevent further spread of contamination during decontamination operations. (2) Mild decontamination methods should be tried before resorting to treatment which can damage the body surface. The specific feature of each contamination varies widely in radionuclides involved, place and area of the contamination, condition of the contaminated skin such as whether the skin is wounded or not, and others. Soap and water are usually good detergents in most cases. If they fail, orange oil cream (SUPERDECONCREAM, available from Tokyo Engineering Co.) specially prepared for decontamination of radionuclides of most fission and corrosion products may be used. Contaminated hair should be washed several times with an efficient shampoo. (author)

  16. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  17. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    Käferböck, Florian

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  19. Femtosecond laser-induced surface wettability modification of polystyrene surface

    Wang, Bing; Wang, XinCai; Zheng, HongYu; Lam, YeeCheong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple method to create either a hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface. With femtosecond laser irradiation at different laser parameters, the water contact angle (WCA) on polystyrene's surface can be modified to either 12.7° or 156.2° from its original WCA of 88.2°. With properly spaced micro-pits created, the surface became hydrophilic probably due to the spread of the water droplets into the micro-pits. While with properly spaced micro-grooves created, the surface became rough and more hydrophobic. We investigated the effect of laser parameters on WCAs and analyzed the laser-treated surface roughness, profiles and chemical bonds by surface profilometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the laser-treated surface with low roughness, the polar (such as C—O, C=O, and O—C=O bonds) and non-polar (such as C—C or C—H bonds) groups were found to be responsible for the wettability changes. While for a rough surface, the surface roughness or the surface topography structure played a more significant role in the changes of the surface WCA. The mechanisms involved in the laser surface wettability modification process were discussed.

  20. Theory of quasiparticle surface states in semiconductor surfaces

    Hybertsen, M.S.; Louie, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    A first-principles theory of the quasiparticle surface-state energies on semiconductor surfaces is developed. The surface properties are calculated using a repeated-slab geometry. Many-body effects due to the electron-electron interaction are represented by the electron self-energy operator including the full surface Green's function and local fields and dynamical screening effects in the Coulomb interaction. Calculated surface-state energies for the prototypical Si(111):As and Ge(111):As surfaces are presented. The calculated energies and dispersions for the occupied surface states (resonances) are in excellent agreement with recent angle-resolved photoemission data. Predictions are made for the position of empty surface states on both surfaces which may be experimentally accessible. The resulting surface state gap at Gamma-bar for Si(111):As agrees with recent scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy measurements. Comparison of the present results to eigenvalues from the local-density-functional calculation reveals substantial corrections for the gaps between empty and occupied surface states. This correction is found to depend on the character of the surface states involved

  1. On-surface synthesis on a bulk insulator surface

    Richter, Antje; Floris, Andrea; Bechstein, Ralf; Kantorovich, Lev; Kühnle, Angelika

    2018-04-01

    On-surface synthesis has rapidly emerged as a most promising approach to prepare functional molecular structures directly on a support surface. Compared to solution synthesis, performing chemical reactions on a surface offers several exciting new options: due to the absence of a solvent, reactions can be envisioned that are otherwise not feasible due to the insolubility of the reaction product. Perhaps even more important, the confinement to a two-dimensional surface might enable reaction pathways that are not accessible otherwise. Consequently, on-surface synthesis has attracted great attention in the last decade, with an impressive number of classical reactions transferred to a surface as well as new reactions demonstrated that have no classical analogue. So far, the majority of the work has been carried out on conducting surfaces. However, when aiming for electronic decoupling of the resulting structures, e.g. for the use in future molecular electronic devices, non-conducting surfaces are highly desired. Here, we review the current status of on-surface reactions demonstrated on the (10.4) surface of the bulk insulator calcite. Besides thermally induced C-C coupling of halogen-substituted aryls, photochemically induced [2  +  2] cycloaddition has been proven possible on this surface. Moreover, experimental evidence exists for coupling of terminal alkynes as well as diacetylene polymerization. While imaging of the resulting structures with dynamic atomic force microscopy provides a direct means of reaction verification, the detailed reaction pathway often remains unclear. Especially in cases where the presence of metal atoms is known to catalyze the corresponding solution chemistry reaction (e.g. in the case of the Ullmann reaction), disclosing the precise reaction pathway is of importance to understand and generalize on-surface reactivity on a bulk insulator surface. To this end, density-functional theory calculations have proven to provide atomic

  2. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  3. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  4. Surface properties of beached plastics.

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2015-07-01

    Studying plastic characteristics in the marine environment is important to better understand interaction between plastics and the environment. In the present study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) samples were collected from the coastal environment in order to study their surface properties. Surface properties such as surface functional groups, surface topography, point of zero charge, and color change are important factors that change during degradation. Eroded HDPE demonstrated an altered surface topography and color and new functional groups. Eroded PET surface was uneven, yellow, and occasionally, colonized by microbes. A decrease in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks was observed for eroded PET suggesting that degradation had occurred. For eroded PVC, its surface became more lamellar and a new FTIR peak was observed. These surface properties were obtained due to degradation and could be used to explain the interaction between plastics, microbes, and pollutants.

  5. Solid surfaces : some theoretical aspects

    Das, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    An appraisal of the current situation concerning some of the theoretical aspects of solid surfaces is presented. First of all the characterization of the surfaces that involves the surface geometry and atomic composition for both the clean and adsorbed surfaces is discussed. Under this, the methods for determining the surface structure (such as low energy electron diffraction, field electron and field ion microscopy, photo emission spectroscopy and atomic scattering) and methods for determining the surface composition by the Auger electron spectroscopy are outlined. In the second part, emphasis is on the electronic structure of the clean and adsorbed surfaces. The measurements of ultra-violet and X-ray photo electron spectra are shown to yield the information about the surface electronic structure. In this context the many body effects such as, shake-up and relaxation energy etc. are discussed. Finally the status of the theory in relation to the experiments on angular resolved and polarization dependent photo emission are presented. (auth.)

  6. Classical strings and minimal surfaces

    Urbantke, H.

    1986-01-01

    Real Lorentzian forms of some complex or complexified Euclidean minimal surfaces are obtained as an application of H.A. Schwarz' solution to the initial value problem or a search for surfaces admitting a group of Poincare transformations. (Author)

  7. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered

  8. Solvay Conference on Surface Science

    1988-01-01

    The articles collected in this volume give a broad overview of the current state of surface science. Pioneers in the field and researchers met together at this Solvay Conference to discuss important new developments in surface science, with an emphasis on the common area between solid state physics and physical chemistry. The contributions deal with the following subjects: structure of surfaces, surface science and catalysis, two-dimensional physics and phase transitions, scanning tunneling microscopy, surface scattering and surface dynamics, chemical reactions at surfaces, solid-solid interfaces and superlattices, and surface studies with synchrotron radiation. On each of these subjects an introductory review talk and a number of short research contributions are followed by extensive discussions, which appear in full in the text. This nineteenth Solvay Conference commemorates the 75th anniversary of the Solvay Institutes.

  9. Emerging trends in surface metrology

    Lonardo, P.M.; Lucca, D.A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    Recent advancements and some emerging trends in the methods and instruments used for surface and near surface characterisation are presented, considering the measurement of both topography and physical properties. In particular, surfaces that present difficulties in measurement or require new...... procedures are considered, with emphasis on measurements approaching the nanometre scale. Examples of new instruments and promising innovations for roughness measurement and surface integrity characterisation are presented. The new needs for tolerancing, traceability and calibration are also addressed....

  10. Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2016-01-01

    We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich...... platform for applications of surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and as such their propagation can be effectively controlled by changing wavelength or material parameters tuning....

  11. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  12. Atomic beams probe surface vibrations

    Robinson, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)

  13. Reusable Surface Insulation

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation, developed by Ames Research Center, protects the Space Shuttle from the searing heat that engulfs it on reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Initially integrated into the Space Shuttle by Rockwell International, production was transferred to Hi-Temp Insulation Inc. in 1974. Over the years, Hi-Temp has created many new technologies to meet the requirements of the Space Shuttle program. This expertise is also used commercially, including insulation blankets to cover aircrafts parts, fire barrier material to protect aircraft engine cowlings and aircraft rescue fire fighter suits. A Fire Protection Division has also been established, offering the first suit designed exclusively by and for aircraft rescue fire fighters. Hi-Temp is a supplier to the Los Angeles City Fire Department as well as other major U.S. civil and military fire departments.

  14. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  15. Surface enhanced thermo lithography

    Coluccio, Maria Laura

    2017-01-13

    We used electroless deposition to fabricate clusters of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on a silicon substrate. These clusters are plasmonics devices that induce giant electromagnetic (EM) field increments. When those EM field are absorbed by the metal NPs clusters generate, in turn, severe temperature increases. Here, we used the laser radiation of a conventional Raman set-up to transfer geometrical patterns from a template of metal NPs clusters into a layer of thermo sensitive Polyphthalaldehyde (PPA) polymer. Temperature profile on the devices depends on specific arrangements of silver nanoparticles. In plane temperature variations may be controlled with (i) high nano-meter spatial precision and (ii) single Kelvin temperature resolution on varying the shape, size and spacing of metal nanostructures. This scheme can be used to generate strongly localized heat amplifications for applications in nanotechnology, surface enhanced thermo-lithography (SETL), biology and medicine (for space resolved cell ablation and treatment), nano-chemistry.

  16. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  17. Nonlinear surface Alfven waves

    Cramer, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear surface Alfven waves propagating on an interface between a plasma and a vacuum is discussed, with dispersion provided by the finite-frequency effect, i.e. the finite ratio of the frequency to the ion-cyclotron frequency. A set of simplified nonlinear wave equations is derived using the method of stretched co-ordinates, and another approach uses the generation of a second-harmonic wave and its interaction with the first harmonic to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is then derived, and soliton solutions found that propagate as solitary pulses in directions close to parallel and antiparallel to the background magnetic field. (author)

  18. Measurement of complex surfaces

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  19. Surface enhanced thermo lithography

    Coluccio, Maria Laura; Alabastri, Alessandro; Bonanni, Simon; Majewska, Roksana; Dattoli, Elisabetta; Barberio, Marianna; Candeloro, Patrizio; Perozziello, Gerardo; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Gentile, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We used electroless deposition to fabricate clusters of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on a silicon substrate. These clusters are plasmonics devices that induce giant electromagnetic (EM) field increments. When those EM field are absorbed by the metal NPs clusters generate, in turn, severe temperature increases. Here, we used the laser radiation of a conventional Raman set-up to transfer geometrical patterns from a template of metal NPs clusters into a layer of thermo sensitive Polyphthalaldehyde (PPA) polymer. Temperature profile on the devices depends on specific arrangements of silver nanoparticles. In plane temperature variations may be controlled with (i) high nano-meter spatial precision and (ii) single Kelvin temperature resolution on varying the shape, size and spacing of metal nanostructures. This scheme can be used to generate strongly localized heat amplifications for applications in nanotechnology, surface enhanced thermo-lithography (SETL), biology and medicine (for space resolved cell ablation and treatment), nano-chemistry.

  20. Positron annihilation near fractal surfaces

    Lung, C.W.; Deng, K.M.; Xiong, L.Y.

    1991-07-01

    A model for positron annihilation in the sub-surface region near a fractal surface is proposed. It is found that the power law relationship between the mean positron implantation depth and incident positron energy can be used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractal surface in materials. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs