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Sample records for nanostructured tungsten oxide

  1. Annealing induced structural evolution and electrochromic properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ching-Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chung-Kwei [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chun-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Chang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: JLH888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-31

    The effect of microstructure on the optical and electrochemical properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films was evaluated as a function of annealing temperature. The films using block copolymer as the template were prepared from peroxotungstic acid (PTA) by spin-coating onto the substrate and post-annealed at 250–400 °C to form tungsten oxide films with nanostructure. The microstructure of the films was measured by X-ray diffraction and surface electron microscopy. The films annealed at temperatures below 300 °C are characterized by amorphous or nanocrystalline structures with a pore size of less than 10 nm. The evaluated annealing temperature caused a triclinic crystalline structure and microcracks. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed in a LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte. The results showed that the ion inserted capacity were maximized for films annealed at 300 °C and decreased with the increasing of annealing temperature. The electrochromic properties of the nanostructured tungsten oxide films were evaluated simultaneously by potentiostat and UV–vis spectroscopy. The films annealed at 300 °C exhibit high transmission modulation (∆T ∼ 40%) at λ = 633 nm and good kinetic properties. As a result, the correlation between the microstructure and kinetic properties was established, and the electrochromic properties have been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted WO{sub 3} films have been prepared by sol–gel method. • Nanostructure of porous WO{sub 3} film is retained after crystallization. • Kinetic properties of WO{sub 3} can be improved by nanostructure and crystallinity.

  2. Mechanistic Understanding of Tungsten Oxide In-Plane Nanostructure Growth via Sequential Infiltration Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Jin; Suh, Hyo Seon; Zhou, Chun; Mane, Anil U.; Lee, Byeongdu; Kim, Soojeong; Emery, Jonathan D.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Nealey, Paul F.; Fenter, Paul; Fister, Timothy T.

    2018-02-21

    Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) nanostructures with hexagonal in-plane arrangements were fabricated by sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), using the selective interaction of gas phase precursors with functional groups in one domain of a block copolymer (BCP) self-assembled template. Such structures are highly desirable for various practical applications and as model systems for fundamental studies. The nanostructures were characterized by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, grazing-incidence small/wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS/GIWAXS), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements at each stage during the SIS process and subsequent thermal treatments, to provide a comprehensive picture of their evolution in morphology, crystallography and electronic structure. In particular, we discuss the critical role of SIS Al2O3 seeds toward modifying the chemical affinity and free volume in a polymer for subsequent infiltration of gas phase precursors. The insights into SIS growth obtained from this study are valuable to the design and fabrication of a wide range of targeted nanostructures.

  3. Chemically produced nanostructured ODS-lanthanum oxide-tungsten composites sintered by spark plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, Mazher Ahmed; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, Hanadi G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    High purity W and W-0.9La 2 O 3 (wt.%) nanopowders were produced by a wet chemical route. The precursor was prepared by the reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) with lanthanum salt in aqueous solutions. High resolution electron microscopy investigations revealed that the tungstate particles were coated with oxide precipitates. The precursor powder was reduced to tungsten metal with dispersed lanthanum oxide. Powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 and 1400 o C to suppress grain growth during sintering. The final grain size relates to the SPS conditions, i.e. temperature and heating rate, regardless of the starting powder particle size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxide phases were mainly accumulated at grain boundaries while the tungsten matrix constituted of nanosized sub-grains. The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the tungsten grains consist of micron-scale grains and finer sub-grains. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of W in dispersed oxide phases with varying chemical composition, which evidenced the presence of complex oxide phases (W-O-La) in the sintered metals.

  4. Nitridation of one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanostructures: Changes in structure and photoactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamás

    2017-10-12

    In the search for stable, visible light active photoelectrodes, hydrothermally synthesized tungsten oxide nanowires were modified via nitrogen incorporation into their structure. To this end, nanowires were heat-treated in ammonia/nitrogen atmosphere at different temperatures. This procedure caused transitions in their structure that were investigated along with the photoelectrochemical properties of the samples. Results were subsequently compared to the reference samples treated in inert nitrogen atmosphere. Morphological changes and structural transitions were followed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Bandgap energies were determined from the UV–vis spectra of the materials, while photoelectrochemical properties were tested by linear sweep photovoltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Pristine tungsten oxide nanowires were first transformed into tungsten oxynitride and then tungsten nitride during high-temperature calcination in ammonia atmosphere. Electron microscopic investigation revealed that, along with phase transition, the initial fibrous morphology gradually converted into nanosheets. Simultaneously, bandgap energies significantly decreased in the calcination process, too. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that photoactivity in the treated samples was not improved by the decrease of the bandgap. This behavior might be explained with the deterioration of charge carrier transport properties of the materials due to the increased number of structural defects (acting as trap states), and current ongoing work aims to verify this notion.

  5. Nanostructured tungsten trioxide thin films synthesized for photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Chong, Meng Nan; Chan, Eng Seng

    2014-11-01

    The recent developments of nanostructured WO3 thin films synthesized through the electrochemical route of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition for the application in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting are reviewed. The key fundamental reaction mechanisms of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition methods for synthesizing nanostructured WO3 thin films are explained. In addition, the effects of metal oxide precursors, electrode substrates, applied potentials and current densities, and annealing temperatures on size, composition, and thickness of the electrochemically synthesized nanostructured WO3 thin films are elucidated in detail. Finally, a summary is given for the general evaluation practices used to calculate the energy conversion efficiency of nanostructured WO3 thin films and a recommendation is provided to standardize the presentation of research results in the field to allow for easy comparison of reported PEC efficiencies in the near future. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hetero- and homogeneous three-dimensional hierarchical tungsten oxide nanostructures by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houweling, Z.S., E-mail: Silvester.Houweling@asml.com [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Harks, P.-P.R.M.L.; Kuang, Y.; Werf, C.H.M. van der [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Geus, J.W. [Utrecht University, Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-30

    We present the synthesis of three-dimensional tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3−x}) nanostructures, called nanocacti, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. The growth of the nanocacti is controlled through a succession of oxidation, reduction and re-oxidation processes. By using only a resistively heated W filament, a flow of ambient air and hydrogen at subatmospheric pressure, and a substrate heated to about 700 °C, branched nanostructures are deposited. We report three varieties of simple synthesis approaches to obtain hierarchical homo- and heterogeneous nanocacti. Furthermore, by using catalyst nanoparticles site-selection for the growth is demonstrated. The atomic, morphological and crystallographic compositions of the nanocacti are determined using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. - Highlights: • Continuous upscalable hot-wire CVD of 3D hierarchical nanocacti • Controllable deposition of homo- and heterogeneous WO{sub 3−x}/WO{sub 3−y} nanocacti • Introduction of three synthesis routes comprising oxidation, reduction and re-oxidation processes • Growth of periodic arrays of hetero- and homogeneous hierarchical 3D nanocacti.

  7. Formation of tungsten oxide nanostructures by laser pyrolysis: stars, fibres and spheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This report focuses on the production of multi-phase WO3 and WO3-x (where x could vary between 0.2 and 0.33) nanostructures synthesized by CO2-laser pyrolysis technique at varying laser wavelengths (9.22-10.82 mm) and power densities (17-110 W/cm2...

  8. Reduction of blue tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, T.; Wert, C.; Woodhouse, J.; Morcom, W.

    1975-01-01

    A significant portion of commercial tungsten is produced by hydrogen reduction of oxides. Although several modes of reduction are possible, hydrogen reduction is used where high purity tungsten is required and where the addition of other elements or compounds is desired for modification of the metal, as is done for filaments in the lamp industry. Although several investigations of the reduction of oxides have been reported (1 to 5), few principles have been developed which can aid in assessment of current commercial practice. The reduction process was examined under conditions approximating commercial practice. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of dopants, of water vapor in the reducing atmosphere, and of reduction temperature upon: (1) the rate of the reaction by which blue tungsten oxide is reduced to tungsten metal, (2) the intermediate oxides associated with reduction, and (3) the morphology of the resulting tungsten powder

  9. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, B. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes, Centrale Nantes, CRTT, 37 Bd de l' Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France); Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI/CNRS (UPR 3079 CNRS), Universite d' Orleans, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-05-07

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  10. P-type sub-tungsten-oxide based urchin-like nanostructure for superior room temperature alcohol sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Yin, Mingli; Yan, Junqing; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2018-05-01

    Nanowires assembled sub-WO3 urchin-like nanostructures have been fabricated via a solvothermal method. The detailed structure and morphology features were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the individual nanowires are grown along the [0 0 1] direction, and assembled together to form an urchin-like nanostructure. Sensing performance of the sub-WO3 was investigated toward alcohol vapor. At room temperature, the sensor devices based on the WO3-x exhibit significantly higher sensitivity comparing to that of the stoichiometric WO3. The superior sensing performance of this WO3-x sensor is ascribed to the large specific surface area and abundant oxygen vacancies. The obvious enhancement of the gas sensing property can be very useful for the future design and development of room temperature gas sensors for other volatile organic compounds.

  11. Laser-assisted nanostructuring of Tungsten in liquid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmina, E.V., E-mail: barminaev@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stratakis, E. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion 710 03 (Greece); Barberoglou, M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion 714 09 (Greece); Stolyarov, V.N.; Stolyarov, I.N. [Roentgenprom, 35 Lenin str., Protvino, 1442281 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Fotakis, C. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion 714 09 (Greece); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Formation of surface nanostructures on Tungsten target immersed into liquids is experimentally studied under its exposure to femtosecond laser pulses with different durations. In particular, nanotexturing of Tungsten upon its exposure to delayed femtosecond pulses is investigated. Two different types of morphological features are observed, namely periodic ripples and nanostructures. Field emission scanning electron microscopy shows that the density of nanostructures as well as their morphology depends on the time delay between pulses and reaches its maximum at 1 ps delay. Thermionic emission of nano-structured W cathode is investigated. The work function of nanostructured W surface is measured to be 0.3 eV lower than that of the pristine surface.

  12. Synthesis, Consolidation and Characterization of Sol-gel Derived Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, O [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel (SG) derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO3) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g·cm-3 or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy.

  13. Cyclic Nanostructures of Tungsten Oxide (WO3)n  (n = 2–6) as NOx Gas Sensor: A Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadyar, Mohammad; Jamsaz, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Today's WO3-based gas sensors have received a lot of attention, because of important role as a sensitive layer for detection of the small quantities of  NOx. In this research, a theoretical study has been done on the sensing properties of different cyclic nanoclusters of (WO3)n  (n = 2–6) for NOx  (x = 1,2) gases. Based on the calculated adsorption energies by B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, from the different orientations of  NOx molecule on the tungsten oxide clusters, O–N⋯W was preferred. Different sizes of the mentioned clusters have been analyzed and W2O6 cluster was chosen as the best candidate for NOx detection from the energy viewpoint. Using the concepts of the chemical hardness and electronic charge transfer, some correlations between the energy of adsorption and interaction energy have been established. These analyses confirmed that the adsorption energy will be boosted with charge transfer enhancement. However, the chemical hardness relationship is reversed. Finally, obtained results from the natural bond orbital and electronic density of states analysis confirmed the electronic charge transfer from the adsorbates to WO3 clusters and Fermi level shifting after adsorption, respectively. The last parameter confirms that the cyclic clusters of tungsten oxide can be used as NOx gas sensors. PMID:25544841

  14. Cyclic Nanostructures of Tungsten Oxide WO3n  (n=2–6 as NOx Gas Sensor: A Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Izadyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s WO3-based gas sensors have received a lot of attention, because of important role as a sensitive layer for detection of the small quantities of  NOx. In this research, a theoretical study has been done on the sensing properties of different cyclic nanoclusters of WO3n  (n=2–6 for NOx  (x=1,2 gases. Based on the calculated adsorption energies by B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, from the different orientations of  NOx molecule on the tungsten oxide clusters, O–N⋯W was preferred. Different sizes of the mentioned clusters have been analyzed and W2O6 cluster was chosen as the best candidate for NOx detection from the energy viewpoint. Using the concepts of the chemical hardness and electronic charge transfer, some correlations between the energy of adsorption and interaction energy have been established. These analyses confirmed that the adsorption energy will be boosted with charge transfer enhancement. However, the chemical hardness relationship is reversed. Finally, obtained results from the natural bond orbital and electronic density of states analysis confirmed the electronic charge transfer from the adsorbates to WO3 clusters and Fermi level shifting after adsorption, respectively. The last parameter confirms that the cyclic clusters of tungsten oxide can be used as NOx gas sensors.

  15. Cyclic Nanostructures of Tungsten Oxide (WO3) n   (n = 2-6) as NO x Gas Sensor: A Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadyar, Mohammad; Jamsaz, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Today's WO3-based gas sensors have received a lot of attention, because of important role as a sensitive layer for detection of the small quantities of  NO x . In this research, a theoretical study has been done on the sensing properties of different cyclic nanoclusters of (WO3) n   (n = 2-6) for NO x   (x = 1,2) gases. Based on the calculated adsorption energies by B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, from the different orientations of  NO x molecule on the tungsten oxide clusters, O-N⋯W was preferred. Different sizes of the mentioned clusters have been analyzed and W2O6 cluster was chosen as the best candidate for NO x detection from the energy viewpoint. Using the concepts of the chemical hardness and electronic charge transfer, some correlations between the energy of adsorption and interaction energy have been established. These analyses confirmed that the adsorption energy will be boosted with charge transfer enhancement. However, the chemical hardness relationship is reversed. Finally, obtained results from the natural bond orbital and electronic density of states analysis confirmed the electronic charge transfer from the adsorbates to WO3 clusters and Fermi level shifting after adsorption, respectively. The last parameter confirms that the cyclic clusters of tungsten oxide can be used as NO x gas sensors.

  16. Stress reduction in tungsten films using nanostructured compliant layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabacak, Tansel; Picu, Catalin R.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Wang, G.-C.; Lu, T.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The residual stress in thin films is a major limiting factor for obtaining high quality films. We present a strategy for stress reduction in sputter deposited films by using a nanostructured compliant layer obtained by the oblique angle deposition technique, sandwiched between the film and the substrate. The technique is all in situ, does not require any lithography steps, and the nanostructured layer is made from the same material as the deposited thin film. By using this approach we were able to reduce stress values by approximately one order of magnitude in sputter deposited tungsten films. These lower stress thin films also exhibit stronger adhesion to the substrate, which retards delamination buckling. This technique allows the growth of much thicker films and has enhanced structural stability. A model is developed to explain the stress relief mechanism and the stronger adhesion associated with the presence of the nanostructured compliant layer

  17. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on amorphous-like tungsten films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellasega, D; Pezzoli, A; Russo, V; Passoni, M; Pietralunga, S M; Nasi, L; Conti, C; Vahid, M J; Tagliaferri, A

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten oxide nanowires have been synthesized by vacuum annealing in the range 500–710 °C from amorphous-like tungsten films, deposited on a Si(100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the presence of a He background pressure. The oxygen required for the nanowires formation is already adsorbed in the W matrix before annealing, its amount depending on deposition parameters. Nanowire crystalline phase and stoichiometry depend on annealing temperature, ranging from W_1_8O_4_9-Magneli phase to monoclinic WO_3. Sufficiently long annealing induces the formation of micrometer-long nanowires, up to 3.6 μm with an aspect ratio up to 90. Oxide nanowire growth appears to be triggered by the crystallization of the underlying amorphous W film, promoting their synthesis at low temperatures. (paper)

  18. Hybrid simulation research on formation mechanism of tungsten nanostructure induced by helium plasma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Atsushi M., E-mail: ito.atsushi@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takayama, Arimichi; Oda, Yasuhiro [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Hattori, Tatsunori; Ogata, Shuji [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yajima, Miyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Noiri, Yasuyuki [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Yoshihide [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Saito, Seiki [Kushiro National College of Technology, Kushiro, Hokkaido 084-0916 (Japan); Takamura, Shuichi [Aichi Institute of Technology, 1247 Yachigusa, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Murashima, Takahiro [Tohoku University, 6-3, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-Ward, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Miyamoto, Mitsutaka [Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Nakamura, Hiroaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The generation of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure by exposure to helium plasma is one of the important problems for the use of tungsten material as divertor plates in nuclear fusion reactors. In the present paper, the formation mechanisms of the helium bubble and the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure were investigated by using several simulation methods. We proposed the four-step process which is composed of penetration step, diffusion and agglomeration step, helium bubble growth step, and fuzzy nanostructure formation step. As the fourth step, the formation of the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure was successfully reproduced by newly developed hybrid simulation combining between molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo method. The formation mechanism of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure observed by the hybrid simulation is that concavity and convexity of the surface are enhanced by the bursting of helium bubbles in the region around the concavity.

  19. Current status of nanostructured tungsten-based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, H; Matsuo, S; Arakawa, H; Hatakeyama, M; Shikama, T; Sakamoto, T; Kobayashi, S; Nakai, K; Okano, H; Watanabe, H; Yoshida, N; Torikai, Y; Hatano, Y; Takida, T; Kato, M; Ikegaya, A; Ueda, Y

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured tungsten (W)-based materials offer many advantages for use as plasma facing materials and components exposed to heavy thermal loads combined with irradiation with high-energy neutron and low-energy ion. This paper first presents the recent progress in nanostructured toughened, fine grained, recrystallized W materials. Thermal desorption spectrometry apparatus equipped with an ion gun has been installed in the radiation controlled area in our Center at Tohoku University to systematically investigate the effects of displacement damage due to high-energy neutron irradiation on hydrogen isotope retention in connection with the nano- or micro-structures in W-based materials. In this paper, the effects of high-energy heavy ion irradiation on deuterium retention in W with different microstructures are described as a preliminary work with the prospective view of neutron irradiation effects. (paper)

  20. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-03-03

    Metal oxide nanostructure and methods of making metal oxide nanostructures are provided. The metal oxide nanostructures can be 1 -dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofibers, or nanotubes. The metal oxide nanostructures can be doped or undoped metal oxides. The metal oxide nanostructures can be deposited onto a variety of substrates. The deposition can be performed without high pressures and without the need for seed catalysts on the substrate. The deposition can be performed by laser ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc oxide nanostructure can be doped with a rare earth metal such as gadolinium. The metal oxide nanostructures can be used in many devices including light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  1. Molecular dynamics and density functional simulations of tungsten nanostructure formation by helium plasma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, A.M.; Takayama, A.; Oda, Y.

    2014-10-01

    For the purposes of long-term use of tungsten diverter walls, it is necessary to suppress the surface deterioration due to the helium ash which induces the formations of helium bubbles and tungsten fuzzy nanostructures. In the present paper, the formation mechanisms of helium bubbles and tungsten fuzzy nanostructures were explained by the four-step process which is composed of the penetration process, the diffusion and agglomeration process, the helium bubble growth process and the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure formation process. The first to third step processes of the four-step process were investigated by using binary collision approximation, density functional theory and molecular dynamics, respectively. Furthermore, newly developed molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo hybrid simulation has successfully reproduced the early formation process of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure. From these simulations, we here suggest the following key mechanisms of the formations of helium bubbles and tungsten fuzzy nanostructures: (1) By comparison between helium, neon, argon and hydrogen, the noble gas atoms can agglomerate limitlessly not only at a vacancy but also at an interstitial site. In particular, at the low incident energy, only helium atoms bring about the nucleation for helium bubble. (2) In the helium bubble growth process, the strain of the tungsten material around a helium atom is released as a dislocation loop, which is regarded as the loop punching phenomenon. (3) In the tungsten nanostructure formation process, the bursting of a helium bubble forms cavity and convexity in the surface. The helium bubbles tend to be grown and to burst at the cavity region, and then the difference of height between the cavity and convexity on the surface are enhanced. Consequently, the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure is formed. (author)

  2. Deepening of floating potential for tungsten target plate on the way to nanostructure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Takanori; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2010-01-01

    Deepening of floating potential has been observed on the tungsten target plate immersed in high-density helium plasma with hot electron component on the way to nanostructure formation. The physical mechanism is thought to be a reduction of secondary electron emission from such a complex nano fiber-form structure on the tungsten surface. (author)

  3. Microstructure, optical, and electrochromic properties of sol-gel nanoporous tungsten oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaoued, Yahia; Ashrit, P. V.; Badilescu, S.; Bruning, R.

    2003-08-01

    Porous tungsten oxide films have been prepared by a nonhydrolitic sol-gel method using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a structure directing agent. The method entails the hydrolysis of an ethanolic solution of tungsten ethoxide (formed by the reaction of WCl6 with ethanol) followed by condensation and polymerization at the PEG-tungsten oxide oligometers interface. A highly porous WO3 framework was obtained after PEG was burned off by calcination at a relativley low temperature. AFM images of the films treated thermally show an ordered material rather than microscopic particulates. Both fibrilar nanostructures and striped phase can be obtained via this approach, depending on the concentration of PEG in the coating solution. XRD data from the fibrils indicate that they are crystalline with very small crystals, whereas the striped phases obtained with 20% PEG correspond to two crystalline phases, one, the stoichiometric WO3 and the other one an oxygen deficient phase, containing larger crystals (~28 nm). The results show that PEG promotes the formation of oxygen deficient phases and delays crystallization. Compared to WO3 with no PEG, the optical and electrochromic properties of the macroporous tungsten oxide films appear to be significantly improved. The formation of organized nanostructures is tentatively accounted for by the strong hydrogen bonding interactions between PEG and the tungsten oxide oligomers.

  4. Effects of fibre-form nanostructures on particle emissions from a tungsten surface in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ohno, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fibre-form nanostructure of a tungsten surface on both electron emission and sputtering in helium/argon plasmas are represented. Generally, a nano-fibre forest, the so-called ‘fuzz’, made of tungsten with helium gas inside is found to have the tendency of suppressing the particle emission substantially. The electron emission comes from the impact of high-energy primary electrons. In addition, a deeply biased tungsten target, which inhibits the influx of even energetic primary electrons, seems to produce an electron emission, and it may be suppressed on the way to nanostructure formation on the surface of the W target. Such an emission process is discussed here. The sputtering yield of the He-damaged tungsten surface with the fibre-form nanostructure depends on the surface morphology while the sputtering itself changes the surface morphology, so that the time evolutions of sputtering yield from the W surface with an originally well-developed nanostructure are found to show a minimum in sputtering yield, which is about a half for the fresh nanostructured tungsten and roughly one-fifth of the yield for the original flat normal tungsten surface. The surface morphology at that time is, for the first time, made clear with field emission scanning electron microscopy observation. The physical mechanism for the appearance of such a minimum in sputtering yield is discussed. (paper)

  5. On the shear strength of tungsten nano-structures with embedded helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.D.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Modification of plastic properties of tungsten nano-structures under shear stress load due to embedded helium atoms is studied using molecular dynamics modelling. The modelling demonstrates that the yield strength of tungsten nano-structures reduces significantly with increasing embedded helium concentration. At high helium concentrations (>10 at%), the yield strength decreases to values characteristic to the pressure in helium nano-bubbles, which are formed in tungsten under such conditions and thought to be responsible for the formation of nano-fuzz on tungsten surfaces irradiated with helium plasma. It is also shown that tungsten plastic flow strongly facilitates coagulation of helium clusters to larger bubbles. The temperature dependencies of the yield strength are obtained. (letter)

  6. Synthesis and electrical characterization of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Rui; Zhu Jing; Yu Rong

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten oxide nanowires of diameters ranging from 7 to 200 nm are prepared on a tungsten rod substrate by using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method with vapour-solid (VS) mechanism. Tin powders are used to control oxygen concentration in the furnace, thereby assisting the growth of the tungsten oxide nanowires. The grown tungsten oxide nanowires are determined to be of crystalline W18O49. Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves are measured by an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) to investigate the electrical properties of the nanowires. All of the Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves observed are symmetric, which reveals that the tungsten oxide nanowires are semiconducting. Quantitative analyses of the experimental I V curves by using a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) model give some intrinsic parameters of the tungsten oxide nanowires, such as the carrier concentration, the carrier mobility and the conductivity.

  7. In situ observation of structural change of nanostructured tungsten during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Miyuki; Yoshida, Naoaki; Kajita, Shin; Tokitani, Masayuki; Baba, Tomotsugu; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of fiberform nanostructure and the dynamic behavior of helium (He) bubbles in fuzz tungsten (W) during annealing have been investigated by means of in situ cross-section observation using transmission electron microscopy and He desorption rate observation using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Thermal recovery of the nanostructure, such as shrinkage and coalescence of fine structure, annihilation of He bubbles, and large desorption of He gas, occurred around 1073–1173 K. The activation energy of He was estimated from a TDS peak that appeared around 300–400 K by using the Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose model-free-kinetics method. In addition, the TDS results of fiberform nanostructured tungsten were compared with those of tungsten samples irradiated with a high-energy He ion beam

  8. Synthesis and optical properties of Au decorated colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasebi, Nemat; Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA). • A very fine metallic Au particles or coating are decorated on the surface of tungsten oxide nanoparticles. • UV–Vis spectroscopy shows an absorption peak at ∼530 nm which is due to SPR effect of gold. • After exposing to hydrogen gas, Au/WO_3 colloidal nanoparticles show excellent gasochromic coloring. - Abstract: In this study, colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of tungsten target using the first harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in deionized water. After ablation, a 0.33 g/lit HAuCl_4 aqueous solution was added into as-prepared colloidal nanoparticles. In this process, Au"3"+ ions were reduced to decorate gold metallic state (Au"0) onto colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles surface. The morphology and chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied by AFM, XRD, TEM and XPS techniques. UV–Vis analysis reveals a distinct absorption peak at ∼530 nm. This peak can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au and confirms formation of gold state. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Au ions’ reduction happens after adding HAuCl_4 solution into as-prepared colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope shows that an Au shell has been decorated onto colloidal WO_3 nanoparticles. Noble metal decorated tungsten oxide nanostructure could be an excellent candidate for photocatalysis, gas sensing and gasochromic applications. Finally, the gasochromic behavior of the synthesized samples was investigated by H_2 and O_2 gases bubbling into the produced colloidal Au/WO_3 nanoparticles. Synthesized colloidal nanoparticles show excellent coloration contrast (∼80%) through NIR spectra.

  9. Quasi physisorptive two dimensional tungsten oxide nanosheets with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity to NO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hareem; Zavabeti, Ali; Wang, Yichao; Harrison, Christopher J; Carey, Benjamin J; Mohiuddin, Md; Chrimes, Adam F; De Castro, Isabela Alves; Zhang, Bao Yue; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ou, Jian Zhen; Daeneke, Torben; Russo, Salvy P; Li, Yongxiang; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2017-12-14

    Attributing to their distinct thickness and surface dependent physicochemical properties, two dimensional (2D) nanostructures have become an area of increasing interest for interfacial interactions. Effectively, properties such as high surface-to-volume ratio, modulated surface activities and increased control of oxygen vacancies make these types of materials particularly suitable for gas-sensing applications. This work reports a facile wet-chemical synthesis of 2D tungsten oxide nanosheets by sonication of tungsten particles in an acidic environment and thermal annealing thereafter. The resultant product of large nanosheets with intrinsic substoichiometric properties is shown to be highly sensitive and selective to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas, which is a major pollutant. The strong synergy between polar NO 2 molecules and tungsten oxide surface and also abundance of active surface sites on the nanosheets for molecule interactions contribute to the exceptionally sensitive and selective response. An extraordinary response factor of ∼30 is demonstrated to ultralow 40 parts per billion (ppb) NO 2 at a relatively low operating temperature of 150 °C, within the physisorption temperature band for tungsten oxide. Selectivity to NO 2 is demonstrated and the theory behind it is discussed. The structural, morphological and compositional characteristics of the synthesised and annealed materials are extensively characterised and electronic band structures are proposed. The demonstrated 2D tungsten oxide based sensing device holds the greatest promise for producing future commercial low-cost, sensitive and selective NO 2 gas sensors.

  10. Recovery of Tungsten Surface with Fiber-Form Nanostructure by Plasmas Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Takanori; Takamura, Shuichi; Kurishita, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    One of the serious concerns for tungsten materials in fusion devices is the radiation defects caused by helium plasma irradiation since helium is a fusion product. The fiber-formed nanostructure is thought to have a possible weakness against the plasma heat flux on the plasma-facing component and also may destroy the reflectivity of optical mirrors. In this paper an interesting method for the recovery of such tungsten surfaces is shown. The recovery process depends on the grade and manufacturing process of tungsten materials. (fusion engineering)

  11. Tungsten oxide thin films obtained by anodisation in low electrolyte concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nadja B.D. da [Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão, s/n, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Pazinato, Julia C.O. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sombrio, Guilherme; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Boudinov, Henri [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gündel, André; Moreira, Eduardo C. [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Travessa 45, 1650 Bagé, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Irene T.S., E-mail: irene.garcia@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-03-02

    Tungsten oxide nanostructured films were grown on tungsten substrates by anodisation under a fixed voltage and with sodium fluoride as electrolyte. The effect of the anion chloride and the influence of the modifying agent disodium hydrogen phosphate in the tungsten oxide films were also investigated. The structural characterisation of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The band gap was determined through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The thin films were photoluminescent and emitted in the range of 300 to 630 nm when irradiated at 266 nm. The synthesised films efficiently degraded of methyl orange dye in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and 250 nm radiation. The modifying agent was responsible for the improvement of the photocatalytic activity. Films with similar photocatalytic performance were obtained when the system sodium fluoride and disodium hydrogen phosphate were replaced by sodium chloride. The porous structure and low band gap values were responsible for the photocatalytic behaviour. - Highlights: • Tungsten oxide thin films were obtained by anodisation of tungsten in aqueous media. • The performance of the NaCl, NaF and NaF/Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} as electrolytes was investigated. • The relation between structure and optical behaviour has been discussed. • Films obtained with NaCl and NaF/Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} present similar photocatalytic activity.

  12. Structure and property evaluation of a vacuum plasma sprayed nanostructured tungsten-hafnium carbide bulk composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, K. E.; Viswanathan, V.; Kruize, A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; O'Dell, S.; McKechnie, T.; Rajagopalan, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Seal, S.; O’Dell, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) forming of tungsten-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMCs) has shown to be a cost effective and time saving method for the formation of bulk monolithic nanostructured then no-mechanical components. Spray drying of powder feedstock appears to have a significant effect on

  13. Synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires with diameters below 5 nm for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huidan; Zhu, Qin; Zhang, Mengying; Yan, Yi; Liu, Yongping; Li, Ming; Yang, Zhishu; Geng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Semiconductor with one dimension (1D) ultrathin nanostructure has been proved to be a promising nanomaterial in photocatalytic field. Great efforts were made on preparation of monoclinic ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires. However, non-monoclinic phase tungsten oxides with 1D ultrathin structure, especially less than 5 nm width, have not been reported. Herein, we report the synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires (U-WOx NW) by modified hydrothermal method. Microstructure characterization showed that U-WOx NW have the diameters of 1-3 nm below 5 nm and are hexagonal phase sub-stoichiometric WOx. U-WOx NW show absorption tail in the visible and near infrared region due to oxygen vacancies. For improving further photocatalytic performance, Ag co-catalyst was grown directly onto U-WOx NW surface by in situ redox reaction. Photocatalytic measurements revealed hexagonal U-WOx NW have better photodegradation activity, compared with commercial WO3(C-WO3) and oxidized U-WOx NW, ascribe to larger surface area, short diffusion length of photo-generated charge carriers and visible absorption of oxygen-vacancy-rich hexagonal ultrathin nanostructures. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity and stability of U-WOx NW using Ag co-catalyst were further improved.

  14. The gate oxide integrity of CVD tungsten polycide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, N.W.; Su, W.D.; Chang, S.W.; Tseng, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    CVD tungsten polycide has been demonstrated as a good gate material in recent very large scale integration (VLSI) technology. CVD tungsten silicide offers advantages of low resistivity, high temperature stability and good step coverage. On the other hand, the polysilicon underlayer preserves most characteristics of the polysilicon gate and acts as a stress buffer layer to absorb part of the thermal stress origin from the large thermal expansion coefficient of tungsten silicide. Nevertheless, the gate oxide of CVD tungsten polycide is less stable or reliable than that of polysilicon gate. In this paper, the gate oxide integrity of CVD tungsten polycide with various thickness combinations and different thermal processes have been analyzed by several electrical measurements including breakdown yield, breakdown fluence, room temperature TDDB, I-V characteristics, electron traps and interface state density

  15. Experimental mechanistic investigation of the nanostructuring of tungsten with low energy helium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiflis, P., E-mail: fiflis1@illinois.edu; Connolly, N.; Ruzic, D.N.

    2016-12-15

    Helium ion bombardment of tungsten at temperatures between approximately one third and one half of its melting point has shown growth of nanostructures colloquially referred to as “fuzz”. The nanostructures take the form of thin tendrils of diameter about 30 nm and grow out of the bulk material. Tungsten will and does compose one of the key materials for plasma facing components (PFCs) in fusion reactors. The formation of nanostructured fuzz layers on PFCs would be detrimental to the performance of the reactor, and must therefore be avoided. Previous experiments have shown evidence that tungsten fuzz is initially grown by loop punching of helium bubbles created in the bulk. However, once the tendrils grow to sufficient length, the tendrils should intercept the entire helium flux, halting the production of fuzz. Fuzz continues to grow though. To increase the understanding of the mechanisms of tungsten fuzz formation, and thereby aid the avoidance of its production, a series of tests were performed to examine the validity of several theories regarding later stage tungsten fuzz growth. Tests showed that the fuzz formation was dependent solely on the bombardment of helium ions, and not on electric fields, or adatom diffusion. Experiments employing a tungsten coated molybdenum sample indicate the presence of a strong mixing layer and strongly suggest that tungsten fuzz growth continues to occur from the bottom up even as the tendrils grow in size. Tests also show a similarity between different metals exposed to helium ion fluxes where the ratio of bubble diameter to tendril diameter is constant.

  16. Experimental mechanistic investigation of the nanostructuring of tungsten with low energy helium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiflis, P.; Connolly, N.; Ruzic, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Helium ion bombardment of tungsten at temperatures between approximately one third and one half of its melting point has shown growth of nanostructures colloquially referred to as “fuzz”. The nanostructures take the form of thin tendrils of diameter about 30 nm and grow out of the bulk material. Tungsten will and does compose one of the key materials for plasma facing components (PFCs) in fusion reactors. The formation of nanostructured fuzz layers on PFCs would be detrimental to the performance of the reactor, and must therefore be avoided. Previous experiments have shown evidence that tungsten fuzz is initially grown by loop punching of helium bubbles created in the bulk. However, once the tendrils grow to sufficient length, the tendrils should intercept the entire helium flux, halting the production of fuzz. Fuzz continues to grow though. To increase the understanding of the mechanisms of tungsten fuzz formation, and thereby aid the avoidance of its production, a series of tests were performed to examine the validity of several theories regarding later stage tungsten fuzz growth. Tests showed that the fuzz formation was dependent solely on the bombardment of helium ions, and not on electric fields, or adatom diffusion. Experiments employing a tungsten coated molybdenum sample indicate the presence of a strong mixing layer and strongly suggest that tungsten fuzz growth continues to occur from the bottom up even as the tendrils grow in size. Tests also show a similarity between different metals exposed to helium ion fluxes where the ratio of bubble diameter to tendril diameter is constant.

  17. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agiral, Anil; Groenland, Alfons W; Han Gardeniers, J G E; Chinthaginjala, J Kumar; Seshan, K; Lefferts, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W 18 O 49 ) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nanodiffraction methods. Field emission of electrons from those nanostructures supplies free electrons and ions during microplasma production. Reduction in breakdown voltage, higher number of microdischarges and higher energy deposition were observed at the same applied voltage when compared with plane electrodes at atmospheric pressure in air. Rate coefficients of electron impact reaction channels to decompose CO 2 were calculated and it was shown that CO 2 consumption increased using CNFs compared with plane electrode in the microplasma reactor.

  18. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  19. Towards Near-Infrared Photosensitization of Tungsten Trioxide Nanostructured Films by Upconverting Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venne, Frederic

    Nanostructured metal oxides semiconductors are widely used in solar energy related applications, such as in dye-sensitized solar cells. Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is an electrochromic material, extensively investigated in solar energy conversion (e.g. photoelectrochemistry) and conservation (e.g. electrochromism). However, WO3, because of its wide bandgap (≈ 2.5 eV), is transparent to an important portion of the solar spectrum and can effectively absorb light only up to ca. 500 nm, which limits the power conversion efficiency of devices based thereon. Upconverting materials can absorb several low-energy photons to emit one high-energy photon. In particular, upconverting nanoparticles are widely studied in biomedical and solar energy applications, as they can transform two or several infrared photons in a visible photon. As the Sun contains important NIR and IR portion, UCNPs are interesting candidates to transform NIR or IR light into visible light to be absorbed by wide bandgap semiconductor, such as metal oxides. The work presented in this master's thesis consists in embedding NaGdF4:Er3+, Yb3+ UCNPs into a nanostructured WO3 matrix. The objective is to increase the power conversion efficiency of WO3 after solar light harvesting. The integration of two materials with nanostructured nature has the potential to lead to a good synergy between them. We include an article in this master's thesis. In this article, we report on the mixing of NaGdF4:Er3+, Yb 3+ UCNPs with WO3 in solution and on the deposition of the two-component solution on ITO-patterned electrodes. After engineering the fabrication and deposition of the thin nanocomposite films, they were systematically studied. Morphology was studied by atomic force microscopy, structure by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence by fluorescence hyperspectral microscopy, and charge carrier transport under NIR irradiation by current-time measurements. Notably, we observed an increase in the value of the current with

  20. Crack resistance of tungsten strengthened by dispersed refractory oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation results are presented for crack resistance of commercial tungsten, obtained during specimen testing at temperatures of 20 deg C to Tsub(cr) (upper boundary of temperature range of ductile-brittle transition). Comparison of s-n diagrams and temperature dependences of crack resistance are conducted for commercial tungsten and tungsten strengthened by refractory oxides. It is shown that dispersion hardening increases crack resistance in the temperature range of 20 to 2000 deg C but the upper boundary of ductile-brittle shifts to the side of higher temperatures

  1. Oxalic acid induced hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, V.B.; Adhyapak, P.V.; Suryavanshi, S.S.; Mulla, I.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report synthesis of 1D tungsten oxide using a hydrothermal route at 170 °C. • Oxalic acid plays an important role in the formation of 1D nanostructure. • Monoclinic transforms to hexagonal phase with increment in reaction duration. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods have been synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. The controlled morphology of tungsten oxide was obtained by using sodium tungstate and oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 170 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained tungsten oxides were investigated by using XRD, SEM and HRTEM techniques. In order to understand the role of organic inducer on the shape, size and phase formation of WO 3 was prepared with and without organic inducer. On heating of sodium tungstate without organic inducer for 72 h at 170 °C in the hydrothermal unit we obtain nanoparticles of monoclinic WO 3 , however, on addition of oxalic acid a single phase hexagonal WO 3 with distinct nanorods was formed. On addition of oxalic acid a systematic emergence of nanorod-like morphology was obtained with incrementing reaction times from 24 h to 48 h. The 72 h reaction generates self-assembled 20–30 nm diameter and 4–5 μm long h-WO 3 bundles of nanorods. The XRD studies show hexagonal structure of tungsten oxide, while SAED reveals its single crystalline nature. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum shows a characteristic blue emission peak at 3 eV (410 nm). Raman spectra provide the evidence of hexagonal structure with stretching vibrations (830 cm −1 ) for 72 h of heating at 170 °C

  2. Oxalic acid induced hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, V.B. [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413255 (India); Adhyapak, P.V. [Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (C-MET), Pune 411008 (India); Suryavanshi, S.S., E-mail: sssuryavanshi@rediffmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413255 (India); Mulla, I.S., E-mail: ismulla2001@gmail.com [Emeritus Scientist (CSIR), Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (C-MET), Pune 411008 (India)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • We report synthesis of 1D tungsten oxide using a hydrothermal route at 170 °C. • Oxalic acid plays an important role in the formation of 1D nanostructure. • Monoclinic transforms to hexagonal phase with increment in reaction duration. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods have been synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. The controlled morphology of tungsten oxide was obtained by using sodium tungstate and oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 170 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained tungsten oxides were investigated by using XRD, SEM and HRTEM techniques. In order to understand the role of organic inducer on the shape, size and phase formation of WO{sub 3} was prepared with and without organic inducer. On heating of sodium tungstate without organic inducer for 72 h at 170 °C in the hydrothermal unit we obtain nanoparticles of monoclinic WO{sub 3}, however, on addition of oxalic acid a single phase hexagonal WO{sub 3} with distinct nanorods was formed. On addition of oxalic acid a systematic emergence of nanorod-like morphology was obtained with incrementing reaction times from 24 h to 48 h. The 72 h reaction generates self-assembled 20–30 nm diameter and 4–5 μm long h-WO{sub 3} bundles of nanorods. The XRD studies show hexagonal structure of tungsten oxide, while SAED reveals its single crystalline nature. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum shows a characteristic blue emission peak at 3 eV (410 nm). Raman spectra provide the evidence of hexagonal structure with stretching vibrations (830 cm{sup −1}) for 72 h of heating at 170 °C.

  3. Structure and property evaluation of a vacuum plasma sprayed nanostructured tungsten-hafnium carbide bulk composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, K.E.; Viswanathan, V.; Kruize, A.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de; O'Dell, S.; McKechnie, T.; Rajagopalan, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Seal, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) forming of tungsten-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMCs) has shown to be a cost effective and time saving method for the formation of bulk monolithic nanostructured thermo-mechanical components. Spray drying of powder feedstock appears to have a significant effect on the improved mechanical properties of the bulk nanocomposite. The reported elastic modulus of the nanocomposite nearly doubles due to the presence of HfC nano particulates in the W matrix. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed the retention of nanostructures at the select process conditions and is correlated with the enhanced mechanical properties of the nanocomposite

  4. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  5. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  6. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.; Flemban, Tahani H.

    2016-01-01

    ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc

  7. Electronic structure of nanoparticles of substoichometric hexagonal tungsten oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhun, O Y; Solonin, Y M

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods were used to study the electronic structure of hexagonal h-WO 3 and h-WO 2.8 nanoparticles. For comparison, nanopowder substoichiometric monoclinic tungsten oxides with close content of oxygen atoms, namely m-WO 3 and m-WO 2.77 compounds, were also investigated. For the mentioned oxides, XPS valence-band and corelevel spectra, XES O Kα bands and XAS W L III and O 1s edges were derived. The XPS valence-band spectra and O Kα emission bands in the mentioned hexagonal and monoclinic tungsten oxides were compared on a common energy scale. Both the O Kα bands and XPS valence-band spectra broaden somewhat in the sequences h-WO 3 → h-WO 2.8 and m-WO 3 → m-WO 2.77 , with the half-widths of the spectra being somewhat higher for the hexagonal oxides as compared with those for the monoclinic compounds. The effective positive charge state of tungsten atoms in h-WO 2.8 is very close to that in m-WO 2.77 , but the negative charge states of oxygen atoms are close to each other for all the tungsten oxides under consideration

  8. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on graphene oxide sheets as high-performance electrochromic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xueting; Sun, Shibin; Dong, Lihua; Hu, Xiong; Yin, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic mechanism of tungsten oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide composite. - Highlights: • A novel inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid composite was prepared. • The hybrid composite has sandwich-like structure. • The hybrid composite exhibited high-quality electrohcromic performance. - Abstract: In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel hybrid electrochromic composite through nucleation and growth of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires on graphene oxide sheets using a facile solvothermal route. The competition between the growth of tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduction of graphene oxide sheets leads to the formation of sandwich-structured tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite. Due to the strongly coupled effect between the ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, the novel electrochromic composite exhibited high-quality electrochromic performance with fast color-switching speed, good cyclic stability, and high coloration efficiency. The present tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite represents a new approach to prepare other inorganic-reduced graphene oxide hybrid materials for electrochemical applications

  9. Formation of tungsten oxide nanowires by ion irradiation and vacuum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Dong; Ren, Feng; Wu, Heng-Yi; Qin, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Chang-Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Here we reported the fabrication of tungsten oxide (WO3-x ) nanowires by Ar+ ion irradiation of WO3 thin films followed by annealing in vacuum. The nanowire length increases with increasing irradiation fluence and with decreasing ion energy. We propose that the stress-driven diffusion of the irradiation-induced W interstitial atoms is responsible for the formation of the nanowires. Comparing to the pristine film, the fabricated nanowire film shows a 106-fold enhancement in electrical conductivity, resulting from the high-density irradiation-induced vacancies on the oxygen sublattice. The nanostructure exhibits largely enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect due to the oxygen vacancy. Thus, ion irradiation provides a powerful approach for fabricating and tailoring the surface nanostructures of semiconductors.

  10. Tungsten Oxide and Polyaniline Composite Fabricated by Surfactant-Templated Electrodeposition and Its Use in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxue Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of tungsten oxide and polyaniline (PANI were fabricated on carbon electrode by electrocodeposition using sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS as the template. The morphology of the composite can be controlled by changing SDBS surfactant and aniline monomer concentrations in solution. With increasing concentration of aniline in surfactant solution, the morphological change from nanoparticles to nanofibers was observed. The nanostructured WO3/PANI composite exhibited enhanced capacitive charge storage with the specific capacitance of 201 F g−1 at 1.28 mA cm−2 in large potential window of -0.5~ 0.65 V versus SCE compared to the bulk composite film. The capacitance retained about 78% when the sweeping potential rate increased from 10 to 150 mV/s.

  11. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.

  12. Exposure of tungsten nano-structure to TEXTOR edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.; Miyata, K.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Lee, H.T.; Fukumoto, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J.W.; Kreter, A.; Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Sergienko, G.; Hirai, T.; Taguchi, A.; Torikai, Y.; Sugiyama, K.; Tanabe, T.; Kajita, S.; Ohno, N.

    2011-01-01

    W nano-structures (fuzz), produced in the linear high plasma device, NAGDIS, were exposed to TEXTOR edge plasmas (ohmic He/D mixed plasma and pure D plasma) to study formation, erosion and C deposition on W fuzz in tokamak plasmas for the first time. Fuzz layers were either completely eroded or covered by C deposit. There was no clear indication of W fuzz growth under the present conditions. There was no significant difference of C deposition between 'thick' fuzz (500-600 nm in thickness) and 'thin' fuzz (300-400 nm) in the He/D plasma. On the W fuzz surface, C deposition was enhanced probably due to reduction of effective sputtering yield and effective reflection coefficient of carbon ions, similar to roughness effects. Formation and erosion of W fuzz in tokamak devices and role of impurities are discussed.

  13. Metal oxide nanostructures as gas sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Eranna, G

    2016-01-01

    Metal Oxide Nanostructures as Gas Sensing Devices explores the development of an integrated micro gas sensor that is based on advanced metal oxide nanostructures and is compatible with modern semiconductor fabrication technology. This sensor can then be used to create a compact, low-power, handheld device for analyzing air ambience. The book first covers current gas sensing tools and discusses the necessity for miniaturized sensors. It then focuses on the materials, devices, and techniques used for gas sensing applications, such as resistance and capacitance variations. The author addresses the issues of sensitivity, concentration, and temperature dependency as well as the response and recovery times crucial for sensors. He also presents techniques for synthesizing different metal oxides, particularly those with nanodimensional structures. The text goes on to highlight the gas sensing properties of many nanostructured metal oxides, from aluminum and cerium to iron and titanium to zinc and zirconium. The final...

  14. Tungsten and molybdenum with oxide dispersion, production and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerdtle, S.; Schmidberger, R.

    1989-01-01

    By the reaction spray process metal powders with dispersed metal oxides can be produced in one step. The systems investigated here are tungsten and molybdenum with 0,5% resp. 5% La 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 . The oxides with diameters below 0,5μm are finely dispersed within the metal powder particles. The sinterability of the powders depends on the oxide content. Maximum density at an oxide content of 0,5% is about 96% at a sintering temperature of 1600 0 C. The type of oxide influences the densification versus temperature but not the final density. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  15. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  16. Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Dou, Nicholas; Nam, Youngsuk; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-01-01

    Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the characteristic size of departing droplets via a surface-tension-driven mechanism [1]. In this work, we investigated a scalable synthesis technique to produce oxide nanostructures on copper surfaces capable of sustaining superhydrophobic condensation and characterized the growth an...

  17. Hot-wire substoichiometric tungsten oxide films deposited in hydrogen environment with n-type conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostis, I; Vasilopoulou, M; Giannakopoulos, K; Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D; Michalas, L; Papaioannou, G; Konofaos, N; Iliadis, A A; Kennou, S

    2012-01-01

    Substoichiometric tungsten oxide nanostructured films were synthesized by a hot-wire deposition technique in hydrogen-rich environment and characterized for their structural and electrical properties. A semiconducting behaviour was identified, allowing n-type conductivity even at room temperature which is an important result since it is well known that fully stoichiometric tungsten trioxide is nearly an insulator. Current-voltage characteristics for various temperatures were measured for tungsten oxide/Si heterostructures and analysed using proper modelling. As a result, the conduction mechanism inside the films was identified and found to be of a dual nature, with variable range hopping being dominant at near room temperatures. The saturation current was found to be thermally activated and the activation energy was calculated at 0.40 eV and the grain boundaries barrier at 150 meV. From Hall measurements it was also revealed that the dominant carriers are electrons and a carrier concentration of about 10 14 cm -3 was estimated.

  18. Formation of helium induced nanostructure 'fuzz' on various tungsten grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a variety of W material grades to nanostructure 'fuzz' formation is explored. W targets are exposed to He or D 2 -0.2He plasmas in PISCES-B at 900-1320 K to below sputter threshold He + ions of energy 25-60 eV for up to 2.2 x 10 4 s. SEM and XPS reveal nanoscopic reorganization of the W surface to a layer of 'fuzz' of porosity ∼90% as determined by a 'fuzz' removal/weight loss method. The variability of 'fuzz' growth is examined at 1120 K for 1 h durations: SR, SC and doped W grades - La 2 O 3 (1% wt.), Re (5% and 10% wt.), and TiC (1.5% wt.) developed 2-3 μm thick 'fuzz' layers, while a VPS grade developed a layer 4 μm thick. An RC grade revealed additional 'fuzz' at deep (>100 μm) grain boundaries. However, heat treatment up to 1900 K produced reintegration of 'fuzz' with the bulk and He release at ∼1000 K and ∼1400-1800 K due to depopulation from vacancy complexes.

  19. Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1978-01-01

    There is no substitute for tungsten in its main field of application so that the demand will not decrease, but there is a need for further important applications. If small variations are left out of account, a small but steady increase in the annual tungsten consumption can be expected. The amount of tungsten available will increase due to the exploritation of new deposits and the extension of existing mines. This tendency will probably be increased by the world-wide prospection. It is hard to make an assessment of the amount of tungsten are obtained in the People's Republic of china, the purchases of Eastern countries in the West, and the sales policy of the USA; pice forecasts are therefore hard to make. A rather interesting subject with regard to the tungsten cycle as a whole is the reprocessing of tungsten-containing wastes. (orig.) [de

  20. Recovery of tungsten surface with fiber-form nanostructure by the argon plasma irradiation at a high surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    One of the serious concerns for tungsten materials in fusion devices is the radiation defects caused by helium plasma irradiation, while the helium is one of fusion products. Fiber-formed nanostructure is worried to have a possible weakness against the plasma heat flux and may destroy the reflectivity as an optical mirror. In this communication an interesting method for a recovery of such a tungsten surface is shown. (author)

  1. Increase in the energy absorption of pulsed plasma by the formation of tungsten nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, D.; Ohno, N.; Domon, F.; Kajita, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.

    2017-06-01

    The synergistic effects of steady-state and pulsed plasma irradiation to material have been investigated in the device NAGDIS-PG (NAGoya DIvertor Simulator with Plasma Gun). The duration of the pulsed plasma was ~0.25 ms. To investigate the pulsed plasma heat load on the materials, we developed a temperature measurement system using radiation from the sample in a high time resolution. The heat deposited in response to the transient plasma on a tungsten surface was revealed by using this system. When the nanostructures were formed by helium plasma irradiation, the temperature increase on the bulk sample was enhanced. The result suggested that the amount of absorbed energy on the surface was increased by the formation of nanostructures. The possible mechanisms causing the phenomena are discussed with the calculation of a sample temperature in response to the transient heat load.

  2. Deuterium-induced nanostructure formation on tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H.Y., E-mail: donaxu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621907 (China); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass. EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Postbus 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon CS 90046-13067, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Jia, Y.Z.; Yuan, Y.; Fu, B.Q.; Godfrey, A. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, W., E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Surface topography of polycrystalline tungsten (W) have been examined after exposure to a low-energy (38 eV/D), high-flux (∼1.1–1.5 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) deuterium plasma in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device. The methods used were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), positron annihilation Doppler broadening (PADB) and grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). After exposure to high flux D plasma, blisters and nanostructures are formed on the W surface. Generation of defects was evidenced by PADB, while high stress and mixture of phases were detected in depth of 50 nm by GI-XRD. TEM observation revealed fluctuations and disordered microstructure on the outmost surface layer. Based on these results, surface reconstruction is considered as a possible mechanism for the formation of defects and nanostructures.

  3. Crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate monoliths synthesized by directed soft template method for highly sensitive NO2 gas sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Duy, Nguyen Van; Hieu, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Mesoporous WO 3 nanoplate monoliths were obtained by direct templating synthesis. ► Enable effective accession of the analytic molecules for the sensor applications. ► The WO 3 sensor exhibited a high performance to NO 2 gas at low temperature. -- Abstract: Controllable synthesis of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with nanocrystalline size, porous structure, and large specific surface area is one of the key issues for effective gas sensor applications. In this study, crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate-like monoliths with high specific surface areas were obtained through instant direct-templating synthesis for highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) sensor applications. The copolymer soft template was converted into a solid carbon framework by heat treatment in an inert gas prior to calcinations in air to sustain the mesoporous structure of tungsten oxide. The multidirectional mesoporous structures of tungsten oxide with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enabled the rapid and effective accession of analytic gas molecules. As a result, the sensor response was enhanced and the response and recovery times were reduced, in which the mesoporous tungsten oxide based gas sensor exhibited a superior response of 21,155% to 5 ppm NO 2 . In addition, the developed sensor exhibited selective detection of low NO 2 concentration in ammonia and ethanol at a low temperature of approximately 150 °C.

  4. Hydrogen accumulation in nanostructured as compared to the coarse-grained tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Gordillo, N.; Tejado, E.; Munnik, F.; Rivera, A.; Perlado, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of the hydrogen behaviour in nanostructured as compare to coarse grained tungsten samples. • Comparison between single (H), sequentially (C plus H) and simultaneously (C and H) implanted samples. • Study of the stability of the nanostructures after implantation at different temperatures. • Implantation energies for H and C above the displacement damage threshold. • Study of the hydrogen behaviour as a function of the implantation temperature. - Abstract: We report on the influence of sample microstructure and of irradiation conditions on the H behaviour in Tungsten (W). For this purpose, commercial coarse grained (CGW) and nanostructured W (NW) samples were implanted with (i) H at room temperature (RT), (ii) sequentially with C and H at RT, and (iii) simultaneously (co-implanted) with C and H at RT. To study the possible effect of implantation temperature on H behaviour, a CGW sample and a NW sample were sequentially implanted with C at RT and with H at 673 K. The H and C implantation fluence was 5 × 10 20 m −2 and the implantation energies were 160 keV for H and 650 keV for C which are above the displacement damage threshold. Scanning electron microscopy images show that nanostructured samples consist of columns with an average diameter of about 100 nm. These nanocolumns are stable under the studied implantations conditions. Moreover, surface modification is absent in all studied samples. X-ray diffraction data illustrate that all samples are mono-phase (α-W phase) and that none of the implantations led to the appearance of secondary phases. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis data show that the H retention in NW samples is larger than in CGW and that synergistic effect has a significant influence on the H retention in CGW samples but not in NW samples

  5. Visible light assisted nitrogen dioxide sensing using tungsten oxide - Graphene oxide nanocomposite sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); You, Jiajun; Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were deposited by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) on alumina substrates. In order to enhance the NO{sub 2} sensing properties of the pure WO{sub 3} coatings at room temperature, illuminating with visible light and formation of p-n heterojunction were used. The SPPS WO{sub 3} coatings were modified by immersing them into a synthesized graphene oxide (GO) suspension to obtain the WO{sub 3}-GO composites. Raman and FTIR results demonstrated that p-n heterojunctions were successfully formed in the WO{sub 3}-GO composites. The UV–Vis spectra showed that the WO{sub 3}-GO composites had a longer visible light absorption range compared with the WO{sub 3} coatings. The sensors based on the WO{sub 3}-GO coatings exhibited ultra-high responses to NO{sub 2} at room temperature performed under visible light illumination. - Highlights: • Highly porous nanostructured WO{sub 3} coatings were deposited by SPPS process. • The WO{sub 3}-GO nanocomposites with p-n heterojunctions were successfully prepared. • The WO{sub 3}-GO nanocomposites exhibited ultra-high responses to 0.9 ppm NO{sub 2}. • The enhanced performance was ascribed to the fine structure and heterojunction.

  6. Refining waste hardmetals into tungsten oxide nanosheets via facile method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhifei; Zheng, Guangwei; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Li, Hongyi, E-mail: lhy06@bjut.edu.cn; Wu, Junshu; Du, Yucheng [Beijing University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-04-15

    A new hydrothermal system has been designed to recycle waste WC–Co hardmetal with low cobalt (Co) content (3 %). In the solution system, nitric acid was designed to dissolve Co, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} served as oxidant to accelerate the oxidation of the WC–Co hardmetals, and fluorine (F{sup −}) was designed to dissolve and recrystallize generated tungsten oxides, which were found to possess a layered structure using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained tungsten oxides were identified as WO{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O by X-ray diffraction and their specific surface area was measured as 89.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} via N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption techniques. The present layered structure tungsten oxides exhibited a promising capability for removing lead ion (Pb{sup 2+}) and organic species, such as methyl blue. The adsorption model was found to be in agreement with Langmuir isotherm model. Given the facile synthesis procedure and promising properties of final products, this new approach should have great potential for refining some other waste hardmetals or tungsten products.Graphical AbstractA new hydrothermal system was designed to recycle waste hardmetal with low cobalt content. Through this method, waste hardmetal was refined into WO{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O nanosheets which shows excellent adsorption capacities toward methylene blue and lead ion (Pb{sup 2+}).

  7. Thermal oxidation of tungsten-based sputtered coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, C.; Cavaleiro, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the addition of nickel, titanium, and nitrogen on the air oxidation behavior of W-based sputtered coatings in the temperature range 600 to 800 C was studied. In some cases these additions significantly improved the oxidation resistance of the tungsten coatings. As reported for bulk tungsten, all the coatings studied were oxidized by layers following a parabolic law. Besides WO 3 and WO x phases detected in all the oxidized coatings, TiO 2 and NiWO 4 were also detected for W-Ti and W-Ni films, respectively. WO x was present as an inner protective compact layer covered by the porous WO 3 oxide. The best oxidation resistance was found for W-Ti and W-N-Ni coatings which also presented the highest activation energies (E a = 234 and 218 kJ/mol, respectively, as opposed to E a ∼ 188 kJ/mol for the other coatings). These lower oxidation weight gains were attributed to the greater difficulty of the inward diffusion of oxygen ions for W-Ti films, owing to the formation of fine particles of TiO 2 , and the formation of the external, more protective layer of NiWO 4 for W-N-Ni coatings

  8. Tungsten Oxide Photonic Crystals as Optical Transducer for Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Wu, Xia; Wagner, Thorsten

    2018-01-26

    Some metal oxide semiconductors, such as tungsten trioxide or tin dioxide, are well-known as resistive transducers for gas sensing and offer high sensitivities down to the part per billion level. Electrical signal read-out, however, limits the information obtained on the electronic properties of metal oxides to a certain frequency range and its application because of the required electrical contacts. Therefore, a novel approach for building an optical transducer for gas reactions utilizing metal oxide photonic crystals is presented here. By the rational design of the structure and composition it is possible to synthesize a functional material which allows one to obtain insight into its electronic properties in the optical frequency range with simple experimental measures. The concept is demonstrated by tungsten trioxide inverse opal structure as optical transducer material for hydrogen sensing. The sensing behavior is analyzed in a temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C and in a wide hydrogen concentration range (3000 ppm to 10%). The sensing mechanism is mainly the refractive index change resulting from hydrogen intercalation in tungsten trioxide, but the back reaction has also impact on the optical properties of this system. Detailed chemical reaction studies provide suggestions for specific sensing conditions.

  9. Effect of tungsten doping on catalytic properties of niobium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Franciane P.; Nogueira, Andre E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Patricio, Patricia S.O., E-mail: patriciapatricio@cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, CEFET, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Departamento de Quimica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    A novel material based on niobia (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was synthesized to oxidize an organic compound in aqueous medium in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} after chemical modifications. Niobia was modified by doping with tungsten and also treating with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in order to maximize the oxidative properties of this oxide. The analysis of the products from methylene blue dye oxidation with electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that the dye was successively oxidized to different intermediate compounds. The successive hydroxylation during this oxidation strongly suggests that highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are generated involving H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the W-doped niobia grain surface. These results strongly suggest that the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can regenerate in situ the peroxo group remaining active the system. (author)

  10. Tungsten oxide coatings deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor for detection of nitrogen dioxide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2016-05-25

    Increasing attention has been paid on preparation methods for resistive-type gas sensors based on semiconductor metal oxides. In this work, tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were prepared on alumina substrates and used as gas sensitive layers. The coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spray using powder, solution precursor, or a combination of both. Tungsten oxide powder through a powder port and ammonium tungstate aqueous solution through a liquid port were injected into plasma stream respectively or together to deposit WO{sub 3} coatings. Phase structures in the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyzer. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that the coatings were in microstructure, nanostructure or micro-nanostructure. The sensing properties of the sensors based on the coatings exposed to 1 ppm nitrogen dioxide gas were characterized in a home-made instrument. Sensing properties of the coatings were compared and discussed. The influences of gas humidity and working temperature on the sensor responses were further studied. - Highlights: • Porous gas sensitive coatings were deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor. • Crystallized WO{sub 3} were obtained through hybrid plasma spray plus a pre-conditioned step. • Plasma power had an important influence on coating microstructure. • The particle size of atmospheric plasma-sprayed microstructured coating was stable. • Solution precursor plasma-sprayed WO{sub 3} coatings had nanostructure and showed good responses to 1 ppm NO{sub 2}.

  11. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 o C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  12. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shibin [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China); Chang, Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zjli126@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 {sup o}C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  13. Vanadium Doped Tungsten Oxide Material - Electrical Physical and Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin N. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical physical and sensing (to VOCs and inorganic gases properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide in the regions of phase transition temperature were investigated. Vanadium oxide (II dimerization was observed in the doped material, corresponding to new phase transition. The extreme sensitivity and selectivity to chemically active gases and vapors in small concentrations: CO, NOx, NH3 acetone, ethanol near phase transitions temperature was found. Sensor elements were manufactured for the quantitative detection (close to 1 ppm of alcohol and ammonia.

  14. Tungsten oxide-Au nanosized film composites for glucose oxidation and sensing in neutral medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougis M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maxime Gougis, Dongling Ma, Mohamed Mohamedi INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Varennes, Québec, Canada Abstract: In this work, we report for the first time the use of tungsten oxide (WOx as catalyst support for Au toward the direct electrooxidation of glucose. The nanostructured WOx/Au electrodes were synthesized by means of laser-ablation technique. Both micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the produced WOx thin film is amorphous and made of ultrafine particles of subnanometer size. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that only metallic Au was present at the surface of the WOx/Au composite, suggesting that the WOx support did not alter the electronic structure of Au. The direct electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in neutral medium such as phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 solution has been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square-wave voltammetry. Sensitivity as high as 65.7 µA cm-2 mM-1 up to 10 mM of glucose and a low detection limit of 10 µM were obtained with square-wave voltammetry. This interesting analytical performance makes the laser-fabricated WOx/Au electrode potentially promising for implantable glucose fuel cells and biomedical analysis as the evaluation of glucose concentration in biological fluids. Finally, owing to its unique capabilities proven in this work, it is anticipated that the laser-ablation technique will develop as a fabrication tool for chip miniature-sized sensors in the near future. Keywords: Au, tungsten oxide, nanostructures, pulsed laser deposition, glucose oxidation and sensing

  15. Closed-cage tungsten oxide clusters in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D M David Jeba; Pradeep, T; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2010-05-06

    During the course of a study on the clustering of W-Se and W-S mixtures in the gas phase using laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry, we observed several anionic W-O clusters. Three distinct species, W(6)O(19)(-), W(13)O(29)(-), and W(14)O(32)(-), stand out as intense peaks in the regular mass spectral pattern of tungsten oxide clusters suggesting unusual stabilities for them. Moreover, these clusters do not fragment in the postsource decay analysis. While trying to understand the precursor material, which produced these clusters, we found the presence of nanoscale forms of tungsten oxide. The structure and thermodynamic parameters of tungsten clusters have been explored using relativistic quantum chemical methods. Our computed results of atomization energy are consistent with the observed LDI mass spectra. The computational results suggest that the clusters observed have closed-cage structure. These distinct W(13) and W(14) clusters were observed for the first time in the gas phase.

  16. Homoepitaxial Nanostructures of Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Plakhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The homoepitaxial ZnO nanostructures (HENS were obtained on different substrates using various techniques. The first type of homoepitaxial ZnO nanorod arrays was grown on Si or ITO substrates by using two alternative sequences: (a seeding → growth from solution → growth from vapor and contrariwise (b seeding → growth from vapor → growth from solution. As follows from transport and cathode luminescence measurements homoepitaxial growth allows enhancing electrical or luminescence properties. The second type of HENS was prepared by growth of vertically or horizontally oriented ZnO nanorod arrays depending on monocrystalline ZnO wafers with [0001] and [10-10] orientation. In all cases the growth occurs along the c-axis of fast growth.

  17. Obtaining, characterization and fibre use of nanostructured TiO_2 doped with tungsten as photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, L.G.; Bergmann, C.P.; Alves, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The use and applicability of nanomaterials are increasingly common in our day to day, due to propitiate more effective end products, lightweight and low cost. The nanomaterials used preferably in various applications is due to properties such as reduced particle size, diversified and high surface area. In this work nanostructured fibers of TiO_2 and TiO_2/WO_3 were obtained by electrospinning, annealed at temperatures between 650 deg C and 800 deg C, and its photocatalytic activity was evaluated. The technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the crystalline structure and crystallite size. The morphology of nanomaterials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preliminary results indicate that the nano-doped tungsten presented more efficient in bleaching methyl orange dye, indicating a higher catalytic activity of this material compared to a standard catalyst. This phenomenon can be explained through the phases present and morphological characteristics of the fibers. (author)

  18. Exposures of tungsten nanostructures to divertor plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D L; Doerner, R P; Baldwin, M J; Boedo, J A; Hollmann, E M; Moyer, R A; Wong, C P C; Chrobak, C P; Guo, H Y; Leonard, A W; Pace, D C; Thomas, D M; Wright, G M; Abrams, T; Briesemeister, A R; McLean, A G; Fenstermacher, M E; Lasnier, C J; Watkins, J G

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten nanostructures (W-fuzz) prepared in the PISCES-A linear device have been found to survive direct exposure to divertor plasmas in DIII-D. W-fuzz was exposed in the lower divertor of DIII-D using the divertor material evaluation system. Two samples were exposed in lower single null (LSN) deuterium H-mode plasmas. The first sample was exposed in three discharges terminated by vertical displacement event disruptions, and the second in two discharges near the lowered X-point. More recently, three samples were exposed near the lower outer strike point in predominantly helium H-mode LSN plasmas. In all cases, the W-fuzz survived plasma exposure with little obvious damage except in the areas where unipolar arcing occurred. Arcing is effective in W-fuzz removal, and it appears that surfaces covered with W-fuzz can be more prone to arcing than smooth W surfaces. (paper)

  19. Study of the structural evolutions of crystalline tungsten oxide films prepared using hot-filament CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, P X; Wang, X P; Zhang, H X; Yang, B Q; Wang, Z B; Gonzalez-BerrIos, A; Morell, G; Weiner, B

    2007-01-01

    Structural evolutions of tungsten oxide(WO 3 ) samples on different substrates are studied using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The WO 3 samples are prepared using hot-filament CVD techniques. The focus of the study is on the evolutions of nano structures at different stages following deposition time. The experimental measurements reveal evolutions of the surface structures from uniform film to fractal-like structures, and eventually to nano particles, and crystalline structures from mono (0 1 0) crystalline thin film to polycrystalline thick film developments. The effect of high temperature on the nanostructured WO 3 is also investigated. Well-aligned nanoscale WO 3 rod arrays are obtained at a substrate temperature of up to 1400 deg. C. Further increasing the substrate temperature yields microscale crystalline WO 3 particles

  20. Selective Oxidations using Nanostructured Heterogeneous Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen

    and because they produce H2O as the only by-product. Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to basic concepts in heterogeneous catalysis and green chemistry. Furthermore, the chapter gives an overview of the most important strategies to synthesise functional nanostructured materials and highlights how detailed......The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop new efficient methods to oxidise alcohols and amines using heterogeneous catalysts and either O2 or H2O2 as oxidants. From an economic and environmental point of view, these oxidants are ideal, because they are cheap and readily available...... understanding of size, shape and structure can help in the development of new and more efficient heterogeneous catalysts. The chapter is not intended to give a complete survey, but rather to introduce some of the recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured heterogeneous catalysts. Finally...

  1. Exfoliation of the tungsten fibreform nanostructure by unipolar arcing in the LHD divertor plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokitani, M.; Kajita, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Hirahata, Y.; Ohno, N.; Tanabe, T.; LHD Experiment Group

    2011-10-01

    The tungsten nanostructure (W-fuzz) created in the linear divertor simulator (NAGDIS) was exposed to the Large Helical Device (LHD) divertor plasma for only 2 s (1 shot) to study exfoliation/erosion and microscopic modifications due to the high heat/particle loading under high magnetic field conditions. Very fine and randomly moved unipolar arc trails were clearly observed on about half of the W-fuzz area (6 × 10 mm2). The fuzzy surface was exfoliated by continuously moving arc spots even for the very short exposure time. This is the first observation of unipolar arcing and exfoliation of some areas of the W-fuzz structure itself in a large plasma confinement device with a high magnetic field. The typical width and depth of each arc trail were about 8 µm and 1 µm, respectively, and the arc spots moved randomly on the micrometre scale. The fractality of the arc trails was analysed using a box-counting method, and the fractal dimension (D) of the arc trails was estimated to be D ≈ 1.922. This value indicated that the arc spots moved in Brownian motion, and were scarcely influenced by the magnetic field. One should note that such a large scale exfoliation due to unipolar arcing may enhance the surface erosion of the tungsten armour and act as a serious impurity source for fusion plasmas.

  2. Exfoliation of the tungsten fibreform nanostructure by unipolar arcing in the LHD divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokitani, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Kajita, S.; Hirahata, Y.; Ohno, N.; Tanabe, T.

    2011-01-01

    The tungsten nanostructure (W-fuzz) created in the linear divertor simulator (NAGDIS) was exposed to the Large Helical Device (LHD) divertor plasma for only 2 s (1 shot) to study exfoliation/erosion and microscopic modifications due to the high heat/particle loading under high magnetic field conditions. Very fine and randomly moved unipolar arc trails were clearly observed on about half of the W-fuzz area (6 x 10 mm 2 ). The fuzzy surface was exfoliated by continuously moving arc spots even for the very short exposure time. This is the first observation of unipolar arcing and exfoliation of some areas of the W-fuzz structure itself in a large plasma confinement device with a high magnetic field. The typical width and depth of each arc trail were about 8 μm and 1 μm, respectively, and the arc spots moved randomly on the micrometre scale. The fractality of the arc trails was analysed using a box-counting method, and the fractal dimension (D) of the arc trails was estimated to be D ∼ 1.922. This value indicated that the arc spots moved in Brownian motion, and were scarcely influenced by the magnetic field. One should note that such a large scale exfoliation due to unipolar arcing may enhance the surface erosion of the tungsten armour and act as a serious impurity source for fusion plasmas. (letter)

  3. Mechanical alloying and sintering of nanostructured tungsten carbide-reinforced copper composite and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Mahani; Othman, Radzali; Hussain, Zuhailawati

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → W 2 C phase was formed at short milling time while WC only appears after longer milling time. → Cu crystallite size decreased but internal strain increased with increasing milling time. → Increasing milling time induced more WC formation, thus improving the hardness of the composite. → Electrical conductivity is reduced due to powder refinement and the presence of carbide phases. -- Abstract: Elemental powders of copper (Cu), tungsten (W) and graphite (C) were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill with different milling durations (0-60 h), compacted and sintered in order to precipitate hard tungsten carbide particles into a copper matrix. Both powder and sintered composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and assessed for hardness and electrical conductivity to investigate the effects of milling time on formation of nanostructured Cu-WC composite and its properties. No carbide peak was detected in the powder mixtures after milling. Carbide WC and W 2 C phases were precipitated only in the sintered composite. The formation of WC began with longer milling times, after W 2 C formation. Prolonged milling time decreased the crystallite size as well as the internal strain of Cu. Hardness of the composite was enhanced but electrical conductivity reduced with increasing milling time.

  4. Impedance analysis of nanostructured iridium oxide electrocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, Svein; Lervik, Ingrid Anne; Tsypkin, Mikhail; Owe, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Impedance data were collected for nanostructured iridium oxide (NIROF) at potentials below those at which the oxygen evolution reaction commences. The measurements included thin oxide films covered by a protective Nafion TM layer and thicker composite Nafion TM -oxide electrodes. The time constants for the low-frequency diffusion process were approximately the same for both types of electrodes, indicating diffusion in individual particles in the porous electrode rather than across the film. The diffusion process involves trapping of the diffusion species. The impedance data indicated that there were no significant variations in conductivity of the oxides with potential, as opposed to what appears to be the case for anodically formed iridium oxide films (AIROF). This is interpreted to reflect differences in electronic structure between NIROF and AIROF.

  5. Electronic structure of indium-tungsten-oxide alloys and their energy band alignment at the heterojunction to crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Dorothee; Mews, Mathias; Rech, Bernd; Korte, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structure of thermally co-evaporated indium-tungsten-oxide films is investigated. The stoichiometry is varied from pure tungsten oxide to pure indium oxide, and the band alignment at the indium-tungsten-oxide/crystalline silicon heterointerface is monitored. Using in-system photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and surface photovoltage measurements, we show that the work function of indium-tungsten-oxide continuously decreases from 6.3 eV for tungsten oxide to 4.3 eV for indium oxide, with a concomitant decrease in the band bending at the hetero interface to crystalline silicon than indium oxide.

  6. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Groenland, A.W.; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Kumar Chinthaginjala, J.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution

  7. High-temperature oxidation of tungsten covered by layer of glass-enamel melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasnetsova, V.B.; Shardakov, N.T.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Deryabin, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion losses of tungsten covered by the layer of glass-enamel melt were determined at 800, 850, 900, 950 deg C. It is shown that the rate of high-temperature oxidation of tungsten decreases after application of glass-enamel melt on its surface. This is probably conditioned by reduction of area of metal interaction with oxidizing atmosphere

  8. Observation of reduction of secondary electron emission from helium ion impact due to plasma-generated nanostructured tungsten fuzz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, E M; Doerner, R P; Nishijima, D; Pigarov, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    Growth of nanostructured fuzz on a tungsten target in a helium plasma is found to cause a significant (∼3×) reduction in ion impact secondary electron emission in a linear plasma device. The ion impact secondary electron emission is separated from the electron impact secondary electron emission by varying the target bias voltage and fitting to expected contributions from electron impact, both thermal and non-thermal; with the non-thermal electron contribution being modeled using Monte-Carlo simulations. The observed (∼3×) reduction is similar in magnitude to the (∼2×) reduction observed in previous work for the effect of tungsten fuzz formation on secondary electron emission due to electron impact. It is hypothesized that the observed reduction results from re-absorption of secondary electrons in the tungsten fuzz. (paper)

  9. Interfaces and nanostructures of oxide octahedral frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felip eSandiumenge

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the rich physics exhibited by solid interfaces combining octahedral framework structures of transition metal oxides has fascinated the materials science community. However, the behavior of these materials still elude the current understanding of classical semiconductor and metal epitaxy. The reason for that is rooted in the surprising versatility of linked coordination units to adapt to a dissimilar substrate and the strong sensitivity of correlated oxides to external perturbations. The confluence of atomic control in oxide thin film epitaxy, state of the art high spatial resolution characterization techniques, and electronic structure computations, has allowed in recent years to obtain first insights on the underlying microscopic mechanisms governing the epitaxy of these fascinating materials. Here, we shortly review these mechanisms and highlight their potential in the design of novel nanostructures with enhanced functionalities.

  10. Nanosecond laser pulses for mimicking thermal effects on nanostructured tungsten-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besozzi, E.; Maffini, A.; Dellasega, D.; Russo, V.; Facibeni, A.; Pazzaglia, A.; Beghi, M. G.; Passoni, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we exploit nanosecond laser irradiation as a compact solution for investigating the thermomechanical behavior of tungsten materials under extreme thermal loads at the laboratory scale. Heat flux factor thresholds for various thermal effects, such as melting, cracking and recrystallization, are determined under both single and multishot experiments. The use of nanosecond lasers for mimicking thermal effects induced on W by fusion-relevant thermal loads is thus validated by direct comparison of the thresholds obtained in this work and the ones reported in the literature for electron beams and millisecond laser irradiation. Numerical simulations of temperature and thermal stress performed on a 2D thermomechanical code are used to predict the heat flux factor thresholds of the different thermal effects. We also investigate the thermal effect thresholds of various nanostructured W coatings. These coatings are produced by pulsed laser deposition, mimicking W coatings in tokamaks and W redeposited layers. All the coatings show lower damage thresholds with respect to bulk W. In general, thresholds decrease as the porosity degree of the materials increases. We thus propose a model to predict these thresholds for coatings with various morphologies, simply based on their porosity degree, which can be directly estimated by measuring the variation of the coating mass density with respect to that of the bulk.

  11. Temperature dependence of underdense nanostructure formation in tungsten under helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, G.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Nordlund, K.; Lasa, A.; Björkas, C.; Safi, E.; Perlado, J.M.; Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, tungsten has been found to form a highly underdense nanostructured morphology (“W fuzz”) when bombarded by an intense flux of He ions, but only in the temperature window 900–2000 K. Using object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (pseudo-3D simulations) parameterized from first principles, we show that this temperature dependence can be understood based on He and point defect clustering, cluster growth, and detrapping reactions. At low temperatures (<900 K), fuzz does not grow because almost all He is trapped in very small He-vacancy clusters. At high temperatures (>2300 K), all He is detrapped from clusters, preventing the formation of the large clusters that lead to fuzz growth in the intermediate temperature range. - Highlights: •OKMC simulation of temperature window for fuzz formation. •Stable He-V clusters prevent fuzz formation at low temperatures. •Dissociation of He-V clusters prevent fuzz formation at high temperatures. •Fuzz formation rate increases with increasing temperature. •An incubation fluence observed in the simulations, similar to experimental observations.

  12. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ajlony, A.; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10 24 –1.6 × 10 25 ions m −2 ), and flux (2.0 × 10 20 –5.5 × 10 20 ion m −2 s −1 ). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  13. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajlony, A., E-mail: montaserajlony@yahoo.com; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-05-15

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10{sup 24}–1.6 × 10{sup 25} ions m{sup −2}), and flux (2.0 × 10{sup 20}–5.5 × 10{sup 20} ion m{sup −2} s{sup −1}). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  14. Design of Janus nanoparticles with atomic precision: tungsten-doped gold nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Janus nanoparticles, characterized by their anisotropic structure and interactions, have added a new dimension to nanoscience because of their potential applications in biomedicine, sensors, catalysis, and assembled materials. The technological applications of these nanoparticles, however, have been limited as the current chemical, physical, and biosynthetic methods lack sufficient size and shape selectivity. We report a technique where gold clusters doped with tungsten can serve as a seed that facilitates the natural growth of anisotropic nanostructures whose size and shape can be controlled with atomic precision. Using ab initio simulated annealing and molecular dynamics calculations on AunW (n > 12) clusters, we discovered that the W@Au12 cage cluster forms a very stable core with the remaining Au atoms forming patchy structures on its surface. The anisotropic geometry gives rise to anisotropies in vibrational spectra, charge distributions, electronic structures, and reactivity, thus making it useful to have dual functionalities. In particular, the core-patch structure is shown to possess a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. The W@Au12 clusters can also be used as building blocks of a nanoring with novel properties.

  15. Temperature dependence of underdense nanostructure formation in tungsten under helium irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, G., E-mail: gonzalovallesalberdi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Martin-Bragado, I. [UCAM, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Campus de los Jerónimos, Guadalupe, 30107, Murcia (Spain); Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lasa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6169 (United States); Björkas, C.; Safi, E. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland); Perlado, J.M.; Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    Recently, tungsten has been found to form a highly underdense nanostructured morphology (“W fuzz”) when bombarded by an intense flux of He ions, but only in the temperature window 900–2000 K. Using object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (pseudo-3D simulations) parameterized from first principles, we show that this temperature dependence can be understood based on He and point defect clustering, cluster growth, and detrapping reactions. At low temperatures (<900 K), fuzz does not grow because almost all He is trapped in very small He-vacancy clusters. At high temperatures (>2300 K), all He is detrapped from clusters, preventing the formation of the large clusters that lead to fuzz growth in the intermediate temperature range. - Highlights: •OKMC simulation of temperature window for fuzz formation. •Stable He-V clusters prevent fuzz formation at low temperatures. •Dissociation of He-V clusters prevent fuzz formation at high temperatures. •Fuzz formation rate increases with increasing temperature. •An incubation fluence observed in the simulations, similar to experimental observations.

  16. Study of thermoelectron emission of oxidized tungsten sponge in cesium atom flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursunmetov, K.A.; Sabirov, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Thermoelectron emission of a tungsten sponge with 30-40% porosity is studied. The tungsten sponge is produced of fine-grain tungsten powder (diameter - 1-2 μm) according to standard technology. It is shown that tungsten sponge oxidation at T=1000 K with subsequent heating in vacuum at T=1100 K allows one to obtain the minimal stable and reproducible work function at the level of 1.03-1.05 eV in a flux of cesium atoms. Estimations show that effective emitting surface is 15-20 times as much as the polycrystal surface

  17. Nanostructured manganese oxide thin films as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, are alternative energy storage devices, particularly for applications requiring high power densities. Recently, manganese oxides have been extensively evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their low cost, environmental benignity, and promising supercapacitive performance. In order to maximize the utilization of manganese oxides as the electrode material for the supercapacitors and improve their supercapacitive performance, the nanostructured manganese oxides have therefore been developed. This paper reviews the synthesis of the nanostructured manganese oxide thin films by different methods and the supercapacitive performance of different nanostructures.

  18. Formation of tungsten blue oxide and its phase constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Z.; Wu, E.; Tan, A.; Qian, C.

    1984-01-01

    By means of X-ray diffraction structure analysis, SEM observation, chemical analysis and particle specific surface analysis etc., an investigation was made in order to determine the regularity of tungsten blue oxide formation during reductional calcine process of APT. It was found that the oxygen index (OI) decreased continuously with increasing calcine temperature. The decrease rate of OI variated as the calcine atmosphere being changed, the stronger the reductivity of the atmosphere is, the more OI decreases. The deammonia-dewater process and the phase constitution variation during calcine was studied, some idea for description of phase transformation path was suggested. It was found that the most important parameter affecting phase constitution and transformation is calcine temperature. At the temperature lower than 450 0 C, the main formed phase was ATB, while at higher temperature, the different phase like W/sub 20/O/sub 58/, WO/sub 3/ etc., could be formed by different ways depending on the atmosphere reductivity. The composition and the OI of ATB are changeable. An experiment for some blue oxides reduction at low temperature was carried out. It was found that OI and the constitution of blue oxide strongly affected the particle size of the formed W-powder

  19. Crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate monoliths synthesized by directed soft template method for highly sensitive NO{sub 2} gas sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: ndhoa@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam); Duy, Nguyen Van [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam); Hieu, Nguyen Van, E-mail: hieu@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Mesoporous WO{sub 3} nanoplate monoliths were obtained by direct templating synthesis. ► Enable effective accession of the analytic molecules for the sensor applications. ► The WO{sub 3} sensor exhibited a high performance to NO{sub 2} gas at low temperature. -- Abstract: Controllable synthesis of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with nanocrystalline size, porous structure, and large specific surface area is one of the key issues for effective gas sensor applications. In this study, crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate-like monoliths with high specific surface areas were obtained through instant direct-templating synthesis for highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sensor applications. The copolymer soft template was converted into a solid carbon framework by heat treatment in an inert gas prior to calcinations in air to sustain the mesoporous structure of tungsten oxide. The multidirectional mesoporous structures of tungsten oxide with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enabled the rapid and effective accession of analytic gas molecules. As a result, the sensor response was enhanced and the response and recovery times were reduced, in which the mesoporous tungsten oxide based gas sensor exhibited a superior response of 21,155% to 5 ppm NO{sub 2}. In addition, the developed sensor exhibited selective detection of low NO{sub 2} concentration in ammonia and ethanol at a low temperature of approximately 150 °C.

  20. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  1. Thermoemission properties of tungsten with additions of rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gural'nik, N.I.; Evstifeev, V.V.; Imangulova, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Thermoemission properties of tungsten with addition of rare earth oxides are studied in the superhigh vacuum set with oil-free pumping system. Electronic work function eφ is determined by the method of total saturation current. Temperature dependences are obtained of the work function for three types of cathodes: W+La 2 O 3 ; W+φ 2 O 3 and W+Dy 2 O 3 . It is stated, that the first two types eφ decreases approximately from 4.2 to 3.3 eV and from 4.5 to 3.8 eV, respectively, after activation at proper temperatures. These cathodes are the most effective ones at the temperature of 1700 (W+La 2 O 3 ) and 1900-2100 K (W+ φ 4 O 3 ). The work function of cathodes with addition of dysprosium oxide did not practically vary (4.55-4.3 eV) within the whole studied temperature interval (1500-2100 K)

  2. Ion sensing properties of vanadium/tungsten mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose; Guerra, Elidia Maria; Mulato, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Vanadium/tungsten mixed oxide (V 2 O 5 /WO 3 ) sensing membranes were deposited on glassy carbon substrates and used as the H + sensor of the extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) device. X-ray diffractograms indicated a decrease of the interplanar spacing of V 2 O 5 after the insertion of WO 3 revealing that the lamellar structure is under compressive stress. The crystallinity increases with increasing WO 3 molar ratio. The film is not homogeneous, with more WO 3 material sitting at the surface. This influences the response of pH sensors using the EGFET configuration. The maximum sensitivity of 68 mV pH -1 was obtained for the sample with 5% WO 3 molar ratio. For higher WO 3 molar ratios, the behavior is not linear. It can be concluded that V 2 O 5 dominates for acidic solutions while WO 3 dominates for basic solutions. Therefore, the mixed oxide with low amount of WO 3 is the main candidate for further use as biosensor.

  3. Carbon and oxide nanostructures. Synthesis, characterisation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Fundamental and Applied Sciences

    2010-07-01

    This volume covers all aspects of carbon and oxide based nanostructured materials. The topics include synthesis, characterization and application of carbon-based namely carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, fullerenes, carbon filled composites etc. In addition, metal oxides namely, ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, ferrites, garnets etc., for various applications like sensors, solar cells, transformers, antennas, catalysts, batteries, lubricants, are presented. The book also includes the modeling of oxide and carbon based nanomaterials. The book covers the topics: - Synthesis, characterization and application of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, fullerenes - Synthesis, characterization and application of oxide based nanomaterials. - Nanostructured magnetic and electric materials and their applications. - Nanostructured materials for petro-chemical industry. - Oxide and carbon based thin films for electronics and sustainable energy. - Theory, calculations and modeling of nanostructured materials. (orig.)

  4. Electronic Structure Control of Tungsten Oxide Activated by Ni for Ultrahigh-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Kou, Zongkui; Amiinu, Ibrahim Saana; Hong, Xufeng; Li, Qingwei; Tang, Yongfu; Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Shaojun; Mai, Liqiang; Mu, Shichun

    2018-04-17

    Tuning the electron structure is of vital importance for designing high active electrode materials. Here, for boosting the capacitive performance of tungsten oxide, an atomic scale engineering approach to optimize the electronic structure of tungsten oxide by Ni doping is reported. Density functional theory calculations disclose that through Ni doping, the density of state at Fermi level for tungsten oxide can be enhanced, thus promoting its electron transfer. When used as electrode of supercapacitors, the obtained Ni-doped tungsten oxide with 4.21 at% Ni exhibits an ultrahigh mass-specific capacitance of 557 F g -1 at the current density of 1 A g -1 and preferable durability in a long-term cycle test. To the best of knowledge, this is the highest supercapacitor performance reported so far in tungsten oxide and its composites. The present strategy demonstrates the validity of the electronic structure control in tungsten oxide via introducing Ni atoms for pseudocapacitors, which can be extended to other related fields as well. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Thermal radiation characteristics and direct evidence of tungsten cooling on the way to nanostructure formation on its surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, S., E-mail: takamura@aitech.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Miyamoto, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The physical properties of tungsten with nanostructure on its surface are investigated focusing on the thermal radiation and cooling characteristics. First, direct evidence of substantial W surface cooling has been clearly shown with use of a very thin thermocouple inserted into W target, which solves an uncertainty associated with a radiation thermometer. Second, the above measurements of W surface temperature make it possible to estimate quantitatively the total emissivity from which we may evaluate the radiative power through the Stefan–Boltzmann equation, which is very important for mitigation evaluation of a serious plasma heat load to the plasma-facing component.

  6. Thermal radiation characteristics and direct evidence of tungsten cooling on the way to nanostructure formation on its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ohno, N.

    2013-01-01

    The physical properties of tungsten with nanostructure on its surface are investigated focusing on the thermal radiation and cooling characteristics. First, direct evidence of substantial W surface cooling has been clearly shown with use of a very thin thermocouple inserted into W target, which solves an uncertainty associated with a radiation thermometer. Second, the above measurements of W surface temperature make it possible to estimate quantitatively the total emissivity from which we may evaluate the radiative power through the Stefan–Boltzmann equation, which is very important for mitigation evaluation of a serious plasma heat load to the plasma-facing component

  7. Investigation of arcing on fiber-formed nanostructured tungsten by pulsed plasma during steady state plasma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, M., E-mail: yajima.miyuki@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, 509-5292 Japan (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046-13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, 509-5292 Japan (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Arcing on fiber-formed nanostructured tungsten samples during ELM-like pulses was investigated using the superimposition of high power pulsed plasma on a steady state plasma with hydrogen gas in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI. The ignition of arcing was observed when the floating potential of the samples was less than −75 V with sufficient heat flux. The surface observation showed that the arc spots were not in the center, but in the peripheral area of the plasma column. Considering the plasma potential profile in the Pilot-PSI, the arcing occurred at the position where the heat flux and the sheath potential drop are sufficiently large.

  8. A supercritical carbon dioxide plasma process for preparing tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Takemori, Toshihiko; Mukasa, Shinobu; Maehara, Tsunehiro

    2007-01-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) plasma process for fabricating one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowires coated with amorphous carbon is presented. High-frequency plasma was generated in supercritical carbon dioxide at 20 MPa by using tungsten electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell, and subsequently an organic solvent was introduced with supercritical carbon dioxide into the plasma. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations of the deposited materials showed the production of tungsten oxide nanowires with or without an outer layer. The nanowires with an outer layer exhibited a coaxial structure with an outer concentric layer of amorphous carbon and an inner layer of tungsten oxide with a thickness and diameter of 20-30 and 10-20 nm, respectively

  9. Growth study and photocatalytic properties of Co-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals with different morphologies have been successfully generated using a solvothermal method with tungsten hexachloride and cobalt chloride salts as precursors. The resulting mesocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmet–Teller analysis of nitrogen sorptometer, and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals were evaluated on the basis of their ability to degrade methyl orange in an aqueous solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. Results showed that the cobalt doping had obvious effect on the morphologies of the final products, and lenticular and blocky cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals could be obtained with 1.0 wt.% and 2.0 wt.% cobalt doping, respectively. The cobalt-doped tungsten oxides exhibited superior photocatalytic activities to that of the undoped tungsten oxide. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustrations of the growth of the bundled nanowires, lenticular mesocrystals, and blocky mesocrystals. Highlights: ► Co-doped W 18 O 49 mesocrystals were synthesized using a solvothermal method. ► The Co doping has obvious effect on the morphology of the final mesocrystals. ► The Co-doped W 18 O 49 exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to the undoped W 18 O 49 .

  10. Growth study and photocatalytic properties of Co-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shibin [College of Logistics Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Chang, Xueting, E-mail: xuetingchang@yahoo.cn [College of Logistics Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Li, Zhenjiang [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals with different morphologies have been successfully generated using a solvothermal method with tungsten hexachloride and cobalt chloride salts as precursors. The resulting mesocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of nitrogen sorptometer, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals were evaluated on the basis of their ability to degrade methyl orange in an aqueous solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. Results showed that the cobalt doping had obvious effect on the morphologies of the final products, and lenticular and blocky cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals could be obtained with 1.0 wt.% and 2.0 wt.% cobalt doping, respectively. The cobalt-doped tungsten oxides exhibited superior photocatalytic activities to that of the undoped tungsten oxide. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustrations of the growth of the bundled nanowires, lenticular mesocrystals, and blocky mesocrystals. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-doped W{sub 18}O{sub 49} mesocrystals were synthesized using a solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Co doping has obvious effect on the morphology of the final mesocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Co-doped W{sub 18}O{sub 49} exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to the undoped W{sub 18}O{sub 49}.

  11. Coating of tips for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy by means of silicon, magnesium, and tungsten oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Different combinations of metal tips and oxide coatings have been tested for possible operation in electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Silicon and magnesium oxides have been thermally evaporated onto gold and platinum-iridium tips, respectively. Two different thickness values have been explored for both materials, namely, 40 and 120 nm for silicon oxide and 20 and 60 nm for magnesium oxide. Alternatively, tungsten oxide has been grown on tungsten tips via electrochemical anodization. In the latter case, to seek optimal results we have varied the pH of the anodizing electrolyte between one and four. The oxide coated tips have been first inspected by means of scanning electron microscopy equipped with microanalysis to determine the morphological results of the coating. Second, the coated tips have been electrically characterized ex situ for stability in time by means of cyclic voltammetry in 1 M aqueous KCl supporting electrolyte, both bare and supplemented with K3[Fe(CN)6] complex at 10 mM concentration in milliQ water as an analyte. Only the tungsten oxide coated tungsten tips have shown stable electrical behavior in the electrolyte. For these tips, the uncoated metal area has been estimated from the electrical current levels, and they have been successfully tested by imaging a gold grating in situ, which provided stable results for several hours. The successful tungsten oxide coating obtained at pH=4 has been assigned to the WO3 form.

  12. Spin coated versus dip coated electrochromic tungsten oxide films: Structure, morphology, optical and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, M.; Saxena, T.K.; Singh, D.P.; Sood, K.N.; Agnihotry, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    A sol-gel derived acetylated peroxotungstic acid sol encompassing 4 wt.% of oxalic acid dihydrate (OAD) has been employed for the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films by spin coating and dip coating techniques, in view of smart window applications. The morphological and structural evolution of the as-deposited spin and dip coated films as a function of annealing temperature (250 and 500 o C) has been examined and compared by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A conspicuous feature of the dip coated film (annealed at 250 o C) is that its electrochromic and electrochemical properties ameliorate with cycling without degradation in contrast to the spin coated film for which these properties deteriorate under repetitive cycling. A comparative study of spin and dip coated nanostructured thin films (annealed at 250 o C) revealed a superior performance for the cycled dip coated film in terms of higher transmission modulation and coloration efficiency in solar and photopic regions, faster switching speed, higher electrochemical activity as well as charge storage capacity. While the dip coated film could endure 2500 color-bleach cycles, the spin coated film could sustain only a 1000 cycles. The better cycling stability of the dip coated film which is a repercussion of a balance between optimal water content, porosity and grain size hints at its potential for electrochromic window applications

  13. Preparation of layered graphene and tungsten oxide hybrids for enhanced performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ling-Li; Huang, Ke-Jing; Fang, Lin-Xia

    2016-11-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), which was originally poor in capacitive performance, is made into an excellent electrode material for supercapacitors by dispersing it on graphene (Gr). The obtained Gr-WO 3 hybrids are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and evaluated as electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A great improvement in specific capacitance is achieved with the present hybrids, from 255 F g -1 for WO 3 nanoparticles to 580 F g -1 for Gr-WO 3 hybrids (scanned at 1 A g -1 in 2 M KOH over a potential window of 0 to 0.45 V). The Gr-WO 3 hybrid exhibits an excellent high rate capability and good cycling stability with more than 92% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles at a current density of 5 A g -1 . The enhancement in supercapacitor performance of Gr-WO 3 is not only attributed to its unique nanostructure with large specific surface area, but also its excellent electro-conductivity, which facilitates efficient charge transport and promotes electrolyte diffusion. As a whole, this work indicates that Gr-WO 3 hybrids are a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  14. Tungsten oxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowire arrays as novel negative electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Xu, Kai; Safdar, Muhammad; He, Jun

    2015-02-11

    Among active pseudocapacitive materials, polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. PPy-based materials research has thus far focused on its electrochemical performance as a positive electrode rather than as a negative electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). Here high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors are designed with tungsten oxide@PPy (WO3 @PPy) core-shell nanowire arrays and Co(OH)2 nanowires grown on carbon fibers. The WO3 @PPy core-shell nanowire electrode exhibits a high capacitance (253 mF/cm2) in negative potentials (-1.0-0.0 V). The ASCs packaged with CF-Co(OH)2 as a positive electrode and CF-WO3 @PPy as a negative electrode display a high volumetric capacitance up to 2.865 F/cm3 based on volume of the device, an energy density of 1.02 mWh/cm3 , and very good stability performance. These findings promote the application of PPy-based nanostructures as advanced negative electrodes for ASCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Research and development of tungsten electrodes added with rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuoren Nie; Ying Chen; Meiling Zhou; Tieyong Zuo

    2001-01-01

    The recent research and development of tungsten electrodes used in TIG and Plasma technologies are introduced, and the tungsten materials as well as the effects of rare earth oxides are specially discussed. in W-La 2 O 3 , W-CeO 2 , W-Y 2 O 3 and W-ThO 2 electrode materials, the W-2.2mass%La 2 O 3 electrode exhibited the best properties when the current is of little or middle volume, and when the electrodes are used in large current, the W-Y 2 O 3 electrode is the best. By a comparative study between the tungsten electrodes activated with single metal oxides, as above-mentioned, and those containing two or three rare earth oxides, namely La 2 O 3 , CeO 2 and Y 2 O 3 , it was indicated that the welding arc properties of the tungsten electrodes activated with combined rare earth oxides additions is superior than that of the electrodes containing single oxides as above mentioned. It was also shown that the operating properties of tungsten electrodes depend intensively on the rare earth oxides contained in the electrodes, and the actions of rare earth oxides during arcing are the most important factors to the electrodes' operating properties, temperature, work function as well as the arc stability. (author)

  16. Thin film deposition and characterization of pure and iron-doped electron-beam evaporated tungsten oxide for gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfamichael, Tuquabo, E-mail: t.tesfamichael@qut.edu.a [Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Arita, Masashi [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita-14, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0814 (Japan); Bostrom, Thor [Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Bell, John [Centre for Built Environment and Engineering Research, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2010-06-30

    Pure tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) and iron-doped (10 at.%) tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}:Fe) nanostructured thin films were prepared using a dual crucible Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE) technique. The films were deposited at room temperature under high vacuum onto glass as well as alumina substrates and post-heat treated at 300 {sup o}C for 1 h. Using Raman spectroscopy the as-deposited WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}:Fe films were found to be amorphous, however their crystallinity increased after annealing. The estimated surface roughness of the films was similar (of the order of 3 nm) to that determined using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). As observed by AFM, the WO{sub 3}:Fe film appeared to have a more compact surface as compared to the more porous WO{sub 3} film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the elemental stoichiometry of the tungsten oxide films was consistent with WO{sub 3}. A slight difference in optical band gap energies was found between the as-deposited WO{sub 3} (3.22 eV) and WO{sub 3}:Fe (3.12 eV) films. The differences in the band gap energies of the annealed films were significantly higher, having values of 3.12 eV and 2.61 eV for the WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}:Fe films respectively. The heat treated films were investigated for gas sensing applications using noise spectroscopy. It was found that doping of Fe to WO{sub 3} produced gas selectivity but a reduced gas sensitivity as compared to the WO{sub 3} sensor.

  17. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  18. Structural and photoelectrochemical investigation of boron-modified nanostructured tungsten trioxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barczuk, Piotr J.; Krolikowska, Agata; Lewera, Adam; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Solarska, Renata; Augustynski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We report a modification of nanostructured WO 3 films by doping with boron. The films were obtained by a direct one-step sol–gel route involving tungstic acid/polyethelene glycol precursor. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the incorporation of boron results in the retention of a substantial amount of water and/or hydroxyl groups in the WO 3 lattice and at the surface of nanoparticles occurring despite high temperature (550 °C) annealing of the films. Another consequence of boron doping is the largely increased roughness factor revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. Both kinds of films are highly porous and consist of partly sintered particles with sizes in the range of tens of nanometers. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies performed under simulated solar AM 1.5 illumination showed significantly enhanced water oxidation photocurrents for B-WO 3 photoanodes, by about 25% higher than those for the undoped WO 3 films of similar thickness. The low extent of recombination of photogenerated charges was confirmed by incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCEs) reaching 70% in the region of visible wavelengths at 420 nm. The improved PEC properties were attributed to the increased surface hydroxylation of B-WO 3 nanoparticles favoring water photo-oxidation reaction and to the larger surface area of the film exposed to the electrolyte

  19. Study on the oxidation and reduction of tungsten surface for sub-50 nm patterning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Sung Il; Jhon, Myung S.; Min, Kyung Suk; Kim, Chan Kyu; Jung, Ho Bum; Yeom, Geun Young [Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri, Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711, South Korea and Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri, Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering and Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of tungsten line pattern during the carbon-based mask-layer removal process using oxygen plasmas have been investigated for sub-50 nm patterning processes, in addition to the reduction characteristics of the WO{sub x} layer formed on the tungsten line surface using hydrogen plasmas. The surface oxidation of tungsten lines during the mask layer removal process could be minimized by using low-temperature (300 K) plasma processing for the removal of the carbon-based material. Using this technique, the thickness of WO{sub x} on the tungsten line could be decreased to 25% compared to results from high-temperature processing. The WO{sub x} layer could also be completely removed at a low temperature of 300 K using a hydrogen plasma by supplying bias power to the tungsten substrate to provide a activation energy for the reduction. When this oxidation and reduction technique was applied to actual 40-nm-CD device processing, the complete removal of WO{sub x} formed on the sidewall of tungsten line could be observed.

  20. Highly flexible sub-1 nm tungsten oxide nanobelts as efficient desulfurization catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Liu, Huiling; Xu, Biao; Wang, Xun

    2015-03-01

    Ultrathin tungsten oxide nanobelts are successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. Sub-1 nm thickness and hydrophobic surface property endow the nanobelts with flexibility, viscosity, gelation, and good catalytic performance in oxidative desulfurization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Jiang, F.; Fu, B.J.; Sun, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%

  2. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China); State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Xicheng District, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.C., E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China); Jiang, F.; Fu, B. J.; Sun, N. B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%.

  3. Fabrication of Nanostructured PLGA Scaffolds Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh , Cheng-Chih; Wang , Gou-Jen; Hsu , Shan-Hui; Hung , Huey-Shan

    2008-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/16838); International audience; PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) is one of the most used biodegradable and biocompatible materials. Nanostructured PLGA even has great application potentials in tissue engineering. In this research, a fabrication technique for nanostructured PLGA membrane was investigated and developed. In this novel fabrication approach, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film was use as the...

  4. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  5. Self-assembled nanostructures in oxide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Haris Masood

    Self-assembled nanoislands in the gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC)/ yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) system have recently been discovered. This dissertation is an attempt to study the mechanism by which these nanoislands form. Nanoislands in the GDC/YSZ system form via a strain based mechanism whereby the stress accumulated in the GDC-doped surface layer on the YSZ substrate is relieved by creation of self-assembled nanoislands by a mechanism similar to the ATG instability. Unlike what was previously believed, a modified surface layer is not required prior to annealing, that is, this modification can occur during annealing by surface diffusion of dopants from the GDC sources (distributed on the YSZ surface in either lithographically defined patch or powder form) with simultaneous breakup, which occurs at the hold temperature independent of the subsequent cooling. Additionally, we have developed a simple powder based process of producing nanoislands which bypasses lithography and thin film deposition setups. The versatility of the process is apparent in the fact that it allows us to study the effect of experimental parameters such as soak time, temperature, cooling rate and the effect of powder composition on nanoisland properties in a facile way. With the help of this process, we have shown that nanoislands are not peculiar to Gd containing oxide source materials on YSZ substrates and can also be produced with other source materials such as La2O3, Nd2O3, Sm 2O3, Eu2O3, Tb2O3 and even Y2O3, which is already present in the substrate and hence simplifies the system further. We have extended our work to include YSZ substrates of the (110) surface orientation and have found that instead of nanoisland arrays, we obtain an array of parallel nanobars which have their long axes oriented along the [1-10] direction on the YSZ-(110) surface. STEM EDS performed on both the bars and the nanoislands has revealed that they are solid YSZ-rich solid solutions with the dopant species and

  6. Deuterium-induced nanostructure formation on tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.Y.; De Temmerman, G.C.; Luo, G.-N.; Jia, Y.Z.; Yuan, Y.; Fu, B.Q.; Godfrey, A.; Liu, W.

    2015-01-01

    PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21 — Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices Kanazawa, Japan May 26-30, 2014 Surface topography of polycrystalline tungsten (W) have been examined after exposure to a low-energy (38 eV/D), high-flux

  7. Microwave synthesis of nanostructured oxide sorbents doped with lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, Andrey A., E-mail: mitrofanov-a@icloud.com; Silyavka, Elena S.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Kolonitckii, Petr D.; Sukhodolov, Nikolai G.; Selyutin, Artem A., E-mail: selutin@inbox.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    A number of nanostructured mesoporous oxide systems based on aluminum oxide, doped with lanthanide ions have been obtained in this study. Structure and morphology of oxides obtained have been examined by X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of the samples was determined by the BET method. The dependence of the adsorption of insulin on synthesized oxides from the concentration was investigated. The containing of insulin in solutions after adsorption was determined by the Bradford method. The isotherms of adsorption of insulin on resulting oxide sorbents were plotted, the dependence capacity of the sorption of insulin from the lanthanide dopant was determined.

  8. Chemical solution route to self-assembled epitaxial oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradors, X; Puig, T; Gibert, M; Queraltó, A; Zabaleta, J; Mestres, N

    2014-04-07

    Self-assembly of oxides as a bottom-up approach to functional nanostructures goes beyond the conventional nanostructure formation based on lithographic techniques. Particularly, chemical solution deposition (CSD) is an ex situ growth approach very promising for high throughput nanofabrication at low cost. Whereas strain engineering as a strategy to define nanostructures with tight control of size, shape and orientation has been widely used in metals and semiconductors, it has been rarely explored in the emergent field of functional complex oxides. Here we will show that thermodynamic modeling can be very useful to understand the principles controlling the growth of oxide nanostructures by CSD, and some attractive kinetic features will also be presented. The methodology of strain engineering is applied in a high degree of detail to form different sorts of nanostructures (nanodots, nanowires) of the oxide CeO2 with fluorite structure which then is used as a model system to identify the principles controlling self-assembly and self-organization in CSD grown oxides. We also present, more briefly, the application of these ideas to other oxides such as manganites or BaZrO3. We will show that the nucleation and growth steps are essentially understood and manipulated while the kinetic phenomena underlying the evolution of the self-organized networks are still less widely explored, even if very appealing effects have been already observed. Overall, our investigation based on a CSD approach has opened a new strategy towards a general use of self-assembly and self-organization which can now be widely spread to many functional oxide materials.

  9. Nanostructured Transparent Conducting Oxides for Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Titas

    2011-12-01

    Research on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) has attracted a lot of attention due to the serious concern related to cost and chemical stability of indium tin oxide. The primary aim of this research is to develop low cost alternative transparent conducting oxides with an eye towards (1) increasing the organic solar cell efficiency and (2) fabricating transparent electronic devices utilizing p-type TCOs. To investigate the fundamental properties, the novel TCO films have been grown on sapphire and economical glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were also grown under different deposition conditions in order to understand the effect of processing parameters on the film properties. The characteristics of the thin films have been investigated in detail using (X-ray diffraction, TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV- photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), four probe resistivity and UV-Vis transmittance measurements) in order to establish processing-structure-property correlation. ZnO doped with group III elements is a promising candidate because of its superior stability in hydrogen environment, benign nature and relatively inexpensive supply. However, ZnO based TCO films suffer from low work function (4.4 eV, compared to that of 4.8 eV for ITO), which increases the energy barrier and affects the carrier transport across ZnGa0.05O/organic layer interface. To overcome this issue of ZnO based TCOs, the growth of bilayered structure consisting of very thin MoOx (2.0 target composition. These optimized bilayer films exhibited good optical transmittance (≥ 80%) and low resistivity of ˜ 10-4 O-cm. The optimized NiO1+x / GZO and MoOx / GZO bilayers showed significant increase in work function values (˜5.3 eV). The work function of the bilayer films was tuned by varying the processing conditions and doping of over layers. Preliminary test device results of the organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs

  10. Effect of Annealing on Tungsten Oxide Thin Films for Acetone Gas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    Abstract: The gas sensing properties and topology of tungsten oxide thin films ..... Figure 3: Atomic force microscopy images of sensing film for (a) as-deposited (a) .... the surface, it forms compounds with the oxygen ions species present on the ...

  11. Optical properties of tetrapod nanostructured zinc oxide by chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique. This work studies the effects of annealing temperature ranging from 100–500 ºC towards its physical and optical properties. FESEM images showed that the structural properties of tetrapod nanostructured ...

  12. Zinc oxide's hierarchical nanostructure and its photocatalytic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new hierarchical nanostructure that consists of zinc oxide (ZnO) was produced by the electrospinning process followed by a hydrothermal technique. First, electrospinning of a colloidal solution that consisted of zinc nanoparticles, zinc acetate dihydrate and poly(vinyl alcohol...

  13. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  14. Deuterium-induced nanostructure formation on tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.Y.; De Temmerman, G.; Luo, G. N.; Jia, Y. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Fu, B. Q.; Godfrey, A.; Liu, W.

    2015-01-01

    Surface topography of polycrystalline tungsten (W) have been examined after exposure to a low-energy (38 eV/D), high-flux (∼1.1–1.5 × 1024 m−2 s−1) deuterium plasma in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device. The methods used were scanning electron microscopy

  15. Effect of negative bias on the composition and structure of the tungsten oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihan; Lei, Hao; Wen, Jiaxing; Long, Haibo; Sawada, Yutaka; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Hou, Zhaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were deposited at room temperature under different negative bias voltages (Vb, 0 to -500 V) by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, and then the as-deposited films were annealed at 500 °C in air atmosphere. The crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and transmittance of the tungsten oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The XRD analysis reveals that the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages present a partly crystallized amorphous structure. All the films transfer from amorphous to crystalline (monoclinic + hexagonal) after annealing 3 h at 500 °C. Furthermore, the crystallized tungsten oxide films show different preferred orientation. The morphology of the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages is consisted of fine nanoscale grains. The grains grow up and conjunct with each other after annealing. The tungsten oxide films deposited at higher negative bias voltages after annealing show non-uniform special morphology. Substoichiometric tungsten oxide films were formed as evidenced by XPS spectra of W4f and O1s. As a result, semi-transparent films were obtained in the visible range for all films deposited at different negative bias voltages.

  16. Synthesis of potassium tungsten oxide nano/microwires by heat treatment of tungsten foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasempour, F. [Department of Plasma Physics Research Center, Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch, P.O. Box 1477893855 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimirad, R., E-mail: azimirad@yahoo.com [Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidzadeh, M. [Catalysis Research and Technology Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 14665-1998, Tehran 1485733111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    A simple method for synthesis of K{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} nano/microwires with potassium hydroxide as catalyst on a tungsten foil via a unique two-step heating process has been reported. At first step, the temperature was raised to 390 °C at a ramping rate of 30 °C min{sup −1} and kept at this point for half an hour. In the second step, the temperature was then raised to 400, 600 or 800 °C at the same rate and maintained for 2 h. The synthesized samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy images show that the best temperature for growth of nanowires with 50 to 90 nm widths and several ten micrometers length over the entire sample surface is 600 °C. The XRD data shows that most of nanowires comprised (002) orientation with K{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} structure. According to XPS results, the increasing annealing temperature increases W{sup 6+} state on the surface. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue over the sample annealed at 600 °C exhibited the grown nanowires that have the best photocatalytic activity. In addition, a vapor–liquid–solid mechanism was proposed for describing the growth process of nanowires. - Highlights: ► A simple method for synthesis of K{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} nanowires with KOH as catalyst ► 600 °C is the best temperature for growth of nanowires with 50–90 nm width. ► The best value of 0.0922 min{sup −1} was obtained for the photodecomposition rate.

  17. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxides for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-01-01

    of thermoelectrics are still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe, since the traditional thermoelectric materials degrade and oxidize at high temperature. Therefore, oxide thermoelectrics emerge as a promising class of materials since they can operate

  18. Metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bo; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors are predominant solid-state gas detecting devices for domestic, commercial and industrial applications, which have many advantages such as low cost, easy production, and compact size. However, the performance of such sensors is significantly influenced by the morphology and structure of sensing materials, resulting in a great obstacle for gas sensors based on bulk materials or dense films to achieve highly-sensitive properties. Lots of metal oxide nanostructures have been developed to improve the gas sensing properties such as sensitivity, selectivity, response speed, and so on. Here, we provide a brief overview of metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties from the aspects of particle size, morphology and doping. When the particle size of metal oxide is close to or less than double thickness of the space-charge layer, the sensitivity of the sensor will increase remarkably, which would be called "small size effect", yet small size of metal oxide nanoparticles will be compactly sintered together during the film coating process which is disadvantage for gas diffusion in them. In view of those reasons, nanostructures with many kinds of shapes such as porous nanotubes, porous nanospheres and so on have been investigated, that not only possessed large surface area and relatively mass reactive sites, but also formed relatively loose film structures which is an advantage for gas diffusion. Besides, doping is also an effective method to decrease particle size and improve gas sensing properties. Therefore, the gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanostructures assembled by nanoparticles are reviewed in this article. The effect of doping is also summarized and finally the perspectives of metal oxide gas sensor are given.

  19. Synthesis of tungsten oxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles by radio frequency plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Inoue, Toru; Usui, Tomoya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •RF plasma in water was used for nanoparticle synthesis. •Nanoparticles were produced from erosion of metallic electrode. •Rectangular and spherical tungsten oxide nanoparticles were produced. •No oxidations of the silver and gold spherical nanoparticles were produced. -- Abstract: A process for synthesis of nanoparticles using plasma in water generated by a radio frequency of 27.12 MHz is proposed. Tungsten oxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles were produced at 20 kPa through erosion of a metallic electrode exposed to plasma. Characterization of the produced nanoparticles was carried out by XRD, absorption spectrum, and TEM. The nanoparticle sizes were compared with those produced by a similar technique using plasma in liquid

  20. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Somov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-01-01

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics

  1. Oxidation behaviour of silicon-free tungsten alloys for use as the first wall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, F.; Brinkmann, J.; Lindig, S.; Mishra, T. P.; Linsmeier, Ch

    2011-12-01

    The use of self-passivating tungsten alloys as armour material of the first wall of a fusion power reactor may be advantageous concerning safety issues. In earlier studies good performance of the system W-Cr-Si was demonstrated. Thin films of such alloys showed a strongly reduced oxidation rate compared to pure tungsten. However, the formation of brittle tungsten silicides may be disadvantageous for the powder metallurgical production of bulk W-Cr-Si alloys if a good workability is needed. This paper shows the results of screening tests to identify suitable silicon-free alloys with distinguished self-passivation and a potentially good workability. Of all the tested systems W-Cr-Ti alloys showed the most promising results. The oxidation rate was even lower than the one of W-Cr-Si alloys, the reduction factor was about four orders of magnitude compared to pure tungsten. This performance could be conserved even if the content of alloying elements was reduced.

  2. Oxidation behaviour of silicon-free tungsten alloys for use as the first wall material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F; Brinkmann, J; Lindig, S; Mishra, T P; Linsmeier, Ch

    2011-01-01

    The use of self-passivating tungsten alloys as armour material of the first wall of a fusion power reactor may be advantageous concerning safety issues. In earlier studies good performance of the system W-Cr-Si was demonstrated. Thin films of such alloys showed a strongly reduced oxidation rate compared to pure tungsten. However, the formation of brittle tungsten silicides may be disadvantageous for the powder metallurgical production of bulk W-Cr-Si alloys if a good workability is needed. This paper shows the results of screening tests to identify suitable silicon-free alloys with distinguished self-passivation and a potentially good workability. Of all the tested systems W-Cr-Ti alloys showed the most promising results. The oxidation rate was even lower than the one of W-Cr-Si alloys, the reduction factor was about four orders of magnitude compared to pure tungsten. This performance could be conserved even if the content of alloying elements was reduced.

  3. Synthesis engineering of iron oxide raspberry-shaped nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, O; Pichon, B P; Ihiawakrim, D; Florea, I; Moldovan, S; Ersen, O; Begin, D; Grenèche, J-M; Lemonnier, S; Barraud, E; Begin-Colin, S

    2017-01-07

    Magnetic porous nanostructures consisting of oriented aggregates of iron oxide nanocrystals display very interesting properties such as a lower oxidation state of magnetite, and enhanced saturation magnetization in comparison with individual nanoparticles of similar sizes and porosity. However, the formation mechanism of these promising nanostructures is not well understood, which hampers the fine tuning of their magnetic properties, for instance by doping them with other elements. Therefore the formation mechanism of porous raspberry shaped nanostructures (RSNs) synthesized by a one-pot polyol solvothermal method has been investigated in detail from the early stages by using a wide panel of characterization techniques, and especially by performing original in situ HR-TEM studies in temperature. A time-resolved study showed the intermediate formation of an amorphous iron alkoxide phase with a plate-like lamellar structure (PLS). Then, the fine investigation of PLS transformation upon heating up to 500 °C confirmed that the synthesis of RSNs involves two iron precursors: the starting one (hydrated iron chlorides) and the in situ formed iron alkoxide precursor which decomposes with time and heating and contributes to the growth step of nanostructures. Such an understanding of the formation mechanism of RSNs is necessary to envision efficient and rational enhancement of their magnetic properties.

  4. Oxidation of scandium thin films on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Martynyuk, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Presence of Sc on the surface of W in amounts larger than a monolayer coverage leads to a decrease of the work function at the initial oxidation stage, which is attributed to oxygen implantation into the surface layer of the metal. A subsequent oxidation is followed by the formation on the surface of a thin oxide layer and an increase of the work function. An increase of the amount of Sc deposited on the surface before the oxidation decreases the work function of the obtained oxide from 5.8 (clean W surface) down to 3.3 eV (thick Sc layer on W)

  5. Field-emission properties of transparent tungsten oxide nano-urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyung [Kyungpook National University, Nano-applied Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The field-emission properties of transparent tungsten oxide nano-urchin (NU) films deposited on conducting glass substrates were examined. The novel crystalline tungsten oxide NUs consisted of nanowires added to a spherical shell. The WO{sub 2.72} NUs showed better field-emission properties than the WO{sub 3} NUs with a low turn-on field of approximately 5.8 V/{mu}m and a current density as high as 1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} at 7.2 V/mm. The WO{sub x} NUs films could be used in FE applications using a large-area glass substrate without the need for a catalyst and a mechanical rubbing or lift-up process. These results have implications for the enhancement of FE properties by further tuning the WO{sub x} phases. (orig.)

  6. Metal Oxide Nanostructures in Food Applications: Quality Control and Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Galstyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide materials have been applied in different fields due to their excellent functional properties. Metal oxides nanostructuration, preparation with the various morphologies, and their coupling with other structures enhance the unique properties of the materials and open new perspectives for their application in the food industry. Chemical gas sensors that are based on semiconducting metal oxide materials can detect the presence of toxins and volatile organic compounds that are produced in food products due to their spoilage and hazardous processes that may take place during the food aging and transportation. Metal oxide nanomaterials can be used in food processing, packaging, and the preservation industry as well. Moreover, the metal oxide-based nanocomposite structures can provide many advantageous features to the final food packaging material, such as antimicrobial activity, enzyme immobilization, oxygen scavenging, mechanical strength, increasing the stability and the shelf life of food, and securing the food against humidity, temperature, and other physiological factors. In this paper, we review the most recent achievements on the synthesis of metal oxide-based nanostructures and their applications in food quality monitoring and active and intelligent packaging.

  7. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 KΩ. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 Ω. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  8. Direct atomic-emission determination of tungsten in molybdenum oxide in dc arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotareva, N.I.; Grazhulene, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    A method of direct atomic-emission determination of tungsten impurity in molybdenum trioxide of high purity in dc arc is presented. Chemically active additives of elementary sulfur and gallium oxide are used to optimize W evaporation rate and residence time in the arc plasma. The procedure is easy to use and provides the limit of W determination at a level of 2x10 -4 wt. % [ru

  9. Water clustering on nanostructured iron oxide films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merte, Lindsay Richard; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, G.

    2014-01-01

    , but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer...... islands form on the bare film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous...

  10. Suppression of cavitation in melted tungsten by doping with lanthanum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Lu, G.H.; Xu, B.; Fu, B.Q.; Xu, H.Y.; Li, C.; Jia, Y.Z.; Qu, S.L.; Liu, W.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Luo, G.-N.

    2014-01-01

    Melting and boiling behaviour of pure tungsten and 1 wt% lanthanum-oxide-doped tungsten (WL10) are investigated, focusing on the material selection with respect to material loss induced by cavitation. Melting experiments under high heat loads are carried out in the high heat flux facility GLADIS. Pulsed hydrogen neutral beams with heat flux of 10 and 23 MW m −2 are applied onto the adiabatically loaded samples for intense surface melting. Melt layer of the two tungsten grades exhibit different microstructure characteristics. Substantive voids owing to cavitation in the liquid phase are observed in pure W and lead to porous resolidified material. However, little cavitation bubbles can be found in the dense resolidified layer of WL10. In order to find out the gaseous sources, vapour collection is performed and the components are subsequently detected. Based on the observations and analyses, the microstructure evolutions corresponding to melting and vapourization behaviour of the two tungsten grades are tentatively described, and furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of cavitation in pure W and its suppression in WL10 are discussed. (paper)

  11. High-pressure synthesis of fully occupied tetragonal and cubic tungsten bronze oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeuchi, Yuya; Takatsu, Hiroshi; Tassel, Cedric; Goto, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Taito; Kageyama, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    A high-pressure reaction yielded the fully occupied tetragonal tungsten bronze K{sub 3}W{sub 5}O{sub 15} (K{sub 0.6}WO{sub 3}). The terminal phase shows an unusual transport property featuring slightly negative temperature-dependence in resistivity (dρ/dT<0) and a large Wilson ratio of R{sub W}=3.2. Such anomalous metallic behavior possibly arises from the low-dimensional electronic structure with a van Hove singularity at the Fermi level and/or from enhanced magnetic fluctuations by geometrical frustration of the tungsten sublattice. The asymmetric nature of the tetragonal tungsten bronze K{sub x}WO{sub 3}-K{sub 0.6-y}Ba{sub y}WO{sub 3} phase diagram implies that superconductivity for x≤0.45 originates from the lattice instability because of potassium deficiency. A cubic perovskite KWO{sub 3} phase was also identified as a line phase - in marked contrast to Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} and Li{sub x}WO{sub 3} with varying quantities of x (<1). This study presents a versatile method by which the solubility limit of tungsten bronze oxides can be extended. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Room temperature NO2-sensing properties of porous silicon/tungsten oxide nanorods composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yulong; Hu, Ming; Wang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Weiyi; Qin, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous silicon/WO 3 nanorods composite is synthesized via hydrothermal method. • The morphology of WO 3 nanorods depends on the amount of oxalic acid (pH value). • The sensor can detect ppb level NO 2 at room temperature. - Abstract: One-dimensional single crystalline WO 3 nanorods have been successfully synthesized onto the porous silicon substrates by a seed-induced hydrothermal method. The controlled morphology of porous silicon/tungsten oxide nanorods composite was obtained by using oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 180 °C for 2 h. The influence of oxalic acid (pH value) on the morphology of porous silicon/tungsten oxide nanorods composite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NO 2 -sensing properties of the sensor based on porous silicon/tungsten oxide nanorods composite were investigated at different temperatures ranging from room temperature (∼25 °C) to 300 °C. At room temperature, the sensor behaved as a typical p-type semiconductor and exhibited high gas response, good repeatability and excellent selectivity characteristics toward NO 2 gas due to its high specific surface area, special structure, and large amounts of oxygen vacancies

  13. Selective hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols to cyclic alcohols over tungsten oxide-palladium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amada, Yasushi; Ota, Nobuhiko; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols such as 1,4-anhydroerythritol was conducted over catalysts containing both a noble metal and a group 5-7 transition-metal oxide. The combination of Pd and WOx allowed the removal of one of the two OH groups selectively. 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran was obtained from 1,4-anhydroerythritol in 72 and 74% yield over WOx -Pd/C and WOx -Pd/ZrO2 , respectively. The WOx -Pd/ZrO2 catalyst was reusable without significant loss of activity if the catalyst was calcined as a method of regeneration. Characterization of WOx -Pd/C with temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that Pd metal particles approximately 9 nm in size were formed on amorphous tungsten oxide particles. A reaction mechanism was proposed on the basis of kinetics, reaction results with tungsten oxides under an atmosphere of Ar, and density functional theory calculations. A tetravalent tungsten center (W(IV) ) was formed by reduction of WO3 with the Pd catalyst and H2 , and this center served as the reductant for partial hydrodeoxygenation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Tungsten oxide thin films grown by thermal evaporation with high resistance to leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos; Pazinato, Julia C.O.; Freitas, Mauricio A. de; Radtke, Claudio; Garcia, Irene T.S., E-mail: irene@iq.ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Dorneles, Lucio S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten oxides show different stoichiometries, crystal lattices and morphologies. These characteristics are important mainly when they are used as photocatalysts. In this work tungsten oxide thin films were obtained by thermal evaporation on (100) silicon substrates covered with gold and heated at 350 and 600 °C, with different deposition times. The stoichiometry of the films, morphology, crystal structure and resistance to leaching were characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and O{sup 16} (α,α')O{sup 16} resonant nuclear reaction. Films obtained at higher temperatures show well-defined spherical nanometric structure; they are composed of WO{sub 3.1} and the presence of hydrated tungsten oxide was also observed. The major crystal structure observed is the hexagonal. Thin films obtained through thermal evaporation present resistance to leaching in aqueous media and excellent performance as photocatalysts, evaluated through the degradation of the methyl orange dye. (author)

  15. Elucidation of the electrochromic mechanism of nanostructured iron oxides films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lobato, M.A.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Castro-Roman, M. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav Campus Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13, Ramos Arizpe, Coah. 25900 (Mexico); Perry, Dale L. [Mail Stop 70A1150, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zarate, R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Escobar-Alarcon, L. (Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    Nanostructured hematite thin films were electrochemically cycled in an aqueous solution of LiOH. Through optical, structural, morphological, and magnetic measurements, the coloration mechanism of electrochromic iron oxide thin films was elucidated. The conditions for double or single electrochromic behavior are given in this work. During the electrochemical cycling, it was found that topotactic transformations of hexagonal crystal structures are favored; i.e. {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Fe(OH){sub 2} and subsequently to {delta}-FeOOH. These topotactic redox reactions are responsible for color changes of iron oxide films. (author)

  16. Annealing-induced Fe oxide nanostructures on GaAs

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Y X; Ahmad, E; Xu, Y B; Thompson, S M

    2005-01-01

    We report the evolution of Fe oxide nanostructures on GaAs(100) upon pre- and post-growth annealing conditions. GaAs nanoscale pyramids were formed on the GaAs surface due to wet etching and thermal annealing. An 8.0-nm epitaxial Fe film was grown, oxidized, and annealed using a gradient temperature method. During the process the nanostripes were formed, and the evolution has been demonstrated using transmission and reflection high energy electron diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy...

  17. GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF TUNGSTEN-OXIDE AEROSOLS AT 1000 C IN FLOWING AIR-STEAM MIXTURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2001-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the rates of oxidation and vaporization of pure tungsten rods in flowing air, steam and air-steam mixtures in laminar flow. Also measured were the downstream transport of tungsten-oxide condensation aerosols and their region of deposition, including plateout in the superheated flow tube, rainout in the condenser and ambient discharge which was collected on an array of sub-micron aerosol filters. The nominal conditions of the tests, with the exception of the first two tests, were tungsten temperatures of 1000 C, gas mixture temperatures of 200 C and wall temperatures of 150 C to 200 C. It was observed that the tungsten oxidation rates were greatest in all air and least in all steam, generally decreasing non-linearly with increasing steam mole fraction. The tungsten oxidation rates in all air were more than five times greater than the tungsten oxidation rates in all steam. The tungsten vaporization rate was zero in all air and increased with increasing steam mole fraction. The vaporization rate became maximum at a steam mole fraction of 0.85 and decreased thereafter as the steam mole fraction was increased to unity. The tungsten-oxide was transported downstream as condensation aerosols, initially flowing upwards from the tungsten rod through an 18-inch long, one-inch diameter quartz tube, around a 3.5-inch radius, 90{sup o} bend and laterally through a 24-inch horizontal run. The entire length of the quartz glass flow path was heated by electrical resistance clamshell heaters whose temperatures were individually controlled and measured. The tungsten-oxide plateout in the quartz tube was collected, nearly all of which was deposited at the end of the heated zone near the entrance to the condenser which was cold. The tungsten-oxide which rained out in the condenser as the steam condensed was collected with the condensate and weighed after being dried. The aerosol smoke which escaped the condenser was collected on the sub

  18. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxides for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-11-24

    As the world strives to adapt to the increasing demand for electrical power, sustainable energy sources are attracting significant interest. Around 60% of energy utilized in the world is wasted as heat. Different industrial processes, home heating, and exhausts in cars, all generate a huge amount of unused waste heat. With such a huge potential, there is also significant interest in discovering inexpensive technologies for power generation from waste heat. As a result, thermoelectric materials have become important for many renewable energy research programs. While significant advancements have been done in improving the thermoelectric properties of the conventional heavy-element based materials (such as Bi2Te3 and PbTe), high-temperature applications of thermoelectrics are still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe, since the traditional thermoelectric materials degrade and oxidize at high temperature. Therefore, oxide thermoelectrics emerge as a promising class of materials since they can operate athigher temperatures and in harsher environments compared to non-oxide thermoelectrics. Furthermore, oxides are abundant and friendly to the environment. Among oxides, crystalline SrTiO3 and ZnO are promising thermoelectric materials. The main objective of this work is therefore to pursue focused investigations of SrTiO3 and ZnO thin films and superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), with the goal of optimizing their thermoelectric properties by following different strategies. First, the effect of laser fluence on the thermoelectric properties of La doped epitaxial SrTiO3 films is discussed. Films grown at higher laser fluences exhibit better thermoelectric performance. Second, the role of crystal orientation in determining the thermoelectric properties of epitaxial Al doped ZnO (AZO) films is explained. Vertically aligned (c-axis) AZO films have superior thermoelectric properties compared to other films with different crystal orientations. Third

  19. Enhanced NO2 sensing characteristics of Au modified porous silicon/thorn-sphere-like tungsten oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin; Hu, Ming; Wei, Yulong; Ma, Wenfeng

    2016-12-01

    The thorn-sphere-like tungsten oxide (WO3) made up by 1D nanorods has been successfully synthesized through hydrothermal method on the Au-modified porous silicon (PS) substrates with seed-layer induction. By using XRD, EDS, FESEM and TEM techniques, we tested and verified that the crystal structure and morphology evolution of WO3 hierarchical nanostructure on the Au-modified PS strongly depend on the Au-sputtering time and hydrothermal reaction time. In addition, by comparing the NO2-sensing properties of the prepared products, we found that the 10 s-Au decorated PS/WO3-3 h (sputtering Au for 10 s and hydrothermal reaction for 3 h) composites sensor behaving as a typical p-type semiconductor and operating at room temperature (RT) exhibits high sensitivity and response characteristics even to ppb-level NO2, which makes this kind of sensor a competitive candidate for NO2-sensing applications. Moreover, the enhanced response may not only due to the high specific surface area but the Au nanoparticles acting as promoters for the spillover effect and forming metal-semiconductor heterojunctions with the PS and WO3. The transmission of electrons and holes in the heterogeneous interface generated among PS, WO3 and Au is proposed to illustrate the p-type response mechanism.

  20. Conductive transition metal oxide nanostructured electrochromic material and optical switching devices constructed thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Tracy M.; Koo, Bonil; Garcia, Guillermo; Milliron, Delia J.; Trizio, Luca De; Dahlman, Clayton

    2017-10-10

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant, a solid state electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and visible spectrum radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  1. Influence of the fuel in the nanostructure catalyzer oxides synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampiva, R.Y.S.; Panta, P.C.; Carlos, R.B.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Among the techniques used in catalysts production, the solution combustion synthesis (SCS) has been increasingly applied due the possibility of producing, at low cost, highly pure and homogeneous nanostructured powders. The smaller the particle diameter, the greater the activity of the catalyst. In SCS, the size of the particles produced depends on the process variables. In order to formulate the optimal methodology for the preparation of nanostructured oxides for catalysis, it was studied the fuel-oxidant concentration ratio, and the use of glycine and polyethylene glycol with molecular weight 200 (PEG 200) as fuel in the SCS of Iron, Magnesium and Molybdenum based catalysts. The phase identification of the products was performed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Particle size and surface area analysis were done to characterize the particles size and the samples morphology was obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated the formation of high purity nanomaterials obtained for low concentrations of fuel, and a wide variation in the nanostructure sizes depending on the concentration and type of fuel used. (author)

  2. Mechanism of anodic oxidation of molybdenum and tungsten in nitrate-nitrite melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkinskij, V.P.; Firsova, E.G.; Morachevskij, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of anode oxidation of tungsten and molybdenum in NaNO 3 -KNO 3 (50 mass %) nitrate-nitrite melts with NaNO 2 -KNO 2 (0.5-50 mass %) addition and in NaNO 2 -KNO 2 (35 mole %) nitrite melt in the 516-580 K temperature range is studied. It is supposed that the process of anode dissloving of the mentioned metals in nitrite melt and nitrate-nitrite mixtures is two-electron. Formation of oxide passivating film is possible under electrolysis on the anode surface, the film is then dissolved in nitrate-nitrite melt with formation of molybdates or tungstates

  3. Oxide nanostructures through self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S.; Ogale, S. B.; Ganpule, C. S.; Shinde, S. R.; Novikov, V. A.; Monga, A. P.; Burr, M. R.; Ramesh, R.; Ballarotto, V.; Williams, E. D.

    2001-03-01

    A prominent theme in inorganic materials research is the creation of uniformly flat thin films and heterostructures over large wafers, which can subsequently be lithographically processed into functional devices. This letter proposes an approach that will lead to thin film topographies that are directly counter to the above-mentioned philosophy. Recent years have witnessed considerable research activity in the area of self-assembly of materials, stimulated by observations of self-organized behavior in biological systems. We have fabricated uniform arrays of nonplanar surface features by a spontaneous assembly process involving the oxidation of simple metals, especially under constrained conditions on a variety of substrates, including glass and Si. In this letter we demonstrate the pervasiveness of this process through examples involving the oxidation of Pd, Cu, Fe, and In. The feature sizes can be controlled through the grain size and thickness of the starting metal thin film. Finally, we demonstrate how such submicron scale arrays can serve as templates for the design and development of self-assembled, nanoelectronic devices.

  4. Structure of tungsten electrodeposited from oxide chloride-fluoride molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskij, V.A.; Reznichenko, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation results on the influence of electrolysis parameters and electrolyte composition on tungsten cathode deposit structure are presented. The electrolysis was performed in NaCl-NaF-WO 3 molten salts using tungsten and tungsten coated molybdenum cathodes. Morphological and metallographic studies of tungsten crystals were carrier out. Tungsten deposits were obtained in the form of crystalline conglomerates, sponge and high dispersity powder

  5. Fluorescence studies of Rhodamine 6G functionalized silicon oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, Thomas; Borczyskowski, Christian von; Graaf, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Selective anchoring of optically active molecules on nanostructured surfaces is a promising step towards the creation of nanoscale devices with new functionalities. Recently we have demonstrated the electrostatic attachment of charged fluorescent molecules on silicon oxide nanostructures prepared by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanolithography via local anodic oxidation (LAO) of dodecyl-terminated silicon. In this paper we report on our findings from a more detailed optical investigation of the bound dye Rhodamine 6G. High sensitivity optical wide field microscopy as well as confocal laser microscopy have been used to characterize the Rhodamine fluorescence emission. A highly interesting question concerns the interaction between an emitter close to a silicon surface because mechanisms such as energy transfer and fluorescence quenching will occur which are still not fully understood. Since the oxide thickness can be varied during preparation continuously from 1 to ∼ 5 nm, it is possible to investigate the fluorescence of the bound dye in close proximity to the underlying silicon. Using confocal laser microscopy we were also able to obtain optical spectra from the bound molecules. Together with the results from an analysis of their photochemical bleaching behaviour, we conjecture that some of the Rhodamine 6G molecules on the structure are interacting with the oxide, causing a spectral shift and differences in their photochemical properties.

  6. Optical properties of tungsten oxide thin films by non-reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Riech, I.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were grown on glass substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature using a tungsten trioxide target for several values of the Argon pressure (PAr). The structural and morphological properties of these films were studied using X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy. The as-deposited films were amorphous irrespective of the Argon pressure, and crystallized in a mixture of hexagonal and monoclinic phases after annealing at a temperature of 3500 C in air. Surface-Roughness increased by an order of magnitude (from 1 nm to 20 nm) after thermal treatment. The Argon pressure, however, had a strong influence on the optical properties of the films. Three different regions are clearly identified: deep blue films for PAr 40 mTorr with high transmittance values. We suggest that the observed changes in optical properties are due to an increasing number of Oxygen vacancies as the growth Argon pressure decreases. (Full text)

  7. Studies on the pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix as a possible dispenser cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Jinshu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Meiling

    2015-01-01

    Yttrium oxide was chosen as the secondary emission substance based on calculation results through first principle theory method. A new kind of pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix dispenser cathodes are prepared by a sol–gel method combined with high temperature sintering in dry hydrogen atmosphere. The results show that the growth of the grains is hampered by the pinning effect of Y 2 O 3 distributing uniformly between the tungsten particles, resulting in the formation of small grain size. It is found that Y 2 O 3 improves the secondary electron emission property, i.e., the secondary emission yield increases with the increase of Y 2 O 3 content in the samples. The maximum secondary emission yield δ max of the cathode with 15% amount of Y 2 O 3 can reach 2.92. Furthermore, the cathode shows a certain thermionic emission performance. The zero field emission current density J 0 of 4.18A/cm 2 has reached at 1050 °C b for this kind of cathode after being activated at 1200 °C b , which are much higher than that of rare earth oxide doped molybdenum (REO-Mo) cathode reported in the previous work. - Highlights: • Yttrium oxide was chosen as the secondary emission substance based on first principle calculation result. • A new kind of cathode has been successfully obtained. • Pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix dispenser cathode exhibits good emission properties. • The improvement of the cathode emission can be well explained by the surface analysis results presented in this work

  8. Studies on the pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix as a possible dispenser cathode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Meiling

    2015-01-15

    Yttrium oxide was chosen as the secondary emission substance based on calculation results through first principle theory method. A new kind of pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix dispenser cathodes are prepared by a sol–gel method combined with high temperature sintering in dry hydrogen atmosphere. The results show that the growth of the grains is hampered by the pinning effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} distributing uniformly between the tungsten particles, resulting in the formation of small grain size. It is found that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} improves the secondary electron emission property, i.e., the secondary emission yield increases with the increase of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the samples. The maximum secondary emission yield δ{sub max} of the cathode with 15% amount of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} can reach 2.92. Furthermore, the cathode shows a certain thermionic emission performance. The zero field emission current density J{sub 0} of 4.18A/cm{sup 2} has reached at 1050 °C{sub b} for this kind of cathode after being activated at 1200 °C{sub b}, which are much higher than that of rare earth oxide doped molybdenum (REO-Mo) cathode reported in the previous work. - Highlights: • Yttrium oxide was chosen as the secondary emission substance based on first principle calculation result. • A new kind of cathode has been successfully obtained. • Pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix dispenser cathode exhibits good emission properties. • The improvement of the cathode emission can be well explained by the surface analysis results presented in this work.

  9. Nature of the concentration thresholds of europium atom yield from the oxidized tungsten surface under electron stimulated desorption

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2002-01-01

    The nature of the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of the europium atoms by the E sub e irradiating electrons energies, equal to 50 and 80 eV, as well as peculiarities of the Eu atoms yield dependence on their concentration on the oxidized tungsten surface are discussed. It is shown, that the ESD originates by the electron transition from the interval 5p- or 5s shell of the tungsten surface atom onto the oxygen external unfilled 2p-level

  10. Recent progress in tungsten oxides based memristors and their neuromorphological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei

    2016-09-01

    The advance in conventional silicon based semiconductor industry is now becoming indeterminacy as it still along the road of Moore's Law and concomitant problems associated with it are the emergence of a number of practical issues such as short channel effect. In terms of memory applications, it is generally believed that transistors based memory devices will approach to their scaling limits up to 2018. Therefore, one of the most prominent challenges today in semiconductor industry is the need of a new memory technology which is able to combine the best characterises of current devices. The resistive switching memories which are regarded as "memristors" thus gain great attentions thanks to their specific nonlinear electrical properties. More importantly, their behaviour resembles with the transmission characteristic of synapse in biology. Therefore, the research of synapses biomimetic devices based on memristor will certainly bring a great research prospect in studying synapse emulation as well as building artificial neural networks. Tungsten oxides (WO x ) exhibits many essential characteristics as a great candidate for memristive devices including: accredited endurance (over 105 cycles), stoichiometric flexibility, complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process compatibility and configurable properties including non-volatile rectification, memorization and learning functions. Herein, recent progress on Tungsten oxide based materials and its associating memory devices had been reviewed. The possible implementation of this material as a bio-inspired artificial synapse is also highlighted. The penultimate section summaries the current research progress for tungsten oxide based biological synapses and end up with several proposals that have been suggested for possible future developments.

  11. Nanostructured oxides for energy storage applications in batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.; Roberts, A. J.; Yee, E. L. H.; Slade, R. C. T.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are extensively investigated for application in energy storage and power generation devices. This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials based on oxides of vanadium and with their application as electrode materials for energy storage systems viz. supercapacitors. These nano-oxides have been synthesized using a hydrothermal route in the presence of templates: 1-hexadecylamine, Tweens and Brij types. Using templates during synthesis enables tailoring of the particle morphology and physical characteristics of synthesized powders. Broad X-ray diffraction peaks show the formation of nanoparticles, confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations. SEM studies show that a large range of nanostructures such as needles, fibers, particles, etc. can be synthesized. These particles have varying surface areas and electrical conductivity. Enhancement of surface area as much as seven times relative to surface areas of starting parent materials has been observed. These properties make such materials ideal candidates for application as electrode materials in super capacitors. Assembly and characterization of supercapacitors based on electrodes containing these active nano-oxides are discussed. Specific capacitance of >100 F g -1 has been observed. The specific capacitance decreases with cycling: causes of this phenomenon are presented. (authors)

  12. Zinc oxide nanostructured layers for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cretí, A.; Luches, A.; Lomascolo, M.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Valerini, D.

    2011-03-01

    Various kinds of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as columns, pencils, hexagonal pyramids, hexagonal hierarchical structures, as well as smooth and rough films, were grown by pulsed laser deposition using KrF and ArF excimer lasers, without use of any catalyst. ZnO films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 500 to 700°C and oxygen background pressures of 1, 5, 50, and 100 Pa. Quite different morphologies of the deposited films were observed using scanning electron microscopy when different laser wavelengths (248 or 193 nm) were used to ablate the bulk ZnO target. Photoluminescence studies were performed at different temperatures (down to 7 K). The gas sensing properties of the different nanostructures were tested against low concentrations of NO2. The variation in the photoluminescence emission of the films when exposed to NO2 was used as transduction mechanism to reveal the presence of the gas. The nanostructured films with higher surface-to-volume ratio and higher total surface available for gas adsorption presented higher responses, detecting NO2 concentrations down to 3 ppm at room temperature.

  13. Crystal habit dependent quantum confined photoluminescence of zinc oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Ian Harvey J.; Payawan, Leon Jr. M.; Sarmago, Roland V.

    2008-01-01

    Diverse zinc oxide crystal habits namely wire, rods, tubes, whiskers and tetrapods were synthesized via hydrothermal and carbothermal reduction routes. A vapor current induced regionalization in the carbothermal synthesis lead to the isolation of these crystal habits for characterization. The surface morphology of the nanostructures was analyzed via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The morphology and crystallinity of the as-synthesized nanostructure architectural motifs were related to their photoluminescence (PL). The photoluminescence at 157 nm was taken using F2 excimer laser and a crystal habit dependent response was observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were conducted to deduce the degree of crystallinity showing results consistent with the excitonic emission at the band edge and visible emission at the electron-hole recombination sites. The presence of minimal crystal defects which gave the green emission was supported by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) data. Transmission spectroscopy for the tetrapods exhibited an interesting PL reduction associated with high-energy deep traps in the nanostructures. Furthermore, some intensity dependent characteristics were deduced indicating quantum confined properties of these nano structures. (author)

  14. Review of Fabrication Methods, Physical Properties, and Applications of Nanostructured Copper Oxides Formed via Electrochemical Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Stepniowski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Typically, anodic oxidation of metals results in the formation of hexagonally arranged nanoporous or nanotubular oxide, with a specific oxidation state of the transition metal. Recently, the majority of transition metals have been anodized; however, the formation of copper oxides by electrochemical oxidation is yet unexplored and offers numerous, unique properties and applications. Nanowires formed by copper electrochemical oxidation are crystalline and composed of cuprous (CuO or cupric oxide (Cu2O, bringing varied physical and chemical properties to the nanostructured morphology and different band gaps: 1.44 and 2.22 eV, respectively. According to its Pourbaix (potential-pH diagram, the passivity of copper occurs at ambient and alkaline pH. In order to grow oxide nanostructures on copper, alkaline electrolytes like NaOH and KOH are used. To date, no systemic study has yet been reported on the influence of the operating conditions, such as the type of electrolyte, its temperature, and applied potential, on the morphology of the grown nanostructures. However, the numerous reports gathered in this paper will provide a certain view on the matter. After passivation, the formed nanostructures can be also post-treated. Post-treatments employ calcinations or chemical reactions, including the chemical reduction of the grown oxides. Nanostructures made of CuO or Cu2O have a broad range of potential applications. On one hand, with the use of surface morphology, the wetting contact angle is tuned. On the other hand, the chemical composition (pure Cu2O and high surface area make such materials attractive for renewable energy harvesting, including water splitting. While compared to other fabrication techniques, self-organized anodization is a facile, easy to scale-up, time-efficient approach, providing high-aspect ratio one-dimensional (1D nanostructures. Despite these advantages, there are still numerous challenges that have to be faced, including the

  15. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Ag nanostructures for enhanced SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anju K.; Kala, M. S.; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-04-01

    Graphene - metal nanoparticle hybrids have received great attention due to their unique electronic properties, large specific surface area, very high conductivity and more charge transfer. Thus, it is extremely advantages to develop a simple and efficient process to disperse metal nanostructures over the surface of graphene sheets. Herein, we report a hydrothermal assisted strategy for developing reduced graphene oxide /Ag nanomorphotypes (cube, wire) for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications, considering the advantages of synergistic effect of graphene and plasmonic properties of Ag nanomorphotypes.

  16. Assembly of tungsten oxide nanobundles and their electrochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xueting; Sun Shibin; Li Zhenjiang; Xu Xiao; Qiu Yanyan

    2011-01-01

    Lenticular W 18 O 49 nanobundles composed of ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 5-10 nm have been synthesized through a simple solvothermal method with hexachloride as precursor and mixed cyclohexanol and ethanol as solvent. Electrochromic films were prepared by assembling the W 18 O 49 nanobundle suspension onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass. Results showed that self-assembly of the W 18 O 49 nanobundles was strongly influenced by the solvents employed to disperse the nanobundles. The W 18 O 49 nanobundles coated films exhibited excellent electrochromic stability and reversibility. The W 18 O 49 nanobundle films also showed much higher charge-insertion density compared with the WO 3 nanorod film, which may be due to the ultrathin feature of single nanowires constituting the nanobundles, unique oxygen vacancies of monoclinic W 18 O 49 , and the highly ordered assembly of the nanobundles.

  17. Thickness-modulated tungsten-carbon superconducting nanostructures grown by focused ion beam induced deposition for vortex pinning up to high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ismael García; Sesé, Javier; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann; Vieira, Sebastián; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo; De Teresa, José María

    2016-01-01

    We report efficient vortex pinning in thickness-modulated tungsten-carbon-based (W-C) nanostructures grown by focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). By using FIBID, W-C superconducting films have been created with thickness modulation properties exhibiting periodicity from 60 to 140 nm, leading to a strong pinning potential for the vortex lattice. This produces local minima in the resistivity up to high magnetic fields (2.2 T) in a broad temperature range due to commensurability effects between the pinning potential and the vortex lattice. The results show that the combination of single-step FIBID fabrication of superconducting nanostructures with built-in artificial pinning landscapes and the small intrinsic random pinning potential of this material produces strong periodic pinning potentials, maximizing the opportunities for the investigation of fundamental aspects in vortex science under changing external stimuli (e.g., temperature, magnetic field, electrical current).

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of copper oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillani, Saquf; Jelani, Mohsan; Hassan, Najam Ul; Ahmad, Shahbaz; Hafeez, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    The development of synthetic methods has been broadly accepted as an area of fundamental importance to the understanding and application of nanoscale materials. It allows the individual to modulate basic parameters such as morphology, particle size, size distributions, and composition. Several methods have been developed to synthesize CuO nanostructures with diverse morphologies, sizes, and dimensions using different chemical and physical based approaches. In this work, CuO nanostructures have been synthesized by aqueous precipitation method and simple chemical deposition method. The characterization of these products has been carried out by the x-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Biological activity such as antibacterial nature of synthesized CuO is also explored. XRD peaks analysis revealed the monoclinic crystalline phase of copper oxide nanostructures. While the rod-like and particle-like morphologies have been observed in SEM results. FTIR spectra have confirmed the formation of CuO nanoparticles by exhibiting its characteristic peaks corresponding to 494 cm‑1 and 604 cm‑1. The energy band gap of the as-prepared CuO nanostructures determined from UV–vis spectra is found to be 2.18 eV and 2.0 eV for precipitation and chemically deposited samples respectively. The antibacterial activity results described that the synthesized CuO nanoparticles showed better activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The investigated results suggested the synthesis of highly stable CuO nanoparticles with significant antibacterial activities.

  19. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhtari, Keivan [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, Saied [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic

  20. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaj, Rahman; Akhtari, Keivan; Salimi, Abdollah; Soltanian, Saied

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO 3 ) 2 , (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic activity decreased

  1. Electrochromic Properties of Tungsten Oxide Films Prepared by Reactive Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Hong; Kang, Tai Young; Jung, Yu Sup; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2013-05-01

    WO3-x thin films were deposited on induim tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates with various oxygen flow ratios from 0.55 to 0.7 by the reactive facing-target sputtering method, at a power density of 4 W/cm2 and room temperature. The structural properties of the WO3-x thin films were measured by X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectral analysis. As-deposited WO3-x thin films had an amorphous structure. In the Raman spectra, WO3-x thin films exhibited two strong peaks at 770 and 950 cm-1 attributed to the vibrations of W6+-O and W6+=O bonds, respectively. The electrochemical and optical properties of WO3-x thin films were measured by cyclic voltammetry and UV/vis spectrometry. The results showed the highest charge density at an oxygen flow ratio of 0.7 and the highest transmittance in the visible range. The maximum coloration efficiency was 30.82 cm2/C at an oxygen flow ratio of 0.7.

  2. Assembly of tungsten oxide nanobundles and their electrochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Xueting, E-mail: xuetingchang@yahoo.cn [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Sun Shibin [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Li Zhenjiang; Xu Xiao; Qiu Yanyan [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Lenticular W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles composed of ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 5-10 nm have been synthesized through a simple solvothermal method with hexachloride as precursor and mixed cyclohexanol and ethanol as solvent. Electrochromic films were prepared by assembling the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundle suspension onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass. Results showed that self-assembly of the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles was strongly influenced by the solvents employed to disperse the nanobundles. The W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles coated films exhibited excellent electrochromic stability and reversibility. The W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundle films also showed much higher charge-insertion density compared with the WO{sub 3} nanorod film, which may be due to the ultrathin feature of single nanowires constituting the nanobundles, unique oxygen vacancies of monoclinic W{sub 18}O{sub 49}, and the highly ordered assembly of the nanobundles.

  3. Electrochromic Devices Based on Porous Tungsten Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Djaoued

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of transition metal oxides in the form of porous thin films have opened up opportunities in the construction of electrochromic devices with enhanced properties. In this paper, synthesis, characterization and electrochromic applications of porous WO3 thin films with different nanocrystalline phases, such as hexagonal, monoclinic, and orthorhombic, are presented. Asymmetric electrochromic devices have been constructed based on these porous WO3 thin films. XRD measurements of the intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ into/from the WO3 layer of the device as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages show systematic changes in the lattice parameters associated with structural phase transitions in LixWO3. Micro-Raman studies show systematic crystalline phase changes in the spectra of WO3 layers during Li+ ion intercalation and deintercalation, which agree with the XRD data. These devices exhibit interesting optical modulation (up to ~70% due to intercalation/deintercalation of Li ions into/from the WO3 layer of the devices as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages. The obtained optical modulation of the electrochromic devices indicates that, they are suitable for applications in electrochromic smart windows.

  4. Mechanism and Microstructure of Oxide Fluxes for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. M.; Zhang, Z. D.; Song, G.; Wang, L.

    2007-03-01

    Five single oxide fluxes—MgO, CaO, TiO2, MnO2, and Cr2O3—were used to investigate the effect of active flux on the depth/width ratio in AZ31B magnesium alloy. The microstructure and mechanical property of the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding seam were studied. The oxygen content in the weld seam and the arc images during the TIG welding process were analyzed. A series of emission spectroscopy of weld arc for TIG welding for magnesium with and without flux were developed. The results showed that for the five single oxide fluxes, all can increase the weld penetration effectively and grain size in the weld seam of alternating current tungsten inert gas (ACTIG) welding of the Mg alloy. The oxygen content of the welds made without flux is not very different from those produced with oxide fluxes not considering trapped oxide. However, welds that have the best penetration have a relatively higher oxygen content among those produced with flux. It was found that the arc images with the oxide fluxes were only the enlarged form of the arc images without flux; the arc constriction was not observed. The detection of arc spectroscopy showed that the metal elements in the oxides exist as the neutral atom or the first cation in the weld arc. This finding would influence the arc properties. When TIG simulation was carried out on a plate with flux applied only on one side, the arc image video showed an asymmetric arc, which deviated toward the flux free side. The thermal stability, the dissociation energy, and the electrical conductivity of oxide should be considered when studying the mechanism for increased TIG flux weld penetration.

  5. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  6. Electrical transport properties of nanoplates shaped tungsten oxide embedded poly(vinyl-alcohol) film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit Kumar; Chatterjee, Piyali; Meikap, Ajit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates have been synthesized via hydrothermal method. The average crystallite size of the nanoplates is 28.9 ± 0.5 nm. The direct and indirect band gap of WO3 is observed. The AC conductivity of PVA-WO3 composite film has been observed and carrier transport mechanism follows correlated barrier hopping model. The maximum barrier height of the composite film is 0.1 eV. The electric modulus reflects the non-Debye type behaviour of relaxation time which is simulated by Kohlrausch-Willims-Watts (KWW) function.

  7. Characteristics of tungsten oxide thin films prepared on the flexible substrates using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyuu, Yoshihito

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) thin films have been prepared on the flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using WO 3 targets in oxygen gas. Color of the WO 3 film on the flexible ITO substrates depends on the oxygen gas mixture. The plasma plume produced by PLD using a Nd:YAG laser and WO 3 target is investigated by temporal and spatial-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. WO 3 films prepared on the flexible ITO substrates show electrochromic properties, even when the substrates are bent. The film color changes from blue to transparent within 10-20 s after the applied DC voltage is turned off

  8. The correlations of electrochromism and thermochromism of tungsten oxide films studied by slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chuangxin; Zhou Chunlan; Zhang Zhiming; Wang Baoyi; Wei Long

    2004-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) and thermochromic (TC) tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films, deposited by magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, were studied systematically by means of slow positron measurements. The S parameters of colored amorphous WO 3 film and crystalline WO 3 film behaved quite similarly in the processes of thermochromism and electrochromism, little influenced by the different deposition methods. It indicates that the coloration processes under various external conditions are correlated with each other. It also shows that the slow positron beam technique may play a particular role in the study of chromogenic materials. (orig.)

  9. Graphenated polyaniline-doped tungsten oxide nanocomposite sensor for real time determination of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovide, Oluwakemi; Jaheed, Nazeem; Mohamed, Nurali; Nxusani, Ezo; Sunday, Christopher E.; Tsegaye, Abebaw; Ajayi, Rachel F.; Njomo, Njagi; Makelane, Hlamulo; Bilibana, Mawethu; Baker, Priscilla G.; Williams, Avril; Vilakazi, Sibulelo; Tshikhudo, Robert; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2014-01-01

    A graphenated polyaniline/tungsten oxide (PANI/WO 3 /GR) nanocomposite sensor was prepared by electropolymerisation of a mixture of aniline monomer and tungsten oxide on a graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The PANI/WO 3 /GR/GCE nanocomposite electrode was tested as a sensor for the determination of phenanthrene. The direct electro-oxidation behaviour of phenanthrene on the PANI/WO 3 /GR modified GCE was carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the PANI/WO 3 /GR/GCE sensor was more sensitive to phenanthrene (with a dynamic linear range of 1.0 - 6.0 pM and a detection limit of 0.123 pM.) than GCE, PANI/GCE or PANI/WO 3 /GCE. The sensor exhibited excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. The sensor exhibits lower detection sensitivity than the WHO permissible level of 1.12 nM phenanthrene in wastewater

  10. Nanostructured magnesium oxide biosensing platform for cholera detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manoj K.; Azahar Ali, Md.; Agrawal, Ved V.; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-04-01

    We report fabrication of highly crystalline nanostructured magnesium oxide (NanoMgO, size >30 nm) film electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate for Vibrio cholerae detection. The single stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) probe, consisting of 23 bases (O1 gene sequence) immobilized onto NanoMgO/ITO electrode surface, has been characterized using electrochemical, Fourier Transform-Infra Red, and UltraViolet-visible spectroscopic techniques. The hybridization studies of ssDNA/NanoMgO/ITO bioelectrode with fragmented target DNA conducted using differential pulse voltammetry reveal sensitivity as 16.80 nA/ng/cm2, response time of 3 s, linearity as 100-500 ng/μL, and stability of about 120 days.

  11. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A. S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Djebli, M. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics USTHB, B.P. 32 Bab Ezzour, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-06-09

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1 keV and 23.3 keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  12. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, A. S.; Moslem, W. M.; Djebli, M.

    2014-01-01

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1 keV and 23.3 keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  13. Influence of annealing conditions on anodic tungsten oxide layers and their photoelectrochemical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrek, Karolina; Zych, Marta; Zaraska, Leszek; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of annealing temperature on the morphology and crystalline structure of anodic WO 3 was investigated. • Photoelectrochemical properties of WO 3 layers annealed at different temperatures were studied. • Edges of conduction and valence bands were estimated for tungsten oxide layers annealed at different temperatures. • Influence of annealing time on crystalline structure, morphology and photoelectrochemical performance was studied. - Abstract: The nanoporous tungsten oxide films having an amorphous structure were prepared in an electrolyte containing fluoride ions via an anodization process. The as-synthesized anodic oxide layers can be easily converted to the monoclinic WO 3 phase upon annealing in air. The as-synthesized and annealed WO 3 layers were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and photocurrent spectroscopy. The effect of annealing temperature and annealing time on the oxide morphology, crystal structure and electrochemical properties were studied. The samples were annealed in air at the temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 °C, and it was found that the original porous morphology of oxide is completely lost after annealing at 600 °C. The changes in the average crystallite sizes upon annealing were confirmed by XRD measurements. The photoelectrochemical performance of the annealed WO 3 layers were studied under pulsed UV illumination, and the highest photocurrents were observed at the incident light wavelength of 350 nm for the sample annealed at 500 °C for 2 h. The band gap energy and the positions of conduction and valence band edges were determined for all studied samples.

  14. Dataset on electro-optically tunable smart-supercapacitors based on oxygen-excess nanograin tungsten oxide thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar I. Inamdar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented here is related to the research article entitled “Highly Efficient Electro-optically Tunable Smart-supercapacitors Using an Oxygen-excess Nanograin Tungsten Oxide Thin Film” (Akbar et al., 2017 [9] where we have presented a nanograin WO3 film as a bifunctional electrode for smart supercapacitor devices. In this article we provide additional information concerning nanograin tungsten oxide thin films such as atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Moreover, their electrochemical properties such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical supercapacitor properties, and electrochromic properties including coloration efficiency, optical modulation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are presented.

  15. Robust superhydrophobic tungsten oxide coatings with photochromism and UV durability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ting [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials and Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials and Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic tungsten oxide (TO) coatings with a water contact angle (WCA) of 155° and rolling angle of 3.5° were developed. • The superhydrophobic coatings have excellent mechanical robustness and UV durability. • The superhydrophobic TO coatings show the reversible convert of photochromism. • The coating exhibited excellent self-cleaning behavior due to its high WCA and low rolling angle. - Abstract: Robust superhydrophobic tungsten oxide (TO) coatings with a water contact angle (WCA) of 155° were developed for photochromism via a facile and substrate-independent route. Importantly, after scatch test on both a single and two orthogonal direction, the TO coating still exhibited superhydrophobic behavior, indicating excellent mechanical robustness. It is worth mentioning that the superhydrophobic TO coatings showed the reversible convert of photochromism of WO{sub 3} induced by alternating UV and visible light irradiation. Besides that, the TO coating remained superhydrophobicity after UV irradiation for 36 h, showing excellent UV durability. In addition, the coating showed good resistance to acidic droplets. Moreover, it can also be applied on other substrates, such as copper mesh, steel, paper and fiber. The coating exhibited excellent self-cleaning behavior due to its high WCA and low rolling angle. Overall, this work is a promising approach to design and produce functional superhydrophobic coatings for various substrates.

  16. Guided self-assembly of nanostructured titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Yu Yingda

    2012-01-01

    A series of nanostructured titanium oxide particles were synthesized by a simple wet chemical method and characterized by means of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal analysis, and rheometry. Tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) and ethylene glycol (EG) can be combined to form either TiO x nanowires or smooth nanorods, and the molar ratio of TBT:EG determines which of these is obtained. Therefore, TiO x nanorods with a highly rough surface can be obtained by hydrolysis of TBT with the addition of cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant in an EG solution. Furthermore, TiO x nanorods with two sharp ends can be obtained by hydrolysis of TBT with the addition of salt (LiCl) in an EG solution. The AFM results show that the TiO x nanorods with rough surfaces are formed by the self-assembly of TiO x nanospheres. The electrorheological (ER) effect was investigated using a suspension of titanium oxide nanowires or nanorods dispersed in silicone oil. Oil suspensions of titanium oxide nanowires or nanorods exhibit a dramatic reorganization when submitted to a strong DC electric field and the particles aggregate to form chain-like structures along the direction of applied electric field. Two-dimensional SAXS images from chains of anisotropically shaped particles exhibit a marked asymmetry in the SAXS patterns, reflecting the preferential self-assembly of the particles in the field. The suspension of rough TiO x nanorods shows stronger ER properties than that of the other nanostructured TiO x particles. We find that the particle surface roughness plays an important role in modification of the dielectric properties and in the enhancement of the ER effect. (paper)

  17. Guided self-assembly of nanostructured titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Knudsen, Kenneth D.; Yu, Yingda

    2012-02-01

    A series of nanostructured titanium oxide particles were synthesized by a simple wet chemical method and characterized by means of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal analysis, and rheometry. Tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) and ethylene glycol (EG) can be combined to form either TiOx nanowires or smooth nanorods, and the molar ratio of TBT:EG determines which of these is obtained. Therefore, TiOx nanorods with a highly rough surface can be obtained by hydrolysis of TBT with the addition of cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant in an EG solution. Furthermore, TiOx nanorods with two sharp ends can be obtained by hydrolysis of TBT with the addition of salt (LiCl) in an EG solution. The AFM results show that the TiOx nanorods with rough surfaces are formed by the self-assembly of TiOx nanospheres. The electrorheological (ER) effect was investigated using a suspension of titanium oxide nanowires or nanorods dispersed in silicone oil. Oil suspensions of titanium oxide nanowires or nanorods exhibit a dramatic reorganization when submitted to a strong DC electric field and the particles aggregate to form chain-like structures along the direction of applied electric field. Two-dimensional SAXS images from chains of anisotropically shaped particles exhibit a marked asymmetry in the SAXS patterns, reflecting the preferential self-assembly of the particles in the field. The suspension of rough TiOx nanorods shows stronger ER properties than that of the other nanostructured TiOx particles. We find that the particle surface roughness plays an important role in modification of the dielectric properties and in the enhancement of the ER effect.

  18. Tungsten oxide proton conducting films for low-voltage transparent oxide-based thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Wan, Qing; Wan, Changjin; Wu, Guodong; Zhu, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO x ) electrolyte films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering showed a high room temperature proton conductivity of 1.38 × 10 −4 S/cm with a relative humidity of 60%. Low-voltage transparent W-doped indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors gated by WO x -based electrolytes were self-assembled on glass substrates by one mask diffraction method. Enhancement mode operation with a large current on/off ratio of 4.7 × 10 6 , a low subthreshold swing of 108 mV/decade, and a high field-effect mobility 42.6 cm 2 /V s was realized. Our results demonstrated that WO x -based proton conducting films were promising gate dielectric candidates for portable low-voltage oxide-based devices.

  19. Hierarchically Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingbo; Tang, Hao; Li, Lulu; Hu, Qin; Zhang, Li; Xue, Huaiguo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used in the field of portable electric devices because of their high energy density and long cycling life. To further improve the performance of LIBs, it is of great importance to develop new electrode materials. Various transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been extensively investigated as electrode materials for LIBs. According to the reaction mechanism, there are mainly two kinds of TMOs, one is based on conversion reaction and the other is based on intercalation/deintercalation reaction. Recently, hierarchically nanostructured TMOs have become a hot research area in the field of LIBs. Hierarchical architecture can provide numerous accessible electroactive sites for redox reactions, shorten the diffusion distance of Li‐ion during the reaction, and accommodate volume expansion during cycling. With rapid research progress in this field, a timely account of this advanced technology is highly necessary. Here, the research progress on the synthesis methods, morphological characteristics, and electrochemical performances of hierarchically nanostructured TMOs for LIBs is summarized and discussed. Some relevant prospects are also proposed. PMID:29593962

  20. A novel nanostructure of cadmium oxide synthesized by mechanochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjarodi, A., E-mail: tajarodi@iust.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, M. [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} A novel nanostructure of CdO was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed by calcination. {yields} Mechanochemical method is a simple and low-cost to synthesize nanomaterials. {yields} The obtained precursor was characterized by FT-IR, NMR techniques and elemental analysis. {yields} SEM images showed cauliflower-like shape of sample with components average diameter of 68 nm. {yields} The rods and tubes bundles with single crystalline nature were revealed by ED pattern and TEM images. -- Abstract: Cauliflower-like cadmium oxide (CdO) nanostructure was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed calcination procedure. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and acetamide were used as reagents and the resulting precursor was calcinated at 450 {sup o}C for 2 h in air. The structures of the precursor and resultant product of the heating treatment were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). SEM and TEM images revealed the cauliflower-like morphology of the sample. This structure includes the bundles of rods and tubes in nanoscale, which combine with each other and form the resulting morphology with the average diameter, 68 nm of the components. ED pattern indicated the single crystal nature of the formed bundles.

  1. A novel nanostructure of cadmium oxide synthesized by mechanochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjarodi, A.; Imani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel nanostructure of CdO was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed by calcination. → Mechanochemical method is a simple and low-cost to synthesize nanomaterials. → The obtained precursor was characterized by FT-IR, NMR techniques and elemental analysis. → SEM images showed cauliflower-like shape of sample with components average diameter of 68 nm. → The rods and tubes bundles with single crystalline nature were revealed by ED pattern and TEM images. -- Abstract: Cauliflower-like cadmium oxide (CdO) nanostructure was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed calcination procedure. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and acetamide were used as reagents and the resulting precursor was calcinated at 450 o C for 2 h in air. The structures of the precursor and resultant product of the heating treatment were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). SEM and TEM images revealed the cauliflower-like morphology of the sample. This structure includes the bundles of rods and tubes in nanoscale, which combine with each other and form the resulting morphology with the average diameter, 68 nm of the components. ED pattern indicated the single crystal nature of the formed bundles.

  2. Amino acid-assisted synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljinder; Moudgil, Lovika; Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman

    2018-05-01

    In this manuscript we have used experimental approach that can provide a fundamental knowledge about the role played by biomolecules in designing the shape of nanostructure (NS) at a microscopic level. The three different amino acids (AAs) - Arginine (Arg), Aspartic acid (Asp) and Histidine (His) coated Zinc oxide (ZnO) NSs to explain the growth mechanism of nanoparticles of different shapes. Based on the experimental methodology we propose that AA-ZnO (Asp and Arg) nanomaterials could form of rod like configuration and His-ZnO NPs could form tablet like configuration. The synthesized samples are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results reveal that AAs are responsible for formation of different NSs

  3. Zinc oxide nanostructures: new properties for advances applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, Oleg; Chow, Lee; Pauporte, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide is a material which exhibits a variety of new properties at nanometer dimensions. Various synthesis techniques have been carried out to provide growth of nanowires, nanorods, nanorings, nanosprings, and nanobelts of ZnO under various conditions. These nanostructures show that ZnO possesses probably the richest family of nanoarchitectures among all materials, including their structures and properties. Such nanoarchitectures are potential building blocks for novel applications in optoelectronics, sensors, photovoltaic and nano-biomedical sciences. This work presents a review of various nano architectures of ZnO grown by the electrochemical, hydrothermal and solid-vapor phase techniques and their properties. The possible applications of ZnO nanowires as sensors, nano-DSSC, photodetectors and nano-LEDs will be presented.

  4. Bi-template assisted synthesis of mesoporous manganese oxide nanostructures: Tuning properties for efficient CO oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mouni; Basak, Somjyoti; Naskar, Milan Kanti

    2016-02-21

    A simple soft bi-templating process was used for the synthesis of mesoporous manganese oxide nanostructures using KMnO4 as a precursor and polyethylene glycol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as templates in the presence of benzaldehyde as an organic additive in alkaline media, followed by calcination at 400 °C. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the calcined products confirmed the existence of stoichiometric (MnO2 and Mn5O8) and non-stoichiometric mixed phases (MnO2 + Mn5O8) of Mn oxides obtained by tuning the concentration of the additive and the synthesis time. The surface properties of the prepared Mn oxides were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mesoporosity of the samples was confirmed by N2 adsorption-desorption. Different synthetic conditions resulted in the formation of different morphologies of the Mn oxides (α-MnO2, Mn5O8, and α-MnO2 + Mn5O8), such as nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanowires. The synthesized mesoporous Mn oxide nanostructures were used for the catalytic oxidation of the harmful air pollutant carbon monoxide. The Mn5O8 nanoparticles with the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and the non-stoichiometric manganese oxide (α-MnO2 + Mn5O8) nanorods with a higher Mn(3+) concentration had the best catalytic efficiency.

  5. A general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures using plasma electrolytic oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yanan; Liu, Baodan; Zhai, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Bing; Liu, Lusheng; Jiang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A general strategy for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructure has been developed based on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology (up). Using this method, ZnWO 4 and NiWO 4 nanostructures with controllable morphologies and superior crystallinity can be easily obtained (down), showing obvious advantage in comparison with conventional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. - Highlights: • Plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO) method has been used for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructures. • ZnWO 4 nanoplates have strong mechanical adhesion with porous TiO 2 film substrate. • The morphology and dimensional size of ZnWO 4 nanostructures can be selectively tailored by controlling the annealing temperature and growth time. • The PEO method can be widely applied to the growth of various metal oxides. - Abstract: A new method based on conventional plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology has been developed for the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures. Using this method, ZnWO 4 and NiWO 4 nanostructures with controllable morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets and microsheets) and superior crystallinity have been synthesized. It has been found that the morphology diversity of ZnWO 4 nanostructures can be selectively tailored through tuning the electrolyte concentration and annealing temperatures, showing obvious advantages in comparison to traditional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. Precise microscopy analyses on the cross section of the PEO coating and ZnWO 4 nanostructures confirmed that the precursors initially precipitated in the PEO coating and its surface during plasma discharge process are responsible for the nucleation and subsequent growth of metal tungstate nanostructures by thermal annealing. The method developed in this work represents a general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures and the formation mechanism of metal tungstate nanostructures fabricated by

  6. A general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures using plasma electrolytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yanan; Liu, Baodan, E-mail: baodanliu@imr.ac.cn; Zhai, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Bing; Liu, Lusheng; Jiang, Xin, E-mail: xjiang@imr.ac.cn

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: A general strategy for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructure has been developed based on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology (up). Using this method, ZnWO{sub 4} and NiWO{sub 4} nanostructures with controllable morphologies and superior crystallinity can be easily obtained (down), showing obvious advantage in comparison with conventional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. - Highlights: • Plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO) method has been used for the rational synthesis of tungstate nanostructures. • ZnWO{sub 4} nanoplates have strong mechanical adhesion with porous TiO{sub 2} film substrate. • The morphology and dimensional size of ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures can be selectively tailored by controlling the annealing temperature and growth time. • The PEO method can be widely applied to the growth of various metal oxides. - Abstract: A new method based on conventional plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technology has been developed for the rational synthesis of metal tungstate nanostructures. Using this method, ZnWO{sub 4} and NiWO{sub 4} nanostructures with controllable morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets and microsheets) and superior crystallinity have been synthesized. It has been found that the morphology diversity of ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures can be selectively tailored through tuning the electrolyte concentration and annealing temperatures, showing obvious advantages in comparison to traditional hydrothermal and sol–gel methods. Precise microscopy analyses on the cross section of the PEO coating and ZnWO{sub 4} nanostructures confirmed that the precursors initially precipitated in the PEO coating and its surface during plasma discharge process are responsible for the nucleation and subsequent growth of metal tungstate nanostructures by thermal annealing. The method developed in this work represents a general strategy toward the rational synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures and the formation mechanism of

  7. Differential reflectometry of thin film metal oxides on copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.K. III; Hummel, R.E.; Verink, E.D. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A differential reflectometry study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of thin oxide films on metal substrates. The oxides were produced by heating pure metals of copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium in dry oxygen. A new 'halfpolishing' technique was applied to obtain specimens with a step in oxide thickness in order to make them suitable for differential reflectometry. It was found that oxides formed this way yielded the same differential reflectograms as by electrochemical oxidation. A mathematical model involving the interaction of light with a thin corrosion product on metal substrates was applied to generate computer calculated differential reflectograms utilizing various optical constants and thicknesses of the assumed film. Three different thickness ranges have been identified. (a) For large film thicknesses, the differential reflectograms are distinguished by a sequence of interference peaks. (b) If the product of thickness and refraction index of the films is smaller than about 40 nm, no interference peaks are present. Any experimentally observed peaks in differential reflectograms of these films are caused entirely by electron interband transitions. (c) In an intermediate thickness range, superposition of interference and interband peaks are observed. (author)

  8. Optical properties of tungsten oxide thin films by non-reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Riech, I.

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were grown on glass substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature using a tungsten trioxide target for several values of the argon pressure (P Ar ). The structural and morphological properties of these films were studied using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The as-deposited films were amorphous irrespective of the argon pressure, and crystallized in a mixture of hexagonal and monoclinic phases after annealing at a temperature of 350 o C in air. Surface-roughness increased by an order of magnitude (from 1 nm to 20 nm) after thermal treatment. The argon pressure, however, had a strong influence on the optical properties of the films. Three different regions are clearly identified: deep blue films for P Ar ≤ 2.67 Pa with low transmittance values, light blue films for 2.67 Pa Ar Ar ≥ 6 Pa with high transmittance values. We suggest that the observed changes in optical properties are due to an increasing number of oxygen vacancies as the growth argon pressure decreases.

  9. UNS S31603 Stainless Steel Tungsten Inert Gas Welds Made with Microparticle and Nanoparticle Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Hung Tseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between tungsten inert gas (TIG welding of austenitic stainless steel assisted by microparticle oxides and that assisted by nanoparticle oxides. SiO2 and Al2O3 were used to investigate the effects of the thermal stability and the particle size of the activated compounds on the surface appearance, geometric shape, angular distortion, delta ferrite content and Vickers hardness of the UNS S31603 stainless steel TIG weld. The results show that the use of SiO2 leads to a satisfactory surface appearance compared to that of the TIG weld made with Al2O3. The surface appearance of the TIG weld made with nanoparticle oxide has less flux slag compared with the one made with microparticle oxide of the same type. Compared with microparticle SiO2, the TIG welding with nanoparticle SiO2 has the potential benefits of high joint penetration and less angular distortion in the resulting weldment. The TIG welding with nanoparticle Al2O3 does not result in a significant increase in the penetration or reduction of distortion. The TIG welding with microparticle or nanoparticle SiO2 uses a heat source with higher power density, resulting in a higher ferrite content and hardness of the stainless steel weld metal. In contrast, microparticle or nanoparticle Al2O3 results in no significant difference in metallurgical properties compared to that of the C-TIG weld metal. Compared with oxide particle size, the thermal stability of the oxide plays a significant role in enhancing the joint penetration capability of the weld, for the UNS S31603 stainless steel TIG welds made with activated oxides.

  10. Partial thermodynamic functions of hydrogen in complex hydrated vanadium(5) and tungsten(6) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.L.; Zakharova, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    The partial thermodynamic characteristics of hydrogen in the complex hydrated vanadium(5) and tungsten(6) oxides, obtained through the sol-gel method, of the general formula H 2 V 12-y W y O 31+δ ·nH 2 O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) are determined through the emf method. The changes in these values (ΔG-bar(H 2 ), ΔH-bar(H 2 ) and ΔS-bar(H 2 )) in dependence on the compound composition are discussed. It is established that ΔG-bar(H 2 ) phases, amorphous to X-rays are determined by the ΔS-bar(H 2 ) value and crystalline ones by ΔH-bar(H 2 ). The scheme of the phase relationships of the H 2 O-H-WO 3 -V 2 O 5 system, whereto the given phases are related are presented [ru

  11. CTAB assisted synthesis of tungsten oxide nanoplates as an efficient low temperature NOX sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Swati S.; Tamboli, Mohaseen S.; Mulla, Imtiaz S.; Suryavanshi, Sharad S.

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten oxide nanoplates with porous morphology were effectively prepared by acidification using CTAB (HexadeCetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide) as a surfactant. For characterization, the synthesized materials were subjected to X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and surface area (BET) measurements. The morphology and size of the particles were controlled by solution acidity. The BET results confirmed that the materials are well crystallized and mesoporous in nature. The nanocrystalline powder was used to prepare thick films by screen printing on alumina substrate for the investigation of gas sensing properties. The gas response measurements revealed that the samples acidified using 10 M H2SO4 exhibits highest response of 91% towards NOX at optimum temperature of 200 °C for 100 ppm, and it also exhibits 35% response at room temperature.

  12. Electrochemical synthesis of magnetic nanostructures using anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie

    In this dissertation, template electrodeposition was employed to fabricate high quality magnetic nanostructures suited for the reliable investigation of novel spintronics phenomena such as CIMS, BMR, and CPP-GMR. Several critical aspects/steps relating to the synthesis process were investigated in this work. In order to obtain high quality magnetic nanostructures, free-standing and Si-supported anodic aluminum oxide templates with closely controlled pore diameters, lengths, as well as constriction sizes, were synthesized by anodization, followed by appropriate post-processing. The pore opening size on the barrier layer can be controlled down to 5 nm by ion beam etching. After optimization of the compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of homogeneous FeCoNiCu layers electrodeposited under different conditions, the pulsed deposition process of FeCoNI/Cu multilayers on n-Si was studied. The influence of Cu deposition potential and Fe2+ concentration on microstructure, chemical and electrochemical properties, magnetic properties, and hence magnetotransport properties were assessed. The dissolution of the FM layer during potential transition was minimized in order to control interface sharpness. Combined with the systematic sublayer thickness and FM layer composition optimization, unprecedented GMR sensitivity of 0.11%/Oe at 5-15 Oe was obtained. Growth of multilayer nanowires was performed, and contact to a single wire was attempted using an electrochemical technique. We succeeded in addressing a small number of nanowires and measured a CPP-GMR of 17%. Template electrodeposition thus provides a promising way to repeatably fabricate prototypes for spin dependent transport studies.

  13. Surface electronic and structural properties of nanostructured titanium oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusi, M.; Maccallini, E.; Caruso, T.; Casari, C. S.; Bassi, A. Li; Bottani, C. E.; Rudolf, P.; Prince, K. C.; Agostino, R. G.

    Titanium oxide nanostructured thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were here characterized with a multi-technique approach to investigate the relation between surface electronic, structural and morphological properties. Depending on the growth parameters, these films present

  14. Hydroxylation of benzene to phenol over magnetic recyclable nanostructured CuFe mixed-oxide catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly active and magnetically recyclable nanostructured copper–iron oxide (CuFe) catalyst has been synthesized for hydroxylation of benzene to phenol under mild reaction conditions. The obtained catalytic results were correlated with the catalyst...

  15. Synthesis of Pt–Pd Bimetallic Porous Nanostructures as Electrocatalysts for the Methanol Oxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pt-based bimetallic nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique nanostructures and excellent catalytic properties. In this study, we prepared porous Pt–Pd nanoparticles using an efficient, one-pot co-reduction process without using any templates or toxic reactants. In this process, Pt–Pd nanoparticles with different nanostructures were obtained by adjusting the temperature and ratio of the two precursors; and their catalytic properties for the oxidation of methanol were studied. The porous Pt–Pd nanostructures showed better electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol with a higher current density (0.67 mA/cm2, compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.31 mA/cm2. This method provides one easy pathway to economically prepare different alloy nanostructures for various applications.

  16. On the Response of Nascent Soot Nanostructure and Oxidative Reactivity to Photoflash Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles are a kind of major pollutant from fuel combustion. To enrich the understanding of soot, this work focuses on investigating detailed influences of instantaneous external irradiation (conventional photoflash exposure on nanostructure as well as oxidation reactivity of nascent soot particles. By detailed soot characterizations flash can reduce the mass of soot and soot nanostructure can be reconstructed substantially without burning. After flash, the degree of soot crystallization increases while the soot reactive rate decreases and the activation energy increases. In addition, nanostructure and oxidative reactivity of soot in air and Ar after flash are different due to their different thermal conductivities.

  17. Cathodic electrodeposition of mixed molybdenum tungsten oxides from peroxo-polymolybdotungstate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachova, Lilia; Hahn, Benjamin P; Vijayaraghavan, Ganesh; Williams, Ryan D; Stevenson, Keith J

    2006-12-05

    Mixed molybdenum tungsten trioxide films of varying stoichiometry (MoxW1 - xO3, 0 cathodic electrodeposition on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates from aqueous peroxo-polymolybdotungstate solutions. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), cyclic voltammetry, and chronocoulometry were used to gain insight into the electrodeposition mechanism. The compositional and structural properties were characterized for MoxW1 - xO3 films deposited at intermediate potentials (-0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl) and sintered at 250 degrees C using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. These studies reveal that films consist of homogeneously mixed MoxW1 - xO3, with an enriched Mo content ranging in composition from 0.4 < x < 0.7 depending upon the mol % Mo present in the deposition solution. Chronoamperometry and spectroelectrochemical measurements were conducted to estimate lithium ion diffusion coefficients and coloration efficiencies for the mixed metal oxide films in 1 M LiClO4/propylene carbonate. The subtle interplay between structural and compositional properties due to the uniform mixing of Mo and W oxide components shows that electrochromic and lithium ion transport properties are moderately enhanced relative to those of single-component WO3 and MoO3 and demonstrate improved structural stability over pure MoO3 polymorphs during electrochemical cycling.

  18. Preparation of Pt-mesoporous tungsten carbide/carbon composites via a soft-template method for electrochemical methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chun’an; Kang, Lingzhi; Shi, Meiqin; Lang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yekun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous composite Pt-m(WC/C) is prepared by a soft template method. • The structure of phenolic gives a space limitation effect on the growth of WC. • Analysis of the effect of F127 on controlling the structure of composites. • Pt-m(WC/C) exhibits more than three times higher than Pt/C in catalytic activity. -- Abstract: This paper introduces a simple and reproducible chemical process for synthesis of Pt-mesoporous tungsten carbide/carbon composites composites Pt-m(WC/C) by means of a soft-template method. In this process, low-molecular-weight phenolic resol acted as the precursor both for carbon support and also the carbon resource of tungsten carbide. Tungsten hexachloride was used as a tungsten precursor along with different amount of triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as pore-forming component. The best performance of Pt-m(WC/C) towards methanol oxidation is found when the mass ratios of WCl 6 :F127 is 1:0.6. The composite presents an improved methanol oxidation performance evidenced by a negative shift in onset potential, and increase of peak current density, compared with commercial Pt/C. The difference is explained by the adding of appropriate amount of F127 which facilitates the construction of mesoporous matrix structure of WC/C

  19. Preparation of Pt-mesoporous tungsten carbide/carbon composites via a soft-template method for electrochemical methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chun’an, E-mail: science@zjut.edu.cn; Kang, Lingzhi; Shi, Meiqin; Lang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yekun

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Mesoporous composite Pt-m(WC/C) is prepared by a soft template method. • The structure of phenolic gives a space limitation effect on the growth of WC. • Analysis of the effect of F127 on controlling the structure of composites. • Pt-m(WC/C) exhibits more than three times higher than Pt/C in catalytic activity. -- Abstract: This paper introduces a simple and reproducible chemical process for synthesis of Pt-mesoporous tungsten carbide/carbon composites composites Pt-m(WC/C) by means of a soft-template method. In this process, low-molecular-weight phenolic resol acted as the precursor both for carbon support and also the carbon resource of tungsten carbide. Tungsten hexachloride was used as a tungsten precursor along with different amount of triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as pore-forming component. The best performance of Pt-m(WC/C) towards methanol oxidation is found when the mass ratios of WCl{sub 6}:F127 is 1:0.6. The composite presents an improved methanol oxidation performance evidenced by a negative shift in onset potential, and increase of peak current density, compared with commercial Pt/C. The difference is explained by the adding of appropriate amount of F127 which facilitates the construction of mesoporous matrix structure of WC/C.

  20. Effect of cationic/anionic organic surfactants on evaporation induced self assembled tin oxide nanostructured films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun Khun, Kamalpreet; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Tin oxide nanostructures with well defined morphologies have been obtained through an evaporation induced self assembly process. The technique has been employed using an ultrasonic nebulizer for production of aersol and its subsequent deposition onto a heated glass substrate. The precursor used for aersol production was modified by introducing cationic and anionic surfactants namely cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate respectively. The effect of surfactants on the structural, electrical and optical properties of self assembled tin oxide nanostructures were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electroscope microscopy, two probe technique and photoluminiscence studies. The results reveal that high concentration of surfactants in the precursor solution leads to reduction in crystallite size with significant changes in the morphology of tin oxide nanostructures. Photoluminiscence studies of the nanostructures show emissions in the visible region which exhibit marked changes in the intensities upon variation of surfactants in the precursor solutions.

  1. Effect of cationic/anionic organic surfactants on evaporation induced self assembled tin oxide nanostructured films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun Khun, Kamalpreet [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Mahajan, Aman, E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Bedi, R.K. [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Tin oxide nanostructures with well defined morphologies have been obtained through an evaporation induced self assembly process. The technique has been employed using an ultrasonic nebulizer for production of aersol and its subsequent deposition onto a heated glass substrate. The precursor used for aersol production was modified by introducing cationic and anionic surfactants namely cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate respectively. The effect of surfactants on the structural, electrical and optical properties of self assembled tin oxide nanostructures were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electroscope microscopy, two probe technique and photoluminiscence studies. The results reveal that high concentration of surfactants in the precursor solution leads to reduction in crystallite size with significant changes in the morphology of tin oxide nanostructures. Photoluminiscence studies of the nanostructures show emissions in the visible region which exhibit marked changes in the intensities upon variation of surfactants in the precursor solutions.

  2. Sea-urchin-like iron oxide nanostructures for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Young-Chul; Vrtnik, Stane; Kim, Changsoo; Lee, SangGap; Lee, Young Boo; Nam, Bora; Lee, Jae Won; Park, So Young; Lee, Sang Moon; Lee, Jouhahn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The u-MFN were synthesized via a ultrasound irradiation and/or calcinations process. • The u-MFN exhibited excellent adsorption capacities. • The u-MFN also displayed excellent adsorption of organic polluent after recycling. • The u-MFN has the potential to be used as an efficient adsorbent material. -- Abstract: To obtain adsorbents with high capacities for removing heavy metals and organic pollutants capable of quick magnetic separation, we fabricated unique sea-urchin-like magnetic iron oxide (mixed γ-Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 phase) nanostructures (called u-MFN) with large surface areas (94.1 m 2 g −1 ) and strong magnetic properties (57.9 emu g −1 ) using a simple growth process and investigated their potential applications in water treatment. The u-MFN had excellent removal capabilities for the heavy metals As(V) (39.6 mg g −1 ) and Cr(VI) (35.0 mg g −1 ) and the organic pollutant Congo red (109.2 mg g −1 ). The u-MFN also displays excellent adsorption of Congo red after recycling. Because of its high adsorption capacity, fast adsorption rate, and quick magnetic separation from treated water, the u-MFN developed in the present study is expected to be an efficient magnetic adsorbent for heavy metals and organic pollutants in aqueous solutions

  3. Spark plasma sintering of tungsten-yttrium oxide composites from chemically synthesized nanopowders and microstructural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, M.A.; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, H.G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    Nano-crystalline W-1%Y 2 O 3 (wt.%) powder was produced by a modified solution chemical reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) and yttrium nitrate. The precursor powder was found to consist of particles of bimodal morphology i.e. large APT-like particles up to 20 μm and rectangular yttrium containing ultrafine plates. After thermal processing tungsten crystals were evolved from W-O-Y plate like particles. spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate the powder at 1100 and 1200 deg. C for different holding times in order to optimize the sintering conditions to yield high density but with reduced grain growth. Dispersion of yttrium oxide enhanced the sinterability of W powder with respect to lanthanum oxide. W-1%Y 2 O 3 composites with sub-micron grain size showed improved density and mechanical properties as compared to W-La 2 O 3 composites. Sample sintered in two steps showed improved density, due to longer holding time at lower temperature (900 deg. C) and less grain growth due to shorter holding time at higher temperature i.e. 1 min at 1100 deg. C.

  4. A Review on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Methods for Fabrication of Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Implementation of nanostructures into the organic solar cell (OSC) architecture has great influence on the device performance. Nanostructuring the active layer increases the interfacial area between donor and acceptor, which enhances the probability of exciton dissociation. Introduction of nanost......Implementation of nanostructures into the organic solar cell (OSC) architecture has great influence on the device performance. Nanostructuring the active layer increases the interfacial area between donor and acceptor, which enhances the probability of exciton dissociation. Introduction......, low fabrication cost and easy control over its nano-scale morphology, make AAO patterning methods an intriguing candidate for nanopatterning. Hence, in this work, we present a review on the fabrication techniques and on nanostructures from Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) for OSC applications...

  5. Study of the phase composition of nanostructures produced by the local anodic oxidation of titanium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, V. I.; Ageev, O. A.; Konoplev, B. G.; Smirnov, V. A.; Solodovnik, M. S.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the phase composition of oxide nanostructures formed by the local anodic oxidation of a titanium thin film are reported. The data of the phase analysis of titanium-oxide nanostructures are obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the ion profiling mode of measurements. It is established that the surface of titanium-oxide nanostructures 4.5 ± 0.2 nm in height possesses a binding energy of core levels characteristic of TiO_2 (458.4 eV). By analyzing the titanium-oxide nanostructures in depth by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the formation of phases with binding energies of core levels characteristic of Ti_2O_3 (456.6 eV) and TiO (454.8 eV) is established. The results can be used in developing the technological processes of the formation of a future electronic-component base for nanoelectronics on the basis of titanium-oxide nanostructures and probe nanotechnologies.

  6. Nanostructure sensitization of transition metal oxides for visible-light photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To better utilize the sunlight for efficient solar energy conversion, the research on visible-light active photocatalysts has recently attracted a lot of interest. The photosensitization of transition metal oxides is a promising approach for achieving effective visible-light photocatalysis. This review article primarily discusses the recent progress in the realm of a variety of nanostructured photosensitizers such as quantum dots, plasmonic metal nanostructures, and carbon nanostructures for coupling with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides to design better visible-light active photocatalysts. The underlying mechanisms of the composite photocatalysts, e.g., the light-induced charge separation and the subsequent visible-light photocatalytic reaction processes in environmental remediation and solar fuel generation fields, are also introduced. A brief outlook on the nanostructure photosensitization is also given.

  7. In situ oxide dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys with high compressive strength and high strain-to-failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lin; Jiang, Lin; Topping, Troy D.; Dai, Chen; Wang, Xin; Carpenter, Ryan; Haines, Christopher; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk tungsten materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the application of a high pressure of 1 GPa during SPS significantly accelerates the densification process. Concurrently, the second phase oxide nanoparticles with an average grain size of 108 nm, which are distributed within the interiors of the W grains, simultaneously provide strengthening and plasticity by inhibiting grain growth, and generating, blocking, and storing dislocations. - Graphical abstract: In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk W materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS).

  8. Sea-urchin-like iron oxide nanostructures for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Uk, E-mail: leeho@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soon Chang [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Chul [Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Vrtnik, Stane; Kim, Changsoo; Lee, SangGap [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Boo; Nam, Bora [Jeonju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Won [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Young; Lee, Sang Moon [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jouhahn, E-mail: jouhahn@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The u-MFN were synthesized via a ultrasound irradiation and/or calcinations process. • The u-MFN exhibited excellent adsorption capacities. • The u-MFN also displayed excellent adsorption of organic polluent after recycling. • The u-MFN has the potential to be used as an efficient adsorbent material. -- Abstract: To obtain adsorbents with high capacities for removing heavy metals and organic pollutants capable of quick magnetic separation, we fabricated unique sea-urchin-like magnetic iron oxide (mixed γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase) nanostructures (called u-MFN) with large surface areas (94.1 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and strong magnetic properties (57.9 emu g{sup −1}) using a simple growth process and investigated their potential applications in water treatment. The u-MFN had excellent removal capabilities for the heavy metals As(V) (39.6 mg g{sup −1}) and Cr(VI) (35.0 mg g{sup −1}) and the organic pollutant Congo red (109.2 mg g{sup −1}). The u-MFN also displays excellent adsorption of Congo red after recycling. Because of its high adsorption capacity, fast adsorption rate, and quick magnetic separation from treated water, the u-MFN developed in the present study is expected to be an efficient magnetic adsorbent for heavy metals and organic pollutants in aqueous solutions.

  9. A Versatile Route for the Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanostructures Without Organics at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah MA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNickel oxide nanoparticles and nanoflowers have been synthesized by a soft reaction of nickel powder and water without organics at 100 °C. The mechanism for the formation of nanostructures is briefly described in accordance with decomposition of metal with water giving out hydrogen. The structure, morphology, and the crystalline phase of resulting nanostructures have been characterized by various techniques. Compared with other methods, the present method is simple, fast, economical, template-free, and without organics. In addition, the approach is nontoxic without producing hazardous waste and could be expanded to provide a general and convenient strategy for the synthesis of nanostructures to other functional nanomaterials.

  10. The catalytic activity of several tungsten oxides for the oxidation of propene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, S.; Schiavello, M.; Rome Univ.; Iguchi, E.; Tilley, R.J.D.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made of the catalytic oxidation of propene over the oxides WO 3 , WOsub(2,95), WOsub(2,90), WOsub(2,72) and Wo 2 , which were selected because they possess specific features of chemical and structural interest rather than for their catalytic ability. It was found that the oxides WOsub(2,95), WOsub(2,90) and WOsub(2,72) all selectively produce acrolein in small amounts. The oxides WO 3 and WO 2 were non-selective and rather inactive. The results are discussed in terms of a mechanism involving both variable valence in the crystal and the specific structural geometry of these compounds. (orig.) [de

  11. Tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as an efficient photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G.; Abhinayaa, R.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.

    2018-05-01

    Functioning of ultrasonically prepared tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as a photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer system was investigated and the obtained results were compared with that of pure WO3 nanoparticles. Structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the prepared WO3 nanoparticles and WO3-GO nanocomposite were studied. Photocatalytic efficiency of the system on organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB, cationic) and indigo carmine (IC, anionic) was investigated. The enhanced efficiency of the WO3-GO nanocomposite system was evaluated under sunlight and compared with that of pure WO3. The degradation efficiency values for MB and IC were found to be 97.03% and 95.43% at 180 and 120 min respectively. Antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite under visible light was tested and improved inhibition results were observed for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis after 6 h of light exposure. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency and antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite are attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate. Investigation on anticancer activity of WO3-GO nanocomposite was tested on human lung cancer (A-549) cell line and the IC50 value was found to be 139.6 ± 4.53 μg/mL. The results obtained in this study may be used as a platform for the development of photocatalysis applications based on WO3-GO nanocomposite.

  12. Nanogravimetric studies of tungsten oxide thin films obtained by the polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, V.C.; Santos, M.C.; Bulhoes, L.O.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the intercalation/de-intercalation process of Li + ions in the tungsten oxide matrix was investigated. The reaction mechanism involved was also investigated. The WO 3 films, prepared by the polymeric precursor method, were deposited on a Pt covered quartz crystal using the dip-coating technique. The electrolyte was 0.1 mol L -1 LiClO 4 in acetonitrile. The morphology and structure of the deposit was accomplished by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. In the electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance results, it was observed that the mass transport as well as the kinetic processes involved are facilitated in the films cycled at lower potential sweep-rates. The mass variation data as a function of the charge variations in the anodic and cathodic regions indicate the participation of solvent molecules (acetonitrile) during the Li + ion intercalation/de-intercalation process. This was confirmed by the development of a model of the species flux as a function of the potential

  13. Detection of Methanol with Fast Response by Monodispersed Indium Tungsten Oxide Ellipsoidal Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Kou, Xueying; Xie, Ning; Guo, Lanlan; Sun, Yanfeng; Chuai, Xiaohong; Ma, Jian; Sun, Peng; Wang, Yue; Lu, Geyu

    2017-05-26

    Indium tungsten oxide ellipsoidal nanospheres were prepared with different In/W ratios by using a simple hydrothermal method without any surfactant for the first time. Sensors based on different In/W ratios samples were fabricated, and one of the samples exhibited better response to methanol compared with others. High content of defective oxygen (Ov) and proper output proportion of In to W might be the main reasons for the better gas sensing properties. The length of the nanosphere was about 150-200 nm, and the width was about 100 nm. Various techniques were applied to investigate the nanospheres. Sensing characteristics toward methanol were investigated. Significantly, the sensor exhibited ultrafast response to methanol. The response time to 400 ppm methanol was no more than 2 s and the recovery time was 9 s at 312 °C. Most importantly, the humidity almost had no effect on the response of the sensor fabricated here, which is hard to achieve in gas-sensing applications.

  14. Effects of thermal treatment on the anodic growth of tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y., E-mail: yqchai85@gmail.com; Tam, C.W.; Beh, K.P.; Yam, F.K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-08-03

    This work reports the investigation of the effects of thermal treatment on anodic growth tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}). The increase of the thermal treatment temperature above 400 °C significantly influences WO{sub 3} film where high porosity structure reduces to more compact film. As-grown film is amorphous, which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic phase upon annealing at 300–600 °C. With the reducing of porous structure, preferential growth of (002) plane shifts to (020) plane at 600 °C with more than twentyfold increase of peak's intensity compared to the film annealed at 500 °C. Films annealed at low thermal treatment show better ion intercalation and reversibility during electrochemical measurements; however, it has larger optical band gap. Photoelectrochemical measurement reveals that film annealed at 400 °C exhibits the best photocatalytic performance among the films annealed at 300–600 °C. - Highlights: • Porosity of the WO{sub 3} reduces as annealing temperature increases above 400 °C. • As-grown film is amorphous which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic upon annealing. • As-grown film shows better ion intercalation in electrochemical process. • Optical band gap of WO{sub 3} reduces as the annealing temperature increases. • Film annealed at 400 °C exhibits best photocatalytic performance.

  15. Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films for application in advanced energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullapalli, S. K.; Vemuri, R. S.; Manciu, F. S.; Enriquez, J. L.; Ramana, C. V.

    2010-01-01

    Inherent processes in coal gasification plants produce hazardous hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which must be continuously and efficiently detected and removed before the fuel is used for power generation. An attempt has been made in this work to fabricate tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) thin films by radio-frequency reactive magnetron-sputter deposition. The impetus being the use of WO 3 films for H 2 S sensors in coal gasification plants. The effect of growth temperature, which is varied in the range of 30-500 deg. C, on the growth and microstructure of WO 3 thin films is investigated. Characterizations made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the effect of temperature is significant on the microstructure of WO 3 films. XRD and SEM results indicate that the WO 3 films grown at room temperature are amorphous, whereas films grown at higher temperatures are nanocrystalline. The average grain-size increases with increasing temperature. WO 3 films exhibit smooth morphology at growth temperatures ≤300 deg. C while relatively rough at >300 deg. C. The analyses indicate that the nanocrystalline WO 3 films grown at 100-300 deg. C could be the potential candidates for H 2 S sensor development for application in coal gasification systems.

  16. Mesoporous amorphous tungsten oxide electrochromic films: a Raman analysis of their good switching behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzikyriakou, Dafni; Krins, Natacha; Gilbert, Bernard; Colson, Pierre; Dewalque, Jennifer; Denayer, Jessica; Cloots, Rudi; Henrist, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous films exhibit better electrochemical kinetics compared to the dense films. • Mesoporous films exhibit better reversibility compared to the dense films. • Li + cations disrupt WO 3 network in a reversible way in the mesoporous film. • Li + irreversibly intercalate in the voids of crystallites in the dense film. - Abstract: The intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium cations in electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films are significantly influenced by their structural and surface characteristics. In this study, we prepared two types of amorphous films via the sol-gel technique: one dense and one mesoporous in order to compare their response upon lithium intercalation and de-intercalation. According to chronoamperometric measurements, Li + intercalates/de-intercalates faster in the mesoporous film (24s/6s) than in the dense film (48s/10s). The electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) also showed worse reversibility for the dense film compared to the mesoporous film, giving rise to important Li + trapping and remaining coloration of the film. Raman analysis showed that the mesoporous film provides more accessible and various W-O surface bonds for Li + intercalation. On the contrary, in the first electrochemical insertion and de-insertion in the dense film, Li + selectively reacts with a few surface W-O bonds and preferentially intercalates into pre-existing crystallites to form stable irreversible Li x WO 3 bronze

  17. Tungsten oxides as interfacial layers for improved performance in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, M.; Palilis, L.C.; Georgiadou, D.G.; Argitis, P.; Kennou, S.; Kostis, I.; Papadimitropoulos, G.; Stathopoulos, N.A.; Iliadis, A.A.; Konofaos, N.; Davazoglou, D.; Sygellou, L.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films with thicknesses ranging from 30 to 100 nm were grown by Hot Filament Vapor Deposition (HFVD). Films were studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and were found to be stoichiometric. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Samples had a granular form with grains in the order of 100 nm. The surface roughness was found to increase with film thickness. HFVD WO 3 films were used as conducting interfacial layers in advanced hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic devices. Hybrid-Organic Light Emitting Diodes (Hy-OLEDs) and Organic Photovoltaics (Hy-OPVs) were fabricated with these films as anode and/or as cathode interfacial conducting layers. The Hy-OLEDs showed significantly higher current density and a lower turn-on voltage when a thin WO 3 layer was inserted at the anode/polymer interface, while when inserted at the cathode/polymer interface the device performance was found to deteriorate. The improvement was attributed to a more efficient hole injection and transport from the Fermi level of the anode to the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) of a yellow emitting copolymer (YEP). On the other hand, the insertion of a thin WO 3 layer at the cathode/polymer interface of Hy-OPV devices based on a polythiophene-fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend photoactive layer resulted in an increase of the produced photogenerated current, more likely due to improved electron extraction at the Al cathode.

  18. Evaluation of feasibility of tungsten/oxide dispersion strengthened steel bonding with vanadium insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Akihiko; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru; Nogami, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion bonding (DB) technique to reduce thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between tungsten (W) and oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel (ODS-FS) was developed by applying a vanadium (V) alloy as an insert material. In order to suppress σ phase precipitation at the interface, DB of ODS-FS and V-4Cr-4Ti was carried out by introducing a Ti insert as a diffusion barrier between V-4Cr-4Ti and ODS-FS, and examined feasibility of W/V/Ti/ODS-FS joint for application to fusion reactor components by comparing the three-point bending strength and microstructure between the joints with and without a Ti diffusion barrier layer. It is shown that the fracture strength of the joint without a Ti insert was decreased by 25% after aging at 700°C for 100 h, but that with a Ti insert shows no change after the aging treatment up to 1000 h. The result indicates that the introduction of a Ti insert leads to the prevention of the formation of σ phase during aging and resultant control of the degradation of the bonding strength. (author)

  19. The nano-fractal structured tungsten oxides films with high thermal stability prepared by the deposition of size-selected W clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Chemistry, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Dollinger, Andreas; Huether, Lukas; Blankenhorn, Moritz; Koehler, Kerstine; Gantefoer, Gerd [Konstanz University, Department of Physics, Constance (Germany); Seo, Hyun Ook [Sangmyung University, Department of Chemistry and Energy Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Size-selected W{sub n}{sup -} clusters (n = 1650) were deposited on the highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surface at room temperature under high vacuum conditions by utilizing a magnetron sputtering source and a magnet sector field. Moreover, geometrical structure and surface chemical states of deposited clusters were analyzed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The formation of 2-D islands (lateral size ∝150 nm) with multiple dendritic arms was observed by STM, and the structure of the individual W{sub 1650} clusters survived within the dendritic arms. To study the thermal stability of the nano-fractal structure under the atmospheric conditions, the sample was brought to the ambient air conditions and sequentially post-annealed at 200, 300, and 500 C in the air. The nano-fractal structure was maintained after the 1st post-annealing process at 200 C for 1 h in the air, and the subsequent 2nd post-annealing at 300 C (for 1 h, in the air) also did not induce any noticeable change in the topological structure of the sample. The topological changes were observed only after the further post-annealing at a higher temperature (at 500 C, 1 h) in the air. We show high potential use of these nano-structured films of tungsten oxides in ambient conditions. (orig.)

  20. Tungsten coatings electro-deposited on CFC substrates from oxide molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ningbo; Zhang, Yingchun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com; Lang, Shaoting; Jiang, Fan; Wang, Lili

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten is considered as plasma facing material in fusion devices because of its high melting point, its good thermal conductivity, its low erosion rate and its benign neutron activation properties. On the other hand, carbon based materials like C/C fiber composites (CFC) have been used for plasma facing materials (PFMs) due to their high thermal shock resistance, light weight and high strength. Tungsten coatings on CFC substrates are used in the JET divertor in the frame of the JET ITER-like wall project, and have been prepared by plasma spray (PS) and other techniques. In this study, tungsten coatings were electro-deposited on CFC from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt under various deposition parameters at 900 °C in air. In order to obtain tungsten coatings with excellent performance, the effects of pulse duration ratio and pulse current density on microstructures and crystal structures of tungsten coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku Industrial Co., Ltd., D/MAX-RB) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM, JSM 6480LV). It is found that the pulsed duration ratio and pulse current density had a significant influence on tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. SEM observation revealed that intact, uniform and dense tungsten coatings formed on the CFC substrates. Both the average grain size and thickness of the coating increased with the pulsed current density. The XRD results showed that the coatings consisted of a single phase of tungsten with the body centered cubic (BCC) structure. The oxygen content of electro-deposited tungsten coatings was lower than 0.05%, and the micro-hardness was about 400 HV.

  1. Hierarchical oxide-based composite nanostructures for energy, environmental, and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Shimpi, Paresh; Cai, Wenjie; Gao, Haiyong; Jian, Dunliang; Wrobel, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    Self-assembled composite nanostructures integrate various basic nano-elements such as nanoparticles, nanofilms and nanowires toward realizing multifunctional characteristics, which promises an important route with potentially high reward for the fast evolving nanoscience and nanotechnology. A broad array of hierarchical metal oxide based nanostructures have been designed and fabricated in our research group, involving semiconductor metal oxides, ternary functional oxides such as perovskites and spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides with diverse applications in efficient energy harvesting/saving/utilization, environmental protection/control, chemical sensing and thus impacting major grand challenges in the area of materials and nanotechnology. Two of our latest research activities have been highlighted specifically in semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires and metal oxide/perovskite composite nanowires, which could impact the application sectors in ultraviolet/blue lighting, visible solar absorption, vehicle and industry emission control, chemical sensing and control for vehicle combustors and power plants.

  2. Benzyl Alcohol-Mediated Versatile Method to Fabricate Nonstoichiometric Metal Oxide Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Adam, Alaaldin; Azad, Abdul-Majeed; Kim, Yong-Wah

    2017-11-22

    Nanostructured metal oxides with cationic or anionic deficiency find applications in a wide range of technological areas including the energy sector and environment. However, a facile route to prepare such materials in bulk with acceptable reproducibility is still lacking; many synthesis techniques are still only bench-top and cannot be easily scaled-up. Here, we report that the benzyl alcohol (BA)-mediated method is capable of producing a host of nanostructured metal oxides (MO x , where M = Ti, Zn, Ce, Sn, In, Ga, or Fe) with inherent nonstoichiometry. It employs multifunctional BA as a solvent, a reducing agent, and a structure-directing agent. Depending on the oxidation states of metal, elemental or nonstoichiometric oxide forms are obtained. Augmented photoelectrochemical oxidation of water under visible light by some of these nonstoichiometric oxides highlights the versatility of the BA-mediated synthesis protocol.

  3. Rapid synthesis of tin oxide nanostructures by microwave-assisted thermal oxidation for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadungdhitidhada, S.; Ruankham, P.; Gardchareon, A.; Wongratanaphisan, D.; Choopun, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present work nanostructures of tin oxides were synthesized by a microwave-assisted thermal oxidation. Tin precursor powder was loaded into a cylindrical quartz tube and further radiated in a microwave oven. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and x-ray diffractometer. The results showed that two different morphologies of SnO2 microwires (MWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained in one minute of microwave radiation under atmospheric ambient. A few tens of the SnO2 MWs with the length of 10-50 µm were found. Some parts of the MWs were decorated with the SnO2 NPs. However, most of the products were SnO2 NPs with the diameter ranging from 30-200 nm. Preparation under loosely closed system lead to mixed phase SnO-SnO2 NPs with diameter of 30-200 nm. The single-phase of SnO2 could be obtained by mixing the Sn precursor powders with CuO2. The products were mostly found to be SnO2 nanowires (NWs) and MWs. The diameter of SnO2 NWs was less than 50 nm. The SnO2 NPs, MWs, and NWs were in the cassiterite rutile structure phase. The SnO NPs was in the tetragonal structure phase. The growth direction of the SnO2 NWs was observed in (1 1 0) and (2 2 1) direction. The ethanol sensor performance of these tin oxide nanostructures showed that the SnO-SnO2 NPs exhibited extremely high sensitivity. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  4. Synthesis of cadmium oxide doped ZnO nanostructures using electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Trilok; Pandya, D.K.; Singh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. → X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. → The cut-off wavelength shifted from blue to red on account of the Cd incorporation in the ZnO and the average transmittance decreased by ∼31%. → The bandgap tuning for 4-16 at% Cd in the initial solution was achieved in the range of 3.08-3.32 eV (up to 0.24 eV). - Abstract: Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. Crystalline nanostructures/nanorods with cadmium concentration ranging from 4 to 16 at% in the initial solution were electrodeposited on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) conducting glass substrates at a constant cathodic potential -0.9 V and subsequently annealed in air at 300 deg. C. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. The elemental composition of nanostructures was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ZnO nanostructures were found to be highly transparent and had an average transmittance of 85% in the visible range of the spectrum. After the incorporation of Cd content into ZnO the average transmittance decreased and the bandgap tuning was also achieved.

  5. Tungsten behaviour under anodic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas'ko, A.T.; Patsyuk, F.N.

    1980-01-01

    Electrochemical investigations have been carried out to identify the state of elements of the tungsten galvanic coating. Active zones on anode polarization curves in the hydrogen region of galvanic tungsten are established. The difference in the behaviour of monocrystal and galvanic tungsten electrodes is shown to be connected with the oxidation of hydrogen in the galvanic sediment

  6. Fabrication of orderly nanostructured PLGA scaffolds using anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gou-Jen; Lin, Yan-Cheng; Li, Ching-Wen; Hsueh, Cheng-Chih; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2009-08-01

    In this research, two simple fabrication methods to fabricate orderly nanostructured PLGA scaffolds using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template were conducted. In the vacuum air-extraction approach, the PLGA solution was cast on an AAO template first. The vacuum air-extraction process was then applied to suck the semi-congealed PLGA into the nanopores of the AAO template to form a bamboo sprouts array of PLGA. The surface roughness of the nanostructured scaffolds, ranging from 20 nm to 76 nm, can be controlled by the sucking time of the vacuum air-extraction process. In the replica molding approach, the PLGA solution was cast on the orderly scraggy barrier-layer surface of an AAO membrane to fabricate a PLGA scaffold of concave nanostructure. Cell culture experiments using the bovine endothelial cells (BEC) demonstrated that the nanostructured PLGA membrane can increase the cell growing rate, especially for the bamboo sprouts array scaffolds with smaller surface roughness.

  7. Observation of intact desorption ionization of peptide molecules from arrays of tungsten oxide nanowires by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Yun [Dept. of Nanochemistry, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Length-controlled WO{sub 3} surface nanowires with a 50 nm diameter were prepared by utilizing anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates. Careful control of the fabrication process yielded a set of length-controlled nanowire arrays (Figure 1). The lengths of the nanowires covered a range of 60–250 nm. Typically, a 0.5-μL drop of a sample solution in 10% MeOH that contained 2 pmol of sample was pipetted directly onto the nanowire chips, which were dried under ambient conditions. We report the observation of intact LDI of thermally labile peptides from WO{sub 3} nanowire arrays, which have never been reported for any other metal oxide nanowire arrays. As metal oxides are thermally stable and useful in many applications, and fabrication of various nanostructures are well established, we suggest that the nanostructured surfaces of metal oxides are promising for LDI and thus worthy of further investigations.

  8. Tungsten oxide thin film exposed to low energy D and He plasma: evidence for a thermal enhancement of the erosion yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Hussein; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Addab, Y.; Cabie, C.; Pardanaud, C.; Bannister, M.; Meyer, F.

    2017-10-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films (25 nm - 250 nm thickness) produced by thermal oxidation of a tungsten substrate were exposed to low energy D and He plasma. Low energy D plasma exposure (11 eV/D+) of these films have resulted in the formation of a tungsten bronze (DxWO3) clearly observed by Raman microscopy. D plasma bombardment (4 1021 m-2) has also induced a color change of the oxide layer which is similar to the well-known electro-chromic effect and has been named ``plasma-chromic effect''. To unravel physical and chemical origins of the modifications observed under exposure, similar tungsten oxide films were also exposed to low energy helium plasma (20 eV/He+) . Due to the low fluence (4 1021 m-2) and low ion energy (20 eV), at room temperature, He exposure has induced only very few morphological and structural modifications. On the contrary, at 673 K, significant erosion is observed, which gives evidence for an unexpected thermal enhancement of the erosion yield. We present here new results concerning He beam exposures at low fluence (4 1021 m-2) varying the He+ energy from 20 eV to 320 eV to measure the tungsten oxide sputtering threshold energy. Detailed analyses before/after exposure to describe the D and He interaction with the oxide layer, its erosion and structural modification at the atomic and micrometer scale will be presented.

  9. Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Mingjia; Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Jiangtian; Li, Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.

  10. Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Mingjia; Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Jiangtian; Li, Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-01-07

    This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of nanostructured cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides were electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel electrode by electrochemical method and characterized for their structural and supercapacitive properties. The SEM images indicated that the obtained Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides had cauliflower-type nanostructure. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of Co 3 O 4 , NiO, Co and Ni. The EDX elemental mapping images indicated that Ni, Co and O are distributed uniformly. The deposited Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides showed good supercapacitive characteristics with a specific capacitance of 331 F/g at 1 mA/cm 2 current density in 1 M KOH electrolyte. A mechanism of the formation of cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides was proposed. A variety of promising applications in the fields such as energy storage devices and sensors can be envisioned from Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides

  12. A Generalizable Top-Down Nanostructuring Method of Bulk Oxides: Sequential Oxygen-Nitrogen Exchange Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lanlee; Kang, Byungwuk; Han, Suyoung; Kim, Hee-Eun; Lee, Moo Dong; Bang, Jin Ho

    2018-05-27

    A thermal reaction route that induces grain fracture instead of grain growth is devised and developed as a top-down approach to prepare nanostructured oxides from bulk solids. This novel synthesis approach, referred to as the sequential oxygen-nitrogen exchange (SONE) reaction, exploits the reversible anion exchange between oxygen and nitrogen in oxides that is driven by a simple two-step thermal treatment in ammonia and air. Internal stress developed by significant structural rearrangement via the formation of (oxy)nitride and the creation of oxygen vacancies and their subsequent combination into nanopores transforms bulk solid oxides into nanostructured oxides. The SONE reaction can be applicable to most transition metal oxides, and when utilized in a lithium-ion battery, the produced nanostructured materials are superior to their bulk counterparts and even comparable to those produced by conventional bottom-up approaches. Given its simplicity and scalability, this synthesis method could open a new avenue to the development of high-performance nanostructured electrode materials that can meet the industrial demand of cost-effectiveness for mass production. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nitridation of one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanostructures: Changes in structure and photoactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamá s; Haspel, Henrik; Kormá nyos, Attila; Janá ky, Csaba; Kukovecz, Á kos; Kó nya, Zoltá n

    2017-01-01

    nitrogen atmosphere. Morphological changes and structural transitions were followed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Bandgap energies were determined from the UV–vis spectra of the materials, while photoelectrochemical

  14. Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites for Toluene Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based composites have gained great attention in the field of gas sensor fabrication due to their higher surface area with additional functional groups. Decorating one-dimensional (1D semiconductor nanomaterials on graphene also show potential benefits in gas sensing applications. Here we demonstrate the one-pot and low cost synthesis of W18O49 NWs/rGO composites with different amount of reduced graphene oxide (rGO which show excellent gas-sensing properties towards toluene and strong dependence on their chemical composition. As compared to pure W18O49 NWs, an improved gas sensing response (2.8 times higher was achieved in case of W18O49 NWs composite with 0.5 wt. % rGO. Promisingly, this strategy can be extended to prepare other nanowire based composites with excellent gas-sensing performance.

  15. A microbial-mineralization-inspired approach for synthesis of manganese oxide nanostructures with controlled oxidation states and morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, Manabu; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2010-12-21

    Manganese oxide nanostructures are synthesized by a route inspired by microbial mineralization in nature. The combination of organic molecules, which include antioxidizing and chelating agents, facilitates the parallel control of oxidation states and morphologies in an aqueous solution at room temperature. Divalent manganese hydroxide (Mn(OH){sub 2}) is selectively obtained as a stable dried powder by using a combination of ascorbic acid as an antioxidizing agent and other organic molecules with the ability to chelate to manganese ions. The topotactic oxidation of the resultant Mn(OH){sub 2} leads to the selective formation of trivalent manganese oxyhydroxide ({beta}-MnOOH) and trivalent/tetravalent sodium manganese oxide (birnessite, Na{sub 0.55}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}.1.5H{sub 2}O). For microbial mineralization in nature, similar synthetic routes via intermediates have been proposed in earlier works. Therefore, these synthetic routes, which include in the present study the parallel control over oxidation states and morphologies of manganese oxides, can be regarded as new biomimetic routes for synthesis of transition metal oxide nanostructures. As a potential application, it is demonstrated that the resultant {beta}-MnOOH nanostructures perform as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Surface engineering of one-dimensional tin oxide nanostructures for chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are promising candidates for chemical sensors due to their fascinating physicochemical properties. Among various candidates, tin oxide (SnO 2 ) has been widely explored in gas sensing elements due to its excellent chemical stability, low cost, ease of fabrication and remarkable reproducibility. We are presenting an overview on recent investigations on 1-dimensional (1D) SnO 2 nanostructures for chemical sensing. In particular, we focus on the performance of devices based on surface engineered SnO 2 nanostructures, and on aspects of morphology, size, and functionality. The synthesis and sensing mechanism of highly selective, sensitive and stable 1D nanostructures for use in chemical sensing are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relationship between the surface properties of the SnO 2 layer and the sensor performance from a thermodynamic point of view. Then, the opportunities and recent progress of chemical sensors fabricated from 1D SnO 2 heterogeneous nanostructures are discussed. Finally, we summarize current challenges in terms of improving the performance of chemical (gas) sensors using such nanostructures and suggest potential applications. (author)

  17. Chemical degradation of trimethyl phosphate as surrogate for organo-phosporus pesticides on nanostructured metal oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Pérez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, JAN (2015), s. 259-269 ISSN 0025-5408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Nanostructured oxides * Stoichiometric degradation * Trimethyl phosphate Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2015

  18. Passivating electron contact based on highly crystalline nanostructured silicon oxide layers for silicon solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuckelberger, J.; Nogay, G.; Wyss, P.; Jeangros, Q.; Allebe, Ch.; Debrot, F.; Niquille, X.; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Despeisse, M.; Haug, F.J.; Löper, P.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, Dec (2016), s. 2-10 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface passivation * passivating contact * nanostructure * silicon oxide * nanocrystalline * microcrystalline * poly-silicon * crystallization * Raman * transmission line measurement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.784, year: 2016

  19. Nanostructures in a ferritic and an oxide dispersion strengthened steel induced by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo

    fission and fusion reactors. In this study, two candidate steels for nuclear reactors, namely a ferritic/martensitic steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) and an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (PM2000), were nanostructured by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). The resulting microstructure...

  20. Life cycle assessment of facile microwave-assisted zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Papadaki, D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle assessment of several zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, fabricated by a facile microwave technique, is presented. Key synthesis parameters such as annealing temperature, varied from 90 °C to 220 °C, and microwave power, varied from 110...

  1. Investigation on CO catalytic oxidation reaction kinetics of faceted perovskite nanostructures loaded with Pt

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, S. M.

    2017-01-18

    Perovskite lead titanate nanostructures with specific {111}, {100} and {001} facets exposed, have been employed as supports to investigate the crystal facet effect on the growth and CO catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles. The size, distribution and surface chemical states of Pt on the perovskite supports have been significantly modified, leading to a tailored conversion temperature and catalytic kinetics towards CO catalytic oxidation.

  2. Investigation on CO catalytic oxidation reaction kinetics of faceted perovskite nanostructures loaded with Pt

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, S. M.; Duanmu, J. J.; Zhu, Yihan; Yuan, Y. F.; Guo, S. Y.; Yang, J. L.; Ren, Z. H.; Han, G. R.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite lead titanate nanostructures with specific {111}, {100} and {001} facets exposed, have been employed as supports to investigate the crystal facet effect on the growth and CO catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles. The size, distribution and surface chemical states of Pt on the perovskite supports have been significantly modified, leading to a tailored conversion temperature and catalytic kinetics towards CO catalytic oxidation.

  3. Nanostructural evolution from nanosheets to one-dimensional nanoparticles for manganese oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Hongmei; Kong, Xingang; Wen, Puhong; Kitayama, Tomonori; Feng, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanosheets were transformed to other one-dimensional nanoparticles. ► Nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoribbons, and nanobelts were obtained. ► Nanoparticle morphology can be controlled with organic amines. ► Organic amines act as morphology directing agent. -- Abstract: This paper introduces a novel hydrothermal soft chemical synthesis process for manganese oxide nanostructured particles using two-dimensional manganese oxide nanosheets as precursor. In this process, a birnessite-type manganese oxide with a layered structure was exfoliated into its elementary layer nanosheets, and then the nanosheets were hydrothermally treated to transform the two-dimensional morphology of the nanosheets to one-dimensional nanoparticles. The manganese oxide nanofibers, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoribbons, and fabric-ribbon-like particles constructed from nanofibers or nanobelts were obtained using this hydrothermal soft chemical process. The nanostructural evolution from the two-dimensional nanosheets to the one-dimensional nanoparticles was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and TG-DTA analysis. The morphology and nanostructure of the products are strongly dependent on the molecular dimension of organic amine cations added in the reaction system. The organic amine cations act as a morphology directing agent in the nanostructural evolution process.

  4. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S [Stony Brook, NY; Park, Tae-Jin [Port Jefferson, NY

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  5. Metal oxide nanostructures: preparation, characterization and functional applications as chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Dario; Bertuna, Angela; Comini, Elisabetta; Kaur, Navpreet; Poli, Nicola; Sberveglieri, Veronica; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of different metal oxide (NiO, WO 3 , ZnO, SnO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 ) nanostructures for chemical sensing are presented. p-Type (NiO) and n-type (WO 3 , SnO 2 , ZnO and Nb 2 O 5 ) metal oxide nanostructures were grown on alumina substrates using evaporation-condensation, thermal oxidation and hydrothermal techniques. Surface morphologies and crystal structures were investigated through scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, different batches of sensors have been prepared, and their sensing performances towards carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide have been explored. Moreover, metal oxide nanowires have been integrated into an electronic nose and successfully applied to discriminate between drinking and contaminated water.

  6. Modification of implant material surface properties by means of oxide nano-structured coatings deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Vladimir; Zykova, Anna; Smolik, Jerzy; Rogowska, Renata; Lukyanchenko, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    The deposition of functional coatings on the metal surface of artificial joints is an effective way of enhancing joint tribological characteristics. It is well-known that nanostructured oxide coatings have specific properties advantageous for future implant applications. In the present study, we measured the high hardness parameters, the adhesion strength and the low friction coefficient of the oxide magnetron sputtered coatings. The corrosion test results show that the oxide coating deposition had improved the corrosion resistance by a factor of ten for both stainless steel and titanium alloy substrates. Moreover, the hydrophilic nature of coated surfaces in comparison with the metal ones was investigated in the tensiometric tests. The surfaces with nanostructured oxide coatings demonstrated improved biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo tests, attributed to the high dielectric constants and the high values of the surface free energy parameters.

  7. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yue

    2010-03-16

    Nanoparticles that self-assemble on a liquid-liquid interface serve as the building block for making heterodimeric nanostructures. Specifically, hollow iron oxide nanoparticles within hexane form colloidosomes in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, and SQUID were used to characterize the heterodimers. Interestingly, the formation of silver nanoparticles helps the removal of spinglass layer on the hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a powerful yet convenient strategy for producing sophisticated, multifunctional nanostructures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Electron-induced desorption of europium atoms from oxidized tungsten surface: concentration dependence of low-energy peak

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2002-01-01

    One discusses nature of electron induced desorption of Eu sup 0 europium atoms under E sub e irradiating electron low-energies (approx 30 eV) and peculiarities of yield dependence of Eu sup 0 atoms on their concentration at oxidized tungsten surface. Primary act of vacancy origination in europium adatom inner 5p-shell turned to be the determining stage. Evaluations have shown that just the first of two possible scenarios of ionization (electron intra-atomic to Eu adatom external quasi-level or realise of knocked out electron into vacuum) leads to Eu sup 0 desorption. One determined concentration threshold for yield of Eu sup 0 atoms

  9. A highly efficient urea detection using flower-like zinc oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Manvi; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika, E-mail: monikatomar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2015-12-01

    A novel matrix based on flower-like zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnONF) has been fabricated using hydrothermal method and exploited successfully for the development of urea biosensor. Urease (Urs) is physically immobilized onto the ZnO nanostructure matrix synthesized over platinized silicon substrate. The surface morphology and crystallographic structure of the as-grown ZnONF have been characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The fabricated amperometric biosensor (Urs/ZnONF/Pt/Ti/Si) exhibits a linear sensing response towards urea over the concentration range 1.65 mM to 16.50 mM with an enhanced sensitivity (~ 132 μA/mM/cm{sup 2}) and a fast response time of 4 s. The relatively low value of Michaelis–Menten constant (K{sub m}) of 0.19 mM confirms the high affinity of the immobilized urease on the nanostructured ZnONF surface towards its analyte (urea). The obtained results demonstrate that flower-like ZnO nanostructures serve as a promising matrix for the realization of efficient amperometric urea biosensor with enhanced response characteristics. - Graphical abstract: The article focuses on the synthesis of flower-like morphology possessing zinc oxide nanostructures and its application towards urea detection with high sensitivity as well as selectivity. - Highlights: • Flower-like ZnO nanostructures based urea biosensor has been fabricated. • Grown ZnO nanostructures offer an advantageous urease immobilization platform owing to its very high surface area. • High sensitivity (~ 132 μA/mM/cm{sup 2}) and low Michaelis–Menten parameter (K{sub m}) value (~ 0.19 mM) were observed.

  10. A highly efficient urea detection using flower-like zinc oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Manvi; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A novel matrix based on flower-like zinc oxide nanostructures (ZnONF) has been fabricated using hydrothermal method and exploited successfully for the development of urea biosensor. Urease (Urs) is physically immobilized onto the ZnO nanostructure matrix synthesized over platinized silicon substrate. The surface morphology and crystallographic structure of the as-grown ZnONF have been characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The fabricated amperometric biosensor (Urs/ZnONF/Pt/Ti/Si) exhibits a linear sensing response towards urea over the concentration range 1.65 mM to 16.50 mM with an enhanced sensitivity (~ 132 μA/mM/cm 2 ) and a fast response time of 4 s. The relatively low value of Michaelis–Menten constant (K m ) of 0.19 mM confirms the high affinity of the immobilized urease on the nanostructured ZnONF surface towards its analyte (urea). The obtained results demonstrate that flower-like ZnO nanostructures serve as a promising matrix for the realization of efficient amperometric urea biosensor with enhanced response characteristics. - Graphical abstract: The article focuses on the synthesis of flower-like morphology possessing zinc oxide nanostructures and its application towards urea detection with high sensitivity as well as selectivity. - Highlights: • Flower-like ZnO nanostructures based urea biosensor has been fabricated. • Grown ZnO nanostructures offer an advantageous urease immobilization platform owing to its very high surface area. • High sensitivity (~ 132 μA/mM/cm 2 ) and low Michaelis–Menten parameter (K m ) value (~ 0.19 mM) were observed

  11. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured tungsten-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngom, B.D. [African Laser Centre, CSIR campus, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Groupes de Laboratoires de physique des Solides et Sciences des Materiaux, Faculte des sciences et Techniques Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114 Dakar-Fann Dakar (Senegal); NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa)], E-mail: bdngom@tlabs.ac.za; Mpahane, T. [NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Manyala, N. [Department of Physics and Electronics National University of Lesotho (Lesotho); Nemraoui, O. [NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Buttner, U. [Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch (South Africa); Kana, J.B. [Department of Physique University of Yaounde 1 (Cameroon); Fasasi, A.Y. [Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria); Maaza, M. [African Laser Centre, CSIR campus, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Beye, A.C. [African Laser Centre, CSIR campus, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Groupes de Laboratoires de physique des Solides et Sciences des Materiaux, Faculte des sciences et Techniques Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114 Dakar-Fann Dakar (Senegal)

    2009-01-15

    Novel highly c-oriented tungsten-doped zinc oxide (WZO) thin films with 1 wt% were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on corning 1737F glass substrate. The effects of laser energy on the structural, morphological as well as optical transmission properties of the films were studied. The films were highly transparent with average transmittance exceeding 87% in the wavelength region lying between 400 and 2500 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results indicated that the WZO films had c-axis preferred orientation with wurtzite structure. Film thickness and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (0 0 2) peaks of the films were found to be dependent on laser fluence. The composition determined through Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) appeared to be independent of the laser fluence. By assuming a direct band gap transition, the band gap values of 3.36, 3.34 and 3.31 eV were obtained for corresponding laser fluence of 1, 1.7 and 2.7 J cm{sup -2}, respectively. Compared with the reported undoped ZnO band gap value of 3.37 eV, it is conjectured that the observed low band gap values obtained in this study may be attributable to tungsten incorporation in the films as well as the increase in laser fluence. The high transparency makes the films useful as optical windows while the high band gap values support the idea that the films could be good candidates for optoelectronic applications.

  12. Relationships among surface processing at the nanometer scale, nanostructure and optical properties of thin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria

    2004-05-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the optical properties of nanostructured semiconductor oxide thin films. Various examples of models for the dielectric function, based on Lorentzian oscillators combined with the Drude model, are given based on the band structure of the analyzed oxide. With this approach, the optical properties of thin films are determined independent of the dielectric functions of the corresponding bulk materials, and correlation between the optical properties and nanostructure of thin films is investigated. In particular, in order to discuss the dependence of optical constants on grain size, CeO{sub 2} nanostructured films are considered and parameterized by two-Lorentzian oscillators or two-Tauc-Lorentz model depending on the nanostructure and oxygen deficiency. The correlation among anisotropy, crystalline fraction and optical properties parameterized by a four-Lorentz oscillator model is discussed for nanocrystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. Indium tin oxide thin films are discussed as an example of the presence of graded optical properties related to interfacial reactivity activated by processing conditions. Finally, the example of ZnO shows the potential of ellipsometry in discerning crystal and epitaxial film polarity through the analysis of spectra and the detection of surface reactivity of the two polar faces, i.e. Zn-polarity and O-polarity.

  13. Functional zinc oxide nanostructures for electronic and energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Abhishek

    ZnO has proven to be a multifunctional material with important nanotechnological applications. ZnO nanostructures can be grown in various forms such as nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts, nanocombs etc. In this work, ZnO nanostructures are grown in a double quartz tube configuration thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system. We focus on functionalized ZnO Nanostructures by controlling their structures and tuning their properties for various applications. The following topics have been investigated: (1) We have fabricated various ZnO nanostructures using a thermal CVD technique. The growth parameters were optimized and studied for different nanostructures. (2) We have studied the application of ZnO nanowires (ZnONWs) for field effect transistors (FETs). Unintentional n-type conductivity was observed in our FETs based on as-grown ZnO NWs. We have then shown for the first time that controlled incorporation of hydrogen into ZnO NWs can introduce p-type characters to the nanowires. We further found that the n-type behaviors remained, leading to the ambipolar behaviors of hydrogen incorporated ZnO NWs. Importantly, the detected p- and n- type behaviors are stable for longer than two years when devices were kept in ambient conditions. All these can be explained by an ab initio model of Zn vacancy-Hydrogen complexes, which can serve as the donor, acceptors, or green photoluminescence quencher, depend on the number of hydrogen atoms involved. (3) Next ZnONWs were tested for electron field emission. We focus on reducing the threshold field (Eth) of field emission from non-aligned ZnO NWs. As encouraged by our results on enhancing the conductivity of ZnO NWs by hydrogen annealing described in Chapter 3, we have studied the effect of hydrogen annealing for improving field emission behavior of our ZnO NWs. We found that optimally annealed ZnO NWs offered much lower threshold electric field and improved emission stability. We also studied field emission from ZnO NWs at moderate

  14. Catalytic activity of tungsten carbide-carbon (WC@C) core-shell structured for ethanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Gourav, E-mail: gsinghla@gmail.com; Singh, K., E-mail: kusingh@thapar.edu; Pandey, O.P., E-mail: oppandey@thapar.edu

    2017-01-15

    In this study, carbon coated WC (WC@C) was synthesized through solvothermal reactions in the presence of reducing agent magnesium (Mg) by employing tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) as a precursor, acetone (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O) as a carbon source. The formation of WC@C nano particles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the synthesized powder examined in air shows its stability up to 550 °C. In this method, in-situ produced outer carbon layer increase the surface area of materials which is 52.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with pore volume 0.213 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. The Electrocatalytic activity of ethanol oxidation on a synthesized sample with and without Pt nano particles have been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV results show the enhancement in oxidation stability of WC@C in acidic media as well as better CO-tolerance for ethanol oxidation after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles as compared to without Pt nano particles. - Highlights: • Tungsten carbide nano powder was synthesized using acetone as carbon source. • In-situ produced outer carbon layer increase the surface area of materials. • Mesoporous WC with surface areas 52.6 m{sup 2}/g obtained. • Pt modified WC powder showed higher electrochemical stability. • Better CO-tolerance for ethanol oxidation after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles.

  15. Topotactic reduction yielding black titanium oxide nanostructures as metallic electronic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaka, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Detailed analyses of reduced, single crystal, rutile-type TiO(2) via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are reported which reveal that the reduction proceeds topotactically via interstitial diffusion of Ti ions at low temperature, around 350 °C. This important finding encouraged the production of various nanostructured reduced titanium oxides from TiO(2) precursors with morphology retention, and in the process, the synthesis of black titanium oxide nanorods using TiO(2) nanorods was demonstrated. Interestingly, as opposed to the semiconductive behavior of Ti(2)O(3) synthesized at high temperature, topotactically synthesized Ti(2)O(3) exhibits metallic electrical resistance, and the value at room temperature is quite low (topotactically synthesized Ti(2)O(3). This work shows that topotactically reduced titanium oxides can have fascinating properties as well as nanostructures.

  16. Gold nanoparticle arrays directly grown on nanostructured indium tin oxide electrodes: Characterization and electroanalytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingdong; Oyama, Munetaka

    2005-01-01

    This work describes an improved seed-mediated growth approach for the direct attachment and growth of mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles on nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. It was demonstrated that, when the seeding procedure of our previously reported seed-mediated growth process on an ITO surface was modified, the density of gold nanospheres directly grown on the surface could be highly improved, while the emergence of nanorods was restrained. By field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and cyclic voltammetry, the growth of gold nanoparticles with increasing growth time on the defect sites of nanostructured ITO surface was monitored. Using a [Fe(China) 6 ] 3- /[Fe(China) 6 ] 4- redox probe, the increasingly facile heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics resulting from the deposition and growth of gold nanoparticle arrays was observed. The as-prepared gold nanoparticle arrays exhibited high catalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of nitric oxide, which could provide electroanalytical application for nitric oxide sensing

  17. Facile synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opra, Denis P.; Gnedenkov, Sergey V.; Sokolov, Alexander A.; Minaev, Alexander N.; Kuryavyi, Valery G.; Sinebryukhov, Sergey L.

    2017-09-01

    At all times, energy storage is one of the greatest scientific challenge. Recently, Li-ion batteries are under special attention due to high working voltage, long cycle life, low self-discharge, reliability, no-memory effect. However, commercial LIBs usage in medium- and large-scale energy storage are limited by the capacity of lithiated metal oxide cathode and unsafety of graphite anode at high-rate charge. In this way, new electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance should be designed to satisfy a requirement in both energy and power. As it known, nanostructured transition metal oxides are promising electrode materials because of their elevated specific capacity and high potential vs. Li/Li+. In this work, the perspective of an original facile technique of pulsed high-voltage plasma discharge in synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries has been demonstrated.

  18. Ethanol gas sensing performance of high-dimensional fuzz metal oxide nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibano, Kenzo; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Sugahara, Tohru; Lee, Heun Tae; Ueda, Yoshio

    2018-04-01

    Gas sensing ability of the He plasma induced fiber-like nanostructure, so-called fuzz structure, was firstly examined. A thin Mo layer deposited on a quartz surface was irradiated by He plasma to form the fuzz structure and oxidized by annealing in a quartz furnace. Electric conductivity of the fuzz Mo oxide layer was then measured through the Au electrodes deposited on the layer. Changes in electric conductivity by C2H5OH gas flow were examined as a function of temperature from 200 to 400 °C. Improved sensitivities were observed for the specimens after a fuzz nanostructure formation. However, the sensor developed in this study showed lower sensitivities than previously reported MoO3 nano-rod sensor, further optimization of oxidation is needed to improve the sensitivity.

  19. Microstructure and electrical-optical properties of cesium tungsten oxides synthesized by solvothermal reaction followed by ammonia annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingxiao; Ando, Yoshihiko; Dong Xiaoli; Shi Fei; Yin Shu; Adachi, Kenji; Chonan, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akikazu; Sato, Tsugio

    2010-01-01

    Cesium tungsten oxides (Cs x WO 3 ) were synthesized by solvothermal reactions using ethanol and 57.1 vol% ethanol aqueous solution at 200 o C for 12 h, and the effects of post annealing in ammonia atmosphere on the microstructure and electrical-optical properties were investigated. Agglomerated particles consisting of disk-like nanoparticles and nanorods of Cs x WO 3 were formed in the pure ethanol and ethanol aqueous solutions, respectively. The samples retained the original morphology and crystallinity after annealing in ammonia atmosphere up to 500 o C, while a small amount of nitrogen ion were incorporated in the lattice. The as-prepared Cs x WO 3 sample showed excellent near infrared (NIR) light shielding ability as well as high transparency in the visible light region. The electrical resistivity of the pressed pellets of the powders prepared in pure ethanol and 57.1 vol% ethanol aqueous solution greatly decreased after ammonia annealing at 500 o C, i.e., from 734 to 31.5 and 231 to 3.58 Ω cm, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Cesium tungsten oxides (Cs x WO 3 ) with different morphology were synthesized by solvothermal reaction, and the effects of post-ammonia annealing on the microstructure and electrical-optical properties were investigated.

  20. Effect of oxygen vacancies on the electronic and optical properties of tungsten oxide from first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Pachter, Ruth; Murphy, Neil R.; Johnson, Walter E.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we investigated theoretically the role of oxygen vacancies on the electronic and optical properties of cubic, γ-monoclinic, and tetragonal phases of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films. Following the examination of structural properties and stability of the bulk tungsten oxide polymorphs, we analyzed band structures and optical properties, applying density functional theory (DFT) and GW (Green's (G) function approximation with screened Coulomb interaction (W)) methods. Careful benchmarking of calculated band gaps demonstrated the importance of using a range-separated functional, where results for the pristine room temperature γ-monoclinic structure indicated agreement with experiment. Further, modulation of the band gap for WO3 structures with oxygen vacancies was quantified. Dielectric functions for cubic WO3, calculated at both the single-particle, essentially time-dependent DFT, as well as many-body GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation levels, indicated agreement with experimental data for pristine WO3. Interestingly, we found that introducing oxygen vacancies caused appearance of lower energy absorptions. A smaller refractive index was indicated in the defective WO3 structures. These predictions could lead to further experiments aimed at tuning the optical properties of WO3 by introducing oxygen vacancies, particularly for the lower energy spectral region.

  1. Effects of Silica Nanostructures in Poly(ethylene oxide)-Based Composite Polymer Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Jagdeep; Anwar, Shahid; Si, Satyabrata

    2016-06-01

    The present work describes the synthesis of some poly(ethylene oxide)-based nanocomposite polymer electrolyte films using various silica nanostructures as the inorganic filler by simple solution mixing technique, in which the nature of the silica nanostructures play a vital role in modulating their electrochemical performances at room temperature. The silica nanostructures are prepared by ammonical hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate following the modified St6ber method. The resulting films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter to study their crystallinity. Room temperature AC impedance spectroscopy is utilized to determine the Li+ ion conductivity of the resulting films. The observed conductivity values of various NCPE films depend on the nature of silica filling as well as on their surface characteristics and also on the varying PEO-Li+ ratio, which is observed to be in the order of 10(-7)-10(-6) S cm(-1).

  2. Photoconductivity of oxidized nanostructured PbTe(In) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovolsky, A A; Ryabova, L I; Khokhlov, D R; Dashevsky, Z M; Kasiyan, V A

    2009-01-01

    Photoconductivity of as-grown and oxidized nanocrystalline PbTe(In) films has been studied in the dc and ac modes at temperatures 4.2–300 K. The electric transport in the films is defined by two mechanisms: conductivity through barriers at grain boundaries and transport along inversion channels at the grain surface. Modification of the transport mechanisms induced by oxidation is considered. Relatively weak oxidation results in an increase in the contribution of grain barriers to conductivity followed by an enhancement of the photoconductivity amplitude. Instead, this contribution drops in the case of deep oxidation resulting in a photoresponse reduction. It is shown that the main mechanism of charge transport in deeply oxidized films at low temperatures is hopping along inversion channels at the grain surface. It is demonstrated that the photoconductive response of nanocrystalline materials may be optimized by variation of the oxidation level, measurement frequency and temperature

  3. The Risk Evaluation of Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles in Cultured Rat Liver Cells for Its Safe Applications in Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 nanoparticles (NPs are used for many industrial purposes in everyday life. However, their effects on human health have not been sufficiently evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the toxicity potentials of various concentrations (0 to 1000 ppm of WO3NPs (<100 nm particle size in cultured primary rat hepatocytes. The results of cell viability assay showed that the higher concentrations of dispersed WO3 NPs (300, 500 and 1000 ppm caused significant (p<0.05 decreases of cell viability. Also, dose dependent negative alterations were observed in oxidative status and antioxidant capacity levels after the application of WO3 in cultured rat primary hepatocytes. The results of genotoxicity tests revealed that these NPs did not cause significant increases of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs but increased 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels as compared to the control culture.

  4. Comparative ion insertion study into a nanostructured vanadium oxide in aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Q.; Ren, S. L.; Zukowski, J.; Pomeroy, M.; Soghomonian, V., E-mail: soghomon@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We present a comparative study for the electrochemical insertion of different cations into a nanostructured vanadium oxide material. The oxide is hydrothemally synthesized and electrically characterized by variable temperature measurements. The electrochemical reactions are performed in aqueous chloride solutions of lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium, and the electrochemical behavior of various cycles are correlated with visual changes in the vanadium oxide nanosheets as observed by scanning electron microscopy. We note an increase in the specific charge per cycle in the cases of sodium and ammonium ions only, correlated with minimal physical changes to the nanosheets. The differing behavior of the various ions has implications for their use in electrical energy storage applications.

  5. Radiation Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain, Alicia G.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana; Shutthanandan, V.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered candidates for nuclear fission and fusion applications at high temperature and dose. The complex oxide nanoclusters in these alloys provide high-temperature strength and are expected to afford better radiation resistance. Proton, heavy ion, and neutron irradiations have been performed to evaluate cluster stability in 14YWT and 9CrODS steel under a range of irradiation conditions. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used in this work to analyze the evolution of the oxide population.

  6. A 1 V supercapacitor device with nanostructured graphene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyaniline and graphene oxide composite on activated carbon cum reduced graphene oxide-supported supercapacitor electrodes are fabricated and electrochemically characterized in a three-electrode cell assembly. Attractive supercapacitor performance, namely high-power capability and cycling stability for graphene ...

  7. The effect of thermal oxidation on the luminescence properties of nanostructured silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijia; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2012-08-06

    Herein is reported a detailed study of the luminescence properties of nanostructured Si using X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) in combination with X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES). P-type Si nanowires synthesized via electroless chemical etching from Si wafers of different doping levels and porous Si synthesized using electrochemical method are examined under X-ray excitation across the Si K-, L(3,2) -, and O K-edges. It is found that while as-prepared Si nanostructures are weak light emitters, intense visible luminescence is observed from thermally oxidized Si nanowires and porous Si. The luminescence mechanism of Si upon oxidation is investigated by oxidizing nanostructured Si at different temperatures. Interestingly, the two luminescence bands observed show different response with the variation of absorption coefficient upon Si and O core-electron excitation in elemental silicon and silicon oxide. A correlation between luminescence properties and electronic structures is thus established. The implications of the finding are discussed in terms of the behavior of the oxygen deficient center (OCD) and non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Tungsten carbide/porous carbon composite as superior support for platinum catalyst toward methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liming; Fu, Honggang; Wang, Lei; Mu, Guang; Jiang, Baojiang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ruihong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The WC nanoparticles are well dispersed in the carbon matrix. The size of WC nanoparticles is about 30 nm. It can be concluded that tungsten carbide and carbon composite was successfully prepared by the present synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • The WC/PC composite with high specific surface area was prepared by a simple way. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst has superior performance toward methanol electro-oxidation. • The current density for methanol electro-oxidation is as high as 595.93 A g −1 Pt. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst shows better durability and stronger CO electro-oxidation. • The performance of Pt/WC/PC is superior to the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide/porous carbon (WC/PC) composites have been successfully synthesized through a surfactant assisted evaporation-induced-assembly method, followed by a thermal treatment process. In particular, WC/PC-35-1000 composite with tungsten content of 35% synthesized at the carbonized temperature of 1000 °C, exhibited a specific surface area (S BET ) of 457.92 m 2 g −1 . After loading Pt nanoparticles (NPs), the obtained Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst exhibits the highest unit mass electroactivity (595.93 A g −1 Pt) toward methanol electro-oxidation, which is about 2.6 times as that of the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. Furthermore, the Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst displays much stronger resistance to CO poisoning and better durability toward methanol electrooxidation compared with the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. The high electrocatalytic activity, strong poison-resistivity and good stability of Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst are attributed to the porous structures and high specific surface area of WC/PC support could facilitate the rapid mass transportation. Moreover, synergistic effect between WC and Pt NPs is favorable to the higher catalytic performance

  9. Tungsten carbide/porous carbon composite as superior support for platinum catalyst toward methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liming [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Fu, Honggang, E-mail: fuhg@vip.sina.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang, Lei; Mu, Guang; Jiang, Baojiang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ruihong [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The WC nanoparticles are well dispersed in the carbon matrix. The size of WC nanoparticles is about 30 nm. It can be concluded that tungsten carbide and carbon composite was successfully prepared by the present synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • The WC/PC composite with high specific surface area was prepared by a simple way. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst has superior performance toward methanol electro-oxidation. • The current density for methanol electro-oxidation is as high as 595.93 A g{sup −1} Pt. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst shows better durability and stronger CO electro-oxidation. • The performance of Pt/WC/PC is superior to the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide/porous carbon (WC/PC) composites have been successfully synthesized through a surfactant assisted evaporation-induced-assembly method, followed by a thermal treatment process. In particular, WC/PC-35-1000 composite with tungsten content of 35% synthesized at the carbonized temperature of 1000 °C, exhibited a specific surface area (S{sub BET}) of 457.92 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. After loading Pt nanoparticles (NPs), the obtained Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst exhibits the highest unit mass electroactivity (595.93 A g{sup −1} Pt) toward methanol electro-oxidation, which is about 2.6 times as that of the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. Furthermore, the Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst displays much stronger resistance to CO poisoning and better durability toward methanol electrooxidation compared with the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. The high electrocatalytic activity, strong poison-resistivity and good stability of Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst are attributed to the porous structures and high specific surface area of WC/PC support could facilitate the rapid mass transportation. Moreover, synergistic effect between WC and Pt NPs is favorable to the higher catalytic performance.

  10. Electrocatalytic Activity of Carbonized Nanostructured Polyanilines for Oxidation Reactions: Sensing of Nitrite Ions and Ascorbic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micić, Darko; Šljukić, Biljana; Zujovic, Zoran; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonized PANIs prepared from various nanostructured PANI precursors • Electroanalytical performances of carbonized PANIs evaluated using voltammetry • Study of carbonized PANIs physico-chemical properties related to electroactivity • The lowest over-potential for NO 2 − oxidation at c-PANI (+0.87 V vs. SCE) • The lowest over-potential for ascorbic acid oxidation at both c-PANI and c-PANI-SSA - Abstract: A comparative study of the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-containing carbon nanomaterials, prepared by the carbonization of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) salts, for the electrooxidation reactions is presented. Nanostructured PANI salts were synthesized by the oxidative polymerization of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in an aqueous solution in the presence of 5-sulfosalicylic acid (PANI-SSA), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (PANI-DNSA) as well as without added acid (PANI), and subsequently carbonized to c-PANI-SSA, c-PANI-DNSA and c-PANI, respectively. Glassy carbon tip was modified with nanostructured c-PANIs and used for the investigation of sensing of nitrite and ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions as model analytes by linear sweep voltammetry. All three types of the investigated c-PANIs gave excellent response to the nitrite ions and ascorbic acid electrooxidation. The lowest peak potential for nitrite ion oxidation exhibited c-PANI (+0.87 V vs. SCE), and for ascorbic acid oxidation both c-PANI and c-PANI-SSA (ca. + 0.13 V vs. SCE). Electrochemical data were correlated with structural and textural data obtained by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental and nitrogen sorption analysis

  11. Facile conversion of bulk metal surface to metal oxide single-crystalline nanostructures by microwave irradiation: Formation of pure or Cr-doped hematite nanostructure arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungho; Jeong, Haeyoon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-01-01

    We report a method for converting the surfaces of bulk metal substrates (pure iron or stainless steel) to metal oxide (hematite or Cr-doped hematite) nanostructures using microwave irradiation. When microwave radiation (2.45 GHz, single-mode) was applied to a metal substrate under the flow of a gas mixture containing O 2 and Ar, metal oxide nanostructures formed and entirely covered the substrate. The nanostructures were single crystalline, and the atomic ratios of the substrate metals were preserved in the nanostructures. When a pure iron sheet was used as a substrate, hematite nanowires (1000 W microwave radiation) or nanosheets (1800 W microwave radiation) formed on the surface of the substrate. When a SUS410 sheet was used as a substrate, slightly curved rod-like nanostructures were synthesized. The oxidation states of Fe and Cr in these nanorods were Fe 3+ and Cr 3+ . Quantitative analyses revealed an average Fe/Cr atomic ratio of 9.2, nearly identical to the ratio of the metals in the SUS410 substrate.

  12. Synthesizing Iron Oxide Nanostructures: The Polyethylenenemine (PEI) Role

    KAUST Repository

    Mozo, Sergio Lentijo; Zuddas, Efisio; Casu, Alberto; Falqui, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Controlled synthesis of anisotropic iron oxide nanoparticles is a challenge in the field of nanomaterial research that requires an extreme attention to detail. In particular, following up a previous work showcasing the synthesis of magnetite

  13. Sol-Gel Derived, Nanostructured Oxide Lubricant Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    In this program, we deposited oxide coatings of titanium and nickel by wet-chemical deposition methods, also referred to as sol-gel, which showed excellent tribological properties in previous investigations...

  14. Changes in the structural and electrical properties of vacuum post-annealed tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide (IWO and ITiO) filmswere deposited at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, and vacuum post-annealing was used to improve the electron mobility. With increasing deposition power, the as deposited films showed an increasingly

  15. Morphology evolution and nanostructure of chemical looping transition metal oxide materials upon redox processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lang; Cheng, Zhuo; Guo, Mengqing; Fan, Jonathan A.; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal are heavily used in chemical looping technologies because of their high oxygen carrying capacity and high thermal reactivity. These oxygen activities result in the oxide formation and oxygen vacancy formation that affect the nanoscale crystal phase and morphology within these materials and their subsequent bulk chemical behavior. In this study, two selected earlier transition metals manganese and cobalt as well as two selected later transition metals copper and nickel that are important to chemical looping reactions are investigated when they undergo cyclic redox reactions. We found Co microparticles exhibited increased CoO impurity presence when oxidized to Co_3O_4 upon cyclic oxidation; CuO redox cycles prefer to be limited to a reduced form of Cu_2O and an oxidized form of CuO; Mn microparticles were oxidized to a mixed phases of MnO and Mn_3O_4, which causes delamination during oxidation. For Ni microparticles, a dense surface were observed during the redox reaction. The atomistic thermodynamics methods and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to elucidate the effect of oxygen dissociation and migration on the morphological evolution of nanostructures during the redox processes. Our results indicate that the earlier transition metals (Mn and Co) tend to have stronger interaction with O_2 than the later transition metals (Ni and Cu). Also, our modified Brønsted−Evans−Polanyi (BEP) relationship for reaction energies and total reaction barriers reveals that reactions of earlier transition metals are more exergonic and have lower oxygen dissociation barriers than those of later transition metals. In addition, it was found that for these transition metal oxides the oxygen vacancy formation energies increase with the depth. The oxide in the higher oxidation state of transition metal has lower vacancy formation energy, which can facilitate forming the defective nanostructures. The fundamental understanding of these metal

  16. A New Hydrogen Sensor with Nanostructured Zinc Magnesium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma PRAKSHALE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano structured ZnMgO was synthesized by self combustion method using glycine as a fuel. The synthesized microstructure materials were investigated by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM, and E-DAX. Observed results shows the product, is the mixture of ZnMgO, its particle size is about 45-55 nm with loosely agglomerated shape. Electrical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied by AC conductivity measurement. The gas sensing properties were studied towards reducing gases viz. ammonia, hydrogen, acetone, chlorine, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, etc. and it was observed that the nano structured ZnMgO shows high response to hydrogen at 200 °C and no cross sensitivities to other reducing gases. These nanoparticles were good I-V characteristics with ohmic nature. The quick response ( ~10 s and fast recovery (~ 20 s are the main features of these sensors. The effects of nanostructure on the gas sensing performance were studied and discussed.

  17. Sensitivity, selectivity and stability of tin oxide nanostructures on large area arrays of microhotplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Cavicchi, Richard; Semancik, Steve; DeVoe, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the sensitivity, stability and selectivity of nanoparticle engineered tin oxide (SnO2) are reported, for microhotplate chemical sensing applications. 16 Å of metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, copper and silver were selectively evaporated onto each column of the microhotplate array. Following evaporation, the microhotplates were heated to 500 °C and SnO2 was deposited on top of the microhotplates using a self-aligned chemical vapour deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed control of SnO2 nanostructures in the range of 20-121 nm. Gas sensing in seven different hydrocarbons revealed that metal nanoparticles that helped in producing faster nucleation of SnO2 resulted in smaller grain size and higher sensitivity. Sensitivity as a function of concentration and grain size is addressed for tin oxide nanostructures. Smaller grain sizes resulted in higher sensitivity of tin oxide nanostructures. Temperature programmed sensing of the devices yielded shape differences in the response between air and methanol, illustrating selectivity. Spiderweb plots were used to monitor the materials programmed selectivity. The shape differences between different gases in spiderweb plots illustrate materials selectivity as a powerful mapping approach for monitoring selectivity in various gases. Continuous monitoring in 80 ppm methanol yielded stable sensor response for more than 200 h. This comprehensive study illustrates the use of a nanoparticle engineering approach for sensitive, selective and stable gas sensing applications.

  18. A study of the switching mechanism and electrode material of fully CMOS compatible tungsten oxide ReRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, W. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Lai, E. K.; Lee, F. M.; Lin, Y. Y.; Chuang, Alfred T. H.; Chang, K. P.; Yao, Y. D.; Chou, T. H.; Lin, H. M.; Lee, M. H.; Shih, Y. H.; Hsieh, K. Y.; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO X ) resistive memory (ReRAM), a two-terminal CMOS compatible nonvolatile memory, has shown promise to surpass the existing flash memory in terms of scalability, switching speed, and potential for 3D stacking. The memory layer, WO X , can be easily fabricated by down-stream plasma oxidation (DSPO) or rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of W plugs universally used in CMOS circuits. Results of conductive AFM (C-AFM) experiment suggest the switching mechanism is dominated by the REDOX (Reduction-oxidation) reaction—the creation of conducting filaments leads to a low resistance state and the rupturing of the filaments results in a high resistance state. Our experimental results show that the reactions happen at the TE/WO X interface. With this understanding in mind, we proposed two approaches to boost the memory performance: (i) using DSPO to treat the RTO WO X surface and (ii) using Pt TE, which forms a Schottky barrier with WO X . Both approaches, especially the latter, significantly reduce the forming current and enlarge the memory window.

  19. Methanol electro-oxidation on platinum modified tungsten carbides in direct methanol fuel cells: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Hu, P; Sun, Shi-Gang; Chu, You-Qun; Ma, Chun-An; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2015-10-14

    In exploration of low-cost electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), Pt modified tungsten carbide (WC) materials are found to be great potential candidates for decreasing Pt usage whilst exhibiting satisfactory reactivity. In this work, the mechanisms, onset potentials and activity for electrooxidation of methanol were studied on a series of Pt-modified WC catalysts where the bare W-terminated WC(0001) substrate was employed. In the surface energy calculations of a series of Pt-modified WC models, we found that the feasible structures are mono- and bi-layer Pt-modified WCs. The tri-layer Pt-modified WC model is not thermodynamically stable where the top layer Pt atoms tend to accumulate and form particles or clusters rather than being dispersed as a layer. We further calculated the mechanisms of methanol oxidation on the feasible models via methanol dehydrogenation to CO involving C-H and O-H bonds dissociating subsequently, and further CO oxidation with the C-O bond association. The onset potentials for the oxidation reactions over the Pt-modified WC catalysts were determined thermodynamically by water dissociation to surface OH* species. The activities of these Pt-modified WC catalysts were estimated from the calculated kinetic data. It has been found that the bi-layer Pt-modified WC catalysts may provide a good reactivity and an onset oxidation potential comparable to pure Pt and serve as promising electrocatalysts for DMFCs with a significant decrease in Pt usage.

  20. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface- chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  1. A 1 V supercapacitor device with nanostructured graphene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Attractive supercapacitor performance, namely high-power capability and cycling stability for graphene ... performance tested. A comparative study has also been conducted for polyaniline and graphene oxide/polyaniline composite-based 1 V supercapacitors for comprehending ..... Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers).

  2. Study of nano-structured ceria for catalytic CO oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valechha, D.; Lokhande, S.; Klementová, Mariana; Šubrt, Jan; Rayalu, S.; Labhsetwar, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2011), s. 3718-3725 ISSN 0959-9428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : mesoporous CeO2 * titania * alumina * oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.968, year: 2011

  3. Suppression of photo-bias induced instability for amorphous indium tungsten oxide thin film transistors with bi-layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Po-Tsun, E-mail: ptliu@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chih-Jui [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-27

    This study investigates the instability induced by bias temperature illumination stress (NBTIS) for an amorphous indium-tungsten-oxide thin film transistor (a-IWO TFT) with SiO{sub 2} backchannel passivation layer (BPL). It is found that this electrical degradation phenomenon can be attributed to the generation of defect states during the BPL process, which deteriorates the photo-bias stability of a-IWO TFTs. A method proposed by adding an oxygen-rich a-IWO thin film upon the a-IWO active channel layer could effectively suppress the plasma damage to channel layer during BPL deposition process. The bi-layer a-IWO TFT structure with an oxygen-rich back channel exhibits superior electrical reliability of device under NBTIS.

  4. Electrical Transport Ability of Nanostructured Potassium-Doped Titanium Oxide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yoon; Matsuno, Ryosuke; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takai, Madoka

    2011-02-01

    Potassium-doped nanostructured titanium oxide films were fabricated using a wet corrosion process with various KOH solutions. The doped condition of potassium in TiO2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Nanotubular were synthesized at a dopant concentration of 0.27%, these structures disappeared. To investigate the electrical properties of K-doped TiO2, pseudo metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) samples were fabricated. The samples exhibited a distinct electrical behavior and p-type characteristics. The electrical behavior was governed by the volume of the dopant when the dopant concentration was 0.18%.

  5. Growth and optical properties of silver nanostructures obtained on connected anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, G.; Durante, C.; Pilot, R.; Garoli, D.; Bozio, R.; Romanato, F.; Gennaro, A.; Rizzi, G. A.; Granozzi, G.

    2012-08-01

    Ag nanostructures are grown by AC electrodeposition on anodic alumina oxide (AAO) connected membranes acting as templates. Depending on the thickness of the template and on the voltage applied during the growth process, different Ag nanostructures with different optical properties are obtained. When AAO membranes about 1 μm thick are used, the Ag nanostructures consist in Ag nanorods, at the bottom of the pores, and Ag nanotubes departing from the nanorods and filling the pores almost for the whole length. When AAO membranes about 3 μm thick are used, the nanostructures are Ag spheroids, at the bottom of the pores, and Ag nanowires that do not reach the upper part of the alumina pores. The samples are characterized by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis and Raman spectroscopies. A simple NaOH etching procedure, followed by sonication in ethanol, allows one to obtain an exposed ordered array of Ag nanorods, suitable for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, while in the other case (3 μm thick AAO membranes) the sample can be used in localized surface plasmon resonance sensing.

  6. Growth and optical properties of silver nanostructures obtained on connected anodic aluminum oxide templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giallongo, G; Durante, C; Pilot, R; Bozio, R; Gennaro, A; Rizzi, G A; Granozzi, G; Garoli, D; Romanato, F

    2012-01-01

    Ag nanostructures are grown by AC electrodeposition on anodic alumina oxide (AAO) connected membranes acting as templates. Depending on the thickness of the template and on the voltage applied during the growth process, different Ag nanostructures with different optical properties are obtained. When AAO membranes about 1 μm thick are used, the Ag nanostructures consist in Ag nanorods, at the bottom of the pores, and Ag nanotubes departing from the nanorods and filling the pores almost for the whole length. When AAO membranes about 3 μm thick are used, the nanostructures are Ag spheroids, at the bottom of the pores, and Ag nanowires that do not reach the upper part of the alumina pores. The samples are characterized by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV–vis and Raman spectroscopies. A simple NaOH etching procedure, followed by sonication in ethanol, allows one to obtain an exposed ordered array of Ag nanorods, suitable for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, while in the other case (3 μm thick AAO membranes) the sample can be used in localized surface plasmon resonance sensing. (paper)

  7. The formation of tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation and their application in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojadinović, Stevan, E-mail: sstevan@ff.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vasilić, Rastko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Radić, Nenad [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tadić, Nenad [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stefanov, Plamen [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grbić, Boško [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). • Coatings are mainly composed of alpha alumina, ZnO and metallic tungsten. • Photocatalytic activity of doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is higher than of undoped ones. • The increase of photoluminescence corresponds to decrease of photocatalytic activity. • Tungsten acts as a charge trap to reduce the recombination rate of electron/hole pairs. - Abstract: Tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum substrate in supporting electrolyte (0.1 M boric acid + 0.05 M borax + 2 g/L ZnO) with addition of different concentrations of Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, and light absorption characteristics of formed surface coatings are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that formed surface coatings consist of alpha and gamma phase of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, metallic tungsten and WO{sub 3}. Obtained results showed that incorporated tungsten does not have any influence on the absorption spectra of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings, which showed invariable band edge at about 385 nm. The photocatalytic activity of undoped and tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is estimated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is higher thanof undoped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings; the best photocatalytic activity is ascribed to coatings formed in supporting electrolyte with addition of 0.3 g/L Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O. Tungsten in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings acts as a charge trap, thus reducing the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The results of PL measurements are in agreement with photocatalytic activity. Declining PL intensity corresponds to increasing photocatalytic activity of the

  8. The formation of tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation and their application in photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Vasilić, Rastko; Radić, Nenad; Tadić, Nenad; Stefanov, Plamen; Grbić, Boško

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). • Coatings are mainly composed of alpha alumina, ZnO and metallic tungsten. • Photocatalytic activity of doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings is higher than of undoped ones. • The increase of photoluminescence corresponds to decrease of photocatalytic activity. • Tungsten acts as a charge trap to reduce the recombination rate of electron/hole pairs. - Abstract: Tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum substrate in supporting electrolyte (0.1 M boric acid + 0.05 M borax + 2 g/L ZnO) with addition of different concentrations of Na_2WO_4·2H_2O. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, and light absorption characteristics of formed surface coatings are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that formed surface coatings consist of alpha and gamma phase of Al_2O_3, ZnO, metallic tungsten and WO_3. Obtained results showed that incorporated tungsten does not have any influence on the absorption spectra of Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings, which showed invariable band edge at about 385 nm. The photocatalytic activity of undoped and tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings is estimated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings is higher thanof undoped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings; the best photocatalytic activity is ascribed to coatings formed in supporting electrolyte with addition of 0.3 g/L Na_2WO_4·2H_2O. Tungsten in Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings acts as a charge trap, thus reducing the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The results of PL measurements are in agreement with photocatalytic activity. Declining PL intensity corresponds to increasing photocatalytic activity of the coatings, indicating slower recombination of electron-hole pairs.

  9. Synthesis of tungsten oxide (W{sub 18}O{sub 49}) nanosheets utilizing EDTA salt by microwave irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, V.; Parthibavarman, M. [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-04-07

    Research highlights: > We have synthesized tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3-{delta}}) nanoparticles by microwave irradiation method for the first time using EDTA as surface modulator. The variation in stoichiometric oxygen content of the annealed samples clearly indicates the role of EDTA in reaction medium. The variation in oxygen content also modified the transparency of the end product confirming the change in optical conductivity. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of crystalline W{sub 18}O{sub 49} with nanosheet like morphology by low cost microwave irradiation method without employing hydrothermal process for the first time. Initially, WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O was synthesized using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as surface modulator. The product was annealed at 600 {sup o}C for 6 h in ambient atmosphere in order to obtain anhydrous tungsten oxide W{sub 18}O{sub 49}. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirmed the as prepared WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O to be orthorhombic and W{sub 18}O{sub 49} to be monoclinic phase, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) revealed that the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanosheets have the average dimensions of the order of 250 nm in length and around 150 nm in width. UV-visible diffusion reflectance spectroscopic (DRS) studies revealed the band gap energies to be 3.28 and 3.47 eV for WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and W{sub 18}O{sub 49} samples, respectively. The growth mechanism of two dimensional W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanosheets is discussed.

  10. Electrocatalysis on tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of electrocatalysis, the importance of the equilibrium rest potential and its standardization on polished WC-electrodes, the influence of oxygen in the catalysts upon the oxidation of hydrogen, and the attained results of the hydrogen oxidation on tungsten carbide are treated. (HK) [de

  11. Preparation of the Nanostructured Radioisotope Metallic Oxide by Neutron Irradiation for Use as Radiotracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ei Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallic oxides manganese dioxide (MnO2, samarium oxide (Sm2O3, and dysprosium oxide (Dy2O3 with nanorod-like structures were synthesized by the hydrothermal synthesis method, respectively. Subsequently, the nanostructured radioisotopes MnO2 with Mn-56, Sm2O3 with Sm-153, and Dy2O3 with Dy-165 were prepared by neutron irradiation from the HANARO research reactor, respectively. The three different elements, Mn, Sm, and Dy, were selected as radiotracers because these elements can be easily gamma-activated from neutrons (activation limits: 1 picogram (Dy, 1–10 picogram (Mn, 10–100 picogram (Sm. Furthermore, the synthesized radioisotopes can be used as radiotracers in Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis as the rare earth metals Dy and Sm were not present in the Korean environment. The successful synthesis of the radioisotope metallic oxides was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, and gamma spectroscopy analysis. The synthesized nanostructured radioisotope metallic oxides may be used as radiotracers in scientific, environmental, engineering, and industrial fields.

  12. Hierarchical Assembly of Multifunctional Oxide-based Composite Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jan Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanoarchitectures represent a class of nanostructured entities that integrates various dissimilar nanoscale building blocks including nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms toward realizing multifunctional characteristics. A broad array of composite nanoarchitectures can be designed and fabricated, involving generic materials such as metal, ceramics, and polymers in nanoscale form. In this review, we will highlight the latest progress on composite nanostructures in our research group, particularly on various metal oxides including binary semiconductors, ABO3-type perovskites, A2BO4 spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides (AB(OH6 with diverse application potential. Through a generic template strategy in conjunction with various synthetic approaches—such as hydrothermal decomposition, colloidal deposition, physical sputtering, thermal decomposition and thermal oxidation, semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires, metal oxide/perovskite (spinel composite nanowires, stannate based nanocompostes, as well as semiconductor heterojunction—arrays and networks have been self-assembled in large scale and are being developed as promising classes of composite nanoarchitectures, which may open a new array of advanced nanotechnologies in solid state lighting, solar absorption, photocatalysis and battery, auto-emission control, and chemical sensing.

  13. Scalable high-affinity stabilization of magnetic iron oxide nanostructures by a biocompatible antifouling homopolymer

    KAUST Repository

    Luongo, Giovanni

    2017-10-12

    Iron oxide nanostructures have been widely developed for biomedical applications, due to their magnetic properties and biocompatibility. In clinical application, the stabilization of these nanostructures against aggregation and non-specific interactions is typically achieved using weakly anchored polysaccharides, with better-defined and more strongly anchored synthetic polymers not commercially adopted due to complexity of synthesis and use. Here, we show for the first time stabilization and biocompatibilization of iron oxide nanoparticles by a synthetic homopolymer with strong surface anchoring and a history of clinical use in other applications, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethy phosphorylcholine) (poly(MPC)). For the commercially important case of spherical particles, binding of poly(MPC) to iron oxide surfaces and highly effective individualization of magnetite nanoparticles (20 nm) are demonstrated. Next-generation high-aspect ratio nanowires (both magnetite/maghemite and core-shell iron/iron oxide) are furthermore stabilized by poly(MPC)-coating, with nanowire cytotoxicity at large concentrations significantly reduced. The synthesis approach is exploited to incorporate functionality into the poly(MPC) chain is demonstrated by random copolymerization with an alkyne-containing monomer for click-chemistry. Taking these results together, poly(MPC) homopolymers and random copolymers offer a significant improvement over current iron oxide nanoformulations, combining straightforward synthesis, strong surface-anchoring and well-defined molecular weight.

  14. Scalable high-affinity stabilization of magnetic iron oxide nanostructures by a biocompatible antifouling homopolymer

    KAUST Repository

    Luongo, Giovanni; Campagnolo, Paola; Perez, Jose E.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Georgiou, Theoni K.; Regoutz, Anna; Payne, David J; Stevens, Molly M.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E; Dunlop, Iain E

    2017-01-01

    Iron oxide nanostructures have been widely developed for biomedical applications, due to their magnetic properties and biocompatibility. In clinical application, the stabilization of these nanostructures against aggregation and non-specific interactions is typically achieved using weakly anchored polysaccharides, with better-defined and more strongly anchored synthetic polymers not commercially adopted due to complexity of synthesis and use. Here, we show for the first time stabilization and biocompatibilization of iron oxide nanoparticles by a synthetic homopolymer with strong surface anchoring and a history of clinical use in other applications, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethy phosphorylcholine) (poly(MPC)). For the commercially important case of spherical particles, binding of poly(MPC) to iron oxide surfaces and highly effective individualization of magnetite nanoparticles (20 nm) are demonstrated. Next-generation high-aspect ratio nanowires (both magnetite/maghemite and core-shell iron/iron oxide) are furthermore stabilized by poly(MPC)-coating, with nanowire cytotoxicity at large concentrations significantly reduced. The synthesis approach is exploited to incorporate functionality into the poly(MPC) chain is demonstrated by random copolymerization with an alkyne-containing monomer for click-chemistry. Taking these results together, poly(MPC) homopolymers and random copolymers offer a significant improvement over current iron oxide nanoformulations, combining straightforward synthesis, strong surface-anchoring and well-defined molecular weight.

  15. Tailoring Charge Recombination in Photoelectrodes Using Oxide Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iandolo, Beniamino; Wickman, Björn; Svensson, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing semiconductor devices for solar energy conversion requires an explicit control of the recombination of photogenerated electron−hole pairs. Here we show how the recombination of charge carriers can be controlled in semiconductor thin films by surface patterning with oxide nanodisks....... The control mechanism relies on the formation of dipole-like electric fields at the interface that, depending on the field direction, attract or repel minority carriers from underneath the disks. The charge recombination rate can be controlled through the choice of oxide material and the surface coverage...... of nanodisks. We provide proof-of-principle demonstration of this approach by patterning the surface of Fe2O3, one of the most studied semiconductors for light-driven water splitting, with TiO2 and Cu2O nanodisks. We expect this method to be generally applicable to a range of semiconductor-based solar energy...

  16. Metal Oxide Nanostructured Materials for Optical and Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    With a rapidly growing population, dwindling resources, and increasing environmental pressures, the need for sustainable technological solutions becomes more urgent. Metal oxides make up much of the earth's crust and are typically inexpensive materials, but poor electrical and optical properties prevent them from being useful for most semiconductor applications. Recent breakthroughs in chemistry and materials science allow for the growth of high-quality materials with nanometer-scale features...

  17. Nanostructured magnesium oxide as cure activator for polychloroprene rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sritama; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles and to use them as cure activator for polychloroprene rubber (CR). The effects of counterions of magnesium salts on the homogeneous phase precipitation reaction to control size, monodispersity, crystallinity, and morphology of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles were also investigated. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by optimizing the calcination temperature of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles. Finally, the MgO nanoparticles were dispersed in polychloroprene rubber (CR) solution along with zinc oxide (ZnO) powder. The influence of MgO nanoparticles on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites was quantified. The modulus and strength of ZnO-cured polychloroprene rubber with 4% MgO nanoparticles appeared to be superior to those with ZnO particles or ZnO with rubber grade MgO particles. These composites were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy in order to understand the morphology of the resulting system and the load transfer mechanism.

  18. The effect of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure in catalytic activity for benzene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Zhao, Xiujian; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-11-01

    The nanostructure of Ce doped OMS-2 plays a very important role in its catalytic property. We demonstrate by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the unique nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 with Mn vacancy in the framework is beneficial for the improvement of catalytic activity, while the nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 without defects are detrimental to the catalytic activity. We establish a novel and facile strategy of synthesizing these unique Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure with Mn vacancies in the framework by hydrothermal redox reaction between Ce(NO3)3 and KMnO4 with KMnO4/Ce(NO3)3 at a molar ratio of 3 : 1 at 120 °C. Compared to pure OMS-2, the produced catalyst of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 ultrathin nanorods exhibits an enormous enhancement in the catalytic activity for benzene oxidation, which is evidenced by a significant decrease (ΔT50 = 100 °C, ΔT90 = 129 °C) in the reaction temperature of T50 and T90 (corresponding to the benzene conversion = 50% and 90%), which is considerably more efficient than the expensive supported noble metal catalyst (Pt/Al2O3). We combine both theoretical and experimental evidence to provide a new physical insight into the significant effect due to the defects induced by the Ce ion substitution on the catalytic activity of OMS-2. The formation of unique Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure with Mn vacancies in the framework leads to a significant enhancement of the lattice oxygen activity, thus tremendously increasing the catalytic activity.The nanostructure of Ce doped OMS-2 plays a very important role in its catalytic property. We demonstrate by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the unique nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 with Mn vacancy in the framework is beneficial for the improvement of catalytic activity, while the nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 without defects are detrimental to the catalytic activity. We establish a novel

  19. Nanostructured high valence silver oxide produced by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellasega, D.; Facibeni, A.; Di Fonzo, F.; Russo, V.; Conti, C.; Ducati, C.; Casari, C.S.; Li Bassi, A.; Bottani, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Among silver oxides, Ag 4 O 4 , i.e. high valence Ag(I)Ag(III) oxide, is interesting for applications in high energy batteries and for the development of antimicrobial coatings. We here show that ns UV pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen containing atmosphere allows the synthesis of pure Ag 4 O 4 nanocrystalline thin films, permitting at the same time to control the morphology of the material at the sub-micrometer scale. Ag 4 O 4 films with a crystalline domain size of the order of tens of nm can be deposited provided the deposition pressure is above a threshold (roughly 4 Pa pure O 2 or 20 Pa synthetic air). The formation of this particular high valence silver oxide is explained in terms of the reactions occurring during the expansion of the ablated species in the reactive atmosphere. In particular, expansion of the PLD plasma plume is accompanied by formation of low stability Ag-O dimers and atomic oxygen, providing reactive species at the substrate where the film grows. Evidence of reactive collisions in the expanding ablation plume is obtained by analysis of the plume visible shape in inert and reactive atmospheres. In addition, we show how the dimensionless deposition parameter L, relating the target-to-substrate distance to the ablation plume maximum expansion length, can be used to classify different growth regimes. It is thus possible to vary the stoichiometry and the morphology of the films, from compact and columnar to foam-like, by controlling both the gas pressure and the target-to-substrate distance

  20. Designing deoxidation inhibiting encapsulation of metal oxide nanostructures for fluidic and biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Moumita, E-mail: ghoshiisc@gmail.com [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); IV. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ghosh, Siddharth [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Seibt, Michael [IV. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Schaap, Iwan A.T. [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Christoph F. [III. Institute of Physics – Biophysics and Complex Systems, Georg-August-Universität-Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mohan Rao, G. [Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: To retain atomic structure and morphology of ZnO nanostructures (caused by deoxidation of ZnO) in water/bio-fluids, we propose and demonstrate a robust and inexpensive encapsulation technique using bio-compatible non-ionic surfactant. - Highlights: • Aqueous solutions of ZnO nanorods with and without surfactant are prepared. • With time ZnO nanorods show structural deterioration in different aqueous solutions. • Crystallinity of ZnO nanorods in absence of aqueous solution remain unaffected. • Encapsulation of bio-compatible surfactant in alchohol avoid ZnO deoxidation. • Crystallinity and structure of ZnO nanorods after encapsulation remain unaffected. - Abstract: Due to their photoluminescence, metal oxide nanostructures such as ZnO nanostructures are promising candidates in biomedical imaging, drug delivery and bio-sensing. To apply them as label for bio-imaging, it is important to study their structural stability in a bio-fluidic environment. We have explored the effect of water, the main constituent of biological solutions, on ZnO nanostructures with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) studies which show ZnO nanorod degeneration in water. In addition, we propose and investigate a robust and inexpensive method to encapsulate these nanostructures (without structural degradation) using bio-compatible non-ionic surfactant in non-aqueous medium, which was not reported earlier. This new finding is an immediate interest to the broad audience of researchers working in biophysics, sensing and actuation, drug delivery, food and cosmetics technology, etc.

  1. Growth of single-crystal W whiskers during humid H2/N2 reduction of Ni, Fe-Ni, and Co-Ni doped tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiliang; He Yuehui; Zou Jou; Wang Yong; Huang Han

    2009-01-01

    Numbers of W whiskers were obtained by reducing Ni, Ni-Fe, and Ni-Co doped tungsten oxide in a mixed atmosphere of humid H 2 and N 2 . The phases and morphologies of the reduction products were characterized by XRD and SEM. Intensive TEM and EDS analyses showed that the obtained whiskers were W single crystals which typical have alloyed particles (Ni-W, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni-W) at the growth tips. The formed W whiskers were presumed to be induced by the alloyed particles. Our experimental results revealed that, during the reduction process of tungsten oxide, the pre-reduced Ni, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni particles not only served as nucleation aids for the initial growth of W phase from W oxide but also played the roles of catalysts during the reductive decomposition of gaseous WO 2 (OH) 2 .

  2. Formation of superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns by combination of nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide for biological droplet generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Shimizu, Kazunori; Kaizuma, Yoshihiro; Konishi, Satoshi

    2011-03-01

    In this letter, we report a technology for fabricating superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns using a combination of a nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide. In our previous study, we used a combination of hydrophobic and superhydrophilic materials. However, it was difficult to split low-surface-tension liquids such as biological liquids into droplets solely using hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterns. In this study, the contact angle of the hydrophobic region was enhanced from 109.3° to 155.6° by performing nanostructure imprinting on a damage-reduced perfluoropolymer. The developed superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns allowed the splitting of even those media that contained fetal bovine serum into droplets of a desired shape.

  3. Synthesis of nanostructured catalysts based on Mn oxide for n-hexane elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picasso, Gino; Salazar, Ivonne; Lopez, Alcides

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured Mn oxide based catalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method and corresponding bulk samples were prepared by precipitation procedure. In addition, some nanostructured samples based on Mn oxide supported on bentonite (montmorillonite) were prepared by incipient impregnation. Prior to calcination, the system was submitted by TEM analysis in order to study the peptization effect of acetic acid. The micrographs revealed that the sample prepared from nitrate precursor (0,06 M) achieved the highest monodispersion. After calcination of nanoparticles, TEM analysis has been performed in order to evaluate how extent the peptization agent is able to disperse. TEM micrographs of samples prepared from nitrate precursor revealed that the peptization effect increased with the concentration of acetic acid. XRD difractograms of Mn oxide samples showed characteristic well-defined diffraction peaks associated to Mn species as Mn 2 O 3 , Mn 3 O 4 and MnO 2 with more relative intensive signals in Mn 2 O 3 and Mn 3 O 4 spinel. Finally, synthesized manganese oxide nanoparticles were incorpored into layered structure of purified bentonite (montmorillonite) by incipient impregnation. Some essays with the unsupported and supported samples were performed for n-hexane combustion in a fixed bed reactor. Activity of bentonite supported sample was lower than its unsupported bulk sample counterpart; however the performance was higher than the corresponding to the support without active component probably due to more suitable structure position of nanoparticles into layered framework of starting bentonite. (author).

  4. Copper and Zinc Oxide Composite Nanostructures for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source to counter global environmental issues of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and depletion of natural resources. To extract useful work from solar energy, silicon-based photovoltaic devices are extensively used. The technological maturity and the high quality of silicon (Si) make it a material of choice. However limitations in Si exist, ranging from its indirect band gap to low light absorption coefficient and energy and capital intensive crystal growth schemes. Therefore, alternate materials that are earth-abundant, benign and simpler to process are needed for developing new platforms for solar energy harvesting applications. In this study, we explore oxides of copper (CuO and Cu2O) in a nanowire morphology as alternate energy harvesting materials. CuO has a bandgap of 1.2 eV whereas Cu2O has a bandgap of 2.1 eV making them ideally suited for absorbing solar radiation. First, we develop a method to synthesize vertical, single crystalline CuO and Cu2O nanowires of ~50 microm length and aspect ratios of ~200. CuO nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu foils. Cu2O nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires. Next, surface engineering of these nanowires is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. By depositing 1.4 nm of ZnO, a highly defective surface is produced on the CuO nanowires. These defects are capable of trapping charge as is evident through persistent photoconductivity measurements of ZnO coated CuO nanowires. The same nanowires serve as efficient photocatalysts reducing CO2 to CO with a yield of 1.98 mmol/g-cat/hr. Finally, to develop a robust platform for flexible solar cells, a protocol to transfer vertical CuO nanowires inside flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. Embedded CuO nanowires-ZnO pn junctions show a VOC of 0.4 V and a JSC of 10.4 microA/cm2 under white light illumination of 5.7 mW/cm2. Thus, this research provides broad

  5. Physical Properties of Macroporous Tungsten Oxide Thin Films and Their Impact on the Photocurrent Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Riech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten trioxide (WO3 films were prepared using polystyrene spheres of two different diameters as a template in order to create porous layers. X-ray diffraction data and electron microscopy images show that annealed films exhibit polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phase and pore size of approximately hundred nanometers. The optical band gap energies have been determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy as 3.17 eV, and this value was not affected by sample morphology. Low temperature photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad band in the blue region. Deconvolutions of PL spectra show that there are two transitions which intensity depends on thin film pore size. We discuss the possible origin of this emissions associated with oxygen vacancies and surface states. A comparative study of the WO3 films used as photoanodes is presented and correlated with PL results.

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanostructured zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conradt, Jonas; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Sartor, Janos; Fallert, Johannes [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Szmytkowski, Jedrzej; Kalt, Heinz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinhard, Manuel; Colsmann, Alexander [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lemmer, Uli [Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Balaban, Teodor Silviu [Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid solar cells represent a promising (cost-efficient) alternative to pure inorganic solar cells. We present dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) which are based on a zinc oxide (ZnO) electrode covered with a ruthenium dye. Our work focuses on the morphology of the ZnO electrode and its impact on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. Nanocrystalline ZnO powder layers and arrays of nanorods are incorporated into the DSSCs. The ZnO nanorods are grown by vapor transport deposition. The morphology and doping concentration of the rods can be controlled by the choice of substrate material, growth condition and catalytic metal layers. The nanorod arrays are expected to fasten the electron transport towards the anode and thereby improve the solar cell efficiency. In addition, novel self-assembling (porphyrin) dyes are tested as sensitizer within a DSSC.

  7. Nanostructured Scrolls from Graphene Oxide for Microjet Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kun; Manjare, Manoj; Barrett, Christopher A; Yang, Bo; Salguero, Tina T; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-08-16

    Layered heterostructures containing graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and 20-35 nm bimetal coatings can detach easily from a Si substrate upon sonication-spontaneously forming freestanding, micrometer-sized scrolls with GO on the outside-due to a combination of material stresses and weak bonding between GO layers. Simple procedures can tune the scroll diameters by varying the thicknesses of the metal films, and these results are confirmed by both experiment and modeling. The selection of materials determines the stresses that control the rolling behavior, as well as the functionality of the structures. In the GO/Ti/Pt system, the Pt is located within the interior of the scrolls, which can become self-propelled microjet engines through O2 bubbling when suspended in aqueous H2O2.

  8. Self-cleaning glasses containing nanostructured titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Using the electrospinning technique nanofibers of titanium oxide were synthesized. As precursor materials, titanium propoxide and a solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone were used. After the electrospinning process, the non-tissue material obtained was heat treated and characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the phase crystallinity, and SEM to analyze the microstructure of the fibers. After ultrasound dispersion of this material in isopropyl alcohol, the glass coatings were made by dip-coating methodology. The removal velocity was kept constant, but the solution composition was varied to obtain a transparent and photo active film. The film was characterized by the contact angle of a water droplet in its surface (hydrophilicity), the transparency was evaluated using a spectrophotometer and the photocatalytic activity of the film was also evaluated. (author)

  9. High temperature oxidation behaviour of nanostructured cermet coatings in a mixed CO2 - O2 environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2014-06-01

    Nanostructured ceramic-metallic (cermet) coatings composed of nanosized ceramic particles (α-Al2O3 and TiO2) dispersed in a nickel matrix were co-electrodeposited and then oxidized at 500°C, 600°C and 700°C in a mixed gas using a Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) apparatus. The mixed gas was composed of 15% CO2, 10% O2 and 75% N2. This research investigates the effects of CO2 and O2 partial pressures on time-depended oxidation rates for coatings and compared them to the results from atmospheric oxidation under similar temperatures. The increase in partial pressure of oxygen due to the presence of CO2 at each tested temperature was calculated and correlated to the oxidation rate of the coatings. The results showed that the presence of CO2 in the system increased the oxidation rate of cermet coatings when compared to atmospheric oxidation at the same temperature. It was also shown that the increase in the oxidation rate is not the result of CO2 acting as the primary oxidant but as a secondary oxidant which results in an increase of the total partial pressure of oxygen and consequently higher oxidation rates. The WDS and XRD analyses results showed that the presence of nanosized TiO2 particles in a nickel matrix can improve oxidation behaviour of the coatings by formation of Ni-Ti compounds on oxidizing surface of the coating which was found beneficiary in reducing the oxidation rates for cermet coatings.

  10. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Matteo; Marrani, Andrea Giacomo; Novelli, Vittoria; Awais, Muhammad; Dowling, Denis P.; Vos, Johannes G.; Dini, Danilo

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2-6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  11. Synthesizing Iron Oxide Nanostructures: The Polyethylenenemine (PEI) Role

    KAUST Repository

    Mozo, Sergio Lentijo

    2017-01-12

    Controlled synthesis of anisotropic iron oxide nanoparticles is a challenge in the field of nanomaterial research that requires an extreme attention to detail. In particular, following up a previous work showcasing the synthesis of magnetite nanorods (NRs) using a two-step approach that made use of polyethylenenemine (PEI) as a capping ligand to synthesize intermediate β-FeOOH NRs, we studied the effect and influence of the capping ligand on the formation of β-FeOOH NRs. By comparing the results reported in the literature with those we obtained from syntheses performed (1) in the absence of PEI or (2) by using PEIs with different molecular weight, we showed how the choice of different PEIs determines the aspect ratio and the structural stability of the β-FeOOH NRs and how this affects the final products. For this purpose, a combination of XRD, HRTEM, and direct current superconducting quantum interference device (DC SQUID) magnetometry was used to identify the phases formed in the final products and study their morphostructural features and related magnetic behavior.

  12. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  13. Electrospray-printed nanostructured graphene oxide gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2015-12-01

    We report low-cost conductometric gas sensors that use an ultrathin film made of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes as transducing element. The devices were fabricated by lift-off metallization and near-room temperature, atmospheric pressure electrospray printing using a shadow mask. The sensors are sensitive to reactive gases at room temperature without requiring any post heat treatment, harsh chemical reduction, or doping with metal nanoparticles. The sensors’ response to humidity at atmospheric pressure tracks that of a commercial sensor, and is linear with changes in humidity in the 10%-60% relative humidity range while consuming recipes yielded nearly identical response characteristics, suggesting that intrinsic properties of the film control the sensing mechanism. The gas sensors successfully detected ammonia at concentrations down to 500 ppm (absolute partial pressure of ˜5 × 10-4 T) at ˜1 T pressure, room temperature conditions. The sensor technology can be used in a great variety of applications including air conditioning and sensing of reactive gas species in vacuum lines and abatement systems.

  14. Electrospray-printed nanostructured graphene oxide gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Anthony P; Velásquez-García, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    We report low-cost conductometric gas sensors that use an ultrathin film made of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes as transducing element. The devices were fabricated by lift-off metallization and near-room temperature, atmospheric pressure electrospray printing using a shadow mask. The sensors are sensitive to reactive gases at room temperature without requiring any post heat treatment, harsh chemical reduction, or doping with metal nanoparticles. The sensors’ response to humidity at atmospheric pressure tracks that of a commercial sensor, and is linear with changes in humidity in the 10%–60% relative humidity range while consuming <6 μW. Devices with GO layers printed by different deposition recipes yielded nearly identical response characteristics, suggesting that intrinsic properties of the film control the sensing mechanism. The gas sensors successfully detected ammonia at concentrations down to 500 ppm (absolute partial pressure of ∼5 × 10"−"4 T) at ∼1 T pressure, room temperature conditions. The sensor technology can be used in a great variety of applications including air conditioning and sensing of reactive gas species in vacuum lines and abatement systems. (paper)

  15. Self-limiting and complete oxidation of silicon nanostructures produced by laser ablation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccaro, L.; Messina, F.; Camarda, P.; Gelardi, F. M.; Cannas, M., E-mail: marco.cannas@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Popescu, R.; Schneider, R.; Gerthsen, D. [Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engesserstrasse 7, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-14

    Oxidized Silicon nanomaterials produced by 1064 nm pulsed laser ablation in deionized water are investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy allows to characterize the structural and chemical properties at a sub-nanometric scale. This analysis clarifies that laser ablation induces both self-limiting and complete oxidation processes which produce polycrystalline Si surrounded by a layer of SiO{sub 2} and amorphous fully oxidized SiO{sub 2}, respectively. These nanostructures exhibit a composite luminescence spectrum which is investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy with a tunable laser excitation. The origin of the observed luminescence bands agrees with the two structural typologies: Si nanocrystals emit a μs-decaying red band; defects of SiO{sub 2} give rise to a ns-decaying UV band and two overlapping blue bands with lifetime in the ns and ms timescale.

  16. An Electrochemical Sensor Based on Nanostructured Hollandite-type Manganese Oxide for Detection of Potassium Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Lima

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The participation of cations in redox reactions of manganese oxides provides an opportunity for development of chemical sensors for non-electroactive ions. A sensor based on a nanostructured hollandite-type manganese oxide was investigated for voltammetric detection of potassium ions. The detection is based on the measurement of anodic current generated by oxidation of Mn(III to Mn(IV at the surface of the electrode and the subsequent extraction of the potassium ions into the hollandite structure. In this work, an amperometric procedure at an operating potential of 0.80 V (versus SCE is exploited for amperometric monitoring. The current signals are linearly proportional to potassium ion concentration in the range 4.97 × 10−5 to 9.05 × 10−4 mol L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997.

  17. Electro-optical evaluation of tungsten oxide and vanadium pentoxide thin films for modeling an electrochromic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Najafi Ashtiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tungsten oxide and vanadium oxide electrochromic thin films were placed in vacuum and in a thickness of 200 nm on a transparent conductive substrate of SnO2:F using the physical method of thermal evaporation. Then they were studied for the optical characteristics in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm and for their electrical potentials in the range form +1.5 to -1.5 volts. The films were post heated in order to assess changes in energy gap with temperature, at temperatures120 , 300 and 500°C. Refractive and extinction coefficients and the transition type of films in the visible light range and in the thickness of 200 nm were determined and measured. X-ray diffraction pattern and SEM images and cyclic Voltammetry of layers were also studied. The results of this study due to the deposition of layers, the layer thickness selected, the type of substrate, the range of annealing temperatures and selected electrolyte were in full compliance with the works of other researchers [1,2,3]. Therefore, these layers with features such as crystal structure, refractive and even extinction coefficients in the range of visible light, the appropriate response of chromic switch in the replication potential, good adhesion to the substrate, and the high amount of optical transmition and so on, prove useful to be used in an electrochromic device

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanostructures by electrochemical hybridization with graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, A.; Wu, Z.; Zapien, J. A.; Li, Y. Y.; Ruotolo, A.

    2018-05-01

    Synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures is reported by electrochemical deposition from an aqueous electrolyte in presence of graphene oxide (GO) with varying oxidation degree. The properties of hybrids were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques and photocatalytic measurements. The results indicated the electrodeposition of ZnO in presence of GO with increased oxygen content led to marked differences in the morphology while Raman measurements indicated an increased defect level both in the ZnO and the electrochemically reduced GO (ErGO) within the hybrids. The decrease in C/O atomic ratio of GO (from 0.79 to 0.71) employed for the electrodeposition of ZnO resulted in an increase in photocatalytic efficiency for methylene blue degradation under UV irradiation from 4-folds to 10-folds with respect to non-hybridized ZnO. The observed synergetic effect of cathodic deposition potential and oxygen content in GO towards improving the photocatalytic activity of immobilized ZnO is expected to contribute to further development of more effective deposition approaches for the preparation of high performance hybrid nanostructures.

  19. Promotion of Water-mediated Carbon Removal by Nanostructured Barium Oxide/nickel Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Yang; Y Choi; W Qin; H Chen; K Blinn; M Liu; P Liu; J Bai; T Tyson; M Liu

    2011-12-31

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750 C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni surface, creating numerous nanostructured BaO/Ni interfaces that readily adsorb water and facilitate water-mediated carbon removal reactions. Density functional theory calculations predict that the dissociated OH from H2O on BaO reacts with C on Ni near the BaO/Ni interface to produce CO and H species, which are then electrochemically oxidized at the triple-phase boundaries of the anode. This anode offers potential for ushering in a new generation of SOFCs for efficient, low-emission conversion of readily available fuels to electricity.

  20. Studies on the optoelectronic properties of the thermally evaporated tin-doped indium oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ko-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Liang-Da [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Li-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Han C., E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-05-15

    Indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanorods, nanotowers and tin-doped (Sn:In = 1:100) indium oxide (ITO) nanorods have been fabricated by thermal evaporation. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of these three nanoproducts are characterized by FE-SEM, HRTEM and XPS. To further investigate the optoelectronic properties, the I–V curves and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are measured. The electrical resistivity of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods, nanotowers and ITO nanorods are 1.32 kΩ, 0.65 kΩ and 0.063 kΩ, respectively. CL spectra of these three nanoproducts clearly indicate that tin-doped (Sn:In = 1:100) indium oxide (ITO) nanorods cause a blue shift. No doubt ITO nanorods obtain the highest performance among these three nanoproducts, and this also means that Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures would be the best way to enhance the optoelectronic properties. Additionally, the growing mechanism and the optoelectronic properties of these three nanostructures are discussed. This study is beneficial to the applications of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods, nanotowers and ITO nanorods in optoelectronic nanodevices.

  1. Solid-state Water-mediated Transport Reduction of Nanostructured Iron Oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Vladimir M.; Povarov, Vladimir G.; Voronkov, Gennadii P.; Semenov, Valentin G.; Murin, Igor' V.; Gittsovich, Viktor N.; Sinel'nikov, Boris M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio in two-dimensional iron oxide nanosructures (nanolayers with a thickness of 0.3-1.5 nm on silica surface) may be precisely controlled using the transport reduction (TR) technique. The species ≡-O-Fe(OH) 2 and (≡Si-O-) 2 -FeOH forming the surface monolayer are not reduced at 400-600 deg. C because of their covalent bonding to the silica surface, as demonstrated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Iron oxide microparticles (microstructures) obtained by the impregnation technique, being chemically unbound to silica, are subjected to reduction at T ≥ 500 deg. C with formation of metallic iron in the form of α-Fe. Transport reduction of supported nanostructures (consisting of 1 or 4 monolayers) at T ≥ 600 deg. C produces bulk iron(II) silicate and metallic iron phases. The structural-chemical transformations occurring in transport reduction of supported iron oxide nanolayers are proved to be governed by specific phase processes in the nanostructures themselves

  2. Formation of Self-assembled Nanostructure on Noble Metal Islands Based on Anodized Aluminum Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Young Sic; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Hae Seong

    2004-01-01

    We have developed the methodology to produce nanoscale gold rods using an AAO template. Each gold rod was generated in every AAO pore. This nanoislands array of gold formed over the AAO pores can be used as corner stones for building nanostructures. We demonstrated this by forming a nanostructure on the Au/AAO by binding a self-assembly class of molecules onto the metal islands. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) has been considered an attractive template for simple fabrication of highly-ordered nanostructures. It provides a 2-dimensional array of hexagonal cells with pores of uniform diameter and inter-pore distance that are adjustable in the range of a few tens to hundreds of nanometers. It can be easily grown on an aluminum sheet with high purity by a sequence of several electrochemical steps; electro-polishing, the 1st anodization, etching, and the 2nd anodization. The pores are grown vertically with respect to the AAO surface. The regularity of the pore structure is usually limited by the inherent grain domain in the aluminum sheet to a few micrometers, but can be improved to cover many millimeters of monodomain by pre-indenting the aluminum sheet with SiC 7 or Si 3 N 4 molds. Although fabrication of such molds requires elaborate and costly processes with e-beam nanolithography, such potentially superb regularity can be practically applied to fabrication of nanoscale devices in electronics, optics, biosensors, etc

  3. Mesoporous silicon oxide films and their uses as templates in obtaining nanostructured conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, R.; Arteaga, G. C.; Arias, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining conductive polymers (CPs) for the manufacture of OLEDs, solar cells, electrochromic devices, sensors, etc., has been possible through the use of electrochemical techniques that allow obtaining films of controlled thickness with positive results in different applications. Current trends point towards the manufacture of nanomaterials, and therefore it is necessary to develop methods that allow obtaining CPs with nanostructured morphology. This is possible by using a porous template to allow the growth of the polymeric materials. However, prior and subsequent treatments are required to separate the material from the template so that it can be evaluated in the applications mentioned above. This is why mesoporous silicon oxide films (template) are essential for the synthesis of nanostructured polymers since both the template and the polymer are obtained on the electrode surface, and therefore it is not necessary to separate the material from the template. Thus, the material can be evaluated directly in the applications mentioned above. The dimensions of the resulting nanostructures will depend on the power, time and technique used for electropolymerization as well as the monomer and the surfactant of the mesoporous film.

  4. Micro- and Nanostructured Metal Oxide Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. A.; Penn, B. G.; Currie, J. R., Jr.; Batra, A. K.; Aggarwal, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications warrant the development of chemical sensors which operate in a variety of environments. This technical memorandum incorporates various kinds of chemical sensors and ways to improve their performance. The results of exploratory investigation of the binary composite polycrystalline thick-films such as SnO2-WO3, SnO2-In2O3, SnO2-ZnO for the detection of volatile organic compound (isopropanol) are reported. A short review of the present status of the new types of nanostructured sensors such as nanobelts, nanorods, nanotube, etc. based on metal oxides is presented.

  5. Oxide nanostructures on a Nb surface and related systems: experiments and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Mikhail V; Razinkin, A S; Ivanovskii, Alexander L

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the state of the art in two related research areas: the surfaces of niobium and of its related group IV-VI transition metals, and surface (primarily oxide) nanostructures that form on niobium (and group IV-VI d-metals) due to gas adsorption or impurity diffusion from the bulk. Experimental (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy) and theoretical (ab initio simulation) results on d-metal surfaces are summarized and reviewed. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Near-field effects and energy transfer in hybrid metal-oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Ulrich; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Benel, Cahit; Papageorgiou, Giorgos; Goncalves, Manuel; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul; Ziemann, Paul; Marek, Peter; Hahn, Horst

    2013-01-01

    One of the big challenges of the 21st century is the utilization of nanotechnology for energy technology. Nanoscale structures may provide novel functionality, which has been demonstrated most convincingly by successful applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells introduced by M. Grätzel. Applications in energy technology are based on the transfer and conversion of energy. Following the example of photosynthesis, this requires a combination of light harvesting, transfer of energy to a reaction center, and conversion to other forms of energy by charge separation and transfer. This may be achieved by utilizing hybrid nanostructures, which combine metallic and nonmetallic components. Metallic nanostructures can interact strongly with light. Plasmonic excitations of such structures can cause local enhancement of the electrical field, which has been utilized in spectroscopy for many years. On the other hand, the excited states in metallic structures decay over very short lifetimes. Longer lifetimes of excited states occur in nonmetallic nanostructures, which makes them attractive for further energy transfer before recombination or relaxation sets in. Therefore, the combination of metallic nanostructures with nonmetallic materials is of great interest. We report investigations of hybrid nanostructured model systems that consist of a combination of metallic nanoantennas (fabricated by nanosphere lithography, NSL) and oxide nanoparticles. The oxide particles were doped with rare-earth (RE) ions, which show a large shift between absorption and emission wavelengths, allowing us to investigate the energy-transfer processes in detail. The main focus is on TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Eu(3+), since the material is interesting for applications such as the generation of hydrogen by photocatalytic splitting of water molecules. We use high-resolution techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy for the investigation of energy-transfer processes. The experiments are

  7. Metal oxide core shell nanostructures as building blocks for efficient light emission (SISGR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jane P [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dorman, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cheung, Cyrus [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    The objective of this research is to synthesize core-shell nano-structured metal oxide materials and investigate their structural, electronic and optical properties to understand the microscopic pathways governing the energy conversion process, thereby controlling and improving their efficiency. Specifically, the goal is to use a single metal oxide core-shell nanostructure and a single excitation source to generate photons with long emission lifetime over the entire visible spectrum and when controlled at the right ratio, generating white light. In order to achieve this goal, we need to control the energy transfer between light emitting elements, which dictates the control of their interatomic spacing and spatial distribution. We developed an economical wet chemical process to form the nanostructured core and to control the thickness and composition of the shell layers. With the help from using DOE funded synchrotron radiation facility, we delineated the growth mechanism of the nano-structured core and the shell layers, thereby enhancing our understanding of structure-property relation in these materials. Using the upconversion luminescence and the lifetime measurements as effective feedback to materials sysnthes is and integration, we demonstrated improved luminescence lifetimes of the core-shell nano-structures and quantified the optimal core-multi-shell structure with optimum shell thickness and composition. We developed a rare-earths co-doped LaPO4 core-multishell structure in order to produce a single white light source. It was decided that the mutli-shell method would produce the largest increase in luminescence efficiency while limiting any energy transfer that may occur between the dopant ions. All samples resulted in emission spectra within the accepted range of white light generation based on the converted CIE color coordinates. The white light obtained varied between warm and cool white depending on the layering architecture, allowing for the

  8. Kinetics of reactions of chromium, molybdenum and tungsten hexacarbonyls with hydroxylamine and trimethylamine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksakov, V.A.; Ershova, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Mechanism of M(CO) 6 (M = Cr, Mo, W) reaction with hydroxylamine was studied. On the basis of kinetic data it was ascertained that as a result of the reaction CO oxidation to CO 2 and intramolecular transfer of amine formed to the central atom of metal occur. Mechanisms of M(CO) 6 reactions with hydroxylamine and trimethylamine oxide are compared

  9. Efficient tungsten oxide/bismuth oxyiodide core/shell photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haipeng; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zhifeng

    2017-11-01

    The novel WO3 nanorods (NRs)/BiOI core/shell structure composite is used as an efficient photoanode applied in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for the first time. It is synthesized via facile hydrothermal method and, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process. This facile synthesis route can achieve uniform WO3/BiOI core/shell composite nanostructures and obtain varied BiOI morphologies simultaneously. The WO3 NRs/BiOI-20 composite exhibits enhanced PEC activity compared to pristine WO3 with a photocurrent density of 0.79 mA cm-2 measured at 0.8 V vs. RHE under AM 1.5G. This excellent performance benefits from the broader absorption spectrum and suppressed electron-hole recombination. This novel core/shell composite may provide insight in developing more efficient solar driven photoelectrodes.

  10. Building Composite Fe-Mn Oxide Flower-Like Nanostructures: A Detailed Magnetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zuddas, Efisio; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Casu, Alberto; Deiana, Davide; Falqui, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Here we show that it’s possible to produce different magnetic core-multiple shells heterostructures from monodispersed iron oxide spherical magnetic seeds by finely controlling the amount of a manganese precursor and using in a smart and simple way a cation exchange synthetic approach. In particular, by increasing the amount of precursor we were able to produce nanostructures ranging from Fe3O4/Mn-ferrite core/single shell nanospheres to larger, flower-like Fe3O4/Mn-ferrite/Mn3O4 core-double shell nanoparticles. We first demonstrate how the formation of the initial thin manganese-ferrite shell determines a dramatic reduction of the superficial disorder in the starting iron oxide, bringing to nanomagnets with lower hardness. Then, the growth of the second and most external manganese oxide shell causes the magnetical hardening of the heterostructures, while its magnetic exchange coupling with the rest of the heterostructure can be antiferromagentic or ferromagnetic, depending on the strength of the applied external magnetic field. This response is similar to that of an iron oxide-manganese oxide core-shell system but differs from what observed in multiple-shell heterostructures. Finally, we report as the most external shell becomes magnetically irrelevant above the ferrimagnetic-paramagnetic transition of the manganese oxide and the resulting magnetic behavior of the flower-like structures is then studied in-depth.

  11. Building Composite Fe-Mn Oxide Flower-Like Nanostructures: A Detailed Magnetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zuddas, Efisio

    2017-07-21

    Here we show that it’s possible to produce different magnetic core-multiple shells heterostructures from monodispersed iron oxide spherical magnetic seeds by finely controlling the amount of a manganese precursor and using in a smart and simple way a cation exchange synthetic approach. In particular, by increasing the amount of precursor we were able to produce nanostructures ranging from Fe3O4/Mn-ferrite core/single shell nanospheres to larger, flower-like Fe3O4/Mn-ferrite/Mn3O4 core-double shell nanoparticles. We first demonstrate how the formation of the initial thin manganese-ferrite shell determines a dramatic reduction of the superficial disorder in the starting iron oxide, bringing to nanomagnets with lower hardness. Then, the growth of the second and most external manganese oxide shell causes the magnetical hardening of the heterostructures, while its magnetic exchange coupling with the rest of the heterostructure can be antiferromagentic or ferromagnetic, depending on the strength of the applied external magnetic field. This response is similar to that of an iron oxide-manganese oxide core-shell system but differs from what observed in multiple-shell heterostructures. Finally, we report as the most external shell becomes magnetically irrelevant above the ferrimagnetic-paramagnetic transition of the manganese oxide and the resulting magnetic behavior of the flower-like structures is then studied in-depth.

  12. Nanostructured cerium oxide catalyst support: Effects of morphology on the electro activity of gold toward oxidative sensing of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougis, Maxime; Tabet-Aoul, Amel; Ma, Dongling; Mohamedi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of nanostructured CeO 2 -gold electrodes by means of laser ablation. The synthetic conditions were varied in order to obtain different morphologies of CeO 2 . The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of the morphology of CeO 2 on the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose were studied by cyclic voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry. Among the various electrodes fabricated, the CeO 2 coating produced under 10 mTorr of oxygen showed the best supporting catalytic properties for gold by displaying 44 μA cm −2 mM −1 sensitivity for glucose oxidation at near neutral pH values. The detection limit is as low as 10 μM. This electrochemical activity makes the optimized nanostructured electrode potentially useful for non-enzymatic sensing of glucose. (author)

  13. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  14. Nanostructured hydrophobic DC sputtered inorganic oxide coating for outdoor glass insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Gupta, H.O. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Chandra, R., E-mail: ramesfic@gmail.com [Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Deposition of contamination on outdoor glass insulators and its physical and economical consequences were discussed. • Synthesis of nanostructured hydrophobic HfO{sub 2} film on glass as a remedial measure by varying DC sputtering power. • Investigated and correlated structural, optical, electrical and hydrophobic properties of HfO{sub 2} films with respect to power. • Optimum results were obtained at a 50 W DC sputtering power. - Abstract: We report the structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured hydrophobic inorganic hafnium oxide coating for outdoor glass insulator using DC sputtering technique to combat contamination problem. The properties were studied as a function of DC power. The characterization of the films was done using X-ray diffraction, EDS, surface profilometer, AFM, impedance analyser and water contact angle measurement system. The DC power was varied from 30 to 60 W and found to have a great impact on the properties of hafnium oxide. All the deposited samples were polycrystalline with nanostructured hydrophobic surfaces. The intensity of crystallinity of the film was found to be dependent on sputtering power and hydrophobicity was correlated to the nanoscale roughness of the films. The optical property reveals 80% average transmission for all the samples. The refractive index was found in the range of 1.85–1.92, near to the bulk value. The band gap calculated from transmission data was >5.3 eV for all deposited samples ensuring dielectric nature of the films. Surface energy calculated by two methods was found minimum for the film deposited at 50 W sputtering power. The resistivity was also high enough (∼10{sup 4} Ω cm) to hinder the flow of leakage current through the film. The dielectric constant (ε) was found to be thickness dependent and also high enough (ε{sub max} = 23.12) to bear the large electric field of outdoor insulators.

  15. Nanostructure of propylammonium nitrate in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) and halide salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Ryan; Webber, Grant B.; Page, Alister J.

    2018-05-01

    Nanoscale structure of protic ionic liquids is critical to their utility as molecular electrochemical solvents since it determines the capacity to dissolve salts and polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Here we use quantum chemical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the impact of dissolved halide anions on the nanostructure of an archetypal nanostructured protic ionic liquid, propylammonium nitrate (PAN), and how this impacts the solvation of a model PEO polymer. At the molecular level, PAN is nanostructured, consisting of charged/polar and uncharged/nonpolar domains. The charged domain consists of the cation/anion charge groups, and is formed by their electrostatic interaction. This domain solvophobically excludes the propyl chains on the cation, which form a distinct, self-assembled nonpolar domain within the liquid. Our simulations demonstrate that the addition of Cl- and Br- anions to PAN disrupts the structure within the PAN charged domain due to competition between nitrate and halide anions for the ammonium charge centre. This disruption increases with halide concentration (up to 10 mol. %). However, at these concentrations, halide addition has little effect on the structure of the PAN nonpolar domain. Addition of PEO to pure PAN also disrupts the structure within the charged domain of the liquid due to hydrogen bonding between the charge groups and the terminal PEO hydroxyl groups. There is little other association between the PEO structure and the surrounding ionic liquid solvent, with strong PEO self-interaction yielding a compact, coiled polymer morphology. Halide addition results in greater association between the ionic liquid charge centres and the ethylene oxide components of the PEO structure, resulting in reduced conformational flexibility, compared to that observed in pure PAN. Similarly, PEO self-interactions increase in the presence of Cl- and Br- anions, compared to PAN, indicating that the addition of halide salts to PAN

  16. Supported 3-D Pt nanostructures: the straightforward synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation in an acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zesheng; Ji, Shan; Pollet, Bruno G.; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-01-01

    Noble metal nanostructures with branched morphologies [i.e., 3-D Pt nanoflowers (NFs)] by tri-dimensionally integrating onto conductive carbon materials are proved to be an efficient and durable electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. The well-supported 3-D Pt NFs are readily achieved by an efficient cobalt-induced/carbon-mediated galvanic reaction approach. Due to the favorable nanostructures (3-D Pt configuration allowing a facile mass transfer) and supporting effects (including framework stabilization, spatially separate feature, and improved charge transport effects), these 3-D Pt NFs manifest much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability toward methanol oxidation than that of the commercial Pt/C and Pt-based electrocatalysts

  17. Supported 3-D Pt nanostructures: the straightforward synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation in an acidic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zesheng [Sun Yat-sen University, The State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation, School of Physics and Engineering (China); Ji, Shan; Pollet, Bruno G. [University of the Western Cape, South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry (SAIAMC) (South Africa); Shen, Pei Kang, E-mail: stsspk@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Sun Yat-sen University, The State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation, School of Physics and Engineering (China)

    2013-10-15

    Noble metal nanostructures with branched morphologies [i.e., 3-D Pt nanoflowers (NFs)] by tri-dimensionally integrating onto conductive carbon materials are proved to be an efficient and durable electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. The well-supported 3-D Pt NFs are readily achieved by an efficient cobalt-induced/carbon-mediated galvanic reaction approach. Due to the favorable nanostructures (3-D Pt configuration allowing a facile mass transfer) and supporting effects (including framework stabilization, spatially separate feature, and improved charge transport effects), these 3-D Pt NFs manifest much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability toward methanol oxidation than that of the commercial Pt/C and Pt-based electrocatalysts.

  18. Tungsten Oxide Nanofibers Self-assembled Mesoscopic Microspheres as High-performance Electrodes for Supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Juan; Ding, Taotao; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Changqing; Fang, Yanyan; Wu, Zhihao; Huo, Kaifu; Dai, Jiangnan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 mesoscopic microspheres self-assembled by nanofibers. • Inorganic solvent H 2 O 2 play an integral role in the process of self-assembly. • WO 3 mesoscopic microspheres exhibit specific capacitance value of 797.05 F g −1 at a constant density of 0.5 A g −1 in 2 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution. • The WO 3 //AC asymmetric supercapacitor displays a maximum energy density of 97.61 Wh kg −1 and power density of 28.01 kW kg −1 . - Abstract: Mesoscopic WO 3 microspheres composed of self-assembly nanofibers were prepared by hydrothermal reaction of tungsten acid potassium and H 2 O 2 . The mesoscopic WO 3 microspheres offer desired porous properties and large effective active areas provided by intertwining nanofibers, thereby resulting in excellent supercapacitive properties due to facile electrolyte flow and fast reaction kinetics. In three electrode configuration, mesoscopic WO 3 microspheres exhibit specific capacitance value of 797.05 F g −1 at the current density of 0.5 A g −1 and excellent cycling stability without decay after 2000 cycles in 2 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution. These values are superior to other reported WO 3 composites. An asymmetric supercapacitor is constructed using the as-prepared WO 3 mesoscopic microspheres as the positive electrode and the activated carbon as the negative electrode, which displays excellent electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 97.61 Wh kg −1 and power density of 28.01 kW kg −1 . These impressive performances suggest that the mesoscopic WO 3 microspheres are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor

  19. Identification of different oxygen species in oxide nanostructures with 17O solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wu, Xin-Ping; Zheng, Sujuan; Zhao, Li; Li, Lei; Shen, Li; Gao, Yuxian; Xue, Nianhua; Guo, Xuefeng; Huang, Weixin; Gan, Zhehong; Blanc, Frédéric; Yu, Zhiwu; Ke, Xiaokang; Ding, Weiping; Gong, Xue-Qing; Grey, Clare P.; Peng, Luming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured oxides find multiple uses in a diverse range of applications including catalysis, energy storage, and environmental management, their higher surface areas, and, in some cases, electronic properties resulting in different physical properties from their bulk counterparts. Developing structure-property relations for these materials requires a determination of surface and subsurface structure. Although microscopy plays a critical role owing to the fact that the volumes sampled by such techniques may not be representative of the whole sample, complementary characterization methods are urgently required. We develop a simple nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategy to detect the first few layers of a nanomaterial, demonstrating the approach with technologically relevant ceria nanoparticles. We show that the 17O resonances arising from the first to third surface layer oxygen ions, hydroxyl sites, and oxygen species near vacancies can be distinguished from the oxygen ions in the bulk, with higher-frequency 17O chemical shifts being observed for the lower coordinated surface sites. H217O can be used to selectively enrich surface sites, allowing only these particular active sites to be monitored in a chemical process. 17O NMR spectra of thermally treated nanosized ceria clearly show how different oxygen species interconvert at elevated temperature. Density functional theory calculations confirm the assignments and reveal a strong dependence of chemical shift on the nature of the surface. These results open up new strategies for characterizing nanostructured oxides and their applications. PMID:26601133

  20. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfoori, A., E-mail: klm.1985@yahoo.com [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Cell Bank, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 13164 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aliofkhazraei, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-143 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained.

  1. Stabilizing nanostructured solid oxide fuel cell cathode with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunhui; Palacio, Diego; Song, Xueyan; Patel, Rajankumar L; Liang, Xinhua; Zhao, Xuan; Goodenough, John B; Huang, Kevin

    2013-09-11

    We demonstrate that the highly active but unstable nanostructured intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathode, La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ (LSCo), can retain its high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with exceptional stability for 4000 h at 700 °C by overcoating its surfaces with a conformal layer of nanoscale ZrO2 films through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The benefits from the presence of the nanoscale ALD-ZrO2 overcoats are remarkable: a factor of 19 and 18 reduction in polarization area-specific resistance and degradation rate over the pristine sample, respectively. The unique multifunctionality of the ALD-derived nanoscaled ZrO2 overcoats, that is, possessing porosity for O2 access to LSCo, conducting both electrons and oxide-ions, confining thermal growth of LSCo nanoparticles, and suppressing surface Sr-segregation is deemed the key enabler for the observed stable and active nanostructured cathode.

  2. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfoori, A.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A.; Aliofkhazraei, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained

  3. Inherent health and environmental risk assessment of nanostructured metal oxide production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabifard, Mina; Arjmandi, Reza; Rashidi, Alimorad; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2018-01-10

    The health and environmental effects of chemical processes can be assessed during the initial stage of their production. In this paper, the Chemical Screening Tool for Exposure and Environmental Release (ChemSTEER) software was used to compare the health and environmental risks of spray pyrolysis and wet chemical techniques for the fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide on a semi-industrial scale with a capacity of 300 kg/day in Iran. The pollution sources identified in each production process were pairwise compared in Expert Choice software using indicators including respiratory damage, skin damage, and environmental damages including air, water, and soil pollution. The synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide using the wet chemical technique (with 0.523 wt%) leads to lower health and environmental risks compared to when spray pyrolysis is used (with 0.477 wt%). The health and environmental risk assessment of nanomaterial production processes can help select safer processes, modify the operation conditions, and select or modify raw materials that can help eliminate the risks.

  4. The role of pH variation on the growth of zinc oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Ansari, S.G.; Kim, Young Soon; Song, Minwu; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study on the morphological variation of ZnO nanostructure by varying the pH of precursor solution via solution method. Zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide were used as a precursor, which was refluxed at 90 deg. C for an hour. The pH of the precursor solution (zinc acetate di hydrate) was increased from 6 to 12 by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Morphology of ZnO nanorods markedly varies from sheet-like (at pH 6) to rod-like structure of zinc oxide (pH 10-12). Diffraction patterns match well with standard ZnO at all pH values. Crystallinity and nanostructures were confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, which indicates structure grew along [0 0 0 1] direction with an ideal lattice fringes distance 0.52 nm. FTIR spectroscopic measurement showed a standard peak of zinc oxide at 464 cm -1 . Amount of H + and OH - ions are found key to the structure control of studied material, as discussed in the growth mechanism.

  5. Participation of the Third Order Optical Nonlinearities in Nanostructured Silver Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Solid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Torres-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the transmittance modulation of optical signals in a nanocomposite integrated by two different silver doped zinc oxide thin solid films. An ultrasonic spray pyrolysis approach was employed for the preparation of the samples. Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical response at a nonresonant 532 nm wavelength of excitation were performed using a vectorial two-wave mixing. It seems that the separated contribution of the optical nonlinearity associated with each film noticeable differs in the resulting nonlinear effects with respect to the additive response exhibited by the bilayer system. An enhancement of the optical Kerr nonlinearity is predicted for prime number arrays of the studied nanoclusters in a two-wave interaction. We consider that the nanostructured morphology of the thin solid films originates a strong modification of the third-order optical phenomena exhibited by multilayer films based on zinc oxide.

  6. Effect of poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer and two different poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers on morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructured unsaturated polyester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes, Daniel H; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; Corcuera, Ma Angeles; Mondragon, Iñaki; Tercjak, Agnieszka

    2014-01-22

    Novel nanostructured unsaturated polyester resin-based thermosets, modified with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and two poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymers (BCP), were developed and analyzed. The effects of molecular weights, blocks ratio, and curing temperatures on the final morphological, optical, and mechanical properties were reported. The block influence on the BCP miscibility was studied through uncured and cured mixtures of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins with PEO and PPO homopolymers having molecular weights similar to molecular weights of the blocks of BCP. The final morphology of the nanostructured thermosetting systems, containing BCP or homopolymers, was investigated, and multiple mechanisms of nanostructuration were listed and explained. By considering the miscibility of each block before and after curing, it was determined that the formation of the nanostructured matrices followed a self-assembly mechanism or a polymerization-induced phase separation mechanism. The miscibility between PEO or PPO blocks with one of two phases of UP matrix was highlighted due to its importance in the final thermoset properties. Relationships between the final morphology and thermoset optical and mechanical properties were examined. The mechanisms and physics behind the morphologies lead toward the design of highly transparent, nanostructured, and toughened thermosetting UP systems.

  7. Influence of annealing temperature on microstructure and optical properties of sol-gel derived tungsten oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xilian; Cao Hongtao; Liu Zhimin; Li Jianzhong

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) thin films have been extensively studied for their interesting physical properties and a variety of potential applications in electrochromic devices. In order to explore the possibility of using these in electrochromic devices, a preliminary and thorough study of the optical properties of the host materials is an important step. Based on this, the influence of annealing temperature on the structural, surface morphological, optical and electrochromic properties has been investigated in the present work. The host material, WO 3 films, has been prepared from an ethanolic acetylated peroxotungstic acid sol containing 5 wt.% oxalic acid dehydrate (OAD) by sol-gel technique. The monoclinic structure and textured nature change of the films with the temperature increasing have been investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The surface morphology evolution of the films has been characterized by SEM. The shift in absorption edge towards the higher wavelength region observed from optical studies may be due to the electron scattering effects and the optical band filling effect that reveals the crystallization of the film. The amorphous film shows better optical modulation (ΔT = 76.9% at λ = 610 nm), fast color-bleach kinetics (t c ∼ 4 s and t b ∼ 9 s) and good reversibility (Q b /Q c = 90%), thereby rendering it suitable for smart window applications.

  8. Effects of oxygen contents on the electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.-H.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochromism have been extensively investigated due to their potential applications such as smart window of architecture and automobile glazing to save energy and modulate the transmittance of light and solar radiation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of sputtering conditions on the microstructure and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. Experimental results showed that the deposition rate of WO 3-y films decreased with increasing oxygen flow rate. XRD and Raman spectra analysis suggests that the WO 3-y films deposited at various oxygen flow rates are poor crystallinity or amorphous. The transmission change between colored and bleached states at a wavelength of 550 nm was 61.4% as the oxygen content was 60%. The coloration efficiency slightly increases with increasing oxygen flow rate in the low oxygen content region and reaching a maximum value of 38.94 cm 2 /C at 60% oxygen content. In addition, the films deposited at 60% oxygen content showed a good reversibility. The effects of lithium ions intercalated on the transmission of WO 3-y films were also discussed

  9. Room temperature NO2 gas sensing of Au-loaded tungsten oxide nanowires/porous silicon hybrid structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Deng-Feng; Liang Ji-Ran; Li Chang-Qing; Yan Wen-Jun; Hu Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report an enhanced nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas sensor based on tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) nanowires/porous silicon (PS) decorated with gold (Au) nanoparticles. Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires with diameters of 10 nm–25 nm and lengths of 300 nm–500 nm are fabricated by the sputtering method on a porous silicon substrate. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs show that Au nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the surfaces of WO 3 nanowires. The effect of the Au nanoparticles on the NO 2 -sensing performance of WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon is investigated over a low concentration range of 0.2 ppm–5 ppm of NO 2 at room temperature (25 °C). It is found that the 10-Å Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon-based sensor possesses the highest gas response characteristic. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced sensing properties of the Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon is also discussed. (paper)

  10. Controlled hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of iron oxide nanostructures synthesized by electrochemical anodization: Effect of the electrode rotation speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas-Granados, Bianca; Sánchez-Tovar, Rita; Fernández-Domene, Ramón M.; García-Antón, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel iron anodization process under controlled dynamic conditions was evaluated. • Iron oxide nanostructures composed mainly by hematite were synthesized. • Different morphologies were obtained depending on the electrode rotation speed. • A suitable photocatalyst was obtained by stirring the electrode at 1000 rpm.. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanostructures are of particular interest because they can be used as photocatalysts in water splitting due to their advantageous properties. Electrochemical anodization is one of the best techniques to synthesize nanostructures directly on the metal substrate (direct back contact). In the present study, a novel methodology consisting of the anodization of iron under hydrodynamic conditions is carried out in order to obtain mainly hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanostructures to be used as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. Different rotation speeds were studied with the aim of evaluating the obtained nanostructures and determining the most attractive operational conditions. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoelectrochemical water splitting, stability against photocorrosion tests, Mott-Schottky analysis, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and band gap measurements. The results showed that the highest photocurrent densities for photoelectrochemical water splitting were achieved for the nanostructure synthesized at 1000 rpm which corresponds to a nanotubular structure reaching ∼0.130 mA cm −2 at 0.54 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This is in agreement with the EIS measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis which showed the lowest resistances and the corresponding donor density values, respectively, for the nanostructure anodized at 1000 rpm.

  11. Controlled hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of iron oxide nanostructures synthesized by electrochemical anodization: Effect of the electrode rotation speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas-Granados, Bianca; Sánchez-Tovar, Rita; Fernández-Domene, Ramón M.; García-Antón, Jose, E-mail: jgarciaa@iqn.upv.es

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Novel iron anodization process under controlled dynamic conditions was evaluated. • Iron oxide nanostructures composed mainly by hematite were synthesized. • Different morphologies were obtained depending on the electrode rotation speed. • A suitable photocatalyst was obtained by stirring the electrode at 1000 rpm.. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanostructures are of particular interest because they can be used as photocatalysts in water splitting due to their advantageous properties. Electrochemical anodization is one of the best techniques to synthesize nanostructures directly on the metal substrate (direct back contact). In the present study, a novel methodology consisting of the anodization of iron under hydrodynamic conditions is carried out in order to obtain mainly hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures to be used as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. Different rotation speeds were studied with the aim of evaluating the obtained nanostructures and determining the most attractive operational conditions. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoelectrochemical water splitting, stability against photocorrosion tests, Mott-Schottky analysis, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and band gap measurements. The results showed that the highest photocurrent densities for photoelectrochemical water splitting were achieved for the nanostructure synthesized at 1000 rpm which corresponds to a nanotubular structure reaching ∼0.130 mA cm{sup −2} at 0.54 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This is in agreement with the EIS measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis which showed the lowest resistances and the corresponding donor density values, respectively, for the nanostructure anodized at 1000 rpm.

  12. As(III) oxidation by MnO{sub 2} coated PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscuoli, Alessandra, E-mail: a.criscuoli@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Majumdar, Swachchha [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Figoli, Alberto, E-mail: a.figoli@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Sahoo, Ganesh C. [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Bafaro, Patrizia [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 42/A, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Bandyopadhyay, Sibdas [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Drioli, Enrico [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 42/A, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful preparation of PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules coated by MnO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preliminary tests of As(III) oxidation carried out in batch. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete oxidation obtained for feed concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 ppm. - Abstract: PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules were prepared by the phase inversion technique and used as support for the coating of a manganese dioxide layer. The coating was done by a chemical treatment of the capsules followed by a thermal one. The presence of the MnO{sub 2} layer was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), back scattering electron (BSE), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The produced capsules were, then, tested for As(III) oxidation in batch. The experiments consisted in treating 165 ml of As(III) solution with 1 g of coated capsules at fixed temperature (15 Degree-Sign C) and pH (5.7-5.8). In particular, the efficiency of the system was investigated for different As(III) concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.7 and 1 ppm). For feeds at lower As(III) content (0.1-0.3 ppm), tests lasted for 8 h, while prolonged runs (up to 48 h) were carried out on more concentrated solutions (0.7 and 1 ppm). The produced capsules were able to oxidize As(III) into As(V) leading to complete conversion after 3 and 4 h for feed concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 ppm, respectively.

  13. New roots to formation of nanostructures on glass surface through anodic oxidation of sputtered aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Inoue, Song-Zhu Chu, Kenji Wada, Di Li and Hajime Haneda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New processes for the preparation of nanostructure on glass surfaces have been developed through anodic oxidation of sputtered aluminum. Aluminum thin film sputtered on a tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin film on a glass surface was converted into alumina by anodic oxidation. The anodic alumina gave nanometer size pore array standing vertically on the glass surface. Kinds of acids used in the anodic oxidation changed the pore size drastically. The employment of phosphoric acid solution gave several tens nanometer size pores. Oxalic acid cases produced a few tens nanometer size pores and sulfuric acid solution provided a few nanometer size pores. The number of pores in a unit area could be changed with varying the applied voltage in the anodization and the pore sizes could be increased by phosphoric acid etching. The specimen consisting of a glass substrate with the alumina nanostructures on the surface could transmit UV and visible light. An etched specimen was dipped in a TiO2 sol solution, resulting in the impregnation of TiO2 sol into the pores of alumina layer. The TiO2 sol was heated at ~400 °C for 2 h, converting into anatase phase TiO2. The specimens possessing TiO2 film on the pore wall were transparent to the light in UV–Visible region. The electro deposition technique was applied to the introduction of Ni metal into pores, giving Ni nanorod array on the glass surface. The removal of the barrier layer alumina at the bottom of the pores was necessary to attain smooth electro deposition of Ni. The photo catalytic function of the specimens possessing TiO2 nanotube array was investigated in the decomposition of acetaldehyde gas under the irradiation of UV light, showing that the rate of the decomposition was quite large.

  14. Impact of structure and morphology of nanostructured ceria coating on AISI 304 oxidation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhavan, R.; Suresh Babu, K.

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructured ceria-based coatings are shown to be protective against high-temperature oxidation of AISI 304 due to the dynamics of oxidation state and associated defects. However, the processing parameters of deposition have a strong influence in determining the structural and morphological aspects of ceria. The present work focuses on the effect of variation in substrate temperature (50-300 °C) and deposition rate (0.1-50 Å/s) of ceria in electron beam physical vapour evaporation method and correlates the changes in structure and morphology to high-temperature oxidation protection. Unlike deposition rate, substrate temperature exhibited a profound influence on crystallite size (7-18 nm) and oxygen vacancy concentration. Upon isothermal oxidation at 1243 K for 24 h, bare AISI 304 exhibited a linear mass gain with a rate constant of 3.0 ± 0.03 × 10-3 kg2 m-4 s-1 while ceria coating lowered the kinetics by 3-4 orders. Though the thickness of the coating was kept constant at 2 μm, higher deposition rate offered one order lower protection due to the porous nature of the coating. Variation in the substrate temperature modulated the porosity as well as oxygen vacancy concentration and displayed the best protection for coatings deposited at moderate substrate temperature. The present work demonstrates the significance of selecting appropriate processing parameters to obtain the required morphology for efficient high-temperature oxidation protection.

  15. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonomo, Matteo [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marrani, Andrea Giacomo, E-mail: andrea.marrani@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Novelli, Vittoria [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Awais, Muhammad [Department of Industrial Engineering, “King Abdulaziz” University, Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Dowling, Denis P. [Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vos, Johannes G. [School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Dini, Danilo [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • NiO porous thin films were prepared via RDS technique. • NiO electrodes were characterized in a nitrile based electrochemical cell. • NiO electrodes were studied by means of XPS. • The XP spectra excluded the formation of phases other than NiO. • The presence of ClO{sub 4}{sup −} as charge balancing species was evidenced. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2–6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  16. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, Matteo; Marrani, Andrea Giacomo; Novelli, Vittoria; Awais, Muhammad; Dowling, Denis P.; Vos, Johannes G.; Dini, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO porous thin films were prepared via RDS technique. • NiO electrodes were characterized in a nitrile based electrochemical cell. • NiO electrodes were studied by means of XPS. • The XP spectra excluded the formation of phases other than NiO. • The presence of ClO 4 − as charge balancing species was evidenced. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2–6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of WO3 nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S BET ) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO 3 nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  18. Nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, M. Yousef; Mousavi, M.F.; Ghasemi, S.

    2008-01-01

    A nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin (curcumin: 1,7-bis[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) film is electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solution. The morphology of polyNi(II)-curcumin (NC) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM results show NC has a nano-globular structure in the range 20-50 nm. Using cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, steady-state polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the nano-structure NC film acts as an efficient material for the electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose. According to the voltammetric studies, the increase in the anodic peak current and subsequent decrease in the corresponding cathodic current, fructose was oxidized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. The EIS results show that the charge-transfer resistance has as a function of fructose concentration, time interval and applied potential. The increase in the fructose concentration and time interval in fructose solution results in enhanced charge transfer resistance in Nyquist plots. The EIS results indicate that fructose electrooxidation at various potentials shows different impedance behaviors. At lower potentials, a semicircle is observed in the first quadrant of impedance plot. With further increase of the potential, a transition of the semicircle from the first to the second quadrant occurs. Also, the results obtained show that the rate of fructose electrooxidation depends on concentration of OH - . Electron transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient and rate constant of the electrocatalytic oxidation reaction are obtained. The modified electrode was used as a sensor for determination of fructose with a good dynamic range and a low detection limit

  19. Interactive Physics and Characteristics of Photons and Photoelectrons in Hyperbranched Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torix, Garrett

    As is commonly known, the world is full of technological wonders, where a multitude of electronic devices and instruments continuously help push the boundaries of scientific knowledge and discovery. These new devices and instruments of science must be utilized at peak efficiency in order to benefit humanity with the most advanced scientific knowledge. In order to attain this level of efficiency, the materials which make up these electronics, or possibly more important, the fundamental characteristics of these materials, must be fully understood. The following research attempted to uncover the properties and characteristics of a selected family of materials. Herein, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials were investigated and subjected to various, systematical tests, with the aim of discovering new and useful properties. The various nanostructures were grown on a quartz substrate, between a pair of gold electrodes, and subjected to an electrical bias which produced a measurable photocurrent under sufficient lighting conditions. This design formed a novel photodetector device, which, when combined with a simple solar cell and a methodical set of experimental trials, allowed several unique phenomena to be studied. Under various conditions, the device photocurrent as a function of applied voltage, as well as transmitted light, were measured and compared between devices of different ZnO morphologies. Zinc oxide is an absorber of ultraviolet (UV) light. UV absorbing materials and devices have uses in solar cells, long range communications, and astronomical observational equipment, hence, a better understanding of zinc oxide nanostructures and their properties can lead to more efficient utilization of UV light, improved solar cell technology, and a better understanding of the basic science in photon-to-electricity conversion.

  20. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  1. Impact of structure and morphology of nanostructured ceria coating on AISI 304 oxidation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadhavan, R.; Suresh Babu, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ceria coating reduced the oxidation kinetics of AISI304 by 3–4 orders. • Lower deposition rate (0.1 Å/s) resulted in dense and uniform coating. • Substrate temperature of 100 °C provided coating with smaller crystallite size. • Surface morphology of the coating has strong influence in oxidation protection. - Abstract: Nanostructured ceria-based coatings are shown to be protective against high-temperature oxidation of AISI 304 due to the dynamics of oxidation state and associated defects. However, the processing parameters of deposition have a strong influence in determining the structural and morphological aspects of ceria. The present work focuses on the effect of variation in substrate temperature (50–300 °C) and deposition rate (0.1–50 Å/s) of ceria in electron beam physical vapour evaporation method and correlates the changes in structure and morphology to high-temperature oxidation protection. Unlike deposition rate, substrate temperature exhibited a profound influence on crystallite size (7–18 nm) and oxygen vacancy concentration. Upon isothermal oxidation at 1243 K for 24 h, bare AISI 304 exhibited a linear mass gain with a rate constant of 3.0 ± 0.03 × 10"−"3 kg"2 m"−"4 s"−"1 while ceria coating lowered the kinetics by 3–4 orders. Though the thickness of the coating was kept constant at 2 μm, higher deposition rate offered one order lower protection due to the porous nature of the coating. Variation in the substrate temperature modulated the porosity as well as oxygen vacancy concentration and displayed the best protection for coatings deposited at moderate substrate temperature. The present work demonstrates the significance of selecting appropriate processing parameters to obtain the required morphology for efficient high-temperature oxidation protection.

  2. Impact of structure and morphology of nanostructured ceria coating on AISI 304 oxidation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadhavan, R.; Suresh Babu, K., E-mail: sureshbabu.nst@pondiuni.edu.in

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Ceria coating reduced the oxidation kinetics of AISI304 by 3–4 orders. • Lower deposition rate (0.1 Å/s) resulted in dense and uniform coating. • Substrate temperature of 100 °C provided coating with smaller crystallite size. • Surface morphology of the coating has strong influence in oxidation protection. - Abstract: Nanostructured ceria-based coatings are shown to be protective against high-temperature oxidation of AISI 304 due to the dynamics of oxidation state and associated defects. However, the processing parameters of deposition have a strong influence in determining the structural and morphological aspects of ceria. The present work focuses on the effect of variation in substrate temperature (50–300 °C) and deposition rate (0.1–50 Å/s) of ceria in electron beam physical vapour evaporation method and correlates the changes in structure and morphology to high-temperature oxidation protection. Unlike deposition rate, substrate temperature exhibited a profound influence on crystallite size (7–18 nm) and oxygen vacancy concentration. Upon isothermal oxidation at 1243 K for 24 h, bare AISI 304 exhibited a linear mass gain with a rate constant of 3.0 ± 0.03 × 10{sup −3} kg{sup 2} m{sup −4} s{sup −1} while ceria coating lowered the kinetics by 3–4 orders. Though the thickness of the coating was kept constant at 2 μm, higher deposition rate offered one order lower protection due to the porous nature of the coating. Variation in the substrate temperature modulated the porosity as well as oxygen vacancy concentration and displayed the best protection for coatings deposited at moderate substrate temperature. The present work demonstrates the significance of selecting appropriate processing parameters to obtain the required morphology for efficient high-temperature oxidation protection.

  3. Metal-support interactions in systems palladium deposited on oxidized tungsten surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plšek, Jan; Jirka, Ivan; Nikolajenko, Vladimír; Knor, Zlatko

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, č. 18 (2006), s. 3943-3949 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0244 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : field emission microscopy * thermal desorption spectroscopy * synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy * growth * metal-oxide interfaces Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006

  4. Acetone sensors based on TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals modified with tungsten oxide species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epifani, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.epifani@le.imm.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), via Monteroni c/o Campus Universitario, I-73100, Lecce (Italy); Comini, Elisabetta [SENSOR Lab, Department of Information Engineering, Brescia University and CNR-INO, via Valotti, 9, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Díaz, Raül [Electrochemical Processes Unit, IMDEA Energy Institute, Avda. Ramón de la Sagra, 3 28935 Móstoles (Spain); Genç, Aziz [Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, 74100, Bartin (Turkey); Andreu, Teresa [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research- (IREC), Jardíns de les Dones de Negre, 1, E-08930 Sant Adrià del Besos, Barcelona, CAT (Spain); Siciliano, Pietro [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), via Monteroni c/o Campus Universitario, I-73100, Lecce (Italy); Morante, Joan R. [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research- (IREC), Jardíns de les Dones de Negre, 1, E-08930 Sant Adrià del Besos, Barcelona, CAT (Spain); Departament d' Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C./ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-25

    TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared by sol–gel/solvothermal processing and modified by the addition of W precursor before the solvothermal step. The W: Ti nominal atomic ratio (R{sub W}) was fixed to 0.16 and 0.64. Surface modification of TiO{sub 2} occurred for R{sub W} = 0.16 while for R{sub W} = 0.64 nanocomposites with WO{sub 3} nanocrystals were obtained after heat-treatment at 500 °C. Pure TiO{sub 2} proved to be very poorly performing in acetone sensing in all the operating conditions. Instead, the addition of both W concentrations largely enhanced the sensor response. It ranged over two orders of magnitude of conductance variation for all the tested concentrations at as low as 200 °C operating temperature. The results showed that it is possible to enhance the performance of an otherwise almost inactive oxide like TiO{sub 2} by proper combination with another more active oxide like WO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • Sensing architecture are synthesized, combining WO{sub 3} and of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. • Surface layers of W oxides or heterojunctions of TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} are obtained. • Simple TiO{sub 2} surface modification by W oxides boosts the TiO{sub 2} acetone response. • High responses even at 200 °C show catalytic effect of WO{sub 3} addition.

  5. Switchable optical layers. From the atomistic understanding of the gasochromous switching of tungsten oxide to the industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinga, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis describes studies, which make an understanding of the gasochromous colouring process of tungsten dioxide films. Finally all results and their interpretations are summarized, which arose in the framework of the analyses

  6. Mechanism of the electrochemical hydrogen reaction on smooth tungsten carbide and tungsten electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesener, K.; Winkler, E.; Schneider, W.

    1985-01-01

    The course of the electrochemical hydrogen reaction on smooth tungsten-carbide electrodes in hydrogen saturated 2.25 M H 2 SO 4 follows a electrochemical sorption-desorption mechanism in the potential range of -0.4 to +0.1 V. At potentials greater than +0.1 V the hydrogen oxidation is controlled by a preliminary chemical sorption step. Concluding from the similar behaviour of tungsten-carbide and tungsten electrodes after cathodic pretreatment, different tungsten oxides should be involved in the course of the hydrogen reaction on tungsten carbide electrodes. (author)

  7. Controlling the Optical and Magnetic Properties of Nanostructured Cuprous Oxide Synthesized from Waste Electric Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbasir, S. M.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Rayan, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Cuprous oxide Cu2O nanopowders were purposefully synthesised from waste electric cables (WECs) via a simple precipitation route at room temperature using lactose as a reducing agent. In this regard, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was first applied as an organic solvent for the dissolution of the cable insulating materials. Several parameters were investigated during dissolution of WECs such as dissolution temperature, time and solid/liquid ratio to determine the dissolution percentage of the insulating materials in DMSO. The morphology and the optical properties of the formed Cu2O particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible-near IR spectrophotometer. XRD data confirmed the presence of single crystalline phase of Cu2O nanoparticles. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed spherical, cubic and octahedral shapes with the various particle sizes ranged from 16 to 57 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. A possible mechanism explaining the Cu2O nanostructures formation was proposed. The band gap energies of the Cu2O nanostructures were estimated and the values were located between 1.5 and 2.08 eV. Photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis clearly showed a noticeably blue-shifted emission for the synthesized samples compared to spectrum of the bulk. Eventually, magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer and the attained results implied that the synthesized particles are weakly ferromagnetic in nature at normal temperature.

  8. Thermoluminescence of zirconium oxide nanostructured to mammography X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, L.L. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Roman, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. Av. San Rafael Atlixco 187, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gaona, E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco. Calz. Del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work thermoluminescent (TL) response of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) nanostructured induced by mammography X-ray radiation was investigated. Measurements were made of the response per unit air kerma of ZrO{sub 2} with mammography equipment parameters (semiautomatic exposure control, 24 kVp and 108 mAs). The calibration curves were obtained by simultaneously irradiating ZrO{sub 2} samples and ion chamber. Samples of ZrO{sub 2} showed a linear response as a function of entrance skin air kerma. The observed results in TL properties suggest that ZrO{sub 2} nanostructured could be considered as an effective material for X-ray beams dosimetry if appropriate calibration procedures are performed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray low energy thermoluminescent of ZrO{sub 2} dosimeter is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air kerma measurements were made by thermoluminescent dosimeter ZrO{sub 2} using mammography equipment parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Entrance surface skin doses were made using thermoluminescent dosimeter of ZrO{sub 2} to X-ray beam quality control.

  9. Iron Oxide and Gold Based Magneto-Plasmonic Nanostructures for Medical Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thuy Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide and gold-based magneto-plasmonic nanostructures exhibit remarkable optical and superparamagnetic properties originating from their two different components. As a consequence, they have improved and broadened the application potential of nanomaterials in medicine. They can be used as multifunctional nanoprobes for magneto-plasmonic heating as well as for magnetic and optical imaging. They can also be used for magnetically assisted optical biosensing, to detect extreme traces of targeted bioanalytes. This review introduces the previous work on magneto-plasmonic hetero-nanostructures including: (i their synthesis from simple “one-step” to complex “multi-step” routes, including seed-mediated and non-seed-mediated methods; and (ii the characterization of their multifunctional features, with a special emphasis on the relationships between their synthesis conditions, their structures and their properties. It also focuses on the most important progress made with regard to their use in nanomedicine, keeping in mind the same aim, the correlation between their morphology—namely spherical and non-spherical, core-satellite and core-shell, and the desired applications.

  10. A flexible UV nanosensor based on reduced graphene oxide decorated ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; Wang, Yajun; Muhammad, Safdar; Huang, Ying; He, Jun

    2012-03-01

    A low-cost, compatible with flexible electronics, high performance UV sensor has been achieved from a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated hydrangea-like ZnO film on a PDMS substrate. The hydrangea-like ZnO UV sensor has the best UV sensing performance among devices made of three kinds of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and demonstrated a dramatic enhancement in on/off ratio and photoresponse current by introducing an appropriate weight ratio of RGO. The on/off ratio of the 0.05% RGO/ZnO sensor increases almost one order of magnitude compared to that of a pristine hydrangea-like ZnO UV sensor. While for the 5% RGO decorated ZnO sensor, the photoresponse current reaches as high as ~1 μA and exceeds 700 times that of a ZnO UV sensor. These results indicate that RGO is an appropriate material to enhance the performance of ZnO nanostructure UV sensors based on its unique features, especially the high optical transparency and excellent electronic conductivity. Our findings will make RGO/ZnO nanohybrids extraordinarily promising in optoelectronics, flexible electronics and sensor applications.

  11. Ru nanostructure fabrication using an anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplate and highly conformal Ru atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Son, Jong-Yeog; Kim, Hyungjun [Department of Material Science and Engineering, POSTECH Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Nam-Gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-30

    We fabricated metallic nanostructures directly on Si substrates through a hybrid nanoprocess combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a self-assembled anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplate. ALD Ru films with Ru(DMPD)(EtCp) as a precursor and O{sub 2} as a reactant exhibited high purity and low resistivity with negligible nucleation delay and low roughness. These good growth characteristics resulted in the excellent conformality for nanometer-scale vias and trenches. Additionally, AAO nanotemplates were fabricated directly on Si and Ti/Si substrates through a multiple anodization process. AAO nanotemplates with various hole sizes (30-100 nm) and aspect ratios (2:1-20:1) were fabricated by controlling the anodizing process parameters. The barrier layers between AAO nanotemplates and Si substrates were completely removed by reactive ion etching (RIE) using BCl{sub 3} plasma. By combining the ALD Ru and the AAO nanotemplate, Ru nanostructures with controllable sizes and shapes were prepared on Si and Ti/Si substrates. The Ru nanowire array devices as a platform for sensor devices exhibited befitting properties of good ohmic contact and high surface/volume ratio.

  12. Nanostructured thin films of indium oxide nanocrystals confined in alumina matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouifoulen, A.; Edely, M.; Errien, N.; Kassiba, A.; Outzourhit, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Gautier, N.; Lajaunie, L.; Oueriagli, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystals of indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) with sizes below 10 nm were prepared in alumina matrixes by using a co-pulverization method. The used substrates such as borosilicate glasses or (100) silicon as well as the substrate temperatures during the deposition process were modified and their effects characterized on the structural and physical properties of alumina-In 2 O 3 films. Complementary investigation methods including X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance in the range 250-1100 nm and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the nanostructured films. The crystalline order, morphology and optical responses were monitored as function of the deposition parameters and the post-synthesis annealing. The optimal conditions were found and allow realizing suitable nanostructured films with a major crystalline order of cubic phase for the In 2 O 3 nanocrystals. The optical properties of the films were analyzed and the key parameters such as direct and indirect band gaps were evaluated as function of the synthesis conditions and the crystalline quality of the films.

  13. Thermoluminescence of zirconium oxide nanostructured to mammography X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, L.L.; Rivera, T.; Roman, J.; Azorín, J.; Gaona, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work thermoluminescent (TL) response of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) nanostructured induced by mammography X-ray radiation was investigated. Measurements were made of the response per unit air kerma of ZrO 2 with mammography equipment parameters (semiautomatic exposure control, 24 kVp and 108 mAs). The calibration curves were obtained by simultaneously irradiating ZrO 2 samples and ion chamber. Samples of ZrO 2 showed a linear response as a function of entrance skin air kerma. The observed results in TL properties suggest that ZrO 2 nanostructured could be considered as an effective material for X-ray beams dosimetry if appropriate calibration procedures are performed. - Highlights: ► X-ray low energy thermoluminescent of ZrO 2 dosimeter is developed. ► Air kerma measurements were made by thermoluminescent dosimeter ZrO 2 using mammography equipment parameters. ► Entrance surface skin doses were made using thermoluminescent dosimeter of ZrO 2 to X-ray beam quality control.

  14. An investigation of tungsten by neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetsreni, R.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation used neutron from Plutonium-Beryllium source (5 curie) to analyse the amount of tungsten in tungsten oxide which was extracted from tungsten ores, slag and tungsten alloy of tungsten iron and carbon. The technique of neutron activation analysis with NaI(Tl) gamma detector 3'' x 3'' and 1024 multichannel analyzer. The dilution technique was used by mixing Fe 2 O 3 or pure sand into the sample before irradiation. In this study self shielding effect in the analysis of tungsten was solved and the detection limit of the tungsten in the sample was about 0.5%

  15. Nanostructured manganese oxides as highly active water oxidation catalysts: a boost from manganese precursor chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Littlewood, Patrick; Schwarze, Michael; Göbel, Caren; Schomäcker, Reinhard; Driess, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We present a facile synthesis of bioinspired manganese oxides for chemical and photocatalytic water oxidation, starting from a reliable and versatile manganese(II) oxalate single-source precursor (SSP) accessible through an inverse micellar molecular approach. Strikingly, thermal decomposition of the latter precursor in various environments (air, nitrogen, and vacuum) led to the three different mineral phases of bixbyite (Mn2 O3 ), hausmannite (Mn3 O4 ), and manganosite (MnO). Initial chemical water oxidation experiments using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) gave the maximum catalytic activity for Mn2 O3 and MnO whereas Mn3 O4 had a limited activity. The substantial increase in the catalytic activity of MnO in chemical water oxidation was demonstrated by the fact that a phase transformation occurs at the surface from nanocrystalline MnO into an amorphous MnOx (1oxidizing agent. Photocatalytic water oxidation in the presence of [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) as a sensitizer and peroxodisulfate as an electron acceptor was carried out for all three manganese oxides including the newly formed amorphous MnOx . Both Mn2 O3 and the amorphous MnOx exhibit tremendous enhancement in oxygen evolution during photocatalysis and are much higher in comparison to so far known bioinspired manganese oxides and calcium-manganese oxides. Also, for the first time, a new approach for the representation of activities of water oxidation catalysts has been proposed by determining the amount of accessible manganese centers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A novel composite electrode based on tungsten oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Duzmen, Sehriban; Teker, Tugce; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a composite of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the quantification of paracetamol (PR). Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the characterization of the nanocomposite layer. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE modified with CNTs, the proposed electrode (WO 3 NPs/CNTs/GCE) exhibited a well-defined redox couple for PR and a marked enhancement of the current response. The experimental results also showed that ascorbic acid (AA) did not interfere with the selective determination of PR. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of PR in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0 using square wave voltammetry (SWV). The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of PR in the range of 1.0 × 10 −9 –2.0 × 10 −7 M. The detection limit (LOD) was 5.54 × 10 −11 M (based on 3 S b /m). The proposed voltammetric sensor provided long-time stability, improved voltammetric behavior and good reproducibility for PR. The selective, accurate and precise determination of PR makes the proposed electrode of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Highlights: • A voltammetric nanosensor was prepared using nanoparticles of WO 3 and CNTs. • A selective quantification of paracetamol was carried out in the presence of AA. • A linear plot was obtained for current responses versus concentrations over the range from 1.0 × 10 −9 to 2.0 × 10 −7 M. • A detection limit of 554 pM was obtained for paracetamol using the proposed nanosensor. • An accurate quantification makes the proposed nanosensor of great interest for public health

  17. A novel composite electrode based on tungsten oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Duzmen, Sehriban; Teker, Tugce; Aslanoglu, Mehmet, E-mail: maslanoglu@harran.edu.tr

    2015-12-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a composite of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the quantification of paracetamol (PR). Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the characterization of the nanocomposite layer. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE modified with CNTs, the proposed electrode (WO{sub 3}NPs/CNTs/GCE) exhibited a well-defined redox couple for PR and a marked enhancement of the current response. The experimental results also showed that ascorbic acid (AA) did not interfere with the selective determination of PR. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of PR in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0 using square wave voltammetry (SWV). The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of PR in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup −9}–2.0 × 10{sup −7} M. The detection limit (LOD) was 5.54 × 10{sup −11} M (based on 3 S{sub b}/m). The proposed voltammetric sensor provided long-time stability, improved voltammetric behavior and good reproducibility for PR. The selective, accurate and precise determination of PR makes the proposed electrode of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Highlights: • A voltammetric nanosensor was prepared using nanoparticles of WO{sub 3} and CNTs. • A selective quantification of paracetamol was carried out in the presence of AA. • A linear plot was obtained for current responses versus concentrations over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −9} to 2.0 × 10{sup −7} M. • A detection limit of 554 pM was obtained for paracetamol using the proposed nanosensor. • An accurate quantification makes the proposed nanosensor of great interest for public health.

  18. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Teh-Long; Lai, Yuan-Lung; Yu, Jen-Wei; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2009-01-01

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  19. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Teh-Long [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yuan-Lung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jen-Wei [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Shu, Youn-Yuen, E-mail: shuyy@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chen-Bin, E-mail: chenbin@ccit.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  20. Synthesis of full-density nanocrystalline tungsten carbide by reduction of tungstic oxide at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Omori, M.; Ishikuro, M.; Konno, T.J.; Takada, K.; Sumiyama, K.; Hirai, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Among the hard alloys, WC alloys find wide industrial applications as tips for cutting tools and wear-resistant parts. Their intrinsic resistance to oxidation and corrosion at high temperatures also makes them desirable as a protective coating for devices at elevated temperatures. In the industrial scale of production, WC is prepared by a direct union of the elements at a temperature of 3,273 to 3,473 K. Accordingly, the high cost of preparation is a disadvantage of this process. Here, the authors report a novel technique for preparing a large amount of WC powder using a simple method. This process is based on mechanical solid-state reduction (MSSR) followed y solid-state reaction (SSR) during room-temperature ball milling (a high energy ball mill, Fritsch P6, was used at a rotation speed of 4.2 s -1 ) of a mixture of WO 3 , Mg, and C powders

  1. Electrochemical water splitting using nano-zeolite Y supported tungsten oxide electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Shaheen Fatima; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2018-02-01

    Zeolites are often used as supports for metals and metal oxides because of their well-defined microporous structure and high surface area. In this study, nano-zeolite Y (50-150 nm range) and micro-zeolite Y (500-800 nm range) were loaded with WO3, by impregnating the zeolite support with ammonium metatungstate and thermally decomposing the salt thereafter. Two different loadings of WO3 were studied, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% with respect to the overall catalyst. The prepared catalysts were characterized for their morphology, structure, and surface areas through scanning electron microscope (SEM), XRD, and BET. They were further compared for their electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 0.5 M H2SO4. On comparing the bare micro-zeolite particles with the nano-form, the nano-zeolite Y showed higher currents with comparable overpotentials and lower Tafel slope of 62.36 mV/dec. WO3 loading brought about a change in the electrocatalytic properties of the catalyst. The overpotentials and Tafel slopes were observed to decrease with zeolite-3 wt.% WO3. The smallest overpotential of 60 mV and Tafel slope of 31.9 mV/dec was registered for nano-zeolite with 3 wt.% WO3, while the micro-zeolite gave an overpotential of 370 mV and a Tafel slope of 98.1 mV/dec. It was concluded that even with the same metal oxide loading, nano-zeolite showed superior performance, which is attributed to its size and hence easier escape of hydrogen bubbles from the catalyst.

  2. Development of a plasma assisted ITER level controlled heat source and observation of novel micro/nanostructures produced upon exposure of tungsten targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aomoa, N.; Sarmah, Trinayan; Sah, Puspalata [CIMPLE-PSI Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 Assam (India); Chaudhuri, P.; Khirwarker, S.; Ghosh, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 Gujarat (India); Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Kakati, M., E-mail: mayurkak@rediffmail.com [CIMPLE-PSI Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 Assam (India); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046 Saint Paul Lez Durance, Cedex (France)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed a plasma assisted ITER level high heat flux device for material testing. • The beam deposits over 10 MW/m{sup 2} flux uniformly over a remote material target. • Hopper micro-crystals were growing while exposing Plansee tungsten in the device. • CIMPLE-PSI being developed for exact reproduction of Tokomak Divertor conditions. - Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a simple, low-cost, segmented plasma torch assisted high-heat flux device for material testing, which can simulate the extreme heat flux expected in future fusion devices. Calorimetric measurements confirmed uniform heat deposition by the well collimated argon plasma beam over a target surface with power fluxes in excess of 10 MW/m{sup 2} during high current, high gas flow rate operations. To understand the outcome of possible melting of first wall material in an ITER like machine, an Plansee tungsten target was exposed in this device, which witnessed growth of micrometer level Hopper crystals and their aggregation to vertical grains in central exposed region. Increase in viscosity of the metal during high under-cooling is believed to have lead to the skeletal patterns, observed for the first time for tungsten here. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that re-solidified grains on the target actually had crystalline substructures in the nanometer level. This laboratory is in the process of developing an exact linear Tokamak Divertor simulator, where a magnetized hydrogen/helium collimated plasma jet will be produced at higher vacuum, for plasma material interaction studies with direct relevance to modern plasma fusion machines.

  3. Nanostructured tin oxide films: Physical synthesis, characterization, and gas sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, S M; Navale, S T; Navale, Y H; Bandgar, D K; Stadler, F J; Mane, R S; Ramgir, N S; Gupta, S K; Aswal, D K; Patil, V B

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructured tin oxide (SnO 2 ) films are synthesized using physical method i.e. thermal evaporation and are further characterized with X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy measurement techniques for confirming its structure and morphology. The chemiresistive properties of SnO 2 films are studied towards different oxidizing and reducing gases where these films have demonstrated considerable selectivity towards oxidizing nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas with a maximum response of 403% to 100ppm @200°C, and fast response and recovery times of 4s and 210s, respectively, than other test gases. In addition, SnO 2 films are enabling to detect as low as 1ppm NO 2 gas concentration @200°C with 23% response enhancement. Chemiresistive performances of SnO 2 films are carried out in the range of 1-100ppm and reported. Finally, plausible adsorption and desorption reaction mechanism of NO 2 gas molecules with SnO 2 film surface has been thoroughly discussed by means of an impedance spectroscopy analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spherulitic copper–copper oxide nanostructure-based highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Thao Quynh Ngan Tran, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Republic of South Korea Abstract: In this work, three different spherulitic nanostructures Cu–CuOA, Cu–CuOB, and Cu–CuOC were synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsions by varying the surfactant concentration (30 mM, 40 mM, and 50 mM, respectively. The structural and morphological characteristics of the Cu–CuO nanostructures were investigated by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques. The synthesized nanostructures were deposited on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-modified indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes to fabricate a nonenzymatic highly sensitive amperometric glucose sensor. The performance of the ITO/MWCNT/Cu–CuO electrodes in the glucose assay was examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric studies. The sensitivity of the sensor varied with the spherulite type; Cu–CuOA, Cu–CuOB, and Cu–CuOC exhibited a sensitivity of 1,229, 3,012, and 3,642 µA mM-1·cm-2, respectively. Moreover, the linear range is dependent on the structure types: 0.023–0.29 mM, 0.07–0.8 mM, and 0.023–0.34 mM for Cu–CuOA, Cu–CuOB, and Cu–CuOC, respectively. An excellent response time of 3 seconds and a low detection limit of 2 µM were observed for Cu–CuOB at an applied potential of +0.34 V. In addition, this electrode was found to be resistant to interference by common interfering agents such as urea, cystamine, l-ascorbic acid, and creatinine. The high performance of the Cu–CuO spherulites with nanowire-to-nanorod outgrowths was primarily due to the high surface area and stability, and good three-dimensional structure. Furthermore, the ITO/MWCNT/Cu–CuOB electrode applied to real urine and serum sample showed satisfactory performance. Keywords: copper oxide, multiwalled

  5. Tungsten-Based Mesoporous Silicates W-MMM-E as Heterogeneous Catalysts for Liquid-Phase Oxidations with Aqueous H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Maksimchuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous tungsten-silicates, W-MMM-E, have been prepared following evaporation-induced self-assembly methodology and characterized by elemental analysis, XRD, N2 adsorption, STEM-HAADF (high angle annular dark field in scanning-TEM mode, DRS UV-vis, and Raman techniques. DRS UV-vis showed the presence of two types of tungsten oxo-species in W-MMM-E samples: isolated tetrahedrally and oligomeric octahedrally coordinated ones, with the ratio depending on the content of tungsten in the catalyst. Materials with lower W loading have a higher contribution from isolated species, regardless of the preparation method. W-MMM-E catalyzes selectively oxidize of a range of alkenes and organic sulfides, including bulky terpene or thianthrene molecules, using green aqueous H2O2. The selectivity of corresponding epoxides reached 85–99% in up to 80% alkene conversions, while sulfoxides formed with 84–90% selectivity in almost complete sulfide conversions and a 90–100% H2O2 utilization efficiency. The true heterogeneity of catalysis over W-MMM-E was proved by hot filtration tests. Leaching of inactive W species depended on the reaction conditions and initial W loading in the catalyst. After optimization of the catalyst system, it did not exceed 20 ppm and 3 ppm for epoxidation and sulfoxidation reactions, respectively. Elaborated catalysts could be easily retrieved by filtration and reused several times with maintenance of the catalytic behavior.

  6. Sunlight-charged electrochromic battery based on hybrid film of tungsten oxide and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Liu, Jingrong; Lei, Yanhua; Liu, Tao; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2018-05-01

    Electrochromic (EC) energy storage devices that could realize the multifunctional integration of energy storage and electrochromism have gained much recent attention. Herein, an EC battery based on the hybrid film of W18O49 and polyaniline (PANI) is developed and assembled, which integrates energy storage and EC functions in one device. The W18O49/PANI-EC battery delivers a discharging capacity of 52.96 mA h g-1, which is about two times higher than that of the W18O49-EC battery. Sunlight irradiation could greatly promote the oxidation reactions of both W18O49 and PANI during the charging process of the W18O49/PANI-EC battery, thus effectively accelerating the charging rate. This work provides a green, convenient, environmentally friendly, and cost-free charging strategy for the EC energy systems and could further advance the development of the multifunctional EC devices based on the organic/inorganic composites.

  7. Electrochemical disinfection of bacteria-laden water using antimony-doped tin-tungsten-oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Saloumeh; Asadishad, Bahareh; Omanovic, Sasha; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2017-12-01

    Electrochemical disinfection has been shown to be an efficient method with a shortrequired contact time for treatment of drinking water supplies, industrial raw water supplies, liquid foodstuffs, and wastewater effluents. In the present work, the electrochemical disinfection of saline water contaminated with bacteria was investigated in chloride-containing solutions using Sb-doped Sn 80% -W 20% -oxide anodes. The influence of current density, bacterial load, initial chloride concentration, solution pH, and the type of bacteria (E. coli D21, E. coli O157:H7, and E. faecalis) on disinfection efficacy was systematically examined. The impact of natural organic matter and a radical scavenger on the disinfection process was also examined. The electrochemical system was highly effective in bacterial inactivation for a 0.1 M NaCl solution contaminated with ∼10 7  CFU/mL bacteria by applying a current density ≥1 mA/cm 2 through the cell.100% inactivation of E. coli D21 was achieved with a contact time of less than 60 s and power consumption of 48 Wh/m 3 , by applying a current density of 6 mA/cm 2 in a 0.1 M NaCl solution contaminated with ∼10 7 CFU/mL. Reactive chlorine species as well as reactive oxygen species (e.g. hydroxyl radicals) generated in situ during the electrochemical process were determined to be responsible for inactivation of bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidation of cyclic amines by molybdenum(II and tungsten(II halocarbonyls, [M(CO4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mbuvi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The molybdenum(II and tungsten(II halocarbonyls, [M(CO4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br react with a large excess of the nitrogen bases, 1-methylpyrrolidine, 1-methylpiperidine, 1-ethylpiperidine and 2-ethylpiperidine to give aminecarbonyl complexes of the type M(CO3L3 (L= alkylamine. Excess piperidine reacts with the tungsten halocarbonyls, [W(CO4X2]2 (X = Cl, Br, to give the trans isomer of the complex, W(CO3(C5H11N3. The halogens were recovered as the amminium salts, amine, HX. The oxidized amine dimerized to form a yellow product which was recovered as an oily liquid but in very small amounts. However, in the reaction between Mo(CO4Br2 and 1-ethylpiperidine, a yellow crystalline solid, with a melting point of 224 oC was recovered in sufficient amounts for elemental analysis, melting point and spectral data. Its mass spectrum showed a molecular ion peak at m+/z = 222, a clear evidence that the oxidized amine dimerizes. The cyclic dibasic amine piperazine, C4H10N2 is not, however, oxidized by these halocarbonyls but rather it reacts by substituting some CO groups to form products of the type, M(CO3(C4H10N22X2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br. Products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry.

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Nanostructured Gold-Iron Oxide Catalysts for the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng

    Shape-controlled iron oxide and gold-iron oxide catalysts with a cubic inverse spinel structure were studied in this thesis for the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane. The structure of iron oxide and gold-iron oxide catalysts has no major impact on their oxidative dehydrogenation activity. However, the product selectivity is influenced. Both cyclohexene and benzene are formed on bare iron oxide nanoshapes, while benzene is the only dehydrogenation product in the presence of gold. The selectivity of benzene over CO2 depends strongly on the stability of the iron oxide support and the gold-support interaction. The highest benzene yield has been observed on gold-iron oxide octahedra. {111}-bound nanooctahedra are highly stable in reaction conditions at 300 °C, while {100}-bound nanocubes start to sinter above 250 °C. The highest benzene yield has been observed on gold-iron oxide nanooctahedra, which are likely to have gold atoms, and few-atom gold clusters strongly-bound on their surface. Cationic gold appears to be the active site for benzene formation. An all-organic method to prepare Au-FeOx nano-catalysts is needed due to the inconvenience of the half-organic, half-inorganic synthesis process discussed above. Several methods from the literature to prepare gold-iron oxide nanocomposites completely in organic solvents were reviewed and followed. FeOx Au synthesis procedures in literatures are initially designed for a Au content of over 70%. This approach was tried here to prepare composites with a much lower Au content (2-5 atom. %). Heat treatment is required to bond Au and FeOx NPs in the organic-phase syntheses. Au-FeOx-4 was obtained as a selective catalyst for the ODH of cyclohexane. A Audelta+ peak is observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of sample Au-FeOx-4. This different Au delta+ form may be cationic Au nano-clusters interacting with the FeOx support. It has been demonstrated that cationic gold is responsible for dehydrogenation behavior. Furthermore, the

  10. Using reduced graphene oxide-Ca:CdSe nanocomposite to enhance photoelectrochemical activity of gold nanoparticles functionalized tungsten oxide for highly sensitive prostate specific antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Xu, Rui; Sun, Xu; Wang, Yaoguang; Ren, Xiang; Du, Bin; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2017-10-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was constructed for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). In this work, Au-nanoparticle-loaded tungsten oxide (WO 3 -Au) hybrid composites was applied as PEC sensing platform, while Ca ions doped CdSe equipped on the conducting framework of reduced graphene oxide (rGO-Ca:CdSe) nanocomposites were employed as the signal amplification probe. As for WO 3 -Au, massive Au nanoparticles were formed on the surface of WO 3 without any additional reducing agent, providing a novel nanocarriers for anchoring plenty of the primary antibodies due to the large specific surface area and good biocompatibility by chemical bonding between Au nanoparticles and -NH 2 of antibodies. Besides, the incorporation of the rGO and the doping of Ca ions could improve the conductivity and hinder the recombination of electron-hole pairs of CdSe nanoparticles effectively, thereby enhancing the photocurrent conversion efficiency. Based on the sandwich immunoreaction, the primary antibody was immobilized onto WO 3 -Au substrate, after the formed rGO-Ca:CdSe labels were captured onto the electrode surface via the specific antibody-antigen interaction, the photocurrent intensity could be further enhanced due to the sensitization effect. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed PEC immunosensor shows a linear relationship between photocurrent variation and the logarithm of PSA concentration in the wide range of 5pgmL -1 to 50ngmL -1 with a low detection limit of 2.6pgmL -1 (S/N=3). Moreover, it also presented good stability and acceptable specificity, indicating the potential applications in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha; Sivalingam, Durgajanani; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO 2 and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO 2 /TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 μM with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO 2 /TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 μM with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6

  12. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivalingam, Durgajanani [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru, E-mail: rjbosco@ece.sastra.edu [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-01-15

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO{sub 2} and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp

  13. Catalysis by Nanostructures: Methane, Ethylene Oxide, and Propylene Oxide Synthesis on Ag, Cu or Au Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-07

    22 nm) were prepared by reducing a Au salt, and encapsulating the Au nanoparticles formed in a polymer33 . A variety of high area oxides (TiO 2, ZnO ...Morphologies Utilizing a Combinatorial Electrochemistry Methodology. Ph. D. dissertation, Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (2004

  14. High Quality Zinc Oxide Thin films and Nanostructures Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Flemban, Tahani H.

    2017-12-11

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductors have been utilized by many researchers, due to its unique properties beneficial for functional devices. In particular, gadolinium (Gd)–doped ZnO exhibits high ferromagnetic and electrical properties, which is attributed to defect/impurity bands mediated by Gd dopants. In this dissertation, I study the effects of Gd concentration, oxygen pressure using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and thermal annealing on the optical and structural properties of undoped and Gd-doped ZnO films and nanostructures. Moreover, as the growth of practical ZnO nanostructures-based devices without catalyst, while presently challenging, is highly important for many applications. Thus, for the first time, a novel method is developed for growing well aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) by optimizing PLD conditions using Gd-doped ZnO target without any catalyst in a single step. This study shows that, both the lattice orientation of the substrate and the Gd characteristics are significant in enhancing the NR growth. Our findings reveal that precise control of the NR density can be achieved by changing the oxygen partial pressure. Furthermore, due to the Gd incorporation, these NRs possess favorable electrical properties with a significant mobility of 177 cm2 (V.s)-1 compared to that reported in literature. Nonetheless significant challenges need to be overcome to achieve reproducible and stable p-type ZnO for commercial applications. Hence, several attempts based on n-type ZnO grown on foreign p-type substrates were made to achieve high-performance devices and overcome the issues arising when p-type doped ZnO is employed. Moreover, Growth of ZnO nanostructures on a foreign p-type substrates does not require a lattice-matched p-type substrate. Thus, for the first time, PLD conditions are improved to grow high quality ZnO nanotubes (NTs) with high optical, structural and electrical properties on a p-type Si (100) substrate without catalyst for high-performance devices. A

  15. A dual enzyme functionalized nanostructured thulium oxide based interface for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay; Roychoudhury, Appan; Srivastava, Manish; Solanki, Pratima R.; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Seung Hee; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present results of the studies related to fabrication of a rare earth metal oxide based efficient biosensor using an interface based on hydrothermally prepared nanostructured thulium oxide (n-Tm2O3). A colloidal solution of prepared nanorods has been electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. The n-Tm2O3 nanorods are found to provide improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The structural and morphological studies of n-Tm2O3 nanorods have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. This interfacial platform has been used for fabrication of a total cholesterol biosensor by immobilizing cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) onto a Tm2O3 nanostructured surface. The results of response studies of the fabricated ChEt-ChOx/n-Tm2O3/ITO bioelectrode show a broad linear range of 8-400 mg dL-1, detection limit of 19.78 mg (dL cm-2)-1, and high sensitivity of 0.9245 μA (mg per dL cm-2)-1 with a response time of 40 s. Further, this bioelectrode has been utilized for estimation of total cholesterol with negligible interference (3%) from analytes present in human serum samples. The utilization of this n-Tm2O3 modified electrode for enzyme-based biosensor analysis offers an efficient strategy and a novel interface for application of the rare earth metal oxide materials in the field of electrochemical sensors and bioelectronic devices.In this paper, we present results of the studies related to fabrication of a rare earth metal oxide based efficient biosensor using an interface based on hydrothermally prepared nanostructured thulium oxide (n-Tm2O3). A colloidal solution of prepared

  16. Study of uranium oxide milling in order to obtain nanostructured UC{sub x} target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, Julien, E-mail: guillotjulien@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud, F-91406 ORSAY Cedex (France); Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Roussière, Brigitte; Barré-Boscher, Nicole [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud, F-91406 ORSAY Cedex (France); Brisset, François [ICMMO UMR 8182 CNRS – Université Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mhamed, Maher Cheikh; Lau, Christophe [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 8608 – Université Paris Sud, F-91406 ORSAY Cedex (France); Nowak, Sophie [ITODYS, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR-7086, F-75013 Paris (France); IPSL CNRS UMR 7583 Universités Paris Est Créteil et Paris Diderot, F-94010 Créteil Cedex (France)

    2016-05-01

    A R&D program is developed at the ALTO facility to provide new beams of exotic neutron-rich nuclei, as intense as possible. In the framework of European projects, it has been shown that the use of refractory targets with nanometric structure allows us to obtain beams of nuclei unreachable until now. The first parameter to be controlled in the processing to obtain targets with a homogeneous nanostructure is the grinding of uranium dioxide, down to 100 nm grain size. In this study, dry and wet grinding routes are studied and the powders are analyzed in terms of phase stabilization, specific surface area and grain morphology. It appears that the grinding, as well dry as wet, leads to the decrease of the particle size. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} is observed whatever the grinding. However, the dry grinding is the most efficient and leads to the oxidation of UO{sub 2} into U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7} whose quantities increase with the grinding time while crystallite sizes decrease.

  17. Manufacturing process, characterization and optical investigation of amorphous 1D zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Wiktor; Tański, Tomasz; Zaborowska, Marta

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to produce amorphous ZnO nanowires via the electrospinning process from a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(COOH)2)/dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol (EtOH) solution. The as obtained nanofibers were calcined at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 °C to remove the organic phase. The one-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to analyse the influence of the used temperature on the morphology and structures of the obtained ceramic nanomaterials. In order to examine the chemical structure of nanowires, the energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX) was used. Besides, a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to show the polymer concentration loss in a function of temperature in order to obtain pure zinc oxide nanowires. The optical property analysis was performed on the basis of UV-vis spectra of absorbance as a function of the wavelength. Using the modified Swanepoel method, which the authors proposed, and the recorded absorbance spectra determined the banded refractive index n, real n‧ and imaginary k part of the refractive index as a function of the wavelength, complex dielectric permeability ɛ, real and imaginary part εr and εi of the dielectric permeability as a function of the radiation energy of the produced ZnO nanowires.

  18. Nanostructured manganese oxide/carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide as water-oxidizing composites in artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Rahimi, Fahime; Fathollahzadeh, Maryam; Haghighi, Behzad; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-07-28

    Herein, we report on nano-sized Mn oxide/carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide as water-oxidizing compounds in artificial photosynthesis. The composites are synthesized by different and simple procedures and characterized by a number of methods. The water-oxidizing activities of these composites are also considered in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. Some composites are efficient Mn-based catalysts with TOF (mmol O2 per mol Mn per second) ~ 2.6.

  19. Thermodynamics of the hydrogen-carbon-oxygen-tungsten system, as applied to the manufacture of tungsten and tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the quaternary hydrogen-carbon oxygen-tungsten system and its binary and ternary sub-systems are reviewed. Published thermodynamic data are evaluated, and expression for free energies of formation are chosen. These expressions are integrated with and equilibrium-calculating algorithm, producing a powerful tool for understanding and improving the manufacture of tungsten and tungsten carbide. Three examples are presented: reduction/carburization of tungstic oxide with hydrogen, carbon, and methane. (author)

  20. Electrochemical hydrogen property improved in nano-structured perovskite oxide LaFeO3 for Ni/MH battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Deng, Gang; Chen, Zhiqian; Chen, Yungui; Cheng, Nanpu

    2013-02-01

    Perovskite oxide LaFeO3, as a novel candidate for the electrode of Ni/MH battery, holds high specific capacity and good cyclical durability at elevated temperatures. However, the poor electrochemical kinetics is a bottleneck for the application of this type of material. By use of nano-structured materials, there are greatly enhanced values of exchange current density I0 and hydrogen diffusion coefficient D, which resulted in an improvement of electrochemical kinetics, a much higher specific capacity and excellent stability during cycling for nano-structured LaFeO3. In theory, there is a significant possibility of further advancing the hydrogen reaction kinetics of perovskite type oxides for Ni/MH battery.

  1. Nanostructured carbon-supported Pd electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacutan, E M; Tongol, B J; Climaco, M I; Telan, G J; Malijan, F; Hsu, H Y; Garcia, J; Fulo, H

    2012-01-01

    The need to lower the construction cost of fuel cells calls for the development of non-Pt based electrocatalysts. Among others, Pd has emerged as a promising alternative to Pt for fuel cell catalysis. This research aims to investigate the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Pd-based catalysts dispersed on carbon support as anode materials in direct ethanol fuel cells. For the preparation of the first Pd-based electrocatalyst, palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via oleylamine (OAm)-mediated synthesis and precursor method with a mean particle size of 3.63 ± 0.59 nm as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon black was used as a supporting matrix for the OAm-capped Pd NPs. Thermal annealing and acetic acid washing were used to remove the OAm capping agent. To evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation, cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed using 1.0 M ethanol in basic medium. The CV data revealed the highest peak current density of 11.05 mA cm −2 for the acetic acid-washed Pd/C electrocatalyst. Meanwhile, the fabrication of the second Pd-based electrocatalyst was done by functionalization of the carbon black support using 3:1 (v/v) H 2 SO 4 :HNO 3 . The metal oxide, NiO, was deposited using precipitation method while polyol method was used for the deposition of Pd NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the estimated particle size of the synthesized catalysts was at around 9.0–15.0 nm. CV results demonstrated a 36.7% increase in the catalytic activity of Pd–NiO/C (functionalized) catalyst towards ethanol oxidation compared to the non-functionalized catalyst. (paper)

  2. Nanostructured carbon-supported Pd electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacutan, E. M.; Climaco, M. I.; Telan, G. J.; Malijan, F.; Hsu, H. Y.; Garcia, J.; Fulo, H.; Tongol, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The need to lower the construction cost of fuel cells calls for the development of non-Pt based electrocatalysts. Among others, Pd has emerged as a promising alternative to Pt for fuel cell catalysis. This research aims to investigate the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Pd-based catalysts dispersed on carbon support as anode materials in direct ethanol fuel cells. For the preparation of the first Pd-based electrocatalyst, palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via oleylamine (OAm)-mediated synthesis and precursor method with a mean particle size of 3.63 ± 0.59 nm as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon black was used as a supporting matrix for the OAm-capped Pd NPs. Thermal annealing and acetic acid washing were used to remove the OAm capping agent. To evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation, cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed using 1.0 M ethanol in basic medium. The CV data revealed the highest peak current density of 11.05 mA cm-2 for the acetic acid-washed Pd/C electrocatalyst. Meanwhile, the fabrication of the second Pd-based electrocatalyst was done by functionalization of the carbon black support using 3:1 (v/v) H2SO4:HNO3. The metal oxide, NiO, was deposited using precipitation method while polyol method was used for the deposition of Pd NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the estimated particle size of the synthesized catalysts was at around 9.0-15.0 nm. CV results demonstrated a 36.7% increase in the catalytic activity of Pd-NiO/C (functionalized) catalyst towards ethanol oxidation compared to the non-functionalized catalyst.

  3. Nanostructured antistatic and antireflective thin films made of indium tin oxide and silica over-coat layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Hong, Jeong-Jin; Yang, Seung-Man; Choi, Chul-Jin

    2010-08-01

    Stable dispersion of colloidal indium tin oxide nanoparticles was prepared by using indium tin oxide nanopowder, organic solvent, and suitable dispersants through attrition process. Various comminution parameters during the attrition step were studied to optimize the process for the stable dispersion of indium tin oxide sol. The transparent and conductive films were fabricated on glass substrate using the indium tin oxide sol by spin coating process. To obtain antireflective function, partially hydrolyzed alkyl silicate was deposited as over-coat layer on the pre-fabricated indium tin oxide film by spin coating technique. This double-layered structure of the nanostructured film was characterized by measuring the surface resistance and reflectance spectrum in the visible wavelength region. The final film structure was enough to satisfy the TCO regulations for EMI shielding purposes.

  4. A rational design approach to nanostructured catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacki, Christopher

    . The role of the support is to provide lattice oxygen in an activated state (O2-) for oxidation of adsorbed CO the Au NP:support interface. Furthermore, the primary interest is the energy associated Au NP in proximity to the support surface. Advancing the understanding of this region is believed to be crucial to the future design of active nanostructured materials that function under ambient conditions. The proposed model involves a structure consisting of properly sized and highly dispersed Au NP supported on a hydroxylated form of nanocrystalline zirconia. This type of zirconia is in a highly polymorphic form consisting of aggregates of small crystals less than 10 nm. The structure is highly porous, containing undercoordinated zirconium atoms, and provides an environment for rapid dissociation of molecular water. In this research and in collaboration with Mogilevsky et al., 37 I introduce a novel method for quantifying the surface concentration of two major forms of hydroxide that form on zirconia. Furthermore, in this research I show how both the porosity of the zirconia support and the size of the crystalline aggregates affect the type and surface concentration of hydroxyl groups. This relationship is thus directly related to the oxidation activity of the catalyst consisting of Au NP supported on hydroxylated ZrO 2. These phenomena are exemplified by a reduction in structural porosity and surface hydroxyl groups with increasing temperature treatments of the zirconia support. Gold NP and ZrO2 supports were extended to studies that included interactions with activated carbons. This work was done on the premise that graphitic carbons, based on their tunable porosities and surface chemistries, can enhance or stabilize the catalytic activity of neighboring Au NP. Gold dispersed on active carbon and hybrid structures consisting of Au/ZrO 2/C shows interesting properties, which lend themselves to catalytic particle stabilization and to the advancement of multifunctional

  5. Transparent conductive oxide films embedded with plasmonic nanostructure for light-emitting diode applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shih-Hao; Tsung, Cheng-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Ho; Ou, Sin-Liang; Horng, Ray-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Yi; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2015-02-04

    In this study, a spin coating process in which the grating structure comprises an Ag nanoparticle layer coated on a p-GaN top layer of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) was developed. Various sizes of plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in a transparent conductive layer were clearly observed after the deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO). The plasmonic nanostructure enhanced the light extraction efficiency of blue LED. Output power was 1.8 times the magnitude of that of conventional LEDs operating at 350 mA, but retained nearly the same current-voltage characteristic. Unlike in previous research on surface-plasmon-enhanced LEDs, the metallic nanoparticles were consistently deposited over the surface area. However, according to microstructural observation, ITO layer mixed with Ag-based nanoparticles was distributed at a distance of approximately 150 nm from the interface of ITO/p-GaN. Device performance can be improved substantially by using the three-dimensional distribution of Ag-based nanoparticles in the transparent conductive layer, which scatters the propagating light randomly and is coupled between the localized surface plasmon and incident light internally trapped in the LED structure through total internal reflection.

  6. Sol–gel synthesis of nanostructured indium tin oxide with controlled morphology and porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kőrösi, László, E-mail: ltkorosi@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, Alice [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Petrik, Péter [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly-Thege út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Papp, Szilvia [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Dékány, Imre [MTA-SZTE Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 8, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ITO thin films and powders were prepared by a sol–gel method. • The nature of the compounds used for hydrolysis plays a key role in the morphology. • Hydrolysis of In{sup 3+}/Sn{sup 4+} with EA led to a rod-like morphology. • Monodisperse spherical ITO nanoparticles were obtained on the use of AC. • ITO{sub E}A was highly porous, while ITO{sub A}C contained densely packed nanocrystals. - Abstract: Nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) powders and thin films differing in morphology and porosity were prepared by a sol–gel method. In{sup 3+} and Sn{sup 4+} were hydrolyzed in aqueous medium through the use of ethanolamine (EA) or sodium acetate (AC). X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated that both EA and AC furnished indium tin hydroxide, which became nanocrystalline after aging for one day. The indium tin hydroxide samples calcined at 550 °C afforded ITO with a cubic crystal structure, but the morphology differed significantly, depending on the agent used for hydrolysis. Electron microscopy revealed the formation of round monodisperse nanoparticles when AC was used, whereas the application of EA led to rod-like ITO nanoparticles. Both types of nanoparticles were suitable for the preparation of transparent and conductive ITO thin films. The influence of the morphology and porosity on the optical properties is discussed.

  7. pH-regulated antimony oxychloride nanoparticle formation on titanium oxide nanostructures: a photocatalytically active heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Buchholcz, Balázs

    2017-02-06

    Improving the catalytic activity of heterogeneous photocatalysts has become a hot topic recently. To this end, considerable progress has been made in the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers by e.g. the realization of heterojunction photocatalysts. V-VI-VII compound semiconductors, namely, bismuth oxyhalides, are popular photocatalysts. However, results on antimony oxyhalides [SbOX (X = Br, Cl, I)], the very promising alternatives to the well-known BiOX photomodifiers, are scarce. Here, we report the successful decoration of titanium oxide nanostructures with 8-11 nm diameter SbOX nanoparticles for the first time ever. The product size and stoichiometry could be controlled by the pH of the reactant mixture, while subsequent calcination could transform the structure of the titanate nanotube (TiONT) support and the prepared antimony oxychloride particles. In contrast to the ease of composite formation in the SbOX/TiONT case, anatase TiO could not facilitate the formation of antimony oxychloride nanoparticles on its surface. The titanate nanotube-based composites showed activity in a generally accepted quasi-standard photocatalytic test reaction (methyl orange dye decolorization). We found that the SbOCl/TiONT synthesized at pH = 1 is the most active sample in a broad temperature range.

  8. A Label-Free Photoluminescence Genosensor Using Nanostructured Magnesium Oxide for Cholera Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manoj Kumar; Ali, Md. Azahar; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Agrawal, Ved Varun; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Fouad, H.; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterial-based photoluminescence (PL) diagnostic devices offer fast and highly sensitive detection of pesticides, DNA, and toxic agents. Here we report a label-free PL genosensor for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae that is based on a DNA hybridization strategy utilizing nanostructured magnesium oxide (nMgO; size >30 nm) particles. The morphology and size of the synthesized nMgO were determined by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The probe DNA (pDNA) was conjugated with nMgO and characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. The target complementary genomic DNA (cDNA) isolated from clinical samples of V. cholerae was subjected to DNA hybridization studies using the pDNA-nMgO complex and detection of the cDNA was accomplished by measuring changes in PL intensity. The PL peak intensity measured at 700 nm (red emission) increases with the increase in cDNA concentration. A linear range of response in the developed PL genosensor was observed from 100 to 500 ng/μL with a sensitivity of 1.306 emi/ng, detection limit of 3.133 ng/μL and a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.987. These results show that this ultrasensitive PL genosensor has the potential for applications in the clinical diagnosis of cholera.

  9. Nanostructures and thin films of transparent conductive oxides studied by perturbed angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, M B; Redondo-Cubero, A; Miranda, S M C; Simon, R; Kessler, P; Brandt, M; Henneberger, F; Nogales, E; Méndez, B; Johnston, K; Alves, E; Vianden, R; Araújo, J P; Lorenz, K; Correia, J G

    2013-01-01

    The versatility of perturbed angular correlations (PAC) in the study of nanostructures and thin films is demonstrated, namely for the specific cases of ZnO/Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$O thin films and Ga$_2$O$_3$ powder pellets and nanowires, examples of transparent conductive oxides. PAC measurements as a function of annealing temperature were performed after implantation of $^{111m}$Cd$/^{111}$Cd (T$_{1/2}$=48$\\,$min.) and later compared to density functional theory simulations. For ZnO, the substitution of Cd probes at Zn sites was observed, as well as the formation of a probe-defect complex. The ternary Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$O (x=0.16) showed good macroscopic crystal quality but revealed some clustering of local defects around the probe Cd atoms, which could not be annealed. In the Ga$_2$O$_3$ samples, the substitution of the Cd probes in the octahedral Ga-site was observed, demonstrating the potential of ion-implantation for the doping of nanowires.

  10. Seed-mediated electrochemical growth of gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praig, Vera G.; Szunerits, Sabine [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), USR CNRS 3078 and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN),UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piret, Gaelle; Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), USR CNRS 3078 and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN),UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Manesse, Mael [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Castel, Xavier [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR), UMR CNRS 6164, 18 rue H. Wallon, BP 406, 22004 Saint-Brieuc Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-11-15

    Two-dimensional gold nanostructures (Au NSs) were fabricated on amine-terminated indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using constant potential electrolysis. By controlling the deposition time and by choosing the appropriate ITO surface, Au NSs with different shapes were generated. When Au NSs were formed directly on aminosilane-modified ITO, the surface roughness of the interface was largely enhanced. Modification of such Au NSs with n-tetradecanethiol resulted in a highly hydrophobic interface with a water contact angle of 144 . Aminosilane-modified ITO films further modified with colloidal Au seeds before electrochemical Au NSs formation demonstrated interesting optical properties. Depending on the deposition time, surface colors ranging from pale pink to beatgold-like were observed. The optical properties and the chemical stability of the interfaces were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance signals were recorded on Au-seeded interfaces with {lambda}{sub max}=675{+-} 2 nm (deposition time 180 s). The prepared interfaces exhibited long-term stability in various solvents and responded linearly to changes in the corresponding refractive indices. (author)

  11. Seed-mediated electrochemical growth of gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praig, Vera G.; Piret, Gaelle; Manesse, Mael; Castel, Xavier; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional gold nanostructures (Au NSs) were fabricated on amine-terminated indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using constant potential electrolysis. By controlling the deposition time and by choosing the appropriate ITO surface, Au NSs with different shapes were generated. When Au NSs were formed directly on aminosilane-modified ITO, the surface roughness of the interface was largely enhanced. Modification of such Au NSs with n-tetradecanethiol resulted in a highly hydrophobic interface with a water contact angle of 144 deg. Aminosilane-modified ITO films further modified with colloidal Au seeds before electrochemical Au NSs formation demonstrated interesting optical properties. Depending on the deposition time, surface colors ranging from pale pink to beatgold-like were observed. The optical properties and the chemical stability of the interfaces were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance signals were recorded on Au-seeded interfaces with λ max = 675 ± 2 nm (deposition time 180 s). The prepared interfaces exhibited long-term stability in various solvents and responded linearly to changes in the corresponding refractive indices

  12. Zinc oxide nanostructures and its nano-compounds for efficient visible light photo-catalytic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rania E.; Alnoor, Hatim; Elhag, Sami; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) in its nanostructure form is a promising material for visible light emission/absorption and utilization in different energy efficient photocatalytic processes. We will first present our recent results on the effect of varying the molar ratio of the synthesis nutrients on visible light emission. Further we will use the optimized conditions from the molar ration experiments to vary the synthesis processing parameters like stirring time etc. and the effect of all these parameters in order to optimize the efficiency and control the emission spectrum are investigated using different complementary techniques. Cathodoluminescence (CL) is combined with photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) as the techniques to investigate and optimizes visible light emission from ZnO/GaN light emitting diodes. We will then show and discuss our recent finding of the use of high quality ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient photo-degradation of toxic dyes using the visible spectra, namely with a wavelength up to 800 nm. In the end, we show how ZnO nanorods (NRs) are used as the first template to be transferred to bismuth zinc vanadate (BiZn2VO6). The BiZn2VO6 is then used to demonstrate efficient and cost effective hydrogen production through photoelectrochemical water splitting using solar radiation.

  13. Oxidation of nanostructured Ti films produced by low energy cluster beam deposition: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Monica de; Snidero, Elena; Coreno, Marcello; Bongiorno, Gero; Giorgetti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Cepek, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    We used in-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the oxidation process of a cluster-assembled metallic titanium film exposed to molecular oxygen at room temperature. The nanostructured film has been grown on a Si(111) substrate, in ultra high vacuum conditions, by coupling a supersonic cluster beam deposition system with an XPS experimental chamber. Our results show that upon in-situ oxygen exposure Ti 3+ is the first oxidation state observed, followed by Ti 4+ , whereas Ti 2+ is practically absent during the whole process. Our results compare well with the existing literature on Ti films produced using other techniques.

  14. Absence of translational energy accomodation of O2 on clean and oxidized tungsten, specularly and diffusely scattered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, D.; Becker, C.; Cowin, J.; Wharton, L.

    1977-01-01

    The authors have determined by a direct molecular beam velocity measurement that translational energy accomodation of O 2 molecules scattered from a reactive hot polycrystalline tungsten target is very inefficient. Translational energy accomodation is inefficient whether the surface is clean or covered with oxygen atoms to a varying extent, even though in the latter case the scattering is diffuse. On a clean tungsten surface the scattering of the O 2 is specular. The results shows directly that diffuse scattering does not imply or require large energy accomodation. They also show that this surface covered with atoms matching the incoming beam atoms is not an efficient energy accomodator. Thus a diminished role for mass matching in energy transfer is apparent. (Auth.)

  15. Preparation of nanostructured and nanosheets of MoS2 oxide using oxidation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Majed; Ramazani S A, Ahmad; Faghihi, Morteza; Fattahpour, Seyyedfaridoddin

    2017-11-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), a two-dimensional transition metal has a 2D layered structure and has recently attracted attention due to its novel catalytic properties. In this study, MoS 2 has been successfully intercalated using chemical and physical intercalation techniques, while enhancing its surface properties. The final intercalated MoS 2 is of many interests because of its low-dimensional and potential properties in in-situ catalysis. In this research, we report different methods to intercalate the layers of MoS 2 successfully using acid-treatment, ultrasonication, oxidation and thermal shocking. The other goal of this study is to form SO bonds mainly because of expected enhanced in-situ catalytic operations. The intercalated MoS 2 is further characterized using analyses such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, Contact Angle, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BET. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Grating Coating with TiO2 Nanostructured Metal Oxide for Refractive Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Riyadh Tahhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the sensitivity of biosensor a new approach using an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG coated with a suitable nanostructured metal oxide (NMO is proposed which is costly effective compared to other biosensors. Bragg grating was written on a D-shaped optical fiber by phase mask method using a 248 nm KrF excimer laser for a 5 min exposure time producing a grating with a period of 528 nm. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanostructured metal oxide was coated over the fiber for the purpose of increasing its sensing area. The etched D-shaped FBG was then coated with 312 nm thick TiO2 nanostructured layer to ensure propagating the radiation modes within the core. The final structure was used to sense deionized water and saline. The etched D-shaped FBG original sensitivity before coating to air-deionized water and to air-saline was 0.314 nm/riu and 0.142 nm/riu, respectively. After coating the sensitivity became 1.257 nm/riu for air-deionized water and 0.857 nm/riu for air-saline.

  17. Formation of self-ordered porous anodized alumina template for growing tungsten trioxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tajamal; Shah, Asma Tufail; Shehzad, Khurram; Mujahid, Adnan; Farooqi, Zahoor Hussain; Raza, Muhammad Hamid; Ahmed, Mirza Nadeem; Nisa, Zaib Un

    2015-12-01

    Uniform porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane has been synthesized by two-step anodization for fabricating tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanowires. Under assayed conditions, uniform porous structure of alumina (Al2O3) membrane with long range ordered hexagonal arrangements of nanopores was achieved. The self-assembled template possesses pores of internal diameter of 50 nm and interpore distance ( d int) of 80 nm with a thickness of about 80 µm, i.e., used for fabrication of nanostructures. WO3 nanowires have been fabricated by simple electroless deposition method inside Al2O3 nanopores. SEM images show tungsten trioxide nanowire with internal diameter of about 50 nm, similar to porous diameter of AAO template. XRD results showed that nanowires exist in cubic crystalline state with minor proportion of monoclinic phase.

  18. WO3 nano-ribbons: their phase transformation from tungstite (WO3·H2O) to tungsten oxide (WO3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) nano-ribbons (NRs) were obtained by annealing tungstite (WO3·H2O) NRs. The latter was synthesized below room temperature using a simple, environmentally benign, and low cost aging treatment of precursors made by adding hydrochloric acid to diluted sodium tungstate solutions (...

  19. Micro creep mechanisms of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levoy, R.; Hugon, I.; Burlet, H.; Baillin, X.; Guetaz, L.

    2000-01-01

    Due to its high melting point (3410 deg C), tungsten offers good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures for several applications in non-oxidizing environment. The creep behavior of tungsten is well known between 1200 and 2500 deg C and 10 -3 to 10 -1 strain. However, in some applications when dimensional stability of components is required, these strains are excessive and it is necessary to know the creep behavior of the material for micro-strains (between 10 -4 and 10 -6 ). Methods and devices used to measure creep micro-strains are presented, and creep equations (Norton and Chaboche laws) were developed for wrought, annealed and recrystallized tungsten. The main results obtained on tungsten under low stresses are: stress exponent 1, symmetry of micro-strains in creep-tension and creep-compression, inverse creep (threshold stress), etc. TEM, SEM and EBSD studies allow interpretation of the micro-creep mechanism of tungsten under low stresses and low temperature (∼0.3 K) like the Harper-Dorn creep. In Harper-Dorn creep, micro-strains are associated with the density and the distribution of dislocations existing in the crystals before creep. At 975 deg C, the initial dislocation structure moves differently whether or not a stress is applied. To improve the micro-creep behavior of tungsten, a heat treatment is proposed to create the optimum dislocation structure. (authors)

  20. Zinc oxide nanostructures by chemical vapour deposition as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurenti, M., E-mail: marco.laurenti@iit.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Garino, N. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Porro, S.; Fontana, M. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Gerbaldi, C., E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures are grown by simple chemical vapour deposition. • Polycrystalline nanostructured porous thin film is obtained. • Film exhibits stable specific capacity (∼400 mA h g{sup −1}) after prolonged cycling. • CVD-grown ZnO nanostructures show promising prospects as Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: ZnO nanostructures are grown by a simple chemical vapour deposition method directly on a stainless steel disc current collector and successfully tested in lithium cells. The structural/morphological characterization points out the presence of well-defined polycrystalline nanostructures having different shapes and a preferential orientation along the c-axis direction. In addition, the high active surface of the ZnO nanostructures, which accounts for a large electrode/electrolyte contact area, and the complete wetting with the electrolyte solution are considered to be responsible for the good electrical transport properties and the adequate electrochemical behaviour, as confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. Indeed, despite no binder or conducting additives are used, when galvanostatically tested in lithium cells, after an initial decay, the ZnO nanostructures can provide a rather stable specific capacity approaching 70 μA h cm{sup −2} (i.e., around 400 mA h g{sup −1}) after prolonged cycling at 1 C, with very high Coulombic efficiency and an overall capacity retention exceeding 62%.

  1. Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaikun; Xu, Congkang; Huang, Liwei; Zou, Lianfeng; Wang, Howard

    2011-10-07

    Using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as the transparent conductive coating, inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructure heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been fabricated through hydrothermal synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and nanotubes (ZnO-NTs) on rGO films followed by the spin casting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film. The data show that larger interfacial area in ZnO-NT/P3HT composites improves the exciton dissociation and the higher electrode conductance of rGO films helps the power output. This study offers an alternative to manufacturing nanostructure heterojunction solar cells at low temperatures using potentially low cost materials.

  2. Highly sensitive determination of atropine using cobalt oxide nanostructures: Influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soomro, Razium Ali, E-mail: raziumsoomro@gmail.com [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Nafady, Ayman [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Hallam, Keith Richard [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jawaid, Sana [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Al Enizi, Abdullah [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Sirajuddin [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain [Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, SE-60174, Norrkoping (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value. The study also discusses the influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity of atropine electro-oxidation. The functionalisation was carried with the amino acids originally used as effective templates for the growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The highest increment was obtained when GSH was used as the surface functionalising agent. The GSH-functionalised Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-modified electrode was utilised for the electro-chemical sensing of AT in a concentration range of 0.01–0.46 μM. The developed sensor exhibited excellent working linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.999) and signal sensitivity up to 0.001 μM of AT. The noted high sensitivity of the sensor is associated with the synergy of superb surface architectures and favourable interaction facilitating the electron transfer kinetics for the electro-catalytic oxidation of AT. Significantly, the developed sensor demonstrated excellent working capability when used for AT detection in human urine samples with strong anti-interference potential against common co-existing species, such as glucose, fructose, cysteine, uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. - Highlights: • Template-assisted growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • Shape-dependent electro-catalysis of atropine. • Effect of functionalisation of signal sensitivity.

  3. Evolution of Zinc Oxide Nanostructures Grown on Graphene by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Its Statistical Growth Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amgad Ahmed; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of zinc oxide nanostructures grown on graphene by alcohol-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was investigated. The evolution of structures is strongly depended on pyrolysis parameters, i.e., precursor molarity, precursor flow rate, precursor injection/deposition time, and substrate temperature. Field-effect scanning electron microscope analysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the properties of the synthesized nanostructures and to provide evidence for the structural changes according to the changes in the pyrolysis parameters. The optimum parameters to achieve maximum density and well-defined hexagonally shaped nanorods were a precursor molarity of 0.2 M, an injection flow rate of 6 ml/min, an injection time of 10 min, and a substrate temperature of 250-355 °C. Based on the experimental results, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to model and optimize the independent pyrolysis parameters using the Box-Behnken design. Here, the responses, i.e., the nanostructure density, size, and shape factor, are evaluated. All of the computations were performed using the Design-Expert software package. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the results of the model and to determine the significant values for the independent pyrolysis parameters. The evolution of zinc oxide (ZnO) structures are well explained by the developed modelling which confirms that RSM is a reliable tool for the modelling and optimization of the pyrolysis parameters and prediction of nanostructure sizes and shapes.

  4. One pot synthesis of multi-functional tin oxide nanostructures for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, Qamar; Fakharuddin, Azhar; Yasin, Amina; Ab Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Ismail, Jamil; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my

    2015-10-15

    Photoanode plays a key role in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as a scaffold for dye molecules, transport medium for photogenerated electrons, and scatters light for improved absorption. Herein, tin oxide nanostructures unifying the above three characteristics were optimized by a hydrothermal process and used as photoanode in DSSCs. The optimized morphology is a combination of hollow porous nanoparticles of size ∼50 nm and micron sized spheres with BET surface area (up to 29 m{sup 2}/g) to allow large dye-loading and light scattering as well as high crystallinity to support efficient charge transport. The optimized morphology gave the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (∼7.5%), so far achieved in DSSCs with high open circuit voltage (∼700 mV) and short circuit current density (∼21 mA/cm{sup 2}) employing conventional N3 dye and iodide/triiodide electrolyte. The best performing device achieved an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of ∼90%. The performance of the optimized tin oxide nanostructures was comparable to that of conventional titanium based DSSCs fabricated at similar conditions. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide hollow nanostructure simultaneously supporting improved light scattering, dye-loading, and charge transport yielded high photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • Uniformly and bimodelly distributed tin oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) are synthesized. • Uniform HNS are of size ∼10 nm; bimodel HNS has additional size up to ∼800 nm. • They are evaluated as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The uniform HNS increase dye-loading and the larger increase light scattering in DSSCs. • Photo conversion efficiency ∼7.5% is achieved using bimodel HNS.

  5. High temperature oxidation behaviour of nanostructured cermet coatings in a mixed CO2 – O2 environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhzad, M A; Khan, T I

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured ceramic-metallic (cermet) coatings composed of nanosized ceramic particles (α-Al 2 O3 and TiO 2 ) dispersed in a nickel matrix were co-electrodeposited and then oxidized at 500°C, 600°C and 700°C in a mixed gas using a Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) apparatus. The mixed gas was composed of 15% CO 2 , 10% O 2 and 75% N 2 . This research investigates the effects of CO 2 and O 2 partial pressures on time-depended oxidation rates for coatings and compared them to the results from atmospheric oxidation under similar temperatures. The increase in partial pressure of oxygen due to the presence of CO 2 at each tested temperature was calculated and correlated to the oxidation rate of the coatings. The results showed that the presence of CO 2 in the system increased the oxidation rate of cermet coatings when compared to atmospheric oxidation at the same temperature. It was also shown that the increase in the oxidation rate is not the result of CO2 acting as the primary oxidant but as a secondary oxidant which results in an increase of the total partial pressure of oxygen and consequently higher oxidation rates. The WDS and XRD analyses results showed that the presence of nanosized TiO 2 particles in a nickel matrix can improve oxidation behaviour of the coatings by formation of Ni-Ti compounds on oxidizing surface of the coating which was found beneficiary in reducing the oxidation rates for cermet coatings

  6. High temperature oxidation behaviour of nanostructured cermet coatings in amixed CO/sub 2/ - O/sub 2/ environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured ceramic-metallic (cermet) coatings composed of nanosized ceramic particles (alpha-Al /sub 2/O/sub 3/ and TiO/sub 2/) dispersed in a nickel matrix were co-electrodeposited and then oxidized at 500 degree C, 600 degree C and 700 degree C in a mixed gas using a Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) apparatus. The mixed gas was composed of 15 percentage CO/sub 2/, 10 percentage O/sub 2/ and 75 percentage N/sub 2/. This research investigates the effects of CO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ partial pressures on time-depended oxidation rates for coatings and compared them to the results from atmospheric oxidation under similar temperatures. The increase in partial pressure of oxygen due to the presence of CO/sub 2/ at each tested temperature was calculated and correlated to the oxidation rate of the coatings. The results showed that the presence of CO/sub 2/ in the system increased the oxidation rate of cermet coatings when compared to atmospheric oxidation at the same temperature. It was also shown that the increase in the oxidation rate is not the result of CO/sub 2/ acting as the primary oxidant but as a secondary oxidant which results in an increase of the total partial pressure of oxygen and consequently higher oxidation rates. The WDS and XRD analyses results showed that the presence of nanosized TiO/sub 2/ particles in a nickel matrix can improve oxidation behaviour of the coatings by formation of Nu i-Tau i compounds on oxidizing surface of the coating which was found beneficiary in reducing the oxidation rates for cermet coatings. (author)

  7. Self-organised nano-structuring of thin oxide-films under swift heavy ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolse, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Surface instabilities and the resulting self-organisation processes play an important role in nano-technology since they allow for large-array nano-structuring. We have recently found that the occurrence of such instabilities in thin film systems can be triggered by energetic ion bombardment and the subsequent self-assembly of the surface can be nicely controlled by fine-tuning of the irradiation conditions. The role of the ion in such processes is of double nature: If the instability is latently present already in the virgin sample, but self-assembly cannot take place because of kinetic barriers, the ion impact may just supply the necessary atomic mobility. On the other hand, the surface may become instable due to the ion beam induced material modifications and further irradiation then results in its reorganisation. In the present paper, we will review recently observed nano-scale self-organisation processes in thin oxide-films induced by the irradiation with swift heavy ions (SHI) at some MeV/amu energies. The first example is about SHI induced dewetting, which is driven by capillary forces already present in the as-deposited samples. The achieved dewetting pattern show an amazing similarity to those observed for liquid polymer films on Si, although in the present case the samples were kept at 80 K and hence have never reached their melting point. The second example is about self-organised lamellae formation driven by planar stresses, which are induced by SHI bombardment under grazing incidence and result in a surface instability and anisotropic plastic deformation (hammering effect). Taking advantage of these effects and modifying the irradiation procedure, we were able to generate more complex structures like NiO-'nano-towers' of 2 μm height and 200 nm in diameter

  8. 3D carbon/cobalt-nickel mixed-oxide hybrid nanostructured arrays for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianhui; Jiang, Jian; Sun, Zhipeng; Luo, Jingshan; Fan, Zhanxi; Huang, Xintang; Zhang, Hua; Yu, Ting

    2014-07-23

    The electrochemical performance of supercapacitors relies not only on the exploitation of high-capacity active materials, but also on the rational design of superior electrode architectures. Herein, a novel supercapacitor electrode comprising 3D hierarchical mixed-oxide nanostructured arrays (NAs) of C/CoNi3 O4 is reported. The network-like C/CoNi3 O4 NAs exhibit a relatively high specific surface area; it is fabricated from ultra-robust Co-Ni hydroxide carbonate precursors through glucose-coating and calcination processes. Thanks to their interconnected three-dimensionally arrayed architecture and mesoporous nature, the C/CoNi3 O4 NA electrode exhibits a large specific capacitance of 1299 F/g and a superior rate performance, demonstrating 78% capacity retention even when the discharge current jumps by 100 times. An optimized asymmetric supercapacitor with the C/CoNi3 O4 NAs as the positive electrode is fabricated. This asymmetric supercapacitor can reversibly cycle at a high potential of 1.8 V, showing excellent cycling durability and also enabling a remarkable power density of ∼13 kW/kg with a high energy density of ∼19.2 W·h/kg. Two such supercapacitors linked in series can simultaneously power four distinct light-emitting diode indicators; they can also drive the motor of remote-controlled model planes. This work not only presents the potential of C/CoNi3 O4 NAs in thin-film supercapacitor applications, but it also demonstrates the superiority of electrodes with such a 3D hierarchical architecture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Shavanova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical. A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  10. High Purity Tungsten Spherical Particle Preparation From WC-Co Spent Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was recycled to obtain high purity spherical tungsten powder by a combined hydrometallurgy and physical metallurgy pathway. Selective leaching of tungsten element from hard metal scrap occurs at solid / liquid interface and therefore enlargement of effective surface area is advantageous. Linear oxidation behavior of Tungsten carbide-cobalt and the oxidized scrap is friable to be pulverized by milling process. In this regard, isothermally oxidized Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was mechanically broken into particles and then tungsten trioxide particle was recovered by hydrometallurgical method. Recovered tungsten trioxide was reduced to tungsten particle in a hydrogen environment. After that, tungsten particle was melted and solidified to make a spherical one by RF (Ratio Frequency thermal plasma process. Well spherical tungsten micro-particle was successfully obtained from spent scrap. In addition to the morphological change, thermal plasma process showed an advantage for the purification of feedstock particle.

  11. Oxygen-ion-migration-modulated bipolar resistive switching and complementary resistive switching in tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinghui; Zhang, Qiuhui; Cui, Nana; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Kefu; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Qixing

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report our investigation of room-temperature-fabricated tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold (W/ITO/Au) resistive random access memory (RRAM), which exhibits asymmetric bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behavior. The device displays good write/erase endurance and data retention properties. The device shows complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics after controlling the compliance current. A WO x layer electrically formed at the W/ITO in the forming process. Mobile oxygen ions within ITO migrate toward the electrode/ITO interface and produce a semiconductor-like layer that acts as a free-carrier barrier. The CRS characteristic here can be elucidated in light of the evolution of an asymmetric free-carrier blocking layer at the electrode/ITO interface.

  12. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures for advanced catalytic oxidation based on sulfate radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishu; Yang, Xijia; Han, Erfen; Zhao, Lijun; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we designed and synthesized a high performance catalyst of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wrapped Fe3O4-Co3O4 (RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4) yolk-shell nanostructures for advanced catalytic oxidation based on sulfate radicals. The synergistic catalytic action of the RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures activate the peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to produce sulfate radicals (SO4rad -) for organic dyes degradation, and the Orange II can be almost completely degradated in 5 min. Meanwhile the RGO wrapping prevents the loss of cobalt in the catalytic process, and the RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 can be recycled after catalyzed reaction due to the presence of magnetic iron core. What's more, it can maintain almost the same high catalytic activity even after 10 cycles through repeated NaBH4 reduction treatment. Hence, RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures possess a great opportunity to become a promising candidate for waste water treatment in industry.

  13. The Impact of Morphology and Composition on the Resistivity and Oxidation Resistance of Metal Nanostructure Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian Edward

    Printed electronics, including transparent conductors, currently rely on expensive materials to generate high conductivity devices. Conductive inks for thick film applications utilizing inkjet, aerosol, and screen printing technologies are often comprised of expensive and rare silver particles. Thin film applications such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) predominantly employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent conductive layer which requires expensive and wasteful vapor deposition techniques. Thus an alternative to silver and ITO with similar performance in printed electronics warrants considerable attention. Copper nanomaterials, being orders of magnitude cheaper and more abundant than silver or indium, solution-coatable, and exhibiting a bulk conductivity only 6 % less than silver, have emerged as a promising candidate for incorporation in printed electronics. First, we examine the effect of nanomaterial shape on the conductivity of thick films. The inks used in such films often require annealing at elevated temperature in order to sinter the silver nanoparticles together and obtain low resistivities. We explore the change in morphology and resistivity that occurs upon heating thick films of silver nanowires (of two different lengths, Ag NWs), nanoparticles (Ag NPs), and microflakes (Ag MFs) deposited from water at temperatures between 70 and 400 °C. At the lowest temperatures, longer Ag NWs exhibited the lowest resistivity (1.8 x 10-5 O cm), suggesting that the resistivity of thick films of silver nanostructures is dominated by the contact resistance between particles. This result supported previous research showing that junction resistance between Ag NWs in thin film conductors also dominates optoelectronic performance. Since the goal is to replace silver with copper, we perform a similar analysis by using a pseudo-2D rod network modeling approach that has been modified to include lognormal distributions in length

  14. Three-dimensional block copolymer nanostructures by the solvent-annealing-induced wetting in anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chiang-Jui; Chung, Pei-Yun; Chi, Mu-Huan; Kao, Yi-Huei; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2014-09-01

    Block copolymers have been extensively studied over the last few decades because they can self-assemble into well-ordered nanoscale structures. The morphologies of block copolymers in confined geometries, however, are still not fully understood. In this work, the fabrication and morphologies of three-dimensional polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) nanostructures confined in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are studied. It is discovered that the block copolymers can wet the nanopores using a novel solvent-annealing-induced nanowetting in templates (SAINT) method. The unique advantage of this method is that the problem of thermal degradation can be avoided. In addition, the morphologies of PS-b-PDMS nanostructures can be controlled by changing the wetting conditions. Different solvents are used as the annealing solvent, including toluene, hexane, and a co-solvent of toluene and hexane. When the block copolymer wets the nanopores in toluene vapors, a perpendicular morphology is observed. When the block copolymer wets the nanopores in co-solvent vapors (toluene/hexane = 3:2), unusual circular and helical morphologies are obtained. These three-dimensional nanostructures can serve as naontemplates for refilling with other functional materials, such as Au, Ag, ZnO, and TiO2 . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces and a micro/nanofabrication-based preventive strategy using colloidal lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ajay Vikram; Vyas, Varun; Salve, Tushar S; Dellasega, David; Cortelli, Daniele; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo; Gade, W N

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of implant devices as a result of biofilm formation through bacterial infection has instigated major research in this area, particularly to understand the mechanism of bacterial cell/implant surface interactions and their preventions. In this paper, we demonstrate a controlled method of nanostructured titanium oxide surface synthesis using supersonic cluster beam depositions. The nanoscale surface characterization using atomic force microscopy and a profilometer display a regulated evolution in nanomorphology and physical properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses display a stoichiometric nanostructured TiO 2 film. Measurement of the water contact angle shows a nominal increase in the hydrophilic nature of ns-TiO 2 films, whereas the surface energy increases with decreasing contact angle. Bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli interaction with nanostructured surfaces shows an increase in adhesion and biofilm formation with increasing nanoscale morphological properties. Conversely, limiting ns-TiO 2 film distribution to micro/nanopatterned designed substrates integrated with bovine serum albumin functionalization leads to a reduction in biofilm formations due to a globally decreased bacterial cell–surface interaction area. The results have potential implications in inhibiting bacterial colonization and promoting mammalian cell–implant interactions. (paper)

  16. Morphology and phase transformations of tin oxide nanostructures synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the presence of dicarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, Tatyana; Bataev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures with different morphologies and the phase compositions has been evaluated. The nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the mixtures of dicarboxylic acids ― aminoterephthalic or oxalic ― with nanocrystalline SnO 2 powder, which was obtained via the sol-gel technology. The products were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM, and XRD analysis. It was shown that the controlled addition of a dicarboxylic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO 2 –SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 –Sn 3 O 4 –SnO phase transformations. A single-phase Sn 3 O 4 in the form of the well-separated hexagonal nanoplates and mixed SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 phases in the form of hierarchical flower-like structures were obtained in the presence of organic additives. The effects of concentration, redox activity of the acids and heat treatment on the basic characteristics of the synthesized tin oxide nanostructures and phase transformations in the synthesized materials are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The controlled addition of aminoterephthalic or oxalic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO 2 –SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 –Sn 3 O 4 –SnO phase transformations. - Highlights: • A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures is studied. • Tin oxide structures are synthesized via hydrothermal method with dicarboxylic acids. • Morphology and phase composition are changed with redox activity and dosage of acid. • The redox activity of acid has an effect on ratio of SnO and SnO 2 in crystal structure. • A pure phase Sn 3 O 4 nanoplates and SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 hierarchical structures are formed.

  17. Comparative evaluation of different nanostructured metal oxides for preparation of clinically useful 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Ramu; Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The potential of nanostructured metal oxides such as nanotitania, nanozirconia, nanoalumina and mesoporous alumina, as new generation sorbent materials for preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator has recently been demonstrated. A comparative assessment of such materials is essential for determination of their suitability for preparation of clinically useful generators using (n,γ) 99 Mo. Characteristics which were compared included the sorption capacity, shelf-life of the generator, radioactive concentration and purity of 99m Tc for radiopharmaceutical applications. Mesoporous alumina was identified as the most suitable sorbent for ensuring sustainable production of clinical grade 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators using low specific activity 99 Mo. (author)

  18. Oxidation-etching preparation of MnO2 tubular nanostructures for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jixin; Shi, Wenhui; Xiao, Ni; Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Lu, Xuehong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Ma, Jan; Yan, Qingyu

    2012-05-01

    1D hierarchical tubular MnO(2) nanostructures have been prepared through a facile hydrothermal method using carbon nanofibres (CNFs) as sacrificial template. The morphology of MnO(2) nanostructures can be adjusted by changing the reaction time or annealing process. Polycrystalline MnO(2) nanotubes are formed with a short reaction time (e.g., 10 min) while hierarchical tubular MnO(2) nanostructures composed of assembled nanosheets are obtained at longer reaction times (>45 min). The polycrystalline MnO(2) nanotubes can be further converted to porous nanobelts and sponge-like nanowires by annealing in air. Among all the types of MnO(2) nanostructures prepared, tubular MnO(2) nanostructures composed of assembled nanosheets show optimized charge storage performance when tested as supercapacitor electrodes, for example, delivering an power density of 13.33 kW·kg(-1) and a energy density of 21.1 Wh·kg(-1) with a long cycling life over 3000 cycles, which is mainly related to their features of large specific surface area and optimized charge transfer pathway.

  19. Synthesis of the cactus-like silicon nanowires/tungsten oxide nanowires composite for room-temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiyi, E-mail: zhangweiyi@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Hu, Ming [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Xing; Wei, Yulong; Li, Na [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Qin, Yuxiang, E-mail: qinyuxiang@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-09-15

    In the present work, the tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanowires functionalized silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with cactus-like structure has been successfully synthesized for room-temperature NO{sub 2} detection. The novel nanocomposite was fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) and thermal annealing of tungsten film. The WO{sub 3} nanowires were evenly distributed from the upper to the lower part of the SiNWs, indicating excellent uniformity which is conducive to adsorption and desorption of gas molecules. The gas-sensing properties have been examined by measuring the resistance change towards 0.25–5 ppm NO{sub 2} gas. At room temperature, which is the optimum working temperature, the SiNWs/WO{sub 3} nanowires composite showed two-times higher NO{sub 2} response than that of the bare SiNWs at 2 ppm NO{sub 2}. On the contrary, the responses of composite sensors to high concentrations of other reducing gases were very low, indicating excellent selectivity. Simultaneously, the composite sensors exhibited good sensing repeatability and stability. The enhancement in gas sensing properties may be attributed to the change in width of the space charge region, which is similar to the behavior of p-n junctions under forward bias, in the high-density p-n heterojunction structure formed between SiNWs and WO{sub 3} nanowires. - Highlights: • SiNWs/WO{sub 3} nanowires composite with cactus-like structure is synthesized. • The morphology of WO{sub 3} nanowires depends on the thermal annealing temperature. • The nanocomposite sensor exhibit better gas response than that of bare SiNWs. • The gas sensing mechanism is discussed using p-n heterojunction theory.

  20. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

    2003-01-01

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  1. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  2. Electro-chemical deposition of zinc oxide nanostructures by using two electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Taleatu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most viable ways to grow nanostructures is electro deposition. However, most electrodeposited samples are obtained by three-electrode electrochemical cell. We successfully use a much simpler two-electrode cell to grow different ZnO nanostructures from common chemical reagents. Concentration, pH of the electrolytes and growth parameters like potentials at the electrodes, are tailored to allow fast growth without complexity. Morphology and surface roughness are investigated by Scanning Electron and Air Force Microscopy (SEM and AFM respectively, crystal structure by X-Ray Diffraction measurements (XRD and ZnO stoichiometry by core level photoemission spectroscopy (XPS.

  3. pH effect on structural and optical properties of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munef, R. A. [Kirkuk Iraq, Kirkuk university, college of science physics department, phone: 009647702180337, Iraq Rafeamonef@yahoo.com (Iraq)

    2015-03-30

    ZnO nanostructures were Deposited on Objekttrager glasses for various pH values by chemical bath deposition method using Zn (NO3)2·6H2O (zinc nitrate hexahydrate) solution at 75°C reaction temperature without any posterior treatments. The ZnO nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, UV). The structure was hexagonal and it was found that some peaks disappear with various pH values. The grain sizes of ZnO films increases from 22-to-29nm with increasing pH. The transmission of the films was (85-95%)

  4. Synergistic effect of shape-selective silver nanostructures decorating reduced graphene oxide nanoplatelets for enhanced cytotoxicity against breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshi, Maryam; Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Bahari, Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin

    2018-07-01

    Graphene-based nanomaterials contain unique physicochemical properties and have been widely investigated due to a variety of applications particularly in cancer therapy. Furthermore, Ag has been known for its extensive historical background for biomedical applications. Therefore, conjugation of shape-selective Ag nanostructures with graphene may provide new horizons for pharmaceutical applications such as cancer treatments. Here we report on the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles (NPs)/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/RGO) conjugate nanomaterials containing various shapes of AgNPs by a novel and simple synthesis route using the deformation of dimethylformamide (DMF) as the reducing and coupling agent. The cytotoxicity and anticancer properties of AgNPs, AgNPs/RGO conjugate nanomaterials, RGO and graphene oxide (GO) were probed against MDA-MB-231 cancer and MCF-10A normal human breast cells in vitro. The AgNPs/RGO nanocomposites exhibited a strong anticancer effect by penetration and apoptosis in cancer cells as well as the lowest influence on the viability of normal cells. It was found that cancer cell viability not only depends on the geometry of Ag nanostructures but also on the interaction between AgNPs and RGO nanoplatelets. It is suggested that AgNPs/RGO conjugate nanomaterials with various shapes of AgNPs is a promising therapeutic platform for cancer therapy.

  5. On the nanostructuring and catalytic promotion of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, José M.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are highly efficient energy converters for both stationary and mobile purposes. However, their market introduction still demands the reduction of manufacture costs and one possible way to reach this goal is the decrease of the operating temperatures, which entails the improvement of the cathode electrocatalytic properties. An ideal cathode material may have mixed ionic and electronic conductivity as well as proper catalytic properties. Nanostructuring and catalytic promotion of mixed conducting perovskites (e.g. La 0.58Sr 0.4Fe 0.8Co 0.2O 3- δ) seem to be promising approaches to overcoming cathode polarization problems and are briefly illustrated here. The preparation of nanostructured cathodes with relatively high surface area and enough thermal stability enables to improve the oxygen exchange rate and therefore the overall SOFC performance. A similar effect was obtained by catalytic promoting the perovskite surface, allowing decoupling the catalytic and ionic-transport properties in the cathode design. Noble metal incorporation may improve the reversibility of the reduction cycles involved in the oxygen reduction. Under the cathode oxidizing conditions, Pd seems to be partially dissolved in the perovskite structure and as a result very well dispersed.

  6. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Magnetic Iron Oxide@SiO₂-Au@C Particles with Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Li, Xiangcun; Qi, Xinhong; Luo, Fan; He, Gaohong

    2015-05-12

    The preparation of nonspherical magnetic core-shell nanostructures with uniform sizes still remains a challenge. In this study, magnetic iron oxide@SiO2-Au@C particles with different shapes, such as pseduocube, ellipsoid, and peanut, were synthesized using hematite as templates and precursors of magnetic iron oxide. The as-obtained magnetic particles demonstrated uniform sizes, shapes, and well-designed core-shell nanostructures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed that the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) of ∼6 nm were uniformly distributed between the silica and carbon layers. The embedding of the metal nanocrystals into the two different layers prevented the aggregation and reduced the loss of the metal nanocrystals during recycling. Catalytic performance of the peanut-like particles kept almost unchanged without a noticeable decrease in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in 8 min even after 7 cycles, indicating excellent reusability of the particles. Moreover, the catalyst could be readily recycled magnetically after each reduction by an external magnetic field.

  7. Observations of the Kondo effect and its coexistence with ferromagnetism in a magnetically undoped metal oxide nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Maloney, F. Scott; Wang, Wenyong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report unusual observations of Kondo effect and coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetism in indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires that were synthesized without incorporating any magnetic impurities. The temperature-dependent resistivity (ρ -T ) data exhibited an upturn below 80 K and then tended to saturate below 10 K. The ρ -T and magnetoresistance data were analyzed using the n -channel Kondo model, and from the obtained values of S =1 and n ˜1 , the nanowires were expected to be an underscreened Kondo system. A model was also proposed to explain the formation of localized S =1 spin centers in the ITO nanowires. This work could provide insights into the understanding of spin-related novel phenomena in metal oxide nanostructures.

  8. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide (WO3 is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL for organic solar cells (OSCs. The properties of the WO3 transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO3, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO3, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  9. Tungsten trioxide as high-{kappa} gate dielectric for highly transparent and temperature-stable zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Grundmann, Marius [Universitaet Leipzig, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors with high-{kappa}, room-temperature deposited, highly transparent tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) as gate dielectric. The channel material consists of a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film. The transmittance and resistivity of WO{sub 3} films was tuned in order to obtain a highly transparent and insulating WO{sub 3} dielectric. The devices were processed by standard photolithography using lift-off technique. On top of the WO{sub 3} dielectric a highly transparent and conductive oxide consisting of ZnO: Al 3% wt. was deposited. The gate structure of the devices exhibits an average transmittance in the visible spectral range of 86%. The on/off-current ratio is larger than 10{sup 8} with off- and gate leakage-currents below 3 x 10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2}. Due to the high relative permittivity of {epsilon}{sub r} {approx} 70, a gate voltage sweep of only 2 V is necessary to turn the transistor on and off with a minimum subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. The channel mobility of the transistors equals the Hall-effect mobility with a value of 5 cm{sup 2}/Vs. It is furthermore shown, that the devices are stable up to operating temperatures of at least 150 C.

  10. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Tungsten oxide (WO₃) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO₃ transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO₃, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO₃, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of electrode materials pyrochlore tungsten trioxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingdong; Li, Yingjeng James; Stanley Whittingham, M.

    Hydrothermal synthesis methods have been successfully used to prepare new transition-metal oxides for cathodes in electrochemical devices such as lithium batteries and electrochromic windows. The tungsten oxides were the first studied, but the method has been extended to the oxides of molybdenum, vanadium and manganese. Sodium tungsten oxide films with the pyrochlore structure have been prepared on gold/alumina and indium-doped tin oxide substrates. These films reversibly and rapidly intercalate lithium and hydrogen ions.

  12. Metal oxide nanostructures-containing organic polymer hybrid solarcells: Optimization of processing parameters on cell performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the chemical synthesis of various ZnO nanostructures and TiO2 nanoparticles and their dispersion in a P3HT matrix. The photoluminescence studies revealed improved charge transport in the active layer of the optimized TiO2 nanoparticles...

  13. Glutathione-assisted synthesis of star-shaped zinc oxide nanostructures and their photoluminescence behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavita; Singh, Karamjit; Kumar, Sunil; Bhatti, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Star-shaped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by facile chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of glutathione. Glutathione, a reducing agent, shape modifier and an entirely benign antioxidant; acts as a capping agent in the present study. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the novel star-shaped ZnO nanostructures exhibit hexagonal structure. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopic studies confirmed the anchoring of glutathione on ZnO nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the star and cube-shaped shaped morphology of the glutathione modified nanocrystals. Optical characterization of synthesized nanocrystals has been done by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and steady state photoluminescence spectroscopy. Recorded Photoluminescence spectra confirm the multi-chromatic photoluminescence behavior of the synthesized nanostructures. - Highlights: • Morphology has been investigated as a function of capping agent concentration. • Comparison between capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles has been examined. • Diffraction scans show the crystalline wurtzite structure of synthesized product. • Recorded PL spectra show the multichromatic behavior of synthesized nanostructures

  14. Three-dimensional flowerlike iron oxide nanostructures: Morphology, composition and metal ion removal capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dan [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 250022 Jinan (China); Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 250022 Jinan (China); Huang, Baibiao [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The iron alkoxide precursors are calcined into α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microstructures with different morphologies by changing calcination atmosphere, reaction time of precursors and calcination temperature simply. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag hybrid composites prepared through aqueous synthesis and light irradiation. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microstructures with different morphologies were created. • Solvents play an important role for the solvothermal treatment of precursors. • The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures show excellent adsorption properties. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag hybrid composites were prepared to improve their properties. - Abstract: The flower-like precursors of Fe alkoxide constructed by the self-assembly of nanoflakes were prepared. Time-dependent experiments confirmed the formation mechanism of flower-like precursors. After calcination, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures with different morphologies were created. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures containing blocks with a truncated octahedron structure were obtained under N{sub 2} protection. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures were prepared in an air atmosphere. The values of maximum adsorption capacity of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures for Cr{sup 6+} ions were much higher than that of commercial bulk α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Ag NPs were deposited on α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures through an aqueous synthesis and light irradiation using L-cysteine as a linker. Such procedure is utilizable for the preparation of the composites of noble metals and magnetic materials.

  15. Nanostructured LnBaCo2O6− (Ln = Sm, Gd with layered structure for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto E. Mejía Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the combination of two characteristics that are beneficial for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC cathodic performance in one material. We developed and evaluated for the first time nanostructured layered perovskites of formulae LnBaCo2O6-d with Ln = Sm and Gd (SBCO and GBCO, respectively as SOFC cathodes, finding promising electrochemical properties in the intermediate temperature range. We obtained those nanostructures by using porous templates to confine the chemical reagents in regions of 200-800 nm. The performance of nanostructured SBCO and GBCO cathodes was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique under different operating conditions using Gd2O3-doped CeO2 as electrolyte. We found that SBCO cathodes displayed lower area-specific resistance than GBCO ones, because bulk diffusion of oxide ions is enhanced in the former. We also found that cathodes synthesized using smaller template pores exhibited better performance.

  16. Helium effects on tungsten surface morphology and deuterium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.; Peng, H.Y.; Lee, H.T.; Ohno, N.; Kajita, S.; Yoshida, N.; Doerner, R.; De Temmerman, G.; Alimov, V.; Wright, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental results on tungsten surface morphology, especially nano-structure (fuzz), induced by helium plasma exposure at temperatures between 1000 K and 2000 K are reviewed. This structure was firstly reported in 2006. In this review, most of experimental results reported so far including characteristics and formation conditions of the nano-structure in both linear plasma devices and magnetic confinement devices, erosion and arcing by steady-state plasma exposure and ELM-like pulsed heat or pulsed plasma exposure by a laser and a plasma gun are summarized. In addition, He effects on D retention under simultaneous D/He irradiation on tungsten are presented

  17. Tungsten and tungsten alloys by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadjhamida, A.; German, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten has a historical link with powder metallurgy and there is continued progress in expanding the available compositions and processing options. This paper starts with an introduction to the history of tungsten powder metallurgy and use this as a basis for analyzing some of the current trends. The literature base in tungsten processing is expanding and includes new alloys, microstructures, and processing routes. A few examples will be emphasize here to produce a frame work for this program, including description of sintering mechanisms for tungsten, liquid phase sintering advances, hot consolidation fundamentals, and options for complex shaping using powder injection modeling. For this base, subsequent presentations will expand on these fundamental advances

  18. Combustion of powdery tungsten in pyrotechnic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, G.V.; Reshetov, A.A.; Viktorenko, A.M.; Surkov, V.G.; Karmadonov, L.N.

    1982-01-01

    The basic regularities of tungsten burning (powder 2-5 μm) with oxidizers most typical for pyrotechnics: nitrates, lead and barium peroxides (powder, 2-8 μm) and potassium perchlorate (powder, 2-8 μm) are studied. Dependences of burning rate as a function of pressure and ratio of components are established. It is supposed that tungsten burning in mixtures with the mentioned nitrates is a complex and multistage process the rate of which is determined by tungsten dissolution in nitrate melts. Analysis of burning products using available methods is complex

  19. Probing of O2 vacancy defects and correlated magnetic, electrical and photoresponse properties in indium-tin oxide nanostructures by spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shyamsundar; Dev, Bhupendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) 1D nanostructures with tunable morphologies i.e. nanorods, nanocombs and nanowires are grown on c-axis (0 0 0 1) sapphire (Al2O3) substrate in oxygen deficient atmosphere through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique and the effect of oxygen vacancies on optical, electrical, magnetic and photoresponse properties is investigated using spectroscopic methods. ITO nanostructures are found to be enriched with significant oxygen vacancy defects as evident from X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopic analysis. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited intense mid-band blue emission at wavelength of region of 400-450 nm due to the electronic transition from conduction band maxima (CBM) to the singly ionized oxygen-vacancy (VO+) defect level within the band-gap. Interestingly, ITO nanostructures exhibited significant room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) and the magnetic moment found proportional to concentration of VO+ defects which indicates VO+ defects are mainly responsible for the observed RTFM in nanostructures. ITO nanowires being enriched with more VO+ defects exhibited strongest RTFM as compared to other morphologies. Current voltage (I-V) characteristics of ITO nanostructures showed an enhancement of current under UV light as compared to dark which indicates such 1D nanostructure can be used as photovoltaic material. Hence, the study shows that there is ample opportunity to tailor the properties of ITOs through proper defect engineering's and such photosensitive ferromagnetic semiconductors might be promising for spintronic and photovoltaic applications.

  20. Facile synthesis of dendritic gold nanostructures with hyperbranched architectures and their electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianshe; Han, Xinyi; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Dong; You, Tianyan

    2013-09-25

    Gold dendritic nanostructures with hyperbranched architectures were synthesized by the galvanic replacement reaction between nickel wire and HAuCl4 in aqueous solution. The study revealed that the morphology of the obtained nanostructures strongly depended on experimental parameters such as the HAuCl4 solution concentration, reaction temperature, and time, as well as stirring or not. According to the investigation of the growth process, it was proposed that gold nanoparticles with rough surfaces were first deposited on the nickel substrate and that subsequent growth preferentially occurred on the preformed gold nanoparticles, finally leading to the formation of hyperbranched gold dendrites via a self-organization process under nonequilibrium conditions. The electrochemical experiment results demonstrated that the as-obtained gold dendrites exhibited high catalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution, indicating that this nanomaterial may be a potential catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  1. Electrochromic and electrochemical capacitive properties of tungsten oxide and its polyaniline nanocomposite films obtained by chemical bath deposition method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nwanya, AC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyanine and its nanocomposite WO3/PANI films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glassslides by simple chemical bath deposition method. The morphology structure of the composite film wasstudied using atomic force microscopy (AFM...

  2. Efficient synthesis of tungsten oxide hydrate-based nanocomposites for applications in bifunctional electrochromic-energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Lu, Tong; Liu, Tao; Lei, Yanhua; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we realized the large-scale synthesis of WO3 · H2O nanoflakes (NFs), g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O nanocomposite (NC) and graphene (G)/WO3 · H2O NC via a sonochemical process with tungsten salt as the precursor, g-C3N4 or G sheets as the supports, and distilled water as the solvent. Both the g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O NC and G/WO3 · H2O NC exhibited much better electrochromic (EC) performance (higher coloration efficiencies and faster response times) than that of the WO3 · H2O NFs. Using the WO3 · H2O-based materials as electrode materials, EC batteries that integrate the energy storage and EC functions in one device have been assembled. The energy status of the EC batteries could be visually indicated by the reversible color variations. Compared with the plain WO3 · H2O-based EC batteries, the NC-based EC batteries possessed a lower color contrast between the charged and discharged conditions but much longer discharge durations. The EC batteries could be quickly charged in a few seconds by adding H2O2, and the charged batteries exhibited significantly-enhanced discharging durations in comparison with the initial ones. The g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O NC-EC batteries charged by a small amount of H2O2 could produce a long discharging duration up to 760 min.

  3. Nanostructures and surface hydrophobicity of self-assembled thermosets involving epoxy resin and poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) amphiphilic diblock copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fangping; Zheng, Sixun; Liu, Tianxi

    2009-02-19

    Poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PTFEA-b-PEO) amphiphilic diblock copolymer was synthesized via the reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization of 2,2,2-triffluroethyl acrylate with dithiobenzoyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) as a chain-transfer agent. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer was incorporated into epoxy resin to prepare the nanostructured epoxy thermosets. The nanostructures were investigated by means of atomic force microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and dynamic mechanical analysis. In terms of the miscibility of the subchains of the block copolymer with epoxy after and before curing reaction, it is judged that the formation of the nanostructures follows the mechanism of self-assembly. The static contact angle measurements indicate that the nanostructured thermosets containing PTFEA-b-PEO diblock copolymer displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as a reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface properties was ascribed to the enrichment of the fluorine-containing subchain (i.e., PTFEA block) of the amphiphilic diblock copolymer on the surface of the nanostructured thermosets, which was evidenced by surface atomic force microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Synthesis of nano-structured tin oxide thin films with faster response to LPG and ammonia by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    PrasannaKumari, K.; Thomas, Boben

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructured SnO2 thin film have been efficiently fabricated by spray pyrolysis using atomizers of different types. The structure and morphology of as-prepared samples are investigated by techniques such as x-ray diffraction, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Significant morphological changes are observed in films by modifying the precursor atomization as a result of change of spray device. The optical characterization indicates that change in atomization, affects the absorbance and the band gap, following the varied crystallite size. Gas sensing investigations on ultrasonically prepared tin oxide films show NH3 response at operating temperatures lower down to 50 °C. For 1000 ppm of LPG the response at 350 °C for air blast atomizer film is about 99%, with short response and recovery times. The photoluminescence emmision spectra reveal the correlation between atomization process and the quantity of oxygen vacancies present in the samples. The favorable size reduction in microstructure with good crystallinity with slight change in lattice properties suggest their scope in gas sensing applications. On the basis of these characterizations, the mechanism of LPG and NH3 gas sensing of nanostructured SnO2 thin films has been proposed.

  5. Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Flower Like Cobalt Oxide Nanostructures on Nickel Plate and Its Supercapacitance Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, N; Venugopal, T; Kannan, K

    2018-06-01

    A flower like cobalt oxide nanostructured thin film (Co2O3) on Nickel (Ni) plate as have been successfully developed via alcoholic Seed Layer assisted chemical bath Deposition (SLD) process. Through the controlled alkaline electrolytes, the flower and paddles like Co2O3 nanoarchitectures were formed. The prepared thin film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM and EDX), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Raman spectroscopy techniques. Electron micrograph reveals the flower and paddles like nanostructured Co2O3 thin film deposited on Ni plates. The electrochemical characteristics were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge and AC impedance spectroscopy in different aqueous electrolytes such as NaOH, KOH, and LiOH. The maximum specific capacitance of 856 Fg-1 was attained with 2 M KOH electrolyte with 2 mVs-1 of the Co2O3 thin film coated Ni plate at 80 °C using SLD method. The capacitance values obtained with various electrolytes are in the order of KOH > NaOH > LiOH. The results indicate that the present method is economical and the material is ecofriendly with enhanced capacitance property.

  6. A novel rotating electrochemically anodizing process to fabricate titanium oxide surface nanostructures enhancing the bioactivity of osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Chen, Chia-Chun; Wu, Yi-Hau; Hsu, Yuan-Ming; Chang, Yin-Pen; Yang, Ta-I; Fang, Hsu-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2) ) surface layers with various surface nanostructures (nanotubes and nanowires) have been developed using an anodizing technique. The pore size and length of TiO(2) nanotubes can be tailored by changing the anodizing time and applied voltage. We developed a novel method to transform the upper part of the formed TiO(2) nanotubes into a nanowire-like structure by rotating the titanium anode during anodizing process. The transformation of nanotubes contributed to the preferential chemical dissolution of TiO(2) on the areas with intense interface tension stress. Furthermore, we further compared the effect of various TiO(2) surface nanostructures including flat, nanotubes, and nanowires on bioactive applications. The MG-63 osteoblastic cells cultured on the TiO(2) nanowires exhibited a polygonal shape with extending filopodia and showed highest levels of cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP). The TiO(2) nanowire structure formed by our novel method can provide beneficial effects for MG-63 osteoblastic cells in attachment, proliferation, and secretion of ALP on the TiO(2) surface layer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Influence of Protamine Functionalization on the Colloidal Stability of 1D and 2D Titanium Oxide Nanostructures.

    Scie