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Sample records for nanosecond pulse accelerators

  1. A nanosecond high voltage pulse device for accelerator time analytical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Binqiao; Ding Furong; Xue Zhihua; Wang Xuemei; Shen Dingyu

    2002-01-01

    A nanosecond high voltage pulse device has been designed. The pulse rise time is 10 ns. The pulse voltage reached 16000 V. This device has been used to accelerator time analytical system, its resolution time is less than 0.8%

  2. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.

  3. Pulse radiolysis with (sub) nanosecond time resolution using a 3 MV electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthjens, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the development of equipment for pulse radiolysis is described and the application of the technique to time-resolved measurements of the fluorescence emission of excited states formed after irradiation of some alkanes is dealt with. A review is given of the development of the pulsed 3MV Van de Graaf electron accelerator for the generation of subnanosecond electron beam pulses and of the development of the equipment for optical detection as accomplished by the author. The initial stage of a further development for shorter pulses and higher time resolution is briefly discussed. A collection of papers on the development of apparatus and a collection of papers dealing with the results obtained from measurements of the fluorescence of excited states, formed by the recombination of electrons and ions in irradiated alkanes such as cyclohexane and the decalines, are included. (Auth.)

  4. Novel X-ray imaging diagnostics of high energy nanosecond pulse accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham W.; Gallegos, Roque Rosauro; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Beutler, David Eric; Dudley, John; Seymour, Calvin L.G.; Bell, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering x-ray imaging has been undertaken on a number of AWE's and Sandia National Laboratories radiation effects x-ray simulators. These simulators typically yield a single very short (<50ns) pulse of high-energy (MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung) x-ray radiation with doses in the kilorad (krad(Si)) region. X-ray source targets vary in size from 2 to 25cm diameter, dependent upon the particular simulator. Electronic imaging of the source x-ray emission under dynamic conditions yields valuable information upon how the simulator is performing. The resultant images are of interest to the simulator designer who may configure new x-ray source converter targets and diode designs. The images can provide quantitative information about machine performance during radiation effects testing of components under active conditions. The effects testing program is a valuable interface for validation of high performance computer codes and models for the radiation effects community. A novel high-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer is described whereby the spectral energy (0.1 to 2.5MeV) profile may be discerned from the digitally recorded and viewable images via a pinhole/scintillator/CCD imaging system and knowledge of the filtration parameters. Unique images, analysis and a preliminary evaluation of the capability of the spectrometer are presented. Further, a novel time resolved imaging system is described that captures a sequence of high spatial resolution temporal images, with zero interframe time, in the nanosecond timeframe, of our source x-rays.

  5. One nanosecond pulsed electron gun systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1979-02-01

    At SLAC there has been a continuous need for the injection of very short bunches of electrons into the accelerator. Several time-of-flight experiments have used bursts of short pulses during a normal 1.6 micro-second rf acceleration period. Single bunch beam loading experiments made use of a short pulse injection system which included high power transverse beam chopping equipment. Until the equipment described in this paper came on line, the basic grid-controlled gun pulse was limited to a rise time of 7 nanoseconds and a pulse width of 10 nanoseconds. The system described here has a grid-controlled rise time of less than 500 pico-seconds, and a minimum pulse width of less than 1 nanosecond. Pulse burst repetition rate has been demonstrated above 20 MHz during a 1.6 microsecond rf accelerating period. The order-of-magnitude increase in gun grid switching speed comes from a new gun design which minimizes lead inductance and stray capacitance, and also increases gun grid transconductance. These gun improvements coupled with a newly designed fast pulser mounted directly within the gun envelope make possible subnanosecond pulsing of the gun

  6. PNG-300 a nanosecond pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztaricskai, T.; Vasvary, L.; Petoe, G.C.; Devkin, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of a nanosecond-pulse neutron generator is reported. It was constructed for the measurement of prompt neutron and gamma radiation in experimental studies of fast neutron reactions by time of flight techniques. The acceleration voltage is 300 kV and the total resolution of the generator-neutron spectrometer system is 2 ns. The ion-optical system, the vacuum system and the control of the neutron generator is described in detail. The equipment was used for prompt neutron and gamma radiation induced in construction materials. (R.P.)

  7. Powerful nanosecond pulse train generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Logachev, E.I.; Opekunov, M.S.; Pechenkin, S.A.; Remnev, G.E.; Usov, Yu.P.

    1987-01-01

    A generator permitting to shape on the load pulsed with the repetition frequency of 10 3 -10 6 Hz and more is described. The amplitude of shaped voltage pulses is up to 150 kV at pulse duration equal to 50 ns. The generator comprises connected in-series with the load two shaping and two transmission lines realized on the base of the KVI-300 low-ohmic cable. The shaping lines are supplied from two independently connected pulse voltage generators for obtaining time interval between pulses > 10 -6 s; they may be also supplied from one generator for obtaining time interval -6 s. At the expense of reducing losses in the discharge circuit the amplitude of the second pulse grows with increase of time interval between pulses up to 300 ns, further on the curve flat-topping exists. The described generator is used in high-current accelerators, in which the primary negative pulse results in generation of explosive-emission plasma, and the second positive pulse provides ion beam shaping including ions of heavy metal used for production of a potential electrode. The generator multipulse mode is used for successive ion acceleration in the transport system

  8. Study of the pulsation of an ion accelerator giving 20 nano-second pulses; Etude de la pulsation d'un accelerateur d'ions fournissant des impulsions d'une duree de 20 nano-secondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosnac, B de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    In order to measure fast neutron spectra by the time-of-flight method, we have studied a pulsed ion-source which has been placed on the 600 kV electrostatic accelerator at Fontenay-aux-Roses. We examine successively: the ion-source itself, its extraction device, the focussing equipment and the pulsation system constituted by a slit which is swept by the beam. Using this ion-source it is possible to obtain a direct current of deutons of over 800 {mu}A, and clouds having a duration which can be adjusted to between 15 and 40 nano-seconds. (author) [French] Pour mesurer des spectres de neutrons rapides par la methode de temps de vol, nous avons etudie une source d'ions pulsee qui a ete placee sur l'accelerateur electrostatique de 600 kV de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Nous examinons successivement: la source d'ions elle-meme, son dispositif d'extraction, l'optique de focalisation et le systeme de pulsation constituee par le balayage du faisceau devant une fente. La source d'ions permet d'obtenir un courant continu de deutons superieur a 800 {mu}A et des bouffees d'une duree reglable comprise entre 15 et 40 nanosecondes. (auteur)

  9. Nanosecond bipolar pulse generators for bioelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu; Zhou, Chunrong; Yang, Enbo; Rajulapati, Sambasiva R

    2018-04-26

    Biological effects caused by a nanosecond pulse, such as cell membrane permeabilization, peripheral nerve excitation and cell blebbing, can be reduced or cancelled by applying another pulse of reversed polarity. Depending on the degree of cancellation, the pulse interval of these two pulses can be as long as dozens of microseconds. The cancellation effect diminishes as the pulse duration increases. To study the cancellation effect and potentially utilize it in electrotherapy, nanosecond bipolar pulse generators must be made available. An overview of the generators is given in this paper. A pulse forming line (PFL) that is matched at one end and shorted at the other end allows a bipolar pulse to be produced, but no delay can be inserted between the phases. Another generator employs a combination of a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor to form an RLC resonant circuit so that a bipolar pulse with a decaying magnitude can be generated. A third generator is a converter, which converts an existing unipolar pulse to a bipolar pulse. This is done by inserting an inductor in a transmission line. The first phase of the bipolar pulse is provided by the unipolar pulse's rising phase. The second phase is formed during the fall time of the unipolar pulse, when the inductor, which was previously charged during the flat part of the unipolar pulse, discharges its current to the load. The fourth type of generator uses multiple MOSFET switches stacked to turn on a pre-charged, bipolar RC network. This approach is the most flexible in that it can generate multiphasic pulses that have different amplitudes, delays, and durations. However, it may not be suitable for producing short nanosecond pulses (<100 ns), whereas the PFL approach and the RLC approach with gas switches are used for this range. Thus, each generator has its own advantages and applicable range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Generation of nanosecond S band microwave pulses based on superradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N.S.; Zotova, I.V.; Rozental, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Modeling carried out demonstrates possibility of generation of gigawatt power level S band microwave pulse with duration of several nanoseconds using superradiation of short electron beam moving along slow-wave periodical structure. A 10 ns / 500 keV / 5 kA accelerator of Kanazawa University can be used in such experiments. It is shown that significant increasing peak power can be obtained by optimization of voltage and current pulses waveforms. Required increasing of electron energy and current by the end of electron pulse can be achieved by using self-acceleration of a short beam passing through a system of passive cavities. (author)

  11. Generation of nanosecond S band microwave pulses based on superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N.S.; Zotova, I.V.; Rozental, R.M. [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (RU)] [and others

    2002-06-01

    Modeling carried out demonstrates possibility of generation of gigawatt power level S band microwave pulse with duration of several nanoseconds using superradiation of short electron beam moving along slow-wave periodical structure. A 10 ns / 500 keV / 5 kA accelerator of Kanazawa University can be used in such experiments. It is shown that significant increasing peak power can be obtained by optimization of voltage and current pulses waveforms. Required increasing of electron energy and current by the end of electron pulse can be achieved by using self-acceleration of a short beam passing through a system of passive cavities. (author)

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOSECOND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES TO OBTAIN TIN AND THE PROPERTIES OF ITS ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Komkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally found that the effect of nanosecond electromagnetic pulses to melt the charge, while the carbon thermal recovery of the tin ore, accelerates the formation of the metallic phase.

  13. High-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapishnikov, N.K.; Muratov, V.M.; Shatanov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse shaper with an output of up to 250 kV, a base duration of ∼ 10 nsec, and a repetition frequency of 50 pulses/sec is described. The described high-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper is designed for one-orbit extraction of an electron beam from a betatron. A diagram of the pulse shaper, which employs a single-stage generator is shown. The shaping element is a low-inductance capacitor bank of series-parallel KVI-3 (2200 pF at 10 kV) or K15-10 (4700 pF at 31.5 kV) disk ceramic capacitors. Four capacitors are connected in parallel and up to 25 are connected in series

  14. Nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkin, B.V.; Gaponov-Grekhov, A.V.; Eltchaninov, A.S.; Zagulov, F.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Mesyats, G.A.; Osipov, M.L.; Otlivantchik, E.A.; Petelin, M.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO. A pulsed power repetitive accelerator producing electron beams of electron energy 500-700 keV and current 5 kA in pulses of duraction 10 ns with a repetition rate of 100 pps is described. The results of experiments with a high-voltage gas-filled spark gap and a cold-cathode vacuum diode under the conditions of high repetition rates are given. Also presented are the results of studies of a relativistic BWO operating with a wavelength of 3 cm. It is shown that for a high-current beam electron energy of 500-700 keV, the BWO efficiency can reach 35%, the microwave power being 10 9 W. A superconducting solenoid creating a magnetic field of 30 kOe was used for the formation and transportation of the high-current electron beam. In conclusion, the outcome of tests of a nanosecond radar station based on a pulsed power repetitive accelerator and a relativistic BWO is reported

  15. Laser ablation comparison by picosecond pulses train and nanosecond pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Filippov, M. N.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of laser ablation by a train of picosecond pulses and nanosecond pulses revealed a difference in laser craters, ablation thresholds, plasma sizes and spectral line intensities. Laser ablation with a train of picosecond pulses resulted in improved crater quality while ablated mass decreased up to 30%. A reduction in laser plasma dimensions for picosecond train ablation was observed while the intensity of atomic/ionic lines in the plasma spectra was greater by a factor of 2-4 indicating an improved excitation and atomization in the plasma.

  16. [Mechanism of ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xin-hua; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation has been widely applied in clinical cancer treatment, while its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Researchers have revealed that nanosecond pulsed electric field generates nanopores in plasma membrane, leading to a rapid influx of Ca²⁺; it has specific effect on intracellular organelle membranes, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum injuries and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. In addition, it may also change cellular morphology through damage of cytoskeleton. This article reviews the recent research advances on the molecular mechanism of cell membrane and organelle changes induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation.

  17. Energy coupling to the plasma in repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Nishihara, Munetake; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Lempert, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    A new analytic quasi-one-dimensional model of energy coupling to nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas in plane-to-plane geometry has been developed. The use of a one-dimensional approach is based on images of repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge plasmas in dry air demonstrating that the plasma remains diffuse and uniform on a nanosecond time scale over a wide range of pressures. The model provides analytic expressions for the time-dependent electric field and electron density in the plasma, electric field in the sheath, sheath boundary location, and coupled pulse energy. The analytic model predictions are in very good agreement with numerical calculations. The model demonstrates that (i) the energy coupled to the plasma during an individual nanosecond discharge pulse is controlled primarily by the capacitance of the dielectric layers and by the breakdown voltage and (ii) the pulse energy coupled to the plasma during a burst of nanosecond pulses decreases as a function of the pulse number in the burst. This occurs primarily because of plasma temperature rise and resultant reduction in breakdown voltage, such that the coupled pulse energy varies approximately proportionally to the number density. Analytic expression for coupled pulse energy scaling has been incorporated into the air plasma chemistry model, validated previously by comparing with atomic oxygen number density measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges. The results of kinetic modeling using the modified air plasma chemistry model are compared with time-resolved temperature measurements in a repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge in air, by emission spectroscopy, and purely rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy showing good agreement.

  18. High-Voltage, Multiphasic, Nanosecond Pulses to Modulate Cellular Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Hollie A; Hirakawa, Shinji; Yang, Enbo; Zhou, Chunrong; Xiao, Shu

    2018-04-01

    Nanosecond electric pulses are an effective power source in plasma medicine and biological stimulation, in which biophysical responses are governed by peak power and not energy. While uniphasic nanosecond pulse generators are widely available, the recent discovery that biological effects can be uniquely modulated by reversing the polarity of nanosecond duration pulses calls for the development of a multimodal pulse generator. This paper describes a method to generate nanosecond multiphasic pulses for biomedical use, and specifically demonstrates its ability to cancel or enhance cell swelling and blebbing. The generator consists of a series of the fundamental module, which includes a capacitor and a MOSFET switch. A positive or a negative phase pulse module can be produced based on how the switch is connected. Stacking the modules in series can increase the voltage up to 5 kV. Multiple stacks in parallel can create multiphase outputs. As each stack is independently controlled and charged, multiphasic pulses can be created to produce flexible and versatile pulse waveforms. The circuit topology can be used for high-frequency uniphasic or biphasic nanosecond burst pulse production, creating numerous opportunities for the generator in electroporation applications, tissue ablation, wound healing, and nonthermal plasma generation.

  19. Redox reaction studies by nanosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    Free radicals are formed as intermediates in many chemical and biochemical reactions. An important type of reaction which they can undergo is a one electron or redox process. The direction and rate of such electron transfer reactions is governed by the relative redox potentials of the participating species. Because of the generally short lived nature of free radicals, evaluation of their redox potentials poses a number of problems. Two techniques are described for the experimental determination of the redox potentials of short lived species generated by either a nanosecond electron pulse or laser flash. In the first method, redox titration of the short lived species with stable molecules of known redox potential is carried out, employing the technique of fast kinetic spectrophotometry. Conversely, by the same method it is also possible to evaluate the one electron redox potentials of stable molecules by redox titration with free radicals of known redox potential produced as above. In the second method, electrochemical reduction or oxidation of the short lived species at an appropriate electrode (generally a mercury drop) is carried out at different fixed potentials, and the redox potential evaluated from the current-potential curves (polarograms). Full description of the experimental set up and theoretical considerations for interpretation of the raw data are given. The relative merits of the two methods and their practical applicability are discussed. (auth.)

  20. Electric field measurements in a dielectric barrier nanosecond pulse discharge with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; O’Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of time-resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond discharge between two plane electrodes covered by dielectric plates, using picosecond four-wave mixing diagnostics. For absolute calibration, the IR signal was measured in hydrogen at a pressure of 440 Torr, for electrostatic electric field ranging from 0 to 8 kV cm −1 . The calibration curve (i.e. the square root of IR signal intensity versus electric field) was shown to be linear. By measuring the intensities of the pump, Stokes, and IR signal beam for each laser shot during the time sweep across the high-voltage pulse, temporal evolution of the electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge was determined with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The results are compared to kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement, including non-zero electric field offset before the main high voltage pulse, breakdown moment, and reduction of electric field in the plasma after breakdown. The difference between the experimental results and model predictions is likely due to non-1D structure of the discharge. Comparison with the kinetic modeling predictions shows that electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge is controlled primarily by electron impact excitation and charge accumulation on the dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  1. Performance of the Fitch generator in a nanosecond electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyj, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of the Fitch generator in the nanosecond electron accelerator is discussed. The operating principle of the generator is based on the inversion of the voltage at the storage capacitances. Only one discharger is employed in the discharge circuit of the generator which provides for decreasing the generator impedance to 24 Ohms. The maximum accelerating voltage equals 0.6 MV

  2. Universal pulse generator with a nanosecond fast responce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Nguen Kuang Min'.

    1977-01-01

    A pulse generator with nanosecond action is described; it is mainly designed for testing and tuning fast electronic devices operating with pulses in the N/1/M standard. The generator is principally based on integral circuits and has wide functional potentialities: it includes a main-pulse channel, a delayed-pulse channel, and an overall output, which sums up these pulses; in addition to the logic pulse outputs it includes a linear pulse output with an amplitude smoothly regulated in the range from 0.3 to 6.0 V; it can operate in the self-oscillation mode, in the pulse series formation mode, in the starting mode, and in the single-start mode. Two generators are placed in a double-width CAMAC cell. The generation frequency is from 3 Hz to 75 MHz, pulse duration from 8 to 320 ns, and pulse front duration 2 ns

  3. Nanosecond high-voltage generators for supplying the kickers of charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchuganov, V.N.; Matveev, Yu.G.; Shvedov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    The high-voltage nanosecond generators (VNG) of rectangular pulses, developed for supplying the injection and extraction kickers of the accelerator-storage complexes are considered in this work. The pulse hydrogen thyratrons and gas-filled discharges are used as commutators in those generators. If necessary, the VNG pulses fronts may be shortened up to 2-3 ns in the coaxial lines, filled with ferrite rings. The mechanism of the pulse fronts shortening was considered earlier. The basis parameters of the VNG various types are presented [ru

  4. Amorphous Terfenol-D films using nanosecond pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, James; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of Terfenol-D were produced by nanosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at two fluences. Electron dispersive spectroscopy conducted using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes showed that the film compositions were similar to that of the PLD target. Contrary to previous assertions that suggested that nanosecond PLD results in crystalline films, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the films produced at both fluences were amorphous. Splatters present on the film had similar compositions to the overall film and were also amorphous. Magnetic measurements showed that the films had high saturation magnetization and magnetostriction, similar to high quality films produced using other physical vapor deposition methods.

  5. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiko, V. P.; Samokhvalov, A. A., E-mail: samokhvalov.itmo@gmail.com; Yakovlev, E. B.; Zhitenev, I. Yu.; Kliushin, A. N. [Saint-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverksky Pr. 49, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lednev, V. N. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskyave., 4, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershin, S. M. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential “opening” radio pulses with a delay of 0.2–1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode.

  6. Fiber Coupled Pulse Shaper for Sub-Nanosecond Pulse Lidar, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II effort will develop an all-diode laser and fiber optic based, single frequency, sub-nanosecond pulsed laser source...

  7. Characteristics of 2-heptanone decomposition using nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Yuki; Fukuchi, Yuichi; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) evaporate at room temperature. VOCs typically consist of toluene, benzene and ethyl acetate, which are used in cosmetics, dry cleaning products and paints. Exposure to elevated levels of VOCs may cause headaches, dizziness and irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; they may also cause environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and photochemical smog. As such, they require prompt removal. Nanosecond pulsed discharge is a kind of non-thermal plasma consisting of a streamer discharge. Several advantages of nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma have been demonstrated by studies of our research group, including low heat loss, highly energetic electron generation, and the production of highly active radicals. These advantages have shown ns pulsed discharge plasma capable of higher energy efficiency for processes, such as air purification, wastewater treatment and ozone generation. In this research, nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma was employed to treat 2-heptanone, which is a volatile organic compound type and presents several harmful effects. Characteristics of treatment dependent on applied voltage, gas flow rate and input energy density were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts generated by treatment were also investigated.

  8. Method for integrating a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a method used to integrate a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses. The pulses come from current transformers in a RF LINAC beamline. Because they are ac signals and have no dc component, true mathematical integration would yield zero over the pulse train period or an equally erroneous value because of a dc baseline shift. The circuit used to integrate the pulse train first stretches the pulses to 35 ns FWHM. The signals are then fed into a high-speed, precision rectifier which restores a true dc baseline for the following stage - a fast, gated integrator. The rectifier is linear over 55dB in excess of 25 MHz, and the gated integrator is linear over a 60 dB range with input pulse widths as short as 16 ns. The assembled system is linear over 30 dB with a 6 MHz input signal

  9. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghoefer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca; Hohenberger, Petra; Wegner, Lars H.; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  10. IAE pulsed electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.P.; Ganzhelyuk, M.L.; Kozlov, L.D.; Koltypin, E.A.; Molchanov, Yu.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The modernized pulse electrostatic accelerator using the klystron ion grouping and the beam interruption system prior to acceleration is described. The accelerator is modernized in order to improve parameters of a current pulse and to decrease the background in the measurement room. The ion beam of needed dimensions is obtained with the help of a high-frequency source and a beam grouping and deflection system. The general view of the beam grouping and deflection system is shown. The ion beam forming process is considered in detail. The modernized electrostatic accelerator permits to obtain a pulse current with a pulse length of 1.5 ns and an amplitude of 1.5 - 2 μA. With the repetition frequency of 2 MHz, the average target current is about 6 μA

  11. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage threshold on hybrid mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Jan; Muresan, Mihai-George; Bilek, Vojtech; Sebek, Matej; Hanus, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mocek, Tomas; Škoda, Václav

    2017-11-01

    So-called hybrid mirrors, consisting of broadband metallic surface coated with dielectric reflector designed for specific wavelength, becoming more important with progressing development of broadband mid-IR sources realized using parametric down conversion system. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage on such mirrors was tested by method s-on-1, where s stands for various numbers of pulses. We show difference in damage threshold between common protected silver mirrors and hybrid silver mirrors prepared by PVD technique and their variants prepared by IAD. Keywords: LIDT,

  12. Dynamical propagation of nanosecond pulses in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Quan, E-mail: qmiao2013@yahoo.com [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Liang, Min; Liu, Qixin [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Wang, Jing-Jing [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Sun, Erping; Xu, Yan [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We study the dynamical processes of nanoseconds lasers in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines. • We provide theoretical evidences of the main mechanism of optical power limiting. • The central metals play more important roles in the dynamical processes. • The main reason is the central metals enhance the spin–orbit coupling. - Abstract: Dynamical propagation and optical limiting of nanosecond pulses in peripherally substituted Naphthalocyanines (Npcs) and Phthalocyanines (Pcs) with central metals gallium and indium were theoretically studied using paraxial field and rate equations. The results demonstrated that both Npcs and Pcs have good optical limiting performances, and Npc with heavier central mental indium shows better optical limiting properities due to the stronger reverse saturable absorption, which is mainly strengthened by the larger one-photo absorption cross section of excited state and the faster intersystem crossing rate.

  13. Evaluation of material dispersion using a nanosecond optical pulse radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, M; Ohmori, Y; Miya, T

    1979-07-01

    To study the material dispersion effects on graded-index fibers, a method for measuring the material dispersion in optical glass fibers has been developed. Nanosecond pulses in the 0.5-1.7-microm region are generated by a nanosecond optical pulse radiator and grating monochromator. These pulses are injected into a GeO(2)-P(2)0(5)-doped silica graded-index fiber. Relative time delay changes between different wavelengths are used to determine material dispersion, core glass refractive index, material group index, and optimum profile parameter of the graded-index fiber. From the measured data, the optimum profile parameter on the GeO(2)-P(2)O(5)-doped silica graded-index fiber could be estimated to be 1.88 at 1.27 microm of the material dispersion free wavelength region and 1.82 at 1.55 microm of the lowest-loss wavelength region in silica-based optical fiber waveguides.

  14. Hybrid micromachining using a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sanha; Chung, Do Kwan; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Bo Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a well-known precise machining process that achieves micro structures of excellent quality for any conductive material. However, the slow machining speed and high tool wear are main drawbacks of this process. Though the use of deionized water instead of kerosene as a dielectric fluid can reduce the tool wear and increase the machine speed, the material removal rate (MRR) is still low. In contrast, laser ablation using a nanosecond pulsed laser is a fast and non-wear machining process but achieves micro figures of rather low quality. Therefore, the integration of these two processes can overcome the respective disadvantages. This paper reports a hybrid process of a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM for micromachining. A novel hybrid micromachining system that combines the two discrete machining processes is introduced. Then, the feasibility and characteristics of the hybrid machining process are investigated compared to conventional EDM and laser ablation. It is verified experimentally that the machining time can be effectively reduced in both EDM drilling and milling by rapid laser pre-machining prior to micro EDM. Finally, some examples of complicated 3D micro structures fabricated by the hybrid process are shown

  15. A thermal model for nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of aluminum, a novel model was presented for the target ablation and plume expansion. The simulation of the target ablation was based on one-dimensional heat conduction, taking into account temperature dependent material properties, phase transition, dielectric transition and phase explosion. While the simulation of the plume expansion was based on one-dimensional gas-dynamical equation, taking into account ionization, plume absorption and shielding. By coupling the calculations of the target ablation and plume expansion, the characteristics of the target and plume were obtained. And the calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental data, in terms of ablation threshold and depth within the fluence range of the tested laser. Subsequently, investigations were carried out to analyze the mechanisms of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation. The calculated results showed that the maximum surface temperature remained at about 90% of the critical temperature (0.9Tc due to phase explosion. Moreover, the plume shielding has significant effects on the laser ablation, and the plume shielding proportion increase as the laser fluence increasing. The ambient pressure belows 100 Pa is more suitable for laser ablation, which can obtained larger ablation depth.

  16. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedyalkov, N.N.; Imamova, S.E.; Atanasov, P.A.; Toshkova, R.A.; Gardeva, E.G.; Yossifova, L.S.; Alexandrov, M.T.; Obara, M.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  17. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, N. N.; Imamova, S. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Toshkova, R. A.; Gardeva, E. G.; Yossifova, L. S.; Alexandrov, M. T.; Obara, M.

    2011-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  18. A 350 KV nanosecond pulse voltage generator with adjustable pulsed-width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, M.; Chen, Y.Q.; Zeng, L.G.; Han, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a 350 kV nanosecond pulse voltage generator (NPVG). The voltage pulsed-width can be adjusted from 30 to 160 ns. The generator consists of: Marx generator, pulsed forming line (PFL), main switch and matched impedance. The output voltage of Marx generator is over than nU c (n- the stage number of Marx generator, U c -the charging voltage of capacitor). When the pulse forming line is terminated with an impedance that is over than the characteristic impedance of PFL, the higher voltage pulse was provided for the load

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen J; Chen, Xinhua; Liu, Jie A; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma often evades effective therapy and recurrences are frequent. Recently, nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) ablation using pulse power technology has emerged as a local-regional, non-thermal, and non-drug therapy for skin cancers. In the studies reported here we use nsPEFs to ablate murine, rat and human HCCs in vitro and an ectopic murine Hepa 1-6 HCC in vivo. Using pulses with 60 or 300 ns and electric fields as high as 60 kV/cm, murine Hepa 1-6, rat N1S1 and human HepG2 HCC are readily eliminated with changes in caspase-3 activity. Interestingly caspase activities increase in the mouse and human model and decrease in the rat model as electric field strengths are increased. In vivo, while sham treated control mice survived an average of 15 days after injection and before humane euthanasia, Hepa 1-6 tumors were eliminated for longer than 50 days with 3 treatments using one hundred pulses with 100 ns at 55 kV/cm. Survival was 40% in mice treated with 30 ns pulses at 55 kV/cm. This study demonstrates that nsPEF ablation is not limited to effectively treating skin cancers and provides a rationale for treating orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma in pre-clinical applications and ultimately in clinical trials.

  20. Femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser deposition of silicon and germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reenaas, Turid Worren [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lee, Yen Sian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Gupta, Manisha; Tsui, Ying Yin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Tou, Teck Yong [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Ling [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kok, Soon Yie [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Shan, E-mail: seongshan@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Ge and Si were deposited by fs and ns laser at room temperature and at vacuum. • Ion of 10{sup 4} ms{sup −1} and 30–200 eV was obtained for ns ablation for Ge and Si. • Highly energetic ions of 10{sup 5} ms{sup −1} with 2–7 KeV were produced in fs laser ablation. • Nanocrystalline Si and Ge were deposited by using fs laser. • Nanoparticles < 10 nm haven been obtained by fs laser. - Abstract: 150 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulsed laser deposition of Si and Ge were compared to a nanosecond KrF laser (25 ns). The ablation thresholds for ns lasers were about 2.5 J cm{sup −2} for Si and 2.1 J cm{sup −2} for Ge. The values were about 5–10 times lower when fs laser were used. The power densities were 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} W cm{sup −2} for ns but 10{sup 12} W cm{sup −2} for fs. By using an ion probe, the ions emission at different fluence were measured where the emitting ions achieving the velocity in the range of 7–40 km s{sup −1} and kinetic energy in the range of 30–200 eV for ns laser. The ion produced by fs laser was measured to be highly energetic, 90–200 km s{sup −1}, 2–10 KeV. Two ion peaks were detected above specific laser fluence for both ns and fs laser ablation. Under fs laser ablation, the films were dominated by nano-sized crystalline particles, drastically different from nanosecond pulsed laser deposition where amorphous films were obtained. The ions characteristics and effects of pulse length on the properties of the deposited films were discussed.

  1. Numerical simulation of nanosecond-pulse electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggie, J.; Adamovich, I.; Bisek, N.; Nishihara, M.

    2013-02-01

    Recent experiments with a nanosecond-pulse, dielectric barrier discharge at the stagnation point of a Mach 5 cylinder flow have demonstrated the formation of weak shock waves near the electrode edge, which propagate upstream and perturb the bow shock. This is a promising means of flow control, and understanding the detailed physics of the conversion of electrical energy into gas motion will aid in the design of efficient actuators based on the concept. In this work, a simplified configuration with planar symmetry was chosen as a vehicle to develop a physics-based model of nanosecond-pulse discharges, including realistic air kinetics, electron energy transport, and compressible bulk gas flow. A reduced plasma kinetic model (23 species and 50 processes) was developed to capture the dominant species and reactions for energy storage and thermalization in the discharge. The kinetic model included electronically and vibrationally excited species, and several species of ions and ground state neutrals. The governing equations included the Poisson equation for the electric potential, diffusion equations for each neutral species, conservation equations for each charged species, and mass-averaged conservation equations for the bulk gas flow. The results of calculations with this model highlighted the path of energy transfer in the discharge. At breakdown, the input electrical energy was transformed over a time scale on the order of 1 ns into chemical energy of ions, dissociation products, and vibrationally and electronically excited particles. About 30% of this energy was subsequently thermalized over a time scale of 10 µs. Since the thermalization time scale was faster than the acoustic time scale, the heat release led to the formation of weak shock waves originating near the sheath edge, consistent with experimental observations. The computed translational temperature rise (40 K) and nitrogen vibrational temperature rise (370 K) were of the same order of magnitude as

  2. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Particle interaction with plane electromagnetic pulses is studied. It is shown that particle acceleration by a wavy pulse, depending on the shape of the pulse, may not be small. Further, a diffusive-type particle acceleration by multiple weak pulses is described and discussed. (author)

  3. Nanosecond electric pulses modulate skeletal muscle calcium dynamics and contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Chris; Jirjis, Michael B.; Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2017-02-01

    Irreversible electroporation therapy is utilized to remove cancerous tissues thru the delivery of rapid (250Hz) and high voltage (V) (1,500V/cm) electric pulses across microsecond durations. Clinical research demonstrated that bipolar (BP) high voltage microsecond pulses opposed to monophasic waveforms relieve muscle contraction during electroporation treatment. Our group along with others discovered that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) can activate second messenger cascades, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement, and depending on the nsEP duration and frequency, initiate apoptotic pathways. Of high interest across in vivo and in vitro applications, is how nsEP affects muscle physiology, and if nuances exist in comparison to longer duration electroporation applications. To this end, we exposed mature skeletal muscle cells to monopolar (MP) and BP nsEP stimulation across a wide range of electric field amplitudes (1-20 kV/cm). From live confocal microscopy, we simultaneously monitored intracellular calcium dynamics along with nsEP-induced muscle movement on a single cell level. In addition, we also evaluated membrane permeability with Yo-PRO-1 and Propidium Iodide (PI) across various nsEP parameters. The results from our findings suggest that skeletal muscle calcium dynamics, and nsEP-induced contraction exhibit exclusive responses to both MP and BP nsEP exposure. Overall the results suggest in vivo nsEP application may elicit unique physiology and field applications compared to longer pulse duration electroporation.

  4. PIC simulations of post-pulse field reversal and secondary ionization in nanosecond argon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. Y.; Gołkowski, M.; Gołkowski, C.; Stoltz, P.; Cohen, M. B.; Walker, M.

    2018-05-01

    Post-pulse electric field reversal and secondary ionization are investigated with a full kinetic treatment in argon discharges between planar electrodes on nanosecond time scales. The secondary ionization, which occurs at the falling edge of the voltage pulse, is induced by charge separation in the bulk plasma region. This process is driven by a reverse in the electric field from the cathode sheath to the formerly driven anode. Under the influence of the reverse electric field, electrons in the bulk plasma and sheath regions are accelerated toward the cathode. The electron movement manifests itself as a strong electron current generating high electron energies with significant electron dissipated power. Accelerated electrons collide with Ar molecules and an increased ionization rate is achieved even though the driving voltage is no longer applied. With this secondary ionization, in a single pulse (SP), the maximum electron density achieved is 1.5 times higher and takes a shorter time to reach using 1 kV 2 ns pulse as compared to a 1 kV direct current voltage at 1 Torr. A bipolar dual pulse excitation can increase maximum density another 50%–70% above a SP excitation and in half the time of RF sinusoidal excitation of the same period. The first field reversal is most prominent but subsequent field reversals also occur and correspond to electron temperature increases. Targeted pulse designs can be used to condition plasma density as required for fast discharge applications.

  5. Production of ozone using nanosecond short pulsed power

    OpenAIRE

    Shimomura, N.; Wakimoto, M.; Togo, H.; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; ナミヒラ, タカオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 浪平, 隆男; 秋山, 秀典

    2003-01-01

    Production of ozone is one of the most typical industrial and commercial applications of electrical discharge. The demand of ozone will be increasing for wholesome and environment-friendly sterilizations. The production of ozone using the pulsed power discharge will apply electron accelerations around the head of streamer discharge. The breakdowns in reactor, however, often limit the efficient production. The pulse shape should be controlled for dimension of the reactor. On the other hand, th...

  6. Investigation of Vacuum Insulator Surface Dielectric Strength with Nanosecond Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Krogh, M.; Williams, C.; Trimble, D.; Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.

    2003-01-01

    The maximum vacuum insulator surface dielectric strength determines the acceleration electric field gradient possible in a short pulse accelerator. Previous work has indicated that higher electric field strengths along the insulator-vacuum interface might be obtained as the pulse duration is decreased. In this work, a 250 kV, single ns wide impulse source was applied to small diameter, segmented insulators samples in a vacuum to evaluate the multi-layer surface dielectric strength of the sample construction. Resonances in the low inductance test geometry were used to obtain unipolar, pulsed electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m on the insulator surface. The sample construction, experimental arrangement and experimental results are presented for the initial data in this work. Modeling of the multi-layer structure is discussed and methods of improving insulator surface dielectric strength in a vacuum are proposed

  7. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  8. Repetitive nanosecond electron accelerators type URT-1 for radiation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokovnin, S. Yu.; Balezin, M. E.

    2018-03-01

    The electron accelerator URT-1М-300 for mobile installation was created for radiation disinfecting to correct drawbacks that were found the URT-1M electron accelerator operation (the accelerating voltage up to 1 МV, repetition rate up to 300 pps, electron beam size 400 × 100 mm, the pulse width about 100 ns). Accelerator configuration was changed that allowed to reduce significantly by 20% tank volume with oil where is placed the system of formation high-voltage pulses, thus the average power of the accelerator is increased by 6 times at the expense of increase in pulses repetition rate. Was created the system of the computerized monitoring parameters (output parameters and thermal mode) and remote control of the accelerator (charge voltage, pulse repetition rate), its elements and auxiliary systems (heat of the thyratron, vacuum system), the remote control panel is connected to the installation by the fiber-optical channel, what lightens the work for service personnel. For generating an electron beam up to 400 mm wide there are used metal- ceramic] and metal-dielectric cold cathodes of several emission elements (plates) with a non-uniform distribution of the electron beam current density on the output foil ± 15%. It was found that emission drop of both type of cathodes, during the operation at the high repetition rate (100 pps) is substantial at the beginning of the process, and then proceeds rather slowly that allows for continuous operation up to 40 h. Experiments showed that linear dependence of the voltage and a signal from the pin-diode remains within the range of the charge voltage 45-65 kV. Thus, voltage increases from 690 to 950 kV, and the signal from the pin-diode - from (2,8-4,6)*104 Gy/s. It allows to select electron energy quite precisely with consideration of the radiation technology requirements.

  9. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetering, F. M. J. H. van de; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10 −6 %), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon–acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  10. Transmembrane molecular transport during versus after extremely large, nanosecond electric pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C

    2011-08-19

    Recently there has been intense and growing interest in the non-thermal biological effects of nanosecond electric pulses, particularly apoptosis induction. These effects have been hypothesized to result from the widespread creation of small, lipidic pores in the plasma and organelle membranes of cells (supra-electroporation) and, more specifically, ionic and molecular transport through these pores. Here we show that transport occurs overwhelmingly after pulsing. First, we show that the electrical drift distance for typical charged solutes during nanosecond pulses (up to 100 ns), even those with very large magnitudes (up to 10 MV/m), ranges from only a fraction of the membrane thickness (5 nm) to several membrane thicknesses. This is much smaller than the diameter of a typical cell (∼16 μm), which implies that molecular drift transport during nanosecond pulses is necessarily minimal. This implication is not dependent on assumptions about pore density or the molecular flux through pores. Second, we show that molecular transport resulting from post-pulse diffusion through minimum-size pores is orders of magnitude larger than electrical drift-driven transport during nanosecond pulses. While field-assisted charge entry and the magnitude of flux favor transport during nanosecond pulses, these effects are too small to overcome the orders of magnitude more time available for post-pulse transport. Therefore, the basic conclusion that essentially all transmembrane molecular transport occurs post-pulse holds across the plausible range of relevant parameters. Our analysis shows that a primary direct consequence of nanosecond electric pulses is the creation (or maintenance) of large populations of small pores in cell membranes that govern post-pulse transmembrane transport of small ions and molecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A trial of ignition innovation of gasoline engine by nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Taisuke; Urushihara, Tomonori; Gundersen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma as an ignition technique for automotive gasoline engines, which require a discharge under conditions of high back pressure, has been studied experimentally using a single-cylinder engine. The nanosecond pulsed plasma refers to the transient (non-equilibrated) phase of a plasma before the formation of an arc discharge; it was obtained by applying a high voltage with a nanosecond pulse (FWHM of approximately 80 or 25 ns) between coaxial cylindrical electrodes. It was confirmed that nanosecond pulsed plasma can form a volumetric multi-channel streamer discharge at an energy consumption of 60 mJ cycle -1 under a high back pressure of 1400 kPa. It was found that the initial combustion period was shortened compared with the conventional spark ignition. The initial flame visualization suggested that the nanosecond pulsed plasma ignition results in the formation of a spatially dispersed initial flame kernel at a position of high electric field strength around the central electrode. It was observed that the electric field strength in the air gap between the coaxial cylindrical electrodes was increased further by applying a shorter pulse. It was also clarified that the shorter pulse improved ignitability even further.

  12. A trial of ignition innovation of gasoline engine by nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Taisuke; Urushihara, Tomonori; Gundersen, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma as an ignition technique for automotive gasoline engines, which require a discharge under conditions of high back pressure, has been studied experimentally using a single-cylinder engine. The nanosecond pulsed plasma refers to the transient (non-equilibrated) phase of a plasma before the formation of an arc discharge; it was obtained by applying a high voltage with a nanosecond pulse (FWHM of approximately 80 or 25 ns) between coaxial cylindrical electrodes. It was confirmed that nanosecond pulsed plasma can form a volumetric multi-channel streamer discharge at an energy consumption of 60 mJ cycle-1 under a high back pressure of 1400 kPa. It was found that the initial combustion period was shortened compared with the conventional spark ignition. The initial flame visualization suggested that the nanosecond pulsed plasma ignition results in the formation of a spatially dispersed initial flame kernel at a position of high electric field strength around the central electrode. It was observed that the electric field strength in the air gap between the coaxial cylindrical electrodes was increased further by applying a shorter pulse. It was also clarified that the shorter pulse improved ignitability even further.

  13. Petawatt pulsed-power accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, William A.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Headley, Daniel I.; Ives, Harry C.; Ives, legal representative; Berry Cottrell; Leeper, Ramon J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Olson, Craig L.; Porter, John L.; Wagoner; Tim C.

    2010-03-16

    A petawatt pulsed-power accelerator can be driven by various types of electrical-pulse generators, including conventional Marx generators and linear-transformer drivers. The pulsed-power accelerator can be configured to drive an electrical load from one- or two-sides. Various types of loads can be driven; for example, the accelerator can be used to drive a high-current z-pinch load. When driven by slow-pulse generators (e.g., conventional Marx generators), the accelerator comprises an oil section comprising at least one pulse-generator level having a plurality of pulse generators; a water section comprising a pulse-forming circuit for each pulse generator and a level of monolithic triplate radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, that have variable impedance profiles, for each pulse-generator level; and a vacuum section comprising triplate magnetically insulated transmission lines that feed an electrical load. When driven by LTD generators or other fast-pulse generators, the need for the pulse-forming circuits in the water section can be eliminated.

  14. Electrosensitization Increases Antitumor Effectiveness of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, Claudia; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Heller, Loree; Casciola, Maura; Gianulis, Elena; Grigoryev, Sergey; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, O. N.

    2017-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-d...

  15. Temporal shaping of nanosecond CO2 laser pulses in multiphoton saturable absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    It was shown that substantial temporal distortion of nanosecond 10.6 μm laser pulses occurs in traversing multiphoton saturable absorbers. The risetime and pulse delay effects appear to depend both on fluence and wavelength, and to be qualitatively consistent with predictions of a simple two-level absorption model

  16. Efficient temporal compression of coherent nanosecond pulses in compact SBS generator-amplifier setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemann, S.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1997-01-01

    A pulse compressor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in liquids is experimentally and theoretically investigated. It allows for the compression of Fourier-transform limited nanosecond pulses of several hundreds of millijoules of energy with both high conversion efficiency and a high

  17. Generation of fast-rise time, repetitive, (sub) nanosecond, high-voltage pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we present our fast-rise time nanosecond pulse generator, capable of generating up to 50 kV (positive and negative) rectangular pulses at a repetition rate of up to 1 kHz and with a rise time of less than 200 picoseconds. We focus on the general concepts involved in the design

  18. A distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer for high voltage nanosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Longjie; He, Jiaxin; Li, Chenjie; Wang, Yifeng; Su, Can

    2017-09-01

    A transmission line transformer has potential advantages for nanosecond pulse generation including excellent frequency response and no leakage inductance. The wave propagation process in a secondary mode line is indispensable due to an obvious inside transient electromagnetic transition in this scenario. The equivalent model of the transmission line transformer is crucial for predicting the output waveform and evaluating the effects of magnetic cores on output performance. However, traditional lumped parameter models are not sufficient for nanosecond pulse generation due to the natural neglect of wave propagations in secondary mode lines based on a lumped parameter assumption. In this paper, a distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer was established to investigate wave propagation in the secondary mode line and its influential factors through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The wave propagation discontinuity in the secondary mode line induced by magnetic cores is emphasized. Characteristics of the magnetic core under a nanosecond pulse were obtained by experiments. Distribution and formation of the secondary mode current were determined for revealing essential wave propagation processes in secondary mode lines. The output waveform and efficiency were found to be affected dramatically by wave propagation discontinuity in secondary mode lines induced by magnetic cores. The proposed distributed parameter model was proved more suitable for nanosecond pulse generation in aspects of secondary mode current, output efficiency, and output waveform. In depth, comprehension of underlying mechanisms and a broader view of the working principle of the transmission line transformer for nanosecond pulse generation can be obtained through this research.

  19. Formation of various types of nanostructures on germanium surface by nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolutskiy, S. I.; Khasaya, R. R.; Khomich, Yu V.; Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the formation of micro- and nanostructures in different parts of irradiation zone on germanium surface by multiple action of nanosecond pulses of ArF-laser. It proposes a simple method using only one laser beam without any optional devices and masks for surface treatment. Hexa- and pentagonal cells with submicron dimensions along the surface were observed in peripheral zone of irradiation spot by atomic-force microscopy. Nanostructures in the form of bulbs with rounded peaks with lateral sizes of 40-120 nm were obtained in peripheral low-intensity region of the laser spot. Considering experimental data on material processing by nanosecond laser pulses, a classification of five main types of surface reliefs formed by nanosecond laser pulses with energy density near or slightly above ablation threshold was proposed.

  20. Efficient temporal compression of coherent nanosecond pulses in compact SBS generator-amplifier setup

    OpenAIRE

    Schiemann, S.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1997-01-01

    A pulse compressor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in liquids is experimentally and theoretically investigated. It allows for the compression of Fourier-transform limited nanosecond pulses of several hundreds of millijoules of energy with both high conversion efficiency and a high temporal compression factor. The two-cell generator-amplifier arrangement is of a compact design not requiring external attenuation of the generator cell input energy. Pulses from an injection-seeded,...

  1. Fast pulse beam generation systems for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The fast pulse beam generation system to supply the SLAC storage ring, SPEAR, by the two one nanosecond bunch electron beam pulses is described. Generation of these pulses is accomplished with a combination of a fast pulsed grided gun and a synchronized transverse beam chopper. Fast gun based on spherical cathode-grid assembly has output current up to 2As. Fast pulse amplifier system can handle trains of short pulses with repetition rates up to 40 MHz during the 1.6 μs normal accelerating time. Chopping deflector system consists of a resonant coaxial line with the deflecting plates. The resonator frequency is 39.667 MHz. A schematic diagram of the resonant system is shown. The fast beam pickup system has a one hundred picosecond rise time overrall. Fast beam generation and chopper systems permit to generate almost any short or single bunch beam profile needed for experiments

  2. Nanosecond neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobov, S.I.; Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Pukhov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    High-voltage nanosecond neutron generator for obtaining neutrons in D-T reaction is described. Yield of 6x10 6 neutron/pulse was generated in a sealed gas-filled diode with a target on the cathode by accelerating pulse voltage of approximately 0.5 MV and length at half-height of 0.5 ns and deuterium pressure of 6x10 -2 Torr. Ways of increasing neutron yield and possibilities of creating generators of nanosecond neutron pulses with great service life are considered

  3. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  4. Sodium current inhibition by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF)--fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    In two recent publications in Bioelectromagnetics it has been demonstrated that the voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)) is inhibited in response to a nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). At the same time, there was an increase in a non-inactivating "leak" current (I(leak)), which was

  5. Nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/H2O mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, R.M.; Verreycken, T.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/H2O at atmospheric pressure between two pin-shaped electrodes are studied. The evolution of the discharge is investigated with time-resolved imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. The discharge consists of three phases, the ignition (mainly molecular

  6. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  7. High-voltage nanosecond Marx generator with quasi-rectangular pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulan, V.V.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Gribov, A.N.; Luzhnov, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    The automated high-voltage nanosecond generator, forming single pulses of any polarity on the load of 17 Ohm with polarity voltage from 100 up to 300 kV at the semiheight of 80 ns and the front of 7 ns is described. The generator is assembled on the basis of low-inductive capacitors, which by discharge form the pulse, close by form to rectangular one [ru

  8. Activation of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Ablation of HCC with Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Ruiqing; Miao, Xudong; Chen, Xinhua

    2018-03-28

    Locoregional therapy is playing an increasingly important role in the non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The novel technique of non-thermal electric ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field has been recognized as a potential locoregional methodology for indicated HCC. This manuscript explores the most recent studies to indicate its unique anti-tumor immune response. The possible immune mechanism, termed as nano-pulse stimulation, was also analyzed.

  9. Interaction Of CO2 Laser Nanosecond Pulse Train With The Metallic Targets In Optical Breakdown Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Konov, V. I.; Nikitin, P. I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Silenok, A. S.; Sorochenko, V. R.

    1986-11-01

    In the present paper the electric field and currents in the air-breakdown plasma, produced by the train of nanosecond pulses of TEA-002 - regenerative amplifier near the un-charged targets are studied. The breakdown thresholds and the efficiency of plasma-target heat transmission are also measured. The results of numerical calculations made for increasing of the pulse train contrast with respect to the background in a regenerative amplifier are advanced.

  10. Explosive Processes on Cathode while Forming Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge of High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hashimov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of cathode surfaces with different curvature radius (r = 1–8 mm while forming nanosecond pulsed discharge in dense air. Influence of field and air pressure heterogeneity rate in gas gap on size of micro-craters being formed on working cathode surface after pulsed effect has been shown in the paper. The paper reveals a maximum expansion of separate micro-crater size on cathode surface with small curvature radius.

  11. A compact nanosecond pulse generator for DBD tube characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S. K.; Dhakar, A. K.; Pal, U. N.

    2018-03-01

    High voltage pulses of very short duration and fast rise time are required for generating uniform and diffuse plasma under various operating conditions. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) has been generated by high voltage pulses of short duration and fast rise time to produce diffuse plasma in the discharge gap. The high voltage pulse power generators have been chosen according to the requirement for the DBD applications. In this paper, a compact solid-state unipolar pulse generator has been constructed for characterization of DBD plasma. This pulsar is designed to provide repetitive pulses of 315 ns pulse width, pulse amplitude up to 5 kV, and frequency variation up to 10 kHz. The amplitude of the output pulse depends on the dc input voltage. The output frequency has been varied by changing the trigger pulse frequency. The pulsar is capable of generating pulses of positive or negative polarity by changing the polarity of pulse transformer's secondary. Uniform and stable homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been produced successfully in a xenon DBD tube at 400-mbar pressure using the developed high voltage pulse generator.

  12. Pulsed electromagnetic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    Direct measurements of the power deposited in the anode of a multimegawatt MPD accelerator using thermocouples attached to a thin shell anode reveal a dramatic decrease in the fractional anode power from 50% at 200 KW input power to less than 10% at 20 MW power. The corresponding local power flux peak at a value of 10,000 W/sq cm at the lip of the anode exhaust orifice, a distribution traced to a corresponding peak in the local current density at the anode. A comparison of voltage-current characteristics and spectral photographs of the MPD discharge using quartz, boron nitride and plexiglas insulators with various mass injection configurations led to the identification of different voltage modes and regions of ablation free operation. The technique of piezoelectric impact pressure measurement in the MPD exhaust flow was refined to account for the effects due to probe yaw angle.

  13. Studies on laser material processing with nanosecond and sub-nanosecond and picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, laser ablation of widely used metal (Al, Cu. stainless-steel), semiconductor (Si), transparent material (glass, sapphire), ceramic (Al2O3, AlN) and polymer (PI, PMMA) in industry were systematically studied with pulse width from nanosecond (5-100ns), picosecond (6-10ps) to sub-picosecond (0.8-0.95ps). A critical damage zone (CDZ) of up to 100um with ns laser, efficiency were also investigated. This is to explore how to provide industry users the best laser solution for device micro-fabrication with best price. Our studies of cutting and drilling with ns, ps, and sub-ps lasers indicate that it is feasible to achieve user accepted quality and speed with cost-effective and reliable laser by optimizing processing conditions.

  14. Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmaier, Alexander; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Günter

    2014-04-01

    Optical stimulation of the inner ear has recently attracted attention, suggesting a higher frequency resolution compared to electrical cochlear implants due to its high spatial stimulation selectivity. Although the feasibility of the effect is shown in multiple in vivo experiments, the stimulation mechanism remains open to discussion. Here we investigate in single-cell measurements the reaction of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells to irradiation with a nanosecond-pulsed laser beam over a broad wavelength range from 420 nm up to 1950 nm using the patch clamp technique. Cell reactions were wavelength- and pulse-energy-dependent but too small to elicit action potentials in the investigated spiral ganglion neurons. As the applied radiant exposure was much higher than the reported threshold for in vivo experiments in the same laser regime, we conclude that in a stimulation paradigm with nanosecond-pulses, direct neuronal stimulation is not the main cause of optical cochlea stimulation.

  15. Electrosensitization Increases Antitumor Effectiveness of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Claudia; Pakhomov, Andrei G; Heller, Loree; Casciola, Maura; Gianulis, Elena; Grigoryev, Sergey; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, O N

    2017-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-dose treatments for in vivo tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field. KLN 205 squamous carcinoma cells were embedded in an agarose gel or grown subcutaneously as tumors in mice. Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablations were produced using a 2-needle probe with a 6.5-mm interelectrode distance. In agarose gel, splitting a pulsed electric field dose of 300, 300-ns pulses (20 Hz, 4.4-6.4 kV) in 2 equal fractions increased cell death up to 3-fold compared to single-train treatments. We then compared the antitumor effectiveness of these treatments in vivo. At 24 hours after treatment, sensitizing tumors by a split-dose pulsed electric field exposure (150 + 150, 300-ns pulses, 20 Hz, 6.4 kV) caused a 4- and 2-fold tumor volume reduction as compared to sham and single-train treatments, respectively. Tumor volume reduction that exceeds 75% was 43% for split-dose-treated animals compared to only 12% for single-dose treatments. The difference between the 2 experimental groups remained statistically significant for at least 1 week after the treatment. The results show that electrosensitization occurs in vivo and can be exploited to assist in vivo cancer ablation.

  16. Review of supershort avalanche electron beam during nanosecond-pulse discharges in some gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor F. Tarasenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB plays an important role in nanosecond-pulse discharges. This paper aims at reviewing experiments results on characteritics of SAEB and its spectra in different gases in nanosecond-pulse discharges. All the joint experiments were carried in the Institute of High Current Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In these experiments, the generation of a SAEB in SF6 in an inhomogeneous electric field was studied on three generators with pulse rise times of 0.3, 0.5 and ∼2 ns. Firstly, the comparison of SAEB parameters in SF6 with those obtained in other gases (air, nitrogen, argon, and krypton is introduced. Secondly, the SAEB spectra in SF6 and air at pressures of 10 kPa (75 torr, and 0.1 MPa (750 torr are reviewed and discussed. Finally, 1.5-D theoretical simulation of the supershort pulse of the fast electron beam in a coaxial diode filled with SF6 at atmospheric pressure is described. The simulation was carried out in the framework of hybrid model for discharge and runaway electron kinetics. The above research progress can provide better understanding of the investigation into the mechanism of nanosecond-pulse discharges.

  17. Experimental research of double-pulse linear induction electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Shuqing; Cheng Cheng; Zheng Shuxin; Tang Chuanxiang; Lin Yuzheng; Jing Xiaobing; Mu Fan; Pan Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    The Mini-LIA is a double-pulse linear induction electron accelerator with megahertz repetition rates, which consists of a double-pulse power system, a thermal cathode electron gun, two induction cells, beam transportation systems and diagnosis systems, etc. Experiments of the Mini-LIA have been conducted. The double-pulse high voltage was obtained with several hundred nanosecond pulse intervals (i. e. megahertz repetition rate) and each pulse had an 80 kV amplitude with a FWHM of 80 ns. In the gap of the induction cell, the double-pulse accelerating electric field was measured via E-field probes, and the double-pulse electron beam with a current about 1.1 A has been obtained at the Mini-LIA exit. These experimental results show that the double-pulse high voltage with megahertz repetition rates can be generated by an insulation and junction system. And they also indicate that the induction cell with metglas as the ferromagnetic material and the LaB 6 thermal cathode electron gun suit the double-pulse operation with megahertz repetition rates. (authors)

  18. Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compaan, A.; Lee, M.C.; Trott, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Since the first time-resolved Raman studies of phonon populations under pulsed-laser-annealing conditions, a number of cw Raman studies have been performed which provide a much improved basis for interpreting the pulsed Raman data. Here we present new pulsed Raman results and interpret them with reference to temperature-dependent resonance effects, high-carrier-density effects, phonon anharmonicity, and laser-induced strain effects. The pulsed Raman data: Stokes to anti-Stokes ratios, shift and shape of the first-order peak, and second-order spectra: indicate the existence of a phase in which the Raman signal disappears followed by a rapidly cooling solid which begins within 300 K of the 1685 K normal melting temperature of Si. We identify a major difficulty in pulsed Raman studies in Si to be the decrease in Raman intensity at high temperatures

  19. The role of nanosecond electric pulse-induced mechanical stress in cellular nanoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C.

    Background: Exposures of cells to very short (less than 1 microsecond) electric pulses in the megavolt/meter range have been shown to cause a multitude of effects, both physical and molecular in nature. Physically, nanosecond electrical pulse exposure can disrupt the plasma membrane, leading to a phenomenon known as nanoporation. Nanoporation is the production of nanometer sized holes (less than 2 nanometers in diameter) that can persist for up to fifteen minutes, allowing the flow of ions into and out of the cell. Nanoporation can lead to secondary physical effects, such as cellular swelling, shrinking and blebbing. Molecularly, nanosecond electrical pulses have been shown to activate signaling pathways, produce oxidative stress, stimulate hormone secretion and induce both apoptotic and necrotic death. The mechanism by which nanosecond electrical pulses cause molecular changes is unknown; however, it is thought the flow of ions, such as calcium, into the cell via nanopores, could be a major cause. The ability of nanosecond electrical pulses to cause membranes to become permeable and to induce apoptosis makes the technology a desirable modality for cancer research; however, the lack of understanding regarding the mechanisms by which nanosecond electrical pulses cause nanoporation impedes further development of this technology. This dissertation documents the genomic and proteomic responses of cells exposed to nanosecond electrical pulses and describes in detail the biophysical effects of these electrical pulses, including the demonstration for the first time of the generation of acoustic pressure transients capable of disrupting plasma membranes and possibly contributing to nanoporation. Methods: Jurkat, clone E6-1 (human lymphocytic cell line), U937 (human lymphocytic cell line), Chinese hamster ovarian cells and adult primary human dermal fibroblasts exposed to nanosecond electrical pulses were subjected to a variety of molecular assays, including flow cytometry

  20. A novel method of calculating the energy deposition curve of nanosecond pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Kun; Wang, Xinying; Lu, Jiayu; Cui, Quansheng; Pang, Lei; Di, Dongxu; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the energy deposition curve is very important in the fields to which nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharges (NPDBDs) are applied. It helps the understanding of the discharge physics and fast gas heating. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model, composed of three capacitances, is introduced and a method of calculating the energy deposition curve is proposed for a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge (NPSDBD) plasma actuator. The capacitance C d and the energy deposition curve E R are determined by mathematically proving that the mapping from C d to E R is bijective and numerically searching one C d that satisfies the requirement for E R to be a monotonically non-decreasing function. It is found that the value of capacitance C d varies with the amplitude of applied pulse voltage due to the change of discharge area and is dependent on the polarity of applied voltage. The bijectiveness of the mapping from C d to E R in nanosecond pulse volumetric dielectric barrier discharge (NPVDBD) is demonstrated and the feasibility of the application of the new method to NPVDBD is validated. This preliminarily shows a high possibility of developing a unified approach to calculate the energy deposition curve in NPDBD. (paper)

  1. The nanosecond generator RG-1 with near-rectangular pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulan, V.V.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Gribov, A.N.; Luzhnov, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    The 300 kV, 17 Ohm generator RG-1, which can deliver near-rectangular pulses with a pulse duration of 80 ns FWHM, is described. The polarity of the output pulse can be changed by a simple switch. The fast capacities of the Marx generator are used instead of the pulse forming line. Multi-spark gas switches were developed to decrease the inductance of the discharged circuit. The generator is supplied by a built-in high voltage source and its operation is controlled by a minicomputer. It is used the power supply-line 220 V. The RG-1 can be used in different modes of operation: gas discharge, particle beam formation, etc. (author). 4 figs., 3 refs

  2. The nanosecond generator RG-1 with near-rectangular pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulan, V V; Grabovskij, E V; Gribov, A N; Luzhnov, V G [TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The 300 kV, 17 Ohm generator RG-1, which can deliver near-rectangular pulses with a pulse duration of 80 ns FWHM, is described. The polarity of the output pulse can be changed by a simple switch. The fast capacities of the Marx generator are used instead of the pulse forming line. Multi-spark gas switches were developed to decrease the inductance of the discharged circuit. The generator is supplied by a built-in high voltage source and its operation is controlled by a minicomputer. It is used the power supply-line 220 V. The RG-1 can be used in different modes of operation: gas discharge, particle beam formation, etc. (author). 4 figs., 3 refs.

  3. Characterization of Pressure Transients Generated by Nanosecond Electrical Pulse (nsEP) Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Caleb C. Roth; Ronald A. Barnes Jr.; Bennett L. Ibey; Hope T. Beier; L. Christopher Mimun; Saher M. Maswadi; Mehdi Shadaram; Randolph D. Glickman

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism(s) responsible for the breakdown (nanoporation) of cell plasma membranes after nanosecond pulse (nsEP) exposure remains poorly understood. Current theories focus exclusively on the electrical field, citing electrostriction, water dipole alignment and/or electrodeformation as the primary mechanisms for pore formation. However, the delivery of a high-voltage nsEP to cells by tungsten electrodes creates a multitude of biophysical phenomena, including electrohydraulic cavitation, el...

  4. Guiding of Long-Distance Electric Discharges by Combined Femtosecond and Nanosecond Pulses Emitted by Hybrid KrF Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    laser pulse initiated HV discharge with a time delay of tens nanoseconds – evidently it is developing due to an avalanche -like growth of electron...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0040 Guiding of long-distance electric discharges by combined femtosecond and nanosecond pulses emitted by...and guiding electric discharge , KrF laser, femtosecond pulse , nanosecond pulse , filamentation, plasma channel, lightning control, laser control of

  5. High voltage nanosecond generator with pulse repetition rate of 1,000 p.p.s.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubanov, V P; Korovin, S D; Stepchenko, A S [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A compact high voltage nanosecond generator is described with a pulse repetition rate up to 1000 p.p.s. The generator includes a 30-Ohm coaxial forming line charged by a built-in Tesla transformer with a high coupling coefficient, and a high voltage (N{sub 2}) gas gap switch with gas blowing between the electrodes. The maximum forming line charge voltage is 450 kV, the pulse duration is about 4 ns, and its amplitude for a matched load is up to 200 kV. (author). 3 figs., 9 refs.

  6. The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Richard J.

    2006-02-15

    The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept was motivated by the desire for an inexpensive way to accelerate intense short pulse heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. A pulse power driver applied at one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines the heavy ion beam pulse. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The concept might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the PFN is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication.

  7. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time

  8. Monopole patch antenna for in vivo exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merla, C; Apollonio, F; Paffi, A; Marino, C; Vernier, P T; Liberti, M

    2017-07-01

    To explore the promising therapeutic applications of short nanosecond electric pulses, in vitro and in vivo experiments are highly required. In this paper, an exposure system based on monopole patch antenna is reported to perform in vivo experiments on newborn mice with both monopolar and bipolar nanosecond signals. Analytical design and numerical simulations of the antenna in air were carried out as well as experimental characterizations in term of scattering parameter (S 11 ) and spatial electric field distribution. Numerical dosimetry of the setup with four newborn mice properly placed in proximity of the antenna patch was carried out, exploiting a matching technique to decrease the reflections due to dielectric discontinuities (i.e., from air to mouse tissues). Such technique consists in the use of a matching dielectric box with dielectric permittivity similar to those of the mice. The average computed electric field inside single mice was homogeneous (better than 68 %) with an efficiency higher than 20 V m -1  V -1 for the four exposed mice. These results demonstrate the possibility of a multiple (four) exposure of small animals to short nanosecond pulses (both monopolar and bipolar) in a controlled and efficient way.

  9. Shaping the electron beams with submicrosecond pulse duration in sources and electron accelerators with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Gushenets, V I

    2001-01-01

    One studies the techniques in use to shape submicrosecond electron beams and the physical processes associated with extraction of electrons from plasma in plasma emitters. Plasma emitter base sources and accelerators enable to generate pulse beams with currents varying from tens of amperes up to 10 sup 3 A, with current densities up to several amperes per a square centimeter, with pulse duration constituting hundreds of nanoseconds and with high frequencies of repetition

  10. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.; Bakker, R.J.; Gough, C.; Paraliev, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Le Pimpec, F.; Rivkin, L.; Wrulich, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 μm, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect

  11. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: romain.ganter@psi.ch; Bakker, R.J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Gough, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Paraliev, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Pedrozzi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Le Pimpec, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Wrulich, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 {mu}m, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect.

  12. Abnormal polarity effect in nanosecond-pulse breakdown of SF6 and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Tao; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Zhang, Cheng; Beloplotov, Dmitry S.; Yang, Wenjin; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Zhou, Zhongsheng; Sorokin, Dmitry A.; Yan, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown of gas gaps in an inhomogeneous electric field at subnanosecond and nanosecond voltage pulse rise times are studied, and the famous polarity effect in point-to-plane gaps is investigated. It is shown that at a voltage pulse rise time of ∼0.5 ns, the inversion of polarity effect takes place not only in electronegative gases such as SF 6 , but also occurs in electropositive nitrogen. The inversion of polarity effect is related to a delay of electron emission from the plane cathode on arrival of the ionization wave front anode to the cathode. It is found that with a voltage pulse rise time of ∼0.5 ns, the inversion of polarity effect occurs at SF 6 and SF 6 –N 2 pressures of 0.25 MPa and lower, and with a voltage pulse rise time of 15 ns, at a SF 6 pressure lower than 0.12 MPa.

  13. The second phase of bipolar, nanosecond-range electric pulses determines the electroporation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Grigoryev, Sergey; Semenov, Iurii; Casciola, Maura; Jiang, Chunqi; Xiao, Shu

    2018-03-29

    Bipolar cancellation refers to a phenomenon when applying a second electric pulse reduces ("cancels") cell membrane damage by a preceding electric pulse of the opposite polarity. Bipolar cancellation is a reason why bipolar nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) cause weaker electroporation than just a single unipolar phase of the same pulse. This study was undertaken to explore the dependence of bipolar cancellation on nsEP parameters, with emphasis on the amplitude ratio of two opposite polarity phases of a bipolar pulse. Individual cells (CHO, U937, or adult mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCM)) were exposed to either uni- or bipolar trapezoidal nsEP, or to nanosecond electric field oscillations (NEFO). The membrane injury was evaluated by time-lapse confocal imaging of the uptake of propidium (Pr) or YO-PRO-1 (YP) dyes and by phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Within studied limits, bipolar cancellation showed little or no dependence on the electric field intensity, pulse repetition rate, chosen endpoint, or cell type. However, cancellation could increase for larger pulse numbers and/or for longer pulses. The sole most critical parameter which determines bipolar cancellation was the phase ratio: maximum cancellation was observed with the 2nd phase of about 50% of the first one, whereas a larger 2nd phase could add a damaging effect of its own. "Swapping" the two phases, i.e., delivering the smaller phase before the larger one, reduced or eliminated cancellation. These findings are discussed in the context of hypothetical mechanisms of bipolar cancellation and electroporation by nsEP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Nanosecond Pulsed Power Unit for the Formation of ·OH in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Han

    2012-04-01

    A novel nanosecond pulsed power unit was developed for plasma treatment of wastewater, based on the theory of magnetic pulse compression and semiconductor opening switch (SOS). The peak value, rise time and pulse duration of the output voltage were observed to be -51 kV, 60 ns and 120 ns, respectively. The concentrations of ·OH generated by the novel nanosecond pulsed plasma power were determined using the method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the concentrations of ·OH increased with the increase in peak voltage, and the generation rates of ·OH were 4.1 × 10-10 mol/s, 5.7 × 10-10 mol/s, and 7.7 × 10-10 mol/s at 30 kV, 35 kV, and 40 kV, respectively. The efficiency of OH generation was found to be independent of the input parameters for applied power, with an average value of 3.23×10-12 mol/J obtained.

  15. Development of an electron momentum spectrometer for time-resolved experiments employing nanosecond pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Liu, Zhaohui; Niu, Shanshan; Wang, Enliang; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    The low count rate of (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has long been a major limitation of its application to the investigation of molecular dynamics. Here we report a new EMS apparatus developed for time-resolved experiments in the nanosecond time scale, in which a double toroidal energy analyzer is utilized to improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer and a nanosecond pulsed electron gun with a repetition rate of 10 kHz is used to obtain an average beam current up to nA. Meanwhile, a picosecond ultraviolet laser with a repetition rate of 5 kHz is introduced to pump the sample target. The time zero is determined by photoionizing the target using a pump laser and monitoring the change of the electron beam current with time delay between the laser pulse and electron pulse, which is influenced by the plasma induced by the photoionization. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by the EMS measurement on argon using a pulsed electron beam, illustrating the potential abilities of the apparatus for investigating the molecular dynamics in excited states when employing the pump-probe scheme.

  16. Mechanical response of agar gel irradiated with Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G.; Evans, Rodger; Camacho-López, Santiago; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2010-02-01

    Nanosecond long laser pulses are used in medical applications where precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal and mechanical collateral damage is required. When a laser pulse is incident on a material, optical energy will be absorbed by a combination of linear and nonlinear absorption according to both: laser light intensity and material properties. In the case of water or gels, the first results in heat generation and thermoelastic expansion; while the second results in an expanding plasma formation that launches a shock wave and a cavitation/boiling bubble. Plasma formation due to nonlinear absorption of nanosecond laser pulses is originated by a combination of multiphoton ionization and thermionic emission of free electrons, which is enhanced when the material has high linear absorption coefficient. In this work, we present measurements of pressure transients originated when 6 ns laser pulses are incident on agar gels with varying linear absorption coefficient, mechanical properties and irradiation geometry using laser radiant exposures above threshold for bubble formation. The underlying hypothesis is that pressure transients are composed of the superposition of both: shock wave originated by hot expanding plasma resulting from nonlinear absorption of optical energy and, thermoelastic expansion originated by heat generation due to linear absorption of optical energy. The objective of this work is to evaluate the relative contribution of each absorption mechanism to mechanical effects in agar gel. Real time pressure transients are recorded with PVDF piezoelectric sensors and time-resilved imaging from 50 μm to 10 mm away from focal point.

  17. Nanosecond pulsed laser induced self-organized nano-dots patterns on GaSb surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Yutaka, E-mail: yyoshida@cris.hokudai.ac.jp [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan); Creative Research Institution Sousei, Hokkaido University, N21, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021, Hokkaido (Japan); Oosawa, Kazuya; Wajima, Jyunya; Watanabe, Seiichi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan); Matsuo, Yasutaka [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Takahiko [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika, Hitachi-shi 319-1292, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We report a technique for formation of two-dimensional (2D) nanodot (ND) patterns on gaillium antimoide (GaSb) using a nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation with 532 nm wavelength. The patterns have formed because of the interference and the self-organization under energy deposition of the laser irradiation, which induced the growth of NDs on the local area. The NDs are grown and shrunken in the pattern by energy depositions. In the laser irradiation with average laser energy density of 35 mJ cm⁻², large and small NDs are formed on GaSb surface. The large NDs have grown average diameter from 160 to 200 nm with increase of laser pulses, and the small NDs have shrunken average diameter from 75 to 30 nm. The critical dot size is required about 107 nm for growth of the NDs in the patterns. Nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation can control the self-organized ND size on GaSb in air as a function of the laser pulses.

  18. A Novel Nanosecond Pulsed Power Unit for the Formation of ·OH in Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengli; Hu Sheng; Zhang Han

    2012-01-01

    A novel nanosecond pulsed power unit was developed for plasma treatment of wastewater, based on the theory of magnetic pulse compression and semiconductor opening switch (SOS). The peak value, rise time and pulse duration of the output voltage were observed to be -51 kV, 60 ns and 120 ns, respectively. The concentrations of ·OH generated by the novel nanosecond pulsed plasma power were determined using the method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the concentrations of ·OH increased with the increase in peak voltage, and the generation rates of ·OH were 4.1 × 10 -10 mol/s, 5.7 × 10 -10 mol/s, and 7.7 × 10 -10 mol/s at 30 kV, 35 kV, and 40 kV, respectively. The efficiency of OH generation was found to be independent of the input parameters for applied power, with an average value of 3.23×10 -12 mol/J obtained. (plasma technology)

  19. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao; Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Zhou, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Power source is an important parameter that can affect the characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs), because it can play a key role on the discharge characteristics and ionization process of APPJs. In this paper, the characteristics of helium APPJs sustained by both nanosecond-pulse and microsecond-pulse generators are compared from the aspects of plume length, discharge current, consumption power, energy, and optical emission spectrum. Experimental results showed that the pulsed APPJ was initiated near the high-voltage electrode with a small curvature radius, and then the stable helium APPJ could be observed when the applied voltage increased. Moreover, the discharge current of the nanosecond-pulse APPJ was larger than that of the microsecond-pulse APPJ. Furthermore, although the nanosecond-pulse generator consumed less energy than the microsecond-pulse generator, longer plume length, larger instantaneous power per pulse and stronger spectral line intensity could be obtained in the nanosecond-pulse excitation case. In addition, some discussion indicated that the rise time of the applied voltage could play a prominent role on the generation of APPJs

  20. Ozone and dinitrogen monoxide production in atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge plasma effluent generated by nanosecond pulse superimposed alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    The effects of nanosecond pulse superposition to alternating current voltage (NS + AC) on the generation of an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and reactive species are experimentally studied, along with measurements of ozone (O3) and dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) in the exhausted gas through the air DBD plasma (air plasma effluent). The charge-voltage cycle measurement indicates that the role of nanosecond pulse superposition is to induce electrical charge transport and excess charge accumulation on the dielectric surface following the nanosecond pulses. The densities of O3 and N2O in NS + AC DBD are found to be significantly increased in the plasma effluent, compared to the sum of those densities generated in NS DBD and AC DBD operated individually. The production of O3 and N2O is modulated significantly by the phase in which the nanosecond pulse is superimposed. The density increase and modulation effects by the nanosecond pulse are found to correspond with the electrical charge transport and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse. It is suggested that the electrical charge transport by the nanosecond pulse might result in the enhancement of the nanosecond pulse current, which may lead to more efficient molecular dissociation, and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse increases the discharge coupling power which would enhance molecular dissociation.

  1. Fiber-optic control system for LAE 10 accelerator and pulse radiolysis experimental set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzwigalski, Z.; Zimek, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The LAE 10 accelerator is used in nanosecond pulse radiolysis experiments as a source of 10 ns pulses of high energy electrons. The accelerator system was elaborated in the years 1991-1993. Inseparable connections of the optical fiber marrow with E/O and O/E converters (executed in welding technique) ensured a high stability of the optical parameters at a very long time. The preparation of connections needed adoption of expensive instrumentation from an optoelectronic laboratory in Warsaw. In presented paper authors describe their own action to improve operation of the LAE 10 accelerator existing in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

  2. Transient current changes induced in pin-diodes by nanosecond electron pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Goldner, R.; Bos, J.; Mehnert, R.

    1984-01-01

    The electron pulse technique can be applied as a diagnostic method to measure charge carrier lifetimes, diffusion length or junction width in semiconductor p + -i-n + diodes. The described effect of the pulse length dependence on the electron energy might be of importance as an energy monitor for pulsed electron accelerators. (author)

  3. Superconductors for pulsed rf accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1985-04-01

    The choice of superconducting materials for accelerator rf cavities has been determined in the past only in part by basic properties of the superconductors, such as the critical field, and to a larger extent by criteria which include fabrication processes, surface conditions, heat transfer capabilities and so on. For cw operated cavities the trend has been toward choosing materials with higher critical temperatures and lower surface resistance, from Lead to Niobium, from Niobium to Nb 3 Sn. This trend has been dictated by the specific needs of storage ring cw system and by the relatively low fields which could be reached without breakdown. The work performed at SLAC on superconducting cavities using microsecond long high power rf pulses has shown that in Pb, Nb, and Nb 3 Sn fields close to the critical magnetic fields can be reached without magnetic breakdown

  4. Numerical Simulation of a Nanosecond-Pulse Discharge for High-Speed Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggie, Jonathan; Adamovich, Igor

    2012-10-01

    Numerical calculations were carried out to examine the physics of the operation of a nanosecond-pulse, single dielectric barrier discharge in a configuration with planar symmetry. This simplified configuration was chosen as a vehicle to develop a physics based nanosecond discharge model, including realistic air plasma chemistry and compressible bulk gas flow. First, a reduced plasma kinetic model was developed by carrying out a sensitivity analysis of zero-dimensional plasma computations with an extended chemical kinetic model. Transient, one- dimensional discharge computations were then carried out using the reduced kinetic model, incorporating a drift-diffusion formulation for each species, a self-consistent computation of the electric potential using the Poisson equation, and a mass-averaged gas dynamic formulation for the bulk gas motion. Discharge parameters (temperature, pressure, and input waveform) were selected to be representative of recent experiments on bow shock control with a nanosecond discharge in a Mach 5 cylinder flow. The computational results qualitatively reproduce many of the features observed in the experiments, including the rapid thermalization of the input electrical energy and the consequent formation of a weak shock wave. At breakdown, input electrical energy is rapidly transformed (over roughly 1 ns) into ionization products, dissociation products, and electronically excited particles, with subsequent thermalization over a relatively longer time-scale (roughly 10 μs).

  5. High pulse energy sub-nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserteg, Andras; Guillemet, Sebastien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2012-02-01

    We report a core pumped thulium-doped fiber amplifier that generates 1.4 μJ pulses at 1980 nm with a repetition rate of 3.6 MHz preserving the original spectral bandwidth of the oscillator. The amplifier chain is seeded by a passively modelocked fiber laser with 5 mW output power and the pulses are stretched to 800 picoseconds. The amplifier is core pumped by a single mode erbium fiber laser. The slope efficiency is 35%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of sub nanosecond pulses with energies higher than 1 μJ coming out of a thulium-doped fiber amplifier.

  6. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Time-resolved electric field measurements in hydrogen by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing are presented. Measurements are carried out in a high voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry, at pressures of up to several hundred Torr, and with a time resolution of 0.2 ns. Absolute calibration of the diagnostics is done using a sub-breakdown high voltage pulse of 12 kV/cm. A diffuse discharge is obtained by applying a peak high voltage pulse of 40 kV/cm between the electrodes. It is found that breakdown occurs at a lower field, 15--20 kV/cm, after which the field in the plasma is reduced rapidly due to plasma self shielding The experimental results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, showing good agreement between the measured and the predicted electric field.

  7. Laser ablation of lysozyme with UV, visible and infrared femto- and nanosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Matei, Andreea

    Lysozyme is an interesting molecule for laser ablation of organic materials, because the ablation has been comprehensively studied, it is a medium heavy molecule with a mass of 14305 Da, which can be detected by standard techniques, and because it is used as a bactericidal protein in the food...... industry. Lysozyme molecules do not absorb energy for wavelengths above 310 nm, but nevertheless there is a strong mass loss by ablation for laser irradiation in the visible regime. The total ablation yield of lysozyme at 355 nm and at 2 J/cm2 is about 155 µg/pulse, possibly one of the highest ablation...... the ablation process for different wavelengths and time duration. Measurements for 6-7-ns laser ablation were carried out at DTU on Risø Campus, while measurements with pulses of 300 fs were carried out at the University of Naples in a similar setup. For all wavelengths except at nanosecond laser pulses at 355...

  8. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang [Keio University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of the fundamentals of low-energy nanosecond pulse ignition: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scarcelli, Riccardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Anqi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sevik, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Biruduganti, Munidhar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bihari, Bipin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Matusik, Katarzyna E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Duke, Daniel J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Powell, Christopher F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kastengren, Alan L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the fundamentals of low-energy nanosecond pulse ignition was performed with the objective to overcome the barrier presented by limited knowledge and characterization of nonequilibrium plasma ignition for realistic internal combustion engine applications (be it in the automotive or power generation field) and shed light on the mechanisms which improve the performance of the advanced TPS ignition system compared to conventional state-of-the-art hardware. Three main tasks of the research included experimental evaluation on a single-cylinder automotive gasoline engine, experimental evaluation on a single-cylinder stationary natural gas engine and energy quantification using x-ray diagnostics.

  10. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duten, X; Redolfi, M; Aggadi, N; Vega, A; Hassouni, K, E-mail: duten@lspm.cnrs.fr [LSPM-CNRS UPR 3407, Universite Paris Nord, 90 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2011-10-19

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  11. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duten, X.; Redolfi, M.; Aggadi, N.; Vega, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  12. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duten, X; Redolfi, M; Aggadi, N; Vega, A; Hassouni, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  13. Fundamental Physics and Engineering of Nanosecond-Pulsed Nonequilibrium Microplasma in Liquid Phase without Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    the electrode, the value   coth0  a corresponds to an equipotential surface which coincides with the electrode;  is the ratio of the semiaxes...liquid when filled – see Figure 1. The liquid surface was left open to the air, subject to atmospheric pressure. Nanosecond pulse generators from...temperature T , k is the Boltzmann constant,  is the surface tension coefficient, J is the nucleation rate equal to the density of vapor bubbles of a

  14. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang

    2016-10-01

    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN.

  15. Transient Features in Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Differentially Modulate Mitochondria and Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen J.; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Sain, Nova M.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Xiao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that high frequency components of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), determined by transient pulse features, are important for maximizing electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For monopolar square wave pulses, these transient features are determined by the rapid rise and fall of the pulsed electric fields. To determine effects on mitochondria membranes and plasma membranes, N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to single 600 ns pulses with varying electric fields (0–80 kV/cm) and short (15 ns) or long (150 ns) rise and fall times. Plasma membrane effects were evaluated using Fluo-4 to determine calcium influx, the only measurable source of increases in intracellular calcium. Mitochondria membrane effects were evaluated using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) to determine mitochondria membrane potentials (ΔΨm). Single pulses with short rise and fall times caused electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. Pulses with long rise and fall times exhibited electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, but diminished effects on dissipation of ΔΨm and viability. Results indicate that high frequency components have significant differential impact on mitochondria membranes, which determines cell death, but lesser variances on plasma membranes, which allows calcium influxes, a primary determinant for dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. PMID:23284682

  16. X-ray emission from a nanosecond-pulse discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Cheng; Shao Tao; Ren Chengyan; Zhang Dongdong; Tarasenko, Victor; Kostyrya, Igor D.; Ma Hao; Yan Ping

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of the dependence of the X-ray intensity on the anode material in nanosecond high-voltage discharges. The discharges were generated by two nanosecond-pulse generators in atmospheric air with a highly inhomogeneous electric field by a tube-plate gap. The output pulse of the first generator (repetitive pulse generator) has a rise time of about 15 ns and a full width at half maximum of 30–40 ns. The output of the second generator (single pulse generator) has a rise time of about 0.3 ns and a full width at half maximum of 1 ns. The electrical characteristics and the X-ray emission of nanosecond-pulse discharge in atmospheric air are studied by the measurement of voltage-current waveforms, discharge images, X-ray count and dose. Our experimental results showed that the anode material rarely affects electrical characteristics, but it can significantly affect the X-ray density. Comparing the density of X-rays, it was shown that the highest x-rays density occurred in the diffuse discharge in repetitive pulse mode, then the spark discharge with a small air gap, and then the corona discharge with a large air gap, in which the X-ray density was the lowest. Therefore, it could be confirmed that the bremsstrahlung at the anode contributes to the X-ray emission from nanosecond-pulse discharges.

  17. Porcine skin damage thresholds for pulsed nanosecond-scale laser exposure at 1064-nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Michael P.; Peterson, Amanda M.; Noojin, Gary D.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Tijerina, Amanda J.; Boretsky, Adam R.; Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kumru, Semih S.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2018-02-01

    Pulsed high-energy lasers operating in the near-infrared (NIR) band are increasingly being used in medical, industrial, and military applications, but there are little available experimental data to characterize their hazardous effects on skin tissue. The current American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1-2014) defines the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) on the skin as either a single-pulse or total exposure time limit. This study determined the minimum visible lesion (MVL) damage thresholds in Yucatan miniature pig skin for the single-pulse case and several multiple-pulse cases over a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) (10, 125, 2,000, and 10,000 Hz) utilizing nanosecond-scale pulses (10 or 60 ns). The thresholds are expressed in terms of the median effective dose (ED50) based on varying individual pulse energy with other laser parameters held constant. The results confirm a decrease in MVL threshold as PRF increases for exposures with a constant number of pulses, while also noting a PRF-dependent change in the threshold as a function of the number of pulses. Furthermore, this study highlights a change in damage mechanism to the skin from melanin-mediated photomechanical events at high irradiance levels and few numbers of pulses to bulk tissue photothermal additivity at lower irradiance levels and greater numbers of pulses. The observed trends exceeded the existing exposure limits by an average factor of 9.1 in the photothermally-damaged cases and 3.6 in the photomechanicallydamaged cases.

  18. Research on the impacts of air temperature on the evolution of nanosecond pulse discharge products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jin-lu; He, Li-ming; Ding, Wei; Zhao, Zi-chen; Zhang, Hua-lei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Most of the O_2 particles become O_2(V1) in high temperature. • The O_3 molecules are produced mainly by decayed O atoms. • NO molecules are obtained by decayed N_2(A3), N(2D) and N(2P) at the first stage, NO molecules are obtained by decayed N atoms at last. - Abstract: Based on nonequilibrium plasma dynamics of air discharge, the kinetic model simulating plasma discharge products induced by nanosecond pulse discharge in air is presented in this work. Then the paper compares the calculation of model with experimental results of references, and verifies the accuracy of the model. The evolution characteristics of nanosecond pulse discharge plasma under different air temperatures are obtained. Because the O, O_3 and NO have close relationship with the combustion, their formation mechanisms are discussed especially. With increasing temperature, there is no significant addition in O atoms and O_3 molecules. It is found that most of the O_2 molecules become O_2(V1) in higher temperature. The decreasing time of the O atoms is in accordance with the increasing time of O_3 molecules. Thus, the O_3 molecules are produced mainly by decayed O atoms. Increased air temperature will not produce more active particles which could assist the combustion. With the increasing temperature, the particle number density of NO increases fast. At last, they have reached an equilibrium value of the same.

  19. Studies of nanosecond pulse surface ionization wave discharges over solid and liquid dielectric surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrishchev, Vitaly; Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    Surface ionization wave discharges generated by high-voltage nanosecond pulses, propagating over a planar quartz surface and over liquid surfaces (distilled water and 1-butanol) have been studied in a rectangular cross section test cell. The discharge was initiated using a custom-made, alternating polarity, high-voltage nanosecond pulse plasma generator, operated at a pulse repetition rate of 100–500 Hz, with a pulse peak voltage and current of 10–15 kV and 7–20 A, respectively, a pulse FWHM of ∼100 ns, and a coupled pulse energy of 2–9 mJ/pulse. Wave speed was measured using a capacitive probe. ICCD camera images demonstrated that the ionization wave propagated predominantly over the quartz wall or over the liquid surface adjacent to the grounded waveguide placed along the bottom wall of the test cell. Under all experimental conditions tested, the surface plasma ‘sheet’ was diffuse and fairly uniform, both for positive and negative polarities. The parameters of ionization wave discharge propagating over distilled water and 1-butanol surfaces were close to those of the discharge over a quartz wall. No perturbation of the liquid surface by the discharge was detected. In most cases, the positive polarity surface ionization wave propagated at a higher speed and over a longer distance compared to the negative polarity wave. For all three sets of experiments (surface ionization wave discharge over quartz, water and 1-butanol), wave speed and travel distance decreased with pressure. Diffuse, highly reproducible surface ionization wave discharge was also observed over the liquid butanol–saturated butanol vapor interface, as well as over the distilled water–saturated water vapor interface, without buffer gas flow. No significant difference was detected between surface ionization discharges sustained using single-polarity (positive or negative), or alternating polarity high-voltage pulses. Plasma emission images yielded preliminary evidence of charge

  20. Histopathology of normal skin and melanomas after nanosecond pulsed electric field treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Swanson, R. James; Kolb, Juergen F.; Nuccitelli, Richard; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) can affect the intracellular structures of cells in vitro. This study shows the direct effects of nsPEFs on tumor growth, tumor volume, and histological characteristics of normal skin and B16-F10 melanoma in SKH-1 mice. A melanoma model was set up by injecting B16-F10 into female SKH-1 mice. After a 100-pulse treatment with an nsPEF (40-kV/cm field strength; 300-ns duration; 30-ns rise time; 2-Hz repetition rate), tumor growth and histology were studied using transillumination, light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stain and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin and iron within the melanoma tumor were also detected with specific stains. After nsPEF treatment, tumor development was inhibited with decreased volumes post-nsPEF treatment compared with control tumors (Pelectric fields surrounding the needle electrodes. PMID:19730404

  1. Electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in air over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Baratte, Edmond; Zhang, Cheng; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field in nanosecond pulse discharges in ambient air is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing, with absolute calibration by a known electrostatic field. The measurements are done in two geometries, (a) the discharge between two parallel cylinder electrodes placed inside quartz tubes, and (b) the discharge between a razor edge electrode and distilled water surface. In the first case, breakdown field exceeds DC breakdown threshold by approximately a factor of four, 140 ± 10 kV cm-1. In the second case, electric field is measured for both positive and negative pulse polarities, with pulse durations of ˜10 ns and ˜100 ns, respectively. In the short duration, positive polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at 85 kV cm-1, after which the electric field decreases over several ns due to charge separation in the plasma, with no field reversal detected when the applied voltage is reduced. In a long duration, negative polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at a lower electric field, 30 kV cm-1, after which the field decays over several tens of ns and reverses direction when the applied voltage is reduced at the end of the pulse. For both pulse polarities, electric field after the pulse decays on a microsecond time scale, due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Measurements 1 mm away from the discharge center plane, ˜100 μm from the water surface, show that during the voltage rise, horizontal field component (Ex ) lags in time behind the vertical component (Ey ). After breakdown, Ey is reduced to near zero and reverses direction. Further away from the water surface (≈0.9 mm), Ex is much higher compared to Ey during the entire voltage pulse. The results provide insight into air plasma kinetics and charge transport processes near plasma-liquid interface, over a wide range of time scales.

  2. Widely-duration-tunable nanosecond pulse Nd:YVO4 laser based on double Pockels cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Jiao; Liu, Ke; Bo, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zhao; Zong, Qing-Shuang; Peng, Qin-Jun; Cui, Da-Fu; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2018-05-01

    The development of duration-tunable pulse lasers with constant output power is important for scientific research and materials processing. We present a widely-duration-tunable nanosecond (ns) pulse Nd:YVO4 laser based on double Pockels cells (PCs), i.e. inserting an extra PC into a conventional electro-optic Q-switched cavity dumped laser resonator. Under the absorbed pump power of 24.9 W, the pulse duration is adjustable from 31.9 ns to 5.9 ns by changing the amplitude of the high voltage on the inserted PC from 1100 V to 4400 V at the pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. The corresponding average output power is almost entirely maintained in the range of 3.5–4.1 W. This represents more than three times increase in pulse duration tunable regime and average power compared to previously reported results for duration-tunable ns lasers. The laser beam quality factor was measured to be M 2  <  1.18.

  3. Overview of The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Reginato, L.L.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Nelson, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) concept and its development is presented. In the PLIA concept a pulse power driver applied to one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines a heavy ion beam pulse The motivation for its development at the IFE-VNL is the acceleration of intense, short pulse, heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The main attraction of the concept is the very low cost it promises. It might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the pulse-forming network is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication

  4. Study on the characteristics of barrier free surface discharge driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Pang; Qiaogen, Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Kun, He [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China); Chunliang, Liu [State Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Nanosecond pulsed plasma has an enormous potential in many applications. In this paper, the characteristics of barrier free nanosecond pulsed surface discharge are investigated by the use of an actuator with a strip-strip film electrode configuration, including the effect of electrode width and the gap distance on the plasma morphology and electrical characteristics at atmospheric pressure. It was found that it is relative easier to generate a quasi uniform discharge with a thinner electrode width and a smaller gap distance. The underlying physical mechanism was also discussed. Besides that, the influence of airflow on repetitive pulsed surface discharge was examined. By comparing to the discharge produced by two different pulse waveforms in airflows, we found that the discharge driven by a faster pulse behaves more stable. Finally, a model was developed to analyze the interaction of the airflow and the discharge channels.

  5. Effect of initial chirp on near-infrared supercontinuum generation by a nanosecond pulse in a nonlinear fiber amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Rui; Hou Jing; Wang Ze-Feng; Lu Qi-Sheng; Xiao Rui

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on the effect of initial chirp on near-infrared supercontinuum generation by a nanosecond pulse in a nonlinear fiber amplifier is carried out. The complex Ginzburg—Landau equation is used to simulate the propagation of the pulse in the fiber amplifier and the results show that pulses with negative initial chirp produce the widest supercontinuum and pulses with positive initial chirp produce the narrowest supercontinuum when the central wavelength of the pump lies in the normal dispersion region of the gain fiber. A self-made line width narrowing system is utilized to control the initial chirp of the nanosecond pump pulse and a four-stage master oscillator power amplifier configuration is adopted to produce a high power near-infrared suppercontinuum. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulations which can provide some guidance on further optimization of the system in future work. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Development of bipolar pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Y.; Mitsui, C.; Kitamura, I.; Takahashi, T.; Masugata, K.; Tanoue, H.; Arai, K.

    2003-01-01

    To improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)' was proposed. In the accelerator purity of the beam is expected. To confirm the principle of the accelerator experimental system was developed. The system utilizes B y type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun placed in the grounded anode was used as an ion source, and source plasma (nitrogen) of current density approx. = 25 A/cm 2 , duration approx. = 1.5 μs was injected into the acceleration gap. The ions are successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 180 kV, duration 60 ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density approx. = 40 A/cm 2 , duration approx. 60 ns was obtained at 42 mm downstream from the anode surface. (author)

  7. Two modes of cell death caused by exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N Pakhomova

    Full Text Available High-amplitude electric pulses of nanosecond duration, also known as nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF, are a novel modality with promising applications for cell stimulation and tissue ablation. However, key mechanisms responsible for the cytotoxicity of nsPEF have not been established. We show that the principal cause of cell death induced by 60- or 300-ns pulses in U937 cells is the loss of the plasma membrane integrity ("nanoelectroporation", leading to water uptake, cell swelling, and eventual membrane rupture. Most of this early necrotic death occurs within 1-2 hr after nsPEF exposure. The uptake of water is driven by the presence of pore-impermeable solutes inside the cell, and can be counterbalanced by the presence of a pore-impermeable solute such as sucrose in the medium. Sucrose blocks swelling and prevents the early necrotic death; however the long-term cell survival (24 and 48 hr does not significantly change. Cells protected with sucrose demonstrate higher incidence of the delayed death (6-24 hr post nsPEF. These cells are more often positive for the uptake of an early apoptotic marker dye YO-PRO-1 while remaining impermeable to propidium iodide. Instead of swelling, these cells often develop apoptotic fragmentation of the cytoplasm. Caspase 3/7 activity increases already in 1 hr after nsPEF and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage is detected in 2 hr. Staurosporin-treated positive control cells develop these apoptotic signs only in 3 and 4 hr, respectively. We conclude that nsPEF exposure triggers both necrotic and apoptotic pathways. The early necrotic death prevails under standard cell culture conditions, but cells rescued from the necrosis nonetheless die later on by apoptosis. The balance between the two modes of cell death can be controlled by enabling or blocking cell swelling.

  8. Hydrophobic treatment on polymethylmethacrylate surface by nanosecond-pulse DBDs in CF4 at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Tao; Xie, Qing; Xu, Jiayu; Yang, Wenjin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Increase in hydrophobicity on PMMA is achieved after the DBD treatment in CF 4 , and the water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after treatment. • Nanosecond-pulse DBD is used for the surface treatment and the power density is about 114.8 mW/cm 2 . • The effects of applied voltage, CF 4 flow, and time on plasma treatment are investigated. • Plasma treatment causes morphological change, significantly increases the roughness of the surface, and introduces fluorine-containing groups into the polymethylmethacrylate surface. • Hydrophobic behavior of the treated PMMA surface is slightly affected by the aging effect. - Abstract: Nanosecond-pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can provide non-thermal plasmas with extremely high energy and high density, which can result in a series of complicated physical and chemical reactions in the surface treatment of polymers. Therefore, in this paper, hydrophobic treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface is conducted by nanosecond-pulse DBD in carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) at atmospheric pressure. Investigations on surface morphology and chemical composition before and after the DBD treatment in CF 4 are conducted with the contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The effects of the applied voltage, CF 4 flow rate, and treatment time on the hydrophobic modification are studied. Results show that the contact angles of the treated PMMA surface increases with the applied voltage, and it could be greatly affected by the CF 4 flow rate and the treatment time. The water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after the treatment. Furthermore, both surface morphology and chemical composition of the PMMA samples are changed. Both the increase of the surface roughness and the occurrence of fluorine-containing functional groups on the PMMA surface treated by DBD in CF 4 lead to the hydrophobicity

  9. Nanosecond laser pulses for mimicking thermal effects on nanostructured tungsten-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besozzi, E.; Maffini, A.; Dellasega, D.; Russo, V.; Facibeni, A.; Pazzaglia, A.; Beghi, M. G.; Passoni, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we exploit nanosecond laser irradiation as a compact solution for investigating the thermomechanical behavior of tungsten materials under extreme thermal loads at the laboratory scale. Heat flux factor thresholds for various thermal effects, such as melting, cracking and recrystallization, are determined under both single and multishot experiments. The use of nanosecond lasers for mimicking thermal effects induced on W by fusion-relevant thermal loads is thus validated by direct comparison of the thresholds obtained in this work and the ones reported in the literature for electron beams and millisecond laser irradiation. Numerical simulations of temperature and thermal stress performed on a 2D thermomechanical code are used to predict the heat flux factor thresholds of the different thermal effects. We also investigate the thermal effect thresholds of various nanostructured W coatings. These coatings are produced by pulsed laser deposition, mimicking W coatings in tokamaks and W redeposited layers. All the coatings show lower damage thresholds with respect to bulk W. In general, thresholds decrease as the porosity degree of the materials increases. We thus propose a model to predict these thresholds for coatings with various morphologies, simply based on their porosity degree, which can be directly estimated by measuring the variation of the coating mass density with respect to that of the bulk.

  10. Nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure-the spark regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, David Z; Lacoste, Deanna A; Laux, Christophe O

    2010-01-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) spark discharges have been studied in atmospheric pressure air preheated to 1000 K. Measurements of spark initiation and stability, plasma dynamics, gas temperature and current-voltage characteristics of the spark regime are presented. Using 10 ns pulses applied repetitively at 30 kHz, we find that 2-400 pulses are required to initiate the spark, depending on the applied voltage. Furthermore, about 30-50 pulses are required for the spark discharge to reach steady state, following initiation. Based on space- and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, the spark discharge in steady state is found to ignite homogeneously in the discharge gap, without evidence of an initial streamer. Using measured emission from the N 2 (C-B) 0-0 band, it is found that the gas temperature rises by several thousand Kelvin in the span of about 30 ns following the application of the high-voltage pulse. Current-voltage measurements show that up to 20-40 A of conduction current is generated, which corresponds to an electron number density of up to 10 15 cm -3 towards the end of the high-voltage pulse. The discharge dynamics, gas temperature and electron number density are consistent with a streamer-less spark that develops homogeneously through avalanche ionization in volume. This occurs because the pre-ionization electron number density of about 10 11 cm -3 produced by the high frequency train of pulses is above the critical density for streamer-less discharge development, which is shown to be about 10 8 cm -3 .

  11. Nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure—the spark regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2010-12-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) spark discharges have been studied in atmospheric pressure air preheated to 1000 K. Measurements of spark initiation and stability, plasma dynamics, gas temperature and current-voltage characteristics of the spark regime are presented. Using 10 ns pulses applied repetitively at 30 kHz, we find that 2-400 pulses are required to initiate the spark, depending on the applied voltage. Furthermore, about 30-50 pulses are required for the spark discharge to reach steady state, following initiation. Based on space- and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, the spark discharge in steady state is found to ignite homogeneously in the discharge gap, without evidence of an initial streamer. Using measured emission from the N2 (C-B) 0-0 band, it is found that the gas temperature rises by several thousand Kelvin in the span of about 30 ns following the application of the high-voltage pulse. Current-voltage measurements show that up to 20-40 A of conduction current is generated, which corresponds to an electron number density of up to 1015 cm-3 towards the end of the high-voltage pulse. The discharge dynamics, gas temperature and electron number density are consistent with a streamer-less spark that develops homogeneously through avalanche ionization in volume. This occurs because the pre-ionization electron number density of about 1011 cm-3 produced by the high frequency train of pulses is above the critical density for streamer-less discharge development, which is shown to be about 108 cm-3.

  12. Nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure-the spark regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, David Z; Lacoste, Deanna A; Laux, Christophe O [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR288, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-12-15

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) spark discharges have been studied in atmospheric pressure air preheated to 1000 K. Measurements of spark initiation and stability, plasma dynamics, gas temperature and current-voltage characteristics of the spark regime are presented. Using 10 ns pulses applied repetitively at 30 kHz, we find that 2-400 pulses are required to initiate the spark, depending on the applied voltage. Furthermore, about 30-50 pulses are required for the spark discharge to reach steady state, following initiation. Based on space- and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, the spark discharge in steady state is found to ignite homogeneously in the discharge gap, without evidence of an initial streamer. Using measured emission from the N{sub 2} (C-B) 0-0 band, it is found that the gas temperature rises by several thousand Kelvin in the span of about 30 ns following the application of the high-voltage pulse. Current-voltage measurements show that up to 20-40 A of conduction current is generated, which corresponds to an electron number density of up to 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} towards the end of the high-voltage pulse. The discharge dynamics, gas temperature and electron number density are consistent with a streamer-less spark that develops homogeneously through avalanche ionization in volume. This occurs because the pre-ionization electron number density of about 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} produced by the high frequency train of pulses is above the critical density for streamer-less discharge development, which is shown to be about 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3}.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Pulsed Nanosecond Streamer Discharges for CO2 Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachuilo, Michael; Levko, Dima; Raja, Laxminarayan; Varghese, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Rapid global industrialization has led to an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide levels. Plasmas present a great potential for efficient reforming of greenhouse gases. There are several plasma discharges which have been reported for reforming process: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), microwave discharges, and glide-arcs. Microwave discharges have CO2 conversion energy efficiency of up to 40% at atmospheric conditions, while glide-arcs have 43% and DBD 2-10%. In our study, we analyze a single nanosecond pulsed cathode directed streamer discharge in CO2 at atmospheric pressure and temperature. We have conducted time resolved imaging with spectral bandpass filters of a streamer discharge with an applied negative polarity pulse. The image sequences have been correlated to the applied voltage and current pulses. From the spectral filters we can determine where spatially and temporally excited species are formed. In this talk we report on spectroscopic studies of the discharge and estimate plasma properties such as temperature and density of excited species and electrons. Furthermore, we report on the effects of pulse polarity as well as anodic streamer discharges on the CO2 conversion efficiency. Finally, we will focus on the effects of vibrational excitation on carbon dioxide reforming efficiency for streamer discharges. Our experimental results will be compared with an accompanying plasma computational model studies.

  14. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry.

  15. Selective susceptibility to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) across different human cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianulis, Elena C; Labib, Chantelle; Saulis, Gintautas; Novickij, Vitalij; Pakhomova, Olga N; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2017-05-01

    Tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is an emerging therapeutic modality. We compared nsPEF cytotoxicity for human cell lines of cancerous (IMR-32, Hep G2, HT-1080, and HPAF-II) and non-cancerous origin (BJ and MRC-5) under strictly controlled and identical conditions. Adherent cells were uniformly treated by 300-ns PEF (0-2000 pulses, 1.8 kV/cm, 50 Hz) on indium tin oxide-covered glass coverslips, using the same media and serum. Cell survival plotted against the number of pulses displayed three distinct regions (initial resistivity, logarithmic survival decline, and residual resistivity) for all tested cell types, but with differences in LD 50 spanning as much as nearly 80-fold. The non-cancerous cells were less sensitive than IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells but more vulnerable than the other cancers tested. The cytotoxic efficiency showed no apparent correlation with cell or nuclear size, cell morphology, metabolism level, or the extent of membrane disruption by nsPEF. Increasing pulse duration to 9 µs (0.75 kV/cm, 5 Hz) produced a different selectivity pattern, suggesting that manipulation of PEF parameters can, at least for certain cancers, overcome their resistance to nsPEF ablation. Identifying mechanisms and cell markers of differential nsPEF susceptibility will critically contribute to the proper choice and outcome of nsPEF ablation therapies.

  16. Simulation of transformations of thin metal films heated by nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, V. Yu.; Niedrig, R.; Bostanjoglo, O.

    1995-01-01

    The ablation of free-standing thin aluminum films by a nanosecond laser pulse was investigated by time-resolved transmission electron microscopy and numerical simulation. It was established that thin film geometry is particularly suited to furnish information on the mechanism of evaporation and the surface tension of the melt. In the case of aluminum the surface tension sigma as function of temperature can be approximated by two linear sections with a coefficient -0.3 x 10(exp -3) N/K m from the melting point 933 K up to 3000 K and -0.02 x 10(exp -3) N/K m above 3000 K, respectively, with sigma(993 K) = 0.9 N/m and sigma(8500 K) = 0. At lower pulse energies the films disintegrated predominantly by thermocapillary flow. Higher pulse energies produced volume evaporation, and a nonmonotonous flow, explained by recoil from evaporating atoms and thermocapillarity. The familiar equations of energy and motion, which presuppose separate and coherent vapor and liquid phases, were not adequate to describe the ablation of the hottest zone. Surface evaporation seemed to be marginal at all laser pulse energies used.

  17. Effect of parallel magnetic field on repetitively unipolar nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge under different pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yidi; Yan, Huijie; Guo, Hongfei; Fan, Zhihui; Wang, Yuying; Wu, Yun; Ren, Chunsheng

    2018-03-01

    A magnetic field, with the direction parallel to the electric field, is applied to the repetitively unipolar positive nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge. The effect of the parallel magnetic field on the plasma generated between two parallel-plate electrodes in quiescent air is experimentally studied under different pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). It is indicated that only the current pulse in the rising front of the voltage pulse occurs, and the value of the current is increased by the parallel magnetic field under different PRFs. The discharge uniformity is improved with the decrease in PRF, and this phenomenon is also observed in the discharge with the parallel magnetic field. By using the line-ratio technique of optical emission spectra, it is found that the average electron density and electron temperature under the considered PRFs are both increased when the parallel magnetic field is applied. The incremental degree of average electron density is basically the same under the considered PRFs, while the incremental degree of electron temperature under the higher-PRFs is larger than that under the lower-PRFs. All the above phenomena are explained by the effect of parallel magnetic field on diffusion and dissipation of electrons.

  18. Modeling of nanosecond pulsed laser processing of polymers in air and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2018-01-01

    radiation (λ = 1064 nm) of nanosecond pulse duration. The laser–polymer interaction at such wavelengths is purely photo-thermal in nature and the laser–plasma interaction is assumed to occur mainly by inverse-bremsstrahlung photon absorption. The computational model is based on the finite volume method......Laser ablation of polymers in water is known to generate distinct surface characteristics as compared to that in air. In order to understand the role of ambient media during laser ablation of polymers, this paper aims to develop a physics-based model of the process considering the effect of ambient...... media. Therefore, in the present work, models are developed for laser ablation of polymers in air and water considering all the relevant physical phenomena such as laser–polymer interaction, plasma generation, plasma expansion and plasma shielding. The current work focuses on near-infrared laser...

  19. Experimental investigation on the repetitively nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge with the parallel magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yidi; Yan, Huijie; Guo, Hongfei; Fan, Zhihui; Wang, Yuying; Ren, Chunsheng

    2018-02-01

    The effects of a parallel magnetic field on the unipolar positive nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge are experimentally investigated through electrical and spectral measurements. The discharge is produced between two parallel-plate electrodes in the ambient air with a parallel magnetic field of 1.4 T. Experimental results show that both the discharge intensity and uniformity are improved in the discharge with the parallel magnetic field. The intensity ratio of the spectrum at 371.1 nm and 380.5 nm, which describes the average electron density, is increased by the parallel magnetic field. Meanwhile, the intensity ratio of the spectrum at 391.4 nm and 337.1 nm, which describes the electron temperature, is also increased. It is speculated that both the average electron density and the electron temperature are increased by the parallel magnetic field. The aforementioned phenomena have been explained by the confinement effect of the parallel magnetic field on the electrons.

  20. Environmental temperature affects physiology and survival of nanosecond pulsed electric field-treated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengyong; Miao, Xudong; Zhang, Xueming; Chen, Xinhua; Wen, Hao

    2018-02-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel non-thermal tumor ablation technique. However, how nsPEF affect cell physiology at different environmental temperature is still kept unknown. But this issue is of critical clinical practice relevance. This work aim to investigate how nsPEF treated cancer cells react to different environmental temperatures (0, 4, 25, and 37°C). Their cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. Lower temperature resulted in higher apoptosis rate, decreased mitochondria membrane potential, and increased ROS levels. Sucrose and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pre-incubation inhibit ROS generation and increase cell survival, protecting nsPEF-treated cells from low temperature-caused cell death. This work provides an experimental basis for hypothermia and fluid transfusion during nsPEF ablation with anesthesia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Surface modification of PET films using dielectric barrier discharge driven by repetitive nanosecond-pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Tao; Zhang Cheng; Long Kaihua; Wang Jue; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Zhou Yuanxiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, surface treatment of PET films for improving the hydrophilicity using DBD excited by unipolar nanosecond-pulses is presented. Homogeneous and filamentary discharge are obtained under certain experimental conditions and then used to modify the surface of PET films. The properties of PET films before and after treatment are characterized with water contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The experimental results show that static water contact angles decrease after DBD plasma treatment and the observed contact angle is changed from 80 degree for the untreated samples to 20 degree after treatment. However, the decrease of contact angles is not continuous and it will reach a saturation state after certain treatment time. The improvement of surface hydrophilicity can be attributed to the enhancement of the surface roughness and introduction of oxygen-containing polar functional groups. In contrast with the filamentary DBD treatment, the homogenous DBD is more effective in PET surface treatment. (authors)

  2. Nanoparticle mediated ablation of breast cancer cells using a nanosecond pulsed electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Christopher

    In the past, both nanomaterials and various heating modalities have been researched as means for treating cancers. However, many of the current methodologies have the flaws of inconsistent tumor ablation and significant destruction of healthy cells. Based on research performed using constant radiofrequency electric fields and metallic nanoparticles (where cell necrosis is induced by the heating of these nanoparticles) we have developed a modality that simlarly uses functionalized metallic nanoparticles, specific for the T47D breast cancer cell line, and nanosecond pulsed electric fields as the hyperthermic inducer. Using both iron oxide and gold nanoparticles the results of our pilot studies indicated that up to 90% of the cancer cells were ablated given the optimal treatment parameters. These quantities of ablated cells were achieved using a cumulative exposure time 6 orders of magnitude less than most in vitro radiofrequency electric field studies.

  3. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig; Lempert, Walter R; Adamovich, Igor V; Goldberg, Benjamin M; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of temporally and spatially resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air, sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode covered by a thin dielectric plate. The electric field is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing in a collinear phase-matching geometry, with time resolution of approximately 2 ns, using an absolute calibration provided by measurements of a known electrostatic electric field. The results demonstrate electric field offset on the discharge center plane before the discharge pulse due to surface charge accumulation on the dielectric from the weaker, opposite polarity pre-pulse. During the discharge pulse, the electric field follows the applied voltage until ‘forward’ breakdown occurs, after which the field in the plasma is significantly reduced due to charge separation. When the applied voltage is reduced, the field in the plasma reverses direction and increases again, until the weak ‘reverse’ breakdown occurs, producing a secondary transient reduction in the electric field. After the pulse, the field is gradually reduced on a microsecond time scale, likely due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Spatially resolved electric field measurements show that the discharge develops as a surface ionization wave. Significant surface charge accumulation on the dielectric surface is detected near the end of the discharge pulse. Spatially resolved measurements of electric field vector components demonstrate that the vertical electric field in the surface ionization wave peaks ahead of the horizontal electric field. Behind the wave, the vertical field remains low, near the detection limit, while the horizontal field is gradually reduced to near the detection limit at the discharge center plane. These results are consistent with time-resolved measurements of electric field

  4. Surface morphological modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primo, Gastón A.; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I. [IMBIV (CONICET), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba X5000HUA (Argentina); Pino, Gustavo A.; Ferrero, Juan C. [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina); Rossa, Maximiliano, E-mail: mrossa@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Laser-induced surface modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by ns pulses. • Formation of ablation craters observed under most of the single-pulse experimental conditions. • UV laser foaming of dried hydrogel samples resulting from single- and multiple-pulse experiments. • Threshold values of the incident laser fluence reported for the observed surface modifications. • Lower threshold fluences for acrylate-based, compared to acrylamide-based hydrogels. - Abstract: This work reports an investigation of the surface modifications induced by irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses of ultraviolet and visible wavelengths on crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymeric materials, which have been functionalized with 1-vinylimidazole as a co-monomer. A comparison is made between hydrogels differing in the base co-monomer (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) and in hydration state (both swollen and dried states). Formation of craters is the dominant morphological change observed by ablation in the visible at 532 nm, whereas additional, less aggressive surface modifications, chiefly microfoams and roughness, are developed in the ultraviolet at 266 nm. At both irradiation wavelengths, threshold values of the incident laser fluence for the observation of the various surface modifications are determined under single-pulse laser irradiation conditions. It is shown that multiple-pulse irradiation at 266 nm with a limited number of laser shots can be used alternatively for generating a regular microfoam layer at the surface of dried hydrogels based on N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. The observations are rationalized on the basis of currently accepted mechanisms for laser-induced polymer surface modification, with a significant contribution of the laser foaming mechanism. Prospective applications of the laser-foamed hydrogel matrices in biomolecule immobilization are suggested.

  5. Transitions between corona, glow, and spark regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Pai , David ,; Lacoste , Deanna ,; Laux , C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and interelectrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. In particular, the experimental conditions necessary for the glow regime of NRP discharges have been determine...

  6. Comparative study of the dissociative ionization of 1,1,1-trichloroethane using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available , but different fragmentation patterns. A general trend is that when using femtosecond laser pulses for ionization, the parent molecular ion is observed but not for nanosecond laser ionization. There is also a fundamental interest in laser...-molecule interactions at the high intensities available from femtosecond lasers [12,13]. These papers describe the multiphoton ionization mechanisms termed ladder climbing and ladder switching, which explain the presence of parent molecular ion in ultrashort pulse...

  7. Cutting and drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by 70W short pulse nanosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Peter; Stolberg, Klaus; Bastick, Stefan; Ziolkowski, Ewa; Roehner, Markus; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2014-02-01

    Continuous carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are recognized as having a significant lightweight construction potential for a wide variety of industrial applications. However, a today`s barrier for a comprehensive dissemination of CFRP structures is the lack of economic, quick and reliable manufacture processes, e.g. the cutting and drilling steps. In this paper, the capability of using pulsed disk lasers in CFRP machining is discussed. In CFRP processing with NIR lasers, carbon fibers show excellent optical absorption and heat dissipation, contrary to the plastics matrix. Therefore heat dissipation away from the laser focus into the material is driven by heat conduction of the fibres. The matrix is heated indirectly by heat transfer from the fibres. To cut CFRP, it is required to reach the melting temperature for thermoplastic matrix materials or the disintegration temperature for thermoset systems as well as the sublimation temperature of the reinforcing fibers simultaneously. One solution for this problem is to use short pulse nanosecond lasers. We have investigated CFRP cutting and drilling with such a laser (max. 7 mJ @ 10 kHz, 30 ns). This laser offers the opportunity of wide range parameter tuning for systematic process optimization. By applying drilling and cutting operations based on galvanometer scanning techniques in multi-cycle mode, excellent surface and edge characteristics in terms of delamination-free and intact fiber-matrix interface were achieved. The results indicate that nanosecond disk laser machining could consequently be a suitable tool for the automotive and aircraft industry for cutting and drilling steps.

  8. Plasma surface treatment of Cu by nanosecond-pulse diffuse discharges in atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, ZHANG; Jintao, QIU; Fei, KONG; Xingmin, HOU; Zhi, FANG; Yu, YIN; Tao, SHAO

    2018-01-01

    Nanosecond-pulse diffuse discharges could provide high-density plasma and high-energy electrons at atmospheric pressure. In this paper, the surface treatment of Cu by nanosecond-pulse diffuse discharges is conducted in atmospheric air. Factors influencing the water contact angle (WCA), chemical composition and microhardness, such as the gap spacing and treatment time, are investigated. The results show that after the plasma surface treatment, the WCA considerably decreases from 87° to 42.3°, and the surface energy increases from 20.46 mJ m-2 to 66.28 mJ m-2. Results of energy dispersive x-ray analysis show that the concentration of carbon decreases, but the concentrations of oxygen and nitrogen increase significantly. Moreover, the microhardness increases by approximately 30% after the plasma treatment. The aforementioned changes on the Cu surface indicate the plasma surface treatment enhances the hydrophilicity and microhardness, and it cleans the carbon and achieves oxidization on the Cu surface. Furthermore, by increasing the gap spacing and treatment time, better treatment effects can be obtained. The microhardness in the case of a 2.5 cm gap is higher than that in the case of a 3 cm gap. More oxygen and nitrogen species appear on the Cu surface for the 2.5 cm gap treatment than for the 3 cm gap treatment. The WCA significantly decreases with the treatment time when it is no longer than 90 s, and then it reaches saturation. In addition, more oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing groups appear after extended plasma treatment time. They contribute to the improvement of the hydrophilicity and oxidation on the Cu surface.

  9. Calcium influx affects intracellular transport and membrane repair following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary Lee; Roth, Caleb C; Dalzell, Danielle R; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-05-01

    The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that when cells are exposed to nsPEF, ion permeable nanopores (2  nm) created by longer micro- and millisecond duration pulses. Nanoporation of the plasma membrane by nsPEF has been shown to cause a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration within milliseconds after exposure. Our research objective is to determine the impact of nsPEF on calcium-dependent structural and repair systems in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were exposed in the presence and absence of calcium ions in the outside buffer to either 1 or 20, 600-ns duration electrical pulses at 16.2  kV/cm, and pore size was determined using propidium iodide and calcium green. Membrane organization was observed with morphological changes and increases in FM1-43 fluorescence. Migration of lysosomes, implicated in membrane repair, was followed using confocal microscopy of red fluorescent protein-tagged LAMP1. Microtubule structure was imaged using mEmerald-tubulin. We found that at high 600-ns PEF dosage, calcium-induced membrane restructuring and microtubule depolymerization coincide with interruption of membrane repair via lysosomal exocytosis.

  10. Aerodynamic performance enhancement of a flying wing using nanosecond pulsed DBD plasma actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Menghu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation of aerodynamic control on a 35° swept flying wing by means of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD plasma was carried out at subsonic flow speed of 20–40 m/s, corresponding to Reynolds number of 3.1 × 105–6.2 × 105. In control condition, the plasma actuator was installed symmetrically on the leading edge of the wing. Lift coefficient, drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment coefficient were tested with and without control for a range of angles of attack. The tested results indicate that an increase of 14.5% in maximum lift coefficient, a decrease of 34.2% in drag coefficient, an increase of 22.4% in maximum lift-to-drag ratio and an increase of 2° at stall angle of attack could be achieved compared with the baseline case. The effects of pulsed frequency, amplitude and chord Reynolds number were also investigated. And the results revealed that control efficiency demonstrated strong dependence on pulsed frequency. Moreover, the results of pitching moment coefficient indicated that the breakdown of leading edge vortices could be delayed by plasma actuator at low pulsed frequencies.

  11. Dynamic features of bubble induced by a nanosecond pulse laser in still and flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charee, Wisan; Tangwarodomnukun, Viboon

    2018-03-01

    Underwater laser ablation techniques have been developed and employed to synthesis nanoparticles, to texture workpiece surface and to assist the material removal in laser machining process. However, the understanding of laser-material-water interactions, bubble formation and effects of water flow on ablation performance has still been very limited. This paper thus aims at exploring the formation and collapse of bubbles during the laser ablation of silicon in water. The effects of water flow rate on bubble formation and its consequences to the laser disturbance and cut features obtained in silicon were observed by using a high speed camera. A nanosecond pulse laser emitting the laser pulse energy of 0.2-0.5 mJ was employed in the experiment. The results showed that the bubble size was found to increase with the laser pulse energy. The use of high water flow rate can importantly facilitate the ejection of ablated particles from the workpiece surface, hence resulting in less deposition to the work surface and minimizing any disturbance to the laser beam during the ablation in water. Furthermore, a clean micro-groove in silicon wafer can successfully be produced when the process was performed in the high water flow rate condition. The findings of this study could provide an essential guideline for process selection, control and improvement in the laser micro-/submicro-fabrication using the underwater technique.

  12. Elasticity and tumorigenic characteristics of cells in a monolayer after nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, A; Wende, K; Babica, P; Kolb, J F

    2017-09-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) applied to cells can induce different biological effects depending on pulse duration and field strength. One known process is the induction of apoptosis whereby nsPEFs are currently investigated as a novel cancer therapy. Another and probably related change is the breakdown of the cytoskeleton. We investigated the elasticity of rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 in a monolayer using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with respect to the potential of cells to undergo malignant transformation or to develop a potential to metastasize. We found that the elastic modulus of the cells decreased significantly within the first 8 min after treatment with 20 pulses of 100 ns and with a field strength of 20 kV/cm but was still higher than the elasticity of their tumorigenic counterpart WB-ras. AFM measurements and immunofluorescent staining showed that the cellular actin cytoskeleton became reorganized within 5 min. However, both a colony formation assay and a cell migration assay revealed no significant changes after nsPEF treatment, implying that cells seem not to adopt malignant characteristics associated with metastasis formation despite the induced transient changes to elasticity and cytoskeleton that can be observed for up to 1 h.

  13. Picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu

    1979-01-01

    The picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators, are described, which were installed in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Tokyo and in the Nuclear Radiation Laboratory of the Osaka University. The purpose of the picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators is to investigate the very short time reaction of the substances, into which gamma ray or electron beam enters. When the electrons in substances receive radiation energy, the electrons get high kinetic energy, and the energy and the electric charge shift, at last to the quasi-stable state. This transient state can be experimented with these special accelerators very accurately, during picoseconds, raising the accuracy of the time of incidence of radiation and also raising the accuracy of observation time. The outline of these picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators of the University of Tokyo and the Osaka University, including the history, the systems and components and the output beam characteristics, are explained. For example, the maximum energy 30 -- 35 MeV, the peak current 1 -- 8 n C, the pulse width 18 -- 40 ps, the pulse repetition rate 200 -- 720 pps, the energy spectrum 1 -- 1.8% and the output beam diameter 2 -- 5 mm are shown as the output beam characteristics of the accelerators in both universities. The investigations utilizing the picosecond single pulse electron linear accelerators, such as the investigation of short life excitation state by pulsed radiation, the dosimetry study of pulsed radiation, and the investigation of the transforming mechanism and the development of the transforming technology from picosecond, single pulse electron beam to X ray, vacuum ultraviolet ray and visual ray, are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  14. Temporal dependence of the enhancement of material removal in femtosecond-nanosecond dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi, Jon; Pearman, William; Carter, J. Chance; Colston, Bill W. Jr.; Angel, S. Michael

    2004-01-01

    Despite the large neutral atomic and ionic emission enhancements that have been noted in collinear and orthogonal dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, the source or sources of these significant signal and signal-to-noise ratio improvements have yet to be explained. In the research reported herein, the combination of a femtosecond preablative air spark and a nanosecond ablative pulse yields eightfold and tenfold material removal improvement for brass and aluminum, respectively, but neutral atomic emission is enhanced by only a factor of 3-4. Additionally, temporal correlation between enhancement of material removal and of atomic emission is quite poor, suggesting that the atomic-emission enhancements noted in the femtosecond-nanosecond pulse configuration result in large part from some source other than simple improvement in material removal

  15. Combination of microsecond and nanosecond pulsed electric field treatments for inactivation of Escherichia coli in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žgalin, Maj Kobe; Hodžić, Duša; Reberšek, Matej; Kandušer, Maša

    2012-10-01

    Inactivation of microorganisms with pulsed electric fields is one of the nonthermal methods most commonly used in biotechnological applications such as liquid food pasteurization and water treatment. In this study, the effects of microsecond and nanosecond pulses on inactivation of Escherichia coli in distilled water were investigated. Bacterial colonies were counted on agar plates, and the count was expressed as colony-forming units per milliliter of bacterial suspension. Inactivation of bacterial cells was shown as the reduction of colony-forming units per milliliter of treated samples compared to untreated control. According to our results, when using microsecond pulses the level of inactivation increases with application of more intense electric field strengths and with number of pulses delivered. Almost 2-log reductions in bacterial counts were achieved at a field strength of 30 kV/cm with eight pulses and a 4.5-log reduction was observed at the same field strength using 48 pulses. Extending the duration of microsecond pulses from 100 to 250 μs showed no improvement in inactivation. Nanosecond pulses alone did not have any detectable effect on inactivation of E. coli regardless of the treatment time, but a significant 3-log reduction was achieved in combination with microsecond pulses.

  16. Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig

    2017-06-01

    Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high

  17. 100J-level nanosecond pulsed Yb:YAG cryo-cooled DPSSL amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. M.; Butcher, T. J.; Mason, P. D.; Ertel, K.; Phillips, P. J.; Banerjee, S.; De Vido, M.; Chekhlov, O.; Divoky, M.; Pilar, J.; Shaikh, W.; Hooker, C.; Lucianetti, A.; Hernandez Gomez, C.; Mocek, T.; Edwards, C.; Collier, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of the world's first kW average power, 100 Joule-class, high-energy, nanosecond pulsed diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL), DiPOLE100. Results from the first long-term test for amplification will be presented; the system was operated for 1 hour with 10 ns duration pulses at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate and an average output energy of 105 J and RMS energy stability of approximately 1%. The laser system is based on scalable cryogenic gas-cooled multi-slab ceramic Yb:YAG amplifier technology. The DiPOLE100 system comprises three major sub-systems, a spatially and temporally shaped front end, a 10 J cryo-amplifier and a 100 J cryo-amplifier. The 10 J cryo-amplifier contain four Yb:YAG ceramic gain media slabs, which are diode pumped from both sides, while a multi-pass architecture configured for seven passes enables 10 J of energy to be extracted at 10 Hz. This seeds the 100 J cryo-amplifier, which contains six Yb:YAG ceramic gain media slabs with the multi-pass configured for four passes. Our future development plans for this architecture will be introduced including closed-loop pulse shaping, increased energy, higher repetition rates and picosecond operation. This laser architecture unlocks the potential for practical applications including new sources for industrial materials processing and high intensity laser matter studies as envisioned for ELI [1], HiLASE [2], and the European XFEL [3]. Alternatively, it can be used as a pump source for higher repetition rate PW-class amplifiers, which can themselves generate high-brightness secondary radiation and ion sources leading to new remote imaging and medical applications.

  18. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment. PMID:26728251

  19. Transient suppression of gap junctional intercellular communication after exposure to 100-nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Anna; Schmidt, Anke; Labohá, Petra; Babica, Pavel; Kolb, Juergen F

    2016-12-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is an important mechanism that is involved and affected in many diseases and injuries. So far, the effect of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) on the communication between cells was not investigated. An in vitro approach is presented with rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells grown and exposed in a monolayer. In order to observe sub-lethal effects, cells were exposed to pulsed electric fields with a duration of 100ns and amplitudes between 10 and 20kV/cm. GJIC strongly decreased within 15min after treatment but recovered within 24h. Gene expression of Cx43 was significantly decreased and associated with a reduced total amount of Cx43 protein. In addition, MAP kinases p38 and Erk1/2, involved in Cx43 phosphorylation, were activated and Cx43 became hyperphosphorylated. Immunofluorescent staining of Cx43 displayed the disassembly of gap junctions. Further, a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was observed whereas tight junction protein ZO-1 was not significantly affected. All effects were field- and time-dependent and most pronounced within 30 to 60min after treatment. A better understanding of a possible manipulation of GJIC by nsPEFs might eventually offer a possibility to develop and improve treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Disassembly of actin structures by nanosecond pulsed electric field is a downstream effect of cell swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N; Semenov, Iurii; Kuipers, Marjorie A; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-12-01

    Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton structures was reported as one of the characteristic effects of nanosecond-duration pulsed electric field (nsPEF) in both mammalian and plant cells. We utilized CHO cells that expressed the monomeric fluorescent protein (mApple) tagged to actin to test if nsPEF modifies the cell actin directly or as a consequence of cell membrane permeabilization. A train of four 600-ns pulses at 19.2 kV/cm (2 Hz) caused immediate cell membrane poration manifested by YO-PRO-1 dye uptake, gradual cell rounding and swelling. Concurrently, bright actin features were replaced by dimmer and uniform fluorescence of diffuse actin. To block the nsPEF-induced swelling, the bath buffer was isoosmotically supplemented with an electropore-impermeable solute (sucrose). A similar addition of a smaller, electropore-permeable solute (adonitol) served as a control. We demonstrated that sucrose efficiently blocked disassembly of actin features by nsPEF, whereas adonitol did not. Sucrose also attenuated bleaching of mApple-tagged actin in nsPEF-treated cells (as integrated over the cell volume), although did not fully prevent it. We conclude that disintegration of the actin cytoskeleton was a result of cell swelling, which, in turn, was caused by cell permeabilization by nsPEF and transmembrane diffusion of solutes which led to the osmotic imbalance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence in nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges for CO2 conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L. M.; Gatti, N.; Dilecce, G.; Scotoni, M.; Tosi, P.

    2018-01-01

    A CO2 nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge (NRP) is a harsh environment for laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics. The difficulties arise from it being a strongly collisional system in which the gas composition, pressure and temperature, have quick and strong variations. The relevant diagnostic problems are described and illustrated through the application of LIF to the measurement of the OH radical in three different discharge configurations, with gas mixtures containing CO2 + H2O. These range from a dielectric barrier NRP with He buffer gas, a less hostile case in which absolute OH density measurement is possible, to an NRP in CO2+H2O, where the full set of drawbacks is at work. In the last case, the OH density measurement is not possible with laser pulses and detector time resolution in the ns time scale. Nevertheless, it is shown that with a proper knowledge of the collisional rate constants involved in the LIF process, a collisional energy transfer-LIF methodology is still applicable to deduce the gas composition from the analysis of LIF spectra.

  2. Correlation of Noise Signature to Pulsed Power Events at the HERMES III Accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Barbara [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Joseph, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salazar, Juan Diego [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The HERMES III accelerator, which is located at Sandia National Laboratories' Tech Area IV, is the largest pulsed gamma X-ray source in the world. The accelerator is made up of 20 inductive cavities that are charged to 1 MV each by complex pulsed power circuitry. The firing time of the machine components ranges between the microsecond and nanosecond timescales. This results in a variety of electromagnetic frequencies when the accelerator fires. Testing was done to identify the HERMES electromagnetic noise signal and to map it to the various accelerator trigger events. This report will show the measurement methods used to capture the noise spectrum produced from the machine and correlate this noise signature with machine events.

  3. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Water without Bubbles: A Fundamental Study of Initiation, Propagation and Plasma Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepersad, Yohan

    The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this

  4. A method for the formation of Pt metal nanoparticle arrays using nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Ansah, Ebenezer; Horwood, Corie A.; Birss, Viola I.; Shi, Yujun J., E-mail: shiy@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); El-Sayed, Hany A. [Institute for Technical Electrochemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting of Pt thin films, deposited on a dimpled Ta (DT) surface, has been studied here in order to form ordered Pt nanoparticle (NP) arrays. The DT substrate was fabricated via a simple electrochemical anodization process in a highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HF solution. Pt thin films (3–5 nm) were sputter coated on DT and then dewetted under vacuum to generate NPs using a 355 nm laser radiation (6–9 ns, 10 Hz). The threshold laser fluence to fully dewet a 3.5 nm thick Pt film was determined to be 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our experiments have shown that shorter irradiation times (≤60 s) produce smaller nanoparticles with more uniform sizes, while longer times (>60 s) give large nanoparticles with wider size distributions. The optimum laser irradiation time of 1 s (10 pulses) has led to the formation of highly ordered Pt nanoparticle arrays with an average nanoparticle size of 26 ± 3 nm with no substrate deformation. At the optimum condition of 1 s and 500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, as many as 85% of the dewetted NPs were found neatly in the well-defined dimples. This work has demonstrated that pulsed laser dewetting of Pt thin films on a pre-patterned dimpled substrate is an efficient and powerful technique to produce highly ordered Pt nanoparticle arrays. This method can thus be used to produce arrays of other high-melting-point metal nanoparticles for a range of applications, including electrocatalysis, functionalized nanomaterials, and analytical purposes.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed laser nanostructuring of Au thin films: Comparison between irradiation at low and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Aké, C., E-mail: citlali.sanchez@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, C. U., Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F. (Mexico); Canales-Ramos, A. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, C. U., Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F. (Mexico); García-Fernández, T. [Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México (UACM), Prolongación San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, México D.F., C.P. 09790 (Mexico); Villagrán-Muniz, M. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, C. U., Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Background pressure plays an important role in NPs formation and its characteristics. • The NPs diameter and their size dispersion are smaller when irradiating in vacuum. • The plasmon resonance shifts ∼15 nm to higher frequencies when irradiating in vacuum. • Film partial ablation cannot be neglected for thickness in the range 40–80 nm. • In situ optical techniques monitor the timescale of the process and ablation dynamics. - Abstract: Au thin films with tens of nm in thickness deposited on glass substrates were irradiated with nanosecond UV (355 nm) laser pulses at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum conditions (∼600 and 10{sup −5} Torr). We studied the effect of the laser fluence (200–400 mJ/cm{sup 2}), thickness of the starting film (∼40–80 nm) and surrounding pressure on the partial ablation/evaporation of the films and the morphology of the produced nanoparticles (NPs). The dynamics of NPs formation was studied by measuring in real time the transmission of the samples upon continuous-wave laser exposure, and by means of probe beam deflection technique. The ejection of material from the film as a result of the irradiation was confirmed by time-resolved shadowgraphy technique. Experiments show that the NPs diameter and their size distribution are smaller when the irradiation is performed in vacuum regardless the laser fluence and thickness of the started film. It is also shown that the plasmon band shifts to higher frequencies with lower background pressure. The optical measurements show that the films melt and ablate during the laser pulse, but the transmission of the irradiated areas continues changing during tens of microseconds due to ejection of material and solidification of the remaining gold. Our results indicate that partial ablation cannot be neglected in nanostructuration by ns-pulsed irradiation of thin films when their thickness is in the studied range.

  6. Permeabilization of the nuclear envelope following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Gary L., E-mail: gary.l.thompson.3@gmail.com [Oak Ridge Institute for Science & Education, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States); Roth, Caleb C. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX, 78234 (United States); Kuipers, Marjorie A. [Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, 711th Human Performance Wing, Air Force Research Laboratory, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States); Tolstykh, Gleb P. [General Dynamics IT, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States); Beier, Hope T. [Optical Radiation Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, 711th Human Performance Wing, Air Force Research Laboratory, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States); Ibey, Bennett L. [Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, 711th Human Performance Wing, Air Force Research Laboratory, Joint Base San Antonio Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Permeabilization of cell membranes occurs upon exposure to a threshold absorbed dose (AD) of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). The ultimate, physiological bioeffect of this exposure depends on the type of cultured cell and environment, indicating that cell-specific pathways and structures are stimulated. Here we investigate 10 and 600 ns duration PEF effects on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell nuclei, where our hypothesis is that pulse disruption of the nuclear envelope membrane leads to observed cell death and decreased viability 24 h post-exposure. To observe short-term responses to nsPEF exposure, CHO cells have been stably transfected with two fluorescently-labeled proteins known to be sequestered for cellular chromosomal function within the nucleus – histone-2b (H2B) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). H2B remains associated with chromatin after nsPEF exposure, whereas PCNA leaks out of nuclei permeabilized by a threshold AD of 10 and 600 ns PEF. A downturn in 24 h viability, measured by MTT assay, is observed at the number of pulses required to induce permeabilization of the nucleus. - Highlights: • The ability of nsPEF to damage nuclear structures within cells is investigated. • Leakage of proliferating nuclear antigen from nuclei is induced by nsPEF. • High doses of nsPEF disrupt cortical lamin and cause chromatin decompaction. • Histone H2B remains attached to chromatin following nsPEF exposure. • DNA does not leak out of nsPEF-permeabilized nuclei.

  7. Accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Iwasa, Hirokatsu; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    1979-01-01

    An accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron source was constructed. The accelerator is a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator with 1 kW average beam power. The cold neutron beam intensity at a specimen is equivalent to that of a research reactor of 10 14 n/cm 2 .s thermal flux in the case of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements. In spite of some limitations to the universal uses, it has been demonstrated by this facility that the modest capacity accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron source is a highly efficient cold neutron source with low capital investment. Design philosophy, construction details, performance and some operational experiences are described. (author)

  8. Acceleration Modes and Transitions in Pulsed Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Greve, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed plasma accelerators typically operate by storing energy in a capacitor bank and then discharging this energy through a gas, ionizing and accelerating it through the Lorentz body force. Two plasma accelerator types employing this general scheme have typically been studied: the gas-fed pulsed plasma thruster and the quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) accelerator. The gas-fed pulsed plasma accelerator is generally represented as a completely transient device discharging in approximately 1-10 microseconds. When the capacitor bank is discharged through the gas, a current sheet forms at the breech of the thruster and propagates forward under a j (current density) by B (magnetic field) body force, entraining propellant it encounters. This process is sometimes referred to as detonation-mode acceleration because the current sheet representation approximates that of a strong shock propagating through the gas. Acceleration of the initial current sheet ceases when either the current sheet reaches the end of the device and is ejected or when the current in the circuit reverses, striking a new current sheet at the breech and depriving the initial sheet of additional acceleration. In the quasi-steady MPD accelerator, the pulse is lengthened to approximately 1 millisecond or longer and maintained at an approximately constant level during discharge. The time over which the transient phenomena experienced during startup typically occur is short relative to the overall discharge time, which is now long enough for the plasma to assume a relatively steady-state configuration. The ionized gas flows through a stationary current channel in a manner that is sometimes referred to as the deflagration-mode of operation. The plasma experiences electromagnetic acceleration as it flows through the current channel towards the exit of the device. A device that had a short pulse length but appeared to operate in a plasma acceleration regime different from the gas-fed pulsed plasma

  9. Electropermeabilization by uni- or bipolar nanosecond electric pulses: The impact of extracellular conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianulis, Elena C; Casciola, Maura; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2018-02-01

    Cellular effects caused by nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) can be reduced by an electric field reversal, a phenomenon known as bipolar cancellation. The reason for this cancellation effect remains unknown. We hypothesized that assisted membrane discharge is the mechanism for bipolar cancellation. CHO-K1 cells bathed in high (16.1mS/cm; HCS) or low (1.8mS/cm; LCS) conductivity solutions were exposed to either one unipolar (300-ns) or two opposite polarity (300+300-ns; bipolar) nsEP (4-40kV/cm) with increasing interpulse intervals (0.1-50μs). Time-lapse YO-PRO-1 (YP) uptake revealed enhanced membrane permeabilization in LCS compared to HCS at all tested voltages. The time-dependence of bipolar cancellation was similar in both solutions, using either identical (22kV/cm) or isoeffective nsEP treatments (12 and 32kV/cm for LCS and HCS, respectively). However, cancellation was significantly stronger in LCS when the bipolar nsEP had no, or very short (bipolar cancellation was still present with interpulse intervals as long as 50μs, beyond the time expected for membrane discharge. Our findings do not support assisted membrane discharge as the mechanism for bipolar cancellation. Instead they exemplify the sustained action of nsEP that can be reversed long after the initial stimulus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling for certain area removal of metal coating on plastics surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Jianwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Metal coating with functional pattern on engineering plastics surface plays an important role in industry applications; it can be obtained by adding or removing certain area of metal coating on engineering plastics surface. However, the manufacturing requirements are improved continuously and the plastic substrate presents three-dimensional (3D) structure-many of these parts cannot be fabricated by conventional processing methods, and a new manufacturing method is urgently needed. As the laser-processing technology has many advantages like high machining accuracy and constraints free substrate structure, the machining of the parts is studied through removing certain area of metal coating based on the nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling. To improve the edge quality of the functional pattern, generation mechanism and corresponding avoidance strategy of the processing defects are studied. Additionally, a prediction model for the laser ablation depth is proposed, which can effectively avoid the existence of residual metal coating and reduces the damage of substrate. With the optimal machining parameters, an equiangular spiral pattern on copper-clad polyimide (CCPI) is machined based on the laser milling at last. The experimental results indicate that the edge of the pattern is smooth and consistent, the substrate is flat and without damage. The achievements in this study could be applied in industrial production.

  11. Decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles using parallel nanosecond pulsed laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yan P; Liu, Xian H; Du, Xi W; Lu, Yi R; Wang, Mei Y; Wang, Guang Y

    2013-01-01

    Using 532 nm parallel nanosecond pulsed laser, the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, laser energy, and initial MB concentration on the decolorization rate were investigated. Experiments using real samples of textile dyeing wastewater were also carried out to examine the effectiveness of the method in more complex samples. From the results, the following conclusions may be drawn: (i) Under the optimum conditions (pH 7.19, 135 mJ laser energy, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 11.6 mg/L GNP concentration), the rate of MB decolorization could reach 94% in 15 min. The decolorization follows pseudo-first-order kinetics; (ii) The amount of MB decreased rapidly during the decolorization. No intermediates of the decolorization could be detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. These observations indicate that MB was decolorized through a very rapid degradation mechanism; (iii) The rate of MB decolorization increased with the increase in laser energy (at laser energies of 0 to 135 mJ); and, (iv) The efficient decolorization of MB in real samples of textile dyeing wastewater was achieved at a decolorization rate of about 85% in 15 min.

  12. Fast switching thyristor applied in nanosecond-pulse high-voltage generator with closed transformer core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Bao, Chaobing; Feng, Xibo; Liu, Yunlong; Fochan, Lin

    2013-02-01

    For a compact and reliable nanosecond-pulse high-voltage generator (NPHVG), the specification parameter selection and potential usage of fast controllable state-solid switches have an important bearing on the optimal design. The NPHVG with closed transformer core and fast switching thyristor (FST) was studied in this paper. According to the analysis of T-type circuit, the expressions for the voltages and currents of the primary and secondary windings on the transformer core of NPHVG were deduced, and the theoretical maximum analysis was performed. For NPHVG, the rise-rate of turn-on current (di/dt) across a FST may exceed its transient rating. Both mean and maximum values of di/dt were determined by the leakage inductances of the transformer, and the difference is 1.57 times. The optimum winding ratio is helpful to getting higher voltage output with lower specification FST, especially when the primary and secondary capacitances have been established. The oscillation period analysis can be effectively used to estimate the equivalent leakage inductance. When the core saturation effect was considered, the maximum di/dt estimated from the oscillating period of the primary current is more accurate than one from the oscillating period of the secondary voltage. Although increasing the leakage inductance of NPHVG can decrease di/dt across FST, it may reduce the output peak voltage of the NPHVG.

  13. Graphene quantum dot synthesis using nanosecond laser pulses and its comparison to Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, Khomidkhodza; Thomas, Zachary; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Smith, Skylar

    A biocompatible photodynamic therapy agent that generates a high amount of singlet oxygen with high water dispersibility and excellent photostability is desirable. In this work, a graphene based biomaterial which is a promising alternative to a standard photosensitizers was produced. Methylene blue was used as a reference photosensitizer. Bacteria deactivation by methylene blue was shown to be inhibited inside human blood due to protein binding. Graphene quantum dots (GQD) were synthesized by irradiating benzene and nickel oxide mixture using nanosecond laser pulses. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for characterization of GQDs. Initial results show graphene quantum dots whose size less than 5 nm were successfully obtained. UV-VIS spectra shows absorption peak around 310 nm. The results of these studies can potentially be used to develop therapies for the eradication of pathogens in open wounds, burns, or skin cancers. New therapies for these conditions are particularly needed when antibiotic-resistant infections are present. NIH KBRIN.

  14. Experimental study of plume induced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed spark microdischarges in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriere, Thomas; Benard, Nicolas; Moreau, Eric; Pai, David

    2016-09-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) spark discharges have been widely studied due to their high chemical reactivity, low gas temperature, and high ionization efficiency. They are useful in many research areas: nanomaterials synthesis, combustion, and aerodynamic flow control. In all of these fields, particular attention has been devoted to chemical species transport and/or hydrodynamic and thermal effects for applications. The aim of this study is to generate an electro-thermal plume by combining an NRP spark microdischarge in a pin-to-pin configuration with a third DC-biased electrode placed a few centimeters away. First, electrical characterization and optical emission spectroscopy were performed to reveal important plasma processes. Second, particle image velocimetry was combined with schlieren photography to investigate the main characteristics of the generated flow. Heating processes are measured by using the N2(C ->B) (0,2) and (1,3) vibrational bands, and effects due to the confinement of the discharge are described. Moreover, the presence of atomic ions N+ and O+ is discussed. Finally, the electro-thermal plume structure is characterized by a flow velocity around 1.8 m.s-1, and the thermal kernel has a spheroidal shape.

  15. Characterization of Pressure Transients Generated by Nanosecond Electrical Pulse (nsEP) Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes Jr., Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Christopher Mimun, L.; Maswadi, Saher M.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism(s) responsible for the breakdown (nanoporation) of cell plasma membranes after nanosecond pulse (nsEP) exposure remains poorly understood. Current theories focus exclusively on the electrical field, citing electrostriction, water dipole alignment and/or electrodeformation as the primary mechanisms for pore formation. However, the delivery of a high-voltage nsEP to cells by tungsten electrodes creates a multitude of biophysical phenomena, including electrohydraulic cavitation, electrochemical interactions, thermoelastic expansion, and others. To date, very limited research has investigated non-electric phenomena occurring during nsEP exposures and their potential effect on cell nanoporation. Of primary interest is the production of acoustic shock waves during nsEP exposure, as it is known that acoustic shock waves can cause membrane poration (sonoporation). Based on these observations, our group characterized the acoustic pressure transients generated by nsEP and determined if such transients played any role in nanoporation. In this paper, we show that nsEP exposures, equivalent to those used in cellular studies, are capable of generating high-frequency (2.5 MHz), high-intensity (>13 kPa) pressure transients. Using confocal microscopy to measure cell uptake of YO-PRO®-1 (indicator of nanoporation of the plasma membrane) and changing the electrode geometry, we determined that acoustic waves alone are not responsible for poration of the membrane. PMID:26450165

  16. Characterization of Pressure Transients Generated by Nanosecond Electrical Pulse (nsEP) Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C; Barnes, Ronald A; Ibey, Bennett L; Beier, Hope T; Christopher Mimun, L; Maswadi, Saher M; Shadaram, Mehdi; Glickman, Randolph D

    2015-10-09

    The mechanism(s) responsible for the breakdown (nanoporation) of cell plasma membranes after nanosecond pulse (nsEP) exposure remains poorly understood. Current theories focus exclusively on the electrical field, citing electrostriction, water dipole alignment and/or electrodeformation as the primary mechanisms for pore formation. However, the delivery of a high-voltage nsEP to cells by tungsten electrodes creates a multitude of biophysical phenomena, including electrohydraulic cavitation, electrochemical interactions, thermoelastic expansion, and others. To date, very limited research has investigated non-electric phenomena occurring during nsEP exposures and their potential effect on cell nanoporation. Of primary interest is the production of acoustic shock waves during nsEP exposure, as it is known that acoustic shock waves can cause membrane poration (sonoporation). Based on these observations, our group characterized the acoustic pressure transients generated by nsEP and determined if such transients played any role in nanoporation. In this paper, we show that nsEP exposures, equivalent to those used in cellular studies, are capable of generating high-frequency (2.5 MHz), high-intensity (>13 kPa) pressure transients. Using confocal microscopy to measure cell uptake of YO-PRO®-1 (indicator of nanoporation of the plasma membrane) and changing the electrode geometry, we determined that acoustic waves alone are not responsible for poration of the membrane.

  17. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  18. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm"−"2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  19. Generator of pulses with the nanosecond duration and accurate amplitude using the digital control in the CAMAC standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Nguen Kuang Min'

    1980-01-01

    A generator of square-wave fine-amplitude nanosecond pulses is described. The generator is primarily intended for checking the performances of fast electronics analog-to-digital units with the help of a computer. In addition to digital control the pulse amplitude can be controlled manually or by the external voltage. Basic circuits of main generator assemblies: a triggering circuit, transistor key and digital-to-analog converter are given. Output pulses produced by the generator have the following parameters: the amplitude from - 0.15 to - 10 V (smooth or gradual, with a minimum step of 5 mV), the rising and decay pulse times approximately 2 ns, the maximum repetition frequency 10 kHz, the control linearity at a pulse duration of more than 50 ns 0.15%. A double-width CAMAC cell accomodates two generators

  20. Development of bipolar-pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masugata, Katsumi [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: masugata@eng.toyama-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Yuichro [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujioka, Yuhki [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kitamura, Iwao [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Tanoue, Hisao [National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Arai, Kazuo [National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2004-12-21

    To improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams, a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator' was proposed. To confirm the principle of the accelerator a prototype of the experimental system was developed. The system utilizes By type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun was used as an ion source, which was placed inside the grounded anode. Source plasma (nitrogen) of current density {approx}25A/cm2, duration {approx}1.5{mu}s was injected into the acceleration gap by the plasma gun. The ions were successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 240kV, duration 100ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density {approx}40A/cm2, duration {approx}50ns was obtained at 41mm downstream from the anode surface. To evaluate the irradiation effect of the ion beam to solid material, an amorphous silicon thin film of thickness {approx}500nm was used as the target, which was deposited on the glass substrate. The film was found to be poly-crystallized after 4-shots of the pulsed nitrogen ion beam irradiation.

  1. The System of Nanosecond 280-KeV He+ Pulsed Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junphong, P.; Ano, V.; Lekprasert, B.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Thongnopparat, N.; Vilaithong, T.; Chiang Mai U.; Wiedemann, H.; SLAC/SLAC, SSRL

    2006-01-01

    At Fast Neutron Research Facility, the 150 kV-pulses neutron generator is being upgraded to a 280-kV-pulsed-He beam for time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It involves replacing the existing beam line elements by a multicusp ion source, a 400-kV accelerating tube, 45-double focusing dipole magnet and quadrupole lens. The multicusp ion source is a compact filament-driven of 2.6 cm in diameter and 8 cm in length. The current extracted is 20.4 μ A with 13 kV of extraction voltage and 8.8 kV of Einzel lens voltage. The beam emittance has found to vary between 6-12 mm mrad. The beam transport system has to be redesigned based on the new elements. The important part of a good pulsed beam depends on the pulsing system. The two main parts are the chopper and buncher. An optimized geometry for the 280 keV pulsed helium ion beam will be presented and discussed. The PARMELA code has been used to optimize the space charge effect, resulting in pulse width of less than 2 ns at a target. The calculated distance from a buncher to the target is 4.6 m. Effects of energy spread and phase angle between chopper and buncher have been included in the optimization of the bunch length

  2. Compact sub-nanosecond pulse seed source with diode laser driven by a high-speed circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Bo; Wang, Junhua; Cheng, Wenyong

    2018-06-01

    A compact sub-nanosecond pulse seed source with 1550 nm diode laser (DL) was obtained by employing a high-speed circuit. The circuit mainly consisted of a short pulse generator and a short pulse driver. The short pulse generator, making up of a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), a level translator, two programmable delay chips and an AND gate chip, output a triggering signal to control metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) switch of the short pulse driver. The MOSFET switch with fast rising time and falling time both shorter than 1 ns drove the DL to emit short optical pulses. Performances of the pulse seed source were tested. The results showed that continuously adjustable repetition frequency ranging from 500 kHz to 100 MHz and pulse duration in the range of 538 ps to 10 ns were obtained, respectively. 537 μW output was obtained at the highest repetition frequency of 100 MHz with the shortest pulse duration of 538 ps. These seed pulses were injected into an fiber amplifier, and no optical pulse distortions were found.

  3. Two-stage optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier using sub-nanosecond pump pulse generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Jumpei; Miyamoto, Sho; Matsuyama, Takahiro; Sueda, Keiichi; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) based on two-beam pumping, using sub-nanosecond pulses generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression. Seed pulse energy, duration, and center wavelength were 5 nJ, 220 ps, and ˜1065 nm, respectively. The 532 nm pulse from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was compressed to ˜400 ps in heavy fluorocarbon FC-40 liquid. Stacking of two time-delayed pump pulses reduced the amplifier gain fluctuation. Using a walk-off-compensated two-stage OPCPA at a pump energy of 34 mJ, a total gain of 1.6 × 105 was obtained, yielding an output energy of 0.8 mJ. The amplified chirped pulse was compressed to 97 fs.

  4. Experimental study of mechanical response of artificial tissue models irradiated with Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G.; Camacho-López, Santiago; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Nanosecond long laser pulses are used in medical applications where precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal and mechanical collateral damage is required. When a laser pulse is incident on a material, optical energy will be absorbed by a combination of linear and nonlinear absorption according to both: laser light irradiance and material properties. In the case of water or gels, the first results in heat generation and thermoelastic expansion; while the second results in an expanding plasma formation that launches a shock wave and a cavitation/boiling bubble. Plasma formation due to nonlinear absorption of nanosecond laser pulses is originated by a combination of multiphoton ionization and thermionic emission of free electrons, which is enhanced when the material has high linear absorption coefficient. In this work, we present three experimental approaches to study pressure transients originated when 6 ns laser pulses are incident on agar gels and water with varying linear absorption coefficient, using laser radiant exposures above and below threshold for bubble formation: (a) PVDF sensors, (b) Time-resolved shadowgraphy and (c) Time-resolved interferometry. The underlying hypothesis is that pressure transients are composed of the superposition of both: shock wave originated by hot expanding plasma resulting from nonlinear absorption of optical energy and, thermoelastic expansion originated by heat generation due to linear absorption of optical energy. The objective of this study is to carry out a comprehensive experimental analysis of the mechanical effects that result when tissue models are irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses to elucidate the relative contribution of linear and nonlinear absorption to bubble formation. Furthermore, we investigate cavitation bubble formation with temperature increments as low as 3 °C.

  5. Pulsed power accelerators for particle beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Barr, G.W.; VanDevender, J.P.; White, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing the construction phase of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I (PBFA-I). Testing of the 36 module, 30 TW, 1 MJ output accelerator is in the initial stages. The 4 MJ, PBFA Marx generator has provided 3.6 MA into water-copper sulfate load resistors with a spread from first to last Marx firing between 15 to 25 ns and an output power of 5.7 TW. This accelerator is a modular, lower voltage, pulsed power device that is capable of scaling to power levels exceeding 100 TW. The elements of the PBFA technology and their integration into an accelerator system for particle beam fusion will be discussed

  6. Production of atmospheric pressure diffuse nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dezheng; Wang Wenchun; Jia Li; Nie Dongxia; Shi Hengchao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional high pulse voltage with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate an atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode configuration. Both double needle and multiple needle electrode configurations nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharges are investigated. It is found that a diffuse discharge plasma with low gas temperature can be obtained, and the plasma volume increases with the increase of the pulse peak voltage, but remains almost constant with the increase of the pulse repetition rate. In addition to showing the potential application on a topographically nonuniform surface treatment of the discharge, the multiple needle-plate electrode configuration with different needle-plate electrode gaps are also employed to generate diffuse discharge plasma.

  7. Control Infrastructure for a Pulsed Ion Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persaud, A.; Regis, M. J.; Stettler, M. W.; Vytla, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on updates to the accelerator controls for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II, a pulsed induction-type accelerator for heavy ions. The control infrastructure is built around a LabVIEW interface combined with an Apache Cassandra backend for data archiving. Recent upgrades added the storing and retrieving of device settings into the database, as well as ZeroMQ as a message broker that replaces LabVIEW's shared variables. Converting to ZeroMQ also allows easy access via other programming languages, such as Python.

  8. Control Infrastructure for a Pulsed Ion Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A.; Regis, M. J.; Stettler, M. W.; Vytla, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    We report on updates to the accelerator controls for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II, a pulsed induction-type accelerator for heavy ions. The control infrastructure is built around a LabVIEW interface combined with an Apache Cassandra backend for data archiving. Recent upgrades added the storing and retrieving of device settings into the database, as well as ZeroMQ as a message broker that replaces LabVIEW's shared variables. Converting to ZeroMQ also allows easy access via other programming languages, such as Python.

  9. Lead extraction by selective operation of a nanosecond-pulsed 355nm laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Amir; Bogdan, Stefan; Glikson, Michael; Ishaaya, Amiel A.; Love, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Lead extraction (LE) is necessary for patients who are suffering from a related infection, or in opening venous occlusions that prevent the insertion of additional lead. In severe cases of fibrous encapsulation of the lead within a vein, laser-based cardiac LE has become one of the foremost methods of removal. In cases where the laser radiation (typically at 308 nm wavelength) interacts with the vein wall rather than with the fibrotic lesion, severe injury and subsequent bleeding may occur. Selective tissue ablation was previously demonstrated by a laser operating in the UV regime; however, it requires the use of sensitizers (e.g.: tetracycline). In this study, we present a preliminary examination of efficacy and safety aspects in the use of a nanosecond-pulsed solid-state laser radiation, at 355 nm wavelength, guided in a catheter consisting of optical fibers, in LE. Specifically, we demonstrate a correlation between the tissue elasticity and the catheter advancement rate, in ex-vivo experiments. Our results indicate a selectivity property for specific parameters of the laser radiation and catheter design. The selectivity is attributed to differences in the mechanical properties of the fibrotic tissue and a normal vein wall, leading to a different photomechanical response of the tissue's extracellular matrix. Furthermore, we performed successful in-vivo animal trials, providing a basic proof of concept for using the suggested scheme in LE. Selective operation using a 355 nm laser may reduce the risk of blood vessel perforation as well as the incidence of major adverse events.

  10. Laser machining micro-structures on diamond surface with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhao, Qingliang

    2018-02-01

    Micro-structure surface on diamond material is widely used in a series of industrial and scientific applications, such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), microelectronics, textured or micro-structured diamond machining tools. The efficient machining of micro-structure on diamond surface is urgently demanded in engineering. In this paper, laser machining square micro-structure on diamond surface was studied with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser. The influences of laser machining parameters, including the laser power, scanning speed, defocusing quantity and scanning pitch, were researched in view of the ablation depth, material removal rate and machined surface topography. Both the ablation depth and material removal rate increased with average laser power. A reduction of the growth rate of the two parameters was induced by the absorption of the laser plasma plume at high laser power. The ablation depth non-linearly decreased with the increasing of the scanning speed while the material removal rate showed an opposite tendency. The increasing of the defocusing quantity induced complex variation of the ablation depth and the material removal rate. The maximum ablation depth and material removal rate were achieved at a defocusing position. The ablation depth and material removal rate oppositely varied about the scanning pitch. A high overlap ratio was meaningful for achieving a smooth micro-structure surface topography. Laser machining with a large defocusing quantity, high laser power and small scanning pitch was helpful for acquiring the desired micro-structure which had a large depth and smooth micro-structure surface topography.

  11. Balanced cross-rate model for saturated molecular fluorescence in flames using a nanosecond pulse length laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucht, R.P.; Sweeney, D.W.; Laurendeau, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The balanced cross-rate model is proposed to analyze laser-induced molecular fluorescence signals when the laser pulse length is of the order of nanoseconds. Nanosecond pulse length lasers. specifically Q-switched Nd:YAG-pumped dye lasers, are attractive for saturated molecular fluorescence spectroscopy because of their high peak power and because of their short pulse length minimizes the risk of laser-induced chemistry. In the balanced cross-rate model, single upper and lower rotational levels are assumed to be directly coupled by the laser radiation. Because the laser-induced processes which couple these levels are so fast at saturation intensities, a steady state is established between the two levels within picoseconds. Provided that the total population of the two laser-coupled rotational levels is constant during the laser pulse, the total molecular population can be calculated from the observed upper rotational level population using a two-level saturation model and Boltzmann statistics. Numerical simulation of the laser excitation dynamics of OH in an atmospheric pressure H 2 /O 2 /N 2 flame indicates that the balanced cross-rate model will give accurate results provided that the rotational relaxation rates in the upper and lower sets of rotational levels are approximately equal

  12. Very high pulse-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dominant trend in the development of pulsed power accelerator technology over the last decade has been towards higher power and shorter pulse widths. Limitations in high voltage, high current switch performance, and in power flow through vacuum insulator housings led to the development of highly modular designs. This modular approach requires precise synchronization of the various modules and efficient methods of combining the power from these modules to drive a common load. The need to drive very low impedance loads led to effective ways to combine these modules in parallel. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator I (PBFA I) and Saturn are representative of these designs. Hermes III represent a new approach towards the efficient generation of higher voltages. It is designed to drive a 22-MV, 730-kA, 40-ns electron beam diode and combines conventional, modular pulsed power technology with linear induction accelerator concepts. High-power induction accelerator cavities are combined with voltage addition along a MITL to generate the desired output. This design differs from a conventional linac in that the voltages are added by the MITL flow rather than by a drifting beam that gains kinetic energy at each stage. This design is a major extrapolation of previous state-of-the-art technology represented by the injector module of the Advanced Test Accelerator and has proven to be efficient and reliable. The design and performance of Hermes III are presented together with a discussion of the application of this technology to the light ion beam inertial confinement fusion program. 18 refs., 9 figs

  13. Ion acceleration with a narrow energy spectrum by nanosecond laser-irradiation of solid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C., E-mail: altana@lns.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Tudisco, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In laser-driven plasma, ion acceleration of aluminum with the production of a quasi-monoenergetic beam has occurred. A useful device to analyze the ions is the Thomson parabolas spectrometer, a well-known diagnostic that is able to obtain information on charge-to-mass ratio and energy distribution of the charged particles. At the LENS (Laser Energy for Nuclear Science) laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania, experimental measures were carried out; the features of LENS are: Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 2 J laser energy, 1064 nm fundamental wavelengths, and 6 ns pulse duration.

  14. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Reisman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM, circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  15. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Xie, Qin; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level.

  16. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao; Xie, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level. (paper)

  17. Outlook for the use of microsecond plasma opening switches to generate high-power nanosecond current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Paper deals with a phenomenon of current breaking in a conducting plasma volume of plasma opening switchers with a nanosecond time of energy initiation and their application in high-power generators. One determined the conditions to ensure megavolt voltages under the erosion mode making use of external applied magnetic field to ensure magnetic insulation of gap of plasma opening switchers. One studied the peculiar features of application of plasma opening switchers under 5-6 MV voltages to ensure X-ray and gamma-radiation pulses [ru

  18. Plasma density enhancement in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges by high-voltage nanosecond pulse in the pulse-on period: a PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Chaofeng; Sun Jizhong; Wang Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    A particle-in-cell (PIC) plus Monte Carlo collision simulation is employed to investigate how a sustainable atmospheric pressure single dielectric-barrier discharge responds to a high-voltage nanosecond pulse (HVNP) further applied to the metal electrode. The results show that the HVNP can significantly increase the plasma density in the pulse-on period. The ion-induced secondary electrons can give rise to avalanche ionization in the positive sheath, which widens the discharge region and enhances the plasma density drastically. However, the plasma density stops increasing as the applied pulse lasts over certain time; therefore, lengthening the pulse duration alone cannot improve the discharge efficiency further. Physical reasons for these phenomena are then discussed.

  19. Plasma density enhancement in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges by high-voltage nanosecond pulse in the pulse-on period: a PIC simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen

    2010-02-01

    A particle-in-cell (PIC) plus Monte Carlo collision simulation is employed to investigate how a sustainable atmospheric pressure single dielectric-barrier discharge responds to a high-voltage nanosecond pulse (HVNP) further applied to the metal electrode. The results show that the HVNP can significantly increase the plasma density in the pulse-on period. The ion-induced secondary electrons can give rise to avalanche ionization in the positive sheath, which widens the discharge region and enhances the plasma density drastically. However, the plasma density stops increasing as the applied pulse lasts over certain time; therefore, lengthening the pulse duration alone cannot improve the discharge efficiency further. Physical reasons for these phenomena are then discussed.

  20. Intense pulsed neutron source accelerator status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.W.; Brumwell, F.R.; Stipp, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) facility has been in operation since November 1, 1981. From that date through August 1, 1983, the accelerator system was scheduled for 7191 hours of operation. During this period, 627 million pulses totaling about 1.1 x 10 21 protons were delivered to the spallation target. The accelerator has exceeded goals set in 1981 by averaging 8.65 μA over this two year period. This average beam current, while modest by the standards of proposed machines, makes the IPNS synchrotron (Rapid Cycling Synchrotron [RCS]) the highest intensity proton synchrotron in the world today. Detailed data on accelerator operation are presented. Weekly average currents of 12 μA have been achieved along with peaks of 13.9 μA. A great deal has been learned about the required operating constraints during high beam current operation. It should be possible to increase the average beam current during this next year to 12 μA while observing these restraints. Improvement plans have been formulated to increase the beam current to 16 μA over the next three years

  1. Decomposition of methane to hydrogen using nanosecond pulsed plasma reactor with different active volumes, voltages and frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifeh, Omid; Mosallanejad, Amin; Taghvaei, Hamed; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Shariati, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CH 4 conversion into H 2 is investigated in a nanosecond pulsed DBD reactor. • The absence of CO and CO 2 in the product gas is highly favorable. • Effects of external electrode length, applied voltage and frequency are examined. • The maximum efficiency of 7.23% is achieved at the electrode length of 15 cm. • The maximum CH 4 conversion of 87.2% is obtained at discharge power 268.92 W. - Abstract: In this paper, the methane conversion into hydrogen is investigated experimentally in a nanosecond pulsed DBD reactor. In order to achieve pure hydrogen production with minimum power consumption, effects of some operating parameters including external electrode length, applied voltage and pulse repetition frequency have been evaluated. Results show that although higher CH 4 conversion and H 2 concentration can be obtained at longer electrode lengths, higher applied voltages and pulse repetition frequencies, these parameters should be optimized for efficient hydrogen production. Actually, the maximum CH 4 conversion of 87.2% and maximum hydrogen percentage of 80% are obtained at the external electrode length, discharge power, voltage and frequency of 15 cm, 268.92 W, 12 kV and 10 kHz, respectively. However, the maximum efficiency of 7.23% is achieved at the external electrode length of 15 cm, applied voltage of 6 kV, pulse repetition frequency of 0.9 kHz and discharge power of 4 W. Furthermore, at this condition, due to low temperature of discharge zone very little amount of solid carbon was observed on the inner electrode surface of the reactor.

  2. Multipurpose beam pulsing system for the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuno, Kohei; Fukuchi, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Takashige; Maeoka, Hidenobu; Ishii, Satoshi; Aoki, Takayoshi

    1983-10-01

    A beam pulsing system has been developed for a 12 MV tandem accelerator. The system consists of a pre-acceleration chopper, a klystron buncher and a post-acceleration chopper. The pre-acceleration chopper comprises a slow chopper and a fast travelling-wave chopper. Pulsed beams with widths in the range from 10 ..mu..s to --2 s are obtained with the slow chopper, and the repetition periods can be varied from 70 ..mu..s to 4s. The fast chopper produces ion bursts having widths between 0.05 and 0.8 ..mu..s with a duty factor of --10%. The buncher is operated with the two choppers to obtain beam pulses as narrow as a few nanoseconds. Time-of-flight measurements yielded pulse widths 2-4 ns (FWHM) wide for ions in the mass range 1 <= A <= 28. The ratio of the dark to peak ion current was usually of the order of 10/sup 4/.

  3. Control of Reactive Species Generated by Low-frequency Biased Nanosecond Pulse Discharge in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-09-01

    The control of hydroxyl radical and the other gas phase species generation in the ejected gas through air plasma (air plasma effluent) has been experimentally studied, which is a key to extend the range of plasma treatment. Nanosecond pulse discharge is known to produce high reduced electric field (E/N) discharge that leads to efficient generation of the reactive species than conventional low frequency discharge, while the charge-voltage cycle in the low frequency discharge is known to be well-controlled. In this study, the nanosecond pulse discharge biased with AC low frequency high voltage is used to take advantages of these discharges, which allows us to modulate the reactive species composition in the air plasma effluent. The utilization of the gas-liquid interface and the liquid phase chemical reactions between the modulated long-lived reactive species delivered from the air plasma effluent could realize efficient liquid phase chemical reactions leading to short-lived reactive species production far from the air plasma, which is crucial for some plasma agricultural applications.

  4. Few-nanosecond pulse switching with low write error for in-plane nanomagnets using the spin-Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Sriharsha; Rowlands, Graham; Shi, Shengjie; Oh, Junseok; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, Robert

    Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) using spin transfer torques (STT) holds great promise for replacing existing best-in-class memory technologies in several application domains. Research on conventional two-terminal STT-MRAM thus far has revealed the existence of limitations that constrain switching reliability and speed for both in-plane and perpendicularly magnetized devices. Recently, spin torque arising from the giant spin-Hall effect in Ta, W and Pt has been shown to be an efficient mechanism to switch magnetic bits in a three-terminal geometry. Here we report highly reliable, nanosecond timescale pulse switching of three-terminal devices with in-plane magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions. We obtain write error rates (WER) down to ~10-5 using pulses as short as 2 ns, in contrast to conventional in-plane STT-MRAM devices where write speeds were limited to a few tens of nanoseconds for comparable WER. Utilizing micro-magnetic simulations, we discuss the differences from conventional MRAM that allow for this unanticipated and significant performance improvement. Finally, we highlight the path towards practical application enabled by the ability to separately optimize the read and write pathways in three-terminal devices.

  5. Stability of high current diode under 100-nanosecond-pulse voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Dingguo; Qiu Aici; Zhang Yongmin; Huang Jianjun; Ren Shuqing; Yang Li

    2012-01-01

    Stability of high current diode under pulse voltage with 80 ns and 34 ns rise time was studied on the flash Ⅱ accelerator. Influence of rise time of diode voltage on startup time and cathode emission uniformity and repeatability of diode impedance was analyzed by comparing the experimental results with numerically simulated results, and the influence mechanism was discussed. The startup time of diode increases with the increasing of rise time of voltage, and the repeatability of diode impedance decreases. Discal plane cathode is prone to emit rays intensely in the center area, the time that plasma covers the surface of the cathode increases and the shielding effect has more impact on cathode emission according to the increase of rise time. Local intense emission on the cathode increases expansion speed of plasma and reduces the effective emission area. The stability of characteristic impedance of diode under a pulse voltage with slow rise time is decreased by the combined action of expansion speed of plasma and the effective emission area. (authors)

  6. HV discharge acceleration by sequences of UV laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Elise; Rastegari, Ali; Feng, Chengyong; Mongin, Denis; Kamer, Brian; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Arissian, Ladan; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the triggering and guiding of DC high-voltage discharges over a distance of 37 cm by filaments produced by ultraviolet (266 nm) laser pulses of 200 ps duration. The latter reduce the breakdown electric field by half and allow up to 80% discharge probability in an electric field of 920 kV m–1. This high efficiency is not further increased by adding nanosecond pulses in the Joule range at 532 and at 1064 nm. However, the latter statistically increases the guiding length, thereby accelerating the discharge by a factor of 2. This effect is due both to photodetachment and to the heating of the plasma channel, that increases the efficiency of avalanche ionization and reduces electron attachment and recombination.

  7. Small-sized accelerating tube for electron acceleration to 500 keV at pulse duration of 2 ns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Ehl'yash, S.L.; Dron', N.A.; Sloeva, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The design and characteristics (current, voltage, current density, electron beam structure, energy spectrum, and dose rate) of a soldered small-size two-electrode 600 kV accelerating tube are considered. A six-stage Arkadiev-Marx generator is the pulse high-voltage supply of nanosecond duration. When using a cathode (diameter of 8 mm) made of tantalum foil 0.02 mm thick and with interelectrode gap of 10 mm, the amplitude of the electron beam current beyond the beryllium anode equals to 1040 A under maximum voltage of 490 kV, current pulse duration of 2 ns, number of electrons is 10 13 . The increased electron density on the anode in a spot of 4 mm in diameter is observed; the current density in the spot reaches 1 kA/cm 2 . The electron energy in the beam beyond the anode is as much as 0.6-0.8 J per pulse, and the dose rate near the outer surface of the outlet window is 10 14 -10 15 rad/s. The use of an intensifying oil spark gap is shown to increase radiation hardness. The accelerating tube provides more than 10 5 shots in a single-switching mode

  8. Hydrophobic treatment on polymethylmethacrylate surface by nanosecond-pulse DBDs in CF{sub 4} at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cheng [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Yang [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xie, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003 (China); Xu, Jiayu [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wenjin [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Increase in hydrophobicity on PMMA is achieved after the DBD treatment in CF{sub 4}, and the water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after treatment. • Nanosecond-pulse DBD is used for the surface treatment and the power density is about 114.8 mW/cm{sup 2}. • The effects of applied voltage, CF{sub 4} flow, and time on plasma treatment are investigated. • Plasma treatment causes morphological change, significantly increases the roughness of the surface, and introduces fluorine-containing groups into the polymethylmethacrylate surface. • Hydrophobic behavior of the treated PMMA surface is slightly affected by the aging effect. - Abstract: Nanosecond-pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can provide non-thermal plasmas with extremely high energy and high density, which can result in a series of complicated physical and chemical reactions in the surface treatment of polymers. Therefore, in this paper, hydrophobic treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface is conducted by nanosecond-pulse DBD in carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) at atmospheric pressure. Investigations on surface morphology and chemical composition before and after the DBD treatment in CF{sub 4} are conducted with the contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The effects of the applied voltage, CF{sub 4} flow rate, and treatment time on the hydrophobic modification are studied. Results show that the contact angles of the treated PMMA surface increases with the applied voltage, and it could be greatly affected by the CF{sub 4} flow rate and the treatment time. The water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after the treatment. Furthermore, both surface morphology and chemical composition of the PMMA samples are changed. Both the increase of the surface roughness and the occurrence of fluorine-containing functional groups on the PMMA surface treated by DBD in CF

  9. Formation of nanosecond SBS-compressed pulses for pumping an ultra-high power parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz’min, A. A.; Kulagin, O. V.; Rodchenkov, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    Compression of pulsed Nd : glass laser radiation under stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in perfluorooctane is investigated. Compression of 16-ns pulses at a beam diameter of 30 mm is implemented. The maximum compression coefficient is 28 in the optimal range of laser pulse energies from 2 to 4 J. The Stokes pulse power exceeds that of the initial laser pulse by a factor of about 11.5. The Stokes pulse jitter (fluctuations of the Stokes pulse exit time from the compressor) is studied. The rms spread of these fluctuations is found to be 0.85 ns.

  10. Pulsed power ion accelerators for inertially confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Current research is described on pulsed power ion accelerators for inertial fusion, i.e., ion diodes and collective accelerators. Particle beam energy and power requirements for fusion, and basic deposition characteristics of charged particle beams are discussed. Ion diodes and collective accelerators for fusion are compared with existing conventional accelerators

  11. Ionization and pulse lethargy effects in inverse Cherenkov accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Hubbard, R.F.; Hafizi, B.

    1997-01-01

    Ionization processes limit the accelerating gradient and place an upper limit on the pulse duration of the electromagnetic driver in the inverse Cherenkov accelerator (ICA). Group velocity slippage, i.e., pulse lethargy, on the other hand, imposes a lower limit on the pulse duration. These limits are obtained for two ICA configurations in which the electromagnetic driver (e.g., laser or millimeter wave source) is propagated in a waveguide that is (i) lined with a dielectric material or (ii) filled with a neutral gas. In either configuration the electromagnetic driving field is guided and has an axial electric field with phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum, c. The intensity of the driver in the ICA, and therefore the acceleration gradient, is limited by tunneling and collisional ionization effects. Partial ionization of the dielectric liner or gas can lead to significant modification of the dispersive properties of the waveguide, altering the phase velocity of the accelerating field and causing particle slippage, thus disrupting the acceleration process. An additional limitation on the pulse duration is imposed since the group velocity of the driving pulse is less than c and the pulse slips behind the accelerated electrons. Hence for sufficiently short pulses the electrons outrun the pulse, terminating the acceleration. Limitations on the driver pulse duration and accelerating gradient, due to ionization and pulse lethargy, are estimated for the two ICA configurations. Maximum accelerating gradients and pulse durations are presented for a 10 μm, 1 mm, and 1 cm wavelength electromagnetic driver. The combination of ionization and pulse lethargy effects impose severe limitations on the maximum energy gain in inverse Cherenkov accelerators. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasma: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Turchi, Peter J.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Cassibry, Jason T.; Sommer, James; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much have been learned in the acceleration mechanisms involved in accelerating a plasma electromagnetically in the laboratory over the last 40 years since the early review by Winston Bostik of 1963, but the accumulated understanding is very much scattered throughout the literature. This literature extends back at least to the early sixties and includes Rosenbluth's snowplow model, discussions by Ralph Lovberg, Colgate's boundary-layer model of a current sheet, many papers from the activity at Columbia by Robert Gross and his colleagues, and the relevant, 1-D unsteady descriptions developed from the U. of Maryland theta-pinch studies. Recent progress on the understanding of the pulsed penetration of magnetic fields into collisionless or nearly collisionless plasmas are also be reviewed. Somewhat more recently, we have the two-dimensional, unsteady results in the collisional regime associated with so-called wall-instability in large radius pinch discharges and also in coaxial plasma guns (e.g., Plasma Flow Switch). Among other things, for example, we have the phenomenon of a high- density plasma discharge propagating in a cooaxial gun as an apparently straight sheet (vs paraboloid) because mass re-distribution (on a microsecond timescale) compensates for the 1/r- squared variation of magnetic pressure. We will attempt to collate some of this vast material and bring some coherence tc the development of the subject.

  13. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane

  14. Time-domain calculation of sub-nanosecond pulse launched by a proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Kwok-Chi Dominic; Cooper, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Using the finite-difference time-domain code TBCI, we have numerically calculated the radiation from a sub-nanosecond 800-MeV proton bunch as it is launched into space. The calculation is compared to measurements of the time history of the radiated fields and good agreement is found. A movie showing the development of the radiation pattern will be shown during the presentation at this conference, namely, the First Los Alamos Symposium on Ultra-Wideband Radar. 6 refs., 7 figs

  15. Numerical simulation of nanosecond pulsed DBD in lean methane–air mixture for typical conditions in internal engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takana, Hidemasa; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2014-01-01

    Detailed two-dimensional numerical simulations of a high energy loading nanosecond dc pulse DBD in a lean methane–air mixture were conducted for plasma-assisted combustion by integrating individual models of plasma chemistry, photoionization and energy loading. The DBD streamer propagation process with radical productions was clarified at 10 atm and 600 K as under the condition of actual internal engines at ignition. Energy is loaded to the streamer first by the formation of plasma channel and then ceased due to the self-shielding effect. Because of the inversed electric field in a discharge space during decrease in applied voltage, energy is loaded to the discharge again. It was found that higher energy is loaded to the DBD streamer for larger dielectric constant even at lower applied voltage, and higher number density of oxygen radical is produced at almost the same radical production efficiency. (paper)

  16. Nanosecond-pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with a gold nanotriangle saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Li, Ping; Dun, Yangyang; Song, Teng; Ma, Baomin

    2018-06-01

    Gold nanotriangles (GNTs) were successfully employed as a saturable absorber (SA) to achieve passively Q-switched lasers for the first time. The performance of the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm has been systematically investigated. The corresponding shortest pulsewidth, the threshold pump power and the maximum Q-switched average output power were 275.5 ns, 1.37 W, and 171 mW, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the shortest pulsewidth and the lowest threshold in a passively Q-switched laser at approximately 1.1 µm based on a gold nanoparticle SA (GNPs-SA). Our experimental results proved that the GNTs-SA can be used as a promising saturable absorber for nanosecond-pulsed lasers.

  17. The formation of diffuse discharge by short-front nanosecond voltage pulses and the modification of dielectrics in this discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskii, V. M.; Panarin, V. A.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of diffuse discharge formation under the action of nanosecond voltage pulses with short fronts (below 1 ns) in the absence of a source of additional preionization and the influence of a dielectric film on this process have been studied. It is established that the diffuse discharge is induced by the avalanche multiplication of charge initiated by high-energy electrons and then maintained due to secondary breakdowns propagating via ionized gas channels. If a dielectric film (polyethylene, Lavsan, etc.) is placed on the anode, then multiply repeated discharge will lead to surface and bulk modification of the film material. Discharge-treated polyethylene film exhibits a change in the optical absorption spectrum in the near-IR range.

  18. Unit for the nanosecond, laser, pulse photolysis in the ultraviolet region for a combination of photochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikel' ni, V F; Kolosov, V A; Kiryukhin, Yu I; Kondrat' ev, V A; Borovkova, V A; Tarasov, E N

    1976-06-01

    A description is given of a nanosecond laser unit for pulse photolysis in the ultraviolet region, by means of which it is possible to investigate the kinetics of the death of interstitial particles, their optical absorption and luminescence spectra, and also the photoconductivity induced by the laser radiation, at a time resolution of about 15 ns. As a source of powerful, stable uv-radiation, use is made of the fourth harmonic (266 nm) of radiation from an aluminum-yttrium garnet containing neodymium. The radiation power of the fourth harmonic attained 2 MW. The time of bringing the unit into the operating mode is considerably shortened because of the possibility of operating in a frequency mode. Absorption spectra of carbazole in hexane were obtained at 20/sup 0/C. (SJR)

  19. Numerical investigation of energy transfer for fast gas heating in an atmospheric nanosecond-pulsed DBD under different negative slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yifei; Wu, Yun; Cui, Wei; Li, Yinghong; Jia, Min

    2013-01-01

    A validated one-dimensional air plasma kinetics model (13 species and 37 processes) for a nanosecond discharge under atmospheric pressure was developed to reveal the energy transfer mechanism for fast gas heating of a plane-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Calculations for voltage profiles with three different negative slopes were performed. Results have shown that 72% of the total heating energy goes to quench heating, which results in a temperature rise across the gap, the remaining 28% goes to ion collisions, thus heating the cathode sheath in a higher power density. The relationships between ion collision heating, quench heating and reduced electric field are given as two functions, which indicates that 10 13  W m −3 is the peak magnitude of power density produced by ion collisions in the nanosecond-pulsed DBD under atmospheric pressure, and a further increase in E/N does not increase the higher quench heating power. The steepness of the negative slope mainly affects the energy transfer efficiency, and the percentage of two heating sources in the total heating power. A short pulse will couple positive and negative slopes and provide a higher transient total heating power but lower energy transfer efficiency. By uncoupling the positive slope, steady stage and negative slope, the energy transfer efficiency under a certain voltage amplitude (20 kV in this paper) is found to have a maximum value of 68.5%. Two wave crests of temperature rise near the cathode sheath are observed, one is caused by a positive slope and the other by a negative slope. (paper)

  20. Uniform and non-uniform modes of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air: fast imaging and spectroscopic measurements of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander

    2014-06-25

    In this study, we report experimental results on fast ICCD imaging of development of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric air and spectroscopic measurements of electric field in the discharge. Uniformity of the discharge images obtained with nanosecond exposure times were analyzed using chi-square test. The results indicate that DBD uniformity strongly depends on applied (global) electric field in the discharge gap, and is a threshold phenomenon. We show that in the case of strong overvoltage on the discharge gap (provided by fast rise times), there is transition from filamentary to uniform DBD mode which correlates to the corresponding decrease of maximum local electric field in the discharge.

  1. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  2. Comparative evaluation of transmembrane ion transport due to monopolar and bipolar nanosecond, high-intensity electroporation pulses based on full three-dimensional analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Joshi, R. P.

    2017-07-01

    Electric pulse driven membrane poration finds applications in the fields of biomedical engineering and drug/gene delivery. Here we focus on nanosecond, high-intensity electroporation and probe the role of pulse shape (e.g., monopolar-vs-bipolar), multiple electrode scenarios, and serial-versus-simultaneous pulsing, based on a three-dimensional time-dependent continuum model in a systematic fashion. Our results indicate that monopolar pulsing always leads to higher and stronger cellular uptake. This prediction is in agreement with experimental reports and observations. It is also demonstrated that multi-pronged electrode configurations influence and increase the degree of cellular uptake.

  3. Transitions between corona, glow, and spark regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2010-05-01

    In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and interelectrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. In particular, the experimental conditions necessary for the glow regime of NRP discharges have been determined, with the notable result that there exists a minimum and maximum gap distance for its existence at a given ambient gas temperature. The minimum gap distance increases with decreasing gas temperature, whereas the maximum does not vary appreciably. To explain the experimental results, an analytical model is developed to explain the corona-to-glow (C-G) and glow-to-spark (G-S) transitions. The C-G transition is analyzed in terms of the avalanche-to-streamer transition and the breakdown field during the conduction phase following the establishment of a conducting channel across the discharge gap. The G-S transition is determined by the thermal ionization instability, and we show analytically that this transition occurs at a certain reduced electric field for the NRP discharges studied here. This model shows that the electrode geometry plays an important role in the existence of the NRP glow regime at a given gas temperature. We derive a criterion for the existence of the NRP glow regime as a function of the ambient gas temperature, pulse repetition frequency, electrode radius of curvature, and interelectrode gap distance.

  4. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge.

  6. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning [Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Wu, Liming, E-mail: wlm@zju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Shusen, E-mail: shusenzheng@zju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge.

  7. Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) pulse power technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.; Branum, D.; Cook, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear induction accelerator with the following design parameters: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns, and 1 kHz in a ten-pulse burst. Acceleration is accomplished by means of 190 ferrite-loaded cells, each capable of maintaining a 250 kV voltage pulse for 70 ns across a 1-inch gap. The unique characteristic of this machine is its 1 kHz burst mode capability at very high currents. This paper dscribes the pulse power development program which used the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) technology as a starting base. Considerable changes have been made both electrically and mechanically in the pulse power components with special consideration being given to the design to achieve higher reliability. A prototype module which incorporates all the pulse power components has been built and tested for millions of shots. Prototype components and test results are described

  8. Characteristics of bipolar-pulse generator for intense pulsed heavy ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, K.; Tomita, T.; Kitamura, I.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2006-01-01

    Intense pulsed heavy ion beams are expected to be applied to the implantation technology for semiconductor materials. In the application it is very important to purify the ion beam. In order to improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams we have proposed a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)'. A prototype of the experimental system has been developed to perform proof of principle experiments of the accelerator. A bipolar pulse generator has been designed for the generation of the pulsed ion beam with the high purity via the bipolar pulse acceleration and the electrical characteristics of the generator were evaluated. The production of the bipolar pulse has been confirmed experimentally. (author)

  9. Synthesis of ultrawideband radiation of combined antenna arrays excited by nanosecond bipolar voltage pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelev, V I; Plisko, V V; Sevostyanov, E A

    2017-01-01

    To broaden the spectrum of high-power ultrawideband radiation, it is suggested to synthesize an electromagnetic pulse summing the pulses of different length in free space. On the example of model pulses corresponding to radiation of combined antennas excited by bipolar voltage pulses of the length of 2 and 3 ns, the possibility of twofold broadening of the radiation spectrum was demonstrated. Radiation pulses with the spectrum width exceeding three octaves were obtained. Pattern formation by the arrays of different geometry excited by the pulses having different time shifts was considered. Optimum array structure with the pattern maximum in the main direction was demonstrated on the example of a 2×2 array. (paper)

  10. Comparative study of ornamental granite cleaning using femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.es [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.T.S. Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo Spain (Spain); Lopez, A.J.; Ramil, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas. Campus de Esteiro. Universidad de A Coruña 15403 Ferrol Spain (Spain); Pozo, S. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.T.S. Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo Spain (Spain); Fiorucci, M.P. [Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas. Campus de Esteiro. Universidad de A Coruña 15403 Ferrol Spain (Spain); Silanes, M.E. López de [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.I. Forestales. Universidad de Vigo, Campus Pontevedra. 36005 Pontevedra Spain (Spain); García, A.; Aldana, J. R. Vazquez de; Romero, C.; Moreno, P. [Grupo de Investigación en Microprocesado de Materiales con Laser. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca Spain (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Granite has been widely used as a structural and ornamental element in public works and buildings. In damp climates it is almost permanently humid and its exterior surfaces are consequently biologically colonized and blackened We describe a comparative analysis of the performance of two different laser sources in removing biological crusts from granite surfaces: nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser (355 nm) and femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at its fundamental wavelength (790 nm) and second harmonic (395 nm). The granite surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and profilometry, in order to assess the degree of cleaning and to characterize possible morphological and chemical changes caused by the laser sources.

  11. Comparative study of ornamental granite cleaning using femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, T.; Lopez, A.J.; Ramil, A.; Pozo, S.; Fiorucci, M.P.; Silanes, M.E. López de; García, A.; Aldana, J. R. Vazquez de; Romero, C.; Moreno, P.

    2013-01-01

    Granite has been widely used as a structural and ornamental element in public works and buildings. In damp climates it is almost permanently humid and its exterior surfaces are consequently biologically colonized and blackened We describe a comparative analysis of the performance of two different laser sources in removing biological crusts from granite surfaces: nanosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser (355 nm) and femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at its fundamental wavelength (790 nm) and second harmonic (395 nm). The granite surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and profilometry, in order to assess the degree of cleaning and to characterize possible morphological and chemical changes caused by the laser sources.

  12. Study on the mode-transition of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge between uniform and filamentary by controlling pressures and pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sizhe; Lu, Xinpei

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the temporally resolved evolution of the nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a moderate 6mm gap under various pressures and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) by intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) images, using synthetic air and its components oxygen and nitrogen. It is found that the pressures are very different when the DBD mode transits between uniform and filamentary in air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The PRFs can also obviously affect the mode-transition. The transition mechanism in the pulsed DBD is not Townsend-to-streamer, which is dominant in the traditional alternating-voltage DBDs. The pulsed DBD in a uniform mode develops in the form of plane ionization wave, due to overlap of primary avalanches, while the increase in pressure disturbs the overlap and DBD develops in streamer instead, corresponding to the filamentary mode. Increasing the initiatory electron density by pre-ionization methods may contribute to discharge uniformity at higher pressures. We also find that the dependence of uniformity upon PRF is non-monotonic.

  13. Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Do, Binh T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured bulk and surface dielectric breakdown thresholds of pure silica for 14 ps and 8 ns pulses of 1064 nm light. The thresholds are sharp and reproducible. For the 8 ns pulses the bulk threshold irradiance is 4.75 ± 0.25 kW/μm 2 . The threshold is approximately three times higher for 14 ps pulses. For 8 ns pulses the input surface damage threshold can be made equal to the bulk threshold by applying an alumina or silica surface polish

  14. Multi-parametric study of temperature and thermal damage of tumor exposed to high-frequency nanosecond-pulsed electric fields based on finite element simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yan; Rui, Shaoqin; Li, Chengxiang; Yao, Chenguo; Xu, Jin; Bian, Changhao; Tang, Xuefeng

    2017-07-01

    High-frequency nanosecond-pulsed electric fields were recently introduced for tumor or abnormal tissue ablation to solve some problems of conventional electroporation. However, it is necessary to study the thermal effects of high-field-intensity nanosecond pulses inside tissues. The multi-parametric analysis performed here is based on a finite element model of liver tissue with a tumor that has been punctured by a pair of needle electrodes. The pulse voltage used in this study ranges from 1 to 4 kV, the pulse width ranges from 50 to 500 ns, and the repetition frequency is between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The total pulse length is 100 μs, and the pulse burst repetition frequency is 1 Hz. Blood flow and metabolic heat generation have also been considered. Results indicate that the maximum instantaneous temperature at 100 µs can reach 49 °C, with a maximum instantaneous temperature at 1 s of 40 °C, and will not cause thermal damage during single pulse bursts. By parameter fitting, we can obtain maximum instantaneous temperature at 100 µs and 1 s for any parameter values. However, higher temperatures will be achieved and may cause thermal damage when multiple pulse bursts are applied. These results provide theoretical basis of pulse parameter selection for future experimental researches.

  15. Gold nanoshell photomodification under a single-nanosecond laser pulse accompanied by color-shifting and bubble formation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, Garif; Khlebtsov, Boris; Akchurin, Georgy; Tuchin, Valery; Zharov, Vladimir; Khlebtsov, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Laser-nanoparticle interaction is crucial for biomedical applications of lasers and nanotechnology to the treatment of cancer or pathogenic microorganisms. We report on the first observation of laser-induced coloring of gold nanoshell solution after a one nanosecond pulse and an unprecedentedly low bubble formation (as the main mechanism of cancer cell killing) threshold at a laser fluence of about 4 mJ cm -2 , which is safe for normal tissue. Specifically, silica/gold nanoshell (140/15 nm) suspensions were irradiated with a single 4 ns (1064 nm) or 8 ns (900 nm) laser pulse at fluences ranging from 0.1 mJ cm -2 to 50 J cm -2 . Solution red coloring was observed by the naked eye confirmed by blue-shifting of the absorption spectrum maximum from the initial 900 nm for nanoshells to 530 nm for conventional colloidal gold nanospheres. TEM images revealed significant photomodification of nanoparticles including complete fragmentation of gold shells, changes in silica core structure, formation of small 20-30 nm isolated spherical gold nanoparticles, gold nanoshells with central holes, and large and small spherical gold particles attached to a silica core. The time-resolved monitoring of bubble formation phenomena with the photothermal (PT) thermolens technique demonstrated that after application of a single 8 ns pulse at fluences 5-10 mJ cm -2 and higher the next pulse did not produce any PT response, indicating a dramatic decrease in absorption because of gold shell modification. We also observed a dependence of the bubble expansion time on the laser energy with unusually very fast PT signal rising (∼3.5 ns scale at 0.2 J cm -2 ). Application of the observed phenomena to medical applications is discussed, including a simple visual color test for laser-nanoparticle interaction

  16. Effectiveness and harmful effects of removal sulphated black crust from granite using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, S. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, ETSI Minas, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Barreiro, P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Rivas, T. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, ETSI Minas, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); González, P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Fiorucci, M.P. [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas (CIT), University of A Coruña, 15403, Ferrol (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Sulphated black crust is a common form of deterioration affecting stone used in monuments, usually occurs in contaminated atmospheres or urban environments. Its origin and cleaning have been studied extensively, for decades, in the case of carbonate rocks. Recent studies show that this form of alteration also affects granites. Scientific research on laser removal effectiveness of gypsum-rich black crust on granites needs to be scientifically addressed considering the inexistent references. This paper assesses the removal by laser of sulphate-rich black crusts on granite using the different harmonics of a Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser (266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm). Effectiveness was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Infrared Transform Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). We also evaluated the effect of the radiation on granite-forming minerals and on the colour of the stone using Scanning Electron Microscopy and spectrophotometry colour measurements respectively. SEM–EDS, XRD and ATR-FTIR analyses show that the higher the wavelength, the more efficient the cleaning, so samples cleaned using 1064 nm pulsed laser recovered its original colour. Nevertheless, the Nd:YAG laser did not completely eliminate the crust, and gypsum crystals remaining on the rock surface are observed, even at the most effective wavelength.

  17. Numerical investigation of heating of a gold nanoparticle and the surrounding microenvironment by nanosecond laser pulses for nanomedicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaroli, E; Li, K C P; O' Neill, B E [Department of Radiology, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, 77030 (United States)], E-mail: beoneill@tmhs.org

    2009-09-21

    We have modeled, by finite element analysis, the process of heating of a spherical gold nanoparticle by nanosecond laser pulses and of heat transfer between the particle and the surrounding medium, with no mass transfer. In our analysis, we have included thermal conductivity changes, vapor formation, and changes of the dielectric properties as a function of temperature. We have shown that such changes significantly affect the temperature reached by the particle and surrounding microenvironment and therefore the thermal and dielectric properties of the medium need to be known for a correct determination of the temperature elevation. We have shown that for sufficiently low intensity and long pulses, it is possible to establish a quasi-steady temperature profile in the medium with no vapor formation. As the intensity is increased, a phase-change with vapor formation takes place around the gold nanoparticle. As phase-transition starts, an additional increase in the intensity does not significantly increase the temperature of the gold nanoparticle and surrounding environment. The temperature starts to rise again above a given intensity threshold which is particle and environment dependent. The aim of this study is to provide useful insights for the development of molecular targeting of gold nanoparticles for applications such as remote drug release of therapeutics and photothermal cancer therapy.

  18. Effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) on the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Dang, Jie; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Candida albicans is the leading human fungal pathogen that causes many life-threatening infections. Notably, the current clinical trial data indicate that Candida species shows the emerging resistance to anti-fungal drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) as a novel drug-free strategy in vitro. In this study, we investigated the inactivation and permeabilization effects of C. albicans under different nsPEFs exposure conditions (100 pulses, 100 ns in duration, intensities of 20, 40 kV cm‑1). Cell death was studied by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. The changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentration after nsPEFs treatment were observed using Fluo-4 AM. Results show that C. albicans cells and biofilms were both obviously inhibited and destroyed after nsPEFs treatment. Furthermore, C. albicans cells were significantly permeabilized after nsPEFs treatment. Additionally, nsPEFs exposure led to a large amount of DNA and protein leakage. Importantly, nsPEFs induced a field strength-dependent apoptosis in C. albicans cells. Further experiments revealed that Ca2+ involved in nsPEFs induced C. albicans apoptosis. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study provides a potential alternative drug-free strategy for killing pathogenic Candida species.

  19. Influence of air flow parameters on nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in a pin-annular electrode configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Heitz, Sylvain A; Moeck, Jonas P; Schuller, Thierry; Veynante, Denis; Lacoste, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of various air flow parameters on the plasma regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges is investigated at atmospheric pressure. The two electrodes are in a pin-annular configuration, transverse to the mean flow. The voltage pulses have amplitudes up to 15 kV, a duration of 10 ns and a repetition frequency ranging from 15 to 30 kHz. The NRP corona to NRP spark (C-S) regime transition and the NRP spark to NRP corona (S-C) regime transition are investigated for different steady and harmonically oscillating flows. First, the strong effect of a transverse flow on the C-S and S-C transitions, as reported in previous studies, is verified. Second, it is shown that the azimuthal flow imparted by a swirler does not affect the regime transition voltages. Finally, the influence of low frequency harmonic oscillations of the air flow, generated by a loudspeaker, is studied. A strong effect of frequency and amplitude of the incoming flow modulation on the NRP plasma regime is observed. Results are interpreted based on the cumulative effect of the NRP discharges and an analysis of the residence times of fluid particles in the inter-electrode region. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Influence of air flow parameters on nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in a pin-annular electrode configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Heitz, Sylvain A

    2016-03-16

    The effect of various air flow parameters on the plasma regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges is investigated at atmospheric pressure. The two electrodes are in a pin-annular configuration, transverse to the mean flow. The voltage pulses have amplitudes up to 15 kV, a duration of 10 ns and a repetition frequency ranging from 15 to 30 kHz. The NRP corona to NRP spark (C-S) regime transition and the NRP spark to NRP corona (S-C) regime transition are investigated for different steady and harmonically oscillating flows. First, the strong effect of a transverse flow on the C-S and S-C transitions, as reported in previous studies, is verified. Second, it is shown that the azimuthal flow imparted by a swirler does not affect the regime transition voltages. Finally, the influence of low frequency harmonic oscillations of the air flow, generated by a loudspeaker, is studied. A strong effect of frequency and amplitude of the incoming flow modulation on the NRP plasma regime is observed. Results are interpreted based on the cumulative effect of the NRP discharges and an analysis of the residence times of fluid particles in the inter-electrode region. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Numerical investigation of heating of a gold nanoparticle and the surrounding microenvironment by nanosecond laser pulses for nanomedicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassaroli, E; Li, K C P; O'Neill, B E

    2009-01-01

    We have modeled, by finite element analysis, the process of heating of a spherical gold nanoparticle by nanosecond laser pulses and of heat transfer between the particle and the surrounding medium, with no mass transfer. In our analysis, we have included thermal conductivity changes, vapor formation, and changes of the dielectric properties as a function of temperature. We have shown that such changes significantly affect the temperature reached by the particle and surrounding microenvironment and therefore the thermal and dielectric properties of the medium need to be known for a correct determination of the temperature elevation. We have shown that for sufficiently low intensity and long pulses, it is possible to establish a quasi-steady temperature profile in the medium with no vapor formation. As the intensity is increased, a phase-change with vapor formation takes place around the gold nanoparticle. As phase-transition starts, an additional increase in the intensity does not significantly increase the temperature of the gold nanoparticle and surrounding environment. The temperature starts to rise again above a given intensity threshold which is particle and environment dependent. The aim of this study is to provide useful insights for the development of molecular targeting of gold nanoparticles for applications such as remote drug release of therapeutics and photothermal cancer therapy.

  2. Characterization of Wet Air Plasma Jet Powered by Sinusoidal High Voltage and Nanosecond Pulses for Plasma Agricultural Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Shimada, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-09-01

    Not only for the plasma sterilization but also for many of plasma life-science applications, atmospheric pressure plasma devices that allowed us to control its state and reactive species production are deserved to resolve the roles of the chemical species. Influence of the hydroxyl radical and ozone on germination of conidia of a strawberry pathogen is presented. Water addition to air plasma jet significantly improves germination suppression performance, while measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reduced. Although the results show a negative correlation between ROS and the germination suppression, this infers the importance of chemical composition generated by plasma. For further control of the plasma product, a plasma jet powered by sinusoidal high voltage and nanosecond pulses is developed and characterized with the voltage-charge Lissajous. Control of breakdown phase and discharge power by pulse-imposed phase is presented. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) Grant Number 15K17480 and Exploratory Research Grant Number 23644199.

  3. Effectiveness and harmful effects of removal sulphated black crust from granite using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo, S.; Barreiro, P.; Rivas, T.; González, P.; Fiorucci, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sulphated black crust is a common form of deterioration affecting stone used in monuments, usually occurs in contaminated atmospheres or urban environments. Its origin and cleaning have been studied extensively, for decades, in the case of carbonate rocks. Recent studies show that this form of alteration also affects granites. Scientific research on laser removal effectiveness of gypsum-rich black crust on granites needs to be scientifically addressed considering the inexistent references. This paper assesses the removal by laser of sulphate-rich black crusts on granite using the different harmonics of a Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser (266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm). Effectiveness was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Infrared Transform Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). We also evaluated the effect of the radiation on granite-forming minerals and on the colour of the stone using Scanning Electron Microscopy and spectrophotometry colour measurements respectively. SEM–EDS, XRD and ATR-FTIR analyses show that the higher the wavelength, the more efficient the cleaning, so samples cleaned using 1064 nm pulsed laser recovered its original colour. Nevertheless, the Nd:YAG laser did not completely eliminate the crust, and gypsum crystals remaining on the rock surface are observed, even at the most effective wavelength.

  4. Investigation of Gas Heating by Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Glow Discharges Used for Actuation of a Laminar Methane-Air Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2017-05-24

    This paper reports on the quantification of the heating induced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) glow discharges on a lean premixed methane-air flame. The flame, obtained at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, has an M-shape morphology. The equivalence ratio is 0.95 and the thermal power released by the flame is 113 W. The NRP glow discharges are produced by high voltage pulses of 10 ns duration, 7 kV amplitude, applied at a repetition frequency of 10 kHz. The average power of the plasma, determined from current and voltage measurements, is 1 W, i.e. about 0.9 % of the thermal power of the flame. Broadband vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of nitrogen is used to determine the temperature of the flame with and without plasma enhancement. The temperature evolution in the flame area shows that the thermal impact of NRP glow discharges is in the uncertainty range of the technique, i.e., +/- 40 K.

  5. Pure rotational CARS thermometry studies of low-temperature oxidation kinetics in air and ethene-air nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuzeek, Yvette; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R

    2010-01-01

    Pure rotational CARS thermometry is used to study low-temperature plasma assisted fuel oxidation kinetics in a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge in ethene-air at stoichiometric and fuel lean conditions at 40 Torr pressure. Air and fuel-air mixtures are excited by a burst of high-voltage nanosecond pulses (peak voltage, 20 kV; pulse duration, ∼ 25 ns) at a 40 kHz pulse repetition rate and a burst repetition rate of 10 Hz. The number of pulses in the burst is varied from a few pulses to a few hundred pulses. The results are compared with the previously developed hydrocarbon-air plasma chemistry model, modified to incorporate non-empirical scaling of the nanosecond discharge pulse energy coupled to the plasma with number density, as well as one-dimensional conduction heat transfer. Experimental time-resolved temperature, determined as a function of the number of pulses in the burst, is found to agree well with the model predictions. The results demonstrate that the heating rate in fuel-air plasmas is much faster compared with air plasmas, primarily due to energy release in exothermic reactions of fuel with O atoms generated by the plasma. It is found that the initial heating rate in fuel-air plasmas is controlled by the rate of radical (primarily O atoms) generation and is nearly independent of the equivalence ratio. At long burst durations, the heating rate in lean fuel air-mixtures is significantly reduced when all fuel is oxidized.

  6. A 7.8 kV nanosecond pulse generator with a 500 Hz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Liao, H.; Liu, M.; Zhu, G.; Yang, Z.; Shi, P.; Lu, Q.; Sun, X.

    2018-04-01

    Pseudospark switches are widely used in pulsed power applications. In this paper, we present the design and performance of a 500 Hz repetition rate high-voltage pulse generator to drive TDI-series pseudospark switches. A high-voltage pulse is produced by discharging an 8 μF capacitor through a primary windings of a setup isolation transformer using a single metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as a control switch. In addition, a self-break spark gap is used to steepen the pulse front. The pulse generator can deliver a high-voltage pulse with a peak trigger voltage of 7.8 kV, a peak trigger current of 63 A, a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~30 ns, and a rise time of 5 ns to the trigger pin of the pseudospark switch. During burst mode operation, the generator achieved up to a 500 Hz repetition rate. Meanwhile, we also provide an AC heater power circuit for heating a H2 reservoir. This pulse generator can be used in circuits with TDI-series pseudospark switches with either a grounded cathode or with a cathode electrically floating operation. The details of the circuits and their implementation are described in the paper.

  7. RF pulse compression in the NLC test accelerator at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    At the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), the authors are designing a Next Linear Collider (NLC) with linacs powered by X-band klystrons with rf pulse compression. The design of the linac rf system is based on X-band prototypes which have been tested at high power, and on a systems-integration test - the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) - which is currently under construction at SLAC. This paper discusses some of the systems implications of rf pulse compression, and the use of pulse compression in the NLCTA, both for peak power multiplication and for controlling, by rf phase modulation, intra-pulse variations in the linac beam energy

  8. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value).

  9. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value)

  10. Method for pulse to pulse dose reproducibility applied to electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Oproiu, C.; Cirstea, E.; Craciun, G.

    2002-01-01

    An original method for obtaining programmed beam single shots and pulse trains with programmed pulse number, pulse repetition frequency, pulse duration and pulse dose is presented. It is particularly useful for automatic control of absorbed dose rate level, irradiation process control as well as in pulse radiolysis studies, single pulse dose measurement or for research experiments where pulse-to-pulse dose reproducibility is required. This method is applied to the electron linear accelerators, ALIN-10 of 6.23 MeV and 82 W and ALID-7, of 5.5 MeV and 670 W, built in NILPRP. In order to implement this method, the accelerator triggering system (ATS) consists of two branches: the gun branch and the magnetron branch. ATS, which synchronizes all the system units, delivers trigger pulses at a programmed repetition rate (up to 250 pulses/s) to the gun (80 kV, 10 A and 4 ms) and magnetron (45 kV, 100 A, and 4 ms).The accelerated electron beam existence is determined by the electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping. The method consists in controlling the overlapping of pulses in order to deliver the beam in the desired sequence. This control is implemented by a discrete pulse position modulation of gun and/or magnetron pulses. The instabilities of the gun and magnetron transient regimes are avoided by operating the accelerator with no accelerated beam for a certain time. At the operator 'beam start' command, the ATS controls electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping and the linac beam is generated. The pulse-to-pulse absorbed dose variation is thus considerably reduced. Programmed absorbed dose, irradiation time, beam pulse number or other external events may interrupt the coincidence between the gun and magnetron pulses. Slow absorbed dose variation is compensated by the control of the pulse duration and repetition frequency. Two methods are reported in the electron linear accelerators' development for obtaining the pulse to pulse dose reproducibility: the method

  11. New Pulsed Power Technology for High Current Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G J

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in solid-state modulators now permit the design of a new class of high current accelerators. These new accelerators will be able to operate in burst mode at frequencies of several MHz with unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format. These new modulators can drive accelerators to high average powers that far exceed those of any other technology and can be used to enable precision beam manipulations. New insulator technology combined with novel pulse forming lines and switching may enable the construction of a new type of high gradient, high current accelerator. Recent developments in these areas will be reviewed

  12. Pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the enviromental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    1997-05-01

    The project of pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the environmental applications is considered. An accelerator consists of high voltage generator with vacuum insulation and vacuum diode with plasma cathode on the basis discharge on the surface of dielectric of large dimensions. The main parameters of electron accelerators are following: kinetic energy 0.2 - 2.0 MeV, electron beam current 1 - 30 kA and pulse duration 1- 5 microseconds. The main applications of accelerator for decomposition of wastewaters are considered.

  13. Measurements and kinetic modeling of atomic species in fuel-oxidizer mixtures excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, C.; Eckert, Z.; Yin, Z.; Frederickson, K.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the results of number density measurements of metastable Ar atoms and ground state H atoms in diluted mixtures of H2 and O2 with Ar, as well as ground state O atoms in diluted H2-O2-Ar, CH4-O2-Ar, C3H8-O2-Ar, and C2H4-O2-Ar mixtures excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge. The measurements have been made in a nanosecond pulse, double dielectric barrier discharge plasma sustained in a flow reactor between two plane electrodes encapsulated within dielectric material, at an initial temperature of 500 K and pressures ranging from 300 Torr to 700 Torr. Metastable Ar atom number density distribution in the afterglow is measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and used to characterize plasma uniformity. Temperature rise in the reacting flow is measured by Rayleigh scattering. H atom and O atom number densities are measured by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence. The results are compared with kinetic model predictions, showing good agreement, with the exception of extremely lean mixtures. O atoms and H atoms in the plasma are produced mainly during quenching of electronically excited Ar atoms generated by electron impact. In H2-Ar and O2-Ar mixtures, the atoms decay by three-body recombination. In H2-O2-Ar, CH4-O2-Ar, and C3H8-O2-Ar mixtures, O atoms decay in a reaction with OH, generated during H atom reaction with HO2, with the latter produced by three-body H atom recombination with O2. The net process of O atom decay is O  +  H  →  OH, such that the decay rate is controlled by the amount of H atoms produced in the discharge. In extra lean mixtures of propane and ethylene with O2-Ar the model underpredicts the O atom decay rate. At these conditions, when fuel is completely oxidized by the end of the discharge burst, the net process of O atom decay, O  +  O  →  O2, becomes nearly independent of H atom number density. Lack of agreement with the data at these conditions is

  14. Microdosimetric study for nanosecond pulsed electric fields on a cell circuit model with nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzi, Agnese; Merla, Caterina; Camilleri, Paola; Paffi, Alessandra; d'Inzeo, Guglielmo; Apollonio, Francesca; Liberti, Micaela

    2013-10-01

    Recently, scientific interest in electric pulses, always more intense and shorter and able to induce biological effects on both plasma and nuclear membranes, has greatly increased. Hence, microdosimetric models that include internal organelles like the nucleus have assumed increasing importance. In this work, a circuit model of the cell including the nucleus is proposed, which accounts for the dielectric dispersion of all cell compartments. The setup of the dielectric model of the nucleus is of fundamental importance in determining the transmembrane potential (TMP) induced on the nuclear membrane; here, this is demonstrated by comparing results for three different sets of nuclear dielectric properties present in the literature. The results have been compared, even including or disregarding the dielectric dispersion of the nucleus. The main differences have been found when using pulses shorter than 10 ns. This is due to the fact that the high spectral components of the shortest pulses are differently taken into account by the nuclear membrane transfer functions computed with and without nuclear dielectric dispersion. The shortest pulses are also the most effective in porating the intracellular structures, as confirmed by the time courses of the TMP calculated across the plasma and nuclear membranes. We show how dispersive nucleus models are unavoidable when dealing with pulses shorter than 10 ns because of the large spectral contents arriving above 100 MHz, i.e., over the typical relaxation frequencies of the dipolar mechanism of the molecules constituting the nuclear membrane and the subcellular cell compartments.

  15. Development of a compact generator for gigawatt, nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lin, E-mail: zhoulin-2003@163.com; Jiang, Zhanxing; Liang, Chuan; Li, Mingjia; Wang, Wenchuan; Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-226, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    A compact generator producing 2.2-ns 1.5 GW high-voltage pulses was developed. The generator employed a 27.6 Ω, 0.9 ns pulse-forming-line (PFL), which was charged by an iron core transformer with a turn ratio of 2:33.5 and a coefficient of 0.94. A 1.2 μF, 20 kV capacitor and a hydrogen thyratron were used in the primary circuit. When the thyratron closed at 14.5 kV, 3.4% of the energy stored in the capacitor was delivered to the PFL in 850 ns, producing a peak voltage of up to ∼500 kV. In addition, the principle of triple resonance transformation was employed by adding a 50 pF tuning capacitor and a 1.15 mH inductor between the transformer and the PFL, which led to a significant reduction of the duration and peak value of the transformer voltage without reducing that in the PFL. Meanwhile, an adjustable self-break oil switch was applied. By using transmission lines with impedance overmatched to that of the PFL, the generator delivered a 512 kV pulse across an electron beam diode, generating radiation with a dose of 20 mR/pulse at 20 cm ahead of the diode. The generator provides an excellent ultra-short radiation pulse source for the studies on radiation physics.

  16. Impact of external medium conductivity on cell membrane electropermeabilization by microsecond and nanosecond electric pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silve, Aude; Leray, Isabelle; Poignard, Clair; Mir, Lluis M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of external medium conductivity on the efficiency of the reversible permeabilisation caused by pulsed electric fields was investigated. Pulses of 12 ns, 102 ns or 100 μs were investigated. Whenever permeabilisation could be detected after the delivery of one single pulse, media of lower conductivity induced more efficient reversible permeabilisation and thus independently of the medium composition. Effect of medium conductivity can however be hidden by some saturation effects, for example when pulses are cumulated (use of trains of 8 pulses) or when the detection method is not sensitive enough. This explains the contradicting results that can be found in the literature. The new data are complementary to those of one of our previous study in which an opposite effect of the conductivity was highlighted. It stresses that the conductivity of the medium influences the reversible permeabilization by several ways. Moreover, these results clearly indicate that electropermeabilisation does not linearly depend on the energy delivered to the cells. PMID:26829153

  17. Nanosecond time-resolved EPR in pulse radiolysis via the spin echo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.; Norris, J.R.; Lawler, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The design and operation of a time-resolved electron spin echo spectrometer suitable for detecting transient radicals produced by 3 MeV electron radiolysis is described. Two modes of operation are available: Field swept mode which generates a normal EPR spectrum and kinetic mode in which the time dependence of a single EPR line is monitored. Techniques which may be used to minimize the effects of nonideal microwave pulses and overlapping sample tube signals are described. The principal advantages of the spin echo method over other time-resolved EPR methods are: (1) Improved time resolution (presently approx.30--50 nsec) allows monitoring of fast changes in EPR signals of transient radicals, (2) Lower susceptibility to interference between the EPR signal and the electron beam pulse at short times, and (3) Lack of dependence of transient signals on microwave field amplitude or static field inhomogeneity at short times. The performance of the instrument is illustrated using CIDEP from acetate radical formed in pulsed radiolysis of aqueous solutions of potassium acetate. The relaxation time and CIDEP enhancement factor obtained for this radical using the spin echo method compare favorably with previous determinations using direct detection EPR. Radical decay rates yield estimates of initial radical concentrations of 10 -4 10 -3 M per electron pulse. The Bloch equations are solved to give an expression for the echo signal for samples exhibiting CIDEP using arbitrary microwave pulse widths and distributions of Larmor frequencies. Conditions are discussed under which the time-dependent signal would be distorted by deviations from an ideal nonselective 90 0 --tau--180 0 pulse sequence

  18. Development and application of sub-nanosecond pulse-repeatable hard X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Lin; Fan Yajun; Tu Jing

    2013-01-01

    A multipurpose X-ray source was developed to meet the needs of multitask application such as radiation detection, radiation imaging and so on. The multipurpose X-ray source has characteristic of adjustable width and energy, pulse-repetition operation, ultra-short pulse and fine stability. Its rising time is close to 98.6 ps, the operation voltage reaches 425 kV, and the peak fluence rate exceeds 2.07 × 10 18 cm -2 · s -1 at 10 cm, which provides an ideal radiation environment for relevant application. (authors)

  19. Thermomagnetic writing on deep submicron-patterned TbFe films by nanosecond current pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Long; Kato, Takeshi; Tsunashima, Shigeru; Iwata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the heating process for deep submicron-patterned TbFe films to be used in a thermally assisted perpendicular magnetic random access memory's writing scheme. The dependence of the heating power density with the current pulse width required for the successful writing was measured in the investigated range of 5-100 ns. In the case of long current pulse, the heat diffuses dominantly into substrate, which resulted in large variation of the required power/energy density with the patterned size. The power/energy densities required for writing increased as the junction area is reduced. While for the short current pulse width, the power/energy densities became rather independent on the size. The required power density for writing 0.38x0.28 μm 2 patterned films using the pulse width of 5 ns is experimentally estimated to be around P=4.7 mW/μm 2 , corresponding to the energy density of E=23 pJ/μm 2 , under an external field of 100 Oe

  20. Picked FEL Micro Pulse for Nano-Second Interaction with Bio-Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sachiko; Ishii, Katsonuri; Kanai, T; Naito, Y

    2004-01-01

    Laser pulse duration is a very important parameter to determine the threshold between thermal and nonthermal effects in laser surgery of biomedical tissue. Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Osaka University, Japan, has a pulse structure in which a macropulse (pulse width : 15μs) consists of equally separated micropulses, whose width and interval are ~5ps and 44.8ns, respectively. Precise control of micropulse train may establish fast optic processes because thermal relaxation time in the tissue is about 1us. A pulse-picking system was designed in order to extract single or a few micropulses from an entire macropulse using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) in which the light path can be temporally diffracted by an external gate signal. An extracted micropulse train was monitored by a mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) photodetector with ~1ns response time and recorded on digital oscilloscope. A single micropulse was extracted as a result of adjusting duration of the RF wave to 50 ns which is nearly equal to the ...

  1. Atomic oxygen production scaling in a nanosecond-pulsed externally grounded dielectric barrier plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian; Schmidt, Jacob; Ganguly, Biswa; Scofield, James

    2014-10-01

    Atomic oxygen production is studied in a capillary dielectric barrier plasma jet that is externally grounded and driven with a 20-ns risetime positive unipolar pulsed voltage at pulse repetition rates up to 25 kHz. The power coupled to the discharge can be easily increased by increasing the pulse repetition rate. At a critical turnover frequency, determined by the net energy density coupled to the discharge, the plasma chemistry abruptly changes. This is indicated by increased plasma conductance and a transition in reactive oxygen species production from an ozone-dominated production regime below the turnover frequency to atomic-oxygen-dominated production at higher pulse rates. Here, we characterize atomic oxygen production scaling using spatially- and temporally-resolved two-photon absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (TALIF). Quantitative results are obtained via calibration with xenon using a similar laser excitation and collection system. These results are compared with quantitative ozone and discharge power measurements using a helium gas flow with oxygen admixtures up to 3%.

  2. Hypersonic Flow over a Cylinder with a Nanosecond-Pulse Electrical Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    variation in bow-shock location, but no other factors, including rarefaction effects due to partial-slip walls, made an appreciable difference in the bow...heat transfer coefficient, Ch = 2 q/(ρ∞ u 3 ∞) along the surface of the cylinder at various times after the ns-DBD pulse. The curves were spanwise

  3. Nanosecond electric pulses differentially affect inward and outward currents in patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Yang

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of 5 ns electric pulses on macroscopic ionic currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped adrenal chromaffin cells. Current-voltage (I-V relationships first established that the early peak inward current was primarily composed of a fast voltage-dependent Na+ current (INa, whereas the late outward current was composed of at least three ionic currents: a voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa, a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca, and a sustained voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. A constant-voltage step protocol was next used to monitor peak inward and late outward currents before and after cell exposure to a 5 ns pulse. A single pulse applied at an electric (E-field amplitude of 5 MV/m resulted in an instantaneous decrease of ~4% in peak INa that then declined exponentially to a level that was ~85% of the initial level after 10 min. Increasing the E-field amplitude to 8 or 10 MV/m caused a twofold greater inhibitory effect on peak INa. The decrease in INa was not due to a change in either the steady-state inactivation or activation of the Na+ channel but instead was associated with a decrease in maximal Na+ conductance. Late outward current was not affected by a pulse applied at 5 MV/m. However, for a pulse applied at the higher E-field amplitudes of 8 and 10 MV/m, late outward current in some cells underwent a progressive ~22% decline over the course of the first 20 s following pulse exposure, with no further decline. The effect was most likely concentrated on ICa and IK(Ca as IKV was not affected. The results of this study indicate that in whole-cell patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells, a 5 ns pulse differentially inhibits specific voltage-gated ionic currents in a manner that can be manipulated by tuning E-field amplitude.

  4. Beam pulsing of C60 electrostatic injector accelerator for linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hattori, T.; Kashiwagi, H.; Hata, T.; Noda, K.

    2000-01-01

    The research which measured the energy loss by the interaction between C 60 fullerene beam and solid film using the TOF method was started. The beam pulsing equipment was manufactured in this reason. The method by the copping was adopted for the pulsing, and 10 kHz high frequency was applied between electrodes, and the 20 V maximum voltage between electrodes was obtained. The 600 keV acceleration will be carried out by the 200 kV accelerating column, after pulsing is sent to C 60 fullerene beam drawn from electron impact type ion source at 300 V in pulse intervals 50 μs and 4.6 μs pulse width. The APF-IH type linear accelerator that it settles the fullerene more and more using the APF focusing and accelerates at the high acceleration is designed and is manufactured, and this is made to be a linear accelerator of back step, the high energy acceleration will be carried out. (author)

  5. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Janggil

    2015-01-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate. (technical note)

  6. Analysis of material modifications caused by nanosecond pulsed UV laser processing of SiC and GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Olaf; Wernicke, Tim; Wuerfl, Joachim; Traenkle, Guenther [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Hergenroeder, Roland [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of direct UV laser processing on single crystal SiC in ambient air were investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and measurements of the electrical resistance using the transfer length method (TLM). Scanning electron microscopy was applied to study the morphology and dimensions of the laser-treated regions. After laser processing using a nanosecond pulsed solid-state laser the debris consisting of silicon oxide was removed by etching in buffered hydrofluoric acid. A layer of resolidified material remains at the surface indicating the thermal impact of the laser process. The Si/C ratio is significantly disturbed at the surface of the resolidified layer and approaches unity in a depth of several tens of nanometers. A privileged oxidation of carbon leaves elementary resolidified silicon at the surface, where nanocrystalline silicon was detected. Oxygen and nitrogen were detected near the surface down to a depth of some tens of nanometers. A conductive surface film is formed, which is attributed to the thermal impact causing the formation of the silicon-rich surface layer and the incorporation of nitrogen as dopant. No indications for microcrack or defect formation were found beneath the layer of resolidified material. (orig.)

  7. Cavitation and shock waves emission on the rigid boundary of water under mid-IR nanosecond laser pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkin, A. V.; Bychkov, A. S.; Karabutov, A. A.; Potemkin, F. V.

    2018-06-01

    The processes of conversion of light energy into mechanical energy under mid-IR nanosecond laser excitation on a rigid boundary of water are investigated. Strong water absorption of Q-switched Cr:Yb:Ho:YSGG (2.85 µm, 6 mJ, 45 ns) laser radiation provides rapid energy deposition of ~8 kJ cm‑3 accompanied with strong mechanical transients. The evolution of shock waves and cavitation bubbles is studied using the technique of shadowgraphy and acoustic measurements, and the conversion efficiency into these energy channels for various laser fluence (0.75–2.0 J cm‑2) is calculated. For 6 mJ laser pulse with fluence of 2.0 J cm‑2, the conversion into shock wave energy reaches 67%. The major part of the shock wave energy (92%) is dissipated when the shock front travels the first 250 µm, and the remaining 8% is transferred to the acoustic far field. The calculated pressure in the vicinity of water-silicon interface is 0.9 GPa. Cavitation efficiency is significantly less and reaches up to 5% of the light energy. The results of the current study could be used in laser parameters optimization for micromachining and biological tissue ablation.

  8. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  9. Reaction pathways of producing and losing particles in atmospheric pressure methane nanosecond pulsed needle-plane discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuefeng; Wang, Chao; Li, Li; Wang, Lijuan; Pan, Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional fluid model is built up to numerically investigate the reaction pathways of producing and losing particles in atmospheric pressure methane nanosecond pulsed needle-plane discharge plasma. The calculation results indicate that the electron collisions with CH4 are the key pathways to produce the neutral particles CH2 and CH as well as the charged particles e and CH3+. CH3, H2, H, C2H2, and C2H4 primarily result from the reactions between the neutral particles and CH4. The charge transfer reactions are the significant pathways to produce CH4+, C2H2+, and C2H4+. As to the neutral species CH and H and the charged species CH3+, the reactions between themselves and CH4 contribute to substantial losses of these particles. The ways responsible for losing CH3, H2, C2H2, and C2H4 are CH3 + H → CH4, H2 + CH → CH2 + H, CH4+ + C2H2 → C2H2+ + CH4, and CH4+ + C2H4 → C2H4+ + CH4, respectively. Both electrons and C2H4+ are consumed by the dissociative electron-ion recombination reactions. The essential reaction pathways of losing CH4+ and C2H2+ are the charge transfer reactions.

  10. High level active n+ doping of strained germanium through co-implantation and nanosecond pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, David; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Monmeyran, Corentin P.; Akey, Austin J.; Milazzo, Ruggero; Cai, Yan; Napolitani, Enrico; Gwilliam, Russell M.; Crowe, Iain F.; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, L. C.; Agarwal, Anuradha; Mazur, Eric; Aziz, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining high level active n+ carrier concentrations in germanium (Ge) has been a significant challenge for further development of Ge devices. By ion implanting phosphorus (P) and fluorine (F) into Ge and restoring crystallinity using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM), we demonstrate 1020 cm-3 n+ carrier concentration in tensile-strained epitaxial germanium-on-silicon. Scanning electron microscopy shows that after laser treatment, samples implanted with P have an ablated surface, whereas P + F co-implanted samples have good crystallinity and a smooth surface topography. We characterize P and F concentration depth profiles using secondary ion mass spectrometry and spreading resistance profiling. The peak carrier concentration, 1020 cm-3 at 80 nm below the surface, coincides with the peak F concentration, illustrating the key role of F in increasing donor activation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of the co-implanted sample shows that the Ge epilayer region damaged during implantation is a single crystal after PLM. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements both indicate that the as-grown epitaxial layer strain is preserved after PLM. These results demonstrate that co-implantation and PLM can achieve the combination of n+ carrier concentration and strain in Ge epilayers necessary for next-generation, high-performance Ge-on-Si devices.

  11. Creation of excitations and defects in insulating materials by high-current-density electron beams of nanosecond pulse duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaisburd, D.I.; Evdokimov, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is concerned with fast and ultra-fast processes in insulating materials under the irradiation by a high-current-density electron beam of a nanosecond pulse duration. The inflation process induced by the interaction of a high-intensity electron beam with a dielectric is examined. The ''instantaneous'' distribution of non-ionizing electrons and holes is one of the most important stages of the process. Ionization-passive electrons and holes make the main contribution to many fast processes with a characteristic time in the range 10 -14 /10 -12 s: high-energy conductivity, intraband luminescence, etc. A technique was developed for calculation of the ''instantaneous'' distribution of non-ionizing electrons and holes in a dielectric prior to electron-phonon relaxation. The following experimental effects are considered: intraband luminescence, coexistence of intraband electron luminescence and band-to-band hole luminescence in CsI, high energy conductivity; generation of mechanical fields and their interaction with cracks and dislocations. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. OH density measured by PLIF in a nanosecond atmospheric pressure diffuse discharge in humid air under steep high voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaras, K.; Magne, L.; Pasquiers, S.; Tardiveau, P.; Jeanney, P.; Bournonville, B.

    2018-04-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of the OH radical density are measured using planar laser induced fluorescence in the afterglow of a nanosecond diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure in humid air. The diffuse discharge is generated between a pin and a grounded plate electrodes within a gap of 18 mm. The high voltage pulse applied to the pin ranges from 65 to 85 kV with a rise time of 2 ns. The specific electrical energy transferred to the gas ranges from 5 to 40 J l‑1. The influence of H2O concentration is studied from 0.5% to 1.5%. An absolute calibration of OH density is performed using a six-level transient rate equation model to simulate the dynamics of OH excitation by the laser, taking into account collisional processes during the optical pumping and the fluorescence. Rayleigh scattering measurements are used to achieve the geometrical part of the calibration. A local maximum of OH density is found in the pin area whatever the operating conditions. For 85 kV and 1% of H2O, this peak reaches a value of 2.0 × 1016 cm‑3 corresponding to 8% of H2O dissociation. The temporal decay of the spatially averaged OH density is found to be similar as in the afterglow of a homogeneous photo-triggered discharge for which a self-consistent modeling is done. These tools are then used to bring discussion elements on OH kinetics.

  13. Evaluation of the Genetic Response of U937 and Jurkat Cells to 10-Nanosecond Electrical Pulses (nsEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb C Roth

    Full Text Available Nanosecond electrical pulse (nsEP exposure activates signaling pathways, produces oxidative stress, stimulates hormone secretion, causes cell swelling and induces apoptotic and necrotic death. The underlying biophysical connection(s between these diverse cellular reactions and nsEP has yet to be elucidated. Using global genetic analysis, we evaluated how two commonly studied cell types, U937 and Jurkat, respond to nsEP exposure. We hypothesized that by studying the genetic response of the cells following exposure, we would gain direct insight into the stresses experienced by the cell and in turn better understand the biophysical interaction taking place during the exposure. Using Ingenuity Systems software, we found genes associated with cell growth, movement and development to be significantly up-regulated in both cell types 4 h post exposure to nsEP. In agreement with our hypothesis, we also found that both cell lines exhibit significant biological changes consistent with mechanical stress induction. These results advance nsEP research by providing strong evidence that the interaction of nsEPs with cells involves mechanical stress.

  14. Darkening effect on AZ31B magnesium alloy surface induced by nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Y.C., E-mail: guan0013@e.ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Zhou, W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Zheng, H.Y.; Li, Z.L. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2013-09-01

    Permanent darkening effect was achieved on surface of AZ31B Mg alloy irradiated with nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser, and special attention was made to examine how surface structure as well as oxidation affect the darkening effect. Experiments were carried out to characterize morphological evolution and chemical composition of the irradiated areas by optical reflection spectrometer, Talysurf surface profiler, SEM, EDS, and XPS. The darkening effect was found to be occurred at the surface under high laser energy. Optical spectra showed that the induced darkening surface was uniform over the spectral range from 200 nm to 1100 nm. SEM and surface profiler showed that surface morphology of darkening areas consisted of large number of micron scale cauliflower-like clusters and protruding particles. EDS and XPS showed that compared to non-irradiated area, oxygen content at the darkening areas increased significantly. It was proposed a mechanism that involved trapping of light in the surface morphology and chemistry variation of irradiated areas to explain the laser-induced darkening effect on AZ31B Mg alloy.

  15. Industrial applications of high-average power high-peak power nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paul M.; Ellwi, Samir

    2009-02-01

    Within the vast range of laser materials processing applications, every type of successful commercial laser has been driven by a major industrial process. For high average power, high peak power, nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YAG DPSS lasers, the enabling process is high speed surface engineering. This includes applications such as thin film patterning and selective coating removal in markets such as the flat panel displays (FPD), solar and automotive industries. Applications such as these tend to require working spots that have uniform intensity distribution using specific shapes and dimensions, so a range of innovative beam delivery systems have been developed that convert the gaussian beam shape produced by the laser into a range of rectangular and/or shaped spots, as required by demands of each project. In this paper the authors will discuss the key parameters of this type of laser and examine why they are important for high speed surface engineering projects, and how they affect the underlying laser-material interaction and the removal mechanism. Several case studies will be considered in the FPD and solar markets, exploring the close link between the application, the key laser characteristics and the beam delivery system that link these together.

  16. Evolution of metastable state molecules N2(A3Σu+) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Liang; Sun Jizhong; Feng Chunlei; Bai Jing; Ding Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density can achieve a value in the order of 10 9 cm -3 . The N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  17. Evolution of metastable state molecules N2(A3 Σu+) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Sun, Jizhong; Feng, Chunlei; Bai, Jing; Ding, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density can achieve a value in the order of 109 cm-3. The N2(A3 Σu+) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  18. Multistage linear electron acceleration using pulsed transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.B.; Prestwich, K.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Epstein, B.G.; Freeman, J.R.; Sharpe, A.W.; Tucker, W.K.; Shope, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    A four-stage linear electron accelerator is described which uses pulsed radial transmission lines as the basic accelerating units. An annular electron beam produced by a foilless diode is guided through the accelerator by a strong axial magnetic field. Synchronous firing of the injector and the acccelerating modules is accomplished with self-breaking oil switches. The device has accelerated beam currents of 25 kA to kinetic energies of 9 MV, with 90% current transport efficiency. The average accelerating gradient is 3 MV/m

  19. On the angular dependence of focused laser ablation by nanosecond pulses in solgel and polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. S.; Onischenko, A.; Holmes, A. S.

    2004-03-01

    Focused laser ablation by single laser pulses at varying angles of incidence is studied in two materials of interest: a solgel (Ormocer 4) and a polymer (SU8). For a range of angles (up to 70° from normal), and for low-energy (<20 μJ), 40 ns pulses at 266 nm wavelength, the ablation depth along the direction of the incident laser beam is found to be independent of the angle of incidence. This allows the crater profiles at oblique incidence to be generated directly from the crater profiles at normal incidence by a simple coordinate transformation. This result is of use in the development of simulation tools for direct-write laser ablation. A simple model based on the moving ablation front approach is shown to be consistent with the observed behavior.

  20. Sub-nanosecond light-pulse generation with waveguide-coupled carbon nanotube transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Pyatkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have recently been integrated into optical waveguides and operated as electrically-driven light emitters under constant electrical bias. Such devices are of interest for the conversion of fast electrical signals into optical ones within a nanophotonic circuit. Here, we demonstrate that waveguide-integrated single-walled CNTs are promising high-speed transducers for light-pulse generation in the gigahertz range. Using a scalable fabrication approach we realize hybrid CNT-based nanophotonic devices, which generate optical pulse trains in the range from 200 kHz to 2 GHz with decay times below 80 ps. Our results illustrate the potential of CNTs for hybrid optoelectronic systems and nanoscale on-chip light sources.

  1. Two-pulse acceleration for BEPCII injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Shilun; Wang Shuhong; Lu Weibin

    2007-01-01

    In order to double the injection rate of positron beam from the linac to the storage ring of BEPC II, a two-pulse generation and acceleration scheme has been proposed. The two-pulse simulation by programs including LIAR, PARMELA, EGUN and TRANSPORT is described first and the method is applied in the beam dynamics studies of BEPC II linac. The experiment of two-pulse acceleration was performed in BEPC II linac and some preliminary results are obtained, which provides a good reference for further upgrading of BEPC II injector linac. (authors)

  2. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of brass in a dry and liquid-confined environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shazia; Vaheed, Hamza; Mahmood, Khaliq

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ambient environment (dry or wet) and overlapping laser pulses on the laser ablation performance of brass has been investigated. For this purpose, a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, pulse energy of 150 mJ, pulse width of 6 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz is employed. In order to explore the effect of ambient environments, brass targets have been exposed in deionized water, methanol and air. The targets are exposed for 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 succeeding pulses in each atmosphere. The surface morphology and chemical composition of ablated targets have been characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) techniques. In case of liquid environment, various features like nano- and micro-scale laser-induced periodic surface structures with periodicity 500 nm-1 μm, cavities of size few micrometers with multiple ablative layers and phenomenon of thermal stress cracking are observed. These features are originated by various chemical and thermal phenomena induced by laser heating at the liquid-solid interfaces. The convective bubble motion, explosive boiling, pressure gradients, cluster and colloid formation due to confinement effects of liquids are possible cause for such kind of features. The metal oxides and alcohol formed on irradiated surface are also playing the significant role for the formation of these kinds of structure. In case of air one huge crater is formed along with the redeposition of sputtered material and is ascribed to laser-induced evaporation and oxide formation.

  3. The System of Nanosecond 280-keV-He+ Pulsed Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Junphong, Pimporn; Lekprasert, Banyat; Suwannakachorn, Dusadee; Thongnopparat, N; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    At Fast Neutron Research Facility,the 150 kV-pulseds neutron generator is being upgraded to produce a 280-keV-pulsed-He beam for time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It involves replacing the existing beam line elements by a multicusp ion source, a 400-kV accelerating tube, 45o-double focusing dipole magnet and quadrupole lens. The Multicusp ion source is a compact filament-driven of 2.6 cm in diameter and 8 cm in length. The current extracted is 20.4 μA with 13 kV of extraction voltage and 8.8 kV of Einzel lens voltage. The beam emittance has been found to vary between 6-12 mm mrad. The beam transport system has to be redesigned based on the new elements. The important part of a good pulsed beam depends on the pulsing system. The two main parts are the chopper and buncher. An optimized geometry for the 280 keV pulsed helium ion beam will be presented and discussed. The PARMELA code has been used to optimize the space charge effect, resulting in pulse width of less than 2 ns at a t...

  4. Linear induction accelerators made from pulse-line cavities with external pulse injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of linear induction accelerator have been reported previously. In one, unidirectional voltage pulses are generated outside the accelerator and injected into the accelerator cavity modules, which contain ferromagnetic material to reduce energy losses in the form of currents induced, in parallel with the beam, in the cavity structure. In the other type, the accelerator cavity modules are themselves pulse-forming lines with energy storage and switches; parallel current losses are made zero by the use of circuits that generate bidirectional acceleration waveforms with a zero voltage-time integral. In a third type of design described here, the cavities are externally driven, and 100% efficient coupling of energy to the beam is obtained by designing the external pulse generators to produce bidirectional voltage waveforms with zero voltage-time integral. A design for such a pulse generator is described that is itself one hundred percent efficient and which is well suited to existing pulse power techniques. Two accelerator cavity designs are described that can couple the pulse from such a generator to the beam; one of these designs provides voltage doubling. Comparison is made between the accelerating gradients that can be obtained with this and the preceding types of induction accelerator

  5. Current pulse generator of an induction accelerator electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baginskij, B.A.; Makarevich, V.N.; Shtejn, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Thyristor generator forming in betatron electromagnet coil sinusoidal and quasisinusoidal current unipolar pulses, the field being deforced at the beginning of acceleration cycle, and with the pulse flat top in the cycle end, is described. The current amplitude is controlled by pulse-phase method. The current pulse time shift permitted to decrease the loss rate in the accumulating capacitor. The generator is used in systems with 1-10 ms pulse duration, electromagnet magnetic field maximal energy - 45-450 J, the voltage amplitude in the coil 960-1500 V and amplitude of the current passing the coil 100-500 A, the repetition frequency being 50-200 Hz. In particular, the generator is used to supply betatrons designed for defectoscopy in nonstationary conditions, the accelerated electron energy being 4, 6, 8 and 15 MeV

  6. Near-Field Propagation of Sub-Nanosecond Electric Pulses into Amorphous Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43 273–80, 1996. [17] M. M. Paulides, J. F. Bakker, E. Neufeld, J. Van der Zee, P. P. Jansen, P.C. Levendag and G. C. Van ...491– 494, 1993. [9] G. M. Molen and M. S. Mazzola, "Breakdown mechanisms in a pulse-charged spark gap,"IEEE conference record of 1988, Power...models and numerical methods on predicted power deposition patterns,” Int. J. Hyperth. 15 519–40, 1999. [15] H. Kroeze, J. B. Van de Kramer, A. A. C

  7. Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses. I. Experimental. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.; Herman, S.; Perry, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The authors report extensive laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics at 1053 and 526 mm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ 1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in good agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  8. Spectral and temporal characteristics of target current and electromagnetic pulse induced by nanosecond laser ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; De Marco, Massimo; Cikhardt, Jakub; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Velyhan, Andriy; Klír, Daniel; Řezáč, Karel; Limpouch, J.; Krouský, Eduard; Dostál, Jan; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2017), 1-8, č. článku 065007. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA ČR GA16-07036S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * target current * electromagnetic pulse Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016

  9. Development of a coincidence circuit with nanosecond resolving time for NaI(Tl) scintillator pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripon, R.; Coussot, G.

    1969-01-01

    The principle and the details of a slow-fast type coincidence circuit for pulses delivered by Nal(Tl) scintillators are presented. Thanks to a voluntary limitation of the analysis band (150 keV to 1 MeV) an excellent stability is obtained with respect to thermal drifts. The resolving time which has been adopted, 4 ns with 100 per cent efficiency, is quite sufficient for the projected experiment but does not represent the optimum performance of which the circuit is capable [fr

  10. Design considerations for long-pulse, high-repetition-rate modulators for recirculating heavy-ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-06-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators are considered to be one of the promising driver alternatives for inertial fusion. In an inertial fusion driver, multiple beams of heavy-ions are accelerated to kinetic energies consistent with the fusion target requirements. During acceleration, the beams of heavy ions are compressed in time from an initial pulse duration that range from 10's to 100's of microseconds to a final pulse duration of approximately 10 nanoseconds. The compressed beam of heavy ions is then focused on the target in a reactor chamber where the energy released from the fusion reaction is converted to thermal energy and eventually to electricity. A recirculator is an induction accelerator which accelerates the particles and bends them in a closed path with pulsed dipole magnets. A single beam traverses the same accelerating cavities many times (50--100) to acquire its final energy. The primary motivation to evaluate recirculators is the potential for low cost that results from re-using many of the most expensive accelerator components, such as the induction cells, pulsers, and focusing magnets, during an acceleration sequence. One of the areas of technology that is critical to the feasibility of a recirculator is the modulator system required to accelerate the ion beams. This system greatly impacts the overall design of the recirculating accelerator. System studies have been conducted to evaluate the cost and efficiency of several recirculator configurations as function of various parameters. These system studies have helped identify desirable induction cell driver characteristics. These characteristics and the trade-offs that were evaluated will be presented and discussed

  11. Controller for control of pulsed electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryazgin, A.A.; Faktorovich, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The controller is based on the K1816VE31 microprocessor and contains 22-channel integrating 10-digital two-wire analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel 12-digit digital-to-analog converter, 24-digit output register, 16-digit input register pulse generator in the range of 0.5 - 50 Hz with the regulation step of 0.05 Hz and delayed pulse generator. The controller is used for pulsed electron linear accelerator control and is reduced to regulation of the electron beam pulse repetition rate and beam energy. 1 ref., 1 fig

  12. Synchronization circuit for shaping picosecond accelerated-electron pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Y.S.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Tomnikov, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a high-speed circuit for synchronization of trigger pulses of the deflector modulator of an accelerator with a given phase of rf voltage of 200 MHz. The measured time instability between the output trigger pulses of the circuit and the input rf voltage is ≤ + or - 0.05 nsec. The circuit is implemented by ECL integrated circuits of series K100 and K500, and operates in both the pulse (pulse duration 3 μsec and repetition frequency 400 Hz) and continuous modes

  13. Deposition of Y thin films by nanosecond UV pulsed laser ablation for photocathode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorusso, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Anni, M. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Caricato, A.P. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, F., E-mail: francisco.gontad@le.infn.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Perulli, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A. [National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics & Microsystems, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Perrone, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-03-31

    In this work, yttrium (Y) thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Ex-situ morphological, structural and optical characterisations of such films have been performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. Polycrystalline films with a thickness of 1.2 μm, homogenous with a root mean square roughness of about 2 nm, were obtained by optimised laser irradiation conditions. Despite the relatively high thickness, the films resulted very adherent to the substrates. The high quality of such thin films is important to the synthesis of metallic photocathodes based on Y thin film, which could be used as electron sources of high photoemission performance in radio-frequency guns. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition of Yttrium thin films is investigated. • 1.2 μm thick films were deposited with very low RMS roughness. • The Y thin films were very adherent to the Si substrate • Optical characterisation showed a very high absorption coefficient for the films.

  14. Deposition of Y thin films by nanosecond UV pulsed laser ablation for photocathode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorusso, A.; Anni, M.; Caricato, A.P.; Gontad, F.; Perulli, A.; Taurino, A.; Perrone, A.; Chiadroni, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, yttrium (Y) thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Ex-situ morphological, structural and optical characterisations of such films have been performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. Polycrystalline films with a thickness of 1.2 μm, homogenous with a root mean square roughness of about 2 nm, were obtained by optimised laser irradiation conditions. Despite the relatively high thickness, the films resulted very adherent to the substrates. The high quality of such thin films is important to the synthesis of metallic photocathodes based on Y thin film, which could be used as electron sources of high photoemission performance in radio-frequency guns. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition of Yttrium thin films is investigated. • 1.2 μm thick films were deposited with very low RMS roughness. • The Y thin films were very adherent to the Si substrate • Optical characterisation showed a very high absorption coefficient for the films.

  15. Damage resistance of AR-coated germanium surfaces for nanosecond CO2 laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the state-of-the-art of AR coatings on gallium-doped germanium, used as a saturable absorber at 10.6 μm, has been conducted. Both 1-on-1 and N-on-1 laser damage thresholds were measured with 1.2 ns pulses on bare and coated surfaces. Only front surface damage was observed. With few exceptions, the thresholds for coated surfaces were centered at 0.49 +- 0.3 J/cm 2 . Bare Ge had a threshold ranging from 0.65 to 0.70 J/cm 2 . No significant differences due to substrate polish, crystallinity or doping level were evident and multiple-shot conditioning resulted in the same threshold as for single shot tests. From an analysis of standing-wave electric fields, damage for AR-coated Ge appeared to be limited by the surface properties of Ge. Measurements at both 1.2 and 70 ns indicated that the threshold (J/cm 2 ) of both coated and uncoated Ge increases as the square root of the pulse-width

  16. Wavelength influence on nitrogen insertion into titanium by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, F.; Lavisse, L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Berger, P. [CEA/DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); SIS2M, UMR CEA-CNRS 3299, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Jouvard, J.-M.; Andrzejewski, H.; Pillon, G.; Bourgeois, S.; Marco de Lucas, M.C. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2013-08-01

    We studied in this work the influence of the wavelength (532 vs. 1064 nm) on the insertion of nitrogen in titanium targets by surface laser treatments in air. The laser pulses were of 5 ns and the irradiance was lower than 25 × 10{sup 12} W/m{sup 2}. Results obtained using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm were compared with those previously reported for laser treatments at 1064 nm. Nuclear reaction analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used for determining the composition and the structure of the surface layers, respectively. Results showed the lower efficiency of irradiation at 532 nm for nitrogen insertion, which is possible only above threshold conditions depending on both the laser irradiance and the number of cumulated impacts per point. This was explained as being due to a higher ablative effect in the visible range. The insertion of oxygen giving rise to the growth of titanium oxynitrides was also discussed.

  17. An ideal scintillator – ZnO:Sc for sub-nanosecond pulsed radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kan, E-mail: zhangkan8414@163.com [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China); Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Song, Zhaohui; Han, Hetong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China); Zuo, Yanbin [China Nonferrous Metal Guilin Research Institute of Geology for Mineral Resource, Guilin 541004 (China); Guan, Xingyin [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China); Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tan, Xinjian; Zhang, Zichuan; Liu, Junhong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China)

    2014-08-21

    ZnO-based scintillators are particularly well suited for use as ultrafast pulsed radiation detectors which have shown broad application prospects in various fields such as the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) diagnosis, the nuclear reaction mechanism, etc. Using the hydro-thermal method, a ZnO single-crystal doped with Scandium (ZnO:Sc) sample was prepared. As a new ZnO-based scintillator, the scintillation characteristics of ZnO:Sc have not been reported previously. In this paper, optical and scintillation characteristics of ZnO:Sc single-crystal were studied. Also a scintillation detector based on ZnO:Sc was designed. Excited by the alpha-particle, the rise time of ZnO:Sc detectors was from 162.5 to 170.7 ps, and the fall time was from 300.4 to 328.8 ps.

  18. An ideal scintillator – ZnO:Sc for sub-nanosecond pulsed radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kan; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Song, Zhaohui; Han, Hetong; Zuo, Yanbin; Guan, Xingyin; Tan, Xinjian; Zhang, Zichuan; Liu, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    ZnO-based scintillators are particularly well suited for use as ultrafast pulsed radiation detectors which have shown broad application prospects in various fields such as the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) diagnosis, the nuclear reaction mechanism, etc. Using the hydro-thermal method, a ZnO single-crystal doped with Scandium (ZnO:Sc) sample was prepared. As a new ZnO-based scintillator, the scintillation characteristics of ZnO:Sc have not been reported previously. In this paper, optical and scintillation characteristics of ZnO:Sc single-crystal were studied. Also a scintillation detector based on ZnO:Sc was designed. Excited by the alpha-particle, the rise time of ZnO:Sc detectors was from 162.5 to 170.7 ps, and the fall time was from 300.4 to 328.8 ps

  19. Studies of the confinement at laser-induced backside dry etching using infrared nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Bayer, L.; Han, B.; Zimmer, K.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, laser-induced backside etching of SiO2 at an interface to an organic material using laser pulses with a wavelength of λ = 1064 nm and a pulse length of τ = 7 ns have been performed in order to investigate selected processes involved in etching of the SiO2 at confined ablation conditions with wavelengths well below the band gap of SiO2. Therefore, in between the utilized metallic absorber layer and the SiO2 surface, a polymer interlayer with a thickness between 20 nm to 150 nm was placed with the aim, to separate the laser absorption process in the metallic absorber layer from the etching process of the SiO2 surface due to the provided organic interlayer. The influence of the confinement of the backside etching process was analyzed by the deposition of different thick polymer layers on top of the metallic absorber layer. In particular, it was found that the SiO2 etching depth decreases with higher polymer interlayer thickness. However, the etching depth increases with increasing the confinement layer thickness. SEM images of the laser processed areas show that the absorber and confinement layers are ruptured from the sample surface without showing melting, and suggesting a lift off process of these films. The driving force for the layers lift off and the etching of the SiO2 is probably the generated laser-induce plasma from the confined ablation that provides the pressure for lift off, the high temperatures and reactive organic species that can chemically attack the SiO2 surface at these conditions.

  20. High current, high energy proton beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Láska, Leoš; Velyhan, Andriy; Prokůpek, Jan; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-163 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA AV ČR IAA100100715; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-acceleration * proton beam * high ion current * time -of-flight * proton energy distribution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  1. Real-time diagnostics of fast light ion beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Prokůpek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 137-141 ISSN 0029-5922 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-driven acceleration * ion beams * real-time diagnostics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2011 http://www.nukleonika.pl/www/back/full/vol56_2011/v56n2p137f.pdf

  2. Uniform and non-uniform modes of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air: fast imaging and spectroscopic measurements of electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chong; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report experimental results on fast intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) imaging of the development of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric air and spectroscopic measurements of the electric field in the discharge. The uniformity of the discharge images obtained with nanosecond exposure times was analysed using chi-square test. The results indicate that DBD uniformity strongly depends on the applied (global) electric field in the discharge gap, which is a threshold phenomenon. We show that in the case of strong overvoltage on the discharge gap (provided by fast rise times), there is a transition from filamentary to uniform DBD mode that correlates to the corresponding decrease of the maximum local electric field in the discharge. (fast track communication)

  3. Uniform and non-uniform modes of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air: fast imaging and spectroscopic measurements of electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report experimental results on fast ICCD imaging of development of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric air and spectroscopic measurements of electric field in the discharge. Uniformity of the discharge images obtained with nanosecond exposure times were analyzed using chi-square test. The results indicate that DBD uniformity strongly depends on applied (global) electric field in the discharge gap, and is a threshold phenomenon. We show that in the case of strong overvoltage on the discharge gap (provided by fast rise times), there is transition from filamentary to uniform DBD mode which correlates to the corresponding decrease of maximum local electric field in the discharge. PMID:25071294

  4. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastelev, E. G.; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz

  6. A Simulation of the Effects of Varying Repetition Rate and Pulse Width of Nanosecond Discharges on Premixed Lean Methane-Air Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Soo Bak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional kinetic simulation has been carried out to investigate the effects of repetition rate and pulse width of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges on stabilizing premixed lean methane-air combustion. The repetition rate and pulse width are varied from 10 kHz to 50 kHz and from 9 ns to 2 ns while the total power is kept constant. The lower repetition rates provide larger amounts of radicals such as O, H, and OH. However, the effect on stabilization is found to be the same for all of the tested repetition rates. The shorter pulse width is found to favor the production of species in higher electronic states, but the varying effects on stabilization are also found to be small. Our results indicate that the total deposited power is the critical element that determines the extent of stabilization over this range of discharge properties studied.

  7. Low-threshold, nanosecond, high-repetition-rate vortex pulses with controllable helicity generated in Cr,Nd:YAG self-Q-switched microchip laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Sen; Chen, Zhen; Li, Hong-Bin; Dong, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A high repetition rate, nanosecond, pulsed optical vortex beam has been generated in a Cr,Nd:YAG self-Q-switched microchip laser pumped by the annular-beam formed with a hollow focus lens. The lasing threshold for vortex pulses is 0.9 W. A pulse width of 6.5 ns and a repetition rate of over 330 kHz have been achieved. The average output power of 1 W and the slope efficiency of 46.6% have been obtained. The helicity of the optical vortices has been controlled by adjusting the tilted angle between Cr,Nd:YAG crystal and output coupler. The work provides a new method for developing pulsed optical vortices for potential applications on quantum communication and optical trapping.

  8. Triplet states of carotenoids from photosynthetic bacteria studied by nanosecond ultraviolet and electron pulse irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensasson, R.; Land, E.J.; Maudinas, B.

    1976-01-01

    Absorptions of the triplet excited states of five carotenoids (15,15'-cis phytoene, all-trans phytoene, zeta-carotene, spheroidene and spirillox-anthin), extracted from the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas spheroides and Rhodospirillum rubrum, have been detected in solution using pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis. Triplet lifetimes, extinction coefficients, lowest energy levels and quantum efficiencies of formation have been determined. Comparison of the carotenoid triplet energy levels with that of O 2 ('Δsub(g)) suggests that spirilloxanthin, spheroidene and possibly also zeta-carotene, would be expected to protect against photodynamic action caused by O 2 ('Δsub(g)), but not cis or trans phytoene. The S → T intersystem crossing efficiencies of all five polyenes were found to be low, being a few per cent or less. In their protective role these triplet states can only therefore be effectively reached via energy transfer from another triplet, except in the case of O 2 (Δsub(g)). The low crossover efficiencies also mean that light absorbed in such carotenoids in their possible role as accessory pigments would not be wasted in crossing over to the triplet state. (author)

  9. Electron pulse shaping in the FELIX RF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weits, H.H.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Oepts, D.; Meer, A.F.G. van der

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX free-electron laser uses short pulses of relativistic electrons produced by an RF accelerator. The design target for the duration of these electron bunches was around 3 ps. In experiments we observed that the bunches emit coherently enhanced spontaneous emission (CSE) when they travel through an undulator. It was demonstrated that the power level of the CSE critically depends on the settings of the accelerator. In this article we seek to explain these observations by studying the length and shape of the electron bunches as a function of the settings of the accelerator. A particle-tracking model was used to simulate the acceleration and transport processes. These include bunch compression in a 14-cell travelling wave buncher cavity, acceleration in a travelling wave linear accelerator, and passage through a (dispersive) chicane structure. The effect of the phase setting of the RF accelerating field with respect to the arrival time of the electron bunch in each accelerator structure was studied. The parameter range of the simulations is related to that of an actual free-electron laser experiment using these bunches. We find that, for specific settings of the accelerating system, electron pulses with a length of 350 μm FWHM (1 ps) are produced. The charge in the bunch rises steeply within a distance of 25 μm. This bunch shape explains the high level of coherently enhanced spontaneous emission observed in the FELIX laser. (author)

  10. Electron acceleration by a self-diverging intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Gupta, D.N.; Tripathi, V.K.; Gupta, V.L.

    2004-01-01

    Electron acceleration by a laser pulse having a Gaussian radial and temporal profile of intensity has been studied. The interaction region is vacuum followed by a gas. The starting point of the gas region has been chosen around the point at which the peak of the pulse interacts with the electron. The tunnel ionization of the gas causes a defocusing of the laser pulse and the electron experiences the action of a ponderomotive deceleration at the trailing part of the pulse with a lower intensity rather than an acceleration at the rising part of the laser pulse with a high intensity, and thus gains net energy. The initial density of the neutral gas atoms should be high enough to properly defocus the pulse; otherwise the electron experiences some deceleration during the trailing part of the pulse and the net energy gain is reduced. The rate of tunnel ionization increases with the increase in the laser intensity and the initial density of neutral gas atoms, and with the decreases in the laser spot size, which causes more defocusing of the laser pulse. The required initial density of neutral gas atoms decreases with the increase in the laser intensity and also with the decrease in the laser spot size

  11. RF pulse compression in the NLC test accelerator at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    At the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), we are designing a Next Linear Collider (NLC) with linacs powered by X-band klystrons with rf pulse compression. The design of the linac rf system is based on X-band prototypes which have been tested at high power, and on a systems-integration test---the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA)---which is currently under construction at SLAC. This paper discusses some of the systems implications of rf pulse compression, and the use of pulse compression in the NLCTA, both for peak power multiplication and for controlling, by rf phase modulation, intra-pulse variations in the linac beam energy. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of −1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50Ω load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation

  13. Bidirectional pulser made from pulse lines for linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, E.; Mori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Okino, A.; Haginomori, E.; Ko, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to obtain high-current charged particle beams, linear induction accelerators (LIA's) of two types have been already constructed. Conventional LIA's adopt a unidirectional pulse injected from an external pulser. The other LIA's, one of which has been proposed and constructed by Pavlovskii et al., have accelerating cavities made from pulse forming lines (PFL's). In this case, no magnetic core loaded in the cavity is necessary. However, the injected pulse must be a bidirectional one. Since a part of the voltage pulse with reversed polarity is used to accelerate a beam, it is possible to make the time integral of the output voltage zero. Thus the final magnetic energy stored in the cavity can be made zero at the end of the pulse, and the pulser-accelerator system attains the energy transfer efficiency of 100%. Accelerators of this type can be divided into two kinds, one of which has cavities with internal energy storage, and the other has cavities with energy injected from external bidirectional pulsers. The accelerator of latter type has been first proposed by Smith, but it has not been realized. Several bidirectional pulsers, which consist of three individual PFL's with arbitrary impedances and a closing switch, are analyzed. Output voltages are analytically calculated by using the method proposed by Dommel for digital computations of electromagnetic transients in networks, and conditions for attaining the maximum efficiency of energy transfer from the pulser to the beam are derived. Thus, 4 bidirectional pulsers of internal energy storage type and 2 of external pulse injection type with energy transfer efficiency of 100% are obtained, including the pulsers already reported by other authors

  14. Small accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Richard C.

    1997-09-01

    Small neutron sources could be used by individual researchers with the convenience of an adequate local facility. Although these sources would produce lower fluxes than the national facilities, for selected applications, the convenience and availability may overcome the limitations on source strength. Such sources might also be useful for preliminary testing of ideas before going to a larger facility. Recent developments in small, high-current pulsed accelerators makes possible such a local source for pulsed cold neutrons.

  15. Linear induction accelerator and pulse forming networks therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Malcolm T.; Ginn, Jerry W.

    1989-01-01

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities.

  16. Pulsed neutron source based on accelerator-subcritical-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Noda, Akira; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Hiromi; Shirai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research

    1997-03-01

    A new pulsed neutron source which consists of a 300MeV proton linac and a nuclear fuel subcritical assembly is proposed. The proton linac produces pulsed spallation neutrons, which are multipied by the subcritical assembly. A prototype proton linac that accelerates protons up to 7MeV has been developed and a high energy section of a DAW structure is studied with a power model. Halo formations in high intensity beam are also being studied. (author)

  17. Performance of the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

    1983-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) facility has now been operating in a routine way for outside users since November 1, 1981. From that date through December of 1982, the accelerator system was scheduled for neutron science for 4500 hours. During this time the accelerator achieved its short-term goals by delivering about 380,000,000 pulses of beam totaling over 6 x 10 20 protons. The changes in equipment and operating practices that evolved during this period of intense running are described. The intensity related instability threshold was increased by a factor of two and the accelerator beam current has been ion source limited. Plans to increase the accelerator intensity are also described. Initial operating results with a new H - ion source are discussed

  18. Steady state ion acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Cang Yu; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao

    2007-01-01

    The steady state ion acceleration at the front of a cold solid target by a circularly polarized flat-top laser pulse is studied with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A model that ions are reflected by a steady laser-driven piston is used by comparing with the electrostatic shock acceleration. A stable profile with a double-flat-top structure in phase space forms after ions enter the undisturbed region of the target with a constant velocity

  19. Long-pulse induction acceleration of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Firth, M.; Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.S.

    1983-03-01

    A long-pulse induction acceleration unit has been installed in the high-current Cs + beam line at LBL and has accelerated heavy ions. A maximum energy gain of 250 keV for 1.5 μs is possible. The unit comprises 12 independent modules which may be used to synthesize a variety of waveforms by varying the triggering times of the low-voltage trigger generators

  20. Long-pulse induction acceleration of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltons, A.; Firth, M.; Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.

    1983-01-01

    A long-pulse induction acceleration unit has been installed in the high-current Cs + beam line at LBL and has accelerated heavy ions. A maximum energy gain of 250 keV for 1.5 μs is possible. The unit comprises 12 independent modules which may be used to synthesize a variety of waveforms by varying the triggering times of the low voltage trigger generators

  1. Long-pulse induction acceleration of heavy-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Firth, M.; Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    A long-pulse induction acceleration unit has been installed in the high-current Cs + beam line at LBL and has accelerated heavy ions. A maximum energy gain of 250 keV for 1.5 μs is possible. The unit comprises 12 independent modules which may be used to synthesize a variety of waveforms by varying the triggering times of the low voltage trigger generators

  2. Spectroscopic characteristics of H-alpha/O-I atomic lines generated by nanosecond pulsed corona-like discharge in deionized water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pongrác, Branislav; Šimek, Milan; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Lukeš, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 12 (2018), č. článku 124001. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12987S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : underwater discharge * nanosecond pulsed discharge * time-resolved emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6463/aaabb1/meta

  3. Electron pulse shaping in the FELIX RF accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weits, H. H.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Oepts, D.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX free-electron laser uses short pulses of relativistic electrons produced by an RF accelerator. The design target for the duration of these electron bunches was around 3 ps. In experiments we observed that the bunches emit coherently enhanced spontaneous emission (CSE) when they travel

  4. Repetitive pulse accelerator technology for light ion inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttram, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Successful ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellet is calculated to require that several megajoules of energy be deposited in the pellet's centimeter-sized shell within 10 ns. This implies a driver power of several hundreds of terawatts and power density around 100 TW/cm 2 . The Sandia ICF approach is to deposit the energy with beams of 30 MV lithium ions. The first accelerator capable of producing these beams (PBFA II, 100 TW) will be used to study beam formation and target physics on a single pulse basis. To utilize this technology for power production, repetitive pulsing at rates that may be as high as 10 Hz will be required. This paper will overview the technologies being studied for a repetitively pulsed ICF accelerator. As presently conceived, power is supplied by rotating machinery providing 16 MJ in 1 ms. The generator output is transformed to 3 MV, then switched into a pulse compression system using laser triggered spark gaps. These must be synchronized to about 1 ns. Pulse compression is performed with saturable inductor switches, the output being 40 ns, 1.5 MV pulses. These are transformed to 30 MV in a self-magnetically insulated cavity adder structure. Space charge limited ion beams are drawn from anode plasmas with electron counter streaming being magnetically inhibited. The ions are ballistically focused into the entrances of guiding discharge channels for transport to the pellet. The status of component development from the prime power to the ion source will be reviewed

  5. Coupling and decoupling of the accelerating units for pulsed synchronous linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Liu, Yi; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Huang; Wang, Wei; Xia, Liansheng; Wang, Zhiwen; Yang, Chao; Shi, Jinshui; Zhang, Linwen; Deng, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    A pulsed synchronous linear accelerator (PSLA), based on the solid-state pulse forming line, photoconductive semiconductor switch, and high gradient insulator technologies, is a novel linear accelerator. During the prototype PSLA commissioning, the energy gain of proton beams was found to be much lower than expected. In this paper, the degradation of the energy gain is explained by the circuit and cavity coupling effect of the accelerating units. The coupling effects of accelerating units are studied, and the circuit topologies of these two kinds of coupling effects are presented. Two methods utilizing inductance and membrane isolations, respectively, are proposed to reduce the circuit coupling effects. The effectiveness of the membrane isolation method is also supported by simulations. The decoupling efficiency of the metal drift tube is also researched. We carried out the experiments on circuit decoupling of the multiple accelerating cavity. The result shows that both circuit decoupling methods could increase the normalized voltage.

  6. Recent performance of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source accelerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.; Donley, L.

    1987-03-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator system has now been in operation as part of a national user program for over five years. During that period steady progress has been made in both beam intensity and reliability. Almost 1.8 billion pulses totaling 4 x 10 21 protons have now been delivered to the spallation neutron target. Recent weekly average currents have reached 15 μA (3.2 x 10 12 protons per pulse, 30 pulses per second) and short-term peaks of almost 17 μA have been reached. In fact, the average current for the last two years is up 31% over the average for the first three years of operation

  7. Repetitive pulse accelerator technology for light ion inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttram, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will overview the technologies being studied for a repetitively pulsed ICF accelerator. As presently conceived, power is supplied by rotating machinery providing 16 MJ in 1 ms. The generator output is transformed to 3 MV, then switched into a pulse compression system using laser triggered spark gaps. These must be synchronized to about 1 ns. Pulse compression is performed with saturable inductor switches, the output being 40 ns, 1.5 MV pulses. These are transformed to 30 MV in a self-magnetically insulated cavity adder structure. Space charge limited ion beams are drawn from anode plasmas with electron counter streaming being magnetically inhibited. The ions are ballistically focused into the entrances of guiding discharge channels for transport to the pellet. The status of component development from the prime power to the ion source will be reviewed

  8. High current pulsed linear ion accelerators for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Yonas, G.; Poukey, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams have a number of advantages for use as inertial fusion drivers. Among these are classical interaction with targets and good efficiency of production. As has been pointed out by members of the accelerator community, multistage accelerators are attractive in this context because of lower current requirements, low power flow per energy conversion stage and low beam divergence at higher ion energies. On the other hand, current transport limits in conventional accelerators constrain them to the use of heavy ions at energies much higher than those needed to meet the divergence requirements, resulting in large, costly systems. We have studied methods of neutralizing ion beams with electrons within the accelerator volume to achieve higher currents. The aim is to arrive at an inexpensive accelerator that can advantageously use existing pulsed voltage technology while being conservative enough to achieve a high repetition rate. Typical output parameters for reactor applications would be an 0 + beam of 30 kA at 300 MeV. We will describe reactor scaling studies and the physics of neutralized linear accelerators using magnetic fields to control the electron dynamics. Recent results are discussed from PULSELAC, a five stage multikiloampere device being tested at Sandia Laboratories

  9. Ion acceleration with ultra intense and ultra short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floquet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating ions/protons can be done using short laser pulse (few femto-seconds) focused on few micrometers area on solid target (carbon, aluminum, plastic...). The electromagnetic field intensity reached on target (≥10 18 W.cm -2 ) allows us to turn the solid into a hot dense plasma. The dynamic motion of the electrons is responsible for the creation of intense static electric field at the plasma boundaries. These electric fields accelerate organic pollutants (including protons) located at the boundaries. This acceleration mechanism known as the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) has been the topic of the research presented in this thesis.The goal of this work has been to study the acceleration mechanism and to increase the maximal ion energy achievable. Indeed, societal application such as proton therapy requires proton energy up to few hundreds of MeV. To proceed, we have studied different target configurations allowing us to increase the laser plasma coupling and to transfer as much energy as possible to ions (target with microspheres deposit, foam target, grating). Different experiments have also dealt with generating a pre-plasma on the target surface thanks to a pre-pulse. On the application side, fluorescent material such as CdWO 4 has been studied under high flux rate of protons. These high flux rates have been, up to now, beyond the conventional accelerators capabilities. (author) [fr

  10. Efficient neutron production from sub-nanosecond laser pulse accelerating deuterons on target front side

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klír, Daniel; Krása, Josef; Cikhardt, Jakub; Dudžák, Roman; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Řezáč, Karel; Sila, O.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Velyhan, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2015), s. 093117-093117 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029; GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * femtosecond laser * nuclear-fusion * ion-beams * hot-electrons Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/9/10.1063/1.4931460

  11. Influence of the shielding effect on the formation of a micro-texture on the cermet with nanosecond pulsed laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Liang, Liang; Jiang, Lelun; Liu, Xin

    2018-04-01

    The degree of laser pulse overlapping in a laser scanning path has a significant impact on the ablation regime in the laser machining of a micro-texture. In this Letter, a nanosecond pulsed laser is used to prepare the micro-scaled groove on WC-8Co cermet under different scanning speeds. It is observed that as the scanning speed increases, the ablated trace morphology in the first scanning pass transits from a succession of intermittent deep dimples to the consecutive overlapped shallow pits. The test result also indicates that ablated trace morphology with respect to the low scanning speed stems from a plume shielding effect. Moreover, the ablation regime considering the shielding effect in micro-groove formation process is clarified. The critical scanning speed that can circumvent the shielding effect is also summarized with respect to different laser powers.

  12. Generation of nanosecond laser pulses at a 2.2-MHz repetition rate by a cw diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd3+:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghia, Nguyen T; Hao, Nguyen V; Orlovich, Valentin A; Hung, Nguyen D

    2011-01-01

    We report a new configuration of a high-repetition rate nanosecond laser based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The SESAM is conventional technical solution for passive mode-locking at 1064 nm and simultaneously used as a highly reflecting mirror and a saturable absorber in a high-Q and short cavity of a cw diode-end-pumped a-cut Nd 3+ :YVO 4 laser. Two laser beams are coupled out from the cavity using an intracavity low-reflection thin splitter. The laser characteristics are investigated as functions of pump and resonator parameters. Using a 1.8-W cw pump laser diode at 808 nm, the passively Q-switched SESAMbased laser generates 22-ns pulses with an average power of 275 mW at a pulse repetition rate of 2250 kHz.

  13. Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy using nanosecond pulses from a mobile lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Rasmus; Lundqvist, Mats; Svanberg, Sune

    2006-08-01

    A mobile lidar system was used in remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments. Also, computer-controlled remote ablation of a chosen area was demonstrated, relevant to cleaning of cultural heritage items. Nanosecond frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser pulses at 355 nm were employed in experiments with a stand-off distance of 60 meters using pulse energies of up to 170 mJ. By coaxial transmission and common folding of the transmission and reception optical paths using a large computer-controlled mirror, full elemental imaging capability was achieved on composite targets. Different spectral identification algorithms were compared in producing thematic data based on plasma or fluorescence light.

  14. Velocimetry of fast microscopic liquid jets by nanosecond dual-pulse laser illumination for megahertz X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünbein, Marie Luise; Shoeman, Robert L; Doak, R Bruce

    2018-03-19

    To conduct X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) measurements at megahertz (MHz) repetition rates, sample solution must be delivered in a micron-sized liquid free-jet moving at up to 100 m/s. This exceeds by over a factor of two the jet speeds measurable with current high-speed camera techniques. Accordingly we have developed and describe herein an alternative jet velocimetry based on dual-pulse nanosecond laser illumination. Three separate implementations are described, including a small laser-diode system that is inexpensive and highly portable. We have also developed and describe analysis techniques to automatically and rapidly extract jet speed from dual-pulse images.

  15. Harp, a short pulse, high current electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.

    1974-01-01

    A 3 MV, 800 kA, 24 ns electron beam accelerator is described and the results of initial switching experiments are discussed. The generator will provide a source for studying the physics of processes leading to electron beam driven, inertially confined fusion. The major components of the accelerator are two diodes with a common anode, twelve oil-dielectric Blumleins with low jitter (less than 2 ns) multichannel switches, three intermediate storage capacitors, a trigger pulse generator and two Marx generators. (U.S.)

  16. Pulsed-focusing recirculating linacs for muon acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of

  17. Detection of explosives and other illicit materials by a single nanosecond neutron pulses - Monte-Carlo simulations of the detection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklaszewski, R.; Drozdowicz, K.; Wiacek, U.; Dworak, D.; Gribkov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of a single-pulse Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects (explosives and other illicit materials) by means of measuring elastically scattered neutrons is presented in this paper. The method is based on the well know fact that nuclide-specific information is present in the scattered neutron field. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having duration of the order of few nanoseconds, generated by a dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with a pure deuterium or deuterium-tritium mixture as a working gas. Very short duration of the neutron pulse, its high brightness and mono-chromaticity allow to use the time-of-flight method with bases of about few meters to distinguish signals from neutrons scattered by different elements. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations of the scattered neutron field from several compounds (explosives and everyday use materials) are presented in the paper. The MCNP5 code has been used to get information on the angular and energy distributions of the neutrons scattered by the above mentioned compounds assuming the initial neutron energy equal to 2.45 MeV (D-D). A new input has been elaborated that allows the modelling of not only a spectrum of the neutrons scattered at different angles but also their time history from the moment of generation up to detection. Such an approach allows getting approximate signals as registered by scintillator + photomultiplier probes placed at various distances from the scattering object, demonstrating a principal capability of the method to identify an elemental content of the inspected objects. Preliminary results of the MCNP modelling of the interrogation process of the airport luggage containing several illicit objects are presented as well. (authors)

  18. Pengaruh Variasi Jumlah Tembakan Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspefs Terhadap Ekspresi Gen Socs3 pada Sel Kanker Serviks Hela S3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kurnia Rohmah

    2017-12-01

    Abstract Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (NsPEFs is bioelectric that was developed by electroporation technology. NsPEFs use high intensity in short time exposure (1 – 300 nanosecond. NsPEFs have biological effect and was developed in cancer therapy. In cervical cancer, viral protein of HPV depresses some tumor suppressors like Socs3 gene. This research aims to investigate the effect of short variation in Socs3 gene expression. HeLa S3 cells were cultured in α-MEM with FBS 10%. NsPEFs as much as 20 kV/cm and 80 nano seconds was exposure over HeLa S3 cell in 4 mm cuvette. Wave of NsPEFs was detected by high voltage probe in oscilloscope. NsPEFs was exposure at 0 (control, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 shots. Socs3 gene expression was analyzed using real time PCR and RT-PCR. Quantitative data was analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anova, and HSD Tuker (p<0.05. This research show that NsPEFs is significantly increase Socs3 gene expression (p=0.000. The optimal shot 20 and 30 shots increase Socs3 gene expression subsequently = 2.779 and = 3.105 times. This expression decrease in higher than 30 shots of NsPEFs exposure.   Keywords: NsPEFs, shot, expression, Socs3

  19. A ‘frozen electric-field’ approach to simulate repetitively pulsed nanosecond plasma discharges and ignition of hydrogen–air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraja, Sharath; Yang, Vigor

    2014-01-01

    High-fidelity modelling of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges (NRPDs) is burdened by the multiple time and length scales and large chemistry mechanisms involved, which prohibit detailed analyses and parametric studies. In the present work, we propose a ‘frozen electric-field’ modelling approach to expedite the NRPD simulations without adverse effects on the solution accuracy. First, a burst of nanosecond voltage pulses is simulated self-consistently until the discharge reaches a stationary state. The calculated spatial distributions and temporal evolution of the electric field, electron density and electron energy during the last pulse are then stored in a library and the electrical characteristics of subsequent pulses are frozen at these values. This strategy allows the timestep for numerical integration to be increased by four orders of magnitude (from 10 −13 to 10 −9  s), thereby significantly improving the computational efficiency of the process. Reduced calculations of a burst of 50 discharge pulses show good agreement with the predictions from a complete plasma model (electrical characteristics calculated during each pulse). The error in species densities is less than 20% at the centre of the discharge volume and about 30% near the boundaries. The deviations in temperature, however, are much lower, at 5% in the entire domain. The model predictions are in excellent agreement with measured ignition delay times and temperatures in H 2 –air mixtures subject to dielectric barrier NRPD over a pressure range of 54–144 Torr with equivalence ratios of 0.7–1.2. The OH density increases with pressure and triggers low-temperature fuel oxidation, which leads to rapid temperature rise and ignition. The ignition delay decreases by a factor of 2, with an increase in pressure from 54 to 144 Torr. In contrast, an increase in the H 2 –air equivalence ratio from 0.7 to 1.2 marginally decreases the ignition delay by about 20%. This behaviour is

  20. Resistance-driven bunching mode of an accelerated ion pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Amplification of a longitudinal perturbation of an ion pulse in a linear induction accelerator is calculated. The simplified accelerator model consists only of an applied field (E/sub a/), distributed gap impedance per meter (R) and beam-pipe capacity per meter (C). The beam is treated as a cold, one-dimensional fluid. It is found that normal mode frequencies are nearly real, with only a very small damping rate proportional to R. This result is valid for a general current profile and is not restricted to small R. However, the mode structure exhibits spatial amplification from pulse head to tail by the factor exp(RCLv/sub o//2), where L is pulse length and v 0 is drift velocity. This factor is very large for typical HIF parameters. An initially small disturbance, when expanded in terms of the normal modes, is found to oscillate with maximum amplitude proportional to the amplification factor. Unlike the analogous problem in a circular machine, linear growth is limited in amplitude bntegrating the void fraction profile and comparing the cross-sectionally averaged void fraction with direct measurements using two quick closing valves. Results on the calibration of combinations of full-flow turbine meters, Pitot tube rakes and gamma densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation

  1. Current-Voltage Characteristic of Nanosecond - Duration Relativistic Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Andrey

    2005-10-01

    The pulsed electron-beam accelerator SINUS-6 was used to measure current-voltage characteristic of nanosecond-duration thin annular relativistic electron beam accelerated in vacuum along axis of a smooth uniform metal tube immersed into strong axial magnetic field. Results of these measurements as well as results of computer simulations performed using 3D MAGIC code show that the electron-beam current dependence on the accelerating voltage at the front of the nanosecond-duration pulse is different from the analogical dependence at the flat part of the pulse. In the steady-state (flat) part of the pulse), the measured electron-beam current is close to Fedosov current [1], which is governed by the conservation law of an electron moment flow for any constant voltage. In the non steady-state part (front) of the pulse, the electron-beam current is higher that the appropriate, for a giving voltage, steady-state (Fedosov) current. [1] A. I. Fedosov, E. A. Litvinov, S. Ya. Belomytsev, and S. P. Bugaev, ``Characteristics of electron beam formed in diodes with magnetic insulation,'' Soviet Physics Journal (A translation of Izvestiya VUZ. Fizika), vol. 20, no. 10, October 1977 (April 20, 1978), pp.1367-1368.

  2. A new pulsed neutron source at Pohang accelerator laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.N.; Choi, J.Y.; Cho, M.H.; Ko, I.S.; Namkung, W.; Chang, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The main efforts in the field of promoting the nuclear data activities to support the national nuclear development program being realized in the Republic of Korea are discussed. Within this program frameworks the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) will play a central role and the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) will construct a pulsed neutron source facility. The 100 MeV electron linac based on the existing equipment including Toshiba E3712 klystron, 200 MW modulator and constant gradient accelerating sections is designed in PAL. The schematic diagram and the main parameters of the linac consisting of a triode type electron gun (EIMAC Y824), an S-band prebuncher and buncher, two accelerating sections and various other components are considered. The construction of the linac already started in early 1997 is planned to be completed in 1998. The target room, TOF beam lines and detector stations will be constructed by the end of 1999. The first experiments with the intense pulsed neutrons produced at the facility considered are expected by 2000

  3. Production of simplex RNS and ROS by nanosecond pulse N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas for inducing myeloma cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Dehui; Liu, Dingxin; Cui, Qingjie; Cai, Haifeng; Li, Qiaosong; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas excited by nanosecond pulse are obtained to generate simplex reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively, for the purpose of studying the simplex RNS and ROS to induce the myeloma cell apoptosis with the same discharge power. The results reveal that the cell death rate by the N2 plasma jet with N2 shielding gas is about two times that of the O2 plasma jet with O2 shielding gas for the equivalent treatment time. By diagnosing the reactive species of ONOO-, H2O2, OH and \\text{O}2- in medium, our findings suggest the cell death rate after plasma jets treatment has a positive correlation with the concentration of ONOO-. Therefore, the ONOO- in medium is thought to play an important role in the process of inducing myeloma cell apoptosis.

  4. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) disrupts the structure and metabolism of human Echinococcus granulosus protoscolex in vitro with a dose effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqing; Aji, Tuerganaili; Shao, Yingmei; Jiang, Tiemin; Yang, Lei; Lv, Weimin; Chen, Yonggang; Chen, Xinhua; Wen, Hao

    2017-04-01

    The number of interventional treatments for hepatic cystic echinococcosis is increasing, but the chemicals or high temperatures used in these methodologies cause biliary complications, thus limiting their clinical applications. This experimental study aimed to apply a novel, non-thermal, non-chemical ablation method termed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) for the treatment of human hepatic cystic echinococcosis. The nsPEF treatment parameters against protoscolices from human hepatic cystic echinococcosis were optimized in vitro. The efficacy and mechanism of nsPEF treatment were also investigated. Fresh protoscolices were isolated from human hepatic cystic echinococcosis and were exposed to 300 ns of nsPEF with different field strengths (0, 7, 14, 21, and 29 kV/cm) and pulse numbers (50 and 100 pulses). Then, the viability of the nsPEF-treated protoscolices was evaluated in vitro. Morphological and ultra-structural changes were visualized with H&E staining and scanning electron microscopy. The membrane enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) was measured. nsPEF caused dose-dependent protoscolex death. One-hundred pulses of nsPEF at 21 kV/cm or higher caused a significant increase in the death rate of protoscolices. nsPEF induced significant lethal damage with 50 pulses at 21 or 29 kV/cm and with 100 pulses at 14, 21, or 29 kV/cm, accompanied by morphological destruction and increased levels of AP and GGT membrane enzymes. Thus, nsPEF induced dose-dependent protoscolex mortality and caused destruction of protoscolices and increased membrane enzymes. The mechanism may involve direct damage to the membrane structures of the protoscolices, promoting enzyme exhaustion and disruption of metabolism.

  5. Femtosecond pulse radiolysis based on photocathode electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Yang, Jinfeng; Kondoh, T.; Kozawa, T.; Tagawa, S.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis is a powerful tool for studying chemical kinetics and primary processes or reactions of radiation chemistry. In the pulse radiolysis, a short electron beam, which is almost produced by radio-frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator with energy from a few MeV to a few tens MeV, is used as an irradiative source. The electron-induced reactions or phenomena in matter are analyzed by a short-pulse analyzing light (e.g. synchronized lasers) with the time-resolved stroboscopic technique. The time resolution of pulse radiolysis is not only dependent on the electron bunch length, the analyzing light pulse width, the time jitter between the electron bunch and the analyzing light, but also determined by degradation due to the velocity difference between light and the electron in the sample because of the refractive index. In order to improve the time resolution into femtosecond time region, we have develop a new pulse radiolysis based on a concept of 'Equivalent Velocity Spectroscopy (EVS)' to avoid the degradation of the time resolution caused by the velocity difference between the light and the electron beam in sample. In EVS as shown in Fig.1, a femtosecond electron beam produced by a photocathode electron linear accelerator was used, and a synchronized femtosecond laser was used as the analyzing light source. The electron beam and the laser light were injected into sample with an angle (θ), which is determined by the refractive index (n) of the sample. The electron bunch was also rotated with a same angle to make an overlap of the electron bunch with the laser pulse. The degradation of the time resolution caused by the velocity difference between the light and the electron beam can be calculated as g(L)=L[n/c-1/(vcos θ)], where L is the optical path length and v is the velocity of the electron in sample (we can assume v=c for a few tens MeV electron beam).We can thus obtained g(L)=0 by adjusting the incident angle to cos θ=1/n. However, the rotation

  6. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  7. Beam intensity increases at the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Norem, J.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator system has managed a 40% increase in time average beam current over the last two years. Currents of up to 15.6μA (3.25 x 10 12 protons at 30 Hz) have been successfully accelerated and cleanly extracted. Our high current operation demands low loss beam handling to permit hands-on maintenance. Synchrotron beam handling efficiencies of 90% are routine. A new H - ion source which was installed in March of 1983 offered the opportunity to get above 8 μA but an instability caused unacceptable losses when attempting to operate at 10 μA and above. Simple techniques to control the instabilities were introduced and have worked well. These techniques are discussed below. Other improvements in the regulation of various power supplies have provided greatly improved low energy orbit stability and contributed substantially to the increased beam current

  8. Effect of boron incorporation on the structure and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, A. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sanchez-Lopez, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Rouzaud, J.-N. [Laboratoire de Geologie, UMR 8538 CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rojas, T.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Loir, A.-S. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Garden, J.-L. [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Garrelie, F. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Donnet, C., E-mail: christophe.donnet@univ-st-etienne.f [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2009-12-31

    The influence of the incorporation of boron in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the microstructure of the coatings has been investigated. The boron-containing DLC films (a-C:B) have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature in high vacuum conditions, by ablating graphite and boron targets either with a femtosecond pulsed laser (800 nm, 150 fs, fs-DLC) or with a nanosecond pulsed laser (248 nm, 20 ns, ns-DLC). Alternative ablation of the graphite and boron targets has been carried out to deposit the a-C:B films. The film structure and composition have been highlighted by coupling Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Using the B K-edge, EELS characterization reveals the boron effect on the carbon bonding. Moreover, the plasmon energy reveals a tendency of graphitization associated to the boron doping. Pure boron particles have been characterized by HRTEM and reveal that those particles are amorphous or crystallized. The nanostructures of the boron-doped ns-DLC and the boron-doped fs-DLC are thus compared. In particular, the incorporation of boron in the DLC matrix is highlighted, depending on the laser used for deposition. Electrical measurements show that some of these films have potentialities to be used in low temperature thermometry, considering their conductivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) estimated within the temperature range 160-300 K.

  9. Two discharge modes of a repetitive nanosecond pulsed helium glow discharge under sub-atmospheric pressure in the repetition frequency range of 20 to 600 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Maegawa, Takuya; Otsubo, Akira; Nishimura, Yoshimi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Yatsuzuka, Mitsuyasu

    2018-05-01

    Two discharge modes, α and γ, of a repetitive nanosecond pulsed helium glow discharge at a gas pressure of 10 kPa in the repetition frequency range from 20 to 600 kHz are reported for the first time. The pulsed glow discharge is produced in a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes without insertion of dielectrics. The α mode discharge is volumetrically produced in the electrode gap at a low-repetition frequency, whereas the γ mode discharge is localized at the cathode surface at a high-repetition frequency. At high-repetition frequency, the time interval between voltage pulses is shorter than the lifetime of the afterglow produced by the preceding discharge. Then, the γ mode discharge is maintained by a large number of secondary electrons emitted from the cathode exposed to high-density ions and metastable helium atoms in the afterglow. In the α mode discharge with a low-repetition frequency operation, primary electrons due to gas ionization dominate the ionization process. Thus, a large discharge voltage is needed for the excitation of the α mode discharge. It is established that the bifurcation of α-γ discharge mode, accompanied by a decrease in the discharge voltage, occurs at the high-repetition frequency of ∼120 kHz.

  10. Review of accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.

    1980-05-01

    Some of the problems associated with the monitoring of accelerator beams, particularly storage rings' beams, are reviewed along with their most common solutions. The various electrode structures used for the measurement of beam current, beam position, and the detection of the bunches' transverse oscillations, yield pulses with sub-nanosecond widths. The electronics for the processing of these short pulses involves wide band techniques and circuits usually not readily available from industry or the integrated circuit market: passive or active, successive integrations, linear gating, sample-and-hold circuits with nanosecond acquisition time, etc. This report also presents the work performed recently for monitoring the ultrashort beams of colliding linear accelerators or single-pass colliders. To minimize the beam emittance, the beam position must be measured with a high resolution, and digitized on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Experimental results obtained with the Stanford two-mile Linac single bunches are included

  11. Long-duration nano-second single pulse lasers for observation of spectra from bulk liquids at high hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Blair; Sakka, Tetsuo; Masamura, Tatsuya; Tamura, Ayaka; Takahashi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Ayumu

    2014-01-01

    The influence of laser pulse duration on the spectral emissions observed from bulk ionic solutions has been investigated for hydrostatic pressures between 0.1 and 30 MPa. Transient pressure, shadowgraph imaging and spectroscopic measurements were performed for single pulses of duration 20 and 150 ns. The transient pressure measurements show that for hydrostatic pressures up to 30 MPa, propagation of the high-pressure shockwave generated by the focused laser causes the local pressure to reduce below ambient levels during the time frame that spectroscopic measurements can be made. The pressure impulse and subsequent reduction in pressure are larger, with the latter lasting longer for the 150 ns pulse compared to a 20 ns pulse of the same energy. The 150 ns pulse generates larger cavities with significant enhancement of the spectral emissions observed compared to the 20 ns duration pulse for pressures up to 30 MPa. The results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown using a long ns duration pulse offers an advantage over conventional, short ns duration pulses for the analysis of bulk ionic solutions at hydrostatic pressures between 0.1 and 30 MPa. - Highlights: • Long-ns-duration laser pulses enhance the spectra observed from bulk solutions. • Laser-induced shockwaves momentarily reduce pressures to below ambient levels. • 150 ns pulses generate larger cavities than 20 ns pulses of the same energy. • Hydrostatic pressures < 30 MPa have no significant effect on the observed spectra

  12. A dense plasma focus-based neutron source for a single-shot detection of illicit materials and explosives by a nanosecond neutron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V A; Latyshev, S V; Miklaszewski, R A; Chernyshova, M; Drozdowicz, K; Wiacek, U; Tomaszewski, K; Lemeshko, B D

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in a single-pulse Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects by means of measuring elastically scattered neutrons is presented in this paper. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having duration of the order of 10 ns only, which are generated by dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with pure deuterium or DT mixture as a working gas. The small size occupied by the neutron bunch in space, number of neutrons per pulse and mono-chromaticity (ΔE/E∼1%) of the neutron spectrum provides the opportunity to use a time-of-flight (TOF) technique with flying bases of about a few metres. In our researches we used DPF devices having bank energy in the range 2-7 kJ. The devices generate a neutron yield of the level of 10 8 -10 9 2.45 MeV and 10 10 -10 11 14 MeV neutrons per pulse with pulse duration ∼10-20 ns. TOF base in the tests was 2.2-18.5 m. We have demonstrated the possibility of registering of neutrons scattered by the substances under investigation-1 litre bottles with methanol (CH 3 OH), phosphoric (H 2 PO 4 ) and nitric (HNO 3 ) acids as well as a long object-a 1 m gas tank filled with deuterium at high pressure. It is shown that the above mentioned short TOF bases and relatively low neutron yields are enough to distinguish different elements' nuclei composing the substance under interrogation and to characterize the geometry of lengthy objects in some cases. The wavelet technique was employed to 'clean' the experimental data registered. The advantages and restrictions of the proposed and tested NINIS technique in comparison with other methods are discussed.

  13. PROTO-II: a short pulse water insulated accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; VanDevender, J.P.; Johnson, D.L.; McDaniel, D.H.; Aker, M.

    1975-01-01

    A new accelerator, designated Proto-II, is presently under construction at Sandia Laboratories. Proto-II will have a nominal output of 100 kJ into a two-sided diode at a voltage of 1.5 MV and a total current of over 6 MA for 24 ns. This accelerator will be utilized for electron beam fusion experiments and for pulsed power and developmental studies leading to a proposed further factor of five scale-up in power. The design of Proto-II is based upon recent water switching developments and represents a 10-fold extrapolation of those results. Initial testing of Proto-II is scheduled to begin in 1976. Proto-II power flow starts with eight Marx generators which charge 16 water-insulated storage capacitors. Eight triggered, 3 MV, SF 6 gas-insulated switches next transfer the energy through oil-water interfaces into the first stage of 16 parallel lines. Next, the 16 first stages transfer their energy into the pulse forming lines and fast switching sections.The energy is then delivered to two converging, back-to-back, disk-shaped transmission line. Two back-to-back diodes then form the electron beams which are focused onto a common anode

  14. Rapid formation of electric field profiles in repetitively pulsed high-voltage high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Rapid formation of electric field profiles has been observed directly for the first time in nanosecond narrow-gap parallel-plate discharges at near-atmospheric pressure. The plasmas examined here are of hydrogen, and the field measurement is based on coherent Raman scattering (CRS) by hydrogen molecules. Combined with the observation of spatio-temporal light emission profiles by a high speed camera, it has been found that the rapid formation of a high-voltage thin cathode sheath is accompanied by fast propagation of an ionization front from a region near the anode. Unlike well-known parallel-plate discharges at low pressure, the discharge formation process at high pressure is almost entirely driven by electron dynamics as ions and neutral species are nearly immobile during the rapid process. (fast track communication)

  15. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  16. Electron Acceleration in Wakefield and Supra-Bubble Regimes by Ultraintense Laser with Asymmetric Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiaili, Bake; Sayipjamal, Dulat; Aimierding, Aimidula; Xie Baisong

    2011-01-01

    Electron acceleration in plasma driven by circular polarized ultraintense laser with asymmetric pulse are investigated analytically and numerically in terms of oscillation-center Hamiltonian formalism. Studies include wakefield acceleration, which dominates in blow-out or bubble regime and snow-plow acceleration which dominates in supra-bubble regime. By a comparison with each other it is found that snow-plow acceleration has lower acceleration capability. In wakefield acceleration, there exists an obvious optimum pulse asymmetry or/and pulse lengths that leads to the high net energy gain while in snow-plow acceleration it is insensitive to the pulse lengths. Power and linear scaling laws for wakefield and snow-plow acceleration respetively are observed from the net energy gain depending on laser field amplitude. Moreover, there exists also an upper and lower limit on plasma density for an effective acceleration in both of regimes. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  17. The light ion pulsed power induction accelerator for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Olson, R.E.; Olson, C.L.; Smith, D.L.; Bennett, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    Our Engineering Test Facility (ETF) driver concept is based on HERMES III and RHEPP technologies. Actually, it is a scaled-down version of the LMF design incorporating repetition rate capabilities of up to 10 Hz CW. The preconceptual design presented here provides 200-TW peak power to the ETF target during 10 ns, equal to 2-MJ total ion beam energy. Linear inductive voltage addition driving a self-magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is utilized to generate the 36-MV peak voltage needed for lithium ion beams. The ∼ 3-MA ion current is achieved by utilizing many accelerating modules in parallel. Since the current per module is relatively modest (∼300 kA), two-stage or one-stage extraction diodes can be utilized for the generation of singly charged lithium ions. The accelerating modules are arranged symmetrically around the fusion chamber in order to provide uniform irradiation onto the ETF target. In addition, the modules are fired in a programmed sequence in order to generate the optimum power pulse shape onto the target. This design utilizes RHEPP accelerator modules as the principal power source

  18. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed

  19. The Design of Nanosecond Fast-switch Pulsed High Voltage Power Supply Based on Solid-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenguang; Chen Wei; Rao Yihua

    2009-01-01

    The high voltage pulsed power supply is applied in the experiment of the nuclear science widely. It main consist of DC high-voltage power supply (HVPS) and pulse modulator. The high-frequency series-resonant inverter technology and IGBT series technology are used to design the HVPS and the modulator, respectively. The main circuit, control circuit, high voltage transformer and solid-state switch are illuminated in the paper. The apparatus can operate at a maximum output voltage of 6 kilovolt, which can be modulated single pulse and also be modulated by series pulse. A prototype is fabricated and tested, experimental results show that the pulsed power supply is well-designed and rising edge time to meet the nsclass; it can achieve the requirement of rapid modulation. (authors)

  20. E. coli electroeradication on a closed loop circuit by using milli-, micro- and nanosecond pulsed electric fields: comparison between energy costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionet, Alexis; David, Fabienne; Zaepffel, Clément; Coustets, Mathilde; Helmi, Karim; Cheype, Cyril; Packan, Denis; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Blanckaert, Vincent; Teissié, Justin

    2015-06-01

    One of the different ways to eradicate microorganisms, and particularly bacteria that might have an impact on health consists in the delivery of pulsed electric fields (PEFs). The technologies of millisecond (ms) or microsecond (μs) PEF are still well known and used for instance in the process of fruit juice sterilization. However, this concept is costly in terms of delivered energy which might be too expensive for some other industrial processes. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) might be an alternative at least for lower energetic cost. However, only few insights were available and stipulate a gain in cost and in efficiency as well. Using Escherichia coli, the impact of frequency and low rate on eradication and energy consumption by msPEF, μsPEF and nsPEF have been studied and compared. While a 1 log10 was reached with an energy cost of 100 and 158 kJ/L with micro- and millisecond PEFs respectively, nsPEF reached the reduction for similar energy consumption. The best condition was obtained for a 1 log10 deactivation in 0.5h, for energy consumption of 143 kJ/L corresponding to 0.04 W · h when the field was around 100 kV/cm. Improvement can also be expected by producing a generator capable to increase the electric field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Finite element method (FEM) model of the mechanical stress on phospholipid membranes from shock waves produced in nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ronald; Roth, Caleb C.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Beier, Hope; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2015-03-01

    The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for nanoporation of phospholipid membranes by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsEP) remains unknown. The passage of a high electric field through a conductive medium creates two primary contributing factors that may induce poration: the electric field interaction at the membrane and the shockwave produced from electrostriction of a polar submersion medium exposed to an electric field. Previous work has focused on the electric field interaction at the cell membrane, through such models as the transport lattice method. Our objective is to model the shock wave cell membrane interaction induced from the density perturbation formed at the rising edge of a high voltage pulse in a polar liquid resulting in a shock wave propagating away from the electrode toward the cell membrane. Utilizing previous data from cell membrane mechanical parameters, and nsEP generated shockwave parameters, an acoustic shock wave model based on the Helmholtz equation for sound pressure was developed and coupled to a cell membrane model with finite-element modeling in COMSOL. The acoustic structure interaction model was developed to illustrate the harmonic membrane displacements and stresses resulting from shockwave and membrane interaction based on Hooke's law. Poration is predicted by utilizing membrane mechanical breakdown parameters including cortical stress limits and hydrostatic pressure gradients.

  2. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields depolarize transmembrane potential via voltage-gated K+, Ca2+ and TRPM8 channels in U87 glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan C; Bardet, Sylvia M; Carr, Lynn; Romanenko, Sergii; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Leveque, Philippe; O'Connor, Rodney P

    2017-10-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have a variety of applications in the biomedical and biotechnology industries. Cancer treatment has been at the forefront of investigations thus far as nsPEFs permeabilize cellular and intracellular membranes leading to apoptosis and necrosis. nsPEFs may also influence ion channel gating and have the potential to modulate cell physiology without poration of the membrane. This phenomenon was explored using live cell imaging and a sensitive fluorescent probe of transmembrane voltage in the human glioblastoma cell line, U87 MG, known to express a number of voltage-gated ion channels. The specific ion channels involved in the nsPEF response were screened using a membrane potential imaging approach and a combination of pharmacological antagonists and ion substitutions. It was found that a single 10ns pulsed electric field of 34kV/cm depolarizes the transmembrane potential of cells by acting on specific voltage-sensitive ion channels; namely the voltage and Ca2 + gated BK potassium channel, L- and T-type calcium channels, and the TRPM8 transient receptor potential channel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Portable pulse X-ray micro and nanosecond range apparatus for studying fast-going processes in opaque media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goganov, D.A.; Komyak, N.I.; Pelix, E.A.

    Pulse X-radiography (X-ray flash duration in the order of 10 -6 -10 -9 sec) is the principal method for studying fast-going processes in opaque media by serial and parallel radiographic imaging. Description is given and main features are outlined of pulse X-ray apparatus IRA-4b, 5b, 6b producing X-radiation flashes from 0.3 μsec to 10-20 nsec in duration

  4. Temporary acceleration of electrons while inside an intense electromagnetic pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk T. McDonald

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A free electron can temporarily gain a very significant amount of energy if it is overrun by an intense electromagnetic wave. In principle, this process would permit large enhancements in the center-of-mass energy of electron-electron, electron-positron, and electron-photon interactions if these take place in the presence of an intense laser beam. Practical considerations severely limit the utility of this concept for contemporary lasers incident on relativistic electrons. A more accessible laboratory phenomenon is electron-positron production via an intense laser beam incident on a gas. Intense electromagnetic pulses of astrophysical origin can lead to very energetic photons via bremsstrahlung of temporarily accelerated electrons.

  5. An Experimental Study of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Mike; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Markusic, Tom E.; Cassibry, Jason T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) pulsed electromagnetic plasma accelerator (PEPA-0). Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.

  6. Synthesis of polycaprolactone-titanium oxide multilayer films by nanosecond laser pulses and electrospinning technique for better implant fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshine, Babak B.; Cosman, James A.; Kiani, Amirkianoosh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a combination of electrospinning and laser texturing is introduced as a novel method for increasing the biocompatibility of metal implants. Besides having a rough laser treated surface, the implant benefits from the high porosity and better wettability of an electrospun fibrous structure, which is a more favorable environment for cell proliferation. Titanium samples were patterned using a nanosecond laser beam and were placed as collectors in an electrospinning machine. They were then soaked in simulated body fluid for four weeks. Energy Dispersive X-ray and X-Ray Diffraction results indicate significantly more hydroxyapatite formation on laser treated samples with nanoscale fibers deposited on their surface. This shows that having a laser treated surface underneath the fibrous layer can improve short-term biocompatibility even before degradation of fibers. The thermal conductivity of the electrospun layer, measured using a Hot Disk Transient Plane Source instrument and computer code, was shown to be considerably lower than that of titanium and very close to bone. The presence of this layer can therefore be beneficial in making the implant more compatible to a biological medium. In case of dental implants, it was shown that this layer can act as a thermal barrier while a hot beverage is consumed and it can decrease the temperature rise by about 60%, which avoids any possible damage to newly formed cells during the healing period.

  7. Multiscale analysis: a way to investigate laser damage precursors in materials for high power applications at nanosecond pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, J. Y.; Wagner, F.; Ciapponi, A.; Capoulade, J.; Gallais, L.; Commandré, M.

    2010-11-01

    The mechanism of laser induced damage in optical materials under high power nanosecond laser irradiation is commonly attributed to the presence of precursor centers. Depending on material and laser source, the precursors could have different origins. Some of them are clearly extrinsic, such as impurities or structural defects linked to the fabrication conditions. In most cases the center size ranging from sub-micrometer to nanometer scale does not permit an easy detection by optical techniques before irradiation. Most often, only a post mortem observation of optics permits to proof the local origin of breakdown. Multi-scale analyzes by changing irradiation beam size have been performed to investigate the density, size and nature of laser damage precursors. Destructive methods such as raster scan, laser damage probability plot and morphology studies permit to deduce the precursor densities. Another experimental way to get information on nature of precursors is to use non destructive methods such as photoluminescence and absorption measurements. The destructive and non destructive multiscale studies are also motivated for practical reasons. Indeed LIDT studies of large optics as those used in LMJ or NIF projects are commonly performed on small samples and with table top lasers whose characteristics change from one to another. In these conditions, it is necessary to know exactly the influence of the different experimental parameters and overall the spot size effect on the final data. In this paper, we present recent developments in multiscale characterization and results obtained on optical coatings (surface case) and KDP crystal (bulk case).

  8. Synthesis of polycaprolactone-titanium oxide multilayer films by nanosecond laser pulses and electrospinning technique for better implant fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghshine, Babak B.; Cosman, James A.; Kiani, Amirkianoosh, E-mail: a.kiani@unb.ca [Silicon Hall: Laser Micro/Nano Fabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2016-08-28

    In this study, a combination of electrospinning and laser texturing is introduced as a novel method for increasing the biocompatibility of metal implants. Besides having a rough laser treated surface, the implant benefits from the high porosity and better wettability of an electrospun fibrous structure, which is a more favorable environment for cell proliferation. Titanium samples were patterned using a nanosecond laser beam and were placed as collectors in an electrospinning machine. They were then soaked in simulated body fluid for four weeks. Energy Dispersive X-ray and X-Ray Diffraction results indicate significantly more hydroxyapatite formation on laser treated samples with nanoscale fibers deposited on their surface. This shows that having a laser treated surface underneath the fibrous layer can improve short-term biocompatibility even before degradation of fibers. The thermal conductivity of the electrospun layer, measured using a Hot Disk Transient Plane Source instrument and computer code, was shown to be considerably lower than that of titanium and very close to bone. The presence of this layer can therefore be beneficial in making the implant more compatible to a biological medium. In case of dental implants, it was shown that this layer can act as a thermal barrier while a hot beverage is consumed and it can decrease the temperature rise by about 60%, which avoids any possible damage to newly formed cells during the healing period.

  9. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Yano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: yanoken@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new and unique means for life sciences. •Apoptosis was induced by nsPEF exposure in Jurkat cells. •No signs of apoptosis were detected in HeLa S3 cells exposed to nsPEFs. •Formation of poly(ADP-ribose) was induced in nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells. •Two distinct modes of cell death were activated by nsPEF in a cell-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs.

  10. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori; Yano, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new and unique means for life sciences. •Apoptosis was induced by nsPEF exposure in Jurkat cells. •No signs of apoptosis were detected in HeLa S3 cells exposed to nsPEFs. •Formation of poly(ADP-ribose) was induced in nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells. •Two distinct modes of cell death were activated by nsPEF in a cell-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs

  11. A Concept for Directly Coupled Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma jets with high momentum flux density are required for a variety of applications in propulsion research. Methods of producing these plasma jets are being investigated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental goal in the immediate future is to develop plasma accelerators which are capable of producing plasma jets with momentum flux density represented by velocities up to 200 km/s and ion density up to 10(exp 24) per cu m, with sufficient precision and reproducibility in their properties, and with sufficiently high efficiency. The jets must be sufficiently focused to allow them to be transported over several meters. A plasma accelerator concept is presented that might be able to meet these requirements. It is a self-switching, shaped coaxial pulsed plasma thruster, with focusing of the plasma flow by shaping muzzle current distribution as in plasma focus devices, and by mechanical tapering of the gun walls. Some 2-D MHD modeling in support of the conceptual design will be presented.

  12. High-yield nontoxic gene transfer through conjugation of the CM₁₈-Tat₁₁ chimeric peptide with nanosecond electric pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Fabrizio; Breton, Marie; Leray, Isabelle; Cardarelli, Francesco; Boccardi, Claudia; Bonhenry, Daniel; Tarek, Mounir; Mir, Lluis M; Beltram, Fabio

    2014-07-07

    We report a novel nontoxic, high-yield, gene delivery system based on the synergistic use of nanosecond electric pulses (NPs) and nanomolar doses of the recently introduced CM18-Tat11 chimeric peptide (sequence of KWKLFKKIGAVLKVLTTGYGRKKRRQRRR, residues 1-7 of cecropin-A, 2-12 of melittin, and 47-57 of HIV-1 Tat protein). This combined use makes it possible to drastically reduce the required CM18-Tat11 concentration and confines stable nanopore formation to vesicle membranes followed by DNA release, while no detectable perturbation of the plasma membrane is observed. Two different experimental assays are exploited to quantitatively evaluate the details of NPs and CM18-Tat11 cooperation: (i) cytofluorimetric analysis of the integrity of synthetic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine giant unilamellar vesicles exposed to CM18-Tat11 and NPs and (ii) the in vitro transfection efficiency of a green fluorescent protein-encoding plasmid conjugated to CM18-Tat11 in the presence of NPs. Data support a model in which NPs induce membrane perturbation in the form of transient pores on all cellular membranes, while the peptide stabilizes membrane defects selectively within endosomes. Interestingly, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that the latter activity can be specifically attributed to the CM18 module, while Tat11 remains essential for cargo binding and vector subcellular localization. We argue that this result represents a paradigmatic example that can open the way to other targeted delivery protocols.

  13. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori; Yano, Ken-ichi

    2013-08-30

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanosecond pulsed electric field suppresses development of eyes and germ cells through blocking synthesis of retinoic acid in Medaka (Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Shiraishi

    Full Text Available Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs has attracted rising attention in various scientific fields including medical, pharmacological, and biological sciences, although its effects and molecular mechanisms leading to the effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single, high-intensity (10-30 kV/cm, 60-ns PEF exposure affects gene expression and impairs development of eyes and germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes. Exposure of early blastula stage embryos to nsPEF down-regulated the expression of several transcription factors which are essential for eye development, causing abnormal eye formation. Moreover, the majority of the exposed genetic female embryos showed a fewer number of germ cells similar to that of the control (unexposed genetic male at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf. However, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA treatment following the exposure rescued proliferation of germ cells and resumption of normal eye development, suggesting that the phenotypes induced by nsPEF are caused by a decrease of retinoic acid levels. These results confirm that nsPEFs induce novel effects during embryogenesis in medaka.

  15. Evolution of metastable state molecules N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Liang; Sun Jizhong; Feng Chunlei; Bai Jing; Ding Hongbin [School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-01-15

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density can achieve a value in the order of 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}. The N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  16. Research and simulation of intense pulsed beam transfer in electrostatic accelerate tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaolong; Shi Haiquan; Lu Jianqin

    2012-01-01

    To study intense pulsed beam transfer in electrostatic accelerate tube, the matrix method was applied to analyze the transport matrixes in electrostatic accelerate tube of non-intense pulsed beam and intense pulsed beam, and a computer code was written for the intense pulsed beam transporting in electrostatic accelerate tube. Optimization techniques were used to attain the given optical conditions and iteration procedures were adopted to compute intense pulsed beam for obtaining self-consistent solutions in this computer code. The calculations were carried out by using ACCT, TRACE-3D and TRANSPORT for different beam currents, respectively. The simulation results show that improvement of the accelerating voltage ratio can enhance focusing power of electrostatic accelerate tube, reduce beam loss and increase the transferring efficiency. (authors)

  17. Pulsed Light Accelerated Crosslinking versus Continuous Light Accelerated Crosslinking: One-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Mazzotta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare functional results in two cohorts of patients undergoing epithelium-off pulsed (pl-ACXL and continuous light accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (cl-ACXL with dextran-free riboflavin solution and high-fluence ultraviolet A irradiation. Design. It is a prospective, comparative, and interventional clinical study. Methods. 20 patients affected by progressive keratoconus were enrolled in the study. 10 eyes of 10 patients underwent an epithelium-off pl-ACXL by the KXL UV-A source (Avedro Inc., Waltham, MS, USA with 8 minutes (1 sec. on/1 sec. off of UV-A exposure at 30 mW/cm2 and energy dose of 7.2 J/cm2; 10 eyes of 10 patients underwent an epithelium-off cl-ACXL at 30 mW/cm2 for 4 minutes. Riboflavin 0.1% dextran-free solution was used for a 10-minutes corneal soaking. Patients underwent clinical examination of uncorrected distance visual acuity and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA, corneal topography and aberrometry (CSO EyeTop, Florence, Italy, corneal OCT optical pachymetry (Cirrus OCT, Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany, endothelial cells count (I-Conan Non Co Robot, and in vivo scanning laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg, Germany at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. Results. Functional results one year after cl-ACXL and pl-ACXL demonstrated keratoconus stability in both groups. Functional outcomes were found to be better in epithelium-off pulsed light accelerated treatment together with showing a deeper stromal penetration. No endothelial damage was recorded during the follow-up in both groups. Conclusions. The study confirmed that oxygen represents the main driver of collagen crosslinking reaction. Pulsed light treatment optimized intraoperative oxygen availability improving postoperative functional outcomes compared with continuous light treatment.

  18. Kinetics of NO formation and decay in nanosecond pulse discharges in Air, H2-Air, and C2H4-Air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, David; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved, absolute NO and N atom number densities are measured by NO Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and N Two-Photon Absorption LIF in a diffuse plasma filament, nanosecond pulse discharge in dry air, hydrogen-air, and ethylene-air mixtures at 40 Torr, over a wide range of equivalence ratios. The results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations incorporating pulsed discharge dynamics, kinetics of vibrationally and electronically excited states of nitrogen, plasma chemical reactions, and radial transport. The results show that in air afterglow, NO decay occurs primarily by the reaction with N atoms, NO  +  N  →  N 2   +  O. In the presence of hydrogen, this reaction is mitigated by reaction of N atoms with OH, N  +  OH  →  NO  +  H, resulting in significant reduction of N atom number density in the afterglow, additional NO production, and considerably higher NO number densities. In fuel-lean ethylene-air mixtures, a similar trend (i.e. N atom concentration reduction and NO number density increase) is observed, although [NO] increase on ms time scale is not as pronounced as in H 2 -air mixtures. In near-stoichiometric and fuel-lean ethylene-air mixtures, when N atom number density was below detection limit, NO concentration was measured to be lower than in air plasma. These results suggest that NO kinetics in hydrocarbon-air plasmas is more complex compared to air and hydrogen-air plasmas, additional NO reaction pathways may well be possible, and their analysis requires further kinetic modeling calculations. (paper)

  19. A new method for multi-channel Fabry-Perot spectroscopy of light pulses in the nanosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behn, R.

    1975-01-01

    The demand for powerful multichannel spectrometers raised, e.g., in laser scattering plasma diagnostics, gave rise to the question if it would not be possible to avoid the light losses occuring in the use of multichannel Fabry-Perot spectrometers. These losses can be avoided with the technique presented here. The reflected light is collected and fed back to the interferometer at a different angle. It can thus be recovered for registration in another spectral channel. This method is particularly suitable for the investigation of short light pulses. A spectrum can thus be scanned step by step with full utilization of the transit time of the light pulse. In addition to light recovery, there is another advantage in that only one detector is used for multichannel analysis, thus eliminating calibration problems. In the annex to the report, emission spectres of different dye laser versions are presented and explained. (orig./GG) [de

  20. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiangmin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Tengfei; Han, Zhenchun

    2017-01-01

    Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the ...

  1. Method for controlling an accelerator-type neutron source, and a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The patent deals with an accelerator-type neutron source which employs a target, an ionization section and a replenisher for supplying accelerator gas. A positive voltage pulse is applied to the ionization section to produce a burst of neutrons. A negative voltage pulse is applied to the ionization section upon the termination of the positive voltage pulse to effect a sharp cut-off to the burst of neutrons. 4 figs

  2. Nitric oxide density measurements in air and air/fuel nanosecond pulse discharges by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddi, M; Jiang, N; Adamovich, I V; Lempert, W R

    2009-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is used to measure absolute nitric oxide concentrations in air, methane-air and ethylene-air non-equilibrium plasmas, as a function of time after initiation of a single pulse, 20 kV peak voltage, 25 ns pulse duration discharge. A mixture of NO and nitrogen with known composition (4.18 ppm NO) is used for calibration. Peak NO density in air at 60 Torr, after a single pulse, is ∼8 x 10 12 cm -3 (∼4.14 ppm) occurring at ∼250 μs after the pulse, with decay time of ∼16.5 ms. Peak NO atom mole fraction in a methane-air mixture with equivalence ratio of ψ = 0.5 is found to be approximately equal to that in air, with approximately the same rise and decay rate. In an ethylene-air mixture (also with equivalence ratio of ψ = 0.5), the rise and decay times are comparable to air and methane-air, but the peak NO concentration is reduced by a factor of approximately 2.5. Spontaneous emission measurements show that excited electronic states N 2 (C 3 Π) and NO(A 2 Σ) in air at P = 60 Torr decay within ∼20 ns and ∼1 μs, respectively. Kinetic modelling calculations incorporating air plasma kinetics complemented with the GRI Mech 3.0 hydrocarbon oxidation mechanism are compared with the experimental data using three different NO production mechanisms. It is found that NO concentration rise after the discharge pulse is much faster than predicted by Zel'dovich mechanism reactions, by two orders of magnitude, but much slower compared with reactions of electronically excited nitrogen atoms and molecules, also by two orders of magnitude. It is concluded that processes involving long lifetime (∼100 μs) metastable states, such as N 2 (X 1 Σ,v) and O 2 (b 1 Σ), formed by quenching of the metastable N 2 (A 3 Σ) state by ground electronic state O 2 , may play a dominant role in NO formation. NO decay, in all cases, is found to be dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, NO + O → N + O 2 , as well as by conversion into NO 2 in a reaction

  3. Nitric oxide density measurements in air and air/fuel nanosecond pulse discharges by laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddi, M.; Jiang, N.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is used to measure absolute nitric oxide concentrations in air, methane-air and ethylene-air non-equilibrium plasmas, as a function of time after initiation of a single pulse, 20 kV peak voltage, 25 ns pulse duration discharge. A mixture of NO and nitrogen with known composition (4.18 ppm NO) is used for calibration. Peak NO density in air at 60 Torr, after a single pulse, is ~8 × 1012 cm-3 (~4.14 ppm) occurring at ~250 µs after the pulse, with decay time of ~16.5 ms. Peak NO atom mole fraction in a methane-air mixture with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5 is found to be approximately equal to that in air, with approximately the same rise and decay rate. In an ethylene-air mixture (also with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5), the rise and decay times are comparable to air and methane-air, but the peak NO concentration is reduced by a factor of approximately 2.5. Spontaneous emission measurements show that excited electronic states N2(C 3Π) and NO(A 2Σ) in air at P = 60 Torr decay within ~20 ns and ~1 µs, respectively. Kinetic modelling calculations incorporating air plasma kinetics complemented with the GRI Mech 3.0 hydrocarbon oxidation mechanism are compared with the experimental data using three different NO production mechanisms. It is found that NO concentration rise after the discharge pulse is much faster than predicted by Zel'dovich mechanism reactions, by two orders of magnitude, but much slower compared with reactions of electronically excited nitrogen atoms and molecules, also by two orders of magnitude. It is concluded that processes involving long lifetime (~100 µs) metastable states, such as N2(X 1Σ,v) and O2(b 1Σ), formed by quenching of the metastable N2(A 3Σ) state by ground electronic state O2, may play a dominant role in NO formation. NO decay, in all cases, is found to be dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, NO + O → N + O2, as well as by conversion into NO2 in a reaction of NO with ozone.

  4. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs

  6. Oxygen diffusion kinetics and reactive lifetimes in bacterial and mammalian cells irradiated with nanosecond pulses of high intensity electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, E.R.; Weiss, H.; Ling, C.C.; Djordjevic, B.; Kessaris, N.D.

    1975-01-01

    Experiaments have been designed to gain information on the lifetime of oxygen-sensitive species suspected to be produced in critical molecules in irradiated cells and on the time-diffusion of oxygen in cells. An approach developed in this laboratory involves the delivery of two high intensity electron pulses each of 3 ns duration to a thin layer of cells equilibrated with a known concentration of oxygen. The first pulse serves to render the cells totally anoxic by the radiochemical depletion of oxygen; the second is delivered at a time electronically delayed after the first allowing for diffusion of oxygen during this time. Under these conditions the radiosensitivity of E coli B/r has been measured over six decades of interpulse time. Cellular time-diffusion curves constructed from the measurements show that oxygen establishes its sensitizing effect within 10 -4 s after the creation of intracellular anoxia establishing this time as an upper limit to the lifetime of the species. Unusual behaviour of the diffusion curve observed for longer delay times can be explained by a model wherein it is postulated that a radiation-induced inhibiting agent slows down diffusion. Application of this model to the experimental data yields a value of 0.4x10 -5 cm 2 s -1 for the cellular oxygen diffusion coefficient. Similar experiments recently carried out for Serratia marcescens will also be described. The oxygen effect in cultured HeLa cells exposed to single short electron pulses has been examined over a range of oxygen concentrations. A family of breaking survival curves was obtained similar to those previously measured for E coli B/r by this laboratory. The data appear to be reasonably consistent with a physicochemical mechanism involving the radiochemical depletion of oxygen previously invoked for bacteria. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the Genetic Response of U937 and Jurkat Cells to 10-Nanosecond Electrical Pulses (nsEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    ultrashort electric pulses. Bioelectrochemistry 79: 114–121. doi: 10.1016/ j.bioelechem.2010.01.001 PMID: 20171148 12. Pakhomov AG, Kolb JF, White JA...Bioelec- tromagnetics 28: 655–663. doi: 10.1002/bem.20354 PMID: 17654532 13. Pakhomov AG, Shevin R, White JA, Kolb JF, Pakhomova ON, Joshi RP, et al...current. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: E2281–90. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1407133111 PMID: 24843134 26. Walker K, Pakhomova ON, Kolb J, Schoenbach KS, Stuck

  8. High-voltage isolation transformer for sub-nanosecond rise time pulses constructed with annular parallel-strip transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Akira

    2011-07-01

    A novel annular parallel-strip transmission line was devised to construct high-voltage high-speed pulse isolation transformers. The transmission lines can easily realize stable high-voltage operation and good impedance matching between primary and secondary circuits. The time constant for the step response of the transformer was calculated by introducing a simple low-frequency equivalent circuit model. Results show that the relation between the time constant and low-cut-off frequency of the transformer conforms to the theory of the general first-order linear time-invariant system. Results also show that the test transformer composed of the new transmission lines can transmit about 600 ps rise time pulses across the dc potential difference of more than 150 kV with insertion loss of -2.5 dB. The measured effective time constant of 12 ns agreed exactly with the theoretically predicted value. For practical applications involving the delivery of synchronized trigger signals to a dc high-voltage electron gun station, the transformer described in this paper exhibited advantages over methods using fiber optic cables for the signal transfer system. This transformer has no jitter or breakdown problems that invariably occur in active circuit components.

  9. Subnanosecond pulsing of an 1 MeV ELIT electron accelerator by beam deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasserman, S.B.; Kuzenko, V.; Mehnert, R.; Hermann, R.

    1984-01-01

    Operation principle and performance of a beam deflection system developed for subnanosecond pulsing of an 1 MeV ELIT resonance transformer accelerator are described. Using this system a minimum pulse duration of 0.5 ns (FWHM) and a dose per pulse of about 20 Gy were obtained. As an example the fluorescence of cyclohexane excited by the subnanosecond electron pulse was measured. (author)

  10. The periodically pulsed mode of operation of magnet systems in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stange, G.

    1980-01-01

    Since in many applications in particle accelerator technology the beam duty factor, defined by the ratio of beam pulse length to the pulse to pulse period, is very small- typically in the order of 10 - 3 to 10 - 9 - it is interesting to operate the beam optical magnetic system in the periodically pulsed mode as well. Thus, by reducing the average Ohmic losses, it is possible to save energy and material. The pulsed mode of operation of magnet systems is especially adapted to those of linear accelerators and their beam transport systems, since linear accelerators are exclusively operated in this mode. But it is equally suitable for transport systems between cyclic accelerators and large storage rings as they are under development at present. (orig./WL) [de

  11. Formation of an intermediate radical cation in the nanosecond pulse radiolysis of malachite green leucocyanide in organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodkowski, J.; Bobrowski, K.; Mehnert, R.; Brede, O.

    1989-01-01

    The malachite green leucocyanide (MGCN) was irradiated in argon or oxygen saturated solutions of n-butyl chloride, 1.2-DCE, CCl 4 and acetone with 13 ns electron pulses. Two species with absorption maxima at 620 and 480 nm were observed. The latter was attributed to the malachite green leucocyanide radical cation (MGCN +radical ) and the former to the known carbonium ion of malachite green dye (MG + ). Observation of the consecutive charge transfer via the schemes: DCE +radical → BPh +radical → MGCN +radical and DCE +radical → MGCN +radical → TMPD +radical , allowed to estimate the ionization potential of MGCN molecule in the range 6.9 eV MGCN +radical radical cation is located in the ''aniline'' part of the molecule. (author)

  12. Formation of an intermediate radical cation in the nanosecond pulse radiolysis of malachite green leucocyanide in organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodkowski, J; Bobrowski, K; Mehnert, R; Brede, O

    1989-01-01

    The malachite green leucocyanide (MGCN) was irradiated in argon or oxygen saturated solutions of n-butyl chloride, 1.2-DCE, CCl/sub 4/ and acetone with 13 ns electron pulses. Two species with absorption maxima at 620 and 480 nm were observed. The latter was attributed to the malachite green leucocyanide radical cation (MGCN/sup +radical/) and the former to the known carbonium ion of malachite green dye (MG/sup +/). Observation of the consecutive charge transfer via the schemes: DCE/sup +radical/ -> BPh/sup +radical/ -> MGCN/sup +radical/ and DCE/sup +radical/ -> MGCN/sup +radical/ -> TMPD/sup +radical/, allowed to estimate the ionization potential of MGCN molecule in the range 6.9 eV < Ip/sub MGCN/ < 8.27 eV. Presented results and literature data suggest that positive charge in MGCN/sup +radical/ radical cation is located in the ''aniline'' part of the molecule. (author).

  13. Optimization And Single-Shot Characterization Of Ultrashort Thz Pulses From A Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plateau, G.R.; Matlis, N.H.; van Tilborg, J.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Schroeder, C.B.; Leemans, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    We present spatiotemporal characterization of μJ-class ultrashort THz pulses generated from a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Accelerated electrons, resulting from the interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with a plasma, emit high-intensity THz pulses as coherent transition radiation. Such high peak-power THz pulses, suitable for high-field (MV/cm) pump-probe experiments, also provide a non-invasive bunch-length diagnostic and thus feedback for the accelerator. The characterization of the THz pulses includes energy measurement using a Golay cell, 2D sign-resolved electro-optic measurement and single-shot spatiotemporal electric-field distribution retrieval using a new technique, coined temporal electric-field cross-Correlation (TEX). All three techniques corroborate THz pulses of ∼ 5 μJ, with peak fields of 100's of kV/cm and ∼ 0.4 ps rms duration.

  14. Pulsed high field magnets. An efficient way of shaping laser accelerated proton beams for application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bagnoud, Vincent; Blazevic, Abel; Busold, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, 07734 Jena (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Schumacher, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Deppert, Oliver; Jahn, Diana; Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karsch, Leonhard; Masood, Umar [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Compact laser-driven proton accelerators are a potential alternative to complex, expensive conventional accelerators, enabling unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, they still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. We present experimental studies on capture, shape and transport of laser and conventionally accelerated protons via pulsed high-field magnets. These magnets, common research tools in the fields of solid state physics, have been adapted to meet the demands of laser acceleration experiments.Our work distinctively shows that pulsed magnet technology makes laser acceleration more suitable for application and can facilitate compact and efficient accelerators, e.g. for material research as well as medical and biological purposes.

  15. Nanosecond pulsed electric field incorporation technique to predict molecular mechanisms of teratogenicity and developmental toxicity of estradiol-17β on medaka embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Kono, Susumu; Iida, Midori; Uchida, Masaya; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2018-05-01

    Herein, we propose using a nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) technique to assess teratogenicity and embryonic developmental toxicity of estradiol-17β (E 2 ) and predict the molecular mechanisms of teratogenicity and embryonic developmental defects caused by E 2 on medaka (Oryzias latipes). The 5 hour post-fertilization embryos were exposed to co-treatment with 10 μm E 2 and nsPEF for 2 hours and then continuously cultured under non-E 2 and nsPEF conditions until hatching. Results documented that the time to hatching of embryos was significantly delayed in comparison to the control group and that typical abnormal embryo development, such as the delay of blood vessel formation, was observed. For DNA microarray analysis, 6 day post-fertilization embryos that had been continuously cultured under the non-E 2 and nsPEF condition after 2 hour co-treatments were used. DNA microarray analysis identified 542 upregulated genes and one downregulated gene in the 6 day post-fertilization embryos. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses using differentially expressed genes revealed that E 2 exposure affected various gene ontology terms, such as response to hormone stimulus. The network analysis also documented that the estrogen receptor α in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway may be involved in regulating several transcription factors, such as FOX, AKT1 and epidermal growth factor receptor. These results suggest that our nsPEF technique is a powerful tool for assessing teratogenicity and embryonic developmental toxicity of E 2 and predict their molecular mechanisms in medaka embryos. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of pulse repetition rate and number of pulses in the analysis of polypropylene and high density polyethylene by nanosecond infrared laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Flavio O. [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica ' Henrique Bergamin Filho' , Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Godoi, Quienly [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica ' Henrique Bergamin Filho' , Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Kiyataka, Paulo H.M. [Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagens, Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Av. Brasil 2880, 13070-178 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, Dario [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Agnelli, Jose A.M. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); and others

    2012-02-01

    Pulse repetition rates and the number of laser pulses are among the most important parameters that do affect the analysis of solid materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, and the knowledge of their effects is of fundamental importance for suggesting analytical strategies when dealing with laser ablation processes of polymers. In this contribution, the influence of these parameters in the ablated mass and in the features of craters was evaluated in polypropylene and high density polyethylene plates containing pigment-based PbCrO{sub 4}. Surface characterization and craters profile were carried out by perfilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Area, volume and profile of craters were obtained using Taylor Map software. A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy system consisted of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 5 ns) and an Echelle spectrometer equipped with ICCD detector were used. The evaluated operating conditions consisted of 10, 25 and 50 laser pulses at 1, 5 and 10 Hz, 250 mJ/pulse (85 J cm{sup -2}), 2 {mu}s delay time and 6 {mu}s integration time gate. Differences in the topographical features among craters of both polymers were observed. The decrease in the repetition rate resulted in irregular craters and formation of edges, especially in polypropylene sample. The differences in the topographical features and ablated masses were attributed to the influence of the degree of crystallinity, crystalline melting temperature and glass transition temperature in the ablation process of the high density polyethylene and polypropylene. It was also observed that the intensities of chromium and lead emission signals obtained at 10 Hz were two times higher than at 5 Hz by keeping the number of laser pulses constant.

  17. Electron acceleration by laser produced wake field: Pulse shape effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Nishida, Yasushi

    2007-12-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the longitudinal field (wake field: Ex), density perturbations ( ne') and the potential ( ϕ) behind a laser pulse propagating in a plasma with the pulse duration of the electron plasma period. A feasibility study on the wake field is carried out with Gaussian-like (GL) pulse, rectangular-triangular (RT) pulse and rectangular-Gaussian (RG) pulse considering one-dimensional weakly nonlinear theory ( ne'/n0≪1), and the maximum energy gain acquired by an electron is calculated for all these three types of the laser pulse shapes. A comparative study infers that the RT pulse yields the best results: In its case maximum electron energy gain is 33.5 MeV for a 30 fs pulse duration whereas in case of GL (RG) pulse of the same duration the gain is 28.6 (28.8)MeV at the laser frequency of 1.6 PHz and the intensity of 3.0 × 10 18 W/m 2. The field of the wake and hence the energy gain get enhanced for the higher laser frequency, larger pulse duration and higher laser intensity for all types of the pulses.

  18. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablated sub-10 nm silicon nanoparticles for improving photovoltaic conversion efficiency of commercial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H. R.; Ghobadi, A.; Ulusoy Ghobadi, T. G.; Ates, H.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the enhancement of photovoltaic (PV) solar cell efficiency using luminescent silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs). Sub-10 nm Si-NPs are synthesized via pulsed laser ablation technique. These ultra-small Si nanoparticles exhibit photoluminescence (PL) character tics at 425 and 517 nm upon excitation by ultra-violet (UV) light. Therefore, they can act as secondary light sources that convert high energetic photons to ones at visible range. This down-shifting property can be a promising approach to enhance PV performance of the solar cell, regardless of its type. As proof-of-concept, polycrystalline commercial solar cells with an efficiency of ca 10% are coated with these luminescent Si-NPs. The nanoparticle-decorated solar cells exhibit up to 1.64% increase in the external quantum efficiency with respect to the uncoated reference cells. According to spectral photo-responsivity characterizations, the efficiency enhancement is stronger in wavelengths below 550 nm. As expected, this is attributed to down-shifting via Si-NPs, which is verified by their PL characteristics. The results presented here can serve as a beacon for future performance enhanced devices in a wide range of applications based on Si-NPs including PVs and LED applications.

  19. The influence of surface contamination on the ion emission from nanosecond-pulsed laser ablation of Al and Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, S.; Dogar, A. H.; Qayyum, H.; Rehman, Z. U.; Qayyum, A.

    2018-04-01

    Ions emitted from planar Al and Cu targets irradiated with a 1064 nm pulsed laser were investigated with the help of a time-resolving Langmuir probe. It was found that the intensity of the ions emitted from a target area rapidly decreases with the increasing number of laser shots, and seems to reach saturation after about 10 laser shots. The saturated intensity of Al and Cu ions was approximately 0.1 and 0.3 times the intensity of the respective ions measured at the first laser shot, respectively. The higher target ion intensity for the first few shots is thought to be due to the enhanced ionization of target atoms by vacuum-ultraviolet radiations emitted from the thermally excited/ionized surface contaminants. The reduction of target ion intensity with an increasing number of laser shots thus indicates the removal of contaminants from the irradiated surface area. Laser-cleaned Al and Cu surfaces were then allowed to be recontaminated with residual vacuum gases and the ion intensity was measured at various time delays. The prolonged exposure of the cleaned target to vacuum residual gases completely restores the ion intensity. Regarding surface contaminants removal, laser shots of higher intensities were found to be more effective than a higher number of laser shots having lower intensities.

  20. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiangmin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Tengfei; Han, Zhenchun

    2017-03-03

    Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of the pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47 × 103 m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.

  1. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangmin Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques, this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of the pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47 × 103 m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.

  2. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  3. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  4. Sub-nanosecond lifetime measurements using the Double Orange Spectrometer at the cologne 10 MV Tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, J.-M.; Materna, Th.; Christen, S.; Bernards, C.; Braun, N.; Breuer, G.; Fransen, Ch.; Heinze, S.; Jolie, J.; Meersschaut, T.; Pascovici, G.; Rudigier, M.; Steinert, L.; Thiel, S.; Warr, N.; Zell, K.O.

    2009-01-01

    Conversion electron spectroscopy constitutes an important tool in nuclear structure physics. A high efficiency iron-free Orange type electron spectrometer with an energy resolution of 1-2% has been installed at a beam line of the Cologne 10 MV FN Tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator for in-beam studies of conversion electrons. In combination with a γ-ray detector array, high efficiency e - -γ-coincidences can be performed. The newly developed very fast LaBr 3 (Ce) scintillator detector with an energy resolution of about 4% makes it also possible to use e - -γ-coincidences for lifetime measurements of nuclear excited states. A second iron-free Orange spectrometer can be connected to perform e - -e - -coincidences. Because of the higher efficiency and the better energy resolution, the use of the Double Orange Spectrometer for lifetime measurements is more powerful. Lifetimes down to 100 ps and even less can be determined with an accuracy of about 10 ps. The working principle of the Orange spectrometer and the setup of the Double Orange Spectrometer are described. The performances are illustrated by examples of in-beam experiments with a main focus on high precision lifetime measurements.

  5. Process and application of shock compression by nanosecond pulses of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuji; Kimura, Motohiko; Mukai, Naruhiko; Yoda, Masaki; Obata, Minoru; Ogisu, Tatsuki

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed a new process of laser-induced shock compression to introduce a residual compressive stress on material surface, which is effective for prevention of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and enhancement of fatigue strength of metal materials. The process developed is unique and beneficial. It requires no pre-conditioning for the surface, whereas the conventional process requires that the so-called sacrificial layer is made to protect the surface from damage. The new process can be freely applied to water- immersed components, since it uses water-penetrable green light of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The process developed has the potential to open up new high-power laser applications in manufacturing and maintenance technologies. The laser-induced shock compression process (LSP) can be used to improve a residual stress field from tensile to compressive. In order to understand the physics and optimize the process, the propagation of a shock wave generated by the impulse of laser irradiation and the dynamic response of the material were analyzed by time-dependent elasto-plastic calculations with a finite element program using laser-induced plasma pressure as an external load. The analysis shows that a permanent strain and a residual compressive stress remain after the passage of the shock wave with amplitude exceeding the yield strength of the material. A practical system materializing the LSP was designed, manufactured, and tested to confirm the applicability to core components of light water reactors (LWRs). The system accesses the target component and remotely irradiates laser pulses to the heat affected zone (HAZ) along weld lines. Various functional tests were conducted using a full-scale mockup facility, in which remote maintenance work in a reactor vessel could be simulated. The results showed that the system remotely accessed the target weld lines and successfully introduced a residual compressive stress. After sufficient training

  6. Optimizing chirped laser pulse parameters for electron acceleration in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhyani, Mina; Jahangiri, Fazel; Niknam, Ali Reza; Massudi, Reza, E-mail: r-massudi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983969411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-14

    Electron dynamics in the field of a chirped linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Variations of electron energy gain versus chirp parameter, time duration, and initial phase of laser pulse are studied. Based on maximizing laser pulse asymmetry, a numerical optimization procedure is presented, which leads to the elimination of rapid fluctuations of gain versus the chirp parameter. Instead, a smooth variation is observed that considerably reduces the accuracy required for experimentally adjusting the chirp parameter.

  7. Pulsed vapor source for use in ion sources for heavy-ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiloh, J.; Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed cesium vapor source for use in ion sources for high-current heavy-ion accelerators is described. The source employs a vacuum spark in Cs and its properties are measured with a hot-filament Cs detector

  8. Project of the electron linear accelerator on the biperiodical accelerating structure with deep energy retuning in a pulse mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, B.Yu.; Zavadtsev, D.A.; Kaminskij, V.I.; Sobenin, N.P.; Fadin, A.I.; Zavadtsev, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The schemes of the electron linear accelerator (ELA), realized on the basis of a biperiodical accelerating structure and ensuring the possibility of deep retuning of the beam energy in a pulse mode, are considered. Advantages and shortcomings of the proposed methods of pulse regulation of the electron energy are discussed. A project of a two-section ELA with two levels of energy (10 and 4 MeV) is presented as a base version. The beam dynamics is calculated for two versions of the ELA. Their main parameters are given [ru

  9. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Gerasimov, A I; Kulgavchuk, V V; Pluzhnikov, A V

    2002-01-01

    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 mu s duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  10. Laser accelerated protons captured and transported by a pulse power solenoid

    OpenAIRE

    Burris-Mog, T.; Harres, K.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Roth, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Nürnberg, F.; Busold, S.; Bussmann, M.; Deppert, O.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joost, M.; Sobiella, M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a pulse power solenoid, we demonstrate efficient capture of laser accelerated proton beams and the ability to control their large divergence angles and broad energy range. Simulations using measured data for the input parameters give inference into the phase-space and transport efficiencies of the captured proton beams. We conclude with results from a feasibility study of a pulse power compact achromatic gantry concept. Using a scaled target normal sheath acceleration spectrum, we prese...

  11. Injection of electrons by colliding laser pulses in a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, M., E-mail: martin.hansson@fysik.lth.se; Aurand, B.; Ekerfelt, H.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.

    2016-09-01

    To improve the stability and reproducibility of laser wakefield accelerators and to allow for future applications, controlling the injection of electrons is of great importance. This allows us to control the amount of charge in the beams of accelerated electrons and final energy of the electrons. Results are presented from a recent experiment on controlled injection using the scheme of colliding pulses and performed using the Lund multi-terawatt laser. Each laser pulse is split into two parts close to the interaction point. The main pulse is focused on a 2 mm diameter gas jet to drive a nonlinear plasma wave below threshold for self-trapping. The second pulse, containing only a fraction of the total laser energy, is focused to collide with the main pulse in the gas jet under an angle of 150°. Beams of accelerated electrons with low divergence and small energy spread are produced using this set-up. Control over the amount of accelerated charge is achieved by rotating the plane of polarization of the second pulse in relation to the main pulse. Furthermore, the peak energy of the electrons in the beams is controlled by moving the collision point along the optical axis of the main pulse, and thereby changing the acceleration length in the plasma. - Highlights: • Compact colliding pulse injection set-up used to produce low energy spread e-beams. • Beam charge controlled by rotating the polarization of injection pulse. • Peak energy controlled by point of collision to vary the acceleration length.

  12. PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II: The pulsed power characterization phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Turman, B.N.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II, PBFA II, is now the largest pulsed power device in operation. This paper summarizes its first year and a half of operation for the Department of Energy (DOE) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. Thirty-six separate modules provide 72 output pulses that combine to form a 100 TW output pulse at the accelerator center. PBFA II was successfully test fired for the first time on December 11, 1985. This test completed the construction phase (Phase 1) within the expected schedule and budget. The accelerator checkout phase then started (Phase 2). The first priority during checkout was to bring the Phase 1 subsystems into full operation. The accelerator was first tested to determine overall system performance. Next, subsystems that were not performing adequately were modified. The accelerator is now being used for ion diode studies. 32 refs

  13. Laser wakefield electron acceleration. A novel approach employing supersonic microjets and few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This thesis covers the few-cycle laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a laser-generated plasma. This process, known as laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), relies on strongly driven plasma waves for the generation of accelerating gradients in the vicinity of several 100 GV/m, a value four orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by conventional accelerators. This thesis demonstrates that laser pulses with an ultrashort duration of 8 fs and a peak power of 6 TW allow the production of electron energies up to 50 MeV via LWFA. The special properties of laser accelerated electron pulses, namely the ultrashort pulse duration, the high brilliance, and the high charge density, open up new possibilities in many applications of these electron beams. (orig.)

  14. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  15. Measurements of picosecond pulses of a high-current electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltov, K.A.; Petrenko, A.N.; Turundaevskaya, I.G.; Shalimanov, V.F.

    1997-01-01

    The duration of a picosecond high-current accelerator electron beam pulse duration is measured and its shape is determined using a measuring line, comprising a Faraday cup, a radiofrequency cable of minor length and a wide-band SRG-7 oscillograph. The procedure of data reconstruction according to regularization method is applied to determine the actual shape of the pulse measured

  16. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  17. Effect of polarization and focusing on laser pulse driven auto-resonant particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman

    2014-01-01

    The effect of laser polarization and focusing is theoretically studied on the final energy gain of a particle in the Auto-resonant acceleration scheme using a finite duration laser pulse with Gaussian shaped temporal envelope. The exact expressions for dynamical variables viz. position, momentum, and energy are obtained by analytically solving the relativistic equation of motion describing particle dynamics in the combined field of an elliptically polarized finite duration pulse and homogeneous static axial magnetic field. From the solutions, it is shown that for a given set of laser parameters viz. intensity and pulse length along with static magnetic field, the energy gain by a positively charged particle is maximum for a right circularly polarized laser pulse. Further, a new scheme is proposed for particle acceleration by subjecting it to the combined field of a focused finite duration laser pulse and static axial magnetic field. In this scheme, the particle is initially accelerated by the focused laser field, which drives the non-resonant particle to second stage of acceleration by cyclotron Auto-resonance. The new scheme is found to be efficient over two individual schemes, i.e., auto-resonant acceleration and direct acceleration by focused laser field, as significant particle acceleration can be achieved at one order lesser values of static axial magnetic field and laser intensity

  18. Operation of LIA-30 linear induction accelerator in the mode of generation of two bremsstrahlung pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossamykin, V S; Gerasimov, A I; Gordeev, V S; Grishin, A V; Gritsina, V P; Tarasov, A D; Fedotkin, A S; Lazarev, S A; Averchenkov, A Ya [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The operating mode was studied of the LIA-30 linear induction accelerator ({approx} 40 MeV, {approx} 100 kA, {approx} 30 ns) with the generation of two bremsstrahlung pulses separated by a specified time interval from 0 to 5 {mu}s. In the accelerating channel an additional tube cathode was installed, and a synchronization system for two accelerating module groups triggering the formation and acceleration, at different initial times, of two annular electron beams with different outer diameters was changed. The energy limit of each beam electron acceleration can be controlled, and the energy sum limit is {<=} 540 MeV. (author). 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Pulsed radiofrequency microwave fields around a quadrupole particle accelerator: measurement and safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.N.; Swarup, G.; Rajan, K.K.; Joseph, L.

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed radiofrequency microwave radiation (RFMR) fields occur during the use of high power microwaves in plasma heating in fusion research, plasma and solid state diagnostics, particle accelerators and colliders, pump sources in lasers, material processing as well as in high power radars. This paper describes the experimental work done at Trombay for measurement of pulsed RFMR fields in the working area of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator with the use of a meter calibrated in continuous field and interprets the observed fields in the light of existing protection criteria for pulsed RFMR fields. (author)

  20. Predictive modeling, simulation, and optimization of laser processing techniques: UV nanosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of polymers and selective laser melting of powder metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales Escobar, Luis Ernesto

    One of the most frequently evolving areas of research is the utilization of lasers for micro-manufacturing and additive manufacturing purposes. The use of laser beam as a tool for manufacturing arises from the need for flexible and rapid manufacturing at a low-to-mid cost. Laser micro-machining provides an advantage over mechanical micro-machining due to the faster production times of large batch sizes and the high costs associated with specific tools. Laser based additive manufacturing enables processing of powder metals for direct and rapid fabrication of products. Therefore, laser processing can be viewed as a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach compared to traditional manufacturing processes. Two types of laser processing techniques are studied: laser ablation of polymers for micro-channel fabrication and selective laser melting of metal powders. Initially, a feasibility study for laser-based micro-channel fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via experimentation is presented. In particular, the effectiveness of utilizing a nanosecond-pulsed laser as the energy source for laser ablation is studied. The results are analyzed statistically and a relationship between process parameters and micro-channel dimensions is established. Additionally, a process model is introduced for predicting channel depth. Model outputs are compared and analyzed to experimental results. The second part of this research focuses on a physics-based FEM approach for predicting the temperature profile and melt pool geometry in selective laser melting (SLM) of metal powders. Temperature profiles are calculated for a moving laser heat source to understand the temperature rise due to heating during SLM. Based on the predicted temperature distributions, melt pool geometry, i.e. the locations at which melting of the powder material occurs, is determined. Simulation results are compared against data obtained from experimental Inconel 625 test coupons fabricated at the National

  1. Long-pulse beam acceleration of MeV-class H(-) ion beams for ITER NB accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Yamanaka, H; Inoue, T; Kojima, A; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    In order to realize neutral beam systems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor whose target is to produce a 1 MeV, 200 A/m(2) during 3600 s D(-) ion beam, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator so-called "MeV accelerator" has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic field of filter magnet was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m(2), 881 keV H(-) ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4 s to 8.7 s. This is the first long pulse negative ion beam acceleration over 100 MW/m(2).

  2. The chirped-pulse inverse free-electron laser: A high-gradient vacuum laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, F.V.; Landahl, E.C.; Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Baldis, H.A.; Freeman, R.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Song, L.; Kerman, A.K.; Yu, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    The inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) interaction is studied theoretically and computationally in the case where the drive laser intensity approaches the relativistic regime, and the pulse duration is only a few optical cycles long. The IFEL concept has been demonstrated as a viable vacuum laser acceleration process; it is shown here that by using an ultrashort, ultrahigh-intensity drive laser pulse, the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased considerably, thus yielding large energy gains. Using a chirped pulse and negative dispersion focusing optics allows one to take further advantage of the laser optical bandwidth and produce a chromatic line focus maximizing the gradient. The combination of these novel ideas results in a compact vacuum laser accelerator capable of accelerating picosecond electron bunches with a high gradient (GeV/m) and very low energy spread. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S A; Puzynin, I V; Samojlov, V N; Sissakyan, A N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  4. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samojlov, V.N.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs

  5. Improved characteristics of HV pulse modulators for technological accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.; Kildisheva, O.

    2004-01-01

    The new modulator series intended to provide a pulse power supply of MI-451, MI-456 microwave magnetrons is described. The main feature of this modulator series, as compared with the existing national counterparts, is the storage charging power supply. The offered modulators with improved charging power supplies have the substantially better efficiency and high operation stability and reliability

  6. Application of pulse power technology to ultra high energy electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents in this paper a review of the application of pulse power technology to the development of high gradient electron accelerators. The technology demands are relatively modest compared to the ultra high power technology used for inertial confinement fusion drivers. With the advent of magnetic switching intense electron beams can be generated with a sufficiently high repetition rate to be of interest for high energy electron accelerator driver applications. Most of the techniques considered rely on the excitation of large amplitude waves on the beams. Within this framework there are two broad categories of accelerator, those in which the waves are directly excited in and supported by the medium and, secondly, those where the waves are used to generate radiofrequency signals which are then coupled via structures to the beam being accelerated. In what follows we shall consider both approaches. Present-day pulse power technology limits pulse durations to about 100 nsec. Consequently, if these sources are to be used, we will need to use high group velocity structures to avoid the need for short accelerator module lengths. An advantage of the short pulse duration is that the available acceleration voltage gradient increases compared to that obtained using conventional rf drivers. 19 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  7. Gas Discharge Produced by Strong Microwaves of Nanosecond Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikharev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the investigation of nanosecond microwave discharge are reviewed. Nanosecond microwave discharge is a new branch of gas discharge physics. The paper lists base types of microwave generators used to produce nanosecond discharge and classifies the discharges relative to their base parameters: the way the discharge gets localized in a limited space, amplitude and frequency of microwave field, gas pressure, duration of microwave pulses. The laboratory experiments performed and the new effects which appear in nanosecond microwave discharge are briefly summarized. Different applications of such a discharge are analyzed on the basis of the experimental modelling. (author)

  8. A dose-per-pulse monitor for a dual-mode medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, D.M.; Martell, E.S.; Fueurstake, T.; Norrlinger, B.; Schwendener, H.; Rawlinson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    On a radiotherapy accelerator, the dose monitoring system is the last level of protection between the patient and the extremely high dose rate which all accelerators are capable of producing. The risk of losing this level of protection is substantially reduced if two or more dose monitoring systems are used which are mechanically and electrically independent in design. This paper describes the installation of an independent radiation monitor in a dual-mode, computer-controlled accelerator with a moveable monitor chamber. The added device is fixed in the beam path, is capable of monitoring each beam pulse, and is capable of terminating irradiation within the pulse repetition period if any measured pulse is unacceptably high

  9. A 7MeV S-Band 2998MHz Variable Pulse Length Linear Accelerator System

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Michael; Mishin, Andrey V; Saverskiy, Aleksandr J; Skowbo, Dave; Smith, Richard

    2005-01-01

    American Science and Engineering High Energy Systems Division (AS&E HESD) has designed and commissioned a variable pulse length 7 MeV electron accelerator system. The system is capable of delivering a 7 MeV electron beam with a pulse length of 10 nS FWHM and a peak current of 1 ampere. The system can also produce electron pulses with lengths of 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 nS and 3 uS FWHM with corresponding lower peak currents. The accelerator system consists of a gridded electron gun, focusing coil, an electrostatic deflector system, Helmholtz coils, a standing wave side coupled S-band linac, a 2.6 MW peak power magnetron, an RF circulator, a fast toroid, vacuum system and a PLC/PC control system. The system has been operated at repetition rates up to 250pps. The design, simulations and experimental results from the accelerator system are presented in this paper.

  10. Primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Jianhua; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Zhou Xiang; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store is studied. The principle of primary power supply circuit and its time diagram of switches are presented. The circuit is analyzed and some expressions are got, especially, the usable voltage scope of capacitance of energy store, and the correlation between the parameters of circuit and time delay, which is between the turn-on of the charging circuit of capacitance of energy store and the circuit of recuperation. The time delay of 256 x 256 lookup table is made with the instruction of theory and the simulation of the actual parameters of circuits. The table is used by the control program to control the repetitive operating of the actual pulsed intense current accelerator. Finally, some conclusions of the primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store are got. (authors)

  11. Pulsed radiobiology with laser-driven plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulietti, Antonio; Grazia Andreassi, Maria; Greco, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, a high efficiency regime of acceleration in laser plasmas has been discovered, allowing table top equipment to deliver doses of interest for radiotherapy with electron bunches of suitable kinetic energy. In view of an R&D program aimed to the realization of an innovative class of accelerators for medical uses, a radiobiological validation is needed. At the present time, the biological effects of electron bunches from the laser-driven electron accelerator are largely unknown. In radiobiology and radiotherapy, it is known that the early spatial distribution of energy deposition following ionizing radiation interactions with DNA molecule is crucial for the prediction of damages at cellular or tissue levels and during the clinical responses to this irradiation. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the radio-biological effects obtained with electron bunches from a laser-driven electron accelerator compared with bunches coming from a IORT-dedicated medical Radio-frequency based linac's on human cells by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN). To this purpose a multidisciplinary team including radiotherapists, biologists, medical physicists, laser and plasma physicists is working at CNR Campus and University of Pisa. Dose on samples is delivered alternatively by the "laser-linac" operating at ILIL lab of Istituto Nazionale di Ottica and an RF-linac operating for IORT at Pisa S. Chiara Hospital. Experimental data are analyzed on the basis of suitable radiobiological models as well as with numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo codes. Possible collective effects are also considered in the case of ultrashort, ultradense bunches of ionizing radiation.

  12. Electric field simulation and measurement of a pulse line ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiaokang; Zhang Zimin; Cao Shuchun; Zhao Hongwei; Zhao Quantang; Liu Ming; Jing Yi; Wang Bo; Shen Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    An oil dielectric helical pulse line to demonstrate the principles of a Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) has been designed and fabricated. The simulation of the axial electric field of an accelerator with CST code has been completed and the simulation results show complete agreement with the theoretical calculations. To fully understand the real value of the electric field excited from the helical line in PLIA, an optical electric integrated electric field measurement system was adopted. The measurement result shows that the real magnitude of axial electric field is smaller than that calculated, probably due to the actual pitch of the resister column which is much less than that of helix. (authors)

  13. Laser accelerated protons captured and transported by a pulse power solenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burris-Mog

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a pulse power solenoid, we demonstrate efficient capture of laser accelerated proton beams and the ability to control their large divergence angles and broad energy range. Simulations using measured data for the input parameters give inference into the phase-space and transport efficiencies of the captured proton beams. We conclude with results from a feasibility study of a pulse power compact achromatic gantry concept. Using a scaled target normal sheath acceleration spectrum, we present simulation results of the available spectrum after transport through the gantry.

  14. Investigation of linear accelerator pulse delivery using fast organic scintillator measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Andersen, Claus Erik; Lindvold, Lars René

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-coupled organic plastic scintillators present an attractive method for time-resolved dose measurements during radiotherapy. Most organic scintillators exhibit a fast response, making it possible to use them to measure individual high-energy X-ray pulses from a medical linear accelerator...... performed on Varian medical linear accelerators, delivering 6 MV X-ray beams. The dose delivery per radiation pulse was found to agree with expectations within roughly 1%, although minor discrepancies and transients were evident in the measurements....

  15. Multi-pulse enhanced laser ion acceleration using plasma half cavity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G. G.; Brenner, C. M.; Neely, D.; Green, J. S.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Spindloe, C.; Bagnoud, V.; Brabetz, C.; Zielbauer, B.; Carroll, D. C.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P.; Roth, M.; Wagner, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a plasma half cavity target design for laser driven ion acceleration that enhances the laser to proton energy conversion efficiency and has been found to modify the low energy region of the proton spectrum. The target design utilizes the high fraction of laser energy reflected from an ionized surface and refocuses it such that a double pulse interaction is attained. We report on numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrating that conversion efficiencies can be doubled, compared to planar foil interactions, when the secondary pulse is delivered within picoseconds of the primary pulse.

  16. Multi-pulse enhanced laser ion acceleration using plasma half cavity targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G. G.; Brenner, C. M.; Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Department of Physics SUPA, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Green, J. S.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Spindloe, C. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Bagnoud, V.; Brabetz, C.; Zielbauer, B. [PHELIX Group, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Carroll, D. C.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics SUPA, University of Strathclyde, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Roth, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Wagner, F. [PHELIX Group, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-09

    We report on a plasma half cavity target design for laser driven ion acceleration that enhances the laser to proton energy conversion efficiency and has been found to modify the low energy region of the proton spectrum. The target design utilizes the high fraction of laser energy reflected from an ionized surface and refocuses it such that a double pulse interaction is attained. We report on numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrating that conversion efficiencies can be doubled, compared to planar foil interactions, when the secondary pulse is delivered within picoseconds of the primary pulse.

  17. Stable radiation pressure acceleration of ions by suppressing transverse Rayleigh-Taylor instability with multiple Gaussian pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M. L.; Liu, B.; Hu, R. H.; Shou, Y. R.; Lin, C.; Lu, H. Y.; Lu, Y. R.; Ma, W. J., E-mail: wenjun.ma@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, Y. Q. [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Yan, X. Q., E-mail: x.yan@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In the case of a thin plasma slab accelerated by the radiation pressure of an ultra-intense laser pulse, the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) will destroy the acceleration structure and terminate the acceleration process much sooner than theoretical limit. In this paper, a new scheme using multiple Gaussian pulses for ion acceleration in a radiation pressure acceleration regime is investigated with particle-in-cell simulation. We found that with multiple Gaussian pulses, the instability could be efficiently suppressed and the divergence of the ion bunch is greatly reduced, resulting in a longer acceleration time and much more collimated ion bunch with higher energy than using a single Gaussian pulse. An analytical model is developed to describe the suppression of RTI at the laser-plasma interface. The model shows that the suppression of RTI is due to the introduction of the long wavelength mode RTI by the multiple Gaussian pulses.

  18. Is the cooling of coils of pulsed accelerators profitable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyret, G.; Parain, J.; Schnuriger, J.C.

    1960-05-01

    In this report, the authors recall how metal resistivity decreases at low temperatures, and give some indications about the power and price of cryogenic installations. They report the study of the cooling of coils in accelerators displaying an alternate gradient with a 15 GeV energy, with or without a magnetic circuit in iron. They establish that cooling does not result in a decrease in the cost price for an hour of operation. They also state that it is not even sure that this cooling would result in a dimension reduction while increasing the maximum achievable induction [fr

  19. Optimized transmission-line impedance transformers for petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Welch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed 1D analytic and 2D fully electromagnetic models of radial transmission-line impedance transformers. The models have been used to quantify the power-transport efficiency and pulse sharpening of such transformers as a function of voltage pulse width and impedance profile. For the cases considered, we find that in the limit as Γ→0 (where Γ is the ratio of the pulse width to the one-way transit time of the transformer, the transport efficiency is maximized when the impedance profile is exponential. As Γ increases from zero, the optimum profile gradually deviates from an exponential. A numerical procedure is presented that determines the optimum profile for a given pulse shape and width. The procedure can be applied to optimize the design of impedance transformers used in petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators.

  20. Intense relativistic electron beam generation from KALI-5000 pulse accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.; Mondal, J.; Mitra, S.; Durga Praveen Kumar, D.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K.V.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Intense Relativistic Electron Beam (IREB) with parameters 420 keV, 22 kA, 100 ns has been generated from indigenously developed pulse power system KALI- 5000. High current electron beam is generated from explosive field emission graphite cathodes. Studies have been conducted by changing the diameter of graphite cathode and also the anode cathode gap. In order to avoid prepulse effect it was concluded that anode cathode (AK) gap should be kept larger than estimated by the Child Langmuir relation. Beam voltage has been measured by a copper sulphate voltage divider, beam current by a self integrating Rogowski coil and B-dot probe. Electron beam diode Impedance and Perveance were obtained from the experimentally measured beam voltage and current. (author)

  1. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  2. Three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the pulsed-power Z-pinch accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional, fully electromagnetic model of the principal pulsed-power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator [D. H. McDaniel et al., in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Dense Z-Pinches (AIP, New York, 2002, p. 23] has been developed. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the accelerator’s intermediate-storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, triplate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The insulator-stack electrodes are coupled to a transmission-line circuit model of the four-level magnetically insulated vacuum-transmission-line section and double-post-hole convolute. The vacuum-section circuit model is terminated by a one-dimensional self-consistent dynamic model of an imploding z-pinch load. The simulation results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator, and are in good agreement with the data, especially for times until peak load power. This modeling effort demonstrates that 3D electromagnetic models of large-scale, multiple-module, pulsed-power accelerators are now computationally tractable. This, in turn, presents new opportunities for simulating the operation of existing pulsed-power systems used in a variety of high-energy-density-physics and radiographic applications, as well as even higher-power next-generation accelerators before they are constructed.

  3. Study on pulsed radiation generation in the accelerator AKVAGEN; Issledovanie po generatsii impul`sa izlucheniya uskoritelya AKVAGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakulin, Yu P [and others

    1994-12-31

    The pulse accelerator AKVAGEN is created according to a circuit of as single forming line, charged from two pulse transformers up to 1.5 voltage. Typical irradiation levels are presented. The accelerator x radiation efficiency calculated makes up for Si and SiC, SiO{sub 2}, GaAs compounds.

  4. Ion pulse propagation through a previously unfilled electrostatic aperture lens accelerating column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Keeney, D.S.; Chen, Y.J.; Hewett, D.W.; Barnard, J.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy Ion Fusion experiments require very high current beams with excellent beam quality during a short pulse. Scaled experiments planned at LBL require very short pulses (μsec) compared to what one expects in an HIF driver (20-30 μs). A 1MV acceleration column composed of aperture lenses has been constructed at LBL in order to study the propagation effects on such ion pulses. The column is initially empty of space charge but with the full acceleration potential applied. A short current pulse is then injected into the column with a planar diode open-quotes current valve.close quotes Effects on the pulse propagation due to rise time, pulse duration, and beam size have been studied. Experiments on transported beam current and emittance have been conducted using a carbon arc plasma source (2 double-prime and .5 double-prime diameter) and a 1 double-prime diameter alumino-silicate potassium ion source. Computer simulations using a 2.5D time dependent code are compared with the experimental data

  5. Railguns and plasma accelerators: arc armatures, pulse power sources and US patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, O.M. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    Railguns and plasma accelerators have the potential for use in many basic and applied research projects, such as in creating high-pressures for equation-of-state studies and in impact fusion. A brief review of railguns and plasma accelerators with references is presented. Railgun performance is critically dependent on armature operation. Plasma arc railgun armatures are addressed. Pulsed power supplies for multi-stage railguns are considered. This includes brief comments on the compensated pulsed alternator, or compulsator, rotating machinery, and distributed energy sources for railguns. References are given at the end of each section. Appendix A contains a brief review of the US Patents on multi-staging techniques for electromagnetic accelerators, plasma propulsion devices, and electric guns.

  6. Railguns and plasma accelerators: arc armatures, pulse power sources and US patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, O.M. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    Railguns and plasma accelerators have the potential for use in many basic and applied research projects, such as in creating high-pressures for equation-of-state studies and in impact fusion. A brief review of railguns and plasma accelerators with references is presented. Railgun performance is critically dependent on armature operation. Plasma arc railgun armatures are addressed. Pulsed power supplies for multi-stage railguns are considered. This includes brief comments on the compensated pulsed alternator, or compulsator, rotating machinery, and distributed energy sources for railguns. References are given at the end of each section. Appendix A contains a brief review of the US Patents on multi-staging techniques for electromagnetic accelerators, plasma propulsion devices, and electric guns

  7. Absorption and luminescence of crystalline quartz under electron nanosecond irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, B P; Lisitsyn, V M; Stepanchuk, V N [Tomskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of the study is continuation of investigations of principal regularities of production and destruction of short-lived defects in quartz and accompanying luminescence under electron pulse irradiation. For investigation purposes samples of crystalline synthetic quartz have been used. The irradiation has been performed at 80-400 K temperatures by means of an electron pulse accelerator with parameters: electron flow pulse duration 10 ns, pulse current density up to 1000 A/cm/sup 2/, electron mean energy 200 keV. Temperature-time characteristics of absorption and luminescence spectrum are studied. It has been found that quartz irradiation by electron pulses of nanosecond duration leads to appearance of short-lived bands of optical absorption at 4.1 and 5.15 eV to which by kinetic parameters correspond luminescence bands at 2.6 and 3.1 eV, respectively. The enumerated absorption bands are induced by quartz irradiation independently of the prehistory and phase state of the sample and are caused obviously by intrinsic radiation defects. Possible models of such defects are suggested.

  8. Standard Test Method for Measuring Dose for Use in Linear Accelerator Pulsed Radiation Effects Tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a calorimetric measurement of the total dose delivered in a single pulse of electrons from an electron linear accelerator or a flash X-ray machine (FXR, e-beam mode) used as an ionizing source in radiation-effects testing. The test method is designed for use with pulses of electrons in the energy range from 10 to 50 MeV and is only valid for cases in which both the calorimeter and the test specimen to be irradiated are“thin” compared to the range of these electrons in the materials of which they are constructed. 1.2 The procedure described can be used in those cases in which (1) the dose delivered in a single pulse is 5 Gy (matl) (500 rd (matl)) or greater, or (2) multiple pulses of a lower dose can be delivered in a short time compared to the thermal time constant of the calorimeter. Matl refers to the material of the calorimeter. The minimum dose per pulse that can be acceptably monitored depends on the variables of the particular test, including pulse rate, pulse uniformity...

  9. Suppressing beam-centroid motion in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Ekdahl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second axis of the dual-axis radiography of hydrodynamic testing (DARHT facility produces up to four radiographs within an interval of 1.6  μs. It does this by slicing four micropulses out of a 2-μs long electron beam pulse and focusing them onto a bremsstrahlung converter target. The 1.8-kA beam pulse is created by a dispenser cathode diode and accelerated to more than 16 MeV by the unique DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA. Beam motion in the accelerator would be a problem for multipulse flash radiography. High-frequency motion, such as from beam-breakup (BBU instability, would blur the individual spots. Low-frequency motion, such as produced by pulsed-power variation, would produce spot-to-spot differences. In this article, we describe these sources of beam motion, and the measures we have taken to minimize it. Using the methods discussed, we have reduced beam motion at the accelerator exit to less than 2% of the beam envelope radius for the high-frequency BBU, and less than 1/3 of the envelope radius for the low-frequency sweep.

  10. 1 ms pulse beam generation and acceleration by photo-cathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Hayano, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Jyunji

    2012-01-01

    We report successful generation of 1 ms long pulse and multi-bunch electron beam by a normal conducting photo-cathode RF gun at KEK-STF (Superconducting accelerator Test Facility). The 1 ms long Pulse beam generated by the RF gun is delivered to the injection line to examine stable acceleration and precise RF control. The 1 ms pulse beam is also used to demonstrate high brightness X-ray generation by inverse laser Compton scattering which will be also carried out at STF, supported by MEXT Quantum Beam project. The RF gun cavity has been fabricated by DESY-FNAL-KEK collaboration. Performing high power RF process and ethanol rinse to the cavity, a stable operation of the cavity up to 4.0 MW RF input power with ∼1 ms pulse length was achieved by keeping even low dark current. The beam generation test has been started since February 2012, 1 ms pulse was generated in March 2012. We explain about the STF injector and report the basic property of this 1 ms beam generation. (author)

  11. Classical-trajectory simulation of accelerating neutral atoms with polarized intense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Q. Z.; Fu, L. B.; Liu, J.

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, we perform the classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation of the complex dynamics of accelerating neutral atoms with linearly or circularly polarized intense laser pulses. Our simulations involve the ion motion as well as the tunneling ionization and the scattering dynamics of valence electron in the combined Coulomb and electromagnetic fields, for both helium (He) and magnesium (Mg). We show that for He atoms, only linearly polarized lasers can effectively accelerate the atoms, while for Mg atoms, we find that both linearly and circularly polarized lasers can successively accelerate the atoms. The underlying mechanism is discussed and the subcycle dynamics of accelerating trajectories is investigated. We have compared our theoretical results with a recent experiment [Eichmann Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature08481 461, 1261 (2009)].

  12. Laser pulse guiding and electron acceleration in the ablative capillary discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameshima, T.; Kotaki, H.; Kando, M.; Daito, I.; Kawase, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Homma, T.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Chen, L. M.; Kondo, S.; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of experiments are presented for the laser electron acceleration in the ablative capillary discharge plasma. The plasma channel is formed by the discharge inside the ablative capillary. The intense short laser pulse is guided over a 4 cm length. The generated relativistic electrons show both the quasimonoenergetic and quasi-Maxwellian energy spectra, depending on laser and plasma parameters. The analysis of the inner walls of the capillaries that underwent several tens of shots shows that the wall deformation and blistering resulted from the discharge and laser pulse effects.

  13. Laser sources for polarized electron beams in cw and pulsed accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziefremidis, A; Fraser, D; Avramopoulos, H

    1999-01-01

    We report the characterization of a high power, high repetition rate, mode-locked laser system to be used in continuous wave and pulsed electron accelerators for the generation of polarized electron beams. The system comprises of an external cavity diode laser and a harmonically mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator and it can provide up to 3.4 W average power, with a corresponding pulse energy exceeding 1 nJ at 2856 MHz repetition rate. The system is tunable between 770-785 and 815-835 nm with two sets of diodes for the external cavity diode laser. (author)

  14. Peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.; Wu, X. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Kawata, S.; Wang, P. X.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we qualitatively analyzed peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse. We unveiled the relationship between the changes in the orientation of the electron trajectory and the cusps in magnitude of the phase velocity of the optical field along the electron trajectory in a chirped laser pulse. We also explained how the chirp effect induced the singular point of the phase velocity. Finally, we discussed the phase velocity and phase witnessed by the electron in the particle's moving instantaneous frame

  15. Mono-energetic ions emission by nanosecond laser solid target irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoio, A., E-mail: Annamaria.Muoio@lns.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Tudisco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore”, Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Schillaci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Trifirò, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Sezione INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate the acceleration mechanisms through laser–matter interaction in nanosecond domain has been carried out at the LENS (Laser Energy for Nuclear Science) laboratory of INFN-LNS, Catania. Pure Al targets were irradiated by 6 ns laser pulses at different pumping energies, up to 2 J. Advanced diagnostics tools were used to characterize the plasma plume and ion production. We show the preliminary results of this experimental campaign, and especially the ones showing the production of multicharged ions having very narrow energy spreads.

  16. Experimental results of laser wakefield acceleration using a femtosecond terawatt laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kando, Masaki; Ahn, Hyeyoung; Dewa, Hideki

    1999-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWA) experiments have been carried out in an underdense plasma driven by a 2 TW, 90 fs laser pulse synchronized with a 17 MeV RF linac electron injector at 10 Hz. Around optimum plasma densities for LWA, we have observed electrons accelerated to 35 MeV. Wakefield excitation has been confirmed by measuring the electron density oscillation with a frequency domain interferometer. At plasma densities higher than the optimum density, we have also observed high energy electrons over 100 MeV up to 200 MeV. (author)

  17. Directed Acceleration of Electrons from a Solid Surface by Sub-10-fs Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, F.; Hidding, B.; Osterholz, J.; Hemmers, D.; Pretzler, G.; Karmakar, A.; Pukhov, A.

    2009-01-01

    Electrons have been accelerated from solid target surfaces by sub-10-fs laser pulses of 120 μJ energy which were focused to an intensity of 2x10 16 W/cm 2 . The electrons have a narrow angular distribution, and their observed energies exceed 150 keV. We show that these energies are not to be attributed to collective plasma effects but are mainly gained directly via repeated acceleration in the transient field pattern created by incident and reflected laser, alternating with phase-shift-generating scattering events in the solid.

  18. The influence of plasma density decreasement by pre-pulse on the laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Gong Dong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laser wakefield acceleration, the generation of electron beam is very sensitive to the plasma density. Not only the laser-wakefield interaction, but also the electron trapping and acceleration would be effected by the plasma density. However, the plasma density could be changed in the experiment by different reasons, which will result in the mismatch of parameters arranged initially. Forward Raman scattering spectrum demonstrated that the interaction density was decreased obviously in the experiment, which was verified by the pre-pulse conditions and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It was demonstrated that the plasma density was very important on the self-evolutions and energy coupling of laser pulse and wakefield, and eventually the energy spectrum of electron beam.

  19. Brighter H- source for the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipp, V.; DeWitt, A.; Madsen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Further increases in the beam intensity of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory required the replacement of the H - source with a higher current source. A magnetron ion source of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) design was adapted with a grooved cathode to provide a stable 40 to 50 mA of beam operating at 30 Hz for up to a 90 μs pulse duration. Problems of space charge blowup due to the lack of neutralization of the H - beam were solved by injecting additional gs into the 20 keV transport system. The source has recently been installed in the machine and the available input to the accelerator has more than doubled

  20. Effects of dispersion on electromagnetic parameters of tape-helix Blumlein pulse forming line of accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.L.; Feng, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the tape-helix model is introduced in the field of intense electron beam accelerator to analyze the dispersion effects on the electromagnetic parameters of helical Blumlein pulse forming line (PFL). Work band and dispersion relation of the PFL are analyzed, and the normalized coefficients of spatial harmonics are calculated. Dispersion effects on the important electromagnetic parameters of PFL, such as phase velocity, slow-wave coefficient, electric length and pulse duration, are analyzed as the central topic. In the PFL, electromagnetic waves with different frequencies in the work band of PFL have almost the same phase velocity. When de-ionized water, transformer oil and air are used as the PFL filling dielectric, respectively, the pulse duration of the helical Blumlein PFL is calculated as 479.6 ns, 81.1 ns and 53.1 ns in order. Electromagnetic wave simulation and experiments are carried out to demonstrate the theoretical calculations of the electric length and pulse duration which directly describe the phase velocity and dispersion of the PFL. Simulation results prove the theoretical analysis and calculation on pulse duration. Experiment is carried out based on the tape-helix Blumlein PFL and magnetic switch system. Experimental results show that the pulse durations are tested as 460 ns, 79 ns and 49 ns in order when de-ionized water, transformer oil and air are used respectively. Experimental results basically demonstrate the theoretical calculations and the analyses of dispersion. (authors)

  1. Measurement system for pulse radiolysis at linear electron accelerator LAE 13/9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkowski, J.; Grodkowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new control and measurement system for a pulse radiolysis setup based on the linear electron accelerator LAE 13/9 is described. It consists of CAMAC apparatus, two oscilloscopes: Tektronix TDS620 and Iwatsu TS8123, and PC computer as a control unit for programming and controlling of the experiments and for results processing. The program is written using DELPHI 1.0 (Borland) programming platform and it can operate in WINDOWS 3.x or WINDOWS 95 environment. (author)

  2. 150 keV intense electron beam accelerator system with high repeated pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhang; Tixing, Li; Hongfang, Tang; Nenggiao, Xia; Zhigin, Wang; Baohong, Zheng

    1993-01-01

    A 150 keV electron beam accelerator system has been developed for wide application of high power particle beams. The new wire-ion-plasma electron gun has been adopted. The parameters are as follows: Output energy - 130-150 keV; Electron beam density - 250 mA/cm 2 ; Pulse duration - 1 μs; Pulse rate 100 pps; Section of electron beam - 5 x 50 cm 2 . This equipment can be used to study repeated pulse CO 2 laser, to be a preionizer of high power discharge excimer laser and to perform radiation curing process, and so on. The first part contains principle and design consideration. Next is a description of experimental arrangement. The remainder is devoted to describing experimental results and its application

  3. Multiple quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-wakefield acceleration with spatially structured laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y.; Li, M. H.; Li, Y. F.; Wang, J. G.; Tao, M. Z.; Han, Y. J.; Zhao, J. R.; Huang, K.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Li, Y. T. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen, L. M., E-mail: lmchen@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, D. Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Sheng, Z. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-08-15

    By adjusting the focus geometry of a spatially structured laser pulse, single, double, and treble quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were generated, respectively, in laser-wakefield acceleration. Single electron beam was produced as focusing the laser pulse to a single spot. While focusing the laser pulse to two spots that are approximately equal in energy and size and intense enough to form their own filaments, two electron beams were produced. Moreover, with a proper distance between those two focal spots, three electron beams emerged with a certain probability owing to the superposition of the diffractions of those two spots. The energy spectra of the multiple electron beams are quasi-monoenergetic, which are different from that of the large energy spread beams produced due to the longitudinal multiple-injection in the single bubble.

  4. Control and performance improvements of a pulse compressor in use for testing accelerating structures at high power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Woolley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New developments relating to compact X-band, SLED-I type pulse compressors being developed at CERN for testing high gradient structures are described. Pulse compressors of interest take rf pulses from one or more high power klystrons with duration typically >1.5  μs and deliver up to 5 times the input power for a shorter duration <250  ns. Time domain models for pulse compressor operation with low level rf (LLRF control have been developed. Input drive amplitude and phase for each pulse is evolved with a control algorithm from the pulse compressor output for previous pulses. The goal is to deliver precise amplitude for pulses to test stands and precise amplitude and phase for pulses to accelerator systems. Control algorithms have been developed and validated experimentally.

  5. Quasi-monoenergetic proton acceleration from cryogenic hydrogen microjet by ultrashort ultraintense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Tibai, Z.; Hebling, J.; Fülöp, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-driven proton acceleration from a micron-sized cryogenic hydrogen microjet target is investigated using multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. With few-cycle (20-fs) ultraintense (2-PW) laser pulses, high-energy quasi-monoenergetic proton acceleration is predicted in a new regime. A collisionless shock-wave acceleration mechanism influenced by Weibel instability results in a maximum proton energy as high as 160 MeV and a quasi-monoenergetic peak at 80 MeV for 1022 W/cm2 laser intensity with controlled prepulses. A self-generated strong quasi-static magnetic field is also observed in the plasma, which modifies the spatial distribution of the proton beam.

  6. Dependence of Parameters of Laser-Produced Au Plasmas on the Incident Laser Energy of Sub-Nanosecond and Picosecond Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Vankov, A.B.; Wolowski, J.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Rohlena, K.

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of Au plasma as functions of laser energy for ps pulses are presented and compared with the ones for sub-ns pulses at nearly the same densities of laser energy. The experiments were performed at the IPPLM with the use of CPA (chirped pulse amplification) Nd:glass laser system. Thick Au foil targets were irradiated by normally incident focused laser beams with maximum intensities of 8x10 16 and 2x10 14 W/cm 2 for ps and sub-ns laser pulses, respectively. The characteristics of ion streams were investigated with the use of ion diagnostics methods based on the time-of flight technique. In these experiments the laser energies were changed in the range from 90 to 700 mJ and the measurements were performed at a given focus position FP = 0 and along the target normal for both the laser pulses. The charge carried by the ions, the maximum ion velocities of fast and thermal ion groups, the maximum ion current density as well as the area of photopeak in dependence on the incident laser energy for sub-ns and ps pulses were investigated and discussed. (author)

  7. Time-resolved imaging of filamentary damage on the exit surface of fused silica induced by 1064 nm nanosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Shen; Xiang’ai, Cheng; Tian, Jiang; Zhiwu, Zhu; Yifan, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced damage on the exit surface of fused silica with a filament was observed. The filament has a central hollow core surrounded by molten materials and no obvious cracks could be observed. The critical intensity for the transition from pure surface damage (SD) to filamentary damage (FD) was measured. Time-resolved shadowgraphic microscopy with nanosecond time resolution was employed to compare the propagation of shock wave and material response in the SD and FD process. The main different features during the material response process include: (i) thermoelastic shock waves launched in FD were multiple and a column envelope was observed in the lateral direction; (ii) more energy is deposited in the bulk for FD resulting to a lower speed of shock wave in air; (iii) the overall time for establishing the main character of the damage site for FD was shorter because of the absence of crack expansion. Self-focusing and temperature-activated optical absorption enhancement of the bulk material are discussed to explain the morphology difference between SD and FD and the evolution of filament length under different incident intensities. (paper)

  8. Schlieren visualization of flow-field modification over an airfoil by near-surface gas-density perturbations generated by a nanosecond-pulse-driven plasma actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Konno, Kaiki; Ando, Akira; Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro; Tanaka, Naoki; Nonomura, Taku; Asai, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Gas-density perturbations near an airfoil surface generated by a nanosecond dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuator (ns-DBDPA) are visualized using a high-speed Schlieren imaging method. Wind-tunnel experiments are conducted for a wind speed of 20 m s −1 with an NACA0015 airfoil whose chord length is 100 mm. The results show that the ns-DBDPA first generates a pressure wave and then stochastic perturbations of the gas density near the leading edge of the airfoil. Two structures with different characteristics are observed in the stochastic perturbations. One structure propagates along the boundary between the shear layer and the main flow at a speed close to that of the main flow. The other propagates more slowly on the surface of the airfoil and causes mixing between the main and shear flows. It is observed that these two heated structures interact with each other, resulting in a recovery in the negative pressure coefficient at the leading edge of the airfoil. (paper)

  9. Evolution of pulse shapes during compressor scans in a CPA system and control of electron acceleration in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Csaba; Groot, Joeri de; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Faure, Jerome; Catravas, Palma; Schroeder, Carl; Shadwick, B.A.; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2002-01-01

    The skewness of the envelope function of 20 - 100 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses has been controlled by appropriate choice of the higher order special phase coefficients, and used for optimization of a plasma wakefield electron accelerator

  10. Electron beam dynamics in the long-pulse, high-current DARHT-II linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekdahl, Carl A.; Abeyta, Epifanio O.; Aragon, Paul; Archuleta, Rita; Cook, Gerald; Dalmas, Dale; Esquibel, Kevin; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garnett, Robert; Harrison, James F.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Jacquez, Edward B.; Mccuistian, Brian T.; Montoya, Nicholas A.; Nath, Subrato; Nielsen, Kurt; Oro, David; Prichard, Benjamin; Rowton, Lawrence; Sanchez, Manolito; Scarpetti, Raymond; Schauer, Martin M.; Seitz, Gerald; Schulze, Martin; Bender, Howard A.; Broste, William B.; Carlson, Carl A.; Frayer, Daniel K.; Johnson, Douglas E.; Tom, C.Y.; Williams, John; Hughes, Thomas; Anaya, Richard; Caporaso, George; Chambers, Frank; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steve; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Richardson, Roger; Trainham, C.; Watson, Jim; Weir, John; Genoni, Thomas; Toma, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) now accelerates 2-kA electron beams to more than 17 MeV. This LIA is unique in that the accelerated current pulse width is greater than 2 microseconds. This pulse has a flat-top region where the final electron kinetic energy varies by less than 1% for more than 1.5 microseconds. The long risetime of the 6-cell injector current pulse is 0.5 (micro)s, which can be scraped off in a beam-head cleanup zone before entering the 68-cell main accelerator. We discuss our experience with tuning this novel accelerator; and present data for the resulting beam transport and dynamics. We also present beam stability data, and relate these to previous stability experiments at lower current and energy.

  11. Proposed second harmonic acceleration system for the intense pulsed neutron source rapid cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Brandeberry, F.; Rauchas, A.

    1983-01-01

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) operating at Argonne National Laboratory is presently producing intensities of 2 to 2.5 x 10 12 protons per pulse (ppp) with the addition of a new ion source. This intensity is close to the space charge limit of the machine, estimated at approx.3 x 10 12 ppp, depending somewhat on the available aperture. With the present good performance in mind, accelerator improvements are being directed at: (1) increasing beam intensities for neutron science; (2) lowering acceleration losses to minimize activation; and (3) gaining better control of the beam so that losses can be made to occur when and where they can be most easily controlled. On the basis of preliminary measurements, we are now proposing a third cavity for the RF systems which would provide control of the longitudinal bunch shape during the cycle which would permit raising the effective space charge limit of the accelerator and reducing losses

  12. Electron acceleration by a radially polarized laser pulse during ionization of low density gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwar Pal Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of electrons by a radially polarized intense laser pulse has been studied. The axial electric field of the laser is responsible for electron acceleration. The axial electric field increases with decreasing laser spot size; however, the laser pulse gets defocused sooner for smaller values and the electrons do not experience high electric field for long, reducing the energy they can reach. The electron remains confined in the electric field of the laser for longer and the electron energy peaks for the normalized laser spot size nearly equal to the normalized laser intensity parameter. Electron energy peaks for initial laser phase ϕ_{0}=π due to accelerating laser phase and decreases with transverse initial position of the electrons. The energy and angle of the emittance spectrum of the electrons generated during ionization of krypton and argon at low densities have been obtained and a right choice of laser parameters has been suggested to obtain high energy quasimonoenergetic collimated electron beams. It has been found that argon is more suitable than krypton to obtain high energy electron beams due to higher ionization potential of inner shells for the former.

  13. AC-loss considerations of a pulse SMES for an accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly, M; Hiltunen, I; Jaervelae, J; Korpela, A; Lehti, L; Stenvall, A; Mikkonen, R

    2010-01-01

    In particle accelerators quasi-DC superconducting magnets are used to keep particles in desired tracks. The needed rapid field variations of these high energy magnets require large energy bursts. If these bursts are taken from and fed back to the utility grid, its voltage is distorted and the quality of the electricity degrades. In addition, these bursts may decrease operation life time of generators and extra arrangements may be required by the electricity producers. Thus, an energy storage is an essential component for a cost-effective particle accelerator. Flywheels, capacitors and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) are possible options for these relatively large and high power energy storages. Here we concentrate on AC-loss of a pulse SMES aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of NbTi SMES in a particle accelerator. The designing of a SMES requires highly reliable AC-loss simulations. In this paper, calorimetric AC-loss measurements of a NbTi magnet have been carried out to consider conductor's suitability in a pulse SMES. In addition, the measured results are compared with AC-loss simulations.

  14. Externally Controlled Injection of Electrons by a Laser Pulse in a Laser Wakefield Electron Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Szu Yuan; Chen Wei Ting; Chien, Ting-Yei; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Wang, Jyhpyng

    2005-01-01

    Spatially and temporally localized injection of electrons is a key element for development of plasma-wave electron accelerator. Here we report the demonstration of two different schemes for electron injection in a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SM-LWFA) by using a laser pulse. In the first scheme, by implementing a copropagating laser prepulse with proper timing, we are able to control the growth of Raman forward scattering and the production of accelerated electrons. We found that the stimulated Raman backward scattering of the prepulse plays the essential role of injecting hot electrons into the fast plasma wave driven by the pump pulse. In the second scheme, by using a transient density ramp we achieve self-injection of electrons in a SM-LWFA with spatial localization. The transient density ramp is produced by a prepulse propagating transversely to drill a density depression channel via ionization and expansion. The same mechanism of injection with comparable efficiency is also demonstrated wi...

  15. Intra-pulse transition between ion acceleration mechanisms in intense laser-foil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padda, H.; King, M.; Gray, R. J.; Powell, H. W.; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B.; Wilson, R.; Dance, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; Butler, N. M. H.; Capdessus, R.; McKenna, P., E-mail: paul.mckenna@strath.ac.uk [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Stockhausen, L. C. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Carroll, D. C. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Yuan, X. H. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Neely, D. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Multiple ion acceleration mechanisms can occur when an ultrathin foil is irradiated with an intense laser pulse, with the dominant mechanism changing over the course of the interaction. Measurement of the spatial-intensity distribution of the beam of energetic protons is used to investigate the transition from radiation pressure acceleration to transparency-driven processes. It is shown numerically that radiation pressure drives an increased expansion of the target ions within the spatial extent of the laser focal spot, which induces a radial deflection of relatively low energy sheath-accelerated protons to form an annular distribution. Through variation of the target foil thickness, the opening angle of the ring is shown to be correlated to the point in time transparency occurs during the interaction and is maximized when it occurs at the peak of the laser intensity profile. Corresponding experimental measurements of the ring size variation with target thickness exhibit the same trends and provide insight into the intra-pulse laser-plasma evolution.

  16. Numerical studies of acceleration of thorium ions by a laser pulse of ultra-relativistic intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domanski Jaroslaw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key scientific projects of ELI-Nuclear Physics is to study the production of extremely neutron-rich nuclides by a new reaction mechanism called fission-fusion using laser-accelerated thorium (232Th ions. This research is of crucial importance for understanding the nature of the creation of heavy elements in the Universe; however, they require Th ion beams of very high beam fluencies and intensities which are inaccessible in conventional accelerators. This contribution is a first attempt to investigate the possibility of the generation of intense Th ion beams by a fs laser pulse of ultra-relativistic intensity. The investigation was performed with the use of fully electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell code. A sub-μm thorium target was irradiated by a circularly polarized 20-fs laser pulse of intensity up to 1023 W/cm2, predicted to be attainable at ELI-NP. At the laser intensity ~ 1023 W/cm2 and an optimum target thickness, the maximum energies of Th ions approach 9.3 GeV, the ion beam intensity is > 1020 W/cm2 and the total ion fluence reaches values ~ 1019 ions/cm2. The last two values are much higher than attainable in conventional accelerators and are fairly promising for the planned ELI-NP experiment.

  17. Influence of the reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles in the plasma plume induced by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metallic targets at atmospheric pressure and high repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Le Garrec, J.-L.; Mitchell, J.B.A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Jouvard, J.-M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Carvou, E. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Menneveux, J.; Yu, J. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ouf, F.-X. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN/PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA BP 68, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Carles, S. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Potin, V.; Pillon, G.; Bourgeois, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perez, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marco de Lucas, M.C., E-mail: delucas@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • NPs formed in a plasma-plume during laser irradiation of metals (Al, Ti, Ag) were studied. • In situ SAXS and ex situ TEM, XRD and Raman spectra were measured. • NPs size decreased when increasing the O{sub 2} fraction in a controlled O{sub 2}+N{sub 2} atmosphere. • The oxidation of metal NPs in the plasma restricts the increase of the size of the NPs. - Abstract: The influence of a reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the plasma plume generated by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metal targets (Ti, Al, Ag) was probed in situ using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Air and different O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixtures were used as reactive gas within atmospheric pressure. SAXS results showed the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume with a mean radius varying in the 2–5 nm range. A decrease of the NPs size with increasing the O{sub 2} percentage in the O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixture was also showed. Ex situ observations by transmission electron microscopy and structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were also performed for powders collected in experiments done using air as ambient gas. The stability of the different metal oxides is discussed as being a key parameter influencing the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume.

  18. Measurement and analysis of the electric field radiation in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qifeng; Ni Jianping; Meng Cui; Cheng Cheng; Liu Yinong; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    The close of high voltage switch in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator often radiates strong transient electric field, which may influence ambient sensitive electric equipment, signals and performance of other instruments, etc. By performing gridded measurement around the Marx generator, the general distribution law and basic characters of electric field radiation are summarized. The current signal of the discharge circuit is also measured, which demonstrates that the current and the radiated electric field both have a resonance frequency about 150 kHz, and contain much higher frequency components. (authors)

  19. Detection methods of pulsed X-rays for transmission tomography with a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.

    1988-07-01

    Appropriate detection methods are studied for the development of a high energy tomograph using a linear accelerator for nondestructive testing of bulky objects. The aim is the selection of detectors adapted to a pulsed X-ray source and with a good behavior under X-ray radiations of several MeV. Performance of semiconductors (HgI 2 , Cl doped CdTe, GaAs, Bi 12 Ge0 20 ) and a scintillator (Bi 4 Ge 3 0 12 ) are examined. A prototype tomograph gave images that show the validity of detectors for analysis of medium size equipment such as a concrete drum of 60 cm in diameter [fr

  20. Transmission-line-circuit model of an 85-TW, 25-MA pulsed-power accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    B. T. Hutsel; P. A. Corcoran; M. E. Cuneo; M. R. Gomez; M. H. Hess; D. D. Hinshelwood; C. A. Jennings; G. R. Laity; D. C. Lamppa; R. D. McBride; J. K. Moore; A. Myers; D. V. Rose; S. A. Slutz; W. A. Stygar

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a physics-based transmission-line-circuit model of the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The 33-m-diameter Z machine generates a peak electrical power as high as 85 TW, and delivers as much as 25 MA to a physics load. The circuit model is used to design and analyze experiments conducted on Z. The model consists of 36 networks of transmission-line-circuit elements and resistors that represent each of Zs 36 modules. The model of each module includes a Marx generator, intermediate-en...

  1. Accelerating action of stresses on crystallization kinetics in silicon ion-implanted layers during pulsed heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the effect of stressed in ion-implanted layers on kinetics of amorphous phase transformations is performed. The suggested model of accounting stresses including concentration ones is based on the locality of action of interstitial addition atoms and on general structural inhomogeneity of amorphous semiconductor leading to the formation of areas of the facilitated phase transition. Accounting of effect of energy variation of silicon atoms interaction on probability of displacement events and atoms building in lattice points or atomic bonds disintegration allows one to trace the accelerating action of introduced by ion implantation stresses on the kinetics of layer crystallization during pulsed heating

  2. An Experimental Study of a Low-Jitter Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Lee, Michael; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for a variety of applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a pulsed plasma thruster and has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approximately 50 kilometers per second have been obtained. The plasma jet structure has been photographed with 10 ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure. Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma transit at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter has been characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is identified.

  3. Application of accelerator sources for pulsed neutron logging of oil and gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Dresser Atlas introduced the first commercial pulsed neutron oil well log in the early 1960s. This log had the capability of differentiating oil from salt water in a completed well. In the late 1970s the first continuous carbon/oxygen (C/O) log capable of differentiating oil from fresh water was introduced. The sources used in these commercial logs are radial geometry deuterium-tritium reaction devices with Cockcroft-Walton voltage multipliers providing the accelerator voltage. The commercial logging tools using these accelerators are comprised of scintillators detectors, power supplies, line drivers and receivers, and various timing and communication electronics. They are used to measure either the time decay or energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma events. The time decay information is useful in determining the neutron capture cross section, and the energy spectra is used to characterize inelastic neutron events. (orig.)

  4. Application of accelerator sources for pulsed neutron logging of oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, R. R.

    1985-05-01

    Dresser Atlas introduced the first commercial pulsed neutron oil well log in the early 1960s. This log had the capability of differentiating oil from salt water in a completed well. In the late 1970s the first continuous carbon/oxygen (C/O) log capable of differentiating oil from fresh water was introduced. The sources used in these commercial logs are radial geometry deuterium-tritium reaction devices with Cockcroft-Walton voltage multipliers providing the accelerator voltage. The commercial logging tools using these accelerators are comprised of scintillators detectors, power supplies, line drivers and receivers, and various timing and communications electronics. They are used to measure either the time decay or energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma events. The time decay information is useful in determining the neutron capture cross section, and the energy spectra is used to characterize inelastic neutron events.

  5. Optically isolated electronic trigger system for experiments on a subnanosecond time scale with a pulsed Van de Graaff electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthjens, L.H.; Vermeulen, M.J.W.; Hom, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    An optically isolated electronic trigger system for a pulsed Van de Graaff electron accelerator, producing an external pretrigger pulse 75 ns before arrival of the electron pulse at the target, is described. The total time jitter between trigger signal and electron pulse is 50 ps. The measurement of optical and electrical transients on a subnanosecond time scale with a sequential sampling oscilloscope is demonstrated. The contribution of various parts of the equipment to the total jitter is discussed. Those contributions to the jitter due to the electron transit time fluctuations in the accelerator assuming a constant acceleration voltage gradient and to the shot noise in the photomultiplier detector of the trigger system are calculated to be 5 ps and 12 to 21 ps respectively. Comparison with the experimental results leads to the conclusion that a considerable part of the total jitter may be attributed to acceleration voltage gradient fluctuations, to accelerator vibrations and possibly to density fluctuations in the insulation gas. Possible improvements of the trigger system are discussed. The apparatus is used for pulse radiolysis experiments with subnanosecond time resolution down to 100 ps in combination with subnanosecond time duration electron pulses

  6. Proton beam transport experiments with pulsed high-field magnets at the Dresden laser acceleration source Draco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Zeil, Karl [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Compact laser-driven ion accelerators are a potential alternative to large and expensive conventional accelerators. High-power short-pulse lasers, impinging on e.g. thin metal foils, enable multi-MeV ion acceleration on μm length and fs to ps time scale. The generated ion bunches (typically protons) show unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, laser accelerators still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. Recently developed pulsed magnets meet the demands of laser acceleration and open up new research opportunities: We present a pulsed solenoid for effective collection and focusing of laser-accelerated protons that acts as link between fundamental research and application. The solenoid is powered by a capacitor-based pulse generator and can reach a maximum magnetic field of 20 T. It was installed in the target chamber of the Draco laser at HZDR. The transported beam was detected by means of radiochromic film, scintillator and Thomson parabola spectrometer. We present the characterization of the solenoid with regard to future application in radiobiological irradiation studies. Furthermore, a detailed comparison to previous experiments with a similar magnet at the PHELIX laser at GSI, Darmstadt is provided.

  7. Tailoring the laser pulse shape to improve the quality of the self-injected electron beam in laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Samant, Sushil A.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2013-01-01

    In laser wakefield acceleration, tailoring the shape of the laser pulse is one way of influencing the laser-plasma interaction and, therefore, of improving the quality of the self-injected electron beam in the bubble regime. Using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution dynamics of the laser pulse and the quality of the self-injected beam, for a Gaussian pulse, a positive skew pulse (i.e., one with sharp rise and slow fall), and a negative skew pulse (i.e., one with a slow rise and sharp fall) are studied. It is observed that with a negative skew laser pulse there is a substantial improvement in the emittance (by around a factor of two), and a modest improvement in the energy-spread, compared to Gaussian as well as positive skew pulses. However, the injected charge is less in the negative skew pulse compared to the other two. It is also found that there is an optimal propagation distance that gives the best beam quality; beyond this distance, though the energy increases, the beam quality deteriorates, but this deterioration is least for the negative skew pulse. Thus, the negative skew pulse gives an improvement in terms of beam quality (emittance and energy spread) over what one can get with a Gaussian or positive skew pulse. In part, this is because of the lesser injected charge, and the strong suppression of continuous injection for the negative skew pulse.

  8. Nanosecond electron beams compact generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konkin, D V; Nagovitsin, A Yu; Pavlov, S S; Popkov, N F [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A small-scale accelerator providing a storage energy of 40 J, electron energy of 200 keV, beam current released into air of 1 kA, and current pulse duration of 30-40 ns at the half-height is described. The multi-channel commutation is implemented in the accelerator capacitive energy storage, ensuring an output current pulse front of 10 ns, while the inductiveness is 120 nH. The gross weight of the device is approximately 100 kg. (author). 4 figs., 6 refs.

  9. Nanosecond electron beams compact generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkin, D.V.; Nagovitsin, A.Yu.; Pavlov, S.S.; Popkov, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    A small-scale accelerator providing a storage energy of 40 J, electron energy of 200 keV, beam current released into air of 1 kA, and current pulse duration of 30-40 ns at the half-height is described. The multi-channel commutation is implemented in the accelerator capacitive energy storage, ensuring an output current pulse front of 10 ns, while the inductiveness is 120 nH. The gross weight of the device is approximately 100 kg. (author). 4 figs., 6 refs

  10. Ultrafast Saturation of Electronic-Resonance-Enhanced Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering and Comparison for Pulse Durations in the Nanosecond to Femtosecond Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-05

    near sat- uration limit of the probe intensity [16]. In such spectro - scopic techniques, while it is important to obtain spec- trum of the intended...There are a few literature that exist on the ultrafast UV -laser excitation of NO, e.g., Lopez-Marten et al. have shown that the laser intensi- ties in...observe ac-Stark shift (see Ref. [40]). Though, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been reported for ionization of NO by UV pulse of 236 nm at 10

  11. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  12. Ion-hose instability in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Genoni

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The ion-hose instability is a transverse electrostatic instability which occurs on electron beams in the presence of a low-density ion channel. It is a phenomenon quite similar to the interaction between electron clouds and proton or positron beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. In the DARHT-2 accelerator, the 2-kA, 2-μs beam pulse produces an ion channel through impact ionization of the residual background gas (10^{-7}–10^{-6}   torr. A calculation of the linear growth by Briggs indicates that the instability could be strong enough to affect the radiographic application of DARHT, which requires that transverse oscillations be small compared to the beam radius. We present semianalytical theory and 3D particle-in-cell simulations (using the Lsp code of the linear and nonlinear growth of the instability, including the effects of the temporal change in the ion density and spatially decreasing beam radius. We find that the number of e-foldings experienced by a given beam slice is given approximately by an analytic expression using the local channel density at the beam slice. Hence, in the linear regime, the number of e-foldings increases linearly from head to tail of the beam pulse since it is proportional to the ion density. We also find that growth is strongly suppressed by nonlinear effects at relatively small oscillation amplitudes of the electron beam. This is because the ion oscillation amplitude is several times larger than that of the beam, allowing nonlinear effects to come into play. An analogous effect has recently been noted in electron-proton instabilities in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. For DARHT-2 parameters, we find that a pressure of ≤1.5×10^{-7}   torr is needed to keep the transverse beam oscillation amplitude less than about 20% of the rms beam radius.

  13. The effect of laser pulse parameters and initial phase on the acceleration of electrons in a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunwar Pal; Gupta, Devki Nandan; Malik, Hitendra K

    2008-01-01

    Laser driven acceleration of electrons lying along the axis of the laser has been studied. We have considered a linearly polarized laser pulse. The quiver amplitude causes electrons to escape from the pulse. The energy gained by the electrons peaks for a suitable value of laser spot size. The value of a suitable laser spot size increases with laser intensity and initial electron energy. The energy gained by the electron depends upon its initial position with respect to the laser pulse. The electrons close to the pulse peak with initial phase π/2 are scattered least and gain higher energy. The electrons close to the leading edge of the pulse gain sufficient energy for a short laser pulse and the effect of initial phase is not important. A suitable value of laser spot size can be estimated from this study

  14. Development of exploding wire ion source for intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Y.; Murata, T.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2012-01-01

    A Novel exploding wire type ion source device is proposed as a metallic ion source of intense pulsed heavy ion beam (PHIB) accelerator. In the device multiple shot operations is realized without breaking the vacuum. The basic characteristics of the device are evaluated experimentally with an aluminum wire of diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 mm. Capacitor bank of capacitance 3 μF, charging voltage 30 kV was used and the wire was successfully exploded by a discharge current of 15 kA, rise time 5.3 μs. Plasma flux of ion current density around 70 A/cm 2 was obtained at 150 mm downstream from the device. The drift velocity of ions evaluated by a time-of-flight method was 2.7x10 4 m/sec, which corresponds to the kinetic energy of 100 eV for aluminum ions. From the measurement of ion current density distribution ion flow is found to be concentrated to the direction where ion acceleration gap is placed. From the experiment the device is found to be acceptable for applying PHIB accelerator. (author)

  15. Report of specialists' meeting on 'pulse reactor using the particle accelerators'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Makoto; Yoshiie, Toshimasa

    1996-06-01

    KUR was decided to be continued to operate at the Reactor Laboratory according to the report on 'How to investigate the reactor for study in the Universities' published by Committee of Science Consideration on July, 1997. However, it is necessary to proceed the next program based on the KUR study results in future. From a viewpoint of the study, on considering of beginning of the next program during using KUR still but not establishing it after wasting the KUR, it is preferable to be an equipment with complemental characters for the KUR. As the pulse neutron source, spallation neutron source using large intensity proton accelerator with about 1 GeV is focused most of interests. Use of the proton beam with large neutron generation in comparison with electron beam can make non-critical collector with relatively large non-critical ratio to a target, and can obtain safety without any change of reactivity by means of mechanical method. Furthermore, this accelerator has some times of the non-critical ratio in comparison with the spallation method using only accelerator and has a feature to be low in its cost. In this report, its program, 11 items of lectures and general discussion on them were described. (G.K.)

  16. Table-top instrumentation for time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of solids excited by nanosecond pulse of soft X-ray source and/or UV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruza, Petr; Fidler, Vlastimil; Nikl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The practical applicability of the rare-earth doped scintillators in high-speed detectors is limited by the slow decay components in the temporal response of a scintillator. The study of origin and properties of material defects that induce the slow decay components is of major importance for the development of new scintillation materials. We present a table-top, time-domain UV-VIS luminescence spectrometer, featuring extended time and input sensitivity ranges and two excitation sources. The combination of both soft X-ray/XUV and UV excitation source allows the comparative measurements of luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of scintillators to be performed under the same experimental conditions. The luminescence of emission centers of a doped scintillator can be induced by conventional N 2 laser pulse, while the complete scintillation process can be initiated by a soft X-ray/XUV pulse excitation from the laser-produced plasma in gas puff target of 4 ns duration. In order to demonstrate the spectrometer, the UV-VIS luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of cerium doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 single crystal (LuAG:Ce) scintillator excited by XUV and UV radiation were acquired. Luminescence of the doped Ce 3+ ions was studied under 2.88 nm (430 eV) XUV excitation from the laser-produced nitrogen plasma, and compared with the luminescence under 337 nm (3.68 eV) UV excitation from nitrogen laser. In the former case the excitation energy is deposited in the LuAG host, while in the latter the 4f-5d 2 transition of Ce 3+ is directly excited. Furthermore, YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce single crystals luminescence decay profiles are compared and discussed.

  17. Deposition of SiC x H y O z thin film on epoxy resin by nanosecond pulsed APPJ for improving the surface insulating performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, XIE; Haofan, LIN; Shuai, ZHANG; Ruixue, WANG; Fei, KONG; Tao, SHAO

    2018-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma surface modification for epoxy resin (EP) to improve the insulation properties has wide application prospects in gas insulated switchgear and gas insulated transmission line. In this paper, a pulsed Ar dual dielectrics atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for SiC x H y O z thin film deposition on EP samples. The film deposition was optimized by varying the treatment time while other parameters were kept at constants (treatment distance: 10 mm, precursor flow rate: 0.6 l min-1, maximum instantaneous power: 3.08 kW and single pulse energy: 0.18 mJ). It was found that the maximum value of flashover voltages for negative and positive voltage were improved by 18% and 13% when the deposition time was 3 min, respectively. The flashover voltage reduced as treatment time increased. Moreover, all the surface conductivity, surface charge dissipation rate and surface trap level distribution reached an optimal value when thin film deposition time was 3 min. Other measurements, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope for EP surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for EP surface compositions, optical emission spectra for APPJ deposition process were carried out to better understand the deposition processes and mechanisms. The results indicated that the original organic groups (C-H, C-C, C=O, C=C) were gradually replaced by the Si containing inorganic groups (Si-O-Si and Si-OH). The reduction of C=O in ester group and C=C in p-substituted benzene of the EP samples might be responsible for shallowing the trap level and then enhancing the flashover voltage. However, when the plasma treatment time was longer than 3 min, the significant increase of the surface roughness might increase the trap level depth and then deteriorate the flashover performance.

  18. A design study of a 100 MeV race-track microtron/pulse-stretcher accelerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvinsson, R.; Eriksson, M.

    1976-04-01

    A proposed design of an accelerator system with large duty-factor is described. The system is composed of a race-track microtron and a pulse-stretcher. The maximum particle energy is 100 MeV and the beam current is estimated to be up to 10 μA within +- 100 keV. The intended use is mainly for nuclear physics experiments with high precision, where the combination of large mean current and limited pulse intensity is essential. (Auth.)

  19. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Colloidal aluminum- and titanium-based nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation. • Various liquid environments and laser fluences were applied as variable parameters. • Physical characteristics of liquid medium influence ablation process and nanoparticle formation. • Size properties of prepared nanoparticles depend on liquid medium and laser fluence. • Ablation of both metals in ethanol results in nanoparticles with smaller size. - Abstract: In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles’ mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution

  20. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mahdm@iust.ac.ir; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Colloidal aluminum- and titanium-based nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation. • Various liquid environments and laser fluences were applied as variable parameters. • Physical characteristics of liquid medium influence ablation process and nanoparticle formation. • Size properties of prepared nanoparticles depend on liquid medium and laser fluence. • Ablation of both metals in ethanol results in nanoparticles with smaller size. - Abstract: In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles’ mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution.