Sample records for nanoscale sliding friction

  1. Sliding Friction of Copper

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Tung


    .... With less clean surfaces, the coefficient of friction obtained was about 0.4. Since the degree of cleanliness cannot be controlled quantitatively, the friction - load curve of sliding copper pairs in air exhibits a bifurcation characteristic...

  2. Nanoscale friction and wear maps. (United States)

    Tambe, Nikhil S; Bhushan, Bharat


    Friction and wear are part and parcel of all walks of life, and for interfaces that are in close or near contact, tribology and mechanics are supremely important. They can critically influence the efficient functioning of devices and components. Nanoscale friction force follows a complex nonlinear dependence on multiple, often interdependent, interfacial and material properties. Various studies indicate that nanoscale devices may behave in ways that cannot be predicted from their larger counterparts. Nanoscale friction and wear mapping can help identify some 'sweet spots' that would give ultralow friction and near-zero wear. Mapping nanoscale friction and wear as a function of operating conditions and interface properties is a valuable tool and has the potential to impact the very way in which we design and select materials for nanotechnology applications.

  3. High speed friction microscopy and nanoscale friction coefficient mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosse, James L; Lee, Sungjun; Huey, Bryan D; Andersen, Andreas Sø; Sutherland, Duncan S


    As mechanical devices in the nano/micro length scale are increasingly employed, it is crucial to understand nanoscale friction and wear especially at technically relevant sliding velocities. Accordingly, a novel technique has been developed for friction coefficient mapping (FCM), leveraging recent advances in high speed AFM. The technique efficiently acquires friction versus force curves based on a sequence of images at a single location, each with incrementally lower loads. As a result, true maps of the coefficient of friction can be uniquely calculated for heterogeneous surfaces. These parameters are determined at a scan velocity as fast as 2 mm s −1 for microfabricated SiO 2 mesas and Au coated pits, yielding results that are identical to traditional speed measurements despite being ∼1000 times faster. To demonstrate the upper limit of sliding velocity for the custom setup, the friction properties of mica are reported from 200 µm s −1 up to 2 cm s −1 . While FCM is applicable to any AFM and scanning speed, quantitative nanotribology investigations of heterogeneous sliding or rolling components are therefore uniquely possible, even at realistic velocities for devices such as MEMS, biological implants, or data storage systems. (paper)

  4. Universal Aging Mechanism for Static and Sliding Friction of Metallic Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Tekiel, Antoni; Topple, Jessica; Grütter, Peter; Schirmeisen, André


    The term "contact aging" refers to the temporal evolution of the interface between a slider and a substrate usually resulting in increasing friction with time. Current phenomenological models for multiasperity contacts anticipate that such aging is not only the driving force behind the transition from static to sliding friction, but at the same time influences the general dynamics of the sliding friction process. To correlate static and sliding friction on the nanoscale, we show experimental evidence of stick-slip friction for nanoparticles sliding on graphite over a wide dynamic range. We can assign defined periods of aging to the stick phases of the particles, which agree with simulations explicitly including contact aging. Additional slide-hold-slide experiments for the same system allow linking the sliding friction results to static friction measurements, where both friction mechanisms can be universally described by a common aging formalism.

  5. Preface: Friction at the nanoscale (United States)

    Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea


    Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the

  6. Friction between silicon and diamond at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Lichun; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Wang, Xu; Srolovitz, David J; Zhou, Kun


    This work investigates the nanoscale friction between diamond-structure silicon (Si) and diamond via molecular dynamics simulation. The interaction between the interfaces is considered as strong covalent bonds. The effects of load, sliding velocity, temperature and lattice orientation are investigated. Results show that the friction can be divided into two stages: the static friction and the kinetic friction. During the static friction stage, the load, lattice orientation and temperature dramatically affects the friction by changing the elastic limit of Si. Large elastic deformation is induced in the Si block, which eventually leads to the formation of a thin layer of amorphous Si near the Si-diamond interface and thus the beginning of the kinetic friction stage. During the kinetic friction stage, only temperature and velocity have an effect on the friction. The investigation of the microstructural evolution of Si demonstrated that the kinetic friction can be categorized into two modes (stick-slip and smooth sliding) depending on the temperature of the fracture region. (paper)

  7. Enhanced nanoscale friction on fluorinated graphene. (United States)

    Kwon, Sangku; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Jeong Young


    Atomically thin graphene is an ideal model system for studying nanoscale friction due to its intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy. Furthermore, modulating its tribological properties could be an important milestone for graphene-based micro- and nanomechanical devices. Here, we report unexpectedly enhanced nanoscale friction on chemically modified graphene and a relevant theoretical analysis associated with flexural phonons. Ultrahigh vacuum friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on the graphene surface increases by a factor of 6 after fluorination of the surface, while the adhesion force is slightly reduced. Density functional theory calculations show that the out-of-plane bending stiffness of graphene increases up to 4-fold after fluorination. Thus, the less compliant F-graphene exhibits more friction. This indicates that the mechanics of tip-to-graphene nanoscale friction would be characteristically different from that of conventional solid-on-solid contact and would be dominated by the out-of-plane bending stiffness of the chemically modified graphene. We propose that damping via flexural phonons could be a main source for frictional energy dissipation in 2D systems such as graphene.

  8. Sliding Friction on Liquid-Infused Surfaces (United States)

    Rashed, Ziad; Habibi, Mohammad; Boreyko, Jonathan


    Slippery porous liquid-infused surfaces (SLIPS) are well-known for their ability to stably minimize the hysteresis of a wide variety of liquids. However, whether SLIPS could also reduce the sliding friction of solid objects has not been given much consideration. Here, we measure the friction force associated with dragging an aluminum cube across an array of ordered silicon micropillars impregnated with silicone oil. The solid fraction of the micropillars was either 0.025 or 0.25, while the viscosity of the silicone oil was 10, 100, or 1,000 cSt. Non-intuitively, it was observed that the sliding friction decreased with increasing lubricant viscosity or increasing solid fraction. These findings suggest that the key parameter is therefore the hydraulic resistance of the alleys between the micropillars, which should be as large as possible to minimize lateral oil drainage from underneath the sliding body. This would indicate that scaling down to nano-roughness would be optimal for minimizing the sliding friction, which was confirmed by additional experiments on a disordered nanostructured substrate.

  9. Simulations of atomic-scale sliding friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Stoltze, Per


    Simulation studies of atomic-scale sliding friction have been performed for a number of tip-surface and surface-surface contacts consisting of copper atoms. Both geometrically very simple tip-surface structures and more realistic interface necks formed by simulated annealing have been studied....... Kinetic friction is observed to be caused by atomic-scale Stick and slip which occurs by nucleation and subsequent motion of dislocations preferably between close-packed {111} planes. Stick and slip seems ro occur in different situations. For single crystalline contacts without grain boundaries...... at the interface the stick and slip process is clearly observed for a large number of contact areas, normal loads, and sliding velocities. If the tip and substrate crystal orientations are different so that a mismatch exists in the interface, the stick and slip process is more fragile. It is then caused by local...

  10. A nanoscale friction investigation during the manipulation of nanoparticles in controlled environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Manuel; Bhushan, Bharat


    Future micro/nanodevices will contain very small features such that liquid lubrication is not practical and inherent lubricity is needed. In this study, a nanoscale friction investigation was carried out during the manipulation of Au and SiO 2 nanoparticles on silicon using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nanoparticle sliding was characterized by quantifying the lateral force associated with the AFM tip twisting as it hits the particle edge. The friction force varies with particle area and humidity, illustrating how meniscus forces on nanoparticles affect friction. A large tip slid on the nanoparticle-coated surface exhibited friction reduction due to nanoparticle sliding and contact area reduction

  11. Atomistic Simulation of Frictional Sliding Between Cellulose Iß Nanocrystals (United States)

    Xiawa Wu; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini


    Sliding friction between cellulose Iß nanocrystals is studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The effects of sliding velocity, normal load, and relative angle between sliding surface are predicted, and the results analyzed in terms of the number of hydrogen bonds within and between the cellulose chains. We find that although the observed friction trends can be...

  12. The Temperature Dependence of Macroscopic Sliding Friction (United States)

    Burton, J. C.; Taborek, P.; Rutledge, J. E.


    We present measurements of the static and kinetic coefficients of friction of gold-plated copper on gold-plated copper and sapphire on sapphire as a function of temperature from 10K to 400K. The measurements were done by sliding a block down a controllable incline plane and using high-speed video to extract the acceleration. The large size of our optical cryostat allowed linear motion of 7.5 cm over which to measure the acceleration. Surfaces were baked under high vacuum at 400K, and data was taken as they cooled. Preliminary results indicate that the coefficient of friction for gold plated copper surfaces change by 10 percent from room temperature to 10K.

  13. A Simple Measurement of the Sliding Friction Coefficient (United States)

    Gratton, Luigi M.; Defrancesco, Silvia


    We present a simple computer-aided experiment for investigating Coulomb's law of sliding friction in a classroom. It provides a way of testing the possible dependence of the friction coefficient on various parameters, such as types of materials, normal force, apparent area of contact and sliding velocity.

  14. Control of friction at the nanoscale (United States)

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir


    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  15. The contact area and sliding friction in nanotribological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolloch, M.


    cut to the vacuum, resulting in surface atoms of finite size. In our proposed method the parameter ρ cut is calculated by allowing contact only after the 'jump to contact', or a similar discontinuity, has taken place, which can be clearly observed in our DFT simulations. We demonstrate the method by lowering a ten atom tungsten pyramid, which serves as a model of an AFM tip, onto a smooth surface. Two systems are examined, the first being moiré graphene on iridium (111), the second a clean copper (111) surface. Although the surfaces are very different, a similiar cutoff parameter ρ cut of about 5 x 10 -2 electrons per Å 3 is computed in both cases. The calculated area of contact is found to increase linearly with lowering of the tip support while increasing exponentially with the true relaxed distance between the tip apex atom and the surface atom below it. Although there exist a number of models that tackle the problem of calculating friction forces on the atomic level, providing a completely parameter-free approach remains a challenge. To examine the direction dependence of dry sliding friction we developed a quasi-static grid method with a mechanism to allow dissipative sliding, which relies on atomic relaxations. We define two different ways of calculating the mean nanofriction force, both leading to an exponential friction-versus-load behavior for all sliding directions. Since our approach does not impose any limits on lengths and directions of the sliding paths, we investigate arbitrary sliding directions for several metal interfaces and detect two periodic paths which form the upper and lower bound of nanofriction in all cases. For long aperiodic paths the friction force convergences to a value in between these limits. For low loads we retrieve the Derjaguin generalization of the Amontons-Coulomb kinetic friction law which appears to be valid all the way down to the nanoscale. We observe a non-vanishing Derjaguin-offset even for atomically flat

  16. Wear Calculation Approach for Sliding - Friction Pairs (United States)

    Springis, G.; Rudzitis, J.; Lungevics, J.; Berzins, K.


    One of the most important things how to predict the service life of different products is always connected with the choice of adequate method. With the development of production technologies and measuring devices and with ever increasing precision one can get the appropriate data to be used in analytic calculations. Historically one can find several theoretical wear calculation methods but still there are no exact wear calculation model that could be applied to all cases of wear processes because of difficulties connected with a variety of parameters that are involved in wear process of two or several surfaces. Analysing the wear prediction theories that could be classified into definite groups one can state that each of them has shortcomings that might impact the results thus making unnecessary theoretical calculations. The offered wear calculation method is based on the theories of different branches of science. It includes the description of 3D surface micro-topography using standardized roughness parameters, explains the regularities of particle separation from the material in the wear process using fatigue theory and takes into account material’s physical and mechanical characteristics and definite conditions of product’s working time. The proposed wear calculation model could be of value for prediction of the exploitation time for sliding friction pairs thus allowing the best technologies to be chosen for many mechanical details.

  17. Static and dynamic friction in sliding colloidal monolayers. (United States)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio


    In a pioneer experiment, Bohlein et al. realized the controlled sliding of two-dimensional colloidal crystals over laser-generated periodic or quasi-periodic potentials. Here we present realistic simulations and arguments that besides reproducing the main experimentally observed features give a first theoretical demonstration of the potential impact of colloid sliding in nanotribology. The free motion of solitons and antisolitons in the sliding of hard incommensurate crystals is contrasted with the soliton-antisoliton pair nucleation at the large static friction threshold F(s) when the two lattices are commensurate and pinned. The frictional work directly extracted from particles' velocities can be analyzed as a function of classic tribological parameters, including speed, spacing, and amplitude of the periodic potential (representing, respectively, the mismatch of the sliding interface and the corrugation, or "load"). These and other features suggestive of further experiments and insights promote colloid sliding to a unique friction study instrument.

  18. Static frictional resistance with the slide low-friction elastomeric ligature system. (United States)

    Jones, Steven P; Ben Bihi, Saida


    This ex-vivo study compared the static frictional resistance of a low-friction ligation system against a conventional elastomeric module, and studied the effect of storage in a simulated oral environment on the static frictional resistance of both ligation systems. Eighty stainless steel brackets were tested by sliding along straight lengths of 0.018 inch round and 0.019 x 0.025 inch rectangular stainless steel wires ligated with either conventional elastomerics or the Slide system (Leone, Florence, Italy). During the tests the brackets and wires were lubricated with artificial saliva. A specially constructed jig assembly was used to hold the bracket and archwire securely. The jig was clamped in an Instron universal load testing machine. Crosshead speed was controlled via a microcomputer connected to the Instron machine. The static frictional forces at 0 degree bracket/wire angulation were measured for both systems, fresh from the pack and after storage in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Slide ligatures produced significantly lower static frictional resistance than conventional elastomeric modules in the fresh condition and after 24 hours of storage in a simulated oral environment (p static frictional resistance of conventional elastomeric modules and the Slide system (p = 0.525). The claim by the manufacturer that the Slide system produces lower frictional resistance than conventional elastomeric modules is upheld.

  19. Effects of different ligature materials on friction in sliding mechanics. (United States)

    Khamatkar, Aparna; Sonawane, Sushma; Narkhade, Sameer; Gadhiya, Nitin; Bagade, Abhijit; Soni, Vivek; Betigiri, Asha


    During orthodontic tooth movement friction occurs at the bracket wire interface. Out of the total force applied to the tooth movement, some of it is dissipated as friction, and the remainder is transferred to the supporting structures of the tooth to mediate tooth movement. However many factors affect friction, and method of arch wire ligation being an important contributing factor. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different ligature materials on friction in sliding mechanics and to compare the effect of environment (dry and wet) on friction produced in sliding mechanics. The evaluation of friction between the bracket and the archwire consisted of a simulated half arch fixed appliance with archwire ligated in a vertical position. Four 0.022" maxillary stainless steel premolar brackets having a - 0° torque and 0° angulation were aligned with a 0.019" × 0.025" stainless steel arch wire onto a rigid Plexiglass sheet. The movable test bracket was fitted with a 10 mm long, 0.045" thick stainless steel power arm on the bonding surface. Testing was performed on a Hounsfield material testing machine. A total of 100 g weight was suspended from the power arm and the load needed to move the bracket over the distance of not material and environment significantly affected the degree of friction generated during sliding mechanics. Teflon coated stainless steel ligatures produced the least friction among the materials tested in both dry and wet conditions and there was no significant effect on friction in this group caused due to lubrication.

  20. Parameter-free dissipation in simulated sliding friction (United States)

    Benassi, A.; Vanossi, A.; Santoro, G. E.; Tosatti, E.


    Nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations, of crucial importance in sliding friction, are hampered by arbitrariness and uncertainties in the way Joule heat is removed. We implement in a realistic frictional simulation a parameter-free, non-Markovian, stochastic dynamics, which, as expected from theory, absorbs Joule heat precisely as a semi-infinite harmonic substrate would. Simulating stick-slip friction of a slider over a two-dimensional Lennard-Jones solid, we compare our virtually exact frictional results with approximate ones from commonly adopted empirical dissipation schemes. While the latter are generally in serious error, we show that the exact results can be closely reproduced by a viscous Langevin dissipation at the boundary layer, once the backreflected frictional energy is variationally optimized.

  1. Friction of Droplets Sliding on Microstructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces. (United States)

    Qiao, Shasha; Li, Shen; Li, Qunyang; Li, Bo; Liu, Kesong; Feng, Xi-Qiao


    Liquid transport is a fundamental process relevant to a wide range of applications, for example, heat transfer, anti-icing, self-cleaning, drag reduction, and microfluidic systems. For these applications, a deeper understanding of the sliding behavior of water droplets on solid surfaces is of particular importance. In this study, the frictional behavior of water droplets sliding on superhydrophobic surfaces decorated with micropillar arrays was studied using a nanotribometer. Our experiments show that surfaces with a higher solid area fraction generally exhibited larger friction, although friction might drop when the solid area fraction was close to unity. More interestingly, we found that the sliding friction of droplets was enhanced when the dimension of the microstructures increased, showing a distinct size effect. The nonmonotonic dependence of friction force on solid area fraction and the apparent size effect can be qualitatively explained by the evolution of two governing factors, that is, the true length of the contact line and the coordination degree of the depinning events. The mechanisms are expected to be generally applicable for other liquid transport processes involving the dynamic motion of a three-phase contact line, which may provide a new means of tuning liquid-transfer behavior through surface microstructures.

  2. Evidence of Self-Organized Criticality in Dry Sliding Friction (United States)

    Zypman, Fredy R.; Ferrante, John; Jansen, Mark; Scanlon, Kathleen; Abel, Phillip


    This letter presents experimental results on unlubricated friction, which suggests that stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality (SOC). The data, obtained with a pin-on-disc tribometer examines the variation of the friction force as a function of time-or sliding distance. This is the first time that standard tribological equipment has been used to examine the possibility of SOC. The materials were matching pins and discs of aluminium loaded with 250, 500 and 1000 g masses, and matching M50 steel couples loaded with a 1000 g mass. An analysis of the data shows that the probability distribution of slip sizes follows a power law. We perform a careful analysis of all the properties, beyond the two just mentioned, which are required to imply the presence of SOC. Our data strongly support the existence of SOC for stick-slip in dry sliding friction.

  3. Experimental Analysis of Grease Friction Properties on Sliding Textured Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Hua


    Full Text Available There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease lubricated sliding contact under mixed lubrication conditions. The influences of surface texture parameters on the frictional properties were investigated using a disc-on-ring tribometer. The results showed that the friction coefficient is largely dependent on texture parameters, with higher and lower texture density resulting in a higher friction coefficient at a fixed texture depth. The sample with texture density of 15% and texture depth of 19 μm exhibited the best friction properties in all experimental conditions because it can store more grease and trap wear debris. The reduction of friction is mainly attributable to the formation of a stable grease lubrication film composed of oil film, transfer film and deposited film, and the hydrodynamic pressure effect of the surface texture, which increases the mating gap and reduces the probability of asperity contact. This result will help in understanding the tribological behaviour of grease on a textured surface and in predicting the lubrication conditions of sliding bearings for better operation in any machinery.

  4. Influence of normal loads and sliding velocities on friction properties of engineering plastics sliding against rough counterfaces (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Chowdhury, M. A.; Rahaman, M. L.; Oumer, A. N.


    Friction properties of plastic materials are very important under dry sliding contact conditions for bearing applications. In the present research, friction properties of engineering plastics such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and nylon are investigated under dry sliding contact conditions. In the experiments, PTFE and nylon slide against different rough counterfaces such as mild steel and stainless steel 316 (SS 316). Frictional tests are carried out at low loads 5, 7.5 and 10 N, low sliding velocities 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m/s and relative humidity 70%. The obtained results reveal that friction coefficient of PTFE increases with the increase in normal loads and sliding velocities within the observed range. On the other hand, frictional values of nylon decrease with the increase in normal loads and sliding velocities. It is observed that in general, these polymers show higher frictional values when sliding against SS 316 rather than mild steel. During running-in process, friction coefficient of PTFE and nylon steadily increases with the increase in rubbing time and after certain duration of rubbing, it remains at steady level. At identical operating conditions, the frictional values are significantly different depending on normal load, sliding velocity and material pair. It is also observed that in general, the influence of normal load on the friction properties of PTFE and nylon is greater than that of sliding velocity.

  5. Frictional Sliding Along Coulombic Shear Faults in Ice (United States)

    Fortt, A. L.; Schulson, E. M.


    There is increasing evidence that the processes underlying the deformation of the arctic sea ice cover are independent of spatial scale. Among them, and possibly the dominant one during winter, is frictional sliding. With the objective of characterizing and then understanding this process, we performed a series of sliding experiments along Coulombic shear faults that were created in the laboratory in both S2 freshwater ice and S2 first-year arctic sea ice. The principal variables were sliding velocity (4 × 10-3 m s-1 to 8 × 10-7 m s-1, temperature (-3 °C, -10 °C and -40 °C) and confinement (up to 2 MPa). The results show that in both materials Coulomb's failure criterion describes the relationship between the shear stress along the fault and the normal stress across it. The friction coefficient reaches a maximum at an intermediate velocity, at ~ 10-5 m s-1 for the fresh-water material and at ~ 10-4 s-1 for the sea ice, and it increases with decreasing temperature. We propose that at lower velocities where velocity-strengthening is observed, frictional resistance is governed by creep deformation within the damage zone that constitutes the fault, while at higher velocities additional fracture and frictional melting are at play.

  6. Rolling motion: experiments and simulations focusing on sliding friction forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onorato, P.; Malgieri, M.; De Ambrosis, A.


    The paper presents an activity sequence aimed at elucidating the role of sliding friction forces in determining/shaping the rolling motion. The sequence is based on experiments and computer simulations and it is devoted both to high school and undergraduate students. Measurements are carried out by using the open source Tracker Video Analysis software, while interactive simulations are realized by means of Algodoo, a freeware 2D-simulation software. Data collected from questionnaires before and after the activities, and from final reports, show the effectiveness of combining simulations and Video Based Analysis experiments in improving students’ understanding of rolling motion.

  7. Mechanism of sliding friction on a film-terminated fibrillar interface. (United States)

    Shen, Lulin; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen


    We study the mechanism of sliding friction on a film-terminated fibrillar interface. It has been shown that static friction increases significantly with increasing spacing between fibrils, and with increasing rate of loading. However, surprisingly, the sliding friction remains substantially unaffected both by geometry and by the rate of loading. The presence of the thin terminal film is a controlling factor in determining the sliding friction. Experimentally, and by a simple model in which the indenter is held up by the tension in the thin film, we show how the indenter maintains a nearly constant contact area that is independent of the fibril spacing, resulting in constant sliding friction. By this mechanism, using the film-terminated structure, one can enhance the static friction without affecting the sliding behavior.

  8. Frictional sliding in layered rock: laboratory-scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.; Perry, K.E. Jr.; Epstein, J.S.


    The work is part of the rock mechanics effort for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program. The laboratory-scale experiments are intended to provide high quality data on the mechanical behavior of jointed structures that can be used to validate complex numerical models for rock-mass behavior. Frictional sliding between simulated rock joints was studied using phase shifting moire interferometry. A model, constructed from stacks of machined and sandblasted granite plates, contained a central hole bore normal to the place so that frictional slip would be induced between the plates near the hole under compressive loading. Results show a clear evolution of slip with increasing load. Since the rock was not cycled through loading- unloading, the quantitative differences between the three data sets are probably due to a ''wearing-in'' effect. The highly variable spatial frequency of the data is probably due to the large grain size of the granite and the stochastic frictional processes. An unusual feature of the evolution of slip with increasing load is that as the load gets larger, some plates seem to return to a null position. Figs, 6 refs

  9. Unconventional Behavior of Friction at the Nanoscale beyond Amontons' Law. (United States)

    Chen, Jingrun; Gao, Wang


    By means of a many-body van der Waals (vdW)-corrected density functional theory approach, the atomic-scale friction of a prototypical tip-substrate system consisting of an Si tip and a graphene substrate is studied. In a loading-sliding process, the tip-substrate distance is found to be essential for nanofrictional behavior, through determining the competition between vdW contributions and electronic contributions. As the tip approaches the substrate, this competition results in a smooth transition of normal forces from attraction to repulsion, and the friction coefficient in turn undergoes a sign change from negative to positive with possible giant magnitude and strong anisotropy. The loading-sliding process does not introduce any chemical modification of the underlying system. These findings reveal the boundary of validity of Amontons' law, unify negative and giant friction coefficients, rationalize the experimentally observed anisotropy of nanofriction, and are universal when vdW interactions are crucial, all of which are helpful to establish a comprehensive picture of nanofriction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Friction in Sliding Orthodontic Mechanics: Ceramic Brackets, Teflon-Coated Wires and Comparative Resistances (United States)



  11. The Effect of Various Ligation Methods on Friction in Sliding Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta


    Conclusion: Slide modules produce least friction followed by loose SS ligation, slick modules, regular modules, tight SS ligation and highest friction was produced by regular modules tied in a ′figure of 8′ pattern. Width of bracket had no influence on friction produced.

  12. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber-glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions. (United States)

    Tuononen, Ari J


    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons' law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Popov


    Full Text Available Sliding friction can be reduced substantially by applying ultrasonic vibration in the sliding plane or in the normal direction. This effect is well known and used in many applications ranging from press forming to ultrasonic actuators. One of the characteristics of the phenomenon is that, at a given frequency and amplitude of oscillation, the observed friction reduction diminishes with increasing sliding velocity. Beyond a certain critical sliding velocity, there is no longer any difference between the coefficients of friction with or without vibration. This critical velocity depends on material and kinematic parameters and is a key characteristic that must be accounted for by any theory of influence of vibration on friction. Recently, the critical sliding velocity has been interpreted as the transition point from periodic stick-slip to pure sliding and was calculated for purely elastic contacts under uniform sliding with periodic normal loading. Here we perform a similar analysis of the critical velocity in viscoelastic contacts using a Kelvin material to describe viscoelasticity. A closed-form solution is presented, which contains previously reported results as special cases. This paves the way for more detailed studies of active control of friction in viscoelastic systems, a previously neglected topic with possible applications in elastomer technology and in medicine.

  14. Nanotribological Behavior of Carbon Based Thin Films: Friction and Lubricity Mechanisms at the Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Charitidis


    Full Text Available The use of materials with very attractive friction and wear properties has raised much attention in research and industrial sectors. A wide range of tribological applications, including rolling and sliding bearings, machining, mechanical seals, biomedical implants and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, require thin films with high mechanical strength, chemical inertness, broad optical transparency, high refractive index, wide bandgap excellent thermal conductivity and extremely low thermal expansion. Carbon based thin films like diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon nitride and cubic boron nitride known as “super-hard” material have been studied thoroughly as the ideal candidate for tribological applications. In this study, the results of experimental and simulation works on the nanotribological behavior of carbon films and fundamental mechanisms of friction and lubricity at the nano-scale are reviewed. The study is focused on the nanomechanical properties and analysis of the nanoscratching processes at low loads to obtain quantitative analysis, the comparison obtain quantitative analysis, the comparison of their elastic/plastic deformation response, and nanotribological behavior of the a-C, ta-C, a-C:H, CNx, and a-C:M films. For ta-C and a-C:M films new data are presented and discussed.

  15. Seismic Response of Pure-Friction Base Isolated Masonry Building with Restricted Base-Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Qamaruddin


    Full Text Available The earthquake response of pure-friction base isolated masonry building with restricted base sliding is presented in this paper. A clear smoothened surface is created at the plinth level of the building above the damp-proof course, and the superstructure rests at this level to slide freely, except for the frictional resistance and the rigid stopper. As the superstructure is free to slide at the plinth level, there will be a feeling to the occupants that it might slide more than the permissible relative displacement limit provided at the top of the substructure. This may create a fear among the occupants that the building may overturn. In view of this, a mathematical model was developed for masonry building with restricted base sliding system using rigid stopper. Feasible position of the stopper has been determined such that the seismic response of the structure is reduced considerably in comparison with that of corresponding fixed base structure. Investigation was also made to determine the seismic response of the buildings with varying time period, mass ratio, coefficient of friction and damping coefficient subjected to Koyna and five other pseudo earthquakes. The pseudo earthquakes were generated either by increasing or decreasing the ground acceleration and duration of the Koyna accelerogram. It turns out from the present study that the pure-friction isolated restricted base sliding system is effective in reducing the seismic force acting on the masonry building with low value of coefficient of friction.

  16. Robust sliding mode control for uncertain servo system using friction observer and recurrent fuzzy neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seong Ik; Jeong, Chan Se; Yang, Soon Yong


    A robust positioning control scheme has been developed using friction parameter observer and recurrent fuzzy neural networks based on the sliding mode control. As a dynamic friction model, the LuGre model is adopted for handling friction compensation because it has been known to capture sufficiently the properties of a nonlinear dynamic friction. A developed friction parameter observer has a simple structure and also well estimates friction parameters of the LuGre friction model. In addition, an approximation method for the system uncertainty is developed using recurrent fuzzy neural networks technology to improve the precision positioning degree. Some simulation and experiment provide the verification on the performance of a proposed robust control scheme

  17. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fibre Composites Under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, Gustav Winther; Hiller, Jochen


    that friction materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fibre composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fibre......Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible...... in order to interpret the changes of friction observed during the running-in phase....

  18. Prediction of Sliding Friction Coefficient Based on a Novel Hybrid Molecular-Mechanical Model. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Jianmei; Sheng, Chenxing; Li, Zhixiong


    Sliding friction is a complex phenomenon which arises from the mechanical and molecular interactions of asperities when examined in a microscale. To reveal and further understand the effects of micro scaled mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficient on overall frictional behavior, a hybrid molecular-mechanical model is developed to investigate the effects of main factors, including different loads and surface roughness values, on the sliding friction coefficient in a boundary lubrication condition. Numerical modelling was conducted using a deterministic contact model and based on the molecular-mechanical theory of friction. In the contact model, with given external loads and surface topographies, the pressure distribution, real contact area, and elastic/plastic deformation of each single asperity contact were calculated. Then asperity friction coefficient was predicted by the sum of mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficient. The mechanical component was mainly determined by the contact width and elastic/plastic deformation, and the molecular component was estimated as a function of the contact area and interfacial shear stress. Numerical results were compared with experimental results and a good agreement was obtained. The model was then used to predict friction coefficients in different operating and surface conditions. Numerical results explain why applied load has a minimum effect on the friction coefficients. They also provide insight into the effect of surface roughness on the mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficients. It is revealed that the mechanical component dominates the friction coefficient when the surface roughness is large (Rq > 0.2 μm), while the friction coefficient is mainly determined by the molecular component when the surface is relatively smooth (Rq friction coefficient are recommended.

  19. Sliding friction at poly(vinyl alcohol)-modified carbon nanotube interfaces (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua


    The sliding friction between adjacent carbon nanotubes (CNTs) determines greatly the mechanical property of CNT assembly materials. In order to enhance the intertube friction, polymer molecules are often introduced between CNTs. This paper reveals a new energy dissipation mechanism for the deformed CNT contacts by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). When PVA is introduced into a CNT bundle, most segments of the polymer chain lay on the grooves of adjacent CNTs, while several short segments span over the contact CNTs by inducing a structural deformation on the tubular structure. During the tube sliding, the deformation is recovered and a new one is formed at the next position, contributing to new energy dissipation to prevent the tube sliding. As a result, the friction force can be enhanced by up to eight-fold. This study indicates that a network of transverse polymer chains and longitudinal CNTs is important towards high mechanical properties.

  20. Deposition of Coatings for Raising the Wear Resistance of Friction Surfaces of Spherical Sliding Bearings (United States)

    Gorlenko, A. O.; Davydov, S. V.


    The process of finishing plasma hardening with deposition of a multilayer amorphous coating of the Si - O - C - N system is considered as applied to hardening of the friction surfaces of spherical sliding bearings. The microrelief, the submicrorelief, and the tribological characteristics of the deposited wear-resistant antifriction amorphous coating, which are responsible for the elevated wear resistance of spherical sliding bearings, are investigated.

  1. Development of an interactive friction model for the prediction of lubricant breakdown behaviour during sliding wear


    Wang, L


    In this paper, a novel interactive friction-lubricant thickness model was developed to predict the evolution of coefficient of friction and the useful life of lubricant film. The developed model was calibrated by experimental results determined from pin-on-disc tests. For these experiments, a grease lubricant was applied on a Tungsten Carbide ball which slides against a disc made from AA6082 Aluminium alloy. In the pin-on-disc tests, the lubricant film thickness decreased with time during sin...

  2. The Effect of Thickness and Chemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide on Nanoscale Friction. (United States)

    Kwon, Sangku; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Hyunsoo; Koh, Sang Joon; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Park, Jeong Young


    The tribological properties of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are quite different from three-dimensional continuum materials because of the unique mechanical responses of 2D layers. It is known that friction on graphene shows a remarkable decreasing behavior as the number of layers increases, which is caused by the puckering effect. On other graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO), the thickness dependence of friction is important because of the possibilities for technical applications. In this report, we demonstrate unexpected layer-dependent friction behavior on GO and rGO layers. Friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on GO does not depend on the number of layers; however, after reduction, friction on rGO shows an inverse thickness dependence compared with pristine graphene. We show that the friction on rGO is higher than that on SiO 2 at low load, and that an interesting crossover behavior at higher load occurs because of the lower friction coefficient and higher adhesion of the rGO. We provide a relevant interpretation that explains the effect of thickness and chemical reduction on nanoscale friction.

  3. Temperature processes at two sliding surfaces subjected to dry friction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Cibulka, Jan; Bula, Vítězslav


    Roč. 63, 5/6 (2012), s. 277-292 ISSN 0039-2472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : dry friction * vibration damping * experimental set * increase of temperature * lost energy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  4. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fiber Composites under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, G.; Hiller, Jochen


    materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fiber composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fiber composite......Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are however brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible that friction...

  5. Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Studies of Fly Ash Reinforced AA-6351 Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uthayakumar


    Full Text Available Fly ash particles are potentially used in metal matrix composites due to their low cost, low density, and availability in large quantities as waste by-products in thermal power plants. This study describes multifactor-based experiments that were applied to research and investigation on dry sliding wear system of stir-cast aluminum alloy 6351 with 5, 10, and 15 wt.% fly ash reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs. The effects of parameters such as load, sliding speed, and percentage of fly ash on the sliding wear, specific wear rate, and friction coefficient were analyzed using Grey relational analysis on a pin-on-disc machine. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was also employed to investigate which design parameters significantly affect the wear behavior of the composite. The results showed that the applied load exerted the greatest effect on the dry sliding wear followed by the sliding velocity.

  6. Friction Forces during Sliding of Various Brackets for Malaligned Teeth: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Crincoli


    Full Text Available Aims. To measure the friction force generated during sliding mechanics with conventional, self-ligating (Damon 3 mx, Smart Clip, and Time 3 and low-friction (Synergy brackets using different archwire diameters and ligating systems in the presence of apical and buccal malalignments of the canine. Methods. An experimental setup reproducing the right buccal segment of the maxillary arch was designed to measure the friction force generated at the bracket/wire and wire/ligature interfaces of different brackets. A complete factorial plan was drawn up and a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was carried out to investigate whether the following factors affect the values of friction force: (i degree of malalignment, (ii diameter of the orthodontic wire, and (iii bracket/ligature combination. Tukey post hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant differences between the bracket/ligature combinations analyzed. Results. ANOVA showed that all the above factors affect the friction force values. The friction force released during sliding mechanics with conventional brackets is about 5-6times higher than that released with the other investigated brackets. A quasilinear increase of the frictional forces was observed for increasing amounts of apical and buccal malalignments. Conclusion. The Synergy bracket with silicone ligature placed around the inner tie-wings appears to yield the best performance.

  7. Nanoscale electrowetting effects observed by using friction force microscopy. (United States)

    Revilla, Reynier; Guan, Li; Zhu, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Yan-Lian; Wang, Chen


    We report the study of electrowetting (EW) effects under strong electric field on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface by using friction force microscopy (FFM). The friction force dependence on the electric field at nanometer scale can be closely related to electrowetting process based on the fact that at this scale frictional behavior is highly affected by capillary phenomena. By measuring the frictional signal between a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and the PMMA surface, the ideal EW region (Young-Lippmann equation) and the EW saturation were identified. The change in the interfacial contact between the tip and the PMMA surface with the electric field strength is closely associated with the transition from the ideal EW region to the EW saturation. In addition, a reduction of the friction coefficient was observed when increasing the applied electric field in the ideal EW region. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Study of nano-scale friction using vortices in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, A.; Nakamura, D.; Kitano, H.; Matsumura, H.


    Toward the microscopic understanding of physics of friction at the solid interface, we use the dynamics of driven vortices of superconductor as a new model system. We measured the static friction as a function of the aging time, and compared with the kinetic friction as a function of velocity for the driven vortex lattice of La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 . No definite relationship, such as the one proposed for the friction of thick papers, was observed. This supports our previous proposal of the critical phenomena view that the non-Amontons-Coulomb-like behavior of the kinetic friction is a broadened dynamic transition between the static and kinetic regimes

  9. On the sliding friction at the interface between a fluid and a solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minetti-Mezzetti, E.


    A method is reported to investigate the possible existence and the numerical value of the sliding friction coefficient β at the contact interface between a fluid and a solid. Some preliminary experimental results at the interface glycerol-aluminium give 1/β -4 . (author)

  10. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels


    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  11. Coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of high explosives under different rubbing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y Q; Chaudhri, M Munawar


    The coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of commonly used high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and beta-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) under several rubbing configurations and at a relative sliding speed of 0.22 mm s -1 were measured. The sliding configurations were (1) crystal-polished steel pairs, (2) like-crystal pairs and (3) unlike-crystal pairs. For every rubbing configuration the friction force showed oscillations, which are thought to be caused by the formation and shearing of the adhesive junctions formed at the surface of the rubbing crystals. This shearing of the adhesive junctions led to the formation of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles, which were confirmed by an environmental scanning electron microscope study. For every rubbing configuration and for relatively high normal loads pressing the rubbing crystals together, the coefficient of friction was generally in the range 0.2-0.25 and it has been concluded that the coefficient of friction is controlled by the adhesion with almost negligible contribution from the ploughing component. From a knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the uniaxial yield stress values of single crystals of RDX and β-HMX, the shear strength of these crystals were determined to be ∼13.4 MPa and ∼16.8 MPa, respectively.

  12. Estimation of real contact area during sliding friction from interface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Keun Chey


    Full Text Available Frictional heat is one of the most important topics in tribological research. The real contact area of the frictional pair plays a significant role in accurately estimating the interface temperature, which is closely related to the frictional heat. However, conventional methods for measuring the contact area, such as constriction resistance measurements, are not suitable for dynamic frictional motion because of the electrical and thermal interferences at the contact region. In this study, a novel method is presented for estimating the real contact area during sliding friction. First, the average interface temperature was experimentally measured by the dynamic thermocouple method. Then assuming that the total frictional heat power is constant, the measured temperature was used as a constraint to determine the contact area in a finite element model, giving an estimation for the real contact area. The calculation results show that the real contact area increases with increasing normal load as predicted by contact theories, and decreases with increasing sliding speed, which could be attributable to the contact dynamics of asperities at the interface. Additionally, the limits of the proposed method is discussed.

  13. In situ observation of a hydrogel-glass interface during sliding friction. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsurou; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ahmed, Jamil; Kamita, Gen; Yashima, Shintaro; Furukawa, Yuichiro; Ota, Yuko; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Gong, Jian Ping


    Direct observation of hydrogel contact with a solid surface in water is indispensable for understanding the friction, lubrication, and adhesion of hydrogels under water. However, this is a difficult task since the refractive index of hydrogels is very close to that of water. In this paper, we present a novel method to in situ observe the macroscopic contact of hydrogels with a solid surface based on the principle of critical refraction. This method was applied to investigate the sliding friction of a polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel with glass by using a strain-controlled parallel-plate rheometer. The study revealed that when the compressive pressure is not very high, the hydrogel forms a heterogeneous contact with the glass, and a macro-scale water drop is trapped at the soft interface. The pre-trapped water spreads over the interface to decrease the contact area with the increase in sliding velocity, which dramatically reduces the friction of the hydrogel. The study also revealed that this heterogeneous contact is the reason for the poor reproducibility of hydrogel friction that has been often observed in previous studies. Under the condition of homogeneous full contact, the molecular origin of hydrogel friction in water is discussed. This study highlights the importance of direct interfacial observation to reveal the friction mechanism of hydrogels.

  14. Clinical ligation forces and intraoral friction during sliding on a stainless steel archwire. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Laura R; Beatty, Mark W; Randall, C Jared; Nickel, Jeffrey C


    The efficiency of tooth movement associated with some orthodontic mechanics can be compromised by friction between archwire and bracket. This study examined the effects of bracket ligation forces (F(N Ligation)) and mastication on friction when sliding a bracket along an archwire. Preliminary data from 5 orthodontists and 5 orthodontic residents characterized average tight and loose stainless steel F(N Ligation). These values were reproduced by a calibrated operator in a custom device used to estimate changes in the measurement of ex vivo and intraoral frictional forces, represented by mu(a), the apparent coefficient of static friction. Ten subjects chewed gum with the device in place to determine whether vibration eliminated friction when compared to ex vivo measurements. Nested analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests determined the effects of ligation type and environmental variables. No significant differences (P >.01) were found between ex vivo and intraoral mu(a) values for tight and loose stainless steel ligation. Intraoral mu(a) values for elastic ligation were significantly greater than ex vivo mu(a) values (P friction when sliding a bracket along an archwire. In addition, there was considerable intraoperator variation in F(N Ligation), although ligation techniques were well controlled. Variations in clinical ligation forces are likely to be equal or greater than these experimental data. These variations could affect treatment efficiency.

  15. Friction and Surface Dynamics of Polymers on the Nanoscale by AFM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönherr, Holger; Schónherr, Holger; Samori, Paolo; Tocha, E.; Vancso, Gyula J.


    In this article the measurement and understanding of friction forces and surface dynamics of polymers on the one hand and the importance of molecular relaxation processes and viscoelasticity in polymers for advanced micro- and nanoscale applications on the other hand are discussed. Particular

  16. Deformation relief evolution during sliding friction of Hadfield steel single crystal (United States)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Novitskaya, O. S.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.


    The paper deals with the evolution of the deformation relief formed on lateral faces of single crystals of Hadfield steel during dry sliding friction. The use of single crystals with the predetermined orientation enables to analyze the development of shear systems subject to the duration of tribological tests. As the test duration increases, slip bands are curved and thicken in the near-surface region. After 24 hours of friction, single crystals of Hadfield steel demonstrate the maximum hardening. Afterwards, the wear process begins, which is followed by the repeated strain hardening of the specimens. After 48 hours of friction, the height of the deformation relief nearly halves on all of the three faces, as compared to that observed after 24 hours of friction. Differences in the propagation height of slip bands on the faces occur due to the uneven running-in as well as the complex involvement pattern of shear systems into the deformation process.

  17. Friction-induced vibrations and self-organization mechanics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of sliding contact

    CERN Document Server

    Nosonovsky, Michael


    Many scientists and engineers do not realize that, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in situ tribofilms and various patterns. In turn, these structures-usually formed by destabilization of the stationary sliding regime-can lead to the reduction of friction and wear. Friction-Induced Vibrations and Self-Organization: Mechanics and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Sliding Contact combines the mechanical and thermodynamic methods in tribology, thus extending the field of mechanical friction-induced vibrations to non-mechanical instabilities and self-organization processes at the frictional interface. The book also relates friction-induced self-organization to novel biomimetic materials, such as self-lubricating, self-cleaning, and self-healing materials. Explore Friction from a Different Angle-as a Fundamental Force of Nature The book begins with an exploration of friction as a fundamental force of nature throughout the history of science....

  18. Effect of fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayer films on sidewall adhesion and friction of surface micromachines with impacting and sliding contact interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, H.; Komvopoulos, K.


    A self-assembled monolayer film consisting of fluoro-octyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) was vapor-phase deposited on Si(100) substrates and polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) surface micromachines. The hydrophobic behavior and structural composition of the FOTS film deposited on Si(100) were investigated by goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of contact pressure, relative humidity, temperature, and impact/sliding cycles on the adhesive and friction behavior of uncoated and FOTS-coated polysilicon micromachines (referred to as the Si and FOTS/Si micromachines, respectively) were investigated under controlled loading and environmental conditions. FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated much lower and stable adhesion than Si micromachines due to the highly hydrophobic and conformal FOTS film. Contrary to Si micromachines, sidewall adhesion of FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated a weak dependence on relative humidity, temperature, and impact cycles. In addition, FOTS/Si micromachines showed low and stable adhesion and low static friction for significantly more sliding cycles than Si micromachines. The adhesive and static friction characteristics of Si and FOTS/Si micromachines are interpreted in the context of physicochemical surface changes, resulting in the increase of the real area of contact and a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition of the surface chemical characteristics caused by nanoscale surface smoothening and the removal of the organic residue (Si micromachines) or the FOTS film (FOTS/Si micromachines) during repetitive impact and oscillatory sliding of the sidewall surfaces.

  19. Friction and wear performance of bearing ball sliding against diamond-like carbon coatings (United States)

    Wu, Shenjiang; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Kar, Satyananda; Li, Dangjuan; Su, Junhong


    We have studied the tribological properties of bearing steel ball (Japan standard, SUJ2) sliding against tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) coatings and amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings. The reciprocating sliding testes are performed with ball-on-plate friction tester in ambient air condition. Analysis of friction coefficient, wear volume and microstructure in wear scar are carried out using optical microscopy, atom force morphology (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show the SUJ2 on ta-C coating has low friction coefficient (around 0.15) but high wear loss. In contrast, the low wear loss of SUJ2 on a-C:H coating with high (around 0.4) and unsteady friction coefficient. Some Fe2O3, FeO and graphitization have been found on the wear scar of SUJ2 sliding against ta-C coating. Nearly no oxide materials exist on the wear scar of SUJ2 against a-C:H coating. The mechanism and hypothesis of the wear behavior have been investigated according to the measurement results. This study will contribute to proper selection and understand the tribological performance of bearing steels against DLC coatings.

  20. Effects of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) on sliding friction of automotive brake friction materials (United States)

    Lee, Wan Kyu; Rhee, Tae Hee; Kim, Hyun Seong; Jang, Ho


    The effect of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) on the tribological properties of automotive brake friction materials was investigated using a Krauss type tribometer and a 1/5 scale dynamometer with a rigid caliper. Results showed that Sb2S3 improved fade resistance by developing transfer films on the disc surface at elevated temperatures. On the other hand, the rubbing surfaces of the friction material exhibited contact plateaus with a broader height distribution when it contained Sb2S3, indicating fewer contact junctions compared to the friction material with graphite. The friction material with Sb2S3 also exhibited a lower stick-slip propensity than the friction material with graphite. The improved fade resistance with Sb2S3 is attributed to its lubricating capability sustained at high temperatures, while the lower stick-slip propensity of the friction material with Sb2S3 is associated with the slight difference between its static and kinetic coefficients of friction and high normal stiffness.

  1. Transitions from nanoscale to microscale dynamic friction mechanisms on polyethylene and silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederberger, S.; Gracias, D. H.; Komvopoulos, K.; Somorjai, G. A.


    The dynamic friction mechanisms of polyethylene and silicon were investigated for apparent contact pressures and contact areas in the ranges of 8 MPa-18 GPa and 17 nm2-9500 μm2, respectively. Friction force measurements were obtained with a friction force microscope, scanning force microscope, and pin-on-disk tribometer. Silicon and diamond tips with a nominal radius of curvature between 100 nm and 1.2 mm were slid against low- and high-density polyethylene and Si(100) substrates under contact loads in the range of 5 nN-0.27 N. The low friction coefficients obtained with all material systems at low contact pressures indicated that deformation at the sliding interface was primarily elastic. Alternatively, the significantly higher friction coefficients at higher contact pressures suggested that plastic deformation was the principal mode of deformation. The high friction coefficients of polyethylene observed with large apparent contact areas are interpreted in terms of the microstructure evolution involving the rearrangement of crystalline regions (lamellae) nearly parallel to the sliding direction, which reduces the surface resistance to plastic shearing. Such differences in the friction behavior of polyethylene resulting from stress-induced microstructural changes were found to occur over a relatively large range of the apparent contact area. The friction behavior of silicon was strongly affected by the presence of a native oxide film. Results are presented to demonstrate the effect of the scale of deformation at the contact interface on the dynamic friction behavior and the significance of contact parameters on the friction measurements obtained with different instruments. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The friction and wear properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 and poly-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS sliding against metal under dry sliding, water absorption and electroplated (EP conditions were studied by using a pin-ondisc tribometer. The effect of applied load and sliding speed on the tribological behaviours of the polymer–metal sliding combinations under dry sliding, water absorbed and EP conditions were also investigated. The worn surfaces were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Experimental results showed that ABS samples under water absorbed conditions showed higher wear loss compared to normal samples and the EP samples had exhibited lower wear loss compared to the water absorbed samples. Similarly EP-PA6 samples exhibited excellent wear resistance when compared with EP-ABS samples. Further, it was observed that the frictional heat produced on account of sliding action had a significant effect on the tribological behaviours of samples under dry sliding and water absorbed conditions.

  3. In situ observation of a hydrogel-glass interface during sliding friction


    Yamamoto, Tetsurou; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ahmed, Jamil; Kamita, Gen; Yashima, Shintaro; Furukawa, Yuichiro; Ota, Yuko; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Gong, Jian Ping


    Direct observation of hydrogel contact with a solid surface in water is indispensable for understanding the friction, lubrication, and adhesion of hydrogels under water. However, this is a difficult task since the refractive index of hydrogels is very close to that of water. In this paper, we present a novel method to in situ observe the macroscopic contact of hydrogels with a solid surface based on the principle of critical refraction. This method was applied to investigate the sliding frict...

  4. Novel Plasmid Transformation Method Mediated by Chrysotile, Sliding Friction, and Elastic Body Exposure


    Yoshida, Naoto; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Matsuki, Kaori; Shigeno, Toshiya


    Escherichia coli as a plasmid recipient cell was dispersed in a chrysotile colloidal solution, containing chrysotile adsorbed to plasmid DNA (chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture). Following this, the chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture was dropped onto the surface of an elastic body, such as agarose, and treated physically by sliding a polystyrene streak bar over the elastic body to create friction. Plasmid DNA was easily incorporated into E. coli, and antibiotic resistance was conferred by transform...

  5. Fundamentals of friction and wear on the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Gnecco, Enrico


    This book provides an updated review on the development of scanning probe microscopy and related techniques, and the availability of computational techniques not even imaginable a few decades ago. The 36 chapters cover instrumental aspects, theoretical models and selected experimental results, thus offering a broad panoramic view on fundamental issues in nanotribology which are currently being investigated. Compared to the first edition, several topics have been added, including triboluminescence, graphene mechanics, friction and wear in liquid environments, capillary condensation, and multisc

  6. Static and kinetic friction force and surface roughness of different archwire-bracket sliding contacts. (United States)

    Carrion-Vilches, Francisco J; Bermudez, María-Dolores; Fructuoso, Paula


    The aim of this study was to determine the static and kinetic friction forces of the contact bracket-archwire with different dental material compositions in order to select those materials with lower resistance to sliding. We carried out sliding friction tests by means of a universal testing machine following an experimental procedure as described in ASTM D1894 standard. We determined the static and kinetic friction forces under dry and lubricating conditions using an artificial saliva solution at 36.5ºC. The bracket-archwire pairs studied were: stainless steel-stainless steel; stainless steel-glass fiber composite; stainless steel-Nitinol 60; sapphire-stainless steel; sapphire-glass fiber composite; and sapphire-Nitinol 60. The best performance is obtained for Nitinol 60 archwire sliding against a stainless steel bracket, both under dry and lubricated conditions. These results are in agreement with the low surface roughness of Nitinol 60 with respect to the glass fiber composite archwire. The results described here contribute to establishing selection criteria for materials for dental archwire-brackets.

  7. Cooperative and submolecular dissipation mechanisms of sliding friction in complex organic systems. (United States)

    Knorr, Daniel B; Gray, Tomoko O; Overney, René M


    Energy dissipation in single asperity sliding friction was directly linked to submolecular modes of mobility by intrinsic friction analysis, involving time-temperature superposition along with thermodynamic stress and reaction rate models. Thereby, polystyrene served as a representative tribological sample for organic and amorphous complex systems. This study reveals the significance of surface and subsurface (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-) relaxational modes, which couple under appropriate external conditions (load, temperature, and rate) with shear induced disturbances, and thus gives rise to material specific frictional dissipation. At low pressures and temperatures below the glass transition point, the phenyl pendant side groups of polystyrene, known for their preferential orientation at the free surface, were noticed to be the primary channel for dissipation of kinetic sliding-energy. While this process was found to be truly enthalpic (activation energy of 8 kcalmol), energy dissipation was shown to possess both enthalpic and cooperative entropic contributions above the loading capacity of the surface phenyl groups (9.9 kcalmol) or above the glass transition. Apparent Arrhenius activation energies of frictional dissipation of 22 and 90 kcalmol, respectively, and cooperative contributions up to 80% were found. As such, this study highlights issues critical to organic lubricant design, i.e., the intrinsic enthalpic activation barriers of mobile linker groups, the evaluation of cooperative mobility phenomena, and critical tribological parameters to access or avoid coupling between shear disturbances and molecular actuators.

  8. Impact of substrate corrugation on the sliding friction levels of adsorbed films. (United States)

    Coffey, T; Krim, J


    We report a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) study of sliding friction for solid xenon monolayers at 77 K on Cu(111), Ni(111), graphene/Ni(111), and C(60) substrates. Simulations have predicted a strong dependence of phononic friction coefficient (eta) on surface corrugation in systems with similar lattice spacing, eta approximately U(2)(0), but this has never before been shown experimentally. In order to make direct comparisons with theory, substrates with similar lattice spacing but varying amplitudes of surface corrugation were studied. QCM data reveal friction levels proportional to U(2)(0), validating current theoretical and numerical predictions. Measurements of Xe/C(60) are also included for comparison purposes.

  9. Rubber friction on road surfaces: Experiment and theory for low sliding speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J. [PGI, FZ Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oh, Y. R.; Nam, S. K.; Jeon, S. H. [Hankook Tire Co. LTD., 112 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-725 (Korea, Republic of)


    We study rubber friction for tire tread compounds on asphalt road surfaces. The road surface topographies are measured using a stylus instrument and atomic force microscopy, and the surface roughness power spectra are calculated. The rubber viscoelastic modulus mastercurves are obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis measurements and the large-strain effective modulus is obtained from strain sweep data. The rubber friction is measured at different temperatures and sliding velocities, and is compared to the calculated data obtained using the Persson contact mechanics theory. We conclude that in addition to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber surface by the road asperities, there is an important contribution to the rubber friction from shear processes in the area of contact. The analysis shows that the latter contribution may arise from rubber molecules (or patches of rubber) undergoing bonding-stretching-debonding cycles as discussed in a classic paper by Schallamach.

  10. Interpretation of the Friction Coefficient During Reciprocating Sliding of Ti6Al4V Alloy Against Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mitrovic


    Full Text Available Tribological behaviour of Ti6Al4V alloy, during linear reciprocating sliding against alumina, at nanotribometer (ball-on-flat type of contact was investigated. Experiments were carried out for sliding in Ringer's solution, over a range of loads (100 - 1000 mN and speeds (4 - 12 mm/s. Friction behaviour of the contact pairs was investigated by analysis of the dynamic friction coefficient plots and effective root mean square (rms coefficient of friction, COFrms. Presented mathematical envelopes of dynamic coefficient of friction curves and averaged envelope signals provided additional explanation of one calculated COFrms value. Envelopes of dynamic coefficient of friction enabled easier determination of different periods during sliding, which were further related to wear mechanisms.

  11. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals (United States)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin


    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  12. Influence of indenter geometry on the frictional sliding resistance of tooth enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Swain


    Full Text Available Indentation force-displacement and sliding scratch resistance measurements have been conducted on orangutan tooth enamel. Tests were made with a corner-cube (CC, Berkovich, as well as spherical (nominally 1 μm and 5 μm radius indenters. Indentation loads ranged from 100 to 5000 μN and were also made on fused silica to calibrate the indenter tips. The frictional force as a function of sliding distance was measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM option on the indenter system as well as using a high precision AFM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The frictional resistance was found to be almost constant with indenter load for the CC and Berkovich indenters; for the CC, it depended upon the orientation of the sliding indenter. For the spherical indenters, the 1 μm showed a sharp increase in frictional resistance with increasing load whereas for the 5 μm tip there was minimal change. Observations of the resultant scratches showed ploughing/cutting with the sharp indenters and a transition from an “ironing” like deformation for all the 5 μm tests and for the low load 1 μm tip with ploughing at the heaviest load. In the case of the sharp tips a “metallic” like discontinuous swarf removal process was evident. It was found that the frictional resistance force scaled with the effective rake angle of the indenter tips. Implications of the current observations for understanding tooth wear are considered.

  13. Microstructural Evidences of Intergranular Pressure Solution during Frictional Sliding at Hydrothermal Conditions (United States)

    Ma, X.; Yao, S.; He, C.


    In the framework of rate- and state-dependent friction, velocity weakening is the result of a healing effect at intergranular contacts that is stronger than the instantaneous rate effect. Intergranular pressure solution has been proposed to be a feasible mechanism for the frictional healing effect (He et al., 2013), but to date no substantial evidences have been reported in related microstructures. In this study we report our reanalyses on samples of plagioclase gouge deformed at hydrothermal conditions with effective normal stresses of 100 MPa, 200 MPa, and 300 MPa, pore pressures of 30 MPa and 100 MPa, and temperatures from 100oC to 600oC. With an Inlens image detector in a scanning electron microscope, our focus is to find the evidences of the pressure solution processes during frictional sliding. As it has been difficult to observe the signatures of pressure solution during frictional sliding at the solution sites due to the short contact time of frequently-switching contact pairs, now we focus on the results of precipitation instead, which is the final process of pressure solution. With high magnification, we find the following evidences of intergranular pressure solution: 1) crystal growth as a result of precipitation is ubiquitously observed in deformed samples at temperatures above 200oC; 2) very fine-grained precipitated particles with flaky morphologies typically appear in intensely sheared regions and between relatively large particles in moderately sheared regions; 3) the precipitated grains are concentrated periodically in zones orientated at 45-50 degrees to the fault strike. These observations indicate that intergranular pressure solution is the dominant process responsible for the frictional healing effect.

  14. Effects of temperature and sliding rate on frictional strength of granite (United States)

    Lockner, D.A.; Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.D.


    Layers of artificial granite gouge have been deformed on saw-cut granite surfaces inclined 30?? to the sample axes. Samples were deformed at a constant confining pressure of 250 MPa and temperatures of 22 to 845??C. The velocity dependence of the steady-state coefficient of friction (??ss) was determined by comparing sliding strengths at different sliding rates. The results of these measurements are consistent with those reported by Solberg and Byerlee (1984) at room temperature and Stesky (1975) between 300 and 400??C. Stesky found that the slip-rate dependence of (??ss) increased above 400??C. In the present study, however, the velocity dependence of (??ss) was nearly independent of temperature. ?? 1986 Birkha??user Verlag.

  15. Particle Dynamics Simulations of Rate and State Dependent Frictional Sliding of Granular Fault Gouge (United States)

    Morgan, J. K.


    Particle dynamics methods (PDM) have proven very valuable in the study of fault processes, fault mechanics, and associated deformation. Such discrete numerical techniques capture the heterogeneity and discontinuous nature of earth materials, and can reproduce many behaviors and geometries observed in natural and experimentally-generated shear zones. These include strain localization and delocalization, stick-slip sliding, and characteristic fracture arrays. However, several fundamental experimental results thought to be important in the earthquake generation process, have not been well represented by PDM models: 2D simulations conducted on idealized assemblages of particles using simple elastic-frictional contact laws, generally yield friction values much lower than natural materials, and lack second-order time- and velocity-dependent changes in strength that influence dynamic fault slip. In efforts to reconcile these differences between experimental and numerical friction, new simulations using the discrete element method (DEM) have been carried out using more realistic particle motions conditions and interparticle contact laws: (a) particle rotations are restricted as a proxy for grain roughness, interlocking, and out-of-plane contacts that resist rolling, and (b) time-dependent contact healing is introduced to capture temporal strengthening of granular assemblages. The resulting mechanical behavior qualitatively reproduces the scale and phenomenology of empirically based rate and state constitutive laws for friction. Frictional strength is increased, and in the absence of interparticle rolling, can attain values comparable to those observed in the lab. Even though interparticle contact strength depends only on time of static contact in these models, the bulk assemblage shows velocity- and slip-dependent behavior associated with changes in deformation mechanism, particle configuration and packing, and contact orientation. These results demonstrate the complexity

  16. Friction and wear behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding (United States)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh.; Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Sáfrán, G.; Tietema, R.; Doerwald, D.


    A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) was developed in order to provide low friction in boundary lubricated sliding condition at ambient and at high temperature. The Mo-W-C coating showed the lowest friction coefficient among a number of commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings at ambient temperature. At elevated temperature (200 °C), Mo-W-C coating showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient with sliding distance in contrast to DLC coatings. Raman spectroscopy revealed the importance of combined Mo and W doping for achieving low friction at both ambient and high temperature. The significant decrease in friction and wear rate was attributed to the presence of graphitic carbon debris (from coating) and 'in situ' formed metal sulphides (WS2 and MoS2, where metals were supplied from coating and sulphur from engine oil) in the transfer layer.

  17. Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance


    Yashvir Singh


    Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity...

  18. A gradient nanostructure generated in pure copper by platen friction sliding deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, S. Q.; Godfrey, A.; Liu, W.


    A modified friction sliding process with a large applied normal load has been used to develop a gradient nano structure in Cu using only a short processing time. A quantitative characterization of the variation in microstructure and strength has been carried out by combined use of electron...... backscatter diffraction and hardness measurements, and the data used to estimate the effective strain profile resulting from the processing treatment The affected deformation volume extends to a large depth of more than 1 mm, with a top surface hardness of 228 GPa, corresponding to a four-fold increase...

  19. On the friction and sliding wear of rubber/layered silicate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The dry sliding and friction behaviors of organoclay modified hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR and ethylene/propylene/diene (EPDM rubbers were studied using a pin (steel-on-plate(rubber sheet test configuration. It was found that the organoclay modification may improve or deteriorate the resistance to wear of rubbers. The resistance to wear was adversely affected by pronounced intercalation/exfoliation and two-dimensional alignment of the clay layers (i.e. normal to the moving pin. This result is in analogy with the directional dependence of the wear performance of fiber-reinforced composite laminates.

  20. Frictional sliding in layered rock model: Preliminary experiments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.E. Jr.; Buescher, B.J.; Anderson, D.; Epstein, J.S.


    An important aspect of determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a possible nuclear waste repository requires understanding the mechanical behavior of jointed rock-masses. To this end we have studied the frictional sliding between simulated rock joints in the laboratory using the technique of phase shifting moire interferometry. The models were made from stacks of Lexan plates and contained a central hole to induce slip between the plates when the models were loaded in compression. These preliminary results confirm the feasibility of the approach and show a clear evolution of slip as function of load

  1. Modeling of constraints and micro-slidings generated between the frictional parts of a valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, L.; Sudreau, F.; Denape, J.; Lelait, L.


    The aim of this modeling is to optimize the use of deposited coatings on the frictional parts of valves (lid/seat). This study is part of a tribological study and uses the CASTEM 2000 finite-elements code developed by the CEA/DMT. The numerical calculations allow to verify that the structural constraints at the contact are lower than the admissible limits of the coatings. The structural constraints field under a static load is calculated and leads to the determination of an adhesion coefficient. This coefficient allows to understand how the sliding initiates. (J.S.). 9 figs

  2. A gradient surface produced by combined electroplating and incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hong, Chuanshi; Kitamura, K.


    A Cu plate was first electroplated with a Ni layer, with a thickness controlled to be between 1 and 2 mu m. The coated surface was then deformed by incremental frictional sliding with liquid nitrogen cooling. The combined treatment led to a multifunctional surface with a gradient in strain...... processed Cu plate without Ni coating, showing a strong effect of the coated layer on the deformation. The experimental results are followed by an analysis of strengthening mechanisms and a discussion of the applicability of the new technique for increasing the durability and lifetime of components exposed...

  3. Experimental results of a hydrodynamic friction behaviour of a linear contact at low sliding velocity (United States)

    Bouzana, A.; Guermat, A.; Belarifi, F.


    We propose in this work the experimental results of the lubricated friction behavior of linear contact (finite length) in isoviscous hydrodynamic regime. This study was made on a tribometer Plint - Cameron TE77, using a pure mineral oil lubricant (N175). without additives for three loads 20, 40 and 80 Newton. and a velocity, range varying from 0.05 to 0.4 ms-1, trials are held in pure sliding mode for a total distance of displacement L = 15mm. The studied contact is a cylinder/cylinder. The geometry of test pieces is part of a piston ring and a liner of a real engine. The first cylinder represents the male part with material of MKJet nuance having undergoes a surface coating by thermal projection (HVOF). the second cylinder represents the female part whose material is cast iron of nuance FGL, without surface treatment, and whose dimensions were adapted to minimize the computational error on the speed of sliding and the force of friction which is lower than 5%. Processing the results recorded for ten cycles with four hundred points per cycle to the extraction of average curves, enables us to plot the curves of friction according to velocity and thereafter the curve of Stribeck. The results show that we can get a total isoviscous regime for loads 20 and 40N, however for load 80N, this regime is partial, as it comes off the final curve from a speed value 0.1 m / s. the values of the friction coefficient varies for the three loads used between 0.004 and 0.017. These results show the possibility of obtaining a hydrodynamic regime with high load and low speed, with treatments suitable surfaces and are made to reduce wear and increase the lifetime of the mechanism.

  4. Rate-weakening friction characterizes both slow sliding and catastrophic failure of landslides. (United States)

    Handwerger, Alexander L; Rempel, Alan W; Skarbek, Rob M; Roering, Joshua J; Hilley, George E


    Catastrophic landslides cause billions of dollars in damages and claim thousands of lives annually, whereas slow-moving landslides with negligible inertia dominate sediment transport on many weathered hillslopes. Surprisingly, both failure modes are displayed by nearby landslides (and individual landslides in different years) subjected to almost identical environmental conditions. Such observations have motivated the search for mechanisms that can cause slow-moving landslides to transition via runaway acceleration to catastrophic failure. A similarly diverse range of sliding behavior, including earthquakes and slow-slip events, occurs along tectonic faults. Our understanding of these phenomena has benefitted from mechanical treatments that rely upon key ingredients that are notably absent from previous landslide descriptions. Here, we describe landslide motion using a rate- and state-dependent frictional model that incorporates a nonlocal stress balance to account for the elastic response to gradients in slip. Our idealized, one-dimensional model reproduces both the displacement patterns observed in slow-moving landslides and the acceleration toward failure exhibited by catastrophic events. Catastrophic failure occurs only when the slip surface is characterized by rate-weakening friction and its lateral dimensions exceed a critical nucleation length [Formula: see text] that is shorter for higher effective stresses. However, landslides that are extensive enough to fall within this regime can nevertheless slide slowly for months or years before catastrophic failure. Our results suggest that the diversity of slip behavior observed during landslides can be described with a single model adapted from standard fault mechanics treatments.

  5. Sliding motion modulates stiffness and friction coefficient at the surface of tissue engineered cartilage. (United States)

    Grad, S; Loparic, M; Peter, R; Stolz, M; Aebi, U; Alini, M


    Functional cartilage tissue engineering aims to generate grafts with a functional surface, similar to that of authentic cartilage. Bioreactors that stimulate cell-scaffold constructs by simulating natural joint movements hold great potential to generate cartilage with adequate surface properties. In this study two methods based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied to obtain information about the quality of engineered graft surfaces. For better understanding of the molecule-function relationships, AFM was complemented with immunohistochemistry. Bovine chondrocytes were seeded into polyurethane scaffolds and subjected to dynamic compression, applied by a ceramic ball, for 1h daily [loading group 1 (LG1)]. In loading group 2 (LG2), the ball additionally oscillated over the scaffold, generating sliding surface motion. After 3 weeks, the surfaces of the engineered constructs were analyzed by friction force and indentation-type AFM (IT-AFM). Results were complemented and compared to immunohistochemical analyses. The loading type significantly influenced the mechanical and histological outcomes. Constructs of LG2 exhibited lowest friction coefficient and highest micro- and nanostiffness. Collagen type II and aggrecan staining were readily observed in all constructs and appeared to reach deeper areas in loaded (LG1, LG2) compared to unloaded scaffolds. Lubricin was specifically detected at the top surface of LG2. This study proposes a quantitative AFM-based functional analysis at the micrometer- and nanometer scale to evaluate the quality of cartilage surfaces. Mechanical testing (load-bearing) combined with friction analysis (gliding) can provide important information. Notably, sliding-type biomechanical stimuli may favor (re-)generation and maintenance of functional articular surfaces and support the development of mechanically competent engineered cartilage. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Influence of sliding friction on leveling force of superelastic NiTi arch wire: A computational analysis (United States)

    Razali, M. F.; Mahmud, A. S.; Mokhtar, N.; Abdullah, J.


    This study investigated the influence of sliding friction toward the effective force of superelastic NiTi arch wire applied in orthodontic bracing for tooth leveling. A three-dimensional finite-element model integrated with superelastic subroutine and contact interaction was used to predict the contribution of friction on force-deflection curve of NiTi wire in three brackets bending configuration. It was found that the friction between the wire and the bracket increased proportionally as a function of wire deflection, thus transforming the constant force characteristic of NiTi material into a slope. The highest magnitude of sliding friction was measured to be 3.1 N and 2.2 N with respect to the activation and deactivation of the arch wire.

  7. Friction and wear behaviour of Mo–W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh., E-mail: [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, HIPIMS Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Mandal, Paranjayee, E-mail: [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, HIPIMS Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Ehiasarian, Arutiun P., E-mail: [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, HIPIMS Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Sáfrán, G., E-mail: [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thegeut 29-33 (Hungary); Tietema, R., E-mail: [IHI Hauzer Techno Coating B.V., Van Heemskerckweg 22, 5928 LL Venlo (Netherlands); Doerwald, D., E-mail: [IHI Hauzer Techno Coating B.V., Van Heemskerckweg 22, 5928 LL Venlo (Netherlands)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel Mo–W–C coating provides extremely low friction (μ ∼ 0.03) in lubricated condition. • Mo–W–C outperforms existing DLCs in terms of low friction, independent of temperature. • Tribochemical reactions govern the wear mechanism of Mo–W–C coating. • The transfer layer contains graphitic carbon and ‘in situ’ formed WS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}. • WS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2} are the key factors facilitating appreciably low friction and wear rate. - Abstract: A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo–W–C) was developed in order to provide low friction in boundary lubricated sliding condition at ambient and at high temperature. The Mo–W–C coating showed the lowest friction coefficient among a number of commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings at ambient temperature. At elevated temperature (200 °C), Mo–W–C coating showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient with sliding distance in contrast to DLC coatings. Raman spectroscopy revealed the importance of combined Mo and W doping for achieving low friction at both ambient and high temperature. The significant decrease in friction and wear rate was attributed to the presence of graphitic carbon debris (from coating) and ‘in situ’ formed metal sulphides (WS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}, where metals were supplied from coating and sulphur from engine oil) in the transfer layer.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Friction Coefficient and Wear Rate of Composite Materials Sliding Against Smooth and Rough Mild Steel Counterfaces


    M.A. Chowdhury; D.M. Nuruzzaman; B.K. Roy; S. Samad; R. Sarker; A.H.M. Rezwan


    In the present study, friction coefficient and wear rate of gear fiber reinforced plastic (gear fiber) and glass fiber reinforced plastic (glass fiber) sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally. In order to do so, a pin on disc apparatus is designed and fabricated. Experiments are carried out when smooth or rough mild steel pin slides on gear fiber and glass fiber disc. Experiments are conducted at normal load 10, 15 and 20 N, sliding velocity 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s and relative h...

  9. Biomimetic patterned surfaces for controllable friction in micro- and nanoscale devices (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Suh, Kahp-Yang


    Biomimetics is the study and simulation of biological systems for desired functional properties. It involves the transformation of underlying principles discovered in nature into man-made technologies. In this context, natural surfaces have significantly inspired and motivated new solutions for micro- and nano-scale devices (e.g., Micro/Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems, MEMS/NEMS) towards controllable friction, during their operation. As a generic solution to reduce friction at small scale, various thin films/coatings have been employed in the last few decades. In recent years, inspiration from `Lotus Effect' has initiated a new research direction for controllable friction with biomimetic patterned surfaces. By exploiting the intrinsic hydrophobicity and ability to reduce contact area, such micro- or nano-patterned surfaces have demonstrated great strength and potential for applications in MEMS/NEMS devices. This review highlights recent advancements on the design, development and performance of these biomimetic patterned surfaces. Also, we present some hybrid approaches to tackle current challenges in biomimetic tribological applications for MEMS/NEMS devices.

  10. Evaluation of the friction force generated by monocristalyne and policristalyne ceramic brackets in sliding mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferreira Pimentel


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare "in vitro" the maximum friction force generated by three types of esthetic brackets, two types of polycrystalline conventional ceramic brackets (20/40 and InVu and one type of sapphire monocrystalline bracket (Radiance in dry and artificial saliva wet settings. Also, to evaluate the influence exerted by artificial saliva on the friction forces of those brackets. METHODS: Tests were performed in dry and artificial saliva wet setting (Oral Balance by using an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine, simulating a 2 mm slide of 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires over the pre-angulated and pre-torqued (right superior canine, Roth prescription, slot 0.022 x 0.030-in brackets (n = 18 for each bracket. In order to compare groups in dry and wet settings, the ANOVA was used. For comparisons related to the dry versus wet setting, the student t test was used for each group. RESULTS: The results showed that in the absence of saliva the Radiance monocrystalline brackets showed the highest friction coefficients, followed by the 20/40 and the InVu polycrystalline brackets. In tests with artificial saliva, the Radiance and the 20/40 brackets had statistically similar friction coefficients and both were greater than that presented by the InVu brackets. The artificial saliva did not change the maximum friction force of the Radiance brackets, but, for the others (20/40 and InVu, an increase of friction was observed in its presence. CONCLUSION: The InVu brackets showed, in the absence and in the presence of saliva, the lowest friction coefficient.OBJETIVO: avaliar e comparar in vitro as cargas máximas de atrito geradas por três tipos de braquetes estéticos, sendo dois deles cerâmicos policristalinos convencionais (20/40 e InVu e um monocristalino de safira (Radiance, em ambientes seco e umedecido por saliva artificial. Também avaliar a influência exercida pela saliva artificial sobre as cargas de atrito dos referidos

  11. Finite-time adaptive sliding mode force control for electro-hydraulic load simulator based on improved GMS friction model (United States)

    Kang, Shuo; Yan, Hao; Dong, Lijing; Li, Changchun


    This paper addresses the force tracking problem of electro-hydraulic load simulator under the influence of nonlinear friction and uncertain disturbance. A nonlinear system model combined with the improved generalized Maxwell-slip (GMS) friction model is firstly derived to describe the characteristics of load simulator system more accurately. Then, by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm ​combined with the system hysteresis characteristic analysis, the GMS friction parameters are identified. To compensate for nonlinear friction and uncertain disturbance, a finite-time adaptive sliding mode control method is proposed based on the accurate system model. This controller has the ability to ensure that the system state moves along the nonlinear sliding surface to steady state in a short time as well as good dynamic properties under the influence of parametric uncertainties and disturbance, which further improves the force loading accuracy and rapidity. At the end of this work, simulation and experimental results are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control strategy.

  12. Experimental studies of compaction and dilatancy during frictional sliding on faults containing gouge (United States)

    Morrow, C.A.; Byerlee, J.D.


    Transient strength changes are observed in fault gouge materials when the velocity of shearing is varied. A transient stress peak is produced when the strain rate in the gouge is suddenly increased, whereas a transient stress drop results from a sudden change to a slower strain rate. We have studied the mechanism responsible for these observations by performing frictional sliding experiments on sawcut granite samples filled with a layer of several different fault gouge types. Changes in pore volume and strength were monitored as the sliding velocity alternated between fast and slow rates. Pore volume increased at the faster strain rate, indicating a dilation of the gouge layer, whereas volume decreased at the slower rate indicating compaction. These results verify that gouge dilation is a function of strain rate. Pore volume changed until an equilibrium void ratio of the granular material was reached for a particular rate of strain. Using arguments from soil mechanics, we find that the dense gouge was initially overconsolidated relative to the equilibrium level, whereas the loose gouge was initially underconsolidated relative to this level. Therefore, the transient stress behavior must be due to the overconsolidated state of the gouge at the new rate when the velocity is increased and to the underconsolidated state when the velocity is lowered. Time-dependent compaction was also shown to cause a transient stress response similar to the velocity-dependent behavior. This may be important in natural fault gouges as they become consolidated and stronger with time. In addition, the strain hardening of the gouge during shearing was found to be a function of velocity, rendering it difficult to quantify the change in equilibrium shear stress when velocity is varied under certain conditions. ?? 1989.

  13. Shaking Table Tests of Curved Bridge considering Bearing Friction Sliding Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yan


    Full Text Available Specific to severe damage to curved bridges in earthquakes caused by the excessive force of the fixed bearings and piers, a new seismic design method on curved bridges considering bearing friction sliding isolation is proposed in this paper. Seismic model bridge and isolation model bridge with similarity ratio of 1/20 were made and the shaking table comparison test was conducted. The experimental results show that the isolation model curved bridge suffered less seismic damage than the seismic model curved bridge. The fundamental frequencies of the seismic model bridge and isolation model bridge decreased and the damping ratio increased with the increase of seismic intensity. Compared with seismic curved bridge, the maximum reduction rates of peak acceleration along the radial and tangential directions on the top of pier of the isolation model curved bridge were 47.3% and 55.5%, respectively, and the maximum reduction rate of the peak strain on the bottom of pier of the isolation model curved bridge was 43.4%. For the isolation model curved bridge, the maximum reduction rate of peak acceleration on the top of pier was 24.6% compared with that on the bottom of pier. The study results can provide experimental basis for the seismic design of curved bridges.

  14. Friction and sliding wear behavior of induction melted FeCrB metamorphic alloy coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ge; Meng, Huimin; Liu, Junyou


    Induction melted FeCrB metamorphic coatings deposited onto Q235 steel were produced using ultrasonic frequency inductive cladding (UFIC) technique. The measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), microhardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester were used to determine the microstructure, microhardness and dry-sliding wear resistance coupled with wear mechanism of clad coatings. The experimental results show that C+ clad coating consists of austenite γ-Fe, interdentritic lamellar eutectics γ-Fe/(Cr,Fe) 2 B and borides (Cr,Fe) 2 B as the reinforcing phase whilst the phases of ferrite α-Fe, borides Cr 1.65 Fe 0.35 B 0.96 and eutectics α-Fe/Cr 1.65 Fe 0.35 B 0.96 are identified in M clad coating. The average microhardness of the C+ and M clad coating is more than 3-times than that of the substrate. The wear resistance of the C+ and M clad coating improves 5.18, 6.08 times compared with that of the substrate at applied load of 20 N, respectively, which contributes to the occurrence of the crystalline–amorphous phase transition by friction treatment and uniformly distributed borides embedded in the ductile solid solution matrix.

  15. Novel Plasmid Transformation Method Mediated by Chrysotile, Sliding Friction, and Elastic Body Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Yoshida


    Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a plasmid recipient cell was dispersed in a chrysotile colloidal solution, containing chrysotile adsorbed to plasmid DNA (chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture. Following this, the chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture was dropped onto the surface of an elastic body, such as agarose, and treated physically by sliding a polystyrene streak bar over the elastic body to create friction. Plasmid DNA was easily incorporated into E. coli, and antibiotic resistance was conferred by transformation. The transformation efficiency of E. coli cultured in solid medium was greater than that of E. coli cultured in broth. To obtain greater transformation efficiency, we attempted to determine optimal transformation conditions. The following conditions resulted in the greatest transformation efficiency: the recipient cell concentration within the chrysotileplasmid cell mixture had an optical density greater than or equal to 2 at 550 nm, the vertical reaction force applied to the streak bar was greater than or equal to 40 g, and the rotation speed of the elastic body was greater than or equal to 34 rpm. Under these conditions, we observed a transformation efficiency of 107 per μg plasmid DNA. The advantage of achieving bacterial transformation using the elastic body exposure method is that competent cell preparation of the recipient cell is not required. In addition to E. coli, other Gram negative bacteria are able to acquire plasmid DNA using the elastic body exposure method.

  16. The Influence of The Temperature on Dry Friction of AISI 3315 Steel Sliding Against AISI 3150 Steel (United States)

    Odabas, D.


    In this paper, the effects the influence of frictional heating on the wear of AISI 3315 Steel were investigated experimentally using a pin-on-ring geometry. All the tests were carried out in air without any lubricant. In order to understand the variation in frictional coefficient and temperature with load and speed, the friction tests were carried out at a speed of 1 m/s and loads in the range 115-250 N, and at a speed range 1-4 m/s, a load of 115 N. The sliding distance was 1500 m. The bulk temperature of the specimen was measured from the interface surface at a distance of 1 mm from the contact surface by using type K thermocouples (Ni-Cr-Ni). The coefficient of friction was determined as a function of test load and speed. The steady state coefficient of friction of the test material decreases with increasing load and speed due to the oxide formation. But the unsteady state coefficient of friction increases with an increase in load and speed.

  17. Switching sliding mode force tracking control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based friction element actuation systems for automotive transmissions (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.


    In this study, a nonlinear sliding-mode controller is designed for force tracking of a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP)-based actuation system, which is developed to replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation systems for automatic transmission (AT) friction elements, such as band brakes or clutches. By utilizing the PHP, one can eliminate the various hydraulic components (oil pump, regulating valve and control valve) in current ATs and achieve a simpler configuration with more efficient operation. With the derived governing equation of motion of the PHP-based actuation system integrated with the friction element (band brake), a switching control law is synthesized based on the sliding-mode theory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, its force tracking performance for the engagement of a friction element during an AT 1\\to 2 up-shift is examined experimentally. It is shown that one can successfully track the desired force trajectory for AT shift control with small tracking error. This study demonstrates the potential of the PHP as a new controllable actuation system for AT friction elements.

  18. An unconstrained integral approximation of large sliding frictional contact between deformable solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Renard, Yves


    A new integral approximation of frictional contact problems under large deformations is presented. Impenetrability, friction and the relevant complementarity conditions are expressed through a nonsmooth equation, considered in the continuous setting. A weak formulation of this non-smooth compleme...

  19. Is static friction affected by aging and amount of elastomeric ligatures in orthodontic sliding mechanics? An in-vitro investigation. (United States)

    Lo Giudice, A; Portelli, M; Militi, A; Spinuzza, P; Bellocchio, A M; Nucera, R; Marcolina, M; Ghilardi, G; Manuelli, M; Lucchese, A


    In straight-wire mechanics, friction can significantly influence the forces expressed by wires. The aim of this study is to assess whether the aging and the sum of elastomeric ligatures affect the static friction during orthodontic space closure. A 0.017x 0.025-in SS was drawn throughout a 3-bracket experimental model and engaged with elastomeric ligatures. Before performing the test, the ligatures were soaked in artificial saliva for 48 hours (Group 1), 2 weeks (Group 2) and 4 weeks (Group 3); brand-new ligatures were also tested as control group (Group 4). The resistance to sliding (RS) was recorded at 3 different numerical configurations of ligatures using a customized testing machine and tests were repeated for ten times. Data of RS were statistically analysed by using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. RS was found to increase systematically when more elastomeric ligatures were included in the wire engaging system. At two weeks of immersion in artificial saliva elastomeric ligatures showed the lowest values of RS while they became significantly more frictional after immersion for 4 weeks. The results of this study showed that in multi-bracket orthodontic therapy, the RS increases with the number of elastomeric ligatures involved for arch-wire engagement. Differently from the frictional behavior of elastomeric modules, the aging of these ligatures does not influence their incremental effect of frictional forces.

  20. A hinged-pad test structure for sliding friction measurement in micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, M.P. de; Redmond, J.M.; Michalske, T.A.


    The authors describe the design, modeling, fabrication and initial testing of a new test structure for friction measurement in MEMS. The device consists of a cantilevered forked beam and a friction pad attached via a hinge. Compared to previous test structures, the proposed structure can measure friction over much larger pressure ranges, yet occupies one hundred times less area. The placement of the hinge is crucial to obtaining a well-known and constant pressure distribution in the device. Static deflections on the device were measured and modeled numerically, Preliminary results indicate that friction pad slip is sensitive to friction pad normal force.

  1. Effects of Material Combinations on Friction and Wear of PEEK/Steel Pairs under Oil-Lubricated Sliding Contacts (United States)

    Akagaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kawabata, M.


    The effects of material combinations on the friction and wear of PEEK/steel pairs are studied using blocks on a ring wear tester under oil-lubricated conditions. The rings are made of forged steel (SF540A) and a PEEK composite filled with 30 wt% carbon fibre. The surface roughness is 0.15 and 0.32 μm Ra, respectively. The blocks are also made of the same materials as the rings: the forged steel and the PEEK composite. Finished with an emery paper of #600, the surface roughness is 0.06 and 0.23 μm Ra, respectively. Sliding tests for 4 combinations of two materials are conducted. The load is increased up to 1177 N at 1 N s-1. The sliding velocity is varied in the range of 10 to 19 m s-1. In some cases, the ring temperature is measured with a thermocouple with a diameter of 0.5 mm, located 1 mm below the frictional surface. Results indicate that the forged steel’s ring and the PEEK composite’s block is the best combination among 4 combinations, because seizure does not occur under the increasing load up to 1177 N at the sliding velocity of 10-19 m s-1. In contrast, seizure occurs at 15 and 19 m s-1 in the other three combinations. However, the PEEK composite’s ring shows a lower friction coefficient as compared to the forged steel’s ring, when seizure does not occur. Wear scars are observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The seizure mechanisms are then discussed.

  2. Wear calculation possibility of slide-friction pair "shaft-plain bearing" for four-stroke engines (United States)

    Springis, Guntis; Rudzitis, Janis; Avisane, Anita; Kumermanis, Maris


    The issues of the service life and its prediction for main four stroke engine parts such as shaft-plain bearing have always been of particular importance. The article determines the most suitable mathematical calculation model allowing considering the set of parameters needed for the slide-friction pair's calculation, thus achieving a result as precise as possible. Since the wear process is variable and many-sided it is influenced by very many different parameters, for example, the surface geometry (roughness, waviness, form deviation, etc.), the physical and mechanical conditions of the upper layer, component material, wear regime, wear temperature, etc. The offered wear calculation model taking into consideration as much as possible wear affecting parameters is based on the fatigue theory regularities of the friction surface's destroying, using the approach of probability theory.

  3. Tracking Control of an Ultrasonic Linear Motor Actuated Stage Using a Sliding-mode Controller with Friction Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jer Lin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nonlinear friction and compensation for a piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic motor (USM. Although the architecture of the USM is different from the general electric-mechanical motor, the mathematic model for the USM motor can use the same friction model to formulate the friction phenomenon. To establish the feed-forward controller, the system identification for the USM is needed to study to design the model-based controller. To obtain the optimal system parameters of the USM, PSO and CSS algorithms are studied to identify the system parameters for the nonlinear friction model. For the controller design, a non-model based controller, using back-propagation neural network controller to perform tracking tasks, and the model-based controller, which consists of the feed-forward controller based on the system identification and the sliding-mode control, are discussed in this paper. Finally, the two real-time tracking tasks are used to validate the proposed method.

  4. Characterization of exposures to airborne nanoscale particles during friction stir welding of aluminum. (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; McCarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D


    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 microm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 microm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM(2.5) concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 microm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at approximately 30 and approximately 550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at approximately 4.0 x 10(5) particles cm(-3), whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm(-3), depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10-100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) microg m(-3); the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may

  5. Formation of metal-F bonds during frictional sliding : Influence of water and applied load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J. T.; Pei, Y. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.


    Effects of water lubrication and applied load on the formation of PTFE transfer films and metal-F bonds during sliding when PTFE filled composites sliding against steel and Al2O3 are investigated. In water lubricated conditions, XPS analysis reveals that a thin layer of water molecules at the

  6. Tribological and mechanical behaviours of rattan-fibre-reinforced friction materials under dry sliding conditions (United States)

    Ma, Yunhai; Wu, Siyang; Tong, Jin; Zhao, Xiaolou; Zhuang, Jian; Liu, Yucheng; Qi, Hongyan


    This work was mainly aimed to study the physical, mechanical and tribological behaviours of the friction materials reinforced by different contents of rattan fibre. These friction materials were fabricated by a compression moulder and tested using a constant speed tester at different friction temperatures. It was found that the friction coefficients of the friction materials added with rattan fibre were relatively stable and no obvious fade was observed in comparison with specimen F-0 (containing 0 wt.% rattan fibres). The fade ratio of specimen F-5 (containing 5 wt.% rattan fibres) was 10.3% and its recovery ratio was 92.4%, indicating the excellent performances of fade resistance and recovery. And the specimen F-5 exhibited the lowest wear rate (0.541 × 10‑7 cm3(N · m)‑1 at 350 °C) among all tested specimens. The worn surface morphologies of the friction materials showed that the appropriate addition of rattan fibres effectively reduced abrasive wear and adhesion wear. The specimen F-5 had a smooth worn surface (Sa = 1.885 μm) with the superior fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion and a lot of secondary contact plateaus, which indicated the highest wear resistance property. The rattan-fibre-reinforced friction materials could be widely applied to automotive friction brake field according to their economic, environmental and social benefits.

  7. Stress intensity factor analysis of friction sliding at discontinuity interfaces and junctions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phan, AV


    Full Text Available A stress intensity factor (SIF) analysis for two dimensional fractures with frictional contact (crack friction) is presented. This analysis is carried out using the symmetric-Galerkin boundary element method, and a modified quarter-point crack tip...

  8. Influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of rubber at high sliding velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G


    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of a rubber body onto a solid surface at high speeds. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that the friction

  9. Friction properties and deformation mechanisms of halite(-mica) gouges from low to high sliding velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, L.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Han, R.; Shimamoto, T.; Spiers, C.J.


    The evolution of friction as a function of slip rate is important in understanding earthquake nucleation and propagation. Many laboratory experiments investigating friction of fault rocks are either conducted in the low velocity regime (10−8–10−4 ms−1) or in the high velocity regime (0.01–1 m s−1).

  10. Wear mechanisms and friction parameters for sliding wear of micron-scale polysilicon sidewalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, D. H.; van der Hulst, R.; Stach, E. A.; Dugger, M. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Ritchie, R. O.

    As tribological properties are critical factors in the reliability of silicon-based microelectromechanical systems, it is important to understand what governs wear and friction. Average dynamic friction, wear volumes and morphology have been studied for polysilicon devices fabricated using the

  11. Frictional sliding and fracture behavior of some Nevada test site tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, C.; Byerlee, J.


    Deformation studies were performed on tuffaceous rocks from Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site to determine the strengths and coefficients of friction under confining pressures from 10 to 50 MPa at room temperature. Frictional strengths of 30 0 sawcut samples increased with pressure and reached values of around 150 MPa at the higher confining pressures. However, the failure strengths of the intact samples were quite unpredictable. The coefficients of friction ranged between 0.7 and 0.9 for all specimens. These data can be used in conjunction with in situ stress measurements at Yucca Mountain, to evaluate the potential for earthquake activity in the region. 1 ref., 7 figs

  12. Indentation theory on a half-space of transversely isotropic multi-ferroic composite medium: sliding friction effect (United States)

    Wu, F.; Wu, T.-H.; Li, X.-Y.


    This article aims to present a systematic indentation theory on a half-space of multi-ferroic composite medium with transverse isotropy. The effect of sliding friction between the indenter and substrate is taken into account. The cylindrical flat-ended indenter is assumed to be electrically/magnetically conducting or insulating, which leads to four sets of mixed boundary-value problems. The indentation forces in the normal and tangential directions are related to the Coulomb friction law. For each case, the integral equations governing the contact behavior are developed by means of the generalized method of potential theory, and the corresponding coupling field is obtained in terms of elementary functions. The effect of sliding on the contact behavior is investigated. Finite element method (FEM) in the context of magneto-electro-elasticity is developed to discuss the validity of the analytical solutions. The obtained analytical solutions may serve as benchmarks to various simplified analyses and numerical codes and as a guide for future experimental studies.

  13. Ultralow Friction of ZrO2 Ball Sliding against DLC Films under Various Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunfeng Zeng


    Full Text Available Ultralow friction is achieved by ZrO2 as the friction mate material for DLC (Diamond like carbon films under various environments. Coefficient of friction (CoF of ZrO2/DLC films is as ultra low as 0.02 in ambient air at the temperature of 200 °C, and 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 in hydrogen, nitrogen and vacuum environments at the temperature of 100 °C, respectively. It is concluded that the transferred films are formed on the worn surface of ZrO2 ball and amorphous carbon films. Ultralow friction of the friction pair is related with hydrogen, which is derived from DLC films, hydrogen environment or the liberation hydrogen due to hydrothermal oxidation. The ultralow friction mechanism is attributed to the formation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films on ZrO2 ball and the shielding action of hydrogen from DLC films and the transferred films simultaneously.

  14. High-temperature friction and wear studies of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy with graphite as solid lubricant under dry sliding conditions (United States)

    Mushtaq, Shuhaib; Wani, M. F.


    Solid lubricants are particularly used in the advanced mechanical motion systems with extreme conditions such as (high temperature, vacuum, radiation, extreme contact pressure, etc). The main focus of this paper is to study the dry sliding friction and wear behavior of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy with varying wt% of graphite at high temperature up to 423 K. The influence of temperature, sliding distance and load on friction and wear behavior of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy against EN8 steel was studied using ball (EN8) on disc (Fe-Cu-Sn alloy). Lower wear and lower friction of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy were observed at high temperature, as compared to room temperature. Surface morphological and surface analytical studies of fresh and worn surfaces were carried out using optical microscopy, 3D profilometer, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy to understand the friction and wear behavior.

  15. Oxide Ceramic Films Grown on 55Ni-45Ti for NASA and Department of Defense Applications: Unidirectional Sliding Friction and Wear Evaluation (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lukco, Dorothy; Cytron, Sheldon J.


    An investigation was conducted to examine the friction and wear behavior of the two types of oxide ceramic films furnished by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) under Space Act Agreement SAA3 567. These two types of oxide ceramics were grown on 55Ni-45Ti (60 wt% Ni and 40 wt% Ti) substrates: one was a TiO2 with no other species (designated the B film) and the other was a TiO2 with additional species (designated the G film). Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted with the oxide films in contact with sapphire at 296 K (23 C) in approx. 50-percent relative humidity laboratory air in this investigation. All material characterization and sliding friction experiments were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The results indicate that both films greatly improve the surface characteristics of 55Ni-45Ti, enhancing its tribological characteristics. Both films decreased the coefficient of friction by a factor of 4 and increased wear resistance by a two-figure factor, though the B film was superior to the G film in wear resistance and endurance life. The levels of coefficient of friction and wear resistance of both films in sliding contact with sapphire were acceptable for NASA and Department of Defense tribological applications. The decrease in friction and increase in wear resistance will contribute to longer wear life for parts, lower energy consumption, reduced related breakdowns, decreased maintenance costs, and increased reliability.

  16. Effects of smectite to illite transformation on the frictional strength and sliding stability of intact marine mudstones (United States)

    Saffer, Demian M.; Lockner, David A.; McKiernan, Alex


    At subduction zones, earthquake nucleation and coseismic slip occur only within a limited depth range, known as the "seismogenic zone". One leading hypothesis for the upper aseismic-seismic transition is that transformation of smectite to illite at ˜100-150°C triggers a change from rate-strengthening frictional behavior that allows only stable sliding, to rate weakening behavior considered a prerequisite for unstable slip. Previous studies on powdered gouges have shown that changes in clay mineralogy alone are unlikely to control this transition, but associated fabric and cementation developed during diagenesis remain possible candidates. We conducted shearing experiments designed specifically to evaluate this hypothesis, by using intact wafers of mudstone from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1174, offshore SW Japan, which have undergone progressive smectite transformation in situ. We sheared specimens along a sawcut in a triaxial configuration, oriented parallel to bedding, at normal stresses of ˜20-150 MPa and a pore pressure of 1 MPa. During shearing, we conducted velocity-stepping tests to measure the friction rate parameter (a-b). Friction coefficient ranges from 0.28-0.40 and values of (a-b) are uniformly positive; both are independent of clay transformation progress. Our work represents the most direct and comprehensive test of the clay transformation hypothesis to date, and suggests that neither illitization, nor accompanying fabric development and cementation, trigger a transition to unstable frictional behavior. We suggest that strain localization, in combination with precipitation of calcite and quartz, is a viable alternative that is consistent with both field observations and recent conceptual models of a heterogeneous seismogenic zone.

  17. Dealing with friction in a reusable 6 degrees of freedom adjustment mechanism with sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkhamer, J.F.F.


    Although the possibility of a 6 degrees of freedom adjustment based on a single body pulled onto on six adjustable supports follows directly from the kinematic theory, such mechanisms are seldom used in actual products. Two major drawbacks for the use of this solution are: Due to the sliding contact

  18. Acoustic emission evolution during sliding friction of Hadfield steel single crystal (United States)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Novitskaya, O. S.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.


    Friction is a complex dynamic process. Direct observation of processes occurring in the friction zone is impossible due to a small size of a real contact area and, as a consequence, requires various additional methods applicable to monitor a tribological contact state. One of such methods consists in the analysis of acoustic emission data of a tribological contact. The use of acoustic emission entails the problem of interpreting physical sources of signals. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of acoustic emission signal frames in friction of Hadfield steel single crystals. The chosen crystallographic orientation of single crystals enables to identify four stages related to friction development as well as acoustic emission signals inherent in these stages. Acoustic emission signal parameters are studied in more detail by the short-time Fourier transform used to determine the time variation of the median frequency and its power spectrum. The results obtained will facilitate the development of a more precise method to monitor the tribological contact based on the acoustic emission method.

  19. Friction and wear behaviour of ceramic-hardened steel couples under reciprocating sliding motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Schipper, Dirk J.; Bakker, P.M.V.; Bakker, P.M.V.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.; Verweij, H.


    The friction and wear behaviour of ZrO2-Y203, ZrO2-Y203-CeO2 and ZrO2-A1203 composite ceramics against hardened steel AISI-52100 were investigated using a pin on plate configuration under reciprocating motion. The reproducibility of the results was examined in this configuration. Wear

  20. Texture Design for Reducing Tactile Friction Independent of Sliding Orientation on Stainless Steel Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Zeng, X.; Igartua, A.; Rodriguez Vidal, E.; van der Heide, E.


    Surface texture is important for contact mechanical and tribological phenomena such as the contact area and friction. In this research, three different types of geometrical microstructures were designed and fabricated by pulsed laser surface texturing as semi-symmetric (grooved channel), asymmetric

  1. Sliding bifurcations and chaos induced by dry friction in a braking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.H.; Zhang, W.; Wang, J.


    In this paper, non-smooth bifurcations and chaotic dynamics are investigated for a braking system. A three-degree-of-freedom model is considered to capture the complicated nonlinear characteristics, in particular, non-smooth bifurcations in the braking system. The stick-slip transition is analyzed for the braking system. From the results of numerical simulation, it is observed that there also exist the grazing-sliding bifurcation and stick-slip chaos in the braking system.

  2. Friction and wear behaviour of tool steels sliding against 22MnB5 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gracia-Escosa


    Full Text Available Boron steels are used in hot stamping process due to their good mechanical properties. During the stamping process, the dies are exposed to aggressive conditions including adhesive wear, abrasion, thermal stresses and fatigue. In the present work, QRO 90 and UNIMAX slid against 22MnB5 steel in four conditions: with and without hardening treatment and, with and without Al–10%Si coating, in order to evaluate the influence of both coating and austenitization treatment on friction and wear of tool steels. The results showed that Al–10%Si reduces the friction coefficient, while the hardening treatment results in an increase of COF due to Fe2Al5 brittle compounds. Wear mechanism of both tool steels is adhesive and oxidative when tested against coated and uncoated 22MnB5, respectively.

  3. Isotopic study of the wear of sliding bearings with plastic friction surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandur, J.; Varkonyi, A.


    A new complex device has been elaborated for the investigation of the duration of bearings in the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The simultaneous determination of wear by an isotopic method the coefficient of friction by means of a Wheatstone bridge and the bearing temperature by means of a thermoresistor is described. Dynamic loading and variable revolution per minute are applied to produce a forced wear of the bearings. The isotopically labelled wear products are removed by oil and the collected sample is measured by a scintillation detector. Wear of a steel axle in plastic housing and plastic coated axle in cast iron housing was determined. (V.N.)

  4. Ice friction: The effects of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity (United States)

    Kietzig, Anne-Marie; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.; Englezos, Peter


    The effect of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity on ice friction is studied systematically over a wide range of temperature and sliding speeds using several metallic interfaces. Hydrophobicity in combination with controlled roughness at the nanoscale is achieved by femtosecond laser irradiation to mimic the lotus effect on the slider's surface. The controlled roughness significantly increases the coefficient of friction at low sliding speeds and temperatures well below the ice melting point. However, at temperatures close to the melting point and relatively higher speeds, roughness and hydrophobicity significantly decrease ice friction. This decrease in friction is mainly due to the suppression of capillary bridges in spite of the presence of surface asperities that facilitate their formation. Finally, grooves oriented in the sliding direction also significantly decrease friction in the low velocity range compared to scratches and grooves randomly distributed over a surface.

  5. Microstructural Evolution in Chroming Coatings Friction Pairs under Dry Sliding Test Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang


    Full Text Available The microstructures of subsurface layers of 20CrMnTi steel pins against chroming and nonchroming T10 under dry sliding tests were studied by means of OM (optical microscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction, and SEM (scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the chroming coating strengthened the disc surface and significantly affected microstructural evolution. Three layers—the matrix, deformation layer (DL, and surface layer (SL—formed in 20CrMnTi for the chroming T10. The matrix and deformation layer (DL formed in 20CrMnTi for the nonchroming T10. The formation of the microstructure was considered as a result of the shear deformation.

  6. Friction at high sliding speed of WC-6Co pin versus steel disc AISI 1045: estimation of the contact temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kagnaya


    Full Text Available Cemented carbide based cutting tools remain widely used in machiningprocesses for their wear resistance. Knowledge and modelling of wearprocesses are of prior importance to get models to predict and increasethe cutting tool service life. The present paper deals with some results of aresearch work that study relationships between wear and temperature inthe case of pin-on-disc tribological experiments. Topic of the paper isfocussed on the estimation of the pin/disc contact temperature bycoupling experimental measurements and computational methods.Friction experiments are conducted with WC-6Co pins against steeldiscs made of an AISI 1045 grade. Furthermore, WC-6Co pins areinstrumented with two type-K thermocouples. A large sliding velocity rangeis considered in the study: from 100m/min up to 600m/min. The presentpaper is focussed on the 600m/min velocity. During these tribological tests,tangential forces and thermocouple temperatures are measured andmonitored. From these values, the heat flux in the WC-6Co pin is estimatedby two different ways. On one hand by considering the unidirectionalFourier law, on the other hand by estimating the heat partition coefficient [1]between the disc and the pin. The heat partition coefficient is determinedfrom a physical approach based on the consideration of the mechanicalpower dissipated in the contact. In both cases, the heat transfer in the pinis then modelled by finite element methods. It is necessary to performnumerical analysis to estimate the pin/disc interface temperature becauseof the impossibility to measure it directly during friction tests. Results ofexperiments and of numerical simulations are compared.

  7. A comparative study to evaluate the effects of ligation methods on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot brackets in dry state: An In-vitro study. (United States)

    Vinay, K; Venkatesh, M J; Nayak, Rabindra S; Pasha, Azam; Rajesh, M; Kumar, Pradeep


    Friction between archwires and brackets is assuming greater importance for finishing with increased use of sliding mechanics in orthodontics as friction impedes the desired tooth movement. The following study is conducted to compare and evaluate the effect of ligation on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot bracket in dry condition. In the study 48 combinations of brackets, archwires and different ligation techniques were tested in order to provide best combination that offers less friction during sliding mechanics. Instron- 4467 machine was used to evaluate static and kinetic friction force values and the results were subjected to Statistical Analysis and Anova test. The results of the study showed that 0.022" metal brackets, Stainless steel wires and Slick modules provided the optimum frictional resistance to sliding mechanics. It is observed that frictional forces of 0.019" x 0.025" were higher when compared with 0.016" x 0.022" Stainless steel archwire due to the increase in dimension. Self-ligating brackets offered least friction followed by mini twin, variable force, regular stainless steel, ceramic with metal insert bracket and ceramic brackets. The stainless steel ligature offered less resistance than slick and grey modules, and TMA wires recorded maximum friction. The stainless steel archwire of 0.019" x 0.025" dimension are preferred during sliding mechanics, these archwires with variable force brackets ligated with Slick Modules offer decreased friction and is cost effective combination which can be utilized during sliding mechanics. How to cite the article: Vinay K, Venkatesh MJ, Nayak RS, Pasha A, Rajesh M, Kumar P. A comparative study to evaluate the effects of ligation methods on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot brackets in dry state: An In-vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):76-83.

  8. Finishing of sliding surfaces with geometrically defined cutting edges: Presentation held at "Friction, Wear and Wear Protection", Symposium "TriboMan-Session", 26.- 28. Oct 2011, Karlsruhe


    Schubert, Andreas; Schmidt, Torsten; Schneider, Jörg


    The rising importance of friction reduction of parts and components, especially in the power train, leads to increasing demands on the finishing of sliding surfaces. In order to meet these new requirements, new methods have to be applied. A new approach for the surface finishing is, to generate an approximated run-in condition to the surface by the finishing process in order to obtain lower initial friction and a shorter run-in period. This requires specific surface properties to ensure the p...

  9. Real-time Raman detection of molecular changes in ceramics undergoing sliding friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exarhos, G.J.; Donley, M.S.


    Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy was used to probe the wear track caused by contact between a rotating ceramic disk (boron nitride or silicon carbide) and either a steel ball bearing or a silicon carbide wedge. The visco-elastic response of the hexagonal phase of boron nitride, which is used as a solid lubricant, was evaluated on a millisecond timescale. Vibrational spectra indicate that this material actually becomes a better lubricant under conditions of increased force between the wear tip and spinning disk. Similar studies involving wear between a silicon carbide disk and silicon carbide wear tip indicated that decomposition and/or segregation of elemental silicon and carbon occurred at high wear rates. The surface temperature near the wear tip was determined from measured vibrational spectra and the temperature profile around the wear track was evaluated. Evidence for oxidation of carbon at the surface was inferred from measured spectra. Application of this laser-based technique to tribological studies provides information relating to localized heating, relaxation dynamics, and phase transformation/decomposition phenomena useful for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of friction and wear.

  10. Friction and Wear of Nanoadditive-Based Biolubricants in Steel-Steel Sliding Contacts: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev Nayan; Harsha, A. P.


    The present work deals with the study of tribo-pair interaction in lubricated sliding contacts. By considering the environmental issues, the sunflower oil was extracted from the sunflower seeds and used as a base lubricant. The two types of the nanoadditives, i.e., CuO and CeO2, varying concentrations from 0.10 to 0.50% w/v were used to formulate the nanolubricants. The compatibility/synergism of the nanoadditives was examined from antifriction and antiwear behavior study with four-ball tester. Also, sunflower oil was modified by the chemical method to improve its fatty acid structure. A comparative tribological and compatibility study was also done in modified oil at similar concentration levels with both types of nanoparticles. The tribological test result exhibits 0.10% w/v concentration of the nanoadditive as optimum due to lowest wear scar and coefficient of friction. Higher concentration of the nanoparticles impaired the base oil performance. Different analytical tools were used to characterize the oil modification and worn surfaces. Moreover, the role of subsurface of the contacting material with the tribological performance has been reported.

  11. Microstructure and sliding wear characterization of Cu/TiB2 copper matrix composites fabricated via friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dinaharan


    Full Text Available The poor wear performance of copper is improved by reinforcing hard ceramic particles. The present work reports the fabrication of Cu/TiB2 (0, 6, 12, 18 vol.% copper matrix composites (CMCs using friction stir processing (FSP. TiB2 particles were initially packed together into a machined groove and were subjected to FSP under a constant set of process parameters. The microstructure was observed using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The wear behavior was examined using a pin-on-disc apparatus. The micrographs showed a homogeneous distribution of TiB2 particles without aggregation and segregation. The distribution of TiB2 particles was closely persistent across the stir zone. TiB2 particles were well bonded with the copper matrix without any interfacial reaction. Many TiB2 particles fractured during FSP. The grains in the composite were extensively refined because of dynamic recrystallization and pinning effect of TiB2 particles. The wear behavior under dry sliding condition was presented in detail.

  12. Contact Pressure and Sliding Velocity Maps of the Friction, Wear and Emission from a Low-Metallic/Cast-Iron Disc Brake Contact Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wahlström


    Full Text Available Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 from car disc brakes contribute up to 50% of the total non-exhaust emissions from road transport in the EU. These emissions come from the wear of the pad and rotor contact surfaces. Yet few studies have reported contact pressures and offered sliding speed maps of the friction, wear, and particle emission performance of disc brake materials at a material level. Such maps are crucial to understanding material behaviour at different loads and can be used as input data to numerical simulations. A low-metallic pad and grey cast-iron rotor contact pair commonly used today in passenger car disc brakes was studied using a pin-on-disc tribometer at twelve contact pressure and sliding speed combinations. Maps of the coefficient of friction, specific wear rate, particle number, and mass rate are presented and discussed.

  13. Friction transfer of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to produce nanoscale features and influence cellular response in vitro. (United States)

    Kearns, V R; Doherty, P J; Beamson, G; Martin, N; Williams, R L


    A large number of cell types are known to respond to chemical and topographical patterning of substrates. Friction transfer of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) onto substrates has been shown to produce continuous, straight, parallel nanofibres. Ammonia plasma treatment can be used to defluorinate the PTFE, decreasing the dynamic contact angle. Fibroblast and epithelial cells were elongated and oriented with their long axis parallel to the fibres, both individually and in clusters. The fibres restricted cell migration. Cell alignment was slightly reduced on the plasma-treated fibres. These results indicated that although surface topography can affect cellular response, surface chemistry also mediates the extent of this response.

  14. Friction (United States)

    Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi

    Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1). Fig. 14.1 Worldwide commercial vehicle production In recent years, increased fuel efficiency of passenger car is required due to the CO2 emission issue. One of the solutions to improve fuel efficiency is to

  15. MEMS-based contact stress field measurements at a rough elastomeric layer: local test of Amontons’ friction law in static and steady sliding regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrégeas G.


    Full Text Available We present the results of recent friction experiments in which a MEMS-based sensing device is used to measure both the normal and tangential stress fields at the base of a rough elastomer film in frictional contact with smooth, rigid, glass indentors. We consider successively multicontacts under (i static normal loading by a spherical indentor and (ii frictional steady sliding conditions against a cylindrical indentor, for an increasing normal load. In both cases, the measured fields are compared to elastic calculations assuming (i a smooth interface and (ii Amontons’ friction law. In the static case, significant deviations are observed which decrease with increasing load and which vanish when a lubricant is used. In the steady sliding case, Amontons’ law reproduces rather satisfactorily the experiments provided that the normal/tangential coupling at the contact interface is taken into account. We discuss the origin of the difference between the Amontons fields and the measured ones, in particular the effect of the finite normal and tangential compliances of the multicontact interface.

  16. Voltage assisted asymmetric nanoscale wear on ultra-smooth diamond like carbon thin films at high sliding speeds (United States)

    Rajauria, Sukumar; Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno


    The understanding of tribo- and electro-chemical phenomenons on the molecular level at a sliding interface is a field of growing interest. Fundamental chemical and physical insights of sliding surfaces are crucial for understanding wear at an interface, particularly for nano or micro scale devices operating at high sliding speeds. A complete investigation of the electrochemical effects on high sliding speed interfaces requires a precise monitoring of both the associated wear and surface chemical reactions at the interface. Here, we demonstrate that head-disk interface inside a commercial magnetic storage hard disk drive provides a unique system for such studies. The results obtained shows that the voltage assisted electrochemical wear lead to asymmetric wear on either side of sliding interface.

  17. The role of the sliding direction against a grooved channel texture on tool steel: An experimental study on tactile friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Rodriguez Urribarri, A.; Morales Hurtado, M.; Zeng, X.; Heide, E. van der


    To control tactile friction, that is the friction between fingertip and counter-body, the role of surface texture is required to be unveiled and defined. In this research, an experimental approach is used based on measuring tactile friction for directional texture (grooved channel) with varying

  18. The Sliding Wear and Friction Behavior of M50-Graphene Self-Lubricating Composites Prepared by Laser Additive Manufacturing at Elevated Temperature (United States)

    Liu, Xiyao; Shi, Xiaoliang; Huang, Yuchun; Deng, Xiaobin; Lu, Guanchen; Yan, Zhao; Zhou, Hongyan; Xue, Bing


    M50 steel is widely applied to manufacture aircraft bearings where service lives are mainly determined by the friction and wear behaviors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of M50-1.5 wt.% graphene composites (MGC) prepared by laser additive manufacturing (LAM) (MGC-LAM) sliding against Si3N4 ball from 25 to 550 °C at 18 N-0.2 m/s. XRD, EPMA, FESEM, and EDS mapping were conducted to understand the major mechanisms leading to the improvement in the sliding behavior of MGC-LAM. The results indicated that MGC-LAM showed the excellent friction and wear performance at 25-550 °C for the lower friction coefficient of 0.16-0.52 and less wear rate of 6.1-9.5 × 10-7 mm3 N-1 m-1. Especially at 350 °C, MGC-LAM obtained the best tribological performance (0.16, 6.1 × 10-7mm3 N-1 m-1). It was attributed to the dense coral-like microstructure, as well as the formed surface lubricating structure which is composed of the upper uniform lubricating film with massive graphene and the underneath compacted layer.

  19. The Sliding Wear and Friction Behavior of M50-Graphene Self-Lubricating Composites Prepared by Laser Additive Manufacturing at Elevated Temperature (United States)

    Liu, Xiyao; Shi, Xiaoliang; Huang, Yuchun; Deng, Xiaobin; Lu, Guanchen; Yan, Zhao; Zhou, Hongyan; Xue, Bing


    M50 steel is widely applied to manufacture aircraft bearings where service lives are mainly determined by the friction and wear behaviors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of M50-1.5 wt.% graphene composites (MGC) prepared by laser additive manufacturing (LAM) (MGC-LAM) sliding against Si3N4 ball from 25 to 550 °C at 18 N-0.2 m/s. XRD, EPMA, FESEM, and EDS mapping were conducted to understand the major mechanisms leading to the improvement in the sliding behavior of MGC-LAM. The results indicated that MGC-LAM showed the excellent friction and wear performance at 25-550 °C for the lower friction coefficient of 0.16-0.52 and less wear rate of 6.1-9.5 × 10-7 mm3 N-1 m-1. Especially at 350 °C, MGC-LAM obtained the best tribological performance (0.16, 6.1 × 10-7mm3 N-1 m-1). It was attributed to the dense coral-like microstructure, as well as the formed surface lubricating structure which is composed of the upper uniform lubricating film with massive graphene and the underneath compacted layer.

  20. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17.

  1. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Click here to start. Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17.

  2. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Membrane Phospholipids · Slide 4 · NAE and NAPE · Biological and Pharmacological properties · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25.

  3. Ultra-low friction and excellent elastic recovery of fullerene-like ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 24, 2017 ... nent wear resistance and high friction stability under constant sliding at high pressure [5,6]. Recent studies in nanoscale and macroscale showed that the ..... 51364024, 51275508, 51404124) for their financial support. References. [1] Amaratunga G A J, Chhowalla M, Kiely C J, Alexandrou I,. Aharonov R ...

  4. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Immunology of VL · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Strategies To Design Drugs · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28.

  5. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Second Question How Did this Shift in ToT Come About? Slide 8 · Second Question How Did this Shift in ToT Come About? Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 17 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 30 · India's Globalization.

  6. Ultrahigh interlayer friction in multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes. (United States)

    Niguès, A; Siria, A; Vincent, P; Poncharal, P; Bocquet, L


    Friction at the nanoscale has revealed a wealth of behaviours that depart strongly from the long-standing macroscopic laws of Amontons-Coulomb. Here, by using a 'Christmas cracker'-type of system in which a multiwalled nanotube is torn apart between a quartz-tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope (TF-AFM) and a nanomanipulator, we compare the mechanical response of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) during the fracture and telescopic sliding of the layers. We found that the interlayer friction for insulating BNNTs results in ultrahigh viscous-like dissipation that is proportional to the contact area, whereas for the semimetallic CNTs the sliding friction vanishes within experimental uncertainty. We ascribe this difference to the ionic character of the BN, which allows charge localization. The interlayer viscous friction of BNNTs suggests that BNNT membranes could serve as extremely efficient shock-absorbing surfaces.

  7. Friction and wear of selected metals and alloys in sliding contact with AISI 440 C stainless steel in liquid methane and in liquid natural gas (United States)

    Wisander, D. W.


    Aluminum, titanium, beryllium, nickel, iron, copper, and several copper alloys were run in sliding contact with AISI 440C in liquid methane and natural gas. All of the metals run except copper and the copper alloys of tin and tin-lead showed severely galled wear scars. Friction coefficients varied from 0.2 to 1.0, the lowest being for copper, copper-17 wt. % tin, and copper-8 wt. % tin-22 wt. % lead. The wear rate for copper was two orders of magnitude lower than that of the other metals run. An additional order of magnitude of wear reduction was achieved by the addition of tin and/or lead to copper.

  8. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Matsyagandhya A case of genetic disorder · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Active Site with Molybdopterin Ligation · Disadvantage of a Chemist to Model the Cofactor · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Active Site Investigation · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  9. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 25 · Life course epidemiology and chronic diseases · Models · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30 · New Delhi Birth Cohort · New Delhi Birth Cohort (NDBC) · Slide 33 · Slide 34 · Slide 35 · Slide 36 · Slide 37 · Slide 38 · Slide 39 · CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents · CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort.

  10. A friction test between steel and a brittle material at high contact pressures and high sliding velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picart D.


    Full Text Available Our aim is to characterize the interface behaviour between an aggregate material and steel. This work focuses on contact pressures and sliding velocities reaching 100 MPa and 10 m/s. The set-up consists in a cylindrical sample of the aggregate material which slips into a steel tube. The tube is both a confinement vessel and a sliding surface. Thanks to confinement, the material can be tested under high stresses without failure. The interface pressure is generated by an axial compression. The sample is pressed on a spring, so it can be simultaneously compressed and rubbed on the tube. The set-up has been tested in the case of a quasi-static loading and the 100 MPa pressure has been reached. Then the set-up was mounted on a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar device in order to reach higher velocities. Numerical simulations have been realized to check the feasibility and the relevance of this dynamic test. These results are analysed and compared to the experimental ones.

  11. Investigating the role of sliding friction in rolling motion: a teaching sequence based on experiments and simulations (United States)

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Mascheretti, Paolo; Onorato, Pasquale


    We designed a teaching-learning sequence on rolling motion, rooted in previous research about student conceptions, and proposing an educational reconstruction strongly centred on the role of friction in different cases of rolling. A series of experiments based on video analysis is used to highlight selected key concepts and to motivate students in their exploration of the topic; and interactive simulations, which can be modified on the fly by students to model different physical situations, are used to stimulate autonomous investigation in enquiry activities. The activity sequence was designed for students on introductory physics courses and was tested with a group of student teachers. Comparisons between pre- and post-tests, and between our results and those reported in the literature, indicate that students’ understanding of rolling motion improved markedly and some typical difficulties were overcome.

  12. Effect of clay content and mineralogy on frictional sliding behavior of simulated gouges: binary and ternary mixtures of quartz, illite, and montmorillonite (United States)

    Tembe, Sheryl; Lockner, David A.; Wong, Teng-Fong


    We investigated the frictional sliding behavior of simulated quartz-clay gouges under stress conditions relevant to seismogenic depths. Conventional triaxial compression tests were conducted at 40 MPa effective normal stress on saturated saw cut samples containing binary and ternary mixtures of quartz, montmorillonite, and illite. In all cases, frictional strengths of mixtures fall between the end-members of pure quartz (strongest) and clay (weakest). The overall trend was a decrease in strength with increasing clay content. In the illite/quartz mixture the trend was nearly linear, while in the montmorillonite mixtures a sigmoidal trend with three strength regimes was noted. Microstructural observations were performed on the deformed samples to characterize the geometric attributes of shear localization within the gouge layers. Two micromechanical models were used to analyze the critical clay fractions for the two-regime transitions on the basis of clay porosity and packing of the quartz grains. The transition from regime 1 (high strength) to 2 (intermediate strength) is associated with the shift from a stress-supporting framework of quartz grains to a clay matrix embedded with disperse quartz grains, manifested by the development of P-foliation and reduction in Riedel shear angle. The transition from regime 2 (intermediate strength) to 3 (low strength) is attributed to the development of shear localization in the clay matrix, occurring only when the neighboring layers of quartz grains are separated by a critical clay thickness. Our mixture data relating strength degradation to clay content agree well with strengths of natural shear zone materials obtained from scientific deep drilling projects.

  13. Pairwise frictional profile between particles determines discontinuous shear thickening transition in non-colloidal suspensions. (United States)

    Comtet, Jean; Chatté, Guillaume; Niguès, Antoine; Bocquet, Lydéric; Siria, Alessandro; Colin, Annie


    The process by which sheared suspensions go through a dramatic change in viscosity is known as discontinuous shear thickening. Although well-characterized on the macroscale, the microscopic mechanisms at play in this transition are still poorly understood. Here, by developing new experimental procedures based on quartz-tuning fork atomic force microscopy, we measure the pairwise frictional profile between approaching pairs of polyvinyl chloride and cornstarch particles in solvent. We report a clear transition from a low-friction regime, where pairs of particles support a finite normal load, while interacting purely hydrodynamically, to a high-friction regime characterized by hard repulsive contact between the particles and sliding friction. Critically, we show that the normal stress needed to enter the frictional regime at nanoscale matches the critical stress at which shear thickening occurs for macroscopic suspensions. Our experiments bridge nano and macroscales and provide long needed demonstration of the role of frictional forces in discontinuous shear thickening.

  14. Nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear studies of biomolecules on silane polymer-coated silica and alumina-based surfaces (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Kwak, Kwang Joo; Gupta, Samit; Lee, Stephen C


    Proteins on biomicroelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS) confer specific molecular functionalities. In planar FET sensors (field-effect transistors, a class of devices whose protein-sensing capabilities we demonstrated in physiological buffers), interfacial proteins are analyte receptors, determining sensor molecular recognition specificity. Receptors are bound to the FET through a polymeric interface, and gross disruption of interfaces that removes a large percentage of receptors or inactivates large fractions of them diminishes sensor sensitivity. Sensitivity is also determined by the distance between the bound analyte and the semiconductor. Consequently, differential properties of surface polymers are design parameters for FET sensors. We compare thickness, surface roughness, adhesion, friction and wear properties of silane polymer layers bound to oxides (SiO2 and Al2O3, as on AlGaN HFETs). We compare those properties of the film–substrate pairs after an additional deposition of biotin and streptavidin. Adhesion between protein and device and interfacial friction properties affect FET reliability because these parameters affect wear resistance of interfaces to abrasive insult in vivo. Adhesion/friction determines the extent of stickage between the interface and tissue and interfacial resistance to mechanical damage. We document systematic, consistent differences in thickness and wear resistance of silane films that can be correlated with film chemistry and deposition procedures, providing guidance for rational interfacial design for planar AlGaN HFET sensors. PMID:18986962

  15. Use of Textured Surfaces to Mitigate Sliding Friction and Wear of Lubricated and Non-Lubricated Contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL


    If properly employed, the placement of three-dimensional feature patterns, also referred to as textures, on relatively-moving, load-bearing surfaces can be beneficial to their friction and wear characteristics. For example, geometric patterns can function as lubricant supply channels or depressions in which to trap debris. They can also alter lubricant flow in a manner that produces thicker load-bearing films locally. Considering the area occupied by solid areas and spaces, textures also change the load distribution on surfaces. At least ten different attributes of textures can be specified, and their combinations offer wide latitude in surface engineering. By employing directional machining and grinding procedures, texturing has been used on bearings and seals for well over a half century, and the size scales of texturing vary widely. This report summarizes past work on the texturing of load-bearing surfaces, including past research on laser surface dimpling of ceramics done at ORNL. Textured surfaces generally show most pronounced effects when they are used in conformal or nearly conformal contacts, like that in face seals. Combining textures with other forms of surface modification and lubrication methods can offer additional benefits in surface engineering for tribology. As the literature and past work at ORNL shows, texturing does not always provide benefits. Rather, the selected pattern and arrangement of features must be matched to characteristics of the proposed application, bearing materials, and lubricants.

  16. Stress State at the Vertex of a Composite Wedge, One Side of Which Slides Without Friction Along a Rigid Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pestrenin

    Full Text Available Abstract For studying the stress-strain state at singular points and their neighborhoods new concept is proposed. A singular point is identified with an elementary volume that has a characteristic size of the real body representative volume. This makes it possible to set and study the restrictions at that point. It is shown that problems with singular points turn out to be ambiguous, their formulation depends on the combination of the material and geometric parameters of the investigated body. Number of constraints in a singular point is redundant compared to the usual point of the boundary (it makes singular point unique, exclusive. This circumstance determines the non-classical problem formulation for bodies containing singular points. The formulation of a non-classical problem is given, the uniqueness of its solution is proved (under the condition of existence, the algorithm of the iterative-analytical decision method is described. Restrictions on the state parameters at the composite wedge vertex, one generatrix of which is in non-friction contact with a rigid surface are studied under temperature and strength loading. The proposed approach allows to identify critical combinations of material and geometric parameters that define the singularity of stress and strain fields close to singular representative volumes. The constraints on load components needed to solution existence are established. An example of a numerical analysis of the state parameters at the wedge vertex and its neighborhood is considered. Solutions built on the basis of a new concept, directly in a singular point, and its small neighborhood differ significantly from the solutions made with asymptotic methods. Beyond a small neighborhood of a singular point the solutions obtained on the basis of different concepts coincide.

  17. Comparison of sliding friction and wear behaviour of overhead conveyor steels tested under dry and lubrication conditions; Comportamiento frente al desgaste y friccion de aceros empleados en lineas de manutencion aerea ensayados con y sin lubricacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Regal, G.; Fernandez-Vicente, A.; Martinez, M. A.


    The sliding friction and wear behaviour of different steel qualities were investigated with and without lubrication conditions. Steel qualities tested are normally used in the overhead conveyor system of many industrial fields, like the automotive sector. Sliding wear tests have been conducted by means of a pin-on-disk machine. A 100Cr6 steel similar to that used within the overhead conveyor trolleys has been employed as a pin. Friction coefficient values obtained under lubrication conditions were three times smaller than those obtained without lubrication. The mechanism that controls wear behaviour under lubrication conditions is an abrasive one and the wear values obtained are almost worthless. On the other hand, mechanism controlling wear during non lubrication tests, was a combination of abrasion and adhesion. (Author) 20 refs.

  18. Attraction induced frictionless sliding of rare gas monolayer on metallic surfaces: an efficient strategy for superlubricity. (United States)

    Sun, Junhui; Zhang, Yanning; Lu, Zhibin; Xue, Qunji; Wang, Liping


    Friction on a nanoscale revealed rich load-dependent behavior, which departs strongly from the long-standing Amonton's law. Whilst electrostatic repulsion-induced friction collapse for rare gas sliding over metallic surfaces in a high-load regime was reported by Righi et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2007, 99, 176101), the significant role of attraction on frictional properties has not been reported to date. In this study, the frictional motion of Xe/Cu(111), Xe/Pd(111) and Ar/Cu(111) was studied using van der Waals corrected density functional calculations. An attraction-induced zero friction, which is a signal of superlubricity, was found for the sliding systems. The superlubric state results from the disappearance of the potential corrugation along the favored sliding path as a consequence of the potential crossing in the attractive regime when the interfacial pressure approaches a critical-value. The finding of an attraction-driven friction drop, together with the repulsion-induced collapse in the high-load regime, which breaks down the classic Amonton's law, provides a distinct approach for the realization of inherent superlubricity in some adsorbate/substrate interfaces.

  19. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patterned Surfaces: DEVICES: Opto-electronics, OLEDs, MEMS, Solar cells, micro-fluidics, sensors, biological platforms · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Faster & finer Dewetting under water-organic Mix · Enhanced dewetting: Pattern Length scales · Controlling ...

  20. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Potency of Stem Cells · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · World Wide Clinical trials using MSCs · Slide 7 · Bone Marrow derived Human MSCs (hMSC) in culture · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Fetal MSCs · Morphology of murine fetal heart derived stem cells (fHSCs) · Growth Kinetics of ...

  1. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  2. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Potency of Stem Cells · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · World Wide Clinical trials using MSCs · Slide 7 · Bone Marrow derived Human MSCs (hMSC) in culture · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Fetal MSCs · Morphology of murine fetal heart derived stem cells (fHSCs) · Growth Kinetics of fHSCs · Phenotype of ...

  3. Assembling of carbon nanotubes film responding to significant reduction wear and friction on steel surface (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Xue, Yong; Qiang, Li; Gao, Kaixong; Liu, Qiao; Yang, Baoping; Liang, Aiming; Zhang, Junyan


    Friction properties of carbon nanotubes have been widely studied and reported, however, the friction properties of carbon nanotubes related on state of itself. It is showing superlubricity under nanoscale, but indicates high shear adhesion as aligned carbon nanotube film. However, friction properties under high load (which is commonly in industry) of carbon nanotube films are seldom reported. In this paper, carbon nanotube films, via mechanical rubbing method, were obtained and its tribology properties were investigated at high load of 5 to 15 N. Though different couple pairs were employed, the friction coefficients of carbon nanotube films are nearly the same. Compared with bare stainless steel, friction coefficients and wear rates under carbon nanotube films lubrication reduced to, at least, 1/5 and 1/(4.3-14.5), respectively. Friction test as well as structure study were carried out to reveal the mechanism of the significant reduction wear and friction on steel surface. One can conclude that sliding and densifying of carbon nanotubes at sliding interface contribute to the sufficient decrease of friction coefficients and wear rates.

  4. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · We began transforming rice with HSP100 gene; first we constructed new binary vectors for rice transformation · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Triage model of the working of HSPs in chaperoning role · Genomic complexity of sHsps in rice · Summary of our work · Students/ PDFs.

  5. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper proposes the concept of a friction tensor analogous to the heat conduction tensor ...

  6. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, H A; Vargiolu, R; Zahouani, H; Mansori, M El


    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  7. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aal, H A [Arts et Metier ParisTech, Rue Saint Dominique BP 508, 51006 Chalons-en-Champagne (France); Vargiolu, R; Zahouani, H [Laboratoire de Tribology et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR CNRS 5513, ENI Saint Etienne - Ecole Centrale de Lyon -36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 Ecully cedex. France (France); Mansori, M El, E-mail: [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers, 2, cours des Arts et Metiers - 13617 Aix en Provence cedex 1 (France)


    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  8. Acoustics of friction (United States)

    Akay, Adnan


    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of

  9. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Problem 1: Direct Materials Procurement at GM · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Game Theory · Strategic Form Games (Normal Form Games) · Example : Prisoner's Dilemma · Dominant Strategy Equilibrium · Nash Equilibrium · Nash's Theorem · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Example 1: Mechanism Design Fair Division of a Cake.

  10. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparison of median weight: Boys · Comparison of median weight: Girls · Prevalence of IFG, IGT and DM · Slide 17 · Dyslipidemia · Lipid centiles: normal BMI Indian children · Comparison of lipids with other studies · Slide 21 · So far….. Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Life course epidemiology and chronic diseases · Models.

  11. Stick-slip control in nanoscale boundary lubrication by surface wettability. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Foster, Adam S; Alava, Mikko J; Laurson, Lasse


    We study the effect of atomic-scale surface-lubricant interactions on nanoscale boundary-lubricated friction by considering two example surfaces-hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphene-confining thin layers of water in molecular dynamics simulations. We observe stick-slip dynamics for thin water films confined by mica sheets, involving periodic breaking-reforming transitions of atomic-scale capillary water bridges formed around the potassium ions of mica. However, only smooth sliding without stick-slip events is observed for water confined by graphene, as well as for thicker water layers confined by mica. Thus, our results illustrate how atomic-scale details affect the wettability of the confining surfaces and consequently control the presence or absence of stick-slip dynamics in nanoscale friction.

  12. Effects of UV laser micropatterning on frictional performance of diamond-like nanocomposite films (United States)

    Zavedeev, Evgeny V.; Zilova, Olga S.; Shupegin, Mikhail L.; Barinov, Alexej D.; Arutyunyan, Natalia R.; Roch, Teja; Pimenov, Sergei M.


    We report on UV laser modification and micropatterning of diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) films (a-C:H,Si:O) with nanosecond pulses and effects of laser surface microstructuring on the frictional performance of DLN films on the nano- and macroscale. A technique of direct laser interference patterning was applied to produce arrays of periodic linear microstructures on the DLN films. The UV laser irradiation was performed at low fluences corresponding to the regime of surface graphitization and incipient ablation. At the initial stage of the thin film modification, the laser-induced spallation and graphitization in the surface layers were found to strongly influence the nanoscale topography and mechanical properties of the DLN surface. Frictional properties of the laser-patterned DLN films were studied using (1) atomic force microscopy in lateral force mode and (2) a ball-on-flat tribometer under linear reciprocating sliding against a 100Cr6 steel ball. The lateral force microscopy measurements revealed that the laser-irradiated regions were characterized by increased friction forces due to microspallation effects and enhanced surface roughness, correlating with tribotests at the initial stage of sliding. During prolonged sliding in ambient air, both the original and laser-patterned DLN surfaces exhibited low-friction performance at the friction coefficient of 0.07-0.08.

  13. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Archaeological Context · Slide 4 · The History of Rock Art Research · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · The Chronology of Rock Art · The Rock Art · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Rock art sites in Andhra pradesh · Rock art Sites in Kerala · Rock Art sites in Tamilnadu · Mesolithic Art 1.A huge Rabbit in red ochre,Chintakunta,AP. 2.A huge ...

  14. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 39 · Slide 40 · Slide 41 · Slide 42 · Confocal images of HLE3B Cells transfected with various pEGFP-recombinant constructs · LIMBAL STEM CELL CULTURE TO RESTORE VISION Clinical Trials - 500 cases · Limbal stem cell cultures · Limbal Stem Cell Cultures · Why use HAM? Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation.

  15. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The History of Rock Art Research · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · The Chronology of Rock Art · The Rock Art · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Rock art sites in Andhra pradesh · Rock art Sites in Kerala · Rock Art sites in Tamilnadu · Mesolithic Art 1.A huge Rabbit in red ochre,Chintakunta,AP. 2.A huge deer figure in Red ochre, ...

  16. The effect of particle addition and fibrous reinforcement on epoxy-matrix composites for severe sliding conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ricco Ølholm; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Thorning, Bent


    . The purpose is to systematically compare the performance of the differently reinforced materials while going from mild to severe sliding conditions. It is found that the coefficient of friction (mu) on average is reduced by 35% by substituting the glass fiber weave with the carbon/aramid weave. The latter...... pv conditions all tested composites show signs of decomposition. Despite this, glass fiber reinforcement has a relatively steady behavior while carbon/aramid reinforcement gives raise to a gradually increasing frictional force, which ultimately results in complete failure of the test-specimen. (c......This paper reports production and tribological testing of epoxy-matrix composites for dry-sliding conditions. The examined composites are produced using the following components: epoxy resin (EP), glass fiber weave (G), carbon/aramid hybrid weave (CA), PTFE particles and nano-scale CuO particles...

  17. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force...

  18. Elastomeric friction (United States)

    Vorvolakos, Katherine

    This dissertation examines the tribology of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) elastomers from a practical and a fundamental perspective. We examine the adhesive, energetic, and tribological properties of several commercial biofouling release coatings, and show that adhesive (and bioadhesive) release from an elastomer depends on the friction of its surface. Having shown that friction is an obstacle to release, we lubricate a model PDMS network by incorporating linear unreactive PDMS oils varying in molecular weight (0.8--423 kg/mol). Surface segregation upon curing depends on molecular weight and mass percentage. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to detect the thickness of the lubricant layer. Surprisingly, high-viscosity oils lubricate better than low-viscosity oils, indicating a non-hydrodynamic lubrication. Applying this technology to a commercial elastomer, we see an improvement in bioadhesive release capabilities, as evidenced by a reduced tenacity of mussel adhesive protein. In comparing entangled polymer melts to crosslinked elastomers, we encountered an opportunity to study the tribology of the latter. We studied the effects of molecular weight, velocity, and temperature on the friction of crosslinked PDMS elastomers sliding against two model surfaces: a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of n-hexadecylsilane, and a thin (˜100mum) film of polystyrene (PS). The change from smooth to stick-slip (unstable) interfacial sliding occurs at a distinct velocity on each surface, implying that it's not necessarily attributable to a bulk glass transition of the PDMS, as popularly believed. The peak shear stress attained immediately before stick-slip sliding is found to be linear with the shear modulus raised to an exponent n of ¾, in contrast with the predictions of Chernyak and Leonov ( n = 1). Low-velocity behavior differs greatly between the SAM and the PS, implying a mechanistic difference. Whereas on the SAM, sliding likely proceeds purely by stochastic adsorption and

  19. Wear resistance and structural changes in nitrogen-containing high-chromium martensitic steels under conditions of abrasive wear and sliding friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.V.; Korshunov, L.G.; Schastlivtsev, V.M.; Chernenko, N.L.


    Martensitic nitrogen-containing steels Kh17N2A0.14, Kh13A0.14, Kh14G4A0.22 as well as steel 20Kh13 were studied for their wear resistance under conditions of friction and abrasion. Metallography, X ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural changes taking place in a thin surface layer on wearing. It is shown that an increase of nitrogen content of 0.14 to 0.22% promotes an enhancement of steel resistance to abrasive and adhesive wear, especially after tempering in the range of 500-550 deg C. Typically, the nitrogen-containing steels exhibit lower resistance to various types of wear in comparison with the steels with high-carbon martensite due to their lower deformability under conditions of friction loading

  20. A Physics-Based Rock Friction Constitutive Law: Steady State Friction (United States)

    Aharonov, Einat; Scholz, Christopher H.


    Experiments measuring friction over a wide range of sliding velocities find that the value of the friction coefficient varies widely: friction is high and behaves according to the rate and state constitutive law during slow sliding, yet markedly weakens as the sliding velocity approaches seismic slip speeds. We introduce a physics-based theory to explain this behavior. Using conventional microphysics of creep, we calculate the velocity and temperature dependence of contact stresses during sliding, including the thermal effects of shear heating. Contacts are assumed to reach a coupled thermal and mechanical steady state, and friction is calculated for steady sliding. Results from theory provide good quantitative agreement with reported experimental results for quartz and granite friction over 11 orders of magnitude in velocity. The new model elucidates the physics of friction and predicts the connection between friction laws to independently determined material parameters. It predicts four frictional regimes as function of slip rate: at slow velocity friction is either velocity strengthening or weakening, depending on material parameters, and follows the rate and state friction law. Differences between surface and volume activation energies are the main control on velocity dependence. At intermediate velocity, for some material parameters, a distinct velocity strengthening regime emerges. At fast sliding, shear heating produces thermal softening of friction. At the fastest sliding, melting causes further weakening. This theory, with its four frictional regimes, fits well previously published experimental results under low temperature and normal stress.

  1. Estimation of the Friction Coefficient of a Nanostructured Composite Coating (United States)

    Shil'ko, S. V.; Chernous, D. A.; Ryabchenko, T. V.; Hat'ko, V. V.


    The frictional-mechanical properties of a thin polymer-ceramic coating obtained by gas-phase impregnation of nanoporous anodic alumina with a fluoropolymer (octafluorocyclobutane) have been investigated. The coefficient of sliding friction of the coating is predicted based on an analysis of contact deformation within the framework of the Winkler elastic foundation hypothesis and a three-phase micromechanical model. It is shown that an acceptable prediction accuracy can be obtained considering the uniaxial strain state of the coating. It was found that, on impregnation by the method of plasmachemical treatment, the relative depth of penetration of the polymer increased almost in proportion to the processing time. The rate and maximum possible depth of penetration of the polymer into nanoscale pores grew with increasing porosity of the alumina substrate.

  2. External models of frictional interaction dynamics (United States)

    Tyurin, A. E.; Ismailov, G. M.; Ikonnikova, K. V.; Sarkisov, Y. S.


    This investigation suggests a method used to determine the evolution of metallic wear and friction by sliding. The friction of steel moving over brass was taken as an example. The problem of external dynamics friction is investigated through the definition of the dynamic characteristics such as damping factor and natural frequency. Some certain automatic control methods were applied for sliding friction contact, including parametric identification, ARX simulation and Newton’s dynamic equation. The suggested approach allows using amplitude-frequency characteristics to assess the dynamic factors (coefficients) under friction interaction. The research findings indicate that the proposed method allows monitoring the evolution of metallic wear and friction.

  3. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Projected Rainfall (Weighted Mean CDF; A1B scenario) · Slide 18 · Imprecise Probability · Bounds for Probability of Drought · Slide 21 · Possibility Distribution of GCMs and Scenarios · Mahanadi River Basin - Streamflow · Projections for future monsoon inflows to Hirakud Reservoir · Slide 25 · Rule curve for adaptive policies.

  4. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    friction coefficients of Mg and Al-Mg alloy pins sliding over EN8 steel flats. The sliding angle was varied between 0 and 90 degrees and morphology of ... has explained friction based on energy dissipation mechanisms initiated in the early history of tribology by Rabinowicz (1951). Despite the spatio-temporal complexity in ...





    The present study concerns certain phenomena that take place in the needle roller bearing. The friction that generates the anti-torque of a friction pair is the major factor that influences the needle bearing’s wear. In the needle bearing there occur two predominant types of friction: the rolling friction and the sliding friction, and both are subject to examination. The study presents recordings and analysis of the movements of all needle bearing’s rolling elements. The examination was carri...

  6. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction (United States)

    Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.


    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.

  7. Direct-current triboelectricity generation by a sliding Schottky nanocontact on MoS2 multilayers (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Goswami, Ankur; Jiang, Keren; Khan, Faheem; Kim, Seokbeom; McGee, Ryan; Li, Zhi; Hu, Zhiyu; Lee, Jungchul; Thundat, Thomas


    The direct conversion of mechanical energy into electricity by nanomaterial-based devices offers potential for green energy harvesting1-3. A conventional triboelectric nanogenerator converts frictional energy into electricity by producing alternating current (a.c.) triboelectricity. However, this approach is limited by low current density and the need for rectification2. Here, we show that continuous direct-current (d.c.) with a maximum density of 106 A m-2 can be directly generated by a sliding Schottky nanocontact without the application of an external voltage. We demonstrate this by sliding a conductive-atomic force microscope tip on a thin film of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Finite element simulation reveals that the anomalously high current density can be attributed to the non-equilibrium carrier transport phenomenon enhanced by the strong local electrical field (105-106 V m-2) at the conductive nanoscale tip4. We hypothesize that the charge transport may be induced by electronic excitation under friction, and the nanoscale current-voltage spectra analysis indicates that the rectifying Schottky barrier at the tip-sample interface plays a critical role in efficient d.c. energy harvesting. This concept is scalable when combined with microfabricated or contact surface modified electrodes, which makes it promising for efficient d.c. triboelectricity generation.

  8. Tribological properties of ceramics evaluated at low sliding speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Kano, Shigeki


    Low speed tribological properties of stainless steel, ceramics and hard metals were investigated in air at room temperature and in nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature for the consideration of sliding type support structure in intermediate heat exchanger of fast reactor. The following results are obtained. (1) In low speed friction measurements in air at room temperature, friction coefficients of ceramics and hard metals were smaller than that of stainless steel. Surface roughness of the specimens increased the friction force and silicon carbide showed the smallest friction coefficient among the specimens with mirror polished surface. (2) From the results of friction measurements at various sliding speeds in air at room temperature, friction coefficients of ceramics and hard metals were always stable and lower than that of stainless steel. Among ceramics, PSZ showed the smallest friction and silicon carbide showed the most stable friction at any sliding speeds. (3) Friction coefficients of silicon carbide and silicon nitride in nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature showed low values as measured at room temperature. On the contrary, friction coefficient of stainless steel measured in nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature were higher than that measured at room temperature, over 1. (4) In the reciprocal sliding tests in nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature, friction coefficient of stainless steel were over 1. On the contrary, the friction coefficients of ceramics were less than 1 instead of chipping during the slidings. (author)

  9. On the effective stress law for rock-on-rock frictional sliding, and fault slip triggered by means of fluid injection (United States)

    Rutter, Ernest; Hackston, Abigail


    Fluid injection into rocks is increasingly used for energy extraction and for fluid wastes disposal, and can trigger/induce small- to medium-scale seismicity. Fluctuations in pore fluid pressure may also be associated with natural seismicity. The energy release in anthropogenically induced seismicity is sensitive to amount and pressure of fluid injected, through the way that seismic moment release is related to slipped area, and is strongly affected by the hydraulic conductance of the faulted rock mass. Bearing in mind the scaling issues that apply, fluid injection-driven fault motion can be studied on laboratory-sized samples. Here, we investigate both stable and unstable induced fault slip on pre-cut planar surfaces in Darley Dale and Pennant sandstones, with or without granular gouge. They display contrasting permeabilities, differing by a factor of 105, but mineralogies are broadly comparable. In permeable Darley Dale sandstone, fluid can access the fault plane through the rock matrix and the effective stress law is followed closely. Pore pressure change shifts the whole Mohr circle laterally. In tight Pennant sandstone, fluid only injects into the fault plane itself; stress state in the rock matrix is unaffected. Sudden access by overpressured fluid to the fault plane via hydrofracture causes seismogenic fault slips. This article is part of the themed issue 'Faulting, friction and weakening: from slow to fast motion'.

  10. On the effective stress law for rock-on-rock frictional sliding, and fault slip triggered by means of fluid injection. (United States)

    Rutter, Ernest; Hackston, Abigail


    Fluid injection into rocks is increasingly used for energy extraction and for fluid wastes disposal, and can trigger/induce small- to medium-scale seismicity. Fluctuations in pore fluid pressure may also be associated with natural seismicity. The energy release in anthropogenically induced seismicity is sensitive to amount and pressure of fluid injected, through the way that seismic moment release is related to slipped area, and is strongly affected by the hydraulic conductance of the faulted rock mass. Bearing in mind the scaling issues that apply, fluid injection-driven fault motion can be studied on laboratory-sized samples. Here, we investigate both stable and unstable induced fault slip on pre-cut planar surfaces in Darley Dale and Pennant sandstones, with or without granular gouge. They display contrasting permeabilities, differing by a factor of 10 5 , but mineralogies are broadly comparable. In permeable Darley Dale sandstone, fluid can access the fault plane through the rock matrix and the effective stress law is followed closely. Pore pressure change shifts the whole Mohr circle laterally. In tight Pennant sandstone, fluid only injects into the fault plane itself; stress state in the rock matrix is unaffected. Sudden access by overpressured fluid to the fault plane via hydrofracture causes seismogenic fault slips.This article is part of the themed issue 'Faulting, friction and weakening: from slow to fast motion'. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Role of hybrid ratio in microstructural, mechanical and sliding wear properties of the Al5083/Graphitep/Al2O3p a surface hybrid nanocomposite fabricated via friction stir processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafapour Asl, A.; Khandani, S.T.


    Hybrid ratio of each reinforcement phase in hybrid composite can be defined as proportion of its volume to total reinforcement volume of the composite. The hybrid ratio is an important factor which controls the participation extent of each reinforcement phase in overall properties of hybrid composites. Hence, in the present work, surface hybrid nanocomposites of Al5083/Graphite p /Al 2 O 3p with different hybrid ratios were fabricated by friction stir processing method. Subsequently, effect of hybrid ratio on microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to perform microstructural observation on the samples. Hardness value measurements, tensile and pin on disk dry sliding wear tests were carried out to investigate effect of hybrid ratio on mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposites. Microstructural investigations displayed better distribution with less agglomeration of reinforcement for lower volume fraction of reinforcement for both alumina and graphite particles. Hardness value, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and wear rate of the nanocomposites revealed a two stage form along with hybrid ratio variation. The results are discussed based on microstructural observations of the nanocomposites and worn surface analyses.

  12. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Game Theory · Strategic Form Games (Normal Form Games) · Example : Prisoner's Dilemma · Dominant Strategy Equilibrium · Nash Equilibrium · Nash's Theorem · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Example 1: Mechanism Design Fair Division of a Cake · Example 2: Mechanism Design Truth Elicitation through an Indirect Mechanism.

  13. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tuberculosis · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Sequencing results of pncA gene at JALMA · Detection of mutations in rpoB gene region of M.tuberculosis with indigenously designed probes · Asymmetric PCR ( Real-Time PCR ) Biprobe System (Probe-C for 526 ...

  14. Size scaling of static friction. (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio


    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  15. An Extension of the Burridge-Knopoff Model for Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veturia Chiroiu


    Full Text Available The paper presents an extension of the Burridge-Knopoff (BK model with an additional kinetic equation for the friction force in order to reproduce the both the velocity weakening friction between the tire and the road and the increase of static friction with time when the car is not moving. The BK was initially proposed to investigate statistical properties of earthquakes. In this model the sliding force decreases monotonously from a reference value, and the static friction can have negative values to prevent back sliding. The stability of the system is affected and the sliding regime at small sliding velocities and large stiffness cannot be reproduced. The extended model BK assures the stability of the diagram sliding-stationary sliding, and correctly reproduces the stability diagram for sliding friction under various loading conditions.

  16. Lowering coefficient of friction in Cu alloys with stable gradient nanostructures. (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Han, Zhong; Li, Xiuyan; Lu, K


    The coefficient of friction (COF) of metals is usually high, primarily because frictional contacts induce plastic deformation underneath the wear surface, resulting in surface roughening and formation of delaminating tribolayers. Lowering the COF of metals is crucial for improving the reliability and efficiency of metal contacts in engineering applications but is technically challenging. Refining the metals' grains to nanoscale cannot reduce dry-sliding COFs, although their hardness may be elevated many times. We report that a submillimeter-thick stable gradient nanograined surface layer enables a significant reduction in the COF of a Cu alloy under high-load dry sliding, from 0.64 (coarse-grained samples) to 0.29, which is smaller than the COFs of many ceramics. The unprecedented stable low COF stems from effective suppression of sliding-induced surface roughening and formation of delaminating tribolayer, owing to the stable gradient nanostructures that can accommodate large plastic strains under repeated sliding for more than 30,000 cycles.

  17. On the nature of the static friction, kinetic friction and creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Albohr, O.; Mancosu, F.


    In this paper, we discuss the nature of the static and kinetic friction, and of (thermally activated) creep.We focus on boundary lubrication at high confining pressure (∼1GPa), as is typical for hard solids, where one or at most two layers of confined molecules separates the sliding surfaces. We......, the system exhibits a very small static friction, and a (low velocity) kinetic friction which increases with increasing sliding velocity. On the other hand, if the springs are soft enough, strong elastic instabilities occur during sliding, resulting in a large static friction force Fs, and a kinetic friction...... force Fk equal to the static friction force at low sliding velocities. In this case rapid slip events occur at the interface, characterized by velocities much higher and independent of the drive velocity v. In the MD simulations we observe that, for incommensurate systems (at low temperature), only when...

  18. T-Slide Linear Actuators (United States)

    Vranish, John


    T-slide linear actuators use gear bearing differential epicyclical transmissions (GBDETs) to directly drive a linear rack, which, in turn, performs the actuation. Conventional systems use a rotary power source in conjunction with a nut and screw to provide linear motion. Non-back-drive properties of GBDETs make the new actuator more direct and simpler. Versions of this approach will serve as a long-stroke, ultra-precision, position actuator for NASA science instruments, and as a rugged, linear actuator for NASA deployment duties. The T slide can operate effectively in the presence of side forces and torques. Versions of the actuator can perform ultra-precision positioning. A basic T-slide actuator is a long-stroke, rack-and-pinion linear actuator that, typically, consists of a T-slide, several idlers, a transmission to drive the slide (powered by an electric motor) and a housing that holds the entire assembly. The actuator is driven by gear action on its top surface, and is guided and constrained by gear-bearing idlers on its other two parallel surfaces. The geometry, implemented with gear-bearing technology, is particularly effective. An electronic motor operating through a GBDET can directly drive the T slide against large loads, as a rack and pinion linear actuator, with no break and no danger of back driving. The actuator drives the slide into position and stops. The slide holes position with power off and no brake, regardless of load. With the T slide configuration, this GBDET has an entire T-gear surface on which to operate. The GB idlers coupling the other two T slide parallel surfaces to their housing counterpart surfaces provide constraints in five degrees-of-freedom and rolling friction in the direction of actuation. Multiple GB idlers provide roller bearing strength sufficient to support efficient, rolling friction movement, even in the presence of large, resisting forces. T-slide actuators can be controlled using the combination of an off

  19. Friction and work function oscillatory behavior for an even and odd number of layers in polycrystalline MoS2. (United States)

    Lavini, Francesco; Calò, Annalisa; Gao, Yang; Albisetti, Edoardo; Li, Tai-De; Cao, Tengfei; Li, Guoqing; Cao, Linyou; Aruta, Carmela; Riedo, Elisa


    A large effort is underway to investigate the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials for their potential to become building blocks in a variety of integrated nanodevices. In particular, the ability to understand the relationship between friction, adhesion, electric charges and defects in 2D materials is of key importance for their assembly and use in nano-electro-mechanical and energy harvesting systems. Here, we report on a new oscillatory behavior of nanoscopic friction in continuous polycrystalline MoS2 films for an odd and even number of atomic layers, where odd layers show higher friction and lower work function. Friction force microscopy combined with Kelvin probe force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that an enhanced adsorption of charges and OH molecules is at the origin of the observed increase in friction for 1 and 3 polycrystalline MoS2 layers. In polycrystalline films with an odd number of layers, each crystalline nano-grain carries a dipole due to the MoS2 piezoelectricity, therefore charged molecules adsorb at the grain boundaries all over the surface of the continuous MoS2 film. Their displacement during the sliding of a nano-size tip gives rise to the observed enhanced dissipation and larger nanoscale friction for odd layer-numbers. Similarly, charged adsorbed molecules are responsible for the work function decrease in odd layer-number.

  20. Wear Calculation for Sliding Friction Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Springis G.


    Full Text Available ums Mūsdienu ražošanas procesa viens no pamatmērķiem ir produkcijas kvalitātes līmeņa paaugstināšana, tas nozīmē arī dažādu izstrādājumu nepieciešamā kalpošanas laika nodrošināšanu un nodilumizturības palielināšanu. Svarīga loma šī uzdevuma sasniegšanā ir salāgojamo detaļu kalpošanas laika prognozēšanai, kas ir ļoti aktuāls jautājums, jo attīstoties dažādām ražošanas, kā arī mēriekārtu tehnoloģijām, kļūst iespējams arvien precīzāk noteikt nepieciešamos datus, kuri vēlāk tiek izmantoti arī analītiskajos aprēķinos.

  1. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging. (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando


    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  2. Steel surface modifications in magnetised sliding contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulmier, D. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Zaidi, H. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Bedri, R. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Kadiri, E.K. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Pan, L. [Beijing Metall. Management Inst. (China); Jiang, Q. [Beijing Metall. Management Inst. (China)


    Modifications in the mechanical properties of a ferromagnetic steel surface in sliding contact under the influence of a d.c. magnetic field were investigated. A magnetic field was applied to the steel pin, remaining constant during each test. Experiments were conducted at ambient temperature under different applied normal loads, sliding velocities and magnetic field ensities. Experimental results show that at ambient temperature the application of a magnetic field decreases the fluctuations in the friction coefficient and wear rate and increases the microhardness of the sliding surfaces. The dislocation density increases in the thin coating of the magnetised sliding contact erface. A simple model for the agglomeration of dislocations on the sliding contact is proposed. The results were erpreted by observation and analysis of the surface. Optical microscopy shows that when a magnetic field was applied the sliding surface was covered with thin black particles. The magnetic field promoted the oxidation of the surface. (orig.)

  3. Frictional properties of jointed welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, L.W.


    The results of the experiments on simulated joints in welded tuff from the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff warrant the following conclusions: (1) The coefficient of friction of the joints is independent of normal stress at a given sliding velocity. (2) The coefficient of friction increases with both increasing time of stationary contact and decreasing sliding velocity. (3) Time and velocity dependence of friction is due to an increase in the real area of contact on the sliding surface, caused by asperity creep. (4) Joints in water-saturated tuff show a greater time and velocity dependence of friction than those in dehydrated tuff. (5) The enhanced time and velocity dependence of friction with water saturation is a result of increased creep at asperity contacts, which is in turn due to a reduction in the surface indentation hardness by hydrolytic weakening and/or stress corrosion cracking

  4. Friction of elastomer-on-glass system and direct observation of its frictional interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Sugiura, Jun-ichi; Hirano, Motohisa; Nitta, Takahiro


    We performed a study on the static friction of PDMS elastomers with well-defined surface topography sliding over glass. An experimental setup for simultaneous measurements of friction force and direct observations of frictional interface has been developed. The static friction force was nearly proportional to normal load. The static friction force was independent of stick time. The simultaneous measurements revealed that the static friction force was proportional to the total area of contact. The coefficient was nearly independent of the surface topography of PDMS elastomers

  5. Lubrication of sliding bearings for hydropower applications


    McCarthy, Donald


    The term "sliding bearing" refers to types of bearing where two conformal surfaces (usually the stationary bearing and a moving shaft) slide relative to one another with load distributed directly across the interface. A suitable lubricant may be employed to reduce the friction between these two surfaces. In "fluid film" bearings, this lubricant builds up a layer of sufficient thickness such that the two surfaces are completely separated. Examples include journal and thrust bearings and shaft ...

  6. Controlled Suppression of Wear on the Nanoscale by Ultrasonic Vibrations. (United States)

    Pedraz, Patricia; Wannemacher, Reinhold; Gnecco, Enrico


    Wear on the nanoscale, as evidenced by the formation of periodic ripples on a model polystyrene thin film while a sharp tip is sliding on it with a normal force in the μN range, is shown to be suppressed by the application of ultrasonic vibrations of amplitude Aexc. An accurate calibration of the transducer excitation amplitude is achieved by a home-built setup based on a laser Doppler vibrometer. The corrugation of the typical ripple pattern that is formed in the absence of vibrations is reduced when the excitation frequency matches the contact resonance of the system and Aexc progressively increases. Above a critical value of Aexc, the ripples completely disappear, while the friction levels off at a finite value determined by the normal force and the vibration amplitude. This value can be significantly smaller than the value of the macroscopic friction coefficient. In addition to the control of wear in general, this opens up the possibility of controlled nanolithography with improved accuracy.

  7. Novel friction law for the static friction force based on local precursor slipping. (United States)

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi


    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of µM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control.

  8. A computational chemistry study on friction of h-MoS₂. Part II. Friction anisotropy. (United States)

    Onodera, Tasuku; Morita, Yusuke; Nagumo, Ryo; Miura, Ryuji; Suzuki, Ai; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Dassenoy, Fabrice; Minfray, Clotilde; Joly-Pottuz, Lucile; Kubo, Momoji; Martin, Jean-Michel; Miyamoto, Akira


    In this work, the friction anisotropy of hexagonal MoS(2) (a well-known lamellar compound) was theoretically investigated. A molecular dynamics method was adopted to study the dynamical friction of two-layered MoS(2) sheets at atomistic level. Rotational disorder was depicted by rotating one layer and was changed from 0° to 60°, in 5° intervals. The superimposed structures with misfit angle of 0° and 60° are commensurate, and others are incommensurate. Friction dynamics was simulated by applying an external pressure and a sliding speed to the model. During friction simulation, the incommensurate structures showed extremely low friction due to cancellation of the atomic force in the sliding direction, leading to smooth motion. On the other hand, in commensurate situations, all the atoms in the sliding part were overcoming the atoms in counterpart at the same time while the atomic forces were acted in the same direction, leading to 100 times larger friction than incommensurate situation. Thus, lubrication by MoS(2) strongly depended on its interlayer contacts in the atomic scale. According to part I of this paper [Onodera, T., et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 16526-16536], interlayer sliding was source of friction reduction by MoS(2) and was originally derived by its material property (interlayer Coulombic interaction). In addition to this interlayer sliding, the rotational disorder was also important to achieve low friction state.

  9. Structure formation of 5083 alloy during friction stir welding (United States)

    Zaikina, A. A.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.; Ivanov, K. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.


    This paper provides a comparative study of structures obtained by friction stir welding and sliding friction of 5083 Al alloy. Optical and electron microscopy reveals identical fine-grained structures with a grain size of ˜5 µm both in the weld nugget zone and subsurface layer in friction independently of the initial grain size of the alloy. It has been suggested that the grain boundary sliding is responsible for the specific material flow pattern in both techniques considered.

  10. Static and kinetic friction of granite at high normal stress (United States)

    Byerlee, J.D.


    Frictional sliding on ground surfaces of granite, angle of sliding planes 30?? and 45??, was investigated as a function of confining pressure. Over the normal stress range of 2-12 kb, the static frictional shear stress ??s follows the relationship ??s = 0??5 + 0?? ??n and the kinetic frictional shear stress ??k was calculated to be ??k = 0??25 + 0??47 ??n. ?? 1970.

  11. Boundary lubrication of glass: rubber sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, E. van der; Lossie, C.M.; Bommel, K.J.C. van; Reinders, S.A.F.; Lenting, H.B.M.


    Polymer brush coatings represent a promising class of coatings for friction control [1], especially in a humid environment [2]. A study on the feasibility of a specific class of polymer brush coatings [5] was done for a sliding system that involves ‘silicon skin L7350’: a silicon rubber used by FIFA

  12. Severe wear behaviour of alumina balls sliding against diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1CSIR–Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032, India. 2Department of Chemistry, National ... knee implants, etc.), since the coefficient of friction (COF) of diamond is lower than alumina. In this tribological ... Adhesion, friction and wear are the main factors of tribology of contacting or sliding interfaces.

  13. Avaliação do atrito em braquetes autoligáveis submetidos à mecânica de deslizamento: um estudo in vitro Evaluation of friction in self-ligating brackets subjected to sliding mechanics: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribeiro Pacheco


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o atrito gerado na interface braquete/fio durante a mecânica de deslizamento pode reduzir a eficiência da movimentação ortodôntica. O método de ligação do fio ao braquete exerce importante papel na determinação desse atrito. MÉTODOS: o presente estudo comparou a força de atrito gerada por quatro tipos de braquetes autoligáveis (Time®; Damon 2®; In-Ovation R® e Smart Clip® com um grupo de braquetes ortodônticos convencionais (Dynalock® associados a ligaduras elásticas tradicionais (Dispens-A-Stix®, que serviu como grupo controle. A força de atrito estático foi mensurada através da máquina universal de ensaios EMIC® DL 500 com dois fios de aço inoxidável com secção transversal 0,018" e 0,017" x 0,025". RESULTADOS: a análise de variância ANOVA e o teste de Tukey mostraram baixos níveis de atrito nos quatro braquetes autoligáveis associados ao fio 0,018" (PINTRODUCTION: Friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface during sliding mechanics can reduce the efficiency of orthodontic movement. The ligation method employed to tie the archwire to the bracket plays an important role in determining this friction. METHODS: This study compared the frictional force generated by four different types of self-ligating brackets (Time™, Damon 2™, In-Ovation R™ and Smart Clip™ with a group of conventional orthodontic brackets (Dynalock™ that require the use of traditional elastomeric ligatures (ExDispens-A-Stix™, which served as the control group. Static friction force was measured using an EMIC DL™ 500 universal testing machine using stainless steel round 0.018-in and rectangular 0.017x0.025-in archwires. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test showed low levels of friction in the four self-ligating brackets in tests with the 0.018-in wire (P <0.05. However, the results noted when the self-ligating brackets were tested using 0.017x 0.025-in archwires showed high resistance to sliding in the self

  14. Contact Sliding under Relatively Low Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Hee Kang


    Full Text Available ZnO nanowires have received much interest owing to their particular structural and piezoelectric properties. For widespread application of ZnO nanowires in various nanotechnologies, the mechanical reliability of the nanowires should be assessed. In this paper, the damage characteristics of vertically grown ZnO nanowires due to contact sliding against a 2 mm diameter steel ball under relatively low loads were investigated. Frictional behavior and wear characteristics of the specimens were assessed. Furthermore, contact sliding tests were performed inside an SEM to monitor the progression of damage of the nanowires. It was found that the friction coefficient was about 0.35 under all loads while the damage characteristics of the nanowires were quite different for each load. The large diameter nanowires tended to fracture earlier than the small diameter nanowires. Wear tests performed inside the SEM confirmed the surface damage characteristics observed during the friction tests.

  15. Kinetic Friction of Sport Fabrics on Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nachbauer


    Full Text Available After falls, skiers or snowboarders often slide on the slope and may collide with obstacles. Thus, the skier’s friction on snow is an important factor to reduce incidence and severity of impact injuries. The purpose of this study was to measure snow friction of different fabrics of ski garments with respect to roughness, speed, and contact pressure. Three types of fabrics were investigated: a commercially available ski overall, a smooth downhill racing suit, and a dimpled downhill racing suit. Friction was measured for fabrics taped on a short ski using a linear tribometer. The fabrics’ roughness was determined by focus variation microscopy. Friction coefficients were between 0.19 and 0.48. Roughness, friction coefficient, and friction force were highest for the dimpled race suit. The friction force of the fabrics was higher for the higher contact pressure than for the lower one at all speeds. It was concluded that the main friction mechanism for the fabrics was dry friction. Only the fabric with the roughest surface showed friction coefficients, which were high enough to sufficiently decelerate a sliding skier on beginner and intermediate slopes.

  16. Effect of strain hardening on friction behavior of iron lubricated with benzyl structures (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.; Brainard, W. A.


    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with iron, copper, and aluminum in contact with iron in various states of strain. The surfaces were examined in dry sliding and with various benzyl compounds applied as lubricants. Friction experiments were conducted with a hemispherical rider contacting a flat disk at loads of from 50 to 600 grams with a sliding speed of 0.15 cm/min. Results indicate that straining increases friction for dry sliding and for surfaces lubricated with certain benzyl structures such as dibenzyl disulfide. With other benzyl compounds (e.g., benzyl formate), friction coefficients are lower for strained than for annealed iron.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present study concerns certain phenomena that take place in the needle roller bearing. The friction that generates the anti-torque of a friction pair is the major factor that influences the needle bearing’s wear. In the needle bearing there occur two predominant types of friction: the rolling friction and the sliding friction, and both are subject to examination. The study presents recordings and analysis of the movements of all needle bearing’s rolling elements. The examination was carried out on a special examination stand that precisely emulates the real conditions of the needle bearing’s work. Carefully prepared examination methods enable recording and analyzing frictions in the bearing, estimating a sphere within which the load is shifted, and calculating the coefficient of friction.

  18. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.


    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly

  19. Simulations of the Static Friction Due to Adsorbed Molecules


    He, Gang; Robbins, Mark O.


    The static friction between crystalline surfaces separated by a molecularly thin layer of adsorbed molecules is calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. These molecules naturally lead to a finite static friction that is consistent with macroscopic friction laws. Crystalline alignment, sliding direction, and the number of adsorbed molecules are not controlled in most experiments and are shown to have little effect on the friction. Temperature, molecular geometry and interaction potenti...

  20. Sliding wear of cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, H.; Ederyd, S.; Uhrenius, B.; Hogmark, S.


    Cemented carbides are known to be very hard and wear resistant and are therefor often used in applications involving surface damage and wear. The wear rate of cemented carbides is often measured in abrasion. In such tests it has been shown that the wear rate is inversely dependent on the material hardness. The sliding wear is even more of a surface phenomenon than a abrasion, making it difficult to predict friction and wear from bulk properties. This paper concentrates on the sliding wear of cemented carbides and elucidates some wear mechanisms. It is especially shown that a fragmenting wear mechanism of WC is very important for the description of wear of cemented carbides. (author)

  1. Eliminating friction with friction: 2D Janssen effect in a friction-driven system. (United States)

    Karim, M Yasinul; Corwin, Eric I


    The Janssen effect is a unique property of confined granular materials experiencing gravitational compaction in which the pressure at the bottom saturates with an increasing filling height due to frictional interactions with side walls. In this Letter, we replace gravitational compaction with frictional compaction. We study friction-compacted 2D granular materials confined within fixed boundaries on a horizontal conveyor belt. We find that even with high-friction side walls the Janssen effect completely vanishes. Our results demonstrate that gravity-compacted granular systems are inherently different from friction-compacted systems in at least one important way: vibrations induced by sliding friction with the driving surface relax away tangential forces on the walls. Remarkably, we find that the Janssen effect can be recovered by replacing the straight side walls with a sawtooth pattern. The mechanical force introduced by varying the sawtooth angle θ can be viewed as equivalent to a tunable friction force. By construction, this mechanical friction force cannot be relaxed away by vibrations in the system.

  2. Collets and friction (United States)

    McIlraith, A. H.


    Conical sleeves, known as collets, have long been used for clamping sliding bodies to cylindrical columns in any desired position. Quantitative expressions for their properties are presented. Of particular interest is the ability of a collet to hold a shaft stationary against axial forces in either direction, and yet be able to release its grip with a minimum of additional force. This treatment relates the firmness of grip, the ease of release and the interface stresses to the cone angle, the coefficients of friction and the applied axial forces. The central part played by hysteresis is revealed. Experiments employing a test model give good support to the theoretical conclusions. They show that, up to the interface pressures reached, about 250 MPa, the friction between lubricated hardened steel and mild steel surfaces is independent of pressure. The strong dependence of friction on surface roughness is demonstrated. The possible adaptation of the collet test equipment to the measurement of friction at high interface pressures is touched upon. It could be a complementary alternative to the more flexible pin-on-disc method. With much larger working areas, it should have the advantages of better defined areas of contact, reduced ploughing effects and less leakage of lubricant.

  3. Controllable sliding bearings and controllable lubrication principles-an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar F.


    Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic lubrication regimes in their controllable forms have been intensively investigated over the last two decades. With the aim of reducing friction and improving thermal, static, and dynamic characteristics of radial sliding bearings, different types of electro-mechanical...... about advantages and drawbacks of the different design solutions for controllable sliding bearings and the main challenges to be overcome towards industrial applications.......Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic lubrication regimes in their controllable forms have been intensively investigated over the last two decades. With the aim of reducing friction and improving thermal, static, and dynamic characteristics of radial sliding bearings, different types of electro....... In this framework, this paper gives one main original contribution to the state-of-the-art of radial sliding bearings and controllable lubrication: a comprehensive overview about the different types of controllable sliding bearings and principles used by several authors. The paper ends with some conclusive remarks...

  4. Adhesion and size dependent friction anisotropy in boron nitride nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Riedo, Elisa; Dogan, Sedat; Volkmann, Mirjam; Klinke, Christian


    The frictional properties of individual multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BN-NTs) synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and deposited on a silicon substrate are investigated using an atomic force microscope tip sliding along (longitudinal sliding) and across (transverse sliding) the tube’s principal axis. Because of the tube’s transverse deformations during the tip sliding, a larger friction coefficient is found for the transverse sliding as compared to the longitudinal sliding. Here, we show that the friction anisotropy in BN-NTs, defined as the ratio between transverse and longitudinal friction forces per unit area, increases with the nanotube–substrate contact area, estimated to be proportional to (L NT R NT ) 1/2 , where L NT and R NT are the length and the radius of the nanotube, respectively. Larger contact area denotes stronger surface adhesion, resulting in a longitudinal friction coefficient closer to the value expected in the absence of transverse deformations. Compared to carbon nanotubes (C-NTs), BN-NTs display a friction coefficient in each sliding direction with intermediate values between CVD and arc discharge C-NTs. CVD BN-NTs with improved tribological properties and higher oxidation temperature might be a better candidate than CVD C-NTs for applications in extreme environments. (paper)

  5. Testing of newly developed functional surfaces under pure sliding conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Mohaghegh, Kamran; Grønbæk, J.


    -polished counterpart. A number of experiments were carried out at different normal pressures employing for all specimens the same reciprocating movement and the same lubrication. The measured friction forces were plotted against the incremental normal pressure, and the friction coefficients were calculated....... The results comparison showed clearly how employing multifunctional surfaces can reduce friction forces up to 50 % at high normal loads compared to regularly ground or turned surfaces. Friction coefficients approximately equal to 0.12 were found for classically machined surfaces, whereas the values were 0...... the surfaces in an industrial context. In this paper, a number of experimental tests were performed using a novel test rig, called axial sliding test, simulating the contact of surfaces under pure sliding conditions. The aim of the experiments is to evaluate the frictional behavior of a new typology...

  6. Friction and anchorage loading revisited. (United States)

    Dholakia, Kartik D


    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  7. Frictional lubricity enhanced by quantum mechanics. (United States)

    Zanca, Tommaso; Pellegrini, Franco; Santoro, Giuseppe E; Tosatti, Erio


    The quantum motion of nuclei, generally ignored in the physics of sliding friction, can affect in an important manner the frictional dissipation of a light particle forced to slide in an optical lattice. The density matrix-calculated evolution of the quantum version of the basic Prandtl-Tomlinson model, describing the dragging by an external force of a point particle in a periodic potential, shows that purely classical friction predictions can be very wrong. The strongest quantum effect occurs not for weak but for strong periodic potentials, where barriers are high but energy levels in each well are discrete, and resonant Rabi or Landau-Zener tunneling to states in the nearest well can preempt classical stick-slip with nonnegligible efficiency, depending on the forcing speed. The resulting permeation of otherwise unsurmountable barriers is predicted to cause quantum lubricity, a phenomenon which we expect should be observable in the recently implemented sliding cold ion experiments.

  8. Friction characteristics of hardfacing materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo


    Friction and self-welding test were conducted on several materials used for the contacting and sliding components of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. In the present study, the friction and self-welding characteristics of each material were evaluated through measuring the kinetic and breakaway friction coefficients. The influence of oscillating rotation and vertical reciprocating motion on the friction mode was also investigated. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Colmonoy No.6, the nickel base hardfacing alloy, indicated the lowest kinetic friction coefficient of all the materials in the present study. Also, Cr 3 C 2 /Ni-Cr material prepared by a detonation gun showed the most stable friction behavior. (2) The breakaway friction coefficient of each material was dependent upon dwelling time in a sodium environment. (3) The friction behavior of Cr 3 C 2 /Ni-Cr material was obviously related with the finishing roughness of the friction surface. It was anticipated that nichrome material as the binder of the chrome carbide diffused and exuded to the friction surface by sliding in sodium. (4) The friction coefficient in sliding mode of vertical reciprocating was lower than that of oscillating rotation. (author)

  9. Nonlinear friction dynamics on polymer surface under accelerated movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Aita


    Full Text Available Nonlinear phenomena on the soft material surface are one of the most exciting topics of chemical physics. However, only a few reports exist on the friction phenomena under accelerated movement, because friction between two solid surfaces is considered a linear phenomenon in many cases. We aim to investigate how nonlinear accelerated motion affects friction on solid surfaces. In the present study, we evaluate the frictional forces between two polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE resins using an advanced friction evaluation system. On PTFE surfaces, the normalized delay time δ, which is the time lag in the response of the friction force to the accelerated movement, is observed in the pre-sliding friction process. Under high-velocity conditions, kinetic friction increases with velocity. Based on these experimental results, we propose a two-phase nonlinear model including a pre-sliding process (from the beginning of sliding of a contact probe to the establishment of static friction and a kinetic friction process. The present model consists of several factors including velocity, acceleration, stiffness, viscosity, and vertical force. The findings reflecting the viscoelastic properties of soft material is useful for various fields such as in the fabrication of clothes, cosmetics, automotive materials, and virtual reality systems as well as for understanding friction phenomena on soft material surfaces.

  10. New design and the manufacturing techniques of the main friction pair of frictional dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander GOLUBENKO


    Full Text Available The design of the main friction pair of the frictional oscillations damper of passenger car axle box stage suspension and its manufacturing techniques are described. The difference of the design of the main friction pair consists in replacement of a conicalcontact surface of the shpinton sleeve by a pyramidal surface as well as a cylindrical surface of the frictional slide block by a flat surface of the rectangular form. Technological ways of increase of strength and wear resistance were developed that allowed quantitatively to estimate a reserve of increase of strength and thermal wear resistance by methods of plastic deforming. With the purpose of increase of wear resistance and resource saving the new technology of producing the shpinton sleeve blank is offered by a method of cold die forging, and a frictional slide block – by hot dieforging.

  11. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  12. Texture-induced modulations of friction force: the fingerprint effect. (United States)

    Wandersman, E; Candelier, R; Debrégeas, G; Prevost, A


    Modulations of the friction force in dry solid friction are usually attributed to macroscopic stick-slip instabilities. Here we show that a distinct, quasistatic mechanism can also lead to nearly periodic force oscillations during sliding contact between an elastomer patterned with parallel grooves, and abraded glass slides. The dominant oscillation frequency is set by the ratio between the sliding velocity and the grooves period. A model is derived which quantitatively captures the dependence of the force modulations amplitude with the normal load, the grooves period, and the slides roughness characteristics. The model's main ingredient is the nonlinearity of the friction law. Since such nonlinearity is ubiquitous for soft solids, this "fingerprint effect" should be relevant to a large class of frictional configurations and have important consequences in human digital touch.

  13. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  14. Nanoscale flexoelectricity. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh D; Mao, Sheng; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Purohit, Prashant K; McAlpine, Michael C


    Electromechanical effects are ubiquitous in biological and materials systems. Understanding the fundamentals of these coupling phenomena is critical to devising next-generation electromechanical transducers. Piezoelectricity has been studied in detail, in both the bulk and at mesoscopic scales. Recently, an increasing amount of attention has been paid to flexoelectricity: electrical polarization induced by a strain gradient. While piezoelectricity requires crystalline structures with no inversion symmetry, flexoelectricity does not carry this requirement, since the effect is caused by inhomogeneous strains. Flexoelectricity explains many interesting electromechanical behaviors in hard crystalline materials and underpins core mechanoelectric transduction phenomena in soft biomaterials. Most excitingly, flexoelectricity is a size-dependent effect which becomes more significant in nanoscale systems. With increasing interest in nanoscale and nano-bio hybrid materials, flexoelectricity will continue to gain prominence. This Review summarizes work in this area. First, methods to amplify or manipulate the flexoelectric effect to enhance material properties will be investigated, particularly at nanometer scales. Next, the nature and history of these effects in soft biomaterials will be explored. Finally, some theoretical interpretations for the effect will be presented. Overall, flexoelectricity represents an exciting phenomenon which is expected to become more considerable as materials continue to shrink. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Novel Friction Law for the Static Friction Force based on Local Precursor Slipping


    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi


    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µ M, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static fricti...

  16. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  17. Earthquake friction (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea


    Laboratory friction slip experiments on rocks provide firm evidence that the static friction coefficient μ has values ∼0.7. This would imply large amounts of heat produced by seismically active faults, but no heat flow anomaly is observed, and mineralogic evidence of frictional heating is virtually absent. This stands for lower μ values ∼0.2, as also required by the observed orientation of faults with respect to the maximum compressive stress. We show that accounting for the thermal and mechanical energy balance of the system removes this inconsistence, implying a multi-stage strain release process. The first stage consists of a small and slow aseismic slip at high friction on pre-existent stress concentrators within the fault volume but angled with the main fault as Riedel cracks. This introduces a second stage dominated by frictional temperature increase inducing local pressurization of pore fluids around the slip patches, which is in turn followed by a third stage in which thermal diffusion extends the frictionally heated zones making them coalesce into a connected pressurized region oriented as the fault plane. Then, the system enters a state of equivalent low static friction in which it can undergo the fast elastic radiation slip prescribed by dislocation earthquake models.

  18. Choose Wisely: Static or Kinetic Friction--The Power of Dimensionless Plots (United States)

    Ludwigsen, Daniel; Svinarich, Kathryn


    Consider a problem of sliding blocks, one stacked atop the other, resting on a frictionless table. If the bottom block is pulled horizontally, nature makes a choice: if the applied force is small, static friction between the blocks accelerates the blocks together, but with a large force the blocks slide apart. In that case, kinetic friction still…

  19. High Speed Ice Friction (United States)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben


    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  20. Friction behavior of glass and metals in contact with glass in various environments (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.


    Sliding friction experiments have been conducted for heat-resistant glass and metals in contact with glass. These experiments were conducted in various environments including vacuum, moist air, dry air, octane, and stearic acid in hexadecane. Glass exhibited a higher friction force in moist air than it did in vacuum when in sliding contact with itself. The metals, aluminum, iron, and gold, all exhibited the same friction coefficient when sliding on glass in vacuum as glass sliding on glass. Gold-to-glass contacts were extremely sensitive to the environment despite the relative chemical inertness of gold.

  1. Nano-friction behavior of phosphorene (United States)

    Bai, Lichun; Liu, Bo; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Tian, Yu; Zhou, Kun


    Nano-friction of phosphorene plays a significant role in affecting the controllability and efficiency of applying strain engineering to tune its properties. So far, the friction behavior of phosphorene has not been studied. This work studies the friction of single-layer and bilayer phosphorene on an amorphous silicon substrate by sliding a rigid tip. For the single-layer phosphorene, it is found that its friction is highly anisotropic, i.e. the friction is larger along the armchair direction than that along the zigzag direction. Moreover, pre-strain of the phosphorene also exhibits anisotropic effects. The friction increases with the pre-strain along the zigzag direction, but decreases with that along the armchair direction. Furthermore, the strong adhesion between the phosphorene and its substrate increases the friction between the phosphorene and the tip. For bilayer phosphorene, its friction highly depends on its stacking mode, which determines the contact interface with a commensurate or incommensurate pattern. This friction behavior is quite unique and greatly differs from that of graphene and molybdenum disulfide. Detailed analysis reveals that this behavior results from the combination effect of the friction contact area, the potential-energy profile of phosphorene, and its unique elongation.

  2. Crystalline misfit-angle implications for solid sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manini, Nicola; Braun, O.M.


    For the contact of two finite portions of interacting rigid crystalline surfaces, we compute the pinning energy barrier dependency on the misfit angle and contact area. This simple model allows us to investigate a broad contact-size and angular range, thus obtaining the statistical properties of the energy barriers opposing sliding for a single asperity. These data are used to generate the distribution of static frictional thresholds for the contact of polycrystals, as in dry or even lubricated friction. This distribution is used as the input of a master equation to predict the sliding properties of macroscopic contacts. -- Highlights: → The pinning energy barrier depends on the misfit angle and contact area. → We compute this dependence for a idealized rigid model. → We obtain a distribution of static frictional thresholds. → It is used as input of a master-equation model for macroscopic surfaces in contact. → Overall we predict a transition from stick-slip to smooth sliding.

  3. Experimental investigation of friction and wear behaviour of 304L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, friction and wear behavior of 304L stainless steel sliding against different ball counterface under dry contact was investigated. Tests were conducted using a ball-on-flat contact configuration in reciprocating sliding with 440C stainless steel, Al alloy (2017) and bronze ball counterfaces under different loads.

  4. Shearing Nanometer-Thick Confined Hydrocarbon Films: Friction and Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, I. M.; Persson, B. N. J.


    We present molecular dynamics (MD) friction and adhesion calculations for nanometer-thick confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths 20, 100 and 1400 carbon atoms. We study the dependency of the frictional shear stress on the confining pressure and sliding speed. We present results...

  5. Benchmarking of direct and indirect friction tests in micro forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Calaon, Matteo; Arentoft, M.


    to qualify the tribological performance of the particular forming scenario. In this work the application of a simulative sliding friction test at micro scale is studied. The test setup makes it possible to measure the coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding motion. The results confirm a sizeable...... increase in the coefficient of friction when the work piece size is scaled down. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.......The sizeable increase in metal forming friction at micro scale, due to the existence of size effects, constitutes a barrier to the realization of industrial micro forming processes. In the quest for improved frictional conditions in micro scale forming operations, friction tests are applied...

  6. Effect of solid lubricants on friction and wear behaviour of alloyed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Friction and wear behaviour of MoS2, boric acid, graphite and TiO2 at four different sliding speeds (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 m/s) has been compared with dry sliding condition. MoS2 and graphite show 30 to 50% reduction in mass loss compared to other lubricants at all sliding speeds. Friction coefficient reduces with increase in ...

  7. Effect of solid lubricants on friction and wear behaviour of alloyed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Friction and wear behaviour of MoS2, boric acid, graphite and TiO2 at four different sliding speeds (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 m/s) has been compared with dry sliding condition. MoS2 and graphite show 30 to 50% reduction in mass loss compared to other lubricants at all sliding speeds. Friction coefficient reduces with ...

  8. Trial manufacture of rotary friction tester and frictional force measurement of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Kanari, M; Tanzawa, S


    In the plasma confinement type fusion reactor, in-vessel structures such as a blanket module slide at the joints each other when plasma disruption occurs, and then frictional heat is generated there. Therefore, for the selection of material and the use as the design data, it is important to understand the frictional characteristics of metals and ceramic films in the vacuum. In the present study, we have manufactured a prototype of rotary friction tester and examined the performances of the tester. The frictional characteristics of metals in the room air was measured using the friction tester, and the results obtained are as follows. A drifting friction force for a constant time and a friction force during the idling were 98 mN and 225 mN, respectively. These values were sufficiently small as compared to pressing load (9.8 - 57.8 N) used in the friction test. In a friction force measurement of stainless steel, dynamic friction force obeyed Amontons' law which indicated that dynamic friction force is not depend...

  9. Sliding vane geometry turbines (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R


    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  10. Friction testing of a new ligature (United States)

    Mantel, Alison R.

    Objective. To determine if American Orthodontics' (AO) new, experimental ligature demonstrates less friction in vitro when compared to four other ligatures on the market. Methods. Four brackets were mounted on a custom metal fixture allowing an 0.018-in stainless steel wire attached to an opposite fixture with one bracket to be passively centered in the bracket slot. The wire was ligated to the bracket using one of five types of ligatures including the low friction test ligatures (AO), conventional ligatures (AO), Sili-Ties(TM) Silicone Infused Ties (GAC), SynergyRTM Low-Friction Ligatures (RMO), and SuperSlick ligatures (TP Orthodontics). Resistance to sliding was measured over a 7 mm sliding distance using a universal testing machine (Instron) with a 50 Newton load cell and a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The initial resistance to sliding (static) was determined by the peak force needed to initiate movement and the kinetic resistance to sliding was taken as the force at 5 mm of wire/bracket sliding. Fifteen unique tests were run for each ligature group in both dry and wet (saliva soaked for 24 hours with one drop prior to testing) conditions. Results. In the dry state, the SuperSlick ligature demonstrated more static friction than all of the other ligatures, while SuperSlick and Sili-Ties demonstrated more kinetic friction than the AO conventional, AO experimental and Synergy ligatures. In the wet condition, SuperSlick and the AO experimental ligature demonstrated the least static friction, followed by the AO conventional and Sili-Ties. The most static friction was observed with the Synergy ligatures. In the wet condition, the SuperSlick, AO experimental and AO conventional exhibited less kinetic friction than the Sili-Ties and Synergy ligatures. Conclusions. AO's experimental ligature exhibits less friction in the wet state than conventional ligatures, Sili-Ties and Synergy and is comparable to the SuperSlick ligature. These preliminary results suggest that the

  11. Large Friction Anisotropy of a Polydiacetylene Monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Sasaki, D.Y.


    Friction force microscopy measurements of a polydiacetylene monolayer film reveal a 300% friction anisotropy that is correlated with the film structure. The film consists of a monolayer of the red form of N-(2-ethanol)- 10,12 pentacosadiynamide, prepared on a Langmuir trough and deposited on a mica substrate. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the monolayer consists of domains of linearly oriented conjugated backbones with pendant hydrocarbon side chains above and below the backbones. Maximum friction occurs when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the backbone. We propose that the backbones impose anisotropic packing of the hydrocarbon side chains which leads to the observed friction anisotropy. Friction anisotropy is therefore a sensitive, optically-independent indicator of polymer backbone direction and monolayer structural properties

  12. DOE - BES Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, Cathy Jo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are slides from a powerpoint shown to guests during tours of Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It shows the five DOE-BES nanoscale science research centers (NSRCs), which are located at different national laboratories throughout the country. Then it goes into detail specifically about the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at LANL, including statistics on its user community and CINT's New Mexico industrial users.

  13. Interfacial bonding and friction in silicon carbide (filament)-reinforced ceramic- and glass-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, J.D.; Shetty, D.K.


    This paper reports interfacial shear strength and interfacial sliding friction stress assessed in unidirectional SiC-filament-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) and borosilicate glass composites and 0/90 cross-ply reinforced borosilicate glass composite using a fiber pushout test technique. The interface debonding load and the maximum sliding friction load were measured for varying lengths of the embedded fibers by continuously monitoring the load during debonding and pushout of single fibers in finite-thickness specimens. The dependences of the debonding load and the maximum sliding friction load on the initial embedded lengths of the fibers were in agreement with nonlinear shear-lag models. An iterative regression procedure was used to evaluate the interfacial properties, shear debond strength (τ d ), and sliding friction stress (τ f ), from the embedded fiber length dependences of the debonding load and the maximum frictional sliding load, respectively. The shear-lag model and the analysis of sliding friction permit explicit evaluation of a coefficient of sliding friction (μ) and a residual compressive stress on the interface (σ 0 ). The cross-ply composite showed a significantly higher coefficient of interfacial friction as compared to the unidirectional composites

  14. Historical Scientific Models and Theories as Resources for Learning and Teaching: The Case of Friction (United States)

    Besson, Ugo


    This paper presents a history of research and theories on sliding friction between solids. This history is divided into four phases: from Leonardo da Vinci to Coulomb and the establishment of classical laws of friction; the theories of lubrication and the Tomlinson's theory of friction (1850-1930); the theories of wear, the Bowden and Tabor's…

  15. Effect of interfacial friction during forging of solid powder discs of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Effect of interfacial friction during forging of solid powder ... deformation. Hence, friction in plastic deformation is essentially different from sliding friction in machine parts. Direct metal-to-metal contact between the die and the ..... Rooks B W 1974 The effect of die temperature on metal flow and die wear during high speed hot.

  16. Analytical and experimental investigation of the static friction regime for rubber-rigid ball contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; de Vries, Erik G.; de Vries, Erik G.; Schipper, Dirk J.


    The static friction regime is of great importance for systems requiring accurate positioning. The parameters of the static friction regime in terms of static friction force and limiting displacement before gross sliding are investigated for a rubber ball/metal flat configuration. Single-asperity

  17. A new Friction and Lubrication Test for Cold Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wibom, Ole; Aalborg Nielsen, J


    This paper presents a new friction and lubrication test for cold forging. The test allows controlled variation of the surface expansion in the range 0-2000%, the tool temperature in the range 20-270°C and the sliding length between 0 and infinite. Friction is decreasing with increasing temperature...... in the range 30-150°C. Above this temperature range friction increases. As regards lubricant performance Lubrication Limit Curves (LLC) are plotted in a sliding length-surface enlargement diagram with the tool temperature as a parameter. Larger tool temperature implies lower acceptable surface expansion...

  18. Anisotropic Friction of Wrinkled Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition. (United States)

    Long, Fei; Yasaei, Poya; Yao, Wentao; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza


    Wrinkle structures are commonly seen on graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method due to the different thermal expansion coefficient between graphene and its substrate. Despite the intensive investigations focusing on the electrical properties, the nanotribological properties of wrinkles and the influence of wrinkle structures on the wrinkle-free graphene remain less understood. Here, we report the observation of anisotropic nanoscale frictional characteristics depending on the orientation of wrinkles in CVD-grown graphene. Using friction force microscopy, we found that the coefficient of friction perpendicular to the wrinkle direction was ∼194% compare to that of the parallel direction. Our systematic investigation shows that the ripples and "puckering" mechanism, which dominates the friction of exfoliated graphene, plays even a more significant role in the friction of wrinkled graphene grown by CVD. The anisotropic friction of wrinkled graphene suggests a new way to tune the graphene friction property by nano/microstructure engineering such as introducing wrinkles.

  19. Sliding behaviors of elastic cylindrical tanks under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.


    There is a paper that reports on the occurrence of sliding in several oil tanks on Alaskan earthquake of 1964. This incident appears to be in need of further investigation for the following reasons: First, in usual seismic designing of cylindrical tanks ('tanks'), sliding is considered to occur when the lateral inertial force exceeds the static friction force. When the tank in question can be taken as a rigid body, this rule is known to hold true. If the tank is capable of undergoing a considerable amount of elastic deformation, however, its applicability has not been proved. Second, although several studies have been done on the critical conditions for static sliding the present author is unaware of like ones made on the dynamic sliding, except for the pioneering work of Sogabe, in which they have empirically indicated possibility of sliding to occur under the force of sloshing. Third, this author has shown earlier on that tanks, if not anchored properly, will start rocking, inducing uplifting of the base plate, even at a relatively small seismic acceleration of 10 gal or so. The present study has been conducted with these observations for the background. Namely, based on a notion that elastic deformation given rise to by rocking oscillation should be incorporated as an important factor in any set of critical conditions for the onset of sliding, a series of shaking table experiments were performed for rigid steel block to represent the rigid tanks ('rigid model') and a model tank having a same sort of plate thickness-to-diameter ratio as industrial tanks to represent the elastic cylindrical tanks ('elastic model'). Following observations have been obtained for the critical condition of the onset of sliding: (1) sliding of rigid tanks will occur when the lateral force given rise to by oscillation exceeds the static, or the Coulombic, friction force. (2) if vertical oscillation is imposed on the lateral oscillation, the lateral force needed to induce sliding of a

  20. The Microseismicity of Glacier Sliding (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Röösli, Claudia; Kissling, Edi


    Our understanding of glacier and ice sheet basal motion remains incomplete. The past decades have witnessed a shift away from initially proposed hard bed theories towards soft, till-laden beds, which deform and thus participate in basal motion. The theoretical treatment of deformable beds is subject to debate, yet our capability to predict ice sheet flow and ultimately sea level rise is contingent upon correct parameterization of basal motion (Ritz et al., 2015). Both hard and soft bed theories neglect frictional sliding across distinct basal fault planes and elastic deformation in response to sudden dislocation. Over recent years, this view has been repeatedly challenged as more and more studies report seismogenic faulting associated with basal sliding. For instance, large parts of the Whillans Ice Stream at Antarctica's Siple Coast move nearly exclusively during sudden sliding episodes (Wiens et al., 2008). This "stick-slip motion" is difficult to explain with traditional glacier sliding theories but more analogous to earthquake dislocation on tectonic faults. Although the Whillans Ice Stream motion may be an extreme example, there exists evidence for much smaller microseismic stick-slip events beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet and non-polar glaciers (Podolskiy and Walter, 2016). This raises the question how relevant and widespread the stick-slip phenomenon is and if it is necessary to include it into ice sheet models. Here we discuss recent seismic deployments, which focused on detection of stick-slip events beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet and European Alpine Glaciers. For all deployments, a considerable challenge lies in detection of stick-slip seismograms in the presence of a dominant background seismicity associated with surface crevassing. Nevertheless, automatic search algorithms and waveform characteristics provide important insights into temporal variation of stick-slip activity as well as information about fault plane geometry and co-seismic sliding

  1. Controlling friction in a manganite surface by resistive switching


    Schmidt, Hendrik; Krisponeit, Jon-Olaf; Samwer, Konrad; Volkert, Cynthia A.


    We report a significant change in friction of a $\\rm La_{0.55}Ca_{0.45}MnO_3$ thin film measured as a function of the materials resistive state under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at room temperature by friction force microscopy. While friction is high in the insulating state, it clearly changes to lower values if the probed local region is switched to the conducting state via nanoscale resistance switching. Thus we demonstrate active control of friction without having to change the temperature...

  2. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen M.; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan


    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed.

  3. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen M; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan


    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed. (paper)

  4. Quasi-equilibrium melting of quartzite upon extreme friction (United States)

    Lee, Sung Keun; Han, Raehee; Kim, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Gi Young; Khim, Hoon; Hirose, Takehiro


    The friction on fault planes that controls how rocks slide during earthquakes decreases significantly as a result of complex fault-lubrication processes involving frictional melting. Fault friction has been characterized in terms of the preferential melting of minerals with low melting points--so-called disequilibrium melting. Quartz, which has a high melting temperature of about 1,726 °C and is a major component of crustal rocks, is not expected to melt often during seismic slip. Here we use high-velocity friction experiments on quartzite to show that quartz can melt at temperatures of 1,350 to 1,500 °C. This implies that quartz within a fault plane undergoing rapid friction sliding could melt at substantially lower temperatures than expected. We suggest that depression of the melting temperature is caused by the preferential melting of ultra-fine particles and metastable melting of β-quartz at about 1,400 °C during extreme frictional slip. The results for quartzite are applicable to complex rocks because of the observed prevalence of dynamic grain fragmentation, the preferential melting of smaller grains and the kinetic preference of β-quartz formation during frictional sliding. We postulate that frictional melting of quartz on a fault plane at temperatures substantially below the melting temperature could facilitate slip-weakening and lead to large earthquakes.

  5. An empirical model for friction in cold forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai


    With a system of simulative tribology tests for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature....... The results show, that friction is strongly influenced by normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature, whereas the other process parameters investigated show minor influence on friction. Based on the experimental results a mathematical model has been established for friction as a function...... of normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature. The model is verified by process testing measuring friction at varying reductions in cold forward rod extrusion. KEY WORDS: empirical friction model, cold forging, simulative friction tests....

  6. Molecular dissipation phenomena of nanoscopic friction in the heterogeneous relaxation regime of a glass former. (United States)

    Sills, Scott; Gray, Tomoko; Overney, René M


    Nanoscale sliding friction involving a polystyrene melt near its glass transition temperature Tg (373 K) exhibited dissipation phenomena that provide insight into the underlying molecular relaxation processes. A dissipative length scale that shows significant parallelism with the size of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRRs) could be experimentally deduced from friction-velocity isotherms, combined with dielectric loss analysis. Upon cooling to approximately 10 K above Tg, the dissipation length Xd grew from a segmental scale of approximately 3 A to 2.1 nm, following a power-law relationship with the reduced temperature Xd approximately TR-phi. The resulting phi=1.89+/-0.08 is consistent with growth predictions for the length scale of CRRs in the heterogeneous regime of fragile glass formers. Deviations from the power-law behavior closer to Tg suggest that long-range processes, e.g., the normal mode or ultraslow Fischer modes, may couple with the alpha relaxation, leading to energy dissipation in domains of tens of nanometers.

  7. [How to make slides]. (United States)

    Herranz González-Botas, J; Gavilán Bouzas, J


    Quality of oral presentation slides is based on content and design. The most common fault is presentation of slides with too much writing, or with type to small to be seen by the audience. With a few design rules and a minimum of photographic equipment, high quality slides are to be obtain. Slides are projected to be read and communicate an idea, make them nice, simple and readable; there is no need for fancy art works. Format and color are important but not the main point, and they will depend on available material, time and money.

  8. Phase-transformation-induced lubrication of earthquake sliding (United States)

    Green, Harry W.


    Frictional failure is not possible at depth in Earth, hence earthquakes deeper than 30-50 km cannot initiate by overcoming dry friction. Moreover, the frequency distribution of earthquakes with depth is bimodal, suggesting another change of mechanism at about 350 km. Here I suggest that the change at 30-50 km is from overcoming dry friction to reduction of effective stress by dehydration embrittlement and that the change at 350 km is due to desiccation of slabs and initiation by phase-transformation-induced faulting. High-speed friction experiments at low pressure indicate that exceeding dry friction provokes shear heating that leads to endothermic reactions and pronounced weakening. Higher-pressure studies show nanocrystalline gouge accompanying dehydration and the highest pressure experiments initiate by exothermic polymorphic phase transformation. Here I discuss the characteristic nanostructures of experiments on high-speed friction and high-pressure faulting and show that all simulated earthquake systems yield very weak transformation-induced lubrication, most commonly nanometric gouge or melt. I also show that phase-transformation-induced faulting of olivine to spinel can propagate into material previously transformed to spinel, apparently by triggering melting analogous to high-speed friction studies at low pressure. These experiments taken as a whole suggest that earthquakes at all depths slide at low frictional resistance by a self-healing pulse mechanism with rapid strength recovery. This article is part of the themed issue 'Faulting, friction and weakening: from slow to fast motion'.

  9. Systematic Breakdown of Amontons' Law of Friction for an Elastic Object Locally Obeying Amontons' Law (United States)

    Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi


    In many sliding systems consisting of solid object on a solid substrate under dry condition, the friction force does not depend on the apparent contact area and is proportional to the loading force. This behaviour is called Amontons' law and indicates that the friction coefficient, or the ratio of the friction force to the loading force, is constant. Here, however, using numerical and analytical methods, we show that Amontons' law breaks down systematically under certain conditions for an elastic object experiencing a friction force that locally obeys Amontons' law. The macroscopic static friction coefficient, which corresponds to the onset of bulk sliding of the object, decreases as pressure or system length increases. This decrease results from precursor slips before the onset of bulk sliding, and is consistent with the results of certain previous experiments. The mechanisms for these behaviours are clarified. These results will provide new insight into controlling friction. PMID:23545778

  10. Systematic breakdown of Amontons' law of friction for an elastic object locally obeying Amontons' law. (United States)

    Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi


    In many sliding systems consisting of solid object on a solid substrate under dry condition, the friction force does not depend on the apparent contact area and is proportional to the loading force. This behaviour is called Amontons' law and indicates that the friction coefficient, or the ratio of the friction force to the loading force, is constant. Here, however, using numerical and analytical methods, we show that Amontons' law breaks down systematically under certain conditions for an elastic object experiencing a friction force that locally obeys Amontons' law. The macroscopic static friction coefficient, which corresponds to the onset of bulk sliding of the object, decreases as pressure or system length increases. This decrease results from precursor slips before the onset of bulk sliding, and is consistent with the results of certain previous experiments. The mechanisms for these behaviours are clarified. These results will provide new insight into controlling friction.

  11. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  12. PREFACE: The International Conference on Science of Friction (United States)

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi


    The first international conference on the science of friction in Japan was held at Irago, Aichi on 9-13 September 2007. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from the atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered in the conference are shown below.: Superlubricity and friction Electronic and phononic contributions to friction Friction on the atomic and molecular scales van der Waals friction and Casimir force Molecular motor and friction Friction and adhesion in soft matter systems Wear and crack on the nanoscale Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipation Friction and chaos Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts Friction of powder The number of participants in the conference was approximately 100, registered from 11 countries. 48 oral and 29 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 23 papers devoted to the above topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education and the Taihokogyo Tribology Research Foundation (TTRF), and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The Surface Science Society of Japan, The Japanese Society of Tribologists and Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute. The details of the conference are available at . Finally we want to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Irago, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors

  13. Enhancement of Friction against a Rough Surface by a Ridge-Channel Surface Microstructure. (United States)

    Bai, Ying; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Levrard, Benjamin; Jagota, Anand


    We report on a study of the sliding friction of elastomeric surfaces patterned with ridges and channels (and unstructured flat controls), against both smooth and roughened spherical indenters. Against the smooth spherical indenter, all of the structured surfaces have highly reduced sliding friction due to the reduction in actual area of contact. Against roughened spherical indenters, however, the sliding force for structured samples can be up to 50% greater than that of an unstructured flat control. The mechanism of enhanced friction against a rough surface is due to a combination of increased actual area of contact, interlocking between roughness and the surface structure, and attendant dynamic instabilities that dissipate energy.

  14. Contact mechanics and rubber friction for randomly rough surfaces with anisotropic statistical properties. (United States)

    Carbone, G; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Wohlers, A


    In this paper we extend the theory of contact mechanics and rubber friction developed by one of us (B.N.J. Persson, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3840 (2001)) to the case of surfaces with anisotropic surface roughness. As an application we calculate the viscoelastic contribution to the rubber friction. We show that the friction coefficient may depend significantly on the sliding direction, while the area of contact depends weakly on the sliding direction. We have carried out experiments for rubber blocks sliding on unidirectionally polished steel surfaces. The experimental data are in a good qualitative agreement with the theory.

  15. Investigation of Dynamic Friction Induced by Shock Loading Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanicotena, A.; Szarzynski, S.


    Modeling the frictional sliding of one surface against another under high pressure is often required to correctly describe the response of complex systems to shock loading. In order to provide data for direct code and model comparison, a new friction experiment investigating dry sliding characteristics of metal on metal at normal pressures up to 10 GPa and sliding velocities up to 400 m/s has been developed. The test consists of a specifically designed target made of two materials. A plane shock wave generated by plate impact results in one material sliding against the other. The material velocity of the rear surface of the target is recorded versus time by Doppler Laser Interferometry. The dynamic friction coefficient μ is then indirectly determined by comparison with results of numerical simulations involving the conventional Coulomb law. Using this new experimental configuration, three dynamic friction experiments were performed on AA 5083-Al (H111) / AISI 321 stainless steel tribo-pair. Results suggest a decrease in the friction coefficient with increasing sliding velocity

  16. Suppression of friction by mechanical vibrations. (United States)

    Capozza, Rosario; Vanossi, Andrea; Vezzani, Alessandro; Zapperi, Stefano


    Mechanical vibrations are known to affect frictional sliding and the associated stick-slip patterns causing sometimes a drastic reduction of the friction force. This issue is relevant for applications in nanotribology and to understand earthquake triggering by small dynamic perturbations. We study the dynamics of repulsive particles confined between a horizontally driven top plate and a vertically oscillating bottom plate. Our numerical results show a suppression of the high dissipative stick-slip regime in a well-defined range of frequencies that depends on the vibrating amplitude, the normal applied load, the system inertia and the damping constant. We propose a theoretical explanation of the numerical results and derive a phase diagram indicating the region of parameter space where friction is suppressed. Our results allow to define better strategies for the mechanical control of friction.

  17. 2D or not 2D? The impact of nanoscale roughness and substrate interactions on the tribological properties of graphene and MoS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinski, Meagan B; Liu, Zhuotong; Spear, Jessica C; Batteas, James D


    The use of 2D nanomaterials for controlling friction and wear at interfaces has received increased attention over the past few years due to their unique structural, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. These materials proffer potential critical solutions to challenges in boundary lubrication across numerous platforms ranging from engines, to biomedical implants and micro- and nano-scaled machines that will play a major role in the Internet of Things. There has been significant work on a range of 2D nanomaterials, such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ). From these studies, their frictional properties have been shown to be highly dependent on numerous factors, such as substrate structure, strain, and competing chemical interactions between the interfaces in sliding contact. Moreover, when considering real contacts in machined interfaces, these surfaces are often composed of nanoscaled asperities, whose intermittent contact dominates the tribochemical processes that result in wear. In this review we aim to capture recent work on the tribological properties of graphene and MoS 2 and to discuss the impacts of surface roughness (from the atomic scale to the nanoscale) and chemical interactions at interfaces on their frictional properties, and their use in designing advanced boundary lubrication schemes. (topical review)

  18. Friction law and hysteresis in granular materials (United States)

    DeGiuli, E.; Wyart, M.


    The macroscopic friction of particulate materials often weakens as the flow rate is increased, leading to potentially disastrous intermittent phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. We theoretically and numerically study this phenomenon in simple granular materials. We show that velocity weakening, corresponding to a nonmonotonic behavior in the friction law, μ(I), is present even if the dynamic and static microscopic friction coefficients are identical, but disappears for softer particles. We argue that this instability is induced by endogenous acoustic noise, which tends to make contacts slide, leading to faster flow and increased noise. We show that soft spots, or excitable regions in the materials, correspond to rolling contacts that are about to slide, whose density is described by a nontrivial exponent θs. We build a microscopic theory for the nonmonotonicity of μ(I), which also predicts the scaling behavior of acoustic noise, the fraction of sliding contacts χ, and the sliding velocity, in terms of θs. Surprisingly, these quantities have no limit when particles become infinitely hard, as confirmed numerically. Our analysis rationalizes previously unexplained observations and makes experimentally testable predictions.

  19. Mailing microscope slides (United States)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  20. 3D DEM analyses of the 1963 Vajont rock slide (United States)

    Boon, Chia Weng; Houlsby, Guy; Utili, Stefano


    The 1963 Vajont rock slide has been modelled using the distinct element method (DEM). The open-source DEM code, YADE (Kozicki & Donzé, 2008), was used together with the contact detection algorithm proposed by Boon et al. (2012). The critical sliding friction angle at the slide surface was sought using a strength reduction approach. A shear-softening contact model was used to model the shear resistance of the clayey layer at the slide surface. The results suggest that the critical sliding friction angle can be conservative if stability analyses are calculated based on the peak friction angles. The water table was assumed to be horizontal and the pore pressure at the clay layer was assumed to be hydrostatic. The influence of reservoir filling was marginal, increasing the sliding friction angle by only 1.6˚. The results of the DEM calculations were found to be sensitive to the orientations of the bedding planes and cross-joints. Finally, the failure mechanism was investigated and arching was found to be present at the bend of the chair-shaped slope. References Boon C.W., Houlsby G.T., Utili S. (2012). A new algorithm for contact detection between convex polygonal and polyhedral particles in the discrete element method. Computers and Geotechnics, vol 44, 73-82, Kozicki, J., & Donzé, F. V. (2008). A new open-source software developed for numerical simulations using discrete modeling methods. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 197(49-50), 4429-4443.

  1. Trends in nanoscale mechanics mechanics of carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanocomposites and molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server


    This book contains a collection of the state-of-the-art reviews written by the leading researchers in the areas of nanoscale mechanics, molecular dynamics, nanoscale modeling of nanocomposites and mechanics of carbon nanotubes. No other book has reviews of the recent discoveries such as a nanoscale analog of the Pauli’s principle, i.e., effect of the spatial exclusion of electrons or the SEE effect, a new Registry Matrix Analysis for the nanoscale interfacial sliding and new data on the effective viscosity of interfacial electrons in nanoscale stiction at the interfaces. This volume is also an exceptional resource on the well tested nanoscale modeling of carbon nanotubes and nanocomposites, new nanoscale effects, unique evaluations of the effective thickness of carbon nanotubes under different loads, new data on which size of carbon nanotubes is safer and many other topics. Extensive bibliography concerning all these topics is included along with the lucid short reviews. Numerous illustrations are provided...

  2. Sliding seal materials for low heat rejection engines (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin; Lankford, James; Vinyard, Shannon


    Sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising piston seal materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, and loading conditions that are representative of the low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine environment. These materials included carbides, oxides, and nitrides. In addition, silicon nitride and partially stablized zirconia disks (cylinder liners) were ion-implanted with TiNi, Ni, Co, and Cr, and subsequently run against carbide pins (piston rings), with the objective of producing reduced friction via solid lubrication at elevated temperature. Friction and wear measurements were obtained using pin-on-disk laboratory experiments and a unique engine friction test rig. Unmodified ceramic sliding couples were characterized at all temperatures by friction coefficients of 0.24 and above during the pin-on-disk tests. The coefficient at 800 C in an oxidizing environment was reduced to below 0.1, for certain material combination, by the ion-implantation of TiNi or Co. This beneficial effect was found to derive from the lubricious Ti, Ni, and Co oxides. Similar results were demonstrated on the engine friction test rig at lower temperatures. The structural integrity and feasibility of engine application with the most promising material combination were demonstrated during a 30-hour single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine test.

  3. Surface Friction of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Particles (United States)

    Cuccia, Nicholas; Burton, Justin

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel particles have recently become a popular system for modeling low-friction, granular materials near the jamming transition. Because a gel consists of a polymer network filled with solvent, its frictional behavior is often explained using a combination of hydrodynamic lubrication and polymer-surface interactions. As a result, the frictional coefficient can vary between 0.001 and 0.03 depending on several factors such as contact area, sliding velocity, normal force, and the gel surface chemistry. Most tribological measurements of hydrogels utilize two flat surfaces, where the contact area is not well-defined. We have built a custom, low-force tribometer to measure the single-contact frictional properties of spherical hydrogel particles on flat hydrogel surfaces under a variety of measurement conditions. At high velocities (> 1 cm/s), the friction coefficient depends linearly on velocity, but does not tend to zero at zero velocity. We also compare our measurements to solid particles (steel, glass, etc.) on hydrogel surfaces, which exhibit larger frictional forces, and show less dependence on velocity. A physical model for the friction which includes the lubrication layer between the deformed surfaces will be discussed. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1506446.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Most fixed appliance techniques involve some degree of sliding between brackets and arch wires. A sound knowledge of the various factors affecting the magnitude of friction is of paramount importance to the clinician. The present study was performed to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance and characteristics between self-ligating brackets and pre-adjusted edgewise brackets with different types of ligation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tidy's frictional test design was used to simulate retraction of tooth along with artificial saliva to simulate wet conditions in oral cavity. The jig with this assembly was mounted on the Instron machine with the cross head moving upwards at a speed of 5mm/min. The movable bracket was suspended from the load cell of the testing machine, while the jig was mounted on cross head of machine and the load cell readings were recorded on digital display. Following wires are used 0.016 HANT, 0.019X 0.025HANT, 0.019X 0.025 SS, 0.021X 0.025 SS wires are used. The brackets used were 0.022 slot Damon, 0.022 Smart clip and 0.022 slot MBT system. RESULTS: Self ligating brackets were shown to produce lesser friction when compared to the conventional brackets used with modules, and stainless steel ligatures. Damon self-ligating brackets produce a least friction of all the brackets used in the study. Stainless steel ligatures produced the least friction compared to elastomeric. CONCLUSION: Self ligation brackets produce lesser friction than the conventional brackets ligated with elastomeric modules and stainless steel ligature. Damon self-ligating brackets produce a least friction of all the brackets used in the study width of the bracket was also found to be directly proportional to the friction produced 0.0016HANT with elastomeric modules produce more friction due increase in flexibility of wire.

  5. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson


    have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool......-in piezoelectric torque transducer. This technique results in a very sensitive measurement of friction, which furthermore enables recording of lubricant film breakdown as function of drawing distance. The proposed test is validated in an experimental investigation of the influence of lubricant viscosity...

  6. Friction measurements of steel on refractory bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselstein, L.E.


    During startup or shutdown of a pool-type LMFBR, substantial shear stresses may arise between the base of the steel reactor vessel and the refractory brick support base. The magnitude of these stresses, which result from differences in thermal expansion, can be estimated if the friction coefficient is known. This report describes experiments to determine friction coefficients between 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel and several refractory materials and to examine effects to contact pressure, temperature, sliding velocity, lubricants, and surface condition

  7. Change in Frictional Behavior during Olivine Serpentinization (United States)

    Xing, T.; Zhu, W.; French, M. E.; Belzer, B.


    Hydration of mantle peridotites (serpentinization) is pervasive at plate boundaries. It is widely accepted that serpentinization is intrinsically linked to hydromechanical processes within the sub-seafloor, where the interplay between cracking, fluid supply and chemical reactions is responsible for a spectrum of fault slip, from earthquake swarms at the transform faults, to slow slip events at the subduction zone. Previous studies demonstrate that serpentine minerals can either promote slip or creep depend on many factors that include sliding velocity, temperature, pressure, interstitial fluids, etc. One missing link from the experimental investigation of serpentine to observations of tectonic faults is the extent of alteration necessary for changing the frictional behaviors. We quantify changes in frictional behavior due to serpentinization by conducting experiments after in-situ serpentinization of olivine gouge. In the sample configuration a layer of powder is sandwiched between porous sandstone blocks with 35° saw-cut surface. The starting material of fine-grained (63 120 µm) olivine powder is reacted with deionized water for 72 hours at 150°C before loading starts. Under the conventional triaxial configuration, the sample is stressed until sliding occurs within the gouge. A series of velocity-steps is then performed to measure the response of friction coefficient to variations of sliding velocity from which the rate-and-state parameters are deduced. For comparison, we measured the frictional behavior of unaltered olivine and pure serpentine gouges.Our results confirm that serpentinization causes reduced frictional strength and velocity weakening. In unaltered olivine gouge, an increase in frictional resistance with increasing sliding velocity is observed, whereas the serpentinized olivine and serpentine gouges favor velocity weakening behaviors at the same conditions. Furthermore, we observed that high pore pressures cause velocity weakening in olivine but

  8. Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen


    When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  9. Frictional stability-permeability relationships for fractures in shales: Friction-Permeability Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yi [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Elsworth, Derek [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Department of Geosciences, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Wang, Chaoyi [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Ishibashi, Takuya [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Koriyama Japan; Fitts, Jeffrey P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey USA


    There is wide concern that fluid injection in the subsurface, such as for the stimulation of shale reservoirs or for geological CO2 sequestration (GCS), has the potential to induce seismicity that may change reservoir permeability due to fault slip. However, the impact of induced seismicity on fracture permeability evolution remains unclear due to the spectrum of modes of fault reactivation (e.g., stable versus unstable). As seismicity is controlled by the frictional response of fractures, we explore friction-stability-permeability relationships through the concurrent measurement of frictional and hydraulic properties of artificial fractures in Green River shale (GRS) and Opalinus shale (OPS). We observe that carbonate-rich GRS shows higher frictional strength but weak neutral frictional stability. The GRS fracture permeability declines during shearing while an increased sliding velocity reduces the rate of permeability decline. By comparison, the phyllosilicate-rich OPS has lower friction and strong stability while the fracture permeability is reduced due to the swelling behavior that dominates over the shearing induced permeability reduction. Hence, we conclude that the friction-stability-permeability relationship of a fracture is largely controlled by mineral composition and that shale mineral compositions with strong frictional stability may be particularly subject to permanent permeability reduction during fluid infiltration.

  10. Mechanics of slide dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.


    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  11. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie


    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  12. Dynamics at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A.M.; Gavartin, J.L.


    However fascinating structures may be at the nanoscale, time-dependent behaviour at the nanoscale has far greater importance. Some of the dynamics is random, with fluctuations controlling rate processes and making thermal ratchets possible. Some of the dynamics causes the transfer of energy, of signals, or of charge. Such transfers are especially efficiently controlled in biological systems. Other dynamical processes occur when we wish to control the nanoscale, e.g., to avoid local failures of gate dielectrics, or to manipulate structures by electronic excitation, to use spin manipulation in quantum information processing. Our prime purpose is to make clear the enormous range and variety of time-dependent nanoscale phenomena

  13. Nanoscale thermal probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Yue


    Full Text Available Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem.

  14. Friction fluctuations of gold nanoparticles in the superlubric regime (United States)

    Dietzel, Dirk; de Wijn, Astrid S.; Vorholzer, Matthias; Schirmeisen, Andre


    Superlubricity, or alternatively termed structural (super)lubrictiy, is a concept where ultra-low friction is expected at the interface between sliding surfaces if these surfaces are incommensurate and thus unable to interlock. In this work, we now report on sudden, reversible, friction changes that have been observed during AFM-based nanomanipulation experiments of gold nanoparticles sliding on highly oriented pyrolythic graphite. These effects can be explained by rotations of the gold nanoparticles within the concept of structural superlubricity, where the occurrence of ultra-low friction can depend extremely sensitively on the relative orientation between the slider and the substrate. From our theoretical simulations it will become apparent how even miniscule magnitudes of rotation are compatible to the observed effects and how size and shape of the particles can influence the dependence between friction and relative orientation.

  15. Frictional characteristics of the newer orthodontic elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Arun


    Full Text Available Introduction: Elastomeric ligatures reduce chairside time but increase friction. Polymeric coatings and 45° angulations have been introduced to the ligature modules to combat its disadvantages and reduce friction. This in vitro study compared the frictional characteristics of six different types of the most commonly used elastomeric modules. Materials and Methods: Thecoefficient of friction for six ligation methods: the non-coated Mini Stix† and coated Super Slick Mini Stix™ (TP Orthodontics, 45° angulated but non-coated Alastik Easy-To-Tie™ (3M Unitek elastomerics and non-angulated non-coated Alastik QuiK-StiK FNx01 , 0.110′- and 0.120′-diameter elastomerics™ (Reliance Orthodontics were measured in dry conditions utilizing a jig according to the protocol of Tidy. Results: A significant difference was observed between the various types of elastomeric ligatures (P<.01. Among the six types of elastomeric ligatures, the 45° angulated elastomeric ligatures produced the least friction, followed by the coated Super Slick† elastomers. No difference in the friction was noted when the diameter of the elastomeric ligatures was varied. Conclusions: Polymeric surface coatings and introduction of angulations into elastomeric ligatures reduce the friction during sliding; however, the diameter of the ligature made no difference to sliding friction.

  16. Effect of solid lubricants on friction and wear behaviour of alloyed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Friction coefficient of dry as well as lubricant coated samples varies from 0.2 to 0.55 with MoS2 showing the lowest value (0.2). Boric acid and TiO2 coated samples show high friction coefficients at higher sliding speeds due to poor lubricity and adherence. This could also be due to sliding resistance offered by lubricant ...

  17. General contact mechanics theory for randomly rough surfaces with application to rubber friction


    Scaraggi, Michele; Persson, Bo N. J.


    We generalize the Persson contact mechanics and rubber friction theory to the case where both surfaces have surface roughness. The solids can be rigid, elastic or viscoelastic, and can be homogeneous or layered. We calculate the contact area, the viscoelastic contribution to the friction force, and the average interfacial separation as a function of the sliding speed and the nominal contact pressure. We illustrate the theory with numerical results for a rubber block sliding on a road surface....

  18. A Low Friction Thrust Bearing for Reciprocating Compressors


    Nagata, Shuhei; Kousokabe, Hirokatsu; Sekiyama, Nobuya; Ono, Toshiaki


    A thrust bearing with a micro texture on its sliding surface that produces hydrodynamic pressure was developed for use in reciprocating compressors. Evaluation using an elemental friction test showed that its friction loss was 20–60 % lower than that of the current design. Measurement of the efficiency of a compressor with the developed thrust bearing showed that the coefficient of performance was 1.4 % higher than that of a compressor with a conventional thrust bearing.

  19. Carbon-Phenolic Cages for High-Speed Bearings. Part 1 - Friction and Wear Response of Phenolic Composite Impregnated with a Multiply-Alkylated Cyclopentane (MAC) Lubricant and MoS2 Solid Lubricant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forster, Nelson


    .... This portion covers characterization of flat panel specimens using thermal conductivity, tensile strength, coefficient of thermal expansion measurement, and friction and wear testing in a sliding contact...

  20. Theory of friction based on brittle fracture (United States)

    Byerlee, J.D.


    A theory of friction is presented that may be more applicable to geologic materials than the classic Bowden and Tabor theory. In the model, surfaces touch at the peaks of asperities and sliding occurs when the asperities fail by brittle fracture. The coefficient of friction, ??, was calculated from the strength of asperities of certain ideal shapes; for cone-shaped asperities, ?? is about 0.1 and for wedge-shaped asperities, ?? is about 0.15. For actual situations which seem close to the ideal model, observed ?? was found to be very close to 0.1, even for materials such as quartz and calcite with widely differing strengths. If surface forces are present, the theory predicts that ?? should decrease with load and that it should be higher in a vacuum than in air. In the presence of a fluid film between sliding surfaces, ?? should depend on the area of the surfaces in contact. Both effects are observed. The character of wear particles produced during sliding and the way in which ?? depends on normal load, roughness, and environment lend further support to the model of friction presented here. ?? 1967 The American Institute of Physics.

  1. Time-lapse nanoscopy of friction in the non-Amontons and non-Coulomb regime. (United States)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Oguma, Masatsugu; Itamura, Noriaki; Goda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Naruo; Fujita, Hiroyuki


    Originally discovered by Leonard da Vinci in the 15th century, the force of friction is directly proportional to the applied load (known as Amontons' first law of friction). Furthermore, kinetic friction is independent of the sliding speed (known as Coulomb's law of friction). These empirical laws break down at high normal pressure (due to plastic deformation) and low sliding speed (in the transition regime between static friction and kinetic friction). An important example of this phenomenon is friction between the asperities of tectonic plates on the Earth. Despite its significance, little is known about the detailed mechanism of friction in this regime due to the lack of experimental methods. Here we demonstrate in situ time-lapse nanoscopy of friction between asperities sliding at ultralow speed (∼0.01 nm/s) under high normal pressure (∼GPa). This is made possible by compressing and rubbing a pair of nanometer-scale crystalline silicon anvils with electrostatic microactuators and monitoring its dynamical evolution with a transmission electron microscope. Our analysis of the time-lapse movie indicates that superplastic behavior is induced by decrystallization, plastic deformation, and atomic diffusion at the asperity-asperity interface. The results hold great promise for a better understanding of quasi-static friction under high pressure for geoscience, materials science, and nanotechnology.

  2. In situ friction measurement on murine cartilage by atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Coles, Jeffrey M; Blum, Jason J; Jay, Gregory D; Darling, Eric M; Guilak, Farshid; Zauscher, Stefan


    Articular cartilage provides a low-friction, wear-resistant surface for the motion of diarthrodial joints. The objective of this study was to develop a method for in situ friction measurement of murine cartilage using a colloidal probe attached to the cantilever of an atomic force microscope. Sliding friction was measured between a chemically functionalized microsphere and the cartilage of the murine femoral head. Friction was measured at normal loads ranging incrementally from 20 to 100 nN with a sliding speed of 40 microm/s and sliding distance of 64 microm. Under these test conditions, hydrostatic pressurization and biphasic load support in the cartilage were minimized, providing frictional measurements that predominantly reflect boundary lubrication properties. Friction coefficients measured on murine tissue (0.25+/-0.11) were similar to those measured on porcine tissue (0.23+/-0.09) and were in general agreement with measurements of boundary friction on cartilage by other researchers. Using the colloidal probe as an indenter, the elastic mechanical properties and surface roughness were measured in the same configuration. Interfacial shear was found to be the principal mechanism of friction generation, with little to no friction resulting from plowing forces, collision forces, or energy losses due to normal deformation. This measurement technique can be applied to future studies of cartilage friction and mechanical properties on genetically altered mice or other small animals.

  3. Tribological Behaviour of W-DLC against an Aluminium Alloy Subjected to Lubricated Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhowmick


    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC coatings mitigate aluminium adhesion and reduce friction under the ambient conditions but their tribological behaviour under lubricated sliding need to be further investigated. In this study, tribological tests were performed to evaluate the friction and wear characteristics of W-DLC and H-DLC coatings sliding against an aluminium alloy (319 Al under unlubricated (40 % RH and lubricated sliding conditions. For unlubricated sliding, coefficient of friction (COF values of H-DLC and W-DLC were 0.15 and 0.20. A lower COF value of 0.11 was observed when W-DLC was tested using lubricant oil incorporating sulphur while the H-DLC’s COF remained almost unchanged. The mechanisms responsible for the low friction of W-DLC observed during lubricated sliding were revealed by studying the compositions of the coating surfaces and the transfer layers formed on 319 Al. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the transfer layers formed during lubricated sliding of W-DLC incorporated tungsten disulphide (WS2.

  4. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch. (United States)

    Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis


    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

  5. Frictional strength of wet and dry montmorillonite (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Moore, D. E.; Lockner, D. A.


    Montmorillonite is a common mineral in fault zones, and its low strength relative to other common gouge minerals is important in many models of fault rheology. However, the coefficient of friction, μ, varies with degree of saturation and is not well constrained in the literature due to the difficulty of establishing fully drained or fully dried states in the laboratory. We measured μ of both saturated and oven-dried montmorillonite at normal stresses up to 700 MPa. Care was taken to shear saturated samples slowly enough to avoid pore fluid overpressure. For saturated samples, μ increased from 0.10 to 0.28 with applied effective normal stress, while for dry samples μ decreased from 0.78 to 0.45. The steady state rate dependence of friction, (a - b), was positive, promoting stable sliding. The wide disparity in reported frictional strengths can be attributed to experimental procedures that promote differing degrees of partial saturation or overpressured pore fluid conditions.

  6. Interfacial friction damping properties in magnetorheological elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yanceng; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Jian; Jiang, Wanquan


    In this study, the interfacial friction damping properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) were investigated experimentally. Two kinds of carbonyl iron particles, with sizes of 1.1 µm and 9.0 µm, were used to fabricate four MRE samples, whose particle weight fractions were 10%, 30%, 60% and 80%, respectively. Their microstructures were observed using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dynamic performances of these samples, including shear storage modulus and loss factor were measured with a modified dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The experimental results indicate that MRE samples fabricated with 1.1 µm carbonyl iron particles have obvious particle agglomeration, which results in the fluctuation of loss factor compared with other MRE samples fabricated with large particle sizes. The analysis implies that the interfacial friction damping mainly comes from the frictional sliding at the interfaces between the free rubber and the particles

  7. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L.


    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386

  8. Friction and wear properties of ZrO2/SiO2 composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Zheng Shaohua; Cao Bingqiang; Ma Shiyu


    In this article, the lubrication properties of ZrO 2 /SiO 2 composite nanoparticles modified with aluminum zirconium coupling agent as additives in lubricating oil under variable applied load and concentration fraction were reported. It was demonstrated that the modified nanoparticles as additives in lubrication can effectively improve the lubricating properties. Under an optimized concentration of 0.1 wt%, the average friction coefficient was reduced by 16.24%. This was because the nanoparticles go into the friction zone with the flow of lubricant, and then the sliding friction changed to rolling friction with a result of the reduction of the friction coefficient.

  9. Static friction scaling of physisorbed islands: the key is in the edge. (United States)

    Varini, Nicola; Vanossi, Andrea; Guerra, Roberto; Mandelli, Davide; Capozza, Rosario; Tosatti, Erio


    The static friction preventing the free sliding of nanosized rare gas solid islands physisorbed on incommensurate crystalline surfaces is not completely understood. Simulations modeled on Kr/Pb(111) highlight the importance and the scaling behavior of the island's edge contribution to static friction.

  10. Friction behavior of 304 stainless steel of varying hardness lubricated with benzene and some benzyl structures (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.


    The lubricating properties of some benzyl and benzene structures were determined by using 304 stainless steel surfaces strained to various hardness. Friction coefficients and wear track widths were measured with a Bowden-Leben type friction apparatus by using a pin-on-disk specimen configuration. Results obtained indicate that benzyl monosulfide, dibenzyl disulfide, and benzyl alcohol resulted in the lowest friction coefficients for 304 stainless steel, while benzyl ether provided the least surface protection and gave the highest friction. Strainhardening of the 304 stainless steel prior to sliding resulted in reduced friction in dry sliding. With benzyl monosulfide, dibenzyl disulfide, and benzyl alcohol changes in 304 stainless steel hardness had no effect upon friction behavior.

  11. A comparative study of frictional resistance and surface roughness between orthodontic bracket and arch wire


    Kazuro, SATOH; Masaru, ISHIGAME; Yukiko, NAKAMURA; Kazushi, OGASAWARA; Shigeru, TANAKA; Hiroyuki, MIURA; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University


    The frictional resistance between an orthodontic bracket and arch wire is closely related to the efficiency of tooth movement in sliding mechanics. Frictional resistance may arise from the materials, geometrical configuration between the orthodontic bracket and arch wire, ligation system and its force, wire stiffness, direction and degree of orthodontic force, and surface roughness of bracket and wire. This study examined the relationship between the frictional resistance and surface roughnes...

  12. Static and Dynamic Friction Behavior of Candidate High Temperature Airframe Seal Materials (United States)

    Dellacorte, C.; Lukaszewicz, V.; Morris, D. E.; Steinetz, B. M.


    The following report describes a series of research tests to evaluate candidate high temperature materials for static to moderately dynamic hypersonic airframe seals. Pin-on-disk reciprocating sliding tests were conducted from 25 to 843 C in air and hydrogen containing inert atmospheres. Friction, both dynamic and static, was monitored and serves as the primary test measurement. In general, soft coatings lead to excessive static friction and temperature affected friction in air environments only.

  13. General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels


    An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real...... contact area as function of the normalized contact pressure is based on slip-line analysis and hence on the assumption of rigid-ideally plastic material behavior. In the present work, a general finite element model is established to, firstly, reproduce the original model under the assumption of rigid......-ideally plastic material, and secondly, to extend the solution by the influence of material strain hardening. This corresponds to adding a new variable and, therefore, a new axis to the general friction model. The resulting model is presented in a combined function suitable for e.g. finite element modeling...

  14. Robust Position Control of a DC Motor by Sliding Mode (United States)

    Mamani, Gabriela; Becedas, Jonathan; Batlle, Vicente Feliu

    The position of the DC motor is controlled by using a continuous sliding mode control (SMC), which is highly robust to the Coulomb friction torque and to high unknown payload variations, which involve changes in the rotational inertia of the motor shaft. The main contribution of the work is the experimentation of a SMC control which does not requires the knowledge of the payload variation range, i.e., the system is quite robust to any unknown change in the payload mass value.

  15. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R


    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  16. Skin friction related behaviour of artificial turf systems. (United States)

    Tay, Sock Peng; Fleming, Paul; Hu, Xiao; Forrester, Steph


    The occurrence of skin friction related injuries is an issue for artificial turf sports pitches and remains a barrier to their acceptance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current industry standard Securisport® Sports Surface Tester that measures skin surface related frictional behaviour of artificial turf. Little research has been published about the device and its efficacy, despite its widespread use as a standard FIFA test instrument. To achieve a range of frictional behaviours, several "third generation" (3G) carpet and infill combinations were investigated; friction time profiles throughout the Securisport rotations were assessed in combination with independent measurements of skin roughness before and after friction testing via 3D surface scanning. The results indicated that carpets without infill had greatest friction (coefficients of friction 0.97-1.20) while those completely filled with sand or rubber had similar and lower values independent of carpet type (coefficient of friction (COF) ≈0.57). Surface roughness of a silicone skin (s-skin) decreased after friction testing, with the largest change on sand infilled surfaces, indicating an "abrasive" polishing effect. The combined data show that the s-skin is damaged in a surface-specific manner, thus the Securisport COF values appear to be a poor measure of the potential for skin abrasion. It is proposed that the change in s-skin roughness improves assessment of the potential for skin damage when players slide on artificial turf.

  17. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) of Robot Manipulator via Intelligent Controllers (United States)

    Kapoor, Neha; Ohri, Jyoti


    Inspite of so much research, key technical problem, naming chattering of conventional, simple and robust SMC is still a challenge to the researchers and hence limits its practical application. However, newly developed soft computing based techniques can provide solution. In order to have advantages of conventional and heuristic soft computing based control techniques, in this paper various commonly used intelligent techniques, neural network, fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) have been combined with sliding mode controller (SMC). For validation, proposed hybrid control schemes have been implemented for tracking a predefined trajectory by robotic manipulator, incorporating structured and unstructured uncertainties in the system. After reviewing numerous papers, all the commonly occurring uncertainties like continuous disturbance, uniform random white noise, static friction like coulomb friction and viscous friction, dynamic friction like Dhal friction and LuGre friction have been inserted in the system. Various performance indices like norm of tracking error, chattering in control input, norm of input torque, disturbance rejection, chattering rejection have been used. Comparative results show that with almost eliminated chattering the intelligent SMC controllers are found to be more efficient over simple SMC. It has also been observed from results that ANFIS based controller has the best tracking performance with the reduced burden on the system. No paper in the literature has found to have all these structured and unstructured uncertainties together for motion control of robotic manipulator.

  18. Contribution of fine filler particles to energy dissipation during wet sliding of elastomer compounds on a rough surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaodong


    Elastomer compounds reinforced with precipitated silica can exhibit elevated wet sliding friction on a rough surface in comparison with corresponding compounds filled with carbon black particles. The underlying mechanism is currently not well understood. To unravel this puzzling observation, the variation of wet sliding friction with filler volume fraction is examined at the sliding speed of the order of 1 m s -1 under different lubrication conditions. Depending on the lubrication liquid-water or ethanol-a compound that shows both higher bulk hysteretic loss and lower modulus does not always exhibit a higher wet sliding friction. A thorough characterization of the bulk rheology of the compounds investigated fails to provide the rationale for such behaviour, thus constituting an apparent violation of the conventional viscoelastic understanding of rubber friction on a rough surface. On the other hand, the detected lowering of friction when the lubrication liquid is changed from water to ethanol resembles the effect of liquid medium on interfacial adhesion reported in the literature. Hence, it is suggested that a stronger interfacial attractive interaction should exist in water between the road surface and silica particles on the compound surface immediately next to the road surface. This should be related to the elevated wet sliding friction detected for silica-filled compounds under water lubrication

  19. Friction and wear of TPS fibers. Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascom, W.D.; Wong, S.


    The sliding friction behavior of single filaments of SiO 2 , SiC, and an aluminoborosilicate has been determined. These fibers are used in thermal protection systems (TPS) and are subject to damage during weaving and aero-maneuvering. All fibers exhibited stick-slip friction indicating the successive formation and rupture of strong junctions between the contacting filaments. The static frictional resistance of the sized SiC filament was 4X greater than for the same filament after heat cleaning. This result suggests that the sizing is an organic polymer with a high shear yield strength. Heat cleaning exposes the SiC surface and/or leaves an inorganic residue so that the adhesional contact between filaments has a low fracture energy and frictional sliding occurs by brittle fracture. The frictional resistances of the sized and heat cleaned SiO 2 and glass filaments were all comparable to that of the heat cleaned SiC. It would appear that the sizings as well as the heat cleaned surfaces of the silica and glass have low fracture energies so that the sliding resistance is determined by brittle fracture

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the friction and wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (United States)

    Jones, W. R.; Hady, W. F.; Crugnola, A.


    The effect of sterilization gamma irradiation on the friction and wear properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against stainless steel 316L in dry air at 23 C is investigated, the results to be used in the development of artificial joints which are to surgically replace diseased human joints. A pin-on-disk sliding friction apparatus is used, a constant sliding speed in the range 0.061-0.27 m/s is maintained, a normal load of 1 kgf is applied with dead weight, and the irradiation dose levels are: 0, 2.5, and 5.0 Mrad. Wear and friction data and conditions for each of the ten tests are summarized, and include: (1) wear volume as a function of the sliding distance for the irradiation levels, (2) incremental wear rate, and (3) coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding distance. It is shown that (1) the friction and wear properties of UHMWPE are not significantly changed by the irradiation doses of 2.5 and 5.0 Mrad, (2) the irradiation increases the amount of insoluble gel as well as the amount of low molecular weight material, and (3) after run-in the wear rate is either steady or gradually decreases as a function of the sliding distance.

  1. Sliding Adhesion Dynamics of Isolated Gecko Setal Arrays (United States)

    Sponberg, Simon; Autumn, Kellar


    The tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) can adhere to nearly any surface through van der Waals interactions of the specialized setae (b-keratin "hairs") of its toe pads. Our recent research has suggested that a gecko is substantially overbuilt for static adhesion requiring as little as 0.03of its theoretical adhesive capacity. We performed the first sliding adhesion experiments on this novel biological adhesive to determine its response to dynamic loading. We isolated arrays of setae and constructed a precision controlled Robo-toe to study sliding effects. Our results indicate that, unlike many typical adhesives, gecko setal arrays exhibit an increased frictional force upon sliding (mk > ms) which further increases with velocity, suggesting that perturbation rejection may be an evolutionary design principle underlying the evolution of the gecko adhesive. We compare these dynamic properties with those of other adhesives and explore the impacts of these results on the design of artificial adhesives.

  2. Numerical investigations in mixed friction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Albers


    Full Text Available A numerical approach is here selected to investigate mixed friction phenomena where testing rigs cannot be used or need complex adaptations to deliver reliable measurements. The following work focuses on the numerical investigations of mixed friction systems combining fluid-solid and solid-solid interactions at the micro scale. Goal is to improve the accuracy of future macro models by applying them more precise boundary conditions derived from micro models. A three dimensional model is built in a Finite Elements (FE software composed of one fluid lubricating two sliding rough surfaces. Both surfaces are generated according to a statistical method making use of measured technical surfaces. To model the interactions between the fluid and the solid structure, the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian remeshing process is used. A model is built, based on an axial floating bearing on which the adhesion effects are the most present. Global friction coefficient between both lubricated solids is established using the FE solver and solid-solid friction can be separated from the fluid-solid friction with further post-processing operations.

  3. Low-friction nanojoint prototype (United States)

    Vlassov, Sergei; Oras, Sven; Antsov, Mikk; Butikova, Jelena; Lõhmus, Rünno; Polyakov, Boris


    High surface energy of individual nanostructures leads to high adhesion and static friction that can completely hinder the operation of nanoscale systems with movable parts. For instance, silver or gold nanowires cannot be moved on silicon substrate without plastic deformation. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an operational prototype of a low-friction nanojoint. The movable part of the prototype is made either from a gold or silver nano-pin produced by laser-induced partial melting of silver and gold nanowires resulting in the formation of rounded bulbs on their ends. The nano-pin is then manipulated into the inverted pyramid (i-pyramids) specially etched in a Si wafer. Due to the small contact area, the nano-pin can be repeatedly tilted inside an i-pyramid as a rigid object without noticeable deformation. At the same time in the absence of external force the nanojoint is stable and preserves its position and tilt angle. Experiments are performed inside a scanning electron microscope and are supported by finite element method simulations.

  4. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire? (United States)

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane


    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments.

  5. Sliding wear behavior of E-glass-epoxy/MWCNT composites: An experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh Bobbili


    Full Text Available This investigation has evaluated the sliding wear properties of E-glass-epoxy/MWCNT (multiwalled carbon nanotube composite and Epoxy/MWCNT composite. Four different reinforcements (0, 0.5,1 and 1.5 wt % of MWCNTs are dispersed into an epoxy resin. Design of experiments (DOE and Analysis of variance (ANOVA are employed to understand the relationship between control factors (Percentage of reinforcement, Sliding distance, Sliding velocity and Normal load and response measures (specific wear rate and friction coefficient. The control variables such as sliding distance (300, 600, 900 and 1200 m and normal loads of 10, 15, 20 and 25 N and at sliding velocities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 m/s are chosen for this study. It is observed that that the specific wear rate and friction coefficient can be reduced by the addition of MWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is used to observe the worn surfaces of the samples. Compared with neat epoxy, the composites with MWCNTs showed a lower mass loss, friction coefficient and wear rate and these parameters decreased with the increase of MWCNT percentage. Microscopic investigation of worn out sample fracture surface has revealed that fiber debonding happens when the stresses at the fiber matrix interface exceeds the interfacial strength, causing the fiber to debond from the matrix. The optimum control variables have been derived to reduce both wear and friction coefficient of composites.

  6. Preparing Slide Presentations on Computers. (United States)

    Elberfeld, John K.


    Suggest use of well-organized slide presentation as effective way to introduce computers to large audiences and discusses how to get started--state objective, analyze audience, outline presentation, prepare slides--and equipment needed to obtain slides from television screens, miniature components, and book illustrations. References and sources…

  7. The frequency response of dynamic friction: Enhanced rate-and-state models (United States)

    Cabboi, A.; Putelat, T.; Woodhouse, J.


    The prediction and control of friction-induced vibration requires a sufficiently accurate constitutive law for dynamic friction at the sliding interface: for linearised stability analysis, this requirement takes the form of a frictional frequency response function. Systematic measurements of this frictional frequency response function are presented for small samples of nylon and polycarbonate sliding against a glass disc. Previous efforts to explain such measurements from a theoretical model have failed, but an enhanced rate-and-state model is presented which is shown to match the measurements remarkably well. The tested parameter space covers a range of normal forces (10-50 N), of sliding speeds (1-10 mm/s) and frequencies (100-2000 Hz). The key new ingredient in the model is the inclusion of contact stiffness to take into account elastic deformations near the interface. A systematic methodology is presented to discriminate among possible variants of the model, and then to identify the model parameter values.

  8. An Ice Track Equipped with Optical Sensors for Determining the Influence of Experimental Conditions on the Sliding Velocity (United States)

    Lungevics, J.; Jansons, E.; Gross, K. A.


    The ability to slide on ice has previously focused on the measurement of friction coefficient rather than the actual sliding velocity that is affected by it. The performance can only be directly measured by the sliding velocity, and therefore the objective was to design and setup a facility to measure velo-city, and determine how experimental conditions affect it. Optical sensors were placed on an angled ice track to provide sliding velocity measurements along three sections and the velocity for the total sliding distance. Experimental conditions included the surface roughness, ambient temperature and load. The effect of roughness was best reported with a Criterion of Contact that showed a similar sliding velocity for metal blocks abraded with sand paper smoother than 600 grit. Searching for the effect of temperature, the highest sliding velocity coincided with the previously reported lowest coefficient of ice friction. Load showed the greatest velocity increase at temperatures closer to the ice melting point suggesting that in such conditions metal block overcame friction forces more easily than in solid friction. Further research needs to be conducted on a longer ice track, with larger metal surfaces, heavier loads and higher velocities to determine how laboratory experiments can predict real-life situations.

  9. An Ice Track Equipped with Optical Sensors for Determining the Influence of Experimental Conditions on the Sliding Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungevics J.


    Full Text Available The ability to slide on ice has previously focused on the measurement of friction coefficient rather than the actual sliding velocity that is affected by it. The performance can only be directly measured by the sliding velocity, and therefore the objective was to design and setup a facility to measure velo-city, and determine how experimental conditions affect it. Optical sensors were placed on an angled ice track to provide sliding velocity measurements along three sections and the velocity for the total sliding distance. Experimental conditions included the surface roughness, ambient temperature and load. The effect of roughness was best reported with a Criterion of Contact that showed a similar sliding velocity for metal blocks abraded with sand paper smoother than 600 grit. Searching for the effect of temperature, the highest sliding velocity coincided with the previously reported lowest coefficient of ice friction. Load showed the greatest velocity increase at temperatures closer to the ice melting point suggesting that in such conditions metal block overcame friction forces more easily than in solid friction. Further research needs to be conducted on a longer ice track, with larger metal surfaces, heavier loads and higher velocities to determine how laboratory experiments can predict real-life situations.

  10. A Novel Control Approach Based on Second Order Sliding Modes & Its Application to Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    accuracy to be reached. In this paper a novel control approach based on second order sliding modes utilizing the idea of the power rate reaching law is introduced. Dependent on parameters the proposed controller may preserve the main features of sliding controls, while at the same time avoiding control...... chattering. Simulation studies confirm the announced properties when applied to a hydraulic drive model subjected to strong variations in supply pressure and friction....

  11. Effect of hexagonal boron nitride and calcined petroleum coke on friction and wear behavior of phenolic resin-based friction composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Gewen; Yan Fengyuan


    Calcined petroleum coke (CPC) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) were used as the friction modifiers to improve the friction and wear properties of phenolic resin-based friction composites. Thus, the composites with different relative amounts of CPC and h-BN as the friction modifiers were prepared by compression molding. The hardness and bending strength of the friction composites were measured. The friction and wear behaviors of the composites sliding against cast iron at various temperatures were evaluated using a pin-on-disc test rig. The worn surfaces and wear debris of the friction composites were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the hybrid of the two friction modifiers was effective to significantly decrease the wear rate and stabilize the friction coefficient of the friction composites at various temperatures by forming a uniform lubricating and/or transferred film on the rubbing surfaces. The uniform and durable transfer films were also able to effectively diminish the direct contact between the friction composite and the cast iron counterpart and hence prevent severe wear of the latter as well. The effectiveness of the hybrid of CPC and h-BN in improving the friction and wear behavior of the phenolic resin-based friction modifiers could be attributed to the complementary action of the 'low temperature' lubricity of CPC and the 'high temperature' lubricity of h-BN. The optimum ratio of the two friction modifiers CPC and h-BN in the friction composites was suggested to be 1:1, and the corresponding friction composite showed the best friction-reducing and antiwear abilities

  12. Static and kinetic frictional forces of silica-insert ceramic brackets with coated archwires in artificial saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Shahabi


    Conclusion: From the standpoint of friction, SIC brackets may serve well, even better than SS brackets, in sliding mechanics. The coating layer of the archwires may delaminate and lost, causing an impediment to tooth movement.

  13. Presentation = Speech + Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derik Badman


    Full Text Available Back in October, Aaron Schmidt posted “HOWTO give a good presentation” to his blog walking paper. His second bullet point of “thoughts” on good presentations is: Please don’t fill your slides with words. Find some relevant and pretty pictures to support what you’re saying. You can use the pictures to remind yourself what you’re going [...

  14. Vanishing stick-slip friction in few-layer graphenes: the thickness effect. (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ma, Tian-Bao; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Wang, Hui


    We report the thickness dependence of intrinsic friction in few-layer graphenes, adopting molecular dynamics simulations. The friction force drops dramatically with decreasing number of layers and finally approaches zero with two or three layers. The results, which are robust over a wide range of temperature, shear velocity, and pressure are quantitatively explained by a theoretical model with regard to lateral stiffness, slip length, and maximum lateral force, which could provide a new conceptual framework for understanding stick-slip friction. The results reveal the crucial role of the dimensional effect in nanoscale friction, and could be helpful in the design of graphene-based nanodevices.

  15. Dry-sliding tribological properties of ultrafine-grained Ti prepared by severe plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Peiqing; Ma Jiqiang; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Yang Jun; Liu Weimin; Xue Qunji; Valiev, Ruslan Z.


    This paper reports the tribological properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti prepared by severe plastic deformation under dry sliding against AISI52100 steel in ambient environment and at varying load and sliding speed. Worn surfaces of the UFG Ti were examined with a scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. It was found that the wear rate of the UFG Ti under dry sliding was of the magnitude of 10 -3 mm 3 m -1 , which is lower than that of the annealed coarse-grained (CG) Ti. The wear rate of the UFG Ti increased with the load, while it decreased with the sliding speed. The friction coefficient of the UFG Ti was in the range of 0.45-0.60, slightly lower than that of the CG Ti, and did not change with the load and sliding time after the initial transient period. The friction coefficient increased with increasing sliding speed to a maximum point and then decreased. The wear mechanism of the UFG Ti was micro-ploughing and delamination. The worn surfaces were covered by a TiO 2 layer. These results demonstrated that UFG structures improved the wear resistance but did not significantly affect the friction coefficient of Ti

  16. Slide system for machine tools (United States)

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.


    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  17. Numeric simulations of en-masse space closure with sliding mechanics. (United States)

    Kojima, Yukio; Fukui, Hisao


    En-masse sliding mechanics have been typically used for space closure. Because of friction created at the bracket-wire interface, the force system during tooth movement has not been clarified. Long-term tooth movements in en-masse sliding mechanics were simulated with the finite element method. Tipping of the anterior teeth occurred immediately after application of retraction forces. The force system then changed so that the teeth moved almost bodily, and friction occurred at the bracket-wire interface. Net force transferred to the anterior teeth was approximately one fourth of the applied force. The amount of the mesial force acting on the posterior teeth was the same as that acting on the anterior teeth. Irrespective of the amount of friction, the ratio of movement distances between the posterior and anterior teeth was almost the same. By increasing the applied force or decreasing the frictional coefficient, the teeth moved rapidly, but the tipping angle of the anterior teeth increased because of the elastic deflection of the archwire. Finite element simulation clarified the tooth movement and the force system in en-masse sliding mechanics. Long-term tooth movement could not be predicted from the initial force system. The friction was not detrimental to the anchorage. Increasing the applied force or decreasing the friction for rapid tooth movement might result in tipping of the teeth. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of grey-taguchi method for optimization of dry sliding wear properties of aluminum MMCs (United States)

    Siriyala, Rajesh; Alluru, Gopala Krishna; Penmetsa, Rama Murthy Raju; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan


    Through a pin-on-disc type wear setup, the dry sliding wear behavior of SiC-reinforced aluminum composites produced using the molten metal mixing method was investigated in this paper. Dry sliding wear tests were carried on SiC-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) and its matrix alloy sliding against a steel counter face. Different contact stresses, reinforcement percentages, sliding distances, and sliding velocities were selected as the control variables, and the responses were selected as the wear volume loss (WVL) and coefficient of friction (COF) to evaluate the dry sliding performance. An L25 orthogonal array was employed for the experimental design. Initially, the optimization of the dry sliding performance of the SiC-reinforced MMCs was performed using grey relational analysis (GRA). Based on the GRA, the optimum level parameters for overall grey relational grade in terms of WVL and COF were identified. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of individual factors on the overall grey relational grade. The results indicated that the sliding velocity was the most effective factor among the control parameters on dry sliding wear, followed by the reinforcement percentage, sliding distance, and contact stress. Finally, the wear surface morphology and wear mechanism of the composites were investigated through scanning electron microscopy.

  19. A technigue exploitation about anti-slide tire polyploid on ice-snow road in winter (United States)

    Xiaojie, Qi; Qiang, Wang; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv


    Present studies focus on improving anti-slide property of tyes on ice-snow road by changing material modification of tyre tread and designing groove. However, the basic reason causing starting slide, long braking distance, turning slide slip and so on of tyres used in winter is that tyre tread materials are unitary and homogenous rubber composite which can’t coordinate driving demands of tyres in winter under muti-work condition, and can’t exert their best property when starting, braking and sliding slip. In order to improve comprehensive anti-slide property of tyres, this paper discusses about changing structure, shape and distribution proportion among haploid materials of tyre tread rubber. Polyploid bubber tyre tread technique based on artificial neural network which is in favor of starting, braking and anti-slide slip is optimized and combined. Friction feature and anti-slide mechanism on ice-snow road of polyploid rubber tyre tread are studied using testing technique of low-temperature cabin and computer simulation. A set high anti-slide theories and realizing method systems of polyploid rubber composite formed from basic theory, models and technique method are developped which will be applied into solving anti-slide problem of winter tyres, provide theory instruction for studies on high anti-slide winter tyres, and promote development of application and usage safety of winter tyres.

  20. The Effects of Gouge Accumulation on High Speed Rock Friction (United States)

    Barbery, M. R.; Chester, F. M.; Chester, J. S.; Saber, O.


    Previous experiments demonstrate that a significant reduction in the coefficient of sliding friction typically occurs as sliding velocity approaches seismic slip rates and that weakening may reflect flash heating of surface contacts. Experiments also show differences in the weakening behavior of bare rock and gouge-lined surfaces across different rock types. We conducted high-speed velocity-step (VS) experiments on ground surfaces of granite (Westerly) and quartzite (Sioux) using a double-direct shear (DDS) configuration, with a sliding area of 75cm2, to investigate the effects of gouge generation and accumulation on frictional weakening behavior. Sliding surface temperatures were measured using a high-speed infrared camera. Experiments were conducted at 7-9 MPa normal stress and achieved VS from 1 mm/s up to 1 m/s at high acceleration (100g) over a small distance ( 2 mm), and with sustained high-speed sliding for 30 mm. Successive experiments were run without disassembling the blocks or disturbing the sliding surfaces to generate and accumulate gouge for cumulative displacements up to 0.5 m. Locally high temperatures were observed correlating to corrugated structures within the gouge. For VS tests on bare granite, we observed an abrupt decrease in the coefficient of friction from 0.7 at quasi-static slip rates to 0.5 at m/s slip rates, and a typical weakening distance, dc, of 3 mm. This observation is consistent with rotary shear experiments conducted at similar displacements, accelerations, and sliding velocities. With the accumulation of gouge along the sliding surface, dc progressively increases to 2 cm. In contrast, VS tests on bare quartzite produce an abrupt increase in friction, from 0.65 to 0.7 within 1 mm of slip, followed by gradual weakening for the duration of high-speed sliding. With the accumulation of quartz gouge, similar behavior is observed, but with a slightly greater magnitude of strengthening. The results for quartzite are unlike those

  1. Sliding through a superlight granular medium. (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C


    We explore the penetration dynamics of an intruder in a granular medium composed of expanded polystyrene spherical particles. Three features distinguish our experiment from others studied so far in granular physics: (a) the impact is horizontal, decoupling the effects of gravity and the drag force; (b) the density of the intruder rho(i) is up to 350 times larger than the density of the granular medium rho(m); and (c) the way the intruder moves through the material, sliding at the bottom of the column with small friction. Under these conditions we find that the final penetration D scales with (rho(i)/rho(m)) and the drag force Fd and D saturate with the height of the granular bed.

  2. Friction between Archwire of Different Sizes, Cross Section, Alloy and Brackets Ligated with Different Brands of Low Friction Elastic Ligatures- An Invitro Study. (United States)

    Patil, Bhushan; Patil, Neeraj Suresh; Kerudi, Veerendra Virupaxappa; Chitko, Shrikant Shrinivas; Maheshwari, Amit Ratanlal; Patil, Harshal Ashok; Pekhale, Nikhita Popatrao; Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo


    Friction in orthodontic treatment does exist and is thought to reduce the efficiency of orthodontic appliances during sliding mechanics. During sliding mechanics, a friction force is produced at the bracket archwire-ligature unit which tends to counteract the applied force and in turn resists the desired movement. The aim of this invitro study was to determine the friction between archwire of different sizes, cross section, alloy and brackets ligated with different brands of low friction elastic ligatures. An 0.022-in slot, 10 stainless steel brackets and various orthodontic archwires which were ligated with low-friction ligatures and subjected to evaluate frictional resistance i.e. static friction and dynamic friction. The archwires of 0.014″ and 0.016″ nickel titanium (NiTi), 0.016 × 0.022″ stainless steel (SS), 0.017 × 0.025″ NiTi, 0.017 × 0.025″ SS, 0.017 × 0.025″ titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), 0.019 × 0.025″ SS were used. Each bracket/archwire combination was evaluated 10 times at room temperature of 27 ± 2°C. The study groups included Group I of conventional round shape module with reduced friction coating i.e. super slick and synergy and Group II contained figure of "8" shape module i.e. Octavia ties and Slide ligature. The mean static friction force and dynamic friction force for all 7 types of wires was lower in Group II (C, D) combined compared to Group I (A, B) and the difference was statistically very highly significant (pfriction mechanics.

  3. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.


    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminium oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  4. Static and dynamic properties of frictional phenomena in a one-dimensional system with randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Matsukawa, H.


    Static and dynamic frictional phenomena at the interface with random impurities are investigated in a two-chain model with incommensurate structure. Static frictional force is caused by the impurity pinning and/or by the pinning due to the regular potential, which is responsible for the breaking of analyticity transition for impurity-free cases. It is confirmed that the static frictional force is always finite in the presence of impurities, in contrast to the impurity-free system. The nature of impurity pinning is discussed in connection with that in density waves. The kinetic frictional force of a steady sliding state is also investigated numerically. The relationship between the sliding velocity dependence of the kinetic frictional force and the strength of impurity potential is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. An engineering approach to dry friction behaviour of numerous engineering plastics with respect to the mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalacska


    Full Text Available Twenty-one different commercial-grade engineering polymers, including virgin and composite types, were selected for testing, based on mechanical engineering practices. Three groups were formed according to typical applications: 1 Sliding machine element materials; 2 Mechanically load-carrying machine element materials that are often subjected to friction and wear effects; and 3 Additional two amorphous materials used as chemically resistant materials that have rare sliding load properties. The friction running-in state was tested using a dynamic pin-on-plate test rig. During steady-state friction tests, two pv regimes (0.8 and 2 MPa"ms–1 were analysed by a pin-on-disc test system. Based on the measured forces on ground structural steel, surface friction coefficients were calculated and analysed with respect to the mechanical effects of friction. The friction results were evaluated by the measured mechanical properties: yield stress, Shore D hardness, Young’s modulus and elongation at the break. The three material groups exhibited different trends in friction with respect to changing mechanical properties. Linear (with varying positive and negative slopes, logarithmic and exponential relationships were observed, and occasionally there were no effects observed. At steady-state friction, the elongation at the break had less effect on the friction coefficients. The dynamic sliding model, which correlates better to real machine element applications, showed that increasing hardness and yield stress decreases friction. During steady-state friction, an increase in pv regime often changed the sign of the linear relationship between the material property and the friction, which agrees with the frictional theory of polymer/steel sliding pairs.

  6. Lubricated sliding wear behaviour of Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings produced by pulse plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, C. N.; Papachristos, V. D.; Christoffersen, Lasse


    The lubricated sliding wear behaviour of Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings sliding against hardened steel discs was studied, in a pin-on-disc set-up. The multilayered coatings had been deposited on mild steel pins by pulse plating and they consisted of ternary Ni-P-W layers of high and low W con...... lubrication regimes. The wear mechanisms in each lubrication regime were studied and in mixed lubrication regime, the effect of normal load and sliding speed on wear volume and friction coefficient was also studied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  7. Experimental Research on the Determination of the Coefficient of Sliding Wear under Iron Ore Handling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen


    Full Text Available The handling of iron ore bulk solids maintains an increasing trend due to economic development. Because iron ore particles have hard composites and irregular shapes, the bulk solids handling equipment surface can suffer from severe sliding wear. Prediction of equipment surface wear volume is beneficial to the efficient maintenance of worn areas. Archard’s equation provides a theoretical solution to predict wear volume. To use Archard’s equation, the coefficient of sliding wear must be determined. To our best knowledge, the coefficient of sliding wear for iron ore handling conditions has not yet been determined. In this research, using a pin-on-disk tribometer, the coefficients of sliding wear for both Sishen particles and mild steel are determined with regard to iron ore handling conditions. Both naturally irregular and spherical shapes of particles are used to estimate average values of wear rate. Moreover, the hardness and inner structures of Sishen particles are examined, which adds the evidence of the interpretation of wear results. It is concluded that the coefficients of sliding wear can vary largely for both Sishen particle and mild steel. The wear rate decreases from transient- to steady-state. The average coefficient of sliding wear is capable of predicting wear with respect to long distances at the steady-state. Two types of sliding friction are distinguished. In addition, it is found that the temperature rise of the friction pairs has negligible influence on wear rate.

  8. Effectiveness of solid lubricant coatings for friction in hard vacuum (10-9 tor) (United States)

    Verkin, B. I.; Lyubraskiy, I. M.; Udovenko, V. F.; Sentyurikhina, L. N.


    A study was made of the efficiency of solid lubricating coatings, based on MoS2 with various binders, during friction and under highvacuum conditions. Mass spectrometry was used for an analysis of the composition of the gas evolved from the coatings in the friction process. It is shown that the vacuum level, loading, and sliding velocity influence coating effectiveness. In the friction process the solid lubricant coatings yield characteristic decay products associated with the chemical nature of the binders. The mechanism of coating breakdown during friction is associated with the binder breakdown mechanism.

  9. SLIDES: a program to draw slides and posters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, R.; Schofield, J.


    SLIDES is a program which takes text and commands as input and prepares lettered slides and posters. When run on the time-sharing computer, the program can display its output on an interactive graphics terminal; in batch, it can direct its graphical output to a variety of plotters. The program uses DISSPLA graphical subroutines and standard ANL plotter subroutines. This report contains material written for the beginning user, who should be able to produce useful slides or posters by following the examples. This report also serves as a complete reference for the SLIDES program. 4 figures.

  10. Influence of the cage on friction torque in low loaded thrust ball bearing operating in dry conditions (United States)

    Olaru, D.; Balan, M. R.; Tufescu, A.


    The authors investigated analytically and experimentally the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing operating at very low axial load in dry conditions by using only three balls and a cage. The experiments were conducted by using spin-down methodology. The results evidenced the influence of the sliding friction between the cage and the balls on the total friction torque. It was concluded that at very low loads the friction between cage and balls in a thrust ball bearing has an important contribution on total friction torque.

  11. Friction Reduction in Powertrain Materials: Role of Tribolayers (United States)

    Banerji, Anindya

    This study aims at understanding the micromechanisms responsible for reduction in friction and wear in the engine cylinder bore/liner materials when tested under lubricated and unlubricated conditions. The tribolayers formed in-situ during sliding contact are unique to each tribosystem and a detailed study of these tribolayers will shed light on the friction reduction mechanisms in powertrain materials. Boundary lubricated tribological performance of grey cast iron (CI) tested against non-hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coating (NH-DLC) resulted in 21% lower coefficient of friction (COF) and an order of magnitude lower volumetric wear compared to CI and steel counterfaces. Dilution of the engine oil by ethanol containing E85 biofuel, consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, was beneficial as COF and volumetric wear losses were further reduced. TEM/EELS studies of the NH-DLC counterface provided evidence for OH adsorption of the dangling carbon bonds at the coating surface leading to low friction. Advantage of E85/engine oil blend was also evident during boundary lubricated sliding of eutectic Al-12.6% Si alloy against AISI 52100 steel. The oil residue layer (ORL) formed during boundary lubricated sliding incorporated nanocrystalline regions of Al, Si, ZnS, AlPO4 and ZnO surrounded by amorphous carbon regions. Higher proportions of Zn, S, and P antiwear compounds formed in the ORL when tested using the E85/oil (1:1) blend compared to the unmixed engine oil as the hydroxyl groups in ethanol molecules facilitated ZDDP degradation. Mico-Raman spectroscopy indicated two types of tribolayers formed during unlubricated sliding of thermally sprayed low carbon steel 1010 coating deposited on linerless Al 380 cylinder bore: i) Fe2O3 layer transformed from FeO during dry sliding and ii) Fe2O3 layer with a top amorphous carbon transfer layer when run against H-DLC coated TCR with COF of 0.18. The NH- and H-DLC coatings, that provide low friction under room temperature

  12. Coefficient of friction of a starved lubricated spur gear pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huaiju; Zhu, Caichao; Sun, Zhangdong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Song, Chaosheng


    The frictional power loss issue of gear pairs becomes an important concern in both industry and academia due to the requirement of the energy saving and the improvement of power density of gear drives. A thermal starved elastohydrodynamic lubrication model is developed to study the tribological performance of a spur gear pair under starved lubrication conditions. The contact pressure, the film thickness, the temperature rise, the frictional power loss, as well as the coefficient of friction are evaluated by considering the variation of the curvature radius, the sliding/rolling motion, and the load distribution of gear tooth within the meshing period. Effects of lubrication starvation condition, load and speed on the coefficient of friction are studied.

  13. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.


    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  14. Friction Properties of Surface-Fluorinated Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Wal, R. L. Vander; Miyoshi, K.; Street, K. W.; Tomasek, A. J.; Peng, H.; Liu, Y.; Margrave, J. L.; Khabashesku, V. N.


    Surface modification of the tubular or sphere-shaped carbon nanoparticles through chemical treatment, e.g., fluorination, is expected to significantly affect their friction properties. In this study, a direct fluorination of the graphene-built tubular (single-walled carbon nanotubes) structures has been carried out to obtain a series of fluorinated nanotubes (fluoronanotubes) with variable C(n)F (n =2-20) stoichiometries. The friction coefficients for fluoronanotubes, as well as pristine and chemically cut nanotubes, were found to reach values as low as 0.002-0.07, according to evaluation tests run in contact with sapphire in air of about 40% relative humidity on a ball-on-disk tribometer which provided an unidirectional sliding friction motion. These preliminary results demonstrate ultra-low friction properties and show a promise in applications of surface modified nanocarbons as a solid lubricant.

  15. Effect of surface pattern on the adhesive friction of elastomers. (United States)

    Wu-Bavouzet, Fanny; Cayer-Barrioz, Juliette; Le Bot, Alain; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Buguin, Axel


    We present experimental results for the friction of a flat surface against a hexagonally patterned surface, both being made of PolyDiMethylSiloxane. We simultaneously measure forces of range 10 mN and observe the contact under sliding velocities of about 100 μm/s. We observe adhesive friction on three different pattern heights (80, 310, and 2100 nm). Two kinds of contacts have been observed: the flat surface is in close contact with the patterned one (called intimate contact, observed for 80 nm) or only suspended on the tops on the asperities (called laid contact, observed for 2100 nm). In the range of velocities used, the contact during friction is similar to the static one. Furthermore, our experimental system presents a contact transition during friction for h=310 nm.

  16. On the origin of Amonton’s friction law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Bo N J; Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N


    Amonton's law states that the sliding friction force increases linearly with the load. We show that this result is expected for stiff enough solids, even when the adhesional interaction between the solids is included in the analysis. As a function of the magnitude of the elastic modulus E, one can...... distinguish between three regions: (a) for E > E-2, the area of real contact (and the friction force) depends linearly on the load, (b) for E-1 ... on the load and is non-vanishing at zero load. In this last case a finite pull-off force is necessary in order to separate the solids. Based on molecular dynamics calculations, we also discuss the pressure dependence of the frictional shear stress for polymers. We show that the frictional shear stress...

  17. Micromechanics of pseudo-single-asperity friction: Effects of nanometer-scale roughness (United States)

    Li, Qunyang

    Nanometer-scale roughness on a solid surface has significant effects on friction, since inter-surface forces operate predominantly within a nanometer-scale gap distance in frictional contact. This thesis presents two novel atomic force microscope friction experiments, each using a gold surface sliding against a flat mica surface as the representative friction system. A diamagnetic lateral force calibrator (D-LFC) was invented to enable the accurate quantitative force measurements. In one of the experiment, a disk-shaped single nano-asperity of gold was used to measure the molecular level frictional behavior. The adhesive friction stress was measured to be 264 MPa and the molecular friction factor 0.0108 for a direct gold-mica contact in 30% humid air. The capillary force from the condensed water meniscuses was found to play an important role in magnifying the contact pressure to plastically deform the nano-asperities leading to the dramatic evolution of frictional responses. In the second experiment, the frictional response of a micrometer-scale asperity with nanometer-scale roughness exhibited a pseudo-single-asperity frictional behavior. However, the apparent friction stress, 40.5 MPa, fell well below the Hurtado-Kim model prediction for a smooth-single-asperity friction, exhibiting an apparent size-scale dependence of the friction stress. An interfacial roughness (IR) layer model was then developed to investigate the effects of roughness on pseudo-single-asperity friction. The model calculation shows that the nanometer-scale surface roughness is the major mechanism that explains the apparent size-scale dependence of the friction observed in the experiments. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the apparent friction stress as well as the apparent pressure-dependent fiction factor relies on the surface roughness. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that the evolution status of surface roughness is one of the important internal variables for the

  18. The friction wear of electrolytic composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosta, R.


    The article presents the results of investigation of wear of galvanic composite coatings Ni-Al 2 O 3 and Ni-41%Fe-Al 2 O 3 . The diameter of small parts of aluminium oxide received 0.5; 3; 5 μm. Investigations of friction sliding were effected on PT3 device at Technical University of Gdansk. Counter sample constituted a funnel made of steel NC6 (750 HV). Increase of wear coatings together with the rise of iron content in matrix is observed. The rise of sizes of ceramic particles caused decrease of wear of composite coatings, but rise of steel funnel wear. The friction coefficient increased after ceramic particle s were built in coatings. The best wear resistance characterized Ni-41%Fe-Al 2 O 3 coatings containing 2.2x10 6 mm -2 ceramic particles. (author)

  19. Friction Experiments for Dynamical Coefficient Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Arnoux


    Full Text Available An experimental study, including three experimental devices, is presented in order to investigate dry friction phenomena in a wide range of sliding speeds for the steel on steel contact. A ballistic setup, with an air gun launch, allows to estimate the friction coefficient between 20 m/s and 80 m/s. Tests are completed by an adaptation of the sensor on a hydraulic tensile machine (0.01 m/s to 3 m/s and a pin-on-disk tribometer mounted on a CNC lathe (1 to 30 m/s. The interactions at the asperity scale are characterized by a white light interferometer surface analysis.

  20. Improved analysis and visualization of friction loop data: unraveling the energy dissipation of meso-scale stick-slip motion (United States)

    Kokorian, Jaap; Merlijn van Spengen, W.


    In this paper we demonstrate a new method for analyzing and visualizing friction force measurements of meso-scale stick-slip motion, and introduce a method for extracting two separate dissipative energy components. Using a microelectromechanical system tribometer, we execute 2 million reciprocating sliding cycles, during which we measure the static friction force with a resolution of \

  1. Determination of the Basic Friction Angle of Rock Surfaces by Tilt Tests (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Sic; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Kang, Seong-Seung; Jang, Bo-An


    Samples of Hwangdeung granite from Korea and Berea sandstone from USA, both containing sliding planes, were prepared by saw-cutting or polishing using either #100 or #600 grinding powders. Their basic friction angles were measured by direct shear testing, triaxial compression testing, and tilt testing. The direct shear tests and triaxial compression tests on the saw-cut, #100, and #600 surfaces indicated that the most reliable results were obtained from the #100 surface: basic friction angle of 29.4° for granite and 34.1° for sandstone. To examine the effect of surface conditions on the friction angle in tilt tests, the sliding angles were measured 50 times with two surface conditions (surfaces cleaned and not cleaned after each measurement). The initial sliding angles were high regardless of rock type and surface conditions and decreased exponentially as measurements continued. The characteristics of the sliding angles, differences between tilt tests, and dispersion between measurements in each test indicated that #100 surface produced the most reliable basic friction angle measurement. Without cleaning the surfaces, the average angles for granite (32 measurements) and sandstone (23 measurements) were similar to the basic friction angle. When 20-50 measurements without cleaning were averaged, the basic friction angle was within ± 2° for granite and ± 3° for sandstone. Sliding angles using five different tilting speeds were measured but the average was similar, indicating that tilting speed (between 0.2° and 1.6°/s) has little effect on the sliding angle. Sliding angles using four different sample sizes were measured with the best results obtained for samples larger than 8 × 8 cm.

  2. Friction and oxidative wear of 440C ball bearing steels under high load and extreme bulk temperatures (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dilip K.; Slifka, Andrew J.; Siegwarth, James D.


    Unlubricated sliding friction and wear of 440C steels in an oxygen environment have been studied under a variety of load, speed, and temperature ranging from approximately -185 to 675 deg C. A specially designed test apparatus with a ball-on-flat geometry has been used for this purpose. The observed dependencies of the initial coefficient of friction, the average dynamic coefficient of friction, and the wear rate on load, speed, and test temperatures have been examined from the standpoint of existing theories of friction and wear. High contact temperatures are generated during the sliding friction, causing rapid oxidation and localized surface melting. A combination of fatigue, delamination, and loss of hardness due to tempering of the martensitic structure is responsible for the high wear rate observed and the coefficient of friction.

  3. Tactile Sliding Behavior of R2R Mass-Produced PLLA Nanosheet towards Biomedical Device in Skin Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang


    Full Text Available In this research, sliding friction was measured between the fingertip and nanosheet on a silicon substrate under two conditions: dry and wet. By using a force transducer, the tactile friction force and applied load were measured. According to the experimental results, the relationship of friction force and applied load exhibits a positive correlation under both dry and wet conditions. In addition, the nanosheets are able to reduce the friction force and coefficient of friction (COF compared to the reference sample, especially under the wet condition. Under the assumption of a full contact condition, the estimated contact area increases with larger applied loads. Furthermore, based on the wear observation, the skin sliding performance caused slight abrasions to the surface of the nanosheet samples with a mild wear track along the sliding direction. Overall, the sliding behavior between the skin and nanosheet was investigated in terms of friction force, COF, applied load, contact area, and wear. These findings can contribute to the nanosheet-related research towards biomedical devices in skin applications.

  4. Controllable Sliding Bearings and Controllable Lubrication Principles—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmar F. Santos


    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic lubrication regimes in their controllable forms have been intensively investigated over the last two decades. With the aim of reducing friction and improving thermal, static, and dynamic characteristics of radial sliding bearings, different types of electro-mechanical actuators have been coupled to such bearings. Depending on (i the actuator type; (ii the actuation principle, i.e., hydraulic, pneumatic, piezoelectric or magnetic among others; and (iii how such an actuator is coupled to the sliding bearings, different regulation and control actions of fluid film pressure and lubricant flow can be obtained. The most common actions are: (a the control of the injection pressure to modify the fluid film pressure statically as well as dynamically; (b the adjustment of the angle and direction of injection flow (mostly passive action; (c the control of the sliding bearing gap and its preload via moveable and compliant sliding surfaces; and (d the control of the lubricant viscosity. All four parameters, i.e., pressure, flow (velocity profiles, gap and viscosity, are explicit parameters in the modified form of Reynolds’ equations for active lubrication. In this framework, this paper gives one main original contribution to the state-of-the-art of radial sliding bearings and controllable lubrication: a comprehensive overview about the different types of controllable sliding bearings and principles used by several authors. The paper ends with some conclusive remarks about advantages and drawbacks of the different design solutions for controllable sliding bearings and the main challenges to be overcome towards industrial applications.

  5. Further experimental studies in wet-brake friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staph, H.E.; Marbach, H.W. Jr.


    This paper describes further experimental efforts to determine friction characteristics that define the chatter potential in wet-brake systems as used in tractors and other off-road applications. Changes and improvements to a bench facility described at the 1985 Off-Highway Conference are described. Of particular interest is the decision to examine the very low sliding velocity regime, particularly below 0.34 m/s sliding velocity. Interesting and informative data have been obtained by feeding the input of an accelerometer attached in effect to the caliper brake pads to a frequency analyzer. A spectrum of the energy developed by the vibrating pads over the frequency range of 0 to 250 Hz while the sliding velocity is increased from 0 to 0.85 m/s is obtained. Specifically, the area under the composite frequency curve from 70 to 125 Hz shows good correlation to the chatter propensity of the oil. The results of tests on several oils are described. The ultimate purpose of the research is to provide a relatively rapid screening test for evaluating brake oils for the John Deere-type qualification tests. The overall results emphasize the importance of a low ratio between the breakaway friction and the friction at moderate sliding velocities for low or no chatter.

  6. Gravity Slides With Magnetic Braking (United States)

    Goodrick, Thomas F.


    Slides with magnetic braking enable safe emergency descent from tall buildings, fire-truck ladders, towers, and like. According to concept, slide includes sled that moves along stationary aluminum track tilted against top of building. Sled holds set of permanent magnets at preset small distance from surface of track. Passenger stands on, sits on, or strapped to platform on sled. Release device at top of slide holds sled in place until passenger prepared for descent.

  7. Clutches using engineering ceramics as friction material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, A.; Arslan, A.; Mitariu, M. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.), IPEK - Institut fuer Produktentwicklung, Kaiserstr. 10, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The experimental and constructive results illustrate that engineering ceramic materials have a high potential in the field of dry running friction systems. According to first estimations, it is possible to build the vehicle clutch 53 % smaller or to transmit up to 180 % higher torque with the same size by an appropriate selection of the system friction pairing and an adequate ceramic design [1, 2]. The friction coefficient characteristic (decreasing friction coefficient above sliding speed) is unfavourable with regard to comfort (self-induced grab oscillations [3]) of the vehicle clutch. Furthermore, it is important to select the test procedure of the experimental analyses to be as close to the system as possible in order to obtain exact information concerning the target system. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die experimentellen und konstruktiven Ergebnisse haben gezeigt, dass ingenieurkeramische Werkstoffe ein hohes Potenzial im Bereich der trockenlaufenden Friktionssysteme haben. Durch geeignete Wahl der Systemreibpaarung und eine keramikgerechte Konstruktion ist es nach ersten Abschaetzungen moeglich, die Kfz-Kupplung um 53 % kleiner zu bauen bzw. bei gleicher Groesse bis zu 180 % hoehere Drehmomente zu uebertragen [1, 2]. Die Reibungszahlcharakteristik (fallende Reibungszahl ueber Gleitgeschwindigkeit) ist im Hinblick auf Komfort (selbsterregte Rupfschwingungen [3]) fuer die Kraftfahrzeugkupplung unguenstig. Des Weiteren ist es wichtig, die Versuchsfuehrung der experimentellen Untersuchungen so systemnah wie moeglich zu waehlen, um genauere Aussagen auf das Zielsystem zu erhalten. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Wear of soft tool materials in sliding contact with zinc coated steel sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Burlat, M.; Bolt, P.J.; Schipper, Dirk J.


    In order to reduce costs of tooling for press operations, efforts are made to use alternative tool materials like wood or plastic. Friction and wear characteristics in sliding contact with zinc-coated steel sheet could, however, limit the applicability of these tool materials for automotive

  9. Development of a Constitutive Friction Law based on the Frictional Interaction of Rough Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beyer


    Full Text Available Friction has a considerable impact in metal forming. This is in particular true for sheet-bulk metal-forming (SBMF in which local highly varying contact loads occur. A constitutive friction law suited to the needs of SBMF is necessary, if numerical investigations in SBMF are performed. The identification of the friction due to adhesion and ploughing is carried out with an elasto-plastic half-space model. The normal contact is verified for a broad range of normal loads. In addition, the model is used for the characterization of the occurring shear stress. Ploughing is determined by the work which is necessary to plastically deform the surface asperities of the new area that gets into contact during sliding. Furthermore, the surface patches of common half-space models are aligned orthogonally to the direction in which the surfaces approach when normal contact occurs. For a better reflection of the original surfaces, the element patches become inclined. This leads to a geometric share of lateral forces which also contribute to friction. Based on these effects, a friction law is derived which is able to predict the contact conditions especially for SBMF.

  10. Contact Dependence and Velocity Crossover in Friction between Microscopic Solid/Solid Contacts. (United States)

    McGraw, Joshua D; Niguès, Antoine; Chennevière, Alexis; Siria, Alessandro


    Friction at the nanoscale differs markedly from that between surfaces of macroscopic extent. Characteristically, the velocity dependence of friction between apparent solid/solid contacts can strongly deviate from the classically assumed velocity independence. Here, we show that a nondestructive friction between solid tips with radius on the scale of hundreds of nanometers and solid hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers has a strong velocity dependence. Specifically, using laterally oscillating quartz tuning forks, we observe a linear scaling in the velocity at the lowest accessed velocities, typically hundreds of micrometers per second, crossing over into a logarithmic velocity dependence. This crossover is consistent with a general multicontact friction model that includes thermally activated breaking of the contacts at subnanometric elongation. We find as well a strong dependence of the friction on the dimensions of the frictional probe.

  11. Cerium Addition Improved the Dry Sliding Wear Resistance of Surface Welding AZ91 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqiang Chen


    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of cerium (Ce addition on the friction and wear properties of surface welding AZ91 magnesium alloys were evaluated by pin-on-disk dry sliding friction and wear tests at normal temperature. The results show that both the friction coefficient and wear rate of surfacing magnesium alloys decreased with the decrease in load and increase in sliding speed. The surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate. The alloy without Ce had the worst wear resistance, mainly because it contained a lot of irregularly shaped and coarse β-Mg17Al12 phases. During friction, the β phase readily caused stress concentration and thus formed cracks at the interface between β phase and α-Mg matrix. The addition of Ce reduced the size and amount of Mg17Al12, while generating Al4Ce phase with a higher thermal stability. The Al-Ce phase could hinder the grain-boundary sliding and migration and reduced the degree of plastic deformation of subsurface metal. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had a total of four types of wear mechanism: abrasion, oxidation, and severe plastic deformation were the primary mechanisms; delamination was the secondary mechanism.

  12. Cerium Addition Improved the Dry Sliding Wear Resistance of Surface Welding AZ91 Alloy. (United States)

    Chen, Qingqiang; Zhao, Zhihao; Zhu, Qingfeng; Wang, Gaosong; Tao, Kai


    In this study, the effects of cerium (Ce) addition on the friction and wear properties of surface welding AZ91 magnesium alloys were evaluated by pin-on-disk dry sliding friction and wear tests at normal temperature. The results show that both the friction coefficient and wear rate of surfacing magnesium alloys decreased with the decrease in load and increase in sliding speed. The surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate. The alloy without Ce had the worst wear resistance, mainly because it contained a lot of irregularly shaped and coarse β-Mg 17 Al 12 phases. During friction, the β phase readily caused stress concentration and thus formed cracks at the interface between β phase and α-Mg matrix. The addition of Ce reduced the size and amount of Mg 17 Al 12 , while generating Al₄Ce phase with a higher thermal stability. The Al-Ce phase could hinder the grain-boundary sliding and migration and reduced the degree of plastic deformation of subsurface metal. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had a total of four types of wear mechanism: abrasion, oxidation, and severe plastic deformation were the primary mechanisms; delamination was the secondary mechanism.

  13. Relationship between the real contact area and contact force in pre-sliding regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Baojiang; Yan Shaoze


    The pre-sliding regime is typically neglected in the dynamic modelling of mechanical systems. However, the change in contact state caused by static friction may decrease positional accuracy and control precision. To investigate the relationship between contact status and contact force in pre-sliding friction, an optical experimental method is presented in this paper. With this method, the real contact state at the interface of a transparent material can be observed based on the total reflection principle of light by using an image processing technique. A novel setup, which includes a pair of rectangular trapezoidal blocks, is proposed to solve the challenging issue of accurately applying different tangential and normal forces to the contact interface. The improved Otsu’s method is used for measurement. Through an experimental study performed on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), the quantity of contact asperities is proven to be the dominant factor that affects the real contact area. The relationship between the real contact area and the contact force in the pre-sliding regime is studied, and the distribution of static friction at the contact interface is qualitatively discussed. New phenomena in which the real contact area expands along with increasing static friction are identified. The aforementioned relationship is approximately linear at the contact interface under a constant normal pressure, and the distribution of friction stress decreases from the leading edge to the trailing edge. (paper)

  14. Proximity friction reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.


    The contribution of inelastic excitations to radial and tangential friction form-factors in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the frame-work of perturbation theory. The dependence of the form factors on the essential geometrical and level-density parameters of the scattering system is exhibited in a rather closed form. The conditions for the existence of time-local friction coefficients are discussed. Results are compared to form factors from other models, in particular the transfer-related proximity friction. For the radial friction coefficient the inelastic excitation mechanism seems to be the dominant contribution in peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  15. No sliding in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtengel, Kirill; Nayak, Chetan; Bishara, Waheb; Chamon, Claudio


    In this letter, we analyse the following apparent paradox: as has been recently proved by Hastings (2004 Phys. Rev. 69 104431), under a general set of conditions, if a local Hamiltonian has a spectral gap above its (unique) ground state (GS), all connected equal-time correlation functions of local operators decay exponentially with distance. On the other hand, statistical mechanics provides us with examples of 3D models displaying so-called sliding phases (O'Hern et al 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 2745) which are characterized by the algebraic decay of correlations within 2D layers and exponential decay in the third direction. Interpreting this third direction as time would imply a gap in the corresponding (2+1)D quantum Hamiltonian which would seemingly contradict Hastings' theorem. The resolution of this paradox lies in the non-locality of such a quantum Hamiltonian. (letter to the editor)

  16. Viscous friction between crystalline and amorphous phase of dragline silk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep P Patil

    Full Text Available The hierarchical structure of spider dragline silk is composed of two major constituents, the amorphous phase and crystalline units, and its mechanical response has been attributed to these prime constituents. Silk mechanics, however, might also be influenced by the resistance against sliding of these two phases relative to each other under load. We here used atomistic molecular dynamics (MD simulations to obtain friction forces for the relative sliding of the amorphous phase and crystalline units of Araneus diadematus spider silk. We computed the coefficient of viscosity of this interface to be in the order of 10(2 Ns/m(2 by extrapolating our simulation data to the viscous limit. Interestingly, this value is two orders of magnitude smaller than the coefficient of viscosity within the amorphous phase. This suggests that sliding along a planar and homogeneous surface of straight polyalanine chains is much less hindered than within entangled disordered chains. Finally, in a simple finite element model, which is based on parameters determined from MD simulations including the newly deduced coefficient of viscosity, we assessed the frictional behavior between these two components for the experimental range of relative pulling velocities. We found that a perfectly relative horizontal motion has no significant resistance against sliding, however, slightly inclined loading causes measurable resistance. Our analysis paves the way towards a finite element model of silk fibers in which crystalline units can slide, move and rearrange themselves in the fiber during loading.

  17. Viscous Friction between Crystalline and Amorphous Phase of Dragline Silk (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep P.; Xiao, Senbo; Gkagkas, Konstantinos; Markert, Bernd; Gräter, Frauke


    The hierarchical structure of spider dragline silk is composed of two major constituents, the amorphous phase and crystalline units, and its mechanical response has been attributed to these prime constituents. Silk mechanics, however, might also be influenced by the resistance against sliding of these two phases relative to each other under load. We here used atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to obtain friction forces for the relative sliding of the amorphous phase and crystalline units of Araneus diadematus spider silk. We computed the coefficient of viscosity of this interface to be in the order of 102 Ns/m2 by extrapolating our simulation data to the viscous limit. Interestingly, this value is two orders of magnitude smaller than the coefficient of viscosity within the amorphous phase. This suggests that sliding along a planar and homogeneous surface of straight polyalanine chains is much less hindered than within entangled disordered chains. Finally, in a simple finite element model, which is based on parameters determined from MD simulations including the newly deduced coefficient of viscosity, we assessed the frictional behavior between these two components for the experimental range of relative pulling velocities. We found that a perfectly relative horizontal motion has no significant resistance against sliding, however, slightly inclined loading causes measurable resistance. Our analysis paves the way towards a finite element model of silk fibers in which crystalline units can slide, move and rearrange themselves in the fiber during loading. PMID:25119288

  18. Probing into frictional contact dynamics by ultrasound and electrical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changshan Jin


    Full Text Available Friction arises in the interface of friction pair, and therefore, it is difficult to detect it. Ultrasonic means, as a NDT, is the correct alternative. This paper introduces a means of detecting dynamic contact and an interpretation of behaviors of dry friction. It has been determined that frictional surfaces have a specific property of dynamic response hardening (DRH. Dynamic response forces and oscillation arise during static–kinetic transition process. While the contact zone of sliding surfaces appears “hard” in motion, it appears “soft” at rest. Consequently, a separation of the surfaces occurs and the real area of contact is decreased as sliding velocity increases. This is the cause of F–v descent phenomenon. When the friction comes to a rest, the remaining process of DRH and micro-oscillation do not disappear instantaneously, instead they gradually return to their original static position. The contact area, therefore, is increased by rest period (F–T ascent characteristics. Based on analogies between a solid unit (η–m–k and an R-L-C circuit, the DRH is demonstrated by electrical simulations.

  19. Modeling of rock friction 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieterich, J.H.


    Direct shear experiments on ground surfaces of a granodiorite from Raymond, California, at normal stresses of approx.6 MPa demonstrate that competing time, displacement, and velocity, effects control rock friction. It is proposed that the strength of the population of points of contacts between sliding surfaces determines frictional strength and that the population of contacts changes continuously with displacements. Previous experiments demonstrate that the strength of the contacts increases with the age of the contacts. The present experiments establish that a characteristic displacement, proportional to surface roughness, is required to change the population of contacts. Hence during slip the average age of the points of contact and therefore frictional strength decrease as slip velocity increases. Displacement weakening and consequently the potential for unstable slip occur whenever displacement reduces the average age of the contacts. In addition to this velocity dependency, which arises from displacement dependency and time dependency, the experiments also show a competing but transient increase in friction whenever slip velocity increases. Creep of the sliding surface at stresses below that for steady state slip also observed. Constitutive relationships are developed that permit quantitative simulation of the friction versus displacement data as a function of surface roughness and for different time and velocity histories. Unstable slip in experiments is controlled by these constitutive effects and by the stiffness of the experimental system. It is argued that analogous properties control earthquake instability

  20. Tribological characterization of the drill collars and casing friction couples (United States)

    Ripeanu, R. G.; Badicioiu, M.; Caltaru, M.; Dinita, A.; Laudacescu, E.


    Drill collars are special pipes used in the drilling of wells for weighting the drill bit, enabling it to drill through the rock. In the drilling process, the drill collars are exposed to an intensive wear due to friction on inner surface of casing wall. In order to evaluate the tribological behaviour of this friction couple, paper presents the drill collars parent material, reconditioned and casing pipe chemical composition, microstructures, hardness and friction tests. For friction tests were prepared samples extracted from new and reconditioned drill collars and from casing pipes and tested on a universal tribometer. Were used plane-on-disk surface friction couples and tests were conducted at two sliding speeds and three normal loads for each materials couple. Plane static partner samples were extracted from casing pipes and disks samples were extracted from new and reconditioned drill collars. Were obtained friction coefficients values and also the temperatures increasing values due to friction working tests parameters. The temperature increasing values were obtained by measuring it with an infrared thermographic camera.

  1. Metal transfer and build-up in friction and cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V D


    Metal Transfer and Build-up in Friction and Cutting aims to systematize our knowledge of the metal build-up, to describe some of the investigations past and present carried out in SFTI (Tomsk), and to make an effort to explain a number of the phenomena in cutting, scratching, and sliding from the point of view of metal transfer theory. The book opens with a chapter on the temperature of the rubbing interface of two solids. This temperature is needed in order to elucidate the nature of the formation of a build-up in scratching, cutting, and sliding. Separate chapters follow on the seizure phen

  2. Slide Buyers Guide. 1974 Edition. (United States)

    DeLaurier, Nancy

    Designed for studio art instructors, museum education programs, public libraries, high school teachers, and those who buy slides for teaching art history at the college level, this guide lists sources of slides in the United States and over 20 foreign countries. All U.S. sources are listed first, commercial sources are alphabetical by name and…

  3. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.


    A special BUT-transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all measured directly, thus...... enabling accurate measurement of friction and direct determination of lubricant film breakdown for varying normal pressure, sliding speed, tool radius and tool preheat temperature. The transducer is applied in an experimental investigation focusing on limits of lubrication in drawing of stainless steel...

  4. The effects of aging on friction of MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, T.H.; Sinha, U.P.


    This report studied the effect of three aging mechanisms: corrosion, erosion, and deposition on the friction coefficients of the sliding surfaces of motor-operated valves (MOVs) used in nuclear plant systems. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the study, and it was performed following the guidelines of their Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The authors reached three general conclusions: corrosion and deposition should not prevent valve operation by obstructing the mechanical tolerances of the MOVs; the aging mechanisms may increase the friction coefficients due to roughening the surfaces with age; and the codes and standards defining MOV surveillance requirements need review to include methods for detecting aging degradation

  5. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.


    A special Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all...... measured directly, thus enabling accurate measurement of friction and direct determination of lubricant film breakdown for varying normal pressure, sliding speed, tool radius and tool preheat temperature. The transducer is applied in an experimental investigation focusing on limits of lubrication...... in drawing of stainless steel showing the influence of varying process conditions and the performance of different lubricants....

  6. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor. (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M


    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  7. Ellipsometry at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Hingerl, Kurt


    This book presents and introduces ellipsometry in nanoscience and nanotechnology making a bridge between the classical and nanoscale optical behaviour of materials. It delineates the role of the non-destructive and non-invasive optical diagnostics of ellipsometry in improving science and technology of nanomaterials and related processes by illustrating its exploitation, ranging from fundamental studies of the physics and chemistry of nanostructures to the ultimate goal of turnkey manufacturing control. This book is written for a broad readership: materials scientists, researchers, engineers, as well as students and nanotechnology operators who want to deepen their knowledge about both basics and applications of ellipsometry to nanoscale phenomena. It starts as a general introduction for people curious to enter the fields of ellipsometry and polarimetry applied to nanomaterials and progresses to articles by experts on specific fields that span from plasmonics, optics, to semiconductors and flexible electronics...

  8. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.


    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Investigations of Friction under Die Surface Vibration in Cold Forging Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinming, Sha

    of the application of ultrasonic vibration on drawing, rolling and other metal forming process show that the load and friction coefficient would be decreased with the presence of ultrasonic vibration. Investigations on forging processes and under low frequency, especially the quantitative analysis of friction......The objective of this thesis is to fundamentally study the influence of die surface vibration on friction under low frequency in metal forging processes. The research includes vibrating tool system design for metal forming, theoretical and experimental investigations, and finite element simulations...... on die surface vibration in forging process. After a general introduction to friction mechanisms and friction test techniques in metal forming, the application of ultrasonic vibration in metal forming, the influence of sliding velocity on friction is described. Some earlier investigations...

  10. Frictional velocity-weakening in landslides on Earth and on other planetary bodies. (United States)

    Lucas, Antoine; Mangeney, Anne; Ampuero, Jean Paul


    One of the ultimate goals in landslide hazard assessment is to predict maximum landslide extension and velocity. Despite much work, the physical processes governing energy dissipation during these natural granular flows remain uncertain. Field observations show that large landslides travel over unexpectedly long distances, suggesting low dissipation. Numerical simulations of landslides require a small friction coefficient to reproduce the extension of their deposits. Here, based on analytical and numerical solutions for granular flows constrained by remote-sensing observations, we develop a consistent method to estimate the effective friction coefficient of landslides. This method uses a constant basal friction coefficient that reproduces the first-order landslide properties. We show that friction decreases with increasing volume or, more fundamentally, with increasing sliding velocity. Inspired by frictional weakening mechanisms thought to operate during earthquakes, we propose an empirical velocity-weakening friction law under a unifying phenomenological framework applicable to small and large landslides observed on Earth and beyond.

  11. Resistance to Sliding in Clear and Metallic Damon 3 and Conventional Edgewise Brackets: an In vitro Study (United States)

    Karim Soltani, Mohammad; Golfeshan, Farzaneh; Alizadeh, Yoones; Mehrzad, Jabraiel


    Statement of the Problem Frictional forces are considered as important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement. It is claimed that self-ligating brackets reduce the frictional forces. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the resistance to sliding in metallic and clear Damon brackets with the conventional brackets in a wet condition. Materials and Method The samples included 4 types of brackets; metallic and clear Damon brackets and metallic and clear conventional brackets (10 brackets in each group). In this study, stainless steel wires sized 0.019×0.025 were employed and the operator’s saliva was used to simulate the conditions of oral cavity. The tidy-modified design was used for simulation of sliding movement. The resistance to sliding and static frictional forces was measured by employing Testometric machine and load cell. Results The mean (±SD) of resistance to sliding was 194.88 (±26.65) and 226.62 (±39.9) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets, while these values were 187.81(±27.84) and 191.17(±66.68) g for the clear and metallic conventional brackets, respectively. Static frictional forces were 206.4(±42.45) and 210.38(±15.89) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets and 220.63(±49.29) and 215.13(±62.38) g in the clear and metallic conventional brackets. According to two-way ANOVA, no significant difference was observed between the two bracket materials (clear and metal) and the two types of bracket (self-ligating versus conventional) regarding resistance to sliding (p= 0.17 and p= 0.23, respectively) and static frictional forces (p= 0.55 and p= 0.96, respectively). Conclusion Neither the type of bracket materials nor their type of ligation made difference in resistance to sliding and static friction. PMID:26106630

  12. Sliding contact fracture of dental ceramics: Principles and validation (United States)

    Ren, Linlin; Zhang, Yu


    Ceramic prostheses are subject to sliding contact under normal and tangential loads. Accurate prediction of the onset of fracture at two contacting surfaces holds the key to greater long-term performance of these prostheses. In this study, building on stress analysis of Hertzian contact and considering fracture criteria for linear elastic materials, a constitutive fracture mechanics relation was developed to incorporate the critical fracture load with the contact geometry, coefficient of friction and material fracture toughness. Critical loads necessary to cause fracture under a sliding indenter were calculated from the constitutive equation, and compared with the loads predicted from elastic stress analysis in conjunction with measured critical load for frictionless normal contact—a semi-empirical approach. The major predictions of the models were calibrated with experimentally determined critical loads of current and future dental ceramics after contact with a rigid spherical slider. Experimental results conform with the trends predicted by the models. PMID:24632538

  13. An Axial Sliding Test for machine elements surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran


    are necessary: a press to provide the normal pressure and a tensile machine to perform the axial movements. The test is calibrated so that the correspondence between the normal pressure and the container advancement is found. Finally, preliminary tests are carried out involving a multifunctional and a fine......Throughout the years, it has become more and more important to find new methods for reducing friction and wear occurrence in machine elements. A possible solution is found in texturing the surfaces under tribological contact, hence the development and spread of plateau-honed surface for cylinder...... liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed Axial Sliding Test. It presents four major components: a rod, a sleeve...

  14. Nanoscale thermal transport (United States)

    Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Merlin, Roberto; Phillpot, Simon R.


    Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid-solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The

  15. Friction and wear behaviour of plasma sprayed Cr2O3-TiO2 coating (United States)

    Bagde, Pranay; Sapate, S. G.; Khatirkar, R. K.; Vashishtha, Nitesh; Tailor, Satish


    Cr2O3-25TiO2 coating was deposited by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) coating technique. Effect of load (5–30 N) and sliding velocity (0.25, 0.75 m s‑1) on friction coefficient and abrasive wear behaviour of the Cr2O3-25TiO2 coating was studied. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of the Cr2O3-25TiO2 coating was carried out. With an increase in sliding velocity, abrasive wear rate and friction coefficient (COF) decreased while wear rate and friction coefficient showed an increasing trend with the load. The worn out surfaces were analyzed by SEM, EDS and XRD. At lower sliding velocity, XRD analysis revealed peaks of Ti2O3, Ti3O5, CrO2 and CrO3. In addition, peak of Ti4O7 was also detected at higher sliding velocity and at 30 N load. At higher sliding velocity medium to severe tribo oxidation was observed. XPS analysis of worn surfaces at both the sliding velocities, showed surface film of oxides of titanium and chromium along with Cr(OH)3. Magneli phase titanium oxides with sub stoichiometric composition, along with surface films of chromium oxides and hydroxides altered the friction and wear behaviour of the coating. The decrease in friction coefficient with an increase in sliding velocity was attributed to tribo oxides and tribochemical reaction films having lower shear strength with good lubricating properties. The mechanism of material removal involved plastic deformation at lower load whereas inter-granular and trans-granular fracture, delamination cracking and splat fracture was observed with an increase load from 10 N to 30 N.

  16. On the origin of why static or breakloose friction is larger than kinetic friction, and how to reduce it: the role of aging, elasticity and sequential interfacial slip. (United States)

    Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J


    We discuss the origin of static friction and show how it can be reduced towards kinetic friction by the appropriate design of the sliding system. The basic idea is to use elastically soft solids and apply the external forces in such a way that different parts of the contacting interface start to slip at different times during the (tangential) loading process. In addition, the local slip must be large enough in order to result in a strong drop in the static friction force. We illustrate the theoretical predictions with the results of a simple model experiment.

  17. On the origin of why static or breakloose friction is larger than kinetic friction, and how to reduce it: the role of aging, elasticity and sequential interfacial slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J


    We discuss the origin of static friction and show how it can be reduced towards kinetic friction by the appropriate design of the sliding system. The basic idea is to use elastically soft solids and apply the external forces in such a way that different parts of the contacting interface start to slip at different times during the (tangential) loading process. In addition, the local slip must be large enough in order to result in a strong drop in the static friction force. We illustrate the theoretical predictions with the results of a simple model experiment. (paper)

  18. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey


    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcia, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves

  19. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey


    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  20. On the mechanism of floating and sliding of liquid marbles. (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Bormashenko, Yelena; Musin, Albina; Barkay, Zahava


    The mechanisms of floating and sliding of liquid marbles are studied. Liquid marbles containing CaCl(2) and marbles containing NaOH water solutions float on water containing Na(2)CO(3) and an alcoholic solution of phenolphthalein with no chemical reaction. Sliding of liquid marbles, consisting of NaOH water solutions, on polymer substrates coated with phenolphthalein is studied as well. No chemical reaction is observed. These observations supply direct experimental evidence for the suggestion that interfaces are separated by an air layer when marbles roll on solid substrates. It is concluded that a liquid marble rests on hydrophobic particles coating the liquid. In contrast, drops containing an NaOH water solution sliding on superhydrophobic surfaces coated with phenolphthalein leave a colored trace. The mechanism of low-friction sliding of drops deposited on superhydrophobic surfaces and liquid marbles turns out to be quite different: there is no direct contact between liquid and solid in the case of marbles' motion.

  1. Friction and wear properties of Cu and Fe-based P/M bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufekci, Kenan; Kurbanoglu, Cahit; Durak, Ertugrul; Tunay, R. Fatih


    The performances of porous bearings under different operating conditions were experimentally investigated in this study. Material groups studied are 90%Cu + 10%Sn bronze and 1%C + % balance Fe iron-based self-lubricating P/M bearings at constant (85%) density. In the experiments, the variation of the coefficient of friction and wear ratio of those two different group materials for different sliding speeds, loads, and temperatures were investigated. As a result, the variation of the friction coefficient - temperature for both constant load, and constant sliding speed, friction coefficient - average bearing pressure, PV - wear loss and temperature-wear loss curves were plotted and compared with each other for two materials, separately. The test results showed that Cu-based bearings have better friction and wear properties than Fe-based bearings

  2. Numerical Studies of Friction Between Metallic Surfaces and of its Dependence on Electric Currents (United States)

    Meintanis, Evangelos; Marder, Michael


    We will present molecular dynamics simulations that explore the frictional mechanisms between clean metallic surfaces. We employ the HOLA molecular dynamics code to run slider-on-block experiments. Both objects are allowed to evolve freely. We recover realistic coefficients of friction and verify the importance of cold-welding and plastic deformations in dry sliding friction. We also find that plastic deformations can significantly affect both objects, despite a difference in hardness. Metallic contacts have significant technological applications in the transmission of electric currents. To explore the effects of the latter to sliding, we had to integrate an electrodynamics solver into the molecular dynamics code. The disparate time scales involved posed a challenge, but we have developed an efficient scheme for such an integration. A limited electrodynamic solver has been implemented and we are currently exploring the effects of currents in the friction and wear of metallic contacts.

  3. Optimal propulsion of an undulating slender body with anisotropic friction. (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Ibarra, Alejandro; Melo, Francisco


    This study investigates theoretically and numerically the propulsive sliding of a slender body. The body sustains a transverse and propagative wave along its main axis, and undergoes anisotropic friction caused by its surface texture sliding on the floor. A model accounting for the anisotropy of frictional forces acting on the body is implemented. This describes the propulsive force and gives the optimal undulating parameters for efficient forward propulsion. The optimal wave characteristics are effectively compared to the undulating motion of a slithering snakes, as well as with the motion of sandfish lizards swimming through the sand. Furthermore, numerical simulations have indicated the existence of certain specialized segments along the body that are highly efficient for propulsion, explaining why snakes lift parts of their body while slithering. Finally, the inefficiency of slithering as a form of locomotion to ascend a slope is discussed.

  4. Extreme earthquake response of nuclear power plants isolated using sliding bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar 382355 (India); Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)


    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of a nuclear power plant (NPP) isolated using sliding bearings. • Two models of the NPP, five friction models and four seismic hazard levels considered. • Isolation system displacement can be obtained using a macro NPP model subjected to only horizontal ground motions. • Temperature dependence of friction should be considered in isolation-system displacement calculations. • The effect of friction model on floor spectral ordinates is rather small, especially near the basemat. - Abstract: Horizontal seismic isolation is a viable approach to mitigate risk to structures, systems and components (SSCs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme ground shaking. This paper presents a study on an NPP seismically isolated using single concave Friction Pendulum™ (FP) bearings subjected to ground motions representing seismic hazard at two US sites: Diablo Canyon and Vogtle. Two models of the NPP, five models to describe friction at the sliding surface of the FP bearings, and four levels of ground shaking are considered for response-history analysis, which provide insight into the influence of 1) the required level of detail of an NPP model, 2) the vertical component of ground motion on response of isolated NPPs, and 3) the pressure-, temperature- and/or velocity-dependencies of the coefficient of friction, on the response of an isolated NPP. The isolation-system displacement of an NPP can be estimated using a macro model subjected to only the two orthogonal horizontal components of ground motion. The variation of the coefficient of friction with temperature at the sliding surface during earthquake shaking should be accounted for in the calculation of isolation-system displacements, particularly when the shaking intensity is high; pressure and velocity dependencies are not important. In-structure floor spectra should be computed using a detailed three-dimensional model of an isolated NPP subjected to all three components of

  5. Methodology for evaluating sliding potential under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantopoulos, I.V.; Guerpinar, A.; Davenport, C.A.; Levadoux, J.N.; Massa, G.


    As part of the development of the PEC Nuclear Plant in Italy, a potential sliding problem arose, as the horizontal seismic loads exceeded the resisting frictional forces between the foundation mat of the Edificio Intercapedine and the underlying foundation rock surface, when computed using the conventional 'rigid body' motion considerations. A rigorous approach which accounts for the non-continuous application of seismic excitation forces, as well as for the irregularities in the rock surface, was developed to more realistically evaluate the sliding issue. As a first approach, the intact rock mass and the concrete mat were modeled as linearly elastic finite elements and the interface between the foundation mat and the rock exposure was represented by means of a series of joint elements. A key input to the analysis was the geometry and nature of the interface between rock surface and foundation mat. On the basis of geologic mapping of the discontinuity-controlled rock surface, ranges and probability density functions of apparent dip angle, peak friction angle and frequency of the joints were estimated for the potential sliding of the foundation in the most critical direction. Seven joint configurations were thus developed and analyzed with the finite element approach. The corresponding models represented possible planar cross-sections of the foundation mat and underlying rock. The dynamic lead factor, defined as the ratio of the applied loads to the dynamic forces predicted to occur under SSE conditions, was then determined at the load for which sliding is expected to commence and was found to be greater than 1.5 for all cases. (orig./RW)

  6. Time Dependent Frictional Changes in Ice due to Contact Area Changes (United States)

    Sevostianov, V.; Lipovsky, B. P.; Rubinstein, S.; Dillavou, S.


    Sliding processes along the ice-bed interface of Earth's great ice sheets are the largest contributor to our uncertainty in future sea level rise. Laboratory experiments that have probed sliding processes have ubiquitously shown that ice-rock interfaces strengthen while in stationary contact (Schulson and Fortt, 2013; Zoet et al., 2013; McCarthy et al., 2017). This so-called frictional ageing effect may have profound consequences for ice sheet dynamics because it introduces the possibility of basal strength hysteresis. Furthermore this effect is quite strong in ice-rock interfaces (more than an order of magnitude more pronounced than in rock-rock sliding) and can double in frictional strength in a matter of minutes, much faster than most frictional aging (Dieterich, 1972; Baumberger and Caroli, 2006). Despite this importance, the underling physics of frictional ageing of ice remain poorly understood. Here we conduct laboratory experiments to image the microscopic points of contact along an ice-glass interface. We optically measure changes in the real area of contact over time using measurements of this reflected optical light intensity. We show that contact area increases with time of stationary contact. This result suggests that thermally enhanced creep of microscopic icy contacts is responsible for the much larger frictional ageing observed in ice-rock versus rock-rock interfaces. Furthermore, this supports a more physically detailed description of the thermal dependence of basal sliding than that used in the current generation of large scale ice sheet models.

  7. The crossover from random close to random loose packings of frictional disks (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Stefanos


    Mechanically stable packings of frictionless disks with contact interactions form through fast quenches at random close packing (RCP). However, for frictional particles with static friction coefficient μ greater than μ*, the packing density slides toward random loose packing (RLP) at large friction. We elucidate the crossover from random close to random loose packing through simulations of bidisperse disks using the geometric asperity (GA) and Cundall-Strack (CS) friction models. We demonstrate that a change takes place in the structure of allowed mechanically stable packings in configuration space: From uncorrelated points at zero friction to linear and other low-dimensional structures at small friction to higher dimensional structures at large friction. Further, we use the GA model to study dynamical mechanical properties without ad hoc assumptions for sliding contacts, and we find that low-frequency vibrational modes with significant rotational content display a strong peak below μ*. Their rotational content drastically changes from co-rotating contacting particles for low friction to counter-rotating, gear-like, for μ greater than μ* and the groups of particles with gear-like dynamical contributions percolate at μ*. Finally, the very existence of the low-frequency vibrational peak gives rise to a change in the scaling of the static shear modulus with pressure compared to the frictionless behavior. DTRA Grant No. 1-10-1-0021

  8. Hydrodynamic pressure, carrying capacities, friction forces in biobearing gap. (United States)

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof Ch


    The present paper deals with the calculations of the pressure distributions, carrying capacities and friction forces derivations in a super- thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical, conical, cylindrical, parabolic, hyperbolic bone heads. There are also described unsteady and random flow conditions of the bio-bearing lubrication with the changes of the dynamic viscosity of the synovial fluid in the gap height in general.

  9. Surface chemistry, microstructure and friction properties of some ferrous-base metallic glasses at temperatures to 750 C (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.


    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, diffraction studies, and sliding friction experiments were conducted with ferrous-base metallic glasses in sliding contact with aluminum oxide at temperatures from room to 750 C in a vacuum of 30 nPa. The results indicate that there is a significant temperature influence on the friction properties, surface chemistry, and microstructure of metallic glasses. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surface of the sputtered specimens were very different from the normal bulk compositions. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The coefficient of friction increased with increasing temperature to 350 C. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The segregation of contaminants may be responsible for the friction behavior.

  10. Micro and Nano-structure Development and Multiscale Physics at Sliding Metal Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigney; David; A.


    This final report describes research on the response of ductile materials to extreme loading conditions and high strain rates during impact combined with sliding friction. The work has involved a collaboration among two groups at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a tribology research grouup at The Ohio State University. The project involved experimental work and computer simulations at both laboratories and continuum mechanics analysis at OSU, supplemented by testing at AWE, Harwell, UK. Results demonstrated the importance of vorticity and mechanical mixing near the sliding interface in the development of nanocrystalline tribomaterial that is far from equilibrium. The work also revealed that strain rate sensitivity is an important materials property for determining the development of the velocity profile during sliding. As such, it is a property that is key to understanding the evolution of sliding behavior.

  11. Friction-induced nanofabrication on monocrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Bingjun; Qian Linmao; Yu Jiaxin; Zhou Zhongrong; Dong Hanshan; Chen Yunfei


    Fabrication of nanostructures has become a major concern as the scaling of device dimensions continues. In this paper, a friction-induced nanofabrication method is proposed to fabricate protrusive nanostructures on silicon. Without applying any voltage, the nanofabrication is completed by sliding an AFM diamond tip on a sample surface under a given normal load. Nanostructured patterns, such as linear nanostructures, nanodots or nanowords, can be fabricated on the target surface. The height of these nanostructures increases rapidly at first and then levels off with the increasing normal load or number of scratching cycles. TEM analyses suggest that the friction-induced hillock is composed of silicon oxide, amorphous silicon and deformed silicon structures. Compared to the tribochemical reaction, the amorphization and crystal defects induced by the mechanical interaction may have played a dominating role in the formation of the hillocks. Similar to other proximal probe methods, the proposed method enables fabrication at specified locations and facilitates measuring the dimensions of nanostructures with high precision. It is highlighted that the fabrication can also be realized on electrical insulators or oxide surfaces, such as quartz and glass. Therefore, the friction-induced method points out a new route in fabricating nanostructures on demand.

  12. Frictional response of fatty acids on steel. (United States)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R; Biswas, S K


    Self-assembled monolayers of fatty acids were formed on stainless steel by room-temperature solution deposition. The acids are covalently bound to the surface as carboxylate in a bidentate manner. To explore the effect of saturation in the carbon backbone on friction in sliding tribology, we study the response of saturated stearic acid (SA) and unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) as self-assembled monolayers using lateral force microscopy and nanotribometry and when the molecules are dispersed in hexadecane, using pin-on-disc tribometry. Over a very wide range (10 MPa-2.5 GPa) of contact pressures it is consistently demonstrated that the unsaturated linoleic acid molecules yield friction which is significantly lower than that of the saturated stearic acid. It is argued, using density functional theory predictions and XPS of slid track, that when the molecular backbone of unsaturated fatty acids are tilted and pressed strongly by a probe, in tribological contact, the high charge density of the double bond region of the backbone allows coupling with the steel substrate. The interaction yields a low friction carboxylate soap film on the substrate. The saturated fatty acid does not show this effect.

  13. Sliding hiatal hernia in dogs




    Introduction Sliding hiatal hernia is a disorder resulting from a displacement of the abdominal part of the oesophagus and/or a part of the stomach into the thoracic cavity through the oesophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. The disorder may be congenital or acquired. Congenital hernia follows disturbances in the embryonic development. In the literature the predisposition to congenital sliding hiatal hernia is observed in the dogs of shar-pei and chow-chow breeds. Pathogenesis of acquired slidin...

  14. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon; Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Chung, Koo-Hyun


    Highlights: • Direct measurement of kinetic friction of oxidized Si NW using AFM. • Determination of static friction of oxidized Si NW from most bent state. • Friction characteristics of oxidized Si NW on SiO 2 and graphene. • Estimation of shear stress between cylindrical NW and flat substrate. • No significant dependence of shear stress on NW radius. - Abstract: Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO 2 and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO 2 substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO 2 substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics of NWs.

  15. Sliding mechanics of coated composite wires and the development of an engineering model for binding. (United States)

    Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P


    A tribological (friction and wear) study, which was designed to simulate clinical sliding mechanics, was conducted as part of an effort to determine the suitability of poly(chloro-p-xylylene) coatings for composite orthodontic archwires. Prototype composite wires, having stiffnesses similar to those of current initial and intermediate alignment wires, were tested against stainless steel and ceramic brackets in the passive and active configurations (with and without angulation). Kinetic coefficient of friction values, which were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of ligation, had a mean that was 72% greater than uncoated wire couples at 0.43. To improve analysis of the active configuration, a mathematical model was developed that related bracket angulation, bracket width, interbracket distance, wire geometry, and wire elastic modulus to sliding resistance. From this model, kinetic coefficients of binding were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of binding. The mean binding coefficient was the same as that of uncoated wire couples at 0.42. Although penetrations through the coating were observed on many specimens, the glass-fiber reinforcement within the composite wires was undamaged for all conditions tested. This finding implies that the risk of glass fiber release during clinical use would be eliminated by the coating. In addition, the frictional and binding coefficients were still within the limits outlined by conventional orthodontic wire-bracket couples. Consequently, the coatings were regarded as an improvement to the clinical acceptability of composite orthodontic archwires.

  16. Sliding wear studies of sprayed chromium carbide-nichrome coatings for gas-cooled reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.; Lai, G.Y.


    Chromium carbide-nichrome coatings being considered for wear protection of some critical components in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR's) were investigated. The coatings were deposited either by the detonation gun or the plasma-arc process. Sliding wear tests were conducted on specimens in a button-on-plate arrangement with sliding velocities of 7.1 x 10 -3 and 7.9 mm/s at 816 0 C in a helium environment simulates HTGR primary coolant chemistry. The coatings containing 75 or 80 wt % chromium carbide exhibited excellent wear resistance. As the chromium carbide content decreased from either 80 or 75 to 55 wt %, with a concurrent decrease in coating hardness, wear-resistance deteriorated. The friction and wear behavior of the soft coating was similar to that of the bare metal--showing severe galling and significant amounts of wear debris. The friction characteristics of the hard coating exhibited a strong velocity dependence with high friction coefficients in low sliding velocity tests ad vice versa. Both the soft coating and bare metal showed no dependence on sliding velocity. The wear behavior observed in this study is of adhesive type, and the wear damage is believed to be controlled primarily by the delamination process

  17. Application of x-ray diffraction techniques to the understanding of the dry sliding wear behaviour of aluminium and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoheir, N.; Ahmet, T.A.; Northwood, D.O.


    Dry sliding wear tests were performed on polycrystalline f.c.c. Al and h.c.p. Ti specimens using a block-on-ring type wear machine with a rotating ring made of 52100 bearing steel. The sliding speed was 0.13 m.s sup -l and the applied normal load was 10 N. The wear tests were performed on a single specimen in ambient conditions and the texture was evaluated during wear using an X-ray diffraction inverse pole figure technique at a range of sliding distances. Pole density distributions for the [0001] and [111) poles for of Ti and Al, respectively, were then determined from the inverse pole figures. The texture evolution during sliding wear was subsequently related to the friction and wear behaviour. For the aluminum sample, a (111) texture developed parallel to the worn surface with increasing sliding distance (a 6 fold increase in the (111) pole density as the sliding distance increases from 0 to 2714 m). The titanium sample (normal section) which had a preferred orientation with the basal poles, [0001), parallel to the contact surface prior to testing, an increase in wear, i.e. sliding distance, did not change the texture. However, for the transverse section of titanium, the basal pole, [0001), density parallel to the worn surface increased with increasing sliding distance. The shape of the coefficient of friction versus sliding distance curve is strongly influenced by crystallographic texturing. A drop in the coefficient of friction with the progressive development of the [111) and [0001) texture was observed for both Al and Ti (transverse section) specimens, respectively

  18. Gold clusters sliding on graphite: a possible quartz crystal microbalance experiment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisov, S; Tosatti, E; Tartaglino, U; Vanossi, A


    A large measured two-dimensional (2D) diffusion coefficient of gold nanoclusters on graphite has been known experimentally and theoretically for about a decade. When subjected to a lateral force, these clusters should slide with an amount of friction that can be measured. We examine the hypothetical possibility of measuring by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) the phononic sliding friction of gold clusters in the size range around 250 atoms on a graphite substrate between 300 and 600 K. Assuming the validity of Einstein's relations of ordinary Brownian motion and making use of the experimentally available activated behaviour of the diffusion coefficients, we can predict the sliding friction and slip times as a function of temperature. It is found that a prototypical deposited gold cluster could yield slip times at the standard measurable size of 10 -9 s for temperatures around 450-500 K, or 200 0 C. Since gold nanoclusters may also melt at around these temperatures, QCM could offer the additional chance of observing this phenomenon through a frictional change

  19. Microstructural and geochemical evolution of sliding surfaces in landslides and comparisons with crustal fault zones (United States)

    Schäbitz, Maike; Janssen, Christoph; Wirth, Richard; Dresen, Georg


    The formation of basal sliding surfaces in mass movements is known to be associated with chemical and physical alteration of rock and regolith. To evaluate their microstructural and geochemical evolution we collected samples from bedrock, the sliding surface (gouge) and adjacent deposits within two different landslides in Central China. The sample locations reflect different geological conditions. Comparing qualitative and quantitative geochemical analysis we found indications for weathering of the sliding surface area and the accumulation and genesis of clay minerals, explaining its reduced shear strength. The cataclasites (gouge) are mainly composed of quartz, illite, calcite, pyrophyllite, kaolinite and feldspar with grain sizes in the range 0.5 - 5μm. XRF data show an increase in Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O and decrease in SiO2 and CaO contents towards the sliding surface, pointing to alteration processes. The existence and increase of pyrophyllite content in sliding surface samples may indicate its initial formation to be caused by a high energy event, because pyrophyllite forms by hydrothermal alteration at approximately 450 ° C. The accumulation of pyrophyllite at the sliding surface is expected to result in reduced shear strength. Comparison of the microstructures, using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam technique for sample preparation shows a significant reduction of grain size and increase of pore space due to grain comminution by creeping and moving processes. High- angle annular dark field images show the occurrence of amorphous carbon which may indicate the occurrence of graphite. Graphitization (crystallization) of amorphous carbon was recognized in the slip zone of several fault zones, which underwent frictional heating due to rapid sliding. Graphite is well known as a solid lubricant in fault zones with a friction coefficient as low as that of smectite (μ = 0.1). The process of sliding surface formation in some landslides seems to be

  20. Apparatus for friction tests of support elements in fusion devices (United States)

    Gradt, Th; Aßmus, K.; Börner, H.; Schneider, Th


    Spacers and supports belong to the critical elements in the structure of a nuclear fusion device, particularly, when they are installed in the vacuum or superconducting magnet system of the reactor. These supports have to sustain high loads while allowing a certain amount of tangential movement with low friction and without any stick-slip motion. Vacuum and cryogenic environments are extremely hostile for smooth sliding systems, because conventional liquid lubricants cannot be employed, and only a very limited number of materials for dry sliding systems under these conditions are available. In order to test the friction behaviour of support elements in the field coils of the fusion experiment WENDELSTEIN 7-X, a test rig was build which allows testing in liquid helium environment at 4.2 K, with a normal force up to 150 kN, and a sliding velocity of 0.1 mm/s in oscillating motion. First tests have shown that the apparatus is appropriate for simulating the sliding behaviour of support elements. As an example, a result of an earlier model test of an MoS2-coating is shown.

  1. Friction of ice. [on Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa surfaces (United States)

    Beeman, M.; Durham, W. B.; Kirby, S. H.


    Frictional sliding experiments were performed on saw-cut samples of laboratory-made polycrystalline water ice, prepared in the same way as the material used by Kirby et al. (1987) in ice deformation experiments. The data show that the maximum frictional stress is a function of the normal stress but is not measurably dependent on temperature or sliding rate over the ranges covered in these experiments (77-115 K and 0.0003-0.03 mm/s, respectively). The sliding behavior was invariably stick slip, with the sliding surfaces exhibiting only minor gouge development. In samples with anomalously low strength, a curious arrangement of densely packed short vertical fractures was observed. The results of these experiments were applied to a model of near-surface tectonic activity on Ganymede, one of Jupiter's icy moons. The results indicate that a global expansion on Ganymede of 3 linear percent will cause extensional movement on preexisting faults at depths to 7 + or - 3 km.

  2. Friction stir welding tool (United States)

    Tolle,; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy, A [Ammon, ID


    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  3. Paediatric treadmill friction injuries. (United States)

    Jeremijenko, Luke; Mott, Jonathan; Wallis, Belinda; Kimble, Roy


    The aim of this study was to report on the severity and incidence of children injured by treadmills and to promote the implementation of safety standards. This retrospective review of children with treadmill friction injuries was conducted in a single tertiary-level burns centre in Australia between January 1997 and June 2007. The study revealed 37 children who sustained paediatric treadmill friction injuries. This was a presentation of 1% of all burns. Thirty-three (90%) of the injuries occurred in the last 3.5 years (January 2004 to June 2007). The modal age was 3.2 years. Thirty-three (90%) injuries were either full thickness or deep partial friction burns. Eleven (30%) required split thickness skin grafts. Of those who became entrapped, 100% required skin grafting. This study found that paediatric treadmill friction injuries are severe and increasing in incidence. Australian standards should be developed, implemented and mandated to reduce this preventable and severe injury.

  4. A wear-resistant zirconia ceramic for low friction application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnubst, A.J.A.; Ran, S.; Wiratha, K.W.; Blank, D.H.A.; Pasaribu, H.R.; Sloetjes, J.W.; Schipper, D.J.


    A high wear-resistant ceramic/ceramic couple is described associated with low friction. By adding a small amount CuO to yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) the (dry) coefficient of friction against alumina is only 0.2 during a sliding distance of 3-5 km after which the coefficient drastically increases and a transition from mild to sever wear occurs. Pure Y-TZP exhibits a coefficient of friction of 0.7 under the same experimental conditions but wear remains mild during the test (upto 10 km of sliding distance). These small amounts of CuO also strongly influence the densification behaviour. Sintering of this system occurs in several steps where among other things dissolution of CuO in the Y-TZP matrix as well as liquid phase sintering takes place. Non-uniform shrinkage of the CuO-doped system resulting in relative large microcracks in the ceramic can explain its sudden drastic increase in coefficient of friction and wear rate after 3-5 km of operation. (orig.)

  5. Brittle and ductile friction and the physics of tectonic tremor (United States)

    Daub, Eric G.; Shelly, David R.; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, P.A.


    Observations of nonvolcanic tremor provide a unique window into the mechanisms of deformation and failure in the lower crust. At increasing depths, rock deformation gradually transitions from brittle, where earthquakes occur, to ductile, with tremor occurring in the transitional region. The physics of deformation in the transition region remain poorly constrained, limiting our basic understanding of tremor and its relation to earthquakes. We combine field and laboratory observations with a physical friction model comprised of brittle and ductile components, and use the model to provide constraints on the friction and stress state in the lower crust. A phase diagram is constructed that characterizes under what conditions all faulting behaviors occur, including earthquakes, tremor, silent transient slip, and steady sliding. Our results show that tremor occurs over a range of ductile and brittle frictional strengths, and advances our understanding of the physical conditions at which tremor and earthquakes take place.

  6. Flexoelectricity in Nanoscale Ferroelectrics (United States)

    Catalan, Gustau


    All ferroelectrics are piezoelectric and thus have an intrinsic coupling between polarization and strain. There exists an additional electromechanical coupling, however, between polarization and strain gradients. Strain gradients are intrinsically vectorial fields and, therefore, they can in principle be used to modify both the orientation and the sign of the polarization, thanks to the coupling known as flexoelectricity. Flexoelectricity is possible even in paraelectric materials, but is generally stronger in ferroelectrics on account of their high permittivity (the flexoelectric coefficient is proportional to the dielectric constant). Moreover, strain gradients can be large at the nanoscale due to the smallness of the relaxation length and, accordingly, strong flexoelectric effects can be expected in nanoscale ferroelectrics. In this talk we will present two recent results that highlight the above features. In the first part, I will show how polarization tilting can be achieved in a nominally tetragonal ferroelectric (PbTiO3) thanks to the internal flexoelectric fields generated in nano-twinned epitaxial thin films. Flexoelectricity thus offers a purely physical means of achieving rotated polarizations, which are thought to be useful for enhanced piezoelectricity. In the second part, we will show how the large strain gradients generated by pushing the sharp tip of an atomic force microscope against the surface of a thin ferroelectric film can be used to actively switch its polarity by 180^o. This enables a new concept for ``multiferroic'' memory operation in which the memory bits are written mechanically and read electrically.

  7. Nanoscale relaxation oscillator (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul


    A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.

  8. Skin tribology: Science friction?


    Heide, E. van der; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.


    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is frequently one of the interacting surfaces in relative motion. People seem to solve these problems related to skin friction based upon a trial-and-error strategy and based upon on our sense for touch....

  9. Topological complexity of frictional interfaces: friction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Ghaffari


    Full Text Available Through research conducted in this study, a network approach to the correlation patterns of void spaces in rough fractures (crack type II was developed. We characterized friction networks with several networks characteristics. The correlation among network properties with the fracture permeability is the result of friction networks. The revealed hubs in the complex aperture networks confirmed the importance of highly correlated groups to conduct the highlighted features of the dynamical aperture field. We found that there is a universal power law between the nodes' degree and motifs frequency (for triangles it reads T(kkβ (β ≈ 2 ± 0.3. The investigation of localization effects on eigenvectors shows a remarkable difference in parallel and perpendicular aperture patches. Furthermore, we estimate the rate of stored energy in asperities so that we found that the rate of radiated energy is higher in parallel friction networks than it is in transverse directions. The final part of our research highlights 4 point sub-graph distribution and its correlation with fluid flow. For shear rupture, we observed a similar trend in sub-graph distribution, resulting from parallel and transversal aperture profiles (a superfamily phenomenon.

  10. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale. (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph


    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale.

  11. PREFACE The International Conference on Science of Friction 2010 (ICSF2010) (United States)

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi


    The second international conference on science of friction in Japan was held at Ise-Shima, Mie on 13-18 September 2010. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered at the conference were: Superlubricity and friction Electronic and phononic contributions to friction Friction on the atomic and molecular scales van der Waals friction and Casimir force Molecular motor and friction Friction and adhesion in soft matter system Wear and crack on the nanocsale Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipatin Friction and Chaos Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts Friction of powder The number of participants in the conference was approximately 85, registered from 8 countries. 40 oral and 16 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 19 papers devoted to the topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the organizing Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education, and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The surface Science Society of Japan and The Japanese Society of Tribologists. The details of the conference are available on Finally we would like to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Ise-Shima, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors





    The present paper report the results of an experimental investigation of the temperature effect on the sliding friction and wear properties of the bulk metallic glass (BMG). To improve the friction and wear properties of the BMG, the disk specimens were developed in the alloy system of Fe67.6C7.1Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cr2.3Mo2.6Al2Co1.0 using hot metal and industrial ferro-alloys. The friction and wear test was performed using flat-on-flat contact configuration of unidirectional tribometer and Si3N4 ce...

  13. XPS analysis of 440C steel surfaces lubricated with perfluoropolyethers under sliding conditions in high vacuum (United States)

    Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Masuko, Masabumi; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.


    This work presents the results of the X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of AISI 440C ball surfaces lubricated with perfluoropolyether (PFPE) oils after friction experiments under sliding conditions at high load in air and vacuum environments. The PFPE lubricants tested were Demnum S100, Fomblin Z-25, and Krytox 143AB. It was found that all the PFPE lubricants were degraded by sliding contact causing the formation of inorganic fluorides on the metallic surfaces and a layer of organic decomposition products. KRYTOX 143AB was the least reactive of the three lubricants tested. It was also found that metal fluoride formed at off-scar areas. This suggests the formation of reactive species, such as COF2 or R(sub f)COF, during sliding experiments, which can diffuse through the lubricant film and react with the metallic surfaces away from the contact region. Comparison of reference specimens before sliding with those that had undergone the sliding tests showed that the amount of non-degraded PFPE remaining on the surface of the balls after the sliding experiments was greater than that of the balls without sliding.

  14. Low speed sliding behavior of metal-ceramic couples at temperatures up to 800 C (United States)

    Murray, S. F.; Calabrese, Salvadore J.


    The objective of this work was to select a small number of alloys with favorable tribological characteristics and suitable high temperature properties, and evaluate their sliding performance against ceramics as a function of temperature. Five candidate alloys were chosen. They included four alloys containing cobalt and molybdenum, or tungsten and a nickel-base superalloy with good high-temperature strength. All of these alloys are known to form oxide films that protect sliding surfaces from damage at high temperature. These metals were slid against five ceramic flats of different compositions in slow speed reciprocating sliding tests. The test geometry was a metal pin sliding against a ceramic flat. Coefficients of friction and wear rates were measured over a temperature range from 25 to 800 C. Material transfer from the metals to the ceramics played a major role in most of the results. In the low-to intermediate-temperature range, the transferred films (with the exception of silicon carbide) coated the ceramic surface and sliding was essentially metal vs the transferred metal film. At higher temperatures, depending on the alloy composition, the transferred films oxidized and provided reasonable low friction and, in some instances, very low wear.

  15. Reflections on Friction in Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Rezek


    Full Text Available Distinctly quantum friction effects of three types are surveyed: internalfriction, measurement-induced friction, and quantum-fluctuation-induced friction. We demonstrate that external driving will lead to quantum internal friction, and critique the measurement-based interpretation of friction. We conclude that in general systems will experience internal and external quantum friction over and beyond the classical frictional contributions.

  16. Friction in volcanic environments (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan


    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  17. Sliding wear characteristics of carburized steels and thermally refined steels implanted with nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashima, Keiichi; Koda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Eiichi.


    In order to concretely examine the application of surface reforming by ion implantation, nitrogen ion implantation was applied to the thermally refined steels S45C and SCM440 and the carburized steel SCM415, which are high versatile steels for mechanical structures, and their friction and wear characteristics were examined. The results are summarized as follows. In the surface-reformed material, in which nitrogen was implanted for the purpose of improving the seizure durability of the carburized steel, the load-frictional coefficient curve in lubricated sliding friction was similar to that of the material without implantation, but it was recognized that the load at which seizure occurred reached 2000 kgf or more, and as the amount of implantation was more, the material withstood higher load. In the lubricated sliding friction using a pin-ring type wear testing machine of the thermally refined steels and those to which implantation was applied, it was recognized that the specific wear amount was less in the implanted steels than in those without implantation. The results of the analysis of the implanted surface layers and the friction surfaces are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Rubber friction: comparison of theory with experiment. (United States)

    Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Dieluweit, S; Tada, T


    We have measured the friction force acting on a rubber block slid on a concrete surface. We used both unfilled and filled (with carbon black) styrene butadiene (SB) rubber and have varied the temperature from -10 °C to 100 °C and the sliding velocity from 1 μm/s to 1000 μm/s. We find that the experimental data at different temperatures can be shifted into a smooth master-curve, using the temperature-frequency shifting factors obtained from measurements of the bulk viscoelastic modulus. The experimental data has been analyzed using a theory which takes into account the contributions to the friction from both the substrate asperity-induced viscoelastic deformations of the rubber, and from shearing the area of real contact. For filled SB rubber the frictional shear stress σ(f) in the area of real contact results mainly from the energy dissipation at the opening crack on the exit side of the rubber-asperity contact regions. For unfilled rubber we instead attribute σ(f) to shearing of a thin rubber smear film, which is deposited on the concrete surface during run in. We observe very different rubber wear processes for filled and unfilled SB rubber, which is consistent with the different frictional processes. Thus, the wear of filled SB rubber results in micrometer-sized rubber particles which accumulate as dry dust, which is easily removed by blowing air on the concrete surface. This wear process seams to occur at a steady rate. For unfilled rubber a smear film forms on the concrete surface, which cannot be removed even using a high-pressure air stream. In this case the wear rate appears to slow down after some run in time period.

  19. Mapping stain distribution in pathology slides using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh


    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI offers a novel approach to digitize and review pathology slides, but the voluminous data generated by this technology demand new computational methods for image analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report a method that recognizes stains in WSI data and uses kernel density estimator to calculate the stain density across the digitized pathology slides. The validation study was conducted using a rat model of acute cardiac allograft rejection and another rat model of heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was conducted to label ED1 + macrophages in the tissue sections and the stained slides were digitized by a whole slide scanner. The whole slide images were tessellated to enable parallel processing. Pixel-wise stain classification was conducted to classify the IHC stains from those of the background and the density distribution of the identified IHC stains was then calculated by the kernel density estimator. Results: The regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient of 0.8961 between the number of IHC stains counted by our stain recognition algorithm and that by the manual counting, suggesting that our stain recognition algorithm was in good agreement with the manual counting. The density distribution of the IHC stains showed a consistent pattern with those of the cellular magnetic resonance (MR images that detected macrophages labeled by ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide or micron-sized iron-oxide particles. Conclusions: Our method provides a new imaging modality to facilitate clinical diagnosis. It also provides a way to validate/correlate cellular MRI data used for tracking immune-cell infiltration in cardiac transplant rejection and cardiac ischemic injury.

  20. A nonlinear rheological model for the ultrasonically induced squeeze film effect in variable friction haptic displays (United States)

    Son, Kwon Joong


    A squeeze film induced by ultrasonic vibration between two solid surfaces in contact can dramatically reduce the friction between them. This phenomenon, so-called the squeeze film effect, has been utilized in variable friction tactile displays for texture rendering purposes. Such tactile displays can provoke a haptic sensation to a finger pad in a controllable way. A real-time adjustment of the coefficient of lateral friction between the human finger pad and the tactile display can be accomplished by modulating the vibration amplitude of the tactile panel. Therefore, driving a reliable friction model is a key step towards designing and controlling tactile displays utilizing the squeeze film effect. This paper derives a modified Herschel- Bulkley rheological model to express the lateral friction exerted on a human fingertip via an air squeeze film as a function of the operating parameters such as the driving voltage amplitude, the finger sliding speed, and the contact pressure. In contrast to the conventional Coulomb friction model, such a rheology model can account for the sliding velocity dependence. This modeling work may contribute to the optimal control of the ultrasonic variable friction tactile displays.

  1. Computational Study of Low Interlayer Friction in Tin+1Cn (n = 1, 2, and 3) MXene. (United States)

    Zhang, Difan; Ashton, Michael; Ostadhossein, Alireza; van Duin, Adri C T; Hennig, Richard G; Sinnott, Susan B


    The friction of adjacent Ti n+1 C n (n = 1, 2, and 3) MXene layers is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and classical molecular dynamics simulations with ReaxFF potentials. The calculations reveal the sliding pathways in all three MXene systems with low energy barriers. The friction coefficients for interlayer sliding are evaluated using static calculations. Both DFT and ReaxFF methods predict friction coefficients between 0.24 and 0.27 for normal loads less than 1.2 GPa. The effect of titanium (Ti) vacancies in sublayers and terminal oxygen (O) vacancies at surfaces on the interlayer friction is further investigated using the ReaxFF potential. These defects are found to increase the friction coefficients by increasing surface roughness and creating additional attractive forces between adjacent layers. However, these defective MXenes still maintain friction coefficients below 0.31. We also consider functionalized Ti 3 C 2 MXene terminated with -OH and -OCH 3 and find that compared to the -O-terminated surface both groups further reduce the interlayer friction coefficient to 0.10-0.14.

  2. Dynamics of translational friction in needle-tissue interaction during needle insertion. (United States)

    Asadian, Ali; Patel, Rajni V; Kermani, Mehrdad R


    In this study, a distributed approach to account for dynamic friction during needle insertion in soft tissue is presented. As is well known, friction is a complex nonlinear phenomenon. It appears that classical or static models are unable to capture some of the observations made in systems subjected to significant frictional effects. In needle insertion, translational friction would be a matter of importance when the needle is very flexible, or a stop-and-rotate motion profile at low insertion velocities is implemented, and thus, the system is repeatedly transitioned from a pre-sliding to a sliding mode and vice versa. In order to characterize friction components, a distributed version of the LuGre model in the state-space representation is adopted. This method also facilitates estimating cutting force in an intra-operative manner. To evaluate the performance of the proposed family of friction models, experiments were conducted on homogeneous artificial phantoms and animal tissue. The results illustrate that our approach enables us to represent the main features of friction which is a major force component in needle-tissue interaction during needle-based interventions.

  3. Improving the Friction Durability of Magnetic Head-Disk Interfaces by Thin Lubricant Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake


    Full Text Available Nanowear and viscoelasticity were evaluated to study the nanotribological properties of lubricant films of Z-tetraol, D-4OH, and A20H, including their retention and replenishment properties. For A20H and thick Z-tetraol-coated disks, the disk surface partially protrudes, and the phase lag (tan⁡δ increases with friction. This result is consistent with replenishment of the lubricant upon tip sliding. For the D-4OH-coated disk, the tan⁡δ value decreases with tip sliding, similar to the case for the unlubricated disk. The durability of the lubricant-coated magnetic disks was then evaluated by load increase and decrease friction tests. The friction force of the unlubricated disk rapidly increases after approximately 30 reciprocating cycles, regardless of the load. The lubrication state can be estimated by mapping the dependence of friction coefficient on the reciprocating cycle number and load. The friction coefficient can be classified into one of four areas. The lowest friction area constitutes fluid lubrication. The second area constitutes the transition to mixed lubrication. The third area constitutes boundary lubrication. The highest friction of the fourth area results from surface fracture. The boundary lubricating area of the A20H lubricant was wide, because of its good retention and replenishment properties.

  4. Laboratory observations of time-dependent frictional strengthening and stress relaxation in natural and synthetic fault gouges (United States)

    Carpenter, B. M.; Ikari, M. J.; Marone, C.


    Interseismic recovery of fault strength (healing) following earthquake failure is a fundamental requirement of the seismic cycle and likely plays a key role in determining the stability and slip behavior of tectonic faults. We report on laboratory measurements of time- and slip-dependent frictional strengthening for natural and synthetic gouges to evaluate the role of mineralogy in frictional strengthening. We performed slide-hold-slide (SHS) shearing experiments on nine natural fault gouges and eight synthetic gouges at conditions of 20 MPa normal stress, 100% relative humidity (RH), large shear strain (~15), and room temperature. Phyllosilicate-rich rocks show the lowest rates of frictional strengthening. Samples rich in quartz and feldspar exhibit intermediate rates of frictional strengthening, and calcite-rich gouges show the largest values. Our results show that (1) the rates of frictional strengthening and creep relaxation scale with frictional strength, (2) phyllosilicate-rich fault gouges have low strength and healing characteristics that promote stable, aseismic creep, (3) most natural fault gouges exhibit intermediate rates of frictional strengthening, consistent with a broad range of fault slip behaviors, and (4) calcite-rich fault rocks show the highest rates of frictional strengthening, low values of dilation upon reshear, and high frictional strengths, all of which would promote seismogenic behavior.

  5. A Nanoscale Tale (United States)

    Serrano, Elba


    Experimentalists constantly seek to overcome technical limitations. This is especially true in the world of biophysics, where the drive to study molecular targets such as ion channels, a type of membrane transport protein, has resulted in methodological breakthroughs that have merited the Nobel Prize (Hodgkin and Huxley, 1963; Neher and Sakmann, 1991). In this presentation I will explain how nanoscale phenomena that are essential for sensory perception underlie the ability of dancers, gymnasts, and musicians to excel at their artistic endeavors. I will describe how our investigations of sensory mechanotransduction and the quest for improved signal amplification inspired a scientific journey that has culminated in an exciting new line of collaborative NIH-funded research with nanomaterials (quantum dots). I will conclude with a general discussion of how training in physics offers an ideal foundation for interdisciplinary research in health related fields, such as those that deal with neuroscience and disorders of the nervous system.

  6. Study on the property of low friction complex graphite-like coating containing tantalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoping Wang


    Full Text Available In order to enhance equipment lifetime under low oil or even dry conditions, tantalum was introduced into the graphite-like coating (GLC by sputtering mosaic targets. The results showed that the introduction of Ta obviously reduced the friction coefficient and hardness of the GLC, while improved the wearability. When the atomic percentage of Ta was larger than 3%, the steady friction coefficient was lower than 0.01, suggesting the coating exhibited super lubricity. When the content of Ta was about 5.0%, the average friction coefficient was 0.02 by a sliding friction test under load of 20 N in unlubricated condition. Its average friction coefficient reduced by 75%, compared with that of control GLC (0.0825. Keywords: Tantalum, Sputtering, Super-lubrication, Complex GLC coating, Tribological property

  7. Study on the property of low friction complex graphite-like coating containing tantalum (United States)

    Wang, Zuoping; Feng, Lajun; Shen, Wenning


    In order to enhance equipment lifetime under low oil or even dry conditions, tantalum was introduced into the graphite-like coating (GLC) by sputtering mosaic targets. The results showed that the introduction of Ta obviously reduced the friction coefficient and hardness of the GLC, while improved the wearability. When the atomic percentage of Ta was larger than 3%, the steady friction coefficient was lower than 0.01, suggesting the coating exhibited super lubricity. When the content of Ta was about 5.0%, the average friction coefficient was 0.02 by a sliding friction test under load of 20 N in unlubricated condition. Its average friction coefficient reduced by 75%, compared with that of control GLC (0.0825).

  8. Sustained frictional instabilities on nanodomed surfaces: Stick-slip amplitude coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quignon, Benoit; Pilkington, Georgia A.; Thormann, Esben


    properties and their measured friction coefficients was identified. Furthermore, all the nanodomed textures exhibited pronounced oscillations in the shear traces, similar to the classic stick-slip behavior, under all the shear velocities and load regimes studied. That is, the nanotextured topography led...... to sustained frictional instabilities, effectively with no contact frictional sliding. The amplitude of the stick-slip oscillations, σf, was found to correlate with the topographic properties of the surfaces and scale linearly with the applied load. In line with the friction coefficient, we define the slope...... of this linear plot as the stick-slip amplitude coefficient (SSAC). We suggest that such stick-slip behaviors are characteristics of surfaces with nanotextures and that such local frictional instabilities have important implications to surface damage and wear. We thus propose that the shear characteristics...

  9. Experimental investigation of a polymer coating in sliding contact with skin-equivalent silicone rubber in an aqueous environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, E. van der; Lossie, C.M.; Bommel, K.J.C. van; Reinders, S.A.F.; Lenting, H.B.M.


    A study on the effect of a brush coating of polyacrylic 20 acid (PAA) grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (PAAQ1 g-PEG) on friction was done for a sliding system that involves silicone skin L7350: a silicone rubber used by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) for the

  10. Experimental investigation of a polymer coating in sliding contact with skin-equivalent silicone rubber in an aqueous environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, E.; Lossie, C.M.; Vanbommel, K. J C; Reinders, S.A.F.; Lenting, H. B M


    A study on the effect of a brush coating of polyacrylic acid (PAA) grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (PAAg- PEG) on friction was done for a sliding system that involves silicone skin L7350: a silicone rubber used by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) for the

  11. performance characteristics of a wood by-product as base friction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    These properties include: adequate mechanical strength, high and uniform friction coefficients over a wide range of conditions such as pressures, temperatures and sliding velocities, heat resistance and good thermal conductivity, low wear rate, no abrasive action on brake drum (for shoe brakes) or brake plate (for disc.

  12. Influence of roughness parameters on coefficient of friction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface texture and thus roughness parameters influence coefficient of friction during sliding. In the present investigation, four kinds of surface textures with varying roughness were attained on the steel plate surfaces. The surface textures of the steel plates were characterized in terms of roughness parameter using optical ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Musaibov


    Full Text Available The problems of intensity of wear of details of the cars working in the oil polluted by abrasive particles, depending on mechanical properties of material of details and abrasive particles, their sizes, a form and concentration, loading, temperature of a surface of friction, speed of sliding, quality of lubricant are considered. 

  14. A review of fingerpad contact mechanics and friction and how this affects tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, Julien; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile


    In the sliding contact between the fingerpad and a rough surface when touching a product’s surface, friction plays a role in the perception of roughness, slipperiness and warmth. For product engineers who aim to control and optimize the sensorial properties of a product surface interacting with the

  15. Environmental effects on friction and wear characteristic of zirconia doped with CuO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasaribu, H.R.; Reuver, K.M.; Schipper, Dirk J.; Ran, S.; Wiratha, K.W.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Blank, David H.A.


    The influence of the addition of copper oxide on the friction and wear characteristics of dry sliding zirconia and alumina at various humidities and elevated temperatures is outlined in this article. At various humidities, it is found that the addition of CuO give a significant contribution in

  16. Simulative Testing of Friction and Lubrication in Cold Forging of Steel and Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels; Aida, Tetsuo


    torque during testing combined with an analysis of the sliding velocity distribution along the punch nose. The latter is determined by FE analysis of the test. Results show friction stress for unalloyed low C-steel provided with different types of lubricants, i.e. phosphate coating plus soap, phosphate...

  17. Size dependence of energy storage and dissipation in a discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of static friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshpande, VS; Needleman, A; Van der Giessen, E; Deshpande, V.S.


    The initiation of frictional sliding between a flat-bottomed indenter and a planar single crystal substrate is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. Plastic deformation is modeled through the motion of edge dislocations in an elastic solid with the lattice resistance to dislocation motion,

  18. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of loading rate-dependent static friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, H.; Deshpande, V. S.; van der Giessen, E.


    From a microscopic point of view, the frictional force associated with the relative sliding of rough surfaces originates from deformation of the material in contact, by adhesion in the contact interface or both. We know that plastic deformation at the size scale of micrometres is not only dependent

  19. New Approach of Frictional Behaviour for Modelling of High Speed Machining (United States)

    Watremez, M.; Dubar, L.; Brocail, J.


    Numerical approaches to high-speed machining are necessary to increase productivity and to optimise the tool wear and the residual stresses. In order to apply such approaches, rheological behaviour of the antagonists and friction model of interfaces have to be correctly determined. The existing numerical approaches that are used with the current friction models do not generate good correlations of the process variables, such as the cutting forces or the tool-chip contact length. Recent studies [4-6] show the influence of friction model on the numerical results. This paper proposes a new approach for characterizing friction behaviour at the tool-chip interface in the zone near the cutting edge. The study is led with AISI 1045 steel and an uncoated carbide tool. An experimental device is designed to simulate the friction behaviour at the tool-chip interface. During this upsetting-sliding test, an indenter rubs in a specimen with a constant speed, generating a residual friction track. Thermo-mechanical parameters of machining process are firstly considered as the characteristics contact conditions to be reproduced on the testing stand. The contact pressure and the interfacial temperature are assessed with the finite element modelling of high-speed machining. The contactor penetration and the specimen temperature are the parameters to be determined in order to perform tests in concordance with the characteristic contact conditions. The ratio between the tangential and the normal force is defined as a friction index. Contact pressure and friction coefficient are determined from the test's numerical model and an iterative method is used to determine a Coulomb's coefficient by minimizing differences between the experimental and the numerical efforts. Several tests are then performed to provide experimental data and these data are used to define the friction coefficient versus to the contact pressure, the sliding velocity and the interfacial temperature by a new

  20. A microscopic model of rate and state friction evolution (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Rubin, Allan M.


    Whether rate- and state-dependent friction evolution is primarily slip dependent or time dependent is not well resolved. Although slide-hold-slide experiments are traditionally interpreted as supporting the aging law, implying time-dependent evolution, recent studies show that this evidence is equivocal. In contrast, the slip law yields extremely good fits to velocity step experiments, although a clear physical picture for slip-dependent friction evolution is lacking. We propose a new microscopic model for rate and state friction evolution in which each asperity has a heterogeneous strength, with individual portions recording the velocity at which they became part of the contact. Assuming an exponential distribution of asperity sizes on the surface, the model produces results essentially similar to the slip law, yielding very good fits to velocity step experiments but not improving much the fits to slide-hold-slide experiments. A numerical kernel for the model is developed, and an analytical expression is obtained for perfect velocity steps, which differs from the slip law expression by a slow-decaying factor. By changing the quantity that determines the intrinsic strength, we use the same model structure to investigate aging-law-like time-dependent evolution. Assuming strength to increase logarithmically with contact age, for two different definitions of age we obtain results for velocity step increases significantly different from the aging law. Interestingly, a solution very close to the aging law is obtained if we apply a third definition of age that we consider to be nonphysical. This suggests that under the current aging law, the state variable is not synonymous with contact age.

  1. Design, Construction, and Evaluation of Rubber Friction Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Razzaghi Kashani


    Full Text Available Coeffcient of  friction  (COF  for  rubber parts  is one of  the key parameters in their interaction with solid rough surfaces (micrometer to millimeter scales,  such  as  tire-road  interactions. COF  of  rubber  depends  on  viscoelastic properties of rubber, roughness characteristics of the counter-part surface, and process variables such as contact nominal pressure and sliding speed. Due to the need for measuring COF  for  rubber,  a  new  friction  tester, with  continuous  variation  of nominal pressure and sliding speed, was designed and constructed in order to assess the effect of above mentioned parameters. Tire tread compounds, as the most common rubber part  in  the feld of  rubber  tribology, was used  for  this purpose. Viscoelastic properties of compounds were varied by changing composition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR in the blend. Effect of surface roughness was evaluated by using silicon-carbide papers with different roughness parameters. By statistical analysis it was shown that the designed friction tester has high accuracy in measuring the coeffcient of friction of rubber and differentiating the effective parameters. Increasing the nominal pressure led to reduction of COF and increase in sliding speed forced it through a maximum. In conclusion, the loss factor of the compound and asymmetry in roughness distribution of the counter-surface are considered as the most effective parameters on COF of rubber.

  2. Microphysically Derived Expressions for Rate-and-State Friction Parameters, a, b, and Dc (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, A. R.; Spiers, Christopher J.


    Rate-and-state friction (RSF) laws are extensively applied in fault mechanics but have a largely empirical basis reflecting only limited understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms. We recently proposed a microphysical model describing the frictional behavior of a granular fault gouge undergoing deformation in terms of granular flow accompanied by thermally activated creep and intergranular sliding at grain contacts. Numerical solutions reproduced typical experimental results well. Here we extend our model to obtain physically meaningful, analytical expressions for the steady state frictional strength and standard RSF parameters, a, b, and Dc. The frictional strength contains two components, namely, grain boundary friction and friction due to intergranular dilatation. The expressions obtained for a and b linearly reflect the rate dependence of these two terms. Dc scales with slip band thickness and varies only slightly with velocity. The values of a, b, and Dc predicted show quantitative agreement with previous experimental results, and inserting their values into classical RSF laws gives simulated friction behavior that is consistent with the predictions of our numerically implemented model for small departures from steady state. For large velocity steps, the model produces mixed RSF behavior that falls between the Slowness and Slip laws, for example, with an intermediate equivalent slip(-weakening) distance d0. Our model possesses the interesting property not only that a and b are velocity dependent but also that Dc and d0 scale differently from classical RSF models, potentially explaining behaviour seen in many hydrothermal friction experiments and having substantial implications for natural fault friction.

  3. An eight-legged tactile sensor to estimate coefficient of static friction. (United States)

    Wei Chen; Rodpongpun, Sura; Luo, William; Isaacson, Nathan; Kark, Lauren; Khamis, Heba; Redmond, Stephen J


    It is well known that a tangential force larger than the maximum static friction force is required to initiate the sliding motion between two objects, which is governed by a material constant called the coefficient of static friction. Therefore, knowing the coefficient of static friction is of great importance for robot grippers which wish to maintain a stable and precise grip on an object during various manipulation tasks. Importantly, it is most useful if grippers can estimate the coefficient of static friction without having to explicitly explore the object first, such as lifting the object and reducing the grip force until it slips. A novel eight-legged sensor, based on simplified theoretical principles of friction is presented here to estimate the coefficient of static friction between a planar surface and the prototype sensor. Each of the sensor's eight legs are straight and rigid, and oriented at a specified angle with respect to the vertical, allowing it to estimate one of five ranges (5 = 8/2 + 1) that the coefficient of static friction can occupy. The coefficient of friction can be estimated by determining whether the legs have slipped or not when pressed against a surface. The coefficients of static friction between the sensor and five different materials were estimated and compared to a measurement from traditional methods. A least-squares linear fit of the sensor estimated coefficient showed good correlation with the reference coefficient with a gradient close to one and an r(2) value greater than 0.9.

  4. Evaluation of friction produced by self-ligating, conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Antonio BARBOSA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Barbosa Versatile bracket design may provide lower frictional force and greater sliding. However, no in vitro studies have shown its sliding mechanisms and frictional resistance, particularly in comparison with other self-ligating or conventional brackets. Objective To compare the frictional resistance among self-ligating brackets (EasyClip/ Aditek, Damon MX/ Ormco and In Ovation R/ GAC; conventional brackets (Balance Roth/ GAC, and Roth Monobloc/ Morelli; and Barbosa Versatile bracket (Barbosa Versatile/ GAC with different angles and arch wires. Material and method Brackets were tested with the 0.014", 0.018", 0.019"×0.025" and 0.021"×0.025" stainless steel wires, with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 degree angulations. Tying was performed with elastomeric ligature for conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets, or with a built-in clip system of the self-ligating brackets. A universal testing machine was used to obtain sliding strength and friction value readouts between brackets and wires. Result Three-way factorial ANOVA 4×5×6 (brackets × angulation × wire and Tukey tests showed statistically significant differences for all factors and all interactions (p<0.0001. Static frictional resistance showed a lower rate for Barbosa Versatile bracket and higher rates for Roth Monobloc and Balance brackets. Conclusion The lowest frictional resistance was obtained with the Barbosa Versatile bracket and self-ligating brackets in comparison with the conventional type. Increasing the diameter of the wires increased the frictional resistance. Smaller angles produced less frictional resistance.

  5. Nanoscale processes on insulating surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gnecco, Enrico; Szymoński, Marek


    ... the group of Prof. Ernst Meyer in Basel, where he investigated friction processes on alkali halide surfaces in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The main result was the observation of a logarithmic velocity dependence of atomic friction, which was interpreted within a combination of the classical Tomlinson and Eyring models. After his Ph.D. he joined the ...

  6. Dry Sliding Wear and Mechanical Characterization of Mg Based Composites by Uniaxial Cold Press Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar P. Selva


    Full Text Available Dry sliding wear tests are performed on magnesium composites produced by uniaxial cold press technique by using pin-on-disc. Co-efficient of friction and wear rate of magnesium composites are measured under a load of 5 N and sliding velocity of 0.2 ms-1. Porosity, Vickers’s micro hardness, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results are presented to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of magnesium composites. Worn surfaces are inspected by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS. Three types of wear mechanisms namely abrasive, adhesive and oxidation were observed. The wear rate was found to be low for 2wt% of HAP (3.6×10-6cm3/m and co-efficient of friction was observed as 0.8.

  7. Surface Modification Of The High Temperature Porous Sliding Bearings With Solid Lubricant Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewska-Weinert H.


    Full Text Available A surface modification of stainless steel bearing sleeves is developed to improve the tribology characteristics at high temperature. Solid lubricant nano- and microparticles are applied for this purpose. To create the quasi-hydrodynamic lubrication regimes, the solid lubricant powder layer is made by developed pressure impregnation technique. Porous sliding bearing sleeve prototypes were made by powder metallurgy technique. The purpose of the paper is to define the friction and wear characteristics of the sleeves and to determine the influence of sealing of the sliding interface on these characteristics. It is found that application of WS2 sold lubricant nano- and micro-particles and preservation of a particle leakage out of interface allows to achieve at the high temperature the friction coefficients comparable to those at ambient temperature.

  8. Rubber contact mechanics: adhesion, friction and leakage of seals. (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Tahir, M; Stöckelhuber, K W; Heinrich, G; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J


    We study the adhesion, friction and leak rate of seals for four different elastomers: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM), Polyepichlorohydrin (GECO) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Adhesion between smooth clean glass balls and all the elastomers is studied both in the dry state and in water. In water, adhesion is observed for the NBR and PDMS elastomers, but not for the EPDM and GECO elastomers, which we attribute to the differences in surface energy and dewetting. The leakage of water is studied with rubber square-ring seals squeezed against sandblasted glass surfaces. Here we observe a strongly non-linear dependence of the leak rate on the water pressure ΔP for the elastomers exhibiting adhesion in water, while the leak rate depends nearly linearly on ΔP for the other elastomers. We attribute the non-linearity to some adhesion-related phenomena, such as dewetting or the (time-dependent) formation of gas bubbles, which blocks fluid flow channels. Finally, rubber friction is studied at low sliding speeds using smooth glass and sandblasted glass as substrates, both in the dry state and in water. The measured friction coefficients are compared to theory, and the origin of the frictional shear stress acting in the area of real contact is discussed. The NBR rubber, which exhibits the strongest adhesion both in the dry state and in water, also shows the highest friction both in the dry state and in water.

  9. Breakaway frictions of dynamic O-rings in mechanical seals (United States)

    Lai, Tom; Kay, Peter


    Breakaway friction of a dynamic O-ring affects the mechanical seal's response to large axial shaft movement and face wear. However, little data exist to help designers. Therefore, a test rig was developed to measure breakaway friction. The research quantitatively shows the effects of lubrication with silicone grease and a change of surface finish. By using the Taguchi statistical experimental design method, the significance of test parameters was evaluated with a minimum number of tests. It was found that fluid pressure, dwell time, and O-ring percentage squeeze affect O-ring breakaway friction more than the O-ring cross sectional diameter and axial sliding speed within the range of values tested. The authors showed that breakaway friction increased linearly with pressure. However, O-rings made of different materials had significantly different increase rates, even if they had nominally the same durometer hardness. Breakaway friction also increased with logarithm of dwell time. Again, the increase rate depended strongly on the specific O-ring material tested. These observations led the authors to believe that the typical approach of generalizing data based on generic polymer type and durometer was inappropriate.

  10. Internal friction in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyada-Naborikawa, L.T.; De Batist, R.; Eersels, L.


    The effect of type (bending, tension or torsion) and temperature (100 K, 300 K) of deformation on the internal friction spectrum of well-annealed polycrystalline zirconium has been investigated at frequencies of about 1 Hz and about 100 Hz. The result of ageing at temperatures not higher than 300 K on both the modulus and the internal friction is also described. The observed peaks are discussed in terms of either dislocation relaxation or dislocation point defect interaction effects and combined with literature data to obtain better defined values for the relaxation parameters

  11. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.


    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  12. Frictional coefficient depending on active friction radius with BPV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparison of estimated frictional coefficient from numerical output is in agreement with vis-à-vis corresponding similar computed from the virtual braking system model in the Simulink. The results indicated that highest frictional coefficient of 0.7 was obtained on the piston side of the rotor disc and active friction radius is ...

  13. Are slide-hold-slide tests a good analogue for the seismic cycle? (United States)

    van den Ende, Martijn; Niemeijer, André; Marketos, George; Spiers, Christopher


    Earthquakes are among the most disruptive of natural hazards known to man. Owing to their destructive potential and poor predictability, earthquakes and unstable frictional sliding in general receive considerable attention, both in experimental and in modelling studies. For reliable seismic hazard assessments, accurate predictions of the failure strength of seismogenic faults is paramount. To study the time-dependent restrengthening (or "healing") of faults in a laboratory setting, the slide-hold-slide (SHS) method is commonly employed as an analogue for the seismic cycle. Using this method, it is assumed that the rate of restrengthening as observed in SHS tests is similar to the rate of restrengthening of natural faults during the interseismic phase. However, the dynamic and kinematic boundary conditions of SHS tests are inherently different to those of a fault that is being tectonically loaded. As such, it can be questioned whether SHS tests (in which the interseismic period is characterised by stress relaxation) yield the same rate of restrengthening as would be expected from laboratory stick-slip or natural seismic cycles (characterised by a more complex stress history). This question could in principle be addressed experimentally by comparing the results from SHS tests with the stress drop and recurrence time of regular stick-slips. However, due to technical limitations, direct comparison between SHS and stick-slips is non-trivial, and uncertainties in extrapolating the laboratory results remain. To assess the validity of SHS tests as an analogue for the seismic cycle, we simulate laboratory SHS tests as well as stick-slips using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). DEM is a particle-based numerical technique that is suitable for modelling granular media, such as fault gouges. Its constitutive relations are linked to grain-scale micro-processes, and, in the work presented here, we incorporate pressure solution creep and frictional sliding. The simultaneous

  14. General contact mechanics theory for randomly rough surfaces with application to rubber friction (United States)

    Scaraggi, M.; Persson, B. N. J.


    We generalize the Persson contact mechanics and rubber friction theory to the case where both surfaces have surface roughness. The solids can be rigid, elastic, or viscoelastic and can be homogeneous or layered. We calculate the contact area, the viscoelastic contribution to the friction force, and the average interface separation as a function of the sliding speed and the nominal contact pressure. We illustrate the theory with numerical results for the classical case of a rubber block sliding on a road surface. We find that with increasing sliding speed, the influence of the roughness on the rubber block decreases to the extent that only the roughness of the stiff counter face needs to be considered.

  15. Nanoscale technology in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Ralph S; Smith, R Lane


    Reviewing recent accomplishments in the field of nanobiology Nanoscale Technology in Biological Systems introduces the application of nanoscale matrices to human biology. It focuses on the applications of nanotechnology fabrication to biomedical devices and discusses new physical methods for cell isolation and manipulation and intracellular communication at the molecular level. It also explores the application of nanobiology to cardiovascular diseases, oncology, transplantation, and a range of related disciplines. This book build a strong background in nanotechnology and nanobiology ideal for

  16. In-situ electro-charging for friction reduction and wear resistant film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, S.C.; Wang, S.S. (GM Research Laboratories, Warren, MI (USA))


    A technique has been developed to form friction-reducing and antiwear films in situ by means of an electric field applied between rubbing metal surfaces. Using this in situ charging technique, the effectiveness of zinc organodithiophosphate (ZDP) additives as antiwear and friction reducing agents can be enhanced by electrochemical reactions which form surface coatings. The coatings formed on sliding surfaces compared with uncharged surfaces reduce friction by up to 35 percent. In addition, during the sliding process, the films formed on the surfaces are replenished and protect the rubbing surfaces from wear. A steel plate subjected to rubbing and in situ charging for four hours had a smooth surface and a yellowish reaction film; the one without charging was rougher and no yellowish reaction film was formed. The improved tribological characteristics are attributed to an increase in the electrochemical reactivity of the ZDP-mineral oil blends and the formation of phosphate or sulfate films on the metal surfaces. 16 refs.

  17. Modelling of the Contact Condition at the Tool/Matrix Interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John


    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the heat generation and contact condition during Friction Stir Welding (FSW). For this purpose, an analytical model is developed for the heat generation and this is combined with a Eulerian FE-analysis of the temperature field. The heat...... generation is closely related to the friction condition at the contact interface between the FSW tool and the weld piece material as well as the material flow in the weld matrix, since the mechanisms for heat generation by frictional and plastic dissipation are different. The heat generation from the tool...... is governed by the contact condition, i.e. whether there is sliding, sticking or partial sliding/sticking. The contact condition in FSW is complex (dependent on alloy, welding parameters, tool design etc.), and previous models (both analytical and numerical) for simulation of the heat generation assume...

  18. In Vitro Urethra Model to Characterize The Frictional Properties of Urinary Catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels; Lee, Seunghwan


    conformal sliding contacts with the catheter and high relevance to clinical catherization. With the proposed urethra model assembled in texture analyzer, the lubricity of catheters lubricated in different modes was tested. In comparison with conventional pin-on-disk tribometry, the coefficients of friction......, frictional properties of tubular devices such as catheters, endoscopes, and angioplasty balloons are particularly challenging to characterize because of non-standard shape and contact configuration. In this study, we propose that fabrication of in vitro urethra model with castable elastomers can provide...... of sliding contacts with the urethra model with unlubricated and lubricated catheters were determined. Impact of the improved bio-relevance of friction testing methods on the evaluation of various catheter materials and surface modification methods is discussed in detail....

  19. Analysis of Heat Partitioning During Sliding Contact at High Speed and Pressure (United States)


    rotating workpiece. For these tests, a pin of 2.5 mm diameter and 15 mm length was made of cemented tungsten carbide . The mass of the pin was...Internal friction : the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation The magnitude of...other generating a mechanical deformation , which is transformed into internal energy. Heat produced upon the sliding of two solid materials, called

  20. Detection of the local sliding in the tyre-road contact by measuring vibrations on the inner liner of the tyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niskanen, Arto J; Tuononen, Ari J


    Intelligent tyres can provide vital information from the tyre-road contact, especially for autonomous cars and intelligent infrastructure. In this paper, the acceleration measured on the inner liner of a tyre is used to detect the local sliding in the tyre-road contact. The Hilbert–Huang transform is utilized to extract the relevant vibration components and localize them in the wheel rotation angle domain. The energy of the vibration in the trailing part of the contact is shown to increase in low-friction conditions which can be related to the sliding of the tread part as a result of the shear stresses exceeding the local friction limit. To separate the effect of the surface roughness and the friction, different road surfaces were used in the measurements. In addition, the effects of different driving manoeuvres on the measured accelerations and the propagation of the sliding zone in the contact patch during braking are illustrated. (paper)

  1. Detection of the local sliding in the tyre-road contact by measuring vibrations on the inner liner of the tyre (United States)

    Niskanen, Arto J.; Tuononen, Ari J.


    Intelligent tyres can provide vital information from the tyre-road contact, especially for autonomous cars and intelligent infrastructure. In this paper, the acceleration measured on the inner liner of a tyre is used to detect the local sliding in the tyre-road contact. The Hilbert-Huang transform is utilized to extract the relevant vibration components and localize them in the wheel rotation angle domain. The energy of the vibration in the trailing part of the contact is shown to increase in low-friction conditions which can be related to the sliding of the tread part as a result of the shear stresses exceeding the local friction limit. To separate the effect of the surface roughness and the friction, different road surfaces were used in the measurements. In addition, the effects of different driving manoeuvres on the measured accelerations and the propagation of the sliding zone in the contact patch during braking are illustrated.

  2. Slide-based ergometer rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Alkjær, T; Kanstrup, I-L


    Force production profile and neuromuscular activity during slide-based and stationary ergometer rowing at standardized submaximal power output were compared in 14 male and 8 female National Team rowers. Surface electromyography (EMG) was obtained in selected thoracic and leg muscles along with sy...

  3. SlideDog / Siim Sein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sein, Siim


    SlideDog on multimeediumi esitluse tööriist, mis võimaldab ühendada PowerPointi esitlused, PDF-failid, Prezi esitlused, videoklipid, helifailid, veebilehed ja palju muud üheks sujuvaks esitluskogemuseks konverentsil, seminaril või muul üritusel

  4. Tribological evaluation of an Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic fiber candidate for high temperature sliding seals (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce


    A test program to determine the relative sliding durability of an alumina-silica candidate ceramic fiber for high temperature sliding seal applications is described. Pin-on-disk tests were used to evaluate the potential seal material by sliding a tow or bundle of the candidate ceramic fiber against a superalloy test disk. Friction was measured during the tests and fiber wear, indicated by the extent of fibers broken in the tow or bundle, was measured at the end of each test. Test variables studied included ambient temperatures from 25 to 900 C, loads from 1.3 to 21.2 N, and sliding velocities from 0.025 to 0.25 m/sec. In addition, the effects of fiber diameter and elastic modulus on friction and wear were measured. Thin gold films deposited on the superalloy disk surface were evaluated in an effort to reduce friction and wear of the fibers. In most cases, wear increased with test temperature. Friction ranged from 0.36 at 500 C and low velocity (0.025 m/sec) to over 1.1 at 900 C and high velocity (0.25 m/sec). The gold films resulted in satisfactory lubrication of the fibers at 25 C. At elevated temperatures diffusion of substrate elements degraded the films. These results indicate that the alumina-silica (Al2O3-SiO2) fiber is a good candidate material system for high temperature sliding seal applications. More work is needed to reduce friction.

  5. Ultralow Friction of Steel Surfaces Using a 1,3-Diketone Lubricant in the Thin Film Lubrication Regime. (United States)

    Li, Ke; Amann, Tobias; List, Mathias; Walter, Michael; Moseler, Michael; Kailer, Andreas; Rühe, Jürgen


    Ultralow friction (coefficient of friction μ ≈ 0.005) is observed when two steel surfaces are brought into sliding contact in the presence of a particular 1,3-diketone lubricant (1-(4-ethyl phenyl) nonane-1,3-dione). We investigate the friction process of such a system both experimentally and theoretically and show that the superlubricity is caused by a novel, unique mechanism: The formation of iron-1,3-diketonato complexes during frictional contact leads to a self-limiting, tribochemical polishing process while at the same time a self-assembled monolayer of the diketone is formed on the employed steel surfaces. This polishing process reduces the contact pressure and at the same time leads to formation of a boundary lubricant layer. During sliding the system transits from the original boundary lubrication regime toward hydrodynamic lubrication. Conductivity measurements across the friction gap during sliding show that the lubricant layer present in the gap between the two shearing surfaces is a only few 10 nanometers thick, so that the molecules experience under typical sliding conditions shear rates of a few 10(6) s(-1). Simulations show that under such strong shear the molecules become strongly oriented in the friction gap and the effective viscosity in sliding direction is significantly reduced so that the system is in the thin film lubrication regime and superlubricity is observed. The results of the experiments suggest that such diketones are promising lubricants to achieve a decrease of energy loss and frictional damage in steel based mechanical devices.

  6. The behaviour of molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate friction modifier additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Jocelyn Claire Herries


    In recent years there has been growing concern to produce energy-efficient lubricated components and modem engine oil specifications require lubricants to demonstrate fuel efficiency in standardised engine tests. One important method of producing low friction and thus fuel-efficient lubricants is to use oil-soluble, molybdenum-containing, friction modifier additives. In optimal conditions these additives are able to produce very low friction coefficients, in the range 0.045 to 0.075 in boundary lubrication conditions. Very little is known about the chemical and physical mechanisms by which oil soluble molybdenum additives form low friction films in tribological contacts. Information about their activity could lead to optimal use of these additives in lubricants and, therefore, more efficient engine running. The work outlined in this thesis investigated the behaviour of oil-soluble molybdenum additives and showed that these additives were able to effectively reduce friction in the absence of other additives such as ZnDTP. Their activity was shown to be highly concentration and temperature dependent and was also found to be sensitive to the roughness of the contacting surfaces. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the chemical nature of molybdenum-containing reaction films and found that friction reduction indubitably arises from the local formation of platelets (diameter 30-50 nm) of MoS 2 . The formation of MoS 2 -rich films was found to occur only during direct asperity-asperity rubbing of the contacting surfaces (this type of contact being especially prevalent in pure sliding contacts). At elevated temperatures and in the presence of oxidising gases the consumption of MoDTC was monitored. MoDTC concentration dropped until the total value fell below a critical level to reduce friction. The study showed that decay rate of molybdenum-containing species was reduced by the addition of peroxide-decomposing antioxidants. (author)

  7. Effects of pore fluid chemistry on stable sliding of Berea sandstone (United States)

    Dunning, J. D.; Miller, M. E.


    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle frictional-sliding experiments were employed to evaluate the effects of pore fluid environments on yield strength, frictional-sliding dynamics, and gouge production and morphology. Circular right cylinders cored from Berea sandstone sawcut at 35° to the axes were saturated in water, an inorganic brine, and various anionic, cationic, and nonionic aqueous surface-active agents. Samples were deformed under an effective confining pressure of 50 MPa and an axial strain rate of 6×10-5 sec-1 until a 2% axial strain beyond yield (defined as the onset of sliding) was achieved. All samples were displaced by stable sliding. In the single-cycle tests the unsaturated and water-saturated samples displayed small stress peaks at yield. During stable sliding samples saturated with DTAB and SDS displayed slight increases in differential stress and statistically significant higher frictional coefficients than other environments (including water) but were very similar in behavior to dry, unsaturated samples. In the multiple-cycle tests, samples were loaded to 2% strain beyond yield and unloaded to a differential stress of approximately 5 10 MPa a total of four times. These results further suggest that DTAB exerts a ‘strengthening’ effect on the sandstone relative to water which, to a limiting value, increased with displacement. The DTAB and SDS environments also produced a coarser grain-size distribution in the gouge relative to gouge produced in the other environments. Investigation of the gouge by scanning electron microscope revealed that these larger ‘grains’ were composed of dense, apparently cemented aggregates of ultrafine, platy quartz particles.

  8. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean


    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  9. Friction and wear studies of graphite and a carbon-carbon composite in air and in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.; Sheehan, J.E.


    Sliding friction and wear tests were conducted on a commercial isotropic graphite and a carbon-carbon composite in air, purified helium, and a helium environment containing controlled amounts of impurities simulating the primary coolant chemistry of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The friction and wear characteristics of the materials investigated were stable and were found to be very sensitive to the testing temperature. In general, friction and wear decreased with increasing temperature in the range from ambient to 950 0 C. This temperature dependence is concluded to be due to chemisorption of impurities to form lubricating films and oxidation at higher temperatures, which reduce friction and wear. Graphite and carbon-carbon composites are concluded to be favorable candidate materials for high-temperature sliding service in helium-cooled reactors

  10. Effect of barrier height on friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals (United States)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.


    Friction experiments were conducted for the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals. Polycrystalline titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, and platinum were made to contact a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Indium, nickel, copper, and silver were made to contact a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Sliding was conducted both in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 9th power torr. The friction of semiconductors in contact with metals depended on a Schottky barrier height formed at the metal semiconductor interface. Metals with a higher barrier height on semiconductors gave lower friction. The effect of the barrier height on friction behavior for argon sputtered cleaned surfaces in vacuum was more specific than that for the surfaces containing films in room air. With a silicon surface sliding on titanium, many silicon particles back transferred. In contrast, a large quantity of indium transferred to the gallium arsenide surface.

  11. Ultrasonic friction power during thermosonic Au and Cu ball bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A; Mayer, M; Zhou, Y; Qin, I; Huynh, C; Meyer, M


    The ultrasonic friction power during thermosonic ball bonding with Au and Cu wires, both 25 μm in diameter, is derived with an improved method from experimental measurements during the bonding process. Experimental data include the current delivered to the ultrasonic transducer and the tangential force measured using piezoresistive microsensors integrated close to the Al bonding pad. The improvement results from a new, more accurate method to derive the mechanical compliance of the ultrasonic system. The method employs a bond process modification in which the ultrasonic current is ramped up sequentially in three steps. In the first two steps, the ultrasonic current is set to levels that are too low to cause sliding. The bonding takes place during the third step, when the current is ramped up to the optimum value required for making good quality bonds. The ultrasonic compliance values are derived from the first two steps and are 8.2 ± 0.5 μm N -1 and 7.7 ± 0.5 μm N -1 for the Au and Cu processes, respectively. These values are determined within an average error estimate of ±6%, substantially lower than the ±10% estimated with a previously reported method. The ultrasonic compliance in the case of Au is 6% higher due to the lower elastic modulus of Au compared with that of Cu. Typical maximum values of relative sliding amplitude of ultrasonic friction at the interface are 655 nm and 766 nm for the Au and Cu processes. These values are 81% of the free-air vibration amplitude of the bonding capillary tip for the respective ultrasonic current settings. Due to bond growth, which damps relative motion between the ball and the pad, the final relative amplitude at the bond interface is reduced to 4% of the equivalent free-air amplitude. Even though the maximum value of relative amplitude is 17% higher in the Cu process compared with the Au process, the average total interfacial sliding is 519 μm in the Cu process, which is 31% lower than that in the Au process (759

  12. Student figures in friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gritt B.

    , students' room for participation in their own learning, influenced by demands for efficiency, flexibility and student-centred education. The thesis recasts the anthropological endeavour as one of ‘figuration work'. That is, ‘frictional events' are explored as moments when conflicting figures...

  13. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, E. van der; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.


    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  14. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Brkić


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ. In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re and the relative roughness (ε/D ranging between 5000 and 108 and between 10−7 and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation.

  15. Experimental constraints on the relationship between clay abundance, clay fabric, and frictional behavior for the Central Deforming Zone of the San Andreas Fault (United States)

    Wojatschke, Jasmaria; Scuderi, Marco M.; Warr, Laurence N.; Carpenter, Brett M.; Saffer, Demian; Marone, Chris


    The presence of smectite (saponite) in fault gouge from the Central Deforming Zone of the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield, CA has been linked to low mechanical strength and aseismic slip. However, the precise relationship between clay mineral structure, fabric development, fault strength, and the stability of frictional sliding is not well understood. We address these questions through the integration of laboratory friction tests and FIB-SEM analysis of fault rock recovered from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole. Intact fault rock was compared with experimentally sheared fault gouge and different proportions of either quartz clasts or SAFOD clasts extracted from the sample. Nano-textural measurements show the development of localized clay particle alignment along shear folia developed within synthetic gouges; such slip planes have multiples of random distribution (MRD) values of 3.0-4.9. The MRD values measured are higher than previous estimates (MRD 1.5) that show lower degrees of shear localization and clay alignment averaged over larger volumes. The intact fault rock exhibits less well-developed nano-clay fabrics than the experimentally sheared materials, and MRD values decrease with smectite content. We show that the abundance, strength, and shape of clasts all influence fabric evolution via strain localization: quartz clasts yield more strongly developed clay fabrics than serpentine-dominated SAFOD clasts. Our results suggest that (1) both clay abundance and the development of nano-scale fabrics play a role in fault zone weakening and (2) aseismic creep is promoted by slip along clay shears with >20 wt % smectite content and MRD values ≥2.7.

  16. Angle-dependent tribological properties of AlCrN coatings with microtextures induced by nanosecond laser under dry friction (United States)

    Xing, Youqiang; Deng, Jianxin; Gao, Peng; Gao, Juntao; Wu, Ze


    Microtextures with different groove inclinations are fabricated on the AlCrN-coated surface by a nanosecond laser, and the tribological properties of the textured AlCrN samples sliding against AISI 1045 steel balls are investigated by reciprocating sliding friction tests under dry conditions. Results show that the microtextures can effectively improve the tribological properties of the AlCrN surface compared with the smooth surface. Meanwhile, the angle between the groove inclination and sliding direction has an important influence on the friction and wear properties. The textured sample with the small groove inclination may be beneficial to reducing the friction and adhesions, and the TC-0° sample exhibits the lowest friction coefficient and adhesions of the worn surface. The wear volume of the ball sliding against the TC-0° sample is smaller compared with the UTC sample and the sliding against the TC-45° and TC-90° samples is larger compared with the UTC sample. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the microtextures are discussed.

  17. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Österle


    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  18. [Effects of frictional properties on traumas of rabbit skin]. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qu, Shuxin; Kong, Mei; Zhou, Zhongrong


    Simulative experiments on skin traumas between prosthetic socket materials and residual limb skin were investigated by using the means of tribology, histology and animal experiment. Healthy adult rabbits were used as animal model and their denuded back skin was selected as experimental position to simulate residual limb skin. The effects of different normal load and reciprocal sliding frequency on rabbit skin trauma grade were investigated by using a reciprocal sliding skin friction testing apparatus to simulate prosthesis gait. The traumatic subcutaneous tissue slice was stained with hematoxylineosin and the morphology was observed under the optical microscope. The scab thickness of traumatic skin was measured under x 10 object lens. The inflammatory cells were counted in a given visual field under x 20 object lens. The statistical significance analysis of scab thickness and inflammatory cells were carried out to assess the effect of different frictional conditions on skin pathological traumas. The results showed: the greater normal load and higher reciprocal sliding frequency applied on the rabbit skin, the more serious injury to skin and more inflammatory cells in the subcutaneous tissue at the same time. The findings provide a theoretical basis of comfortized prosthesis design and gait analysis for the amputee.

  19. In vitro frictional forces generated by three different ligation methods. (United States)

    Gandini, Paola; Orsi, Linda; Bertoncini, Chiara; Massironi, Sarah; Franchi, Lorenzo


    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between the frictional forces produced by a passive self-ligating bracket (SLB) in vitro and a conventional bracket (CB) used with two types of elastomeric ligatures. The brackets, wires and ligation methods used in vitro were a passive SLB and a CB used with two types of elastomeric ligatures (conventional elastomeric ligature [CEL] and unconventional elastomeric ligatures [UEL]). The bracket ligation systems were tested with two types of wires (0.014'' super elastic nickel titanium wire and 0.019'' x 0.025'' stainless steel wire). Resistance to sliding of the bracket/wire/ligature systems was measured with an experimental model mounted on the crosshead of an Instron testing machine with a 10 N load cell. Each sample was tested 10 consecutive times under a dry state. Frictional forces close to 0 g were recorded in all tests with SLB and in all tests with UEL on CB with both wire types. Resistance to sliding increased significantly (87-177 g) (P UELs may represent a valid alternative to passive SLBs for low-friction biomechanics.

  20. Internal rotor friction instability (United States)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.


    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.