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Sample records for nanoparticles preparation characterization

  1. Preparation, characterization and utilization of starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Sung Soo; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2015-02-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Recent studies reported that nano-scale starch particles could be readily prepared from starch granules, which have unique physical properties. Because starch is environmentally friendly, starch nanoparticles are suggested as one of the promising biomaterials for novel utilization in foods, cosmetics, medicines as well as various composites. An overview of the most up-to-date information regarding the starch nanoparticles including the preparation processes and physicochemical characterization will be presented in this review. Additionally, the prospects and outlooks for the industrial utilization of starch nanoparticles will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Advances in preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles for therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Hembram, Krushna; Prabha, Shashi; Chandra, Ramesh; Ahmed, Bahar; Nimesh, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    Polymers have been largely explored for the preparation of nanoparticles due to ease of preparation and modification, large gene/drug loading capacity, and biocompatibility. Various methods have been adapted for the preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles. Focus on the different methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles. Detailed literature survey has been done for the studies reporting various methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles. Published database suggests of several methods which have been developed for the preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles as per the application.

  3. Preparation and characterization of cuprous iodide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tao Li; Li Xia Gu

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for the preparation of CuI nanoparticles from CuSO 4 and KI ethanol solutions has been developed. Preparation conditions were optimized through a series of experiments. Under these conditions, the yield of CuI reached 95.39%. The product was characterized and the reaction kinetics was studied. The results show that the product takes a roughly spherical shape with an average particle size of less then 50 nm. The activation energy of the formation of CuI is found to be E a = 0.58 x 10 2 kJ/mol, and the preexponential factor in the Arrhenius equation is k 0 = 7.43 x 10 16 mol/(l s) [ru

  4. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznickova, A.; Orendac, M.; Kolska, Z.; Cizmar, E.; Dendisova, M.; Svorcik, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Copper nanoparticles were coated on polyethylene via dithiol interlayer. • Prepared samples exhibit excellent structural and magnetic properties. • Studied properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of electronic devices. - Abstract: We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV–vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  5. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, A., E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Orendac, M., E-mail: martin.orendac@upjs.sk [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Kolska, Z., E-mail: zdenka.kolska@seznam.cz [Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Cizmar, E., E-mail: erik.cizmar@upjs.sk [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Dendisova, M., E-mail: vyskovsm@vscht.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Copper nanoparticles were coated on polyethylene via dithiol interlayer. • Prepared samples exhibit excellent structural and magnetic properties. • Studied properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of electronic devices. - Abstract: We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV–vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  6. Biomimetic nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ana Maria Carmona-RibeiroBiocolloids Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Mimicking nature is a powerful approach for developing novel lipid-based devices for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, biomimetic assemblies based on natural or synthetic lipids by themselves or associated to silica, latex or drug particles will be discussed. In water, self-assembly of lipid molecules into supramolecular structures is fairly well understood. However, their self-assembly on a solid surface or at an interface remains poorly understood. In certain cases, hydrophobic drug granules can be dispersed in aqueous solution via lipid adsorption surrounding the drug particles as nanocapsules. In other instances, hydrophobic drug molecules attach as monomers to borders of lipid bilayer fragments providing drug formulations that are effective in vivo at low drug-to-lipid-molar ratio. Cationic biomimetic particles offer suitable interfacial environment for adsorption, presentation and targeting of biomolecules in vivo. Thereby antigens can effectively be presented by tailored biomimetic particles for development of vaccines over a range of defined and controllable particle sizes. Biomolecular recognition between receptor and ligand can be reconstituted by means of receptor immobilization into supported lipidic bilayers allowing isolation and characterization of signal transduction steps.Keywords: cationic lipid, phospholipids, bilayer fragments, vesicles, silica, polymeric particles, antigens, novel cationic immunoadjuvants, drugs

  7. Electrophoretic preparation and characterization of porous electrodes from diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Lyda La Torre; Soto, Keyla; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R [Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscale Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PO Box 23346 San Juan, PR 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)

    2007-04-15

    We carried out chemical purification of commercially available diamond nanoparticles by refluxing in aqueous HNO{sub 3} and characterized the samples by spectroscopic and surface techniques before and after purification. As a first step in the preparation of electrodes for electrochemistry, we have electrophoretically deposited thin, highly uniform films of controlled thickness (1-8 {mu}m) on silicon substrates using the purified diamond nanoparticles. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films obtained were homogeneous in thickness and without macroscopic holes or cracks. Such structures could also be used in many other applications such as fuel cells or lithium batteries. We have performed cyclic voltammetry experiments with these electrodes. The voltammograms of diamond nanoparticles electrophoretically deposited on silicon indicate hydrogen evolution. This demonstrates that the material is useful as electrocatalitic support. This conclusion is supported by the cyclic voltammograms obtained using ferrycyanide (III) chloride and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes. However, these redox probes showed very small peak currents. This behavior could be improved by doping the diamond nanoparticles with an impurity such as boron.

  8. Electrophoretic preparation and characterization of porous electrodes from diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Lyda La Torre; Soto, Keyla; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2007-01-01

    We carried out chemical purification of commercially available diamond nanoparticles by refluxing in aqueous HNO 3 and characterized the samples by spectroscopic and surface techniques before and after purification. As a first step in the preparation of electrodes for electrochemistry, we have electrophoretically deposited thin, highly uniform films of controlled thickness (1-8 μm) on silicon substrates using the purified diamond nanoparticles. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films obtained were homogeneous in thickness and without macroscopic holes or cracks. Such structures could also be used in many other applications such as fuel cells or lithium batteries. We have performed cyclic voltammetry experiments with these electrodes. The voltammograms of diamond nanoparticles electrophoretically deposited on silicon indicate hydrogen evolution. This demonstrates that the material is useful as electrocatalitic support. This conclusion is supported by the cyclic voltammograms obtained using ferrycyanide (III) chloride and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes. However, these redox probes showed very small peak currents. This behavior could be improved by doping the diamond nanoparticles with an impurity such as boron

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

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    Timothy A. DeVol

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminescent properties. We discuss the synthesis, properties, and application of heavy metal fluorides; specifically LaF3:RE and PbF2, and group IIA fluorides. Particular attention is given to the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles, including selectively RE-doped LaF3/LaF3, and CaF2/CaF2 core/(multi-shell nanoparticles, and the CaF2-LaF3 system.

  10. Characterization of binary gold/platinum nanoparticles prepared by sonochemistry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, M.; Takatani, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Hori, F.; Taniguchi, R.; Iwase, A.; Oshima, R.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous solutions with Au 3+ and Pt 4+ ions and additives of surfactants (SDS or PEG-MS) were irradiated with an ultrasound at 200 kHz with an input power of 4.2 W/cm 2 , and colloidal nanoparticles were prepared. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, EDX and 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was found that the structures of nanoparticles were changed with the surfactants; Au and Pt nanoparticles were prepared individually by using SDS, and bimetallic Au/Pt alloy nanoparticles with a core-shell structure were produced in the presence of PEG-MS

  11. BiVO4 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity

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    Venkataraman Sivakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple thermal decomposition method. The synthesized bismuth vanadate nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, it is found that the synthesized sample belongs to monoclinic BiVO4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the formation of Bi-O bond in the sample. Ultraviolet–Visible (DRS-UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal the optical property of the BiVO4 nanoparticles. The morphology was identified by both scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Further, the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 nanoparticles was investigated by photodegradation of methylene blue as a model organic pollutant.

  12. Microbial mediated preparation, characterization and optimization of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabadi, Hamed; Honary, Soheila; Ebrahimi, Pouneh; Mohammadi, Milad Ali; Alizadeh, Ahad; Naghibi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    The need for eco-friendly and cost effective methods for nanoparticles synthesis is developing interest in biological approaches which are free from the use of toxic chemicals as byproducts. This study aimed to biosynthesize and optimize the size of gold nanoparticles which produced by biotechnological method using Penicillium crustosum isolated from soil. Initially, Penicillium crustosum was grown in fluid czapek dox broth on shaker at 28 °C and 200 rpm for ten days and then the supernatant was separated from the mycelia to convert AuCl₄ solution into gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles in the optimum conditions were formed with fairly well-defined dimensions and good monodispersity. The characterizations were done by using different methods (UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fluorescence, FT-IR, AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering). The bioconversion was optimized by Box-Behnken experimental design. The results show that the effective factors in this process were concentration of AuCl₄, pH of medium and temperature of shaker incubator. The R(2) value was calculated to be 0.9999 indicating the accuracy and ability of the polynomial model. It can be concluded that the use of multivariate analysis facilitated to find out the optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles induced by Penicillium crustosum in a time and cost effective process. The current approach suggested that rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a biological process for mass scale production of formulations.

  13. Preparation and characterization of Tribulus terrestris-loaded nanoparticles

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    M. Khanavi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Tribulus terrestris is a flowering herb (Zygophyllaceae with several properties in folk medicine such as diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, astringent, and stomachic-lithotripter activities. Although, some extracts and phytochemicals represent excellent bio-activity in vitro, less or no in vivo activity is observed due to their improper molecular size. The intend of this research was investigation of the feasibility of encapsulating T. terrestris into [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid] PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with aqueous ethanol 85% by percolation apparatus. The nanoparticles of T. terrestris-loaded were prepared using a modified simultaneous double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. Elucidations were made on the basis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The content of nanoparticles was analyzed by HPLC with indirect method. Results: The results stated that increasing the portion of plant extract could cause bigger size with no considerable increase in polydispersity index (PDI. The encapsulation efficiency of T. terrestris-loaded nanoparticles was 40.3 to 78.5 and the drug loadings were 0.806 to 6.104, with different ratios of extract. The overall pattern of the release in SDS 1% in dialysis bag in all formulations showed similar and biphasic release kinetic, an initial burst release in the first day followed by constant release over 10 days. Conclusion: An effective approach for the preparation of T. terrestris-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was performed. The controlled release profile showed that these biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles had great potential and should be given particular consideration in further biological researches.

  14. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial orthodontic resin containing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min; Lee, Donghyun; Han, Seungheui; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Lim, Ho-Nam; Kwon, Il Keun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we developed a hybrid dental resin containing silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) to eliminate periodontal disease causing bacteria such as streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus). The silver nanoparticles enables the resin to prevent oral pathogen growth during orthodontic therapy. First, AgNPs were directly synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent with a capping agent. Second, pure orthodontic primer was mixed with the synthesized AgNPs solvent-slurry followed by photocuring. The resultant material was characterized by physicochemical characterization. Finally, an in vitro antimicrobial test was carried out. The results showed that the AgNPs were fully synthesized and clearly embedded in dental resin. In the bacterial test, the dental resin containing AgNPs showed potent antimicrobial activity against two kinds of bacteria. In conclusion, our methodology may allow for the generation of a wide range of dental resin and composite products which inhibit periodontitis causing bacteria.

  15. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization, and electro

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    Islam M. Al-Akraa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The modification of a glassy carbon electrode with gold nanoparticles was pursued, characterized, and examined for electrocatalytic applications. The fabrication process of this electrode involved assembling the gold nanoparticles atop of amino group grafted glassy carbon electrode. The scanning electron microscopy indicated the deposition of gold nanoparticles in flower-shaped nanostructures with an average particle size of ca. 150 nm. Interestingly, the electrode exhibited outstanding enhancement in the electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction, which reflected from the large negative shift (ca. 0.8 V in its onset potential, in comparison with that observed at the bulk unmodified glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Alternatively, the Tafel plot of the modified electrode revealed a significant increase (∼one order of magnitude in the apparent exchange current density of the oxygen evolution reaction upon the modification, which infers a faster charge transfer. Kinetically, gold nanoparticles are believed to facilitate a favorable adsorption of OH− (fundamental step in oxygen evolution reaction, which allows the charge transfer at reasonably lower anodic polarizations.

  16. Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, Rabinarayan; Suresh, Padilama

    2012-03-01

    In the present scenario, most of the developed and new discovered drugs are posing real challenge to the formulation scientists due to their poor aqueous solubility which in turn is responsible for poor bioavailability. One of the approach to overcome above problem is the packaging of the drug in to particulate carrier system. Among various carriers, lipid emerged as very attractive candidate because of its unique property of enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Solid lipid, one of the physical forms of lipid, is used to formulate nanoparticles, popularly known as Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), as an alternative carrier system to emulsions, liposomes and polymeric micro- and nano-particles. SLNs combine advantages of the traditional systems but avoid some of their major disadvantages. This paper reviews numerous production techniques for SLNs along with their advantages and disadvantages. Special attention is paid to the characterization of the SLNs by using various analytical tools. It also emphasizes on physical state of lipid (supercooled melts, different lipid modifications).

  17. Preparation and characterization of spironolactone nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Kim, Sanggu; Tan, Reginald B H

    2009-06-22

    Due to low aqueous solubility and slow dissolution rate, spironolactone, a synthetic steroid diuretic, has a low and variable oral bioavailability. Nanoparticles were thus prepared by antisolvent precipitation in this work for accelerating dissolution of this kind of poorly water-soluble drugs. Effects of surfactant type/concentration and feed drug concentration on the precipitated particle size were evaluated. It was found that introduction of spironolactone solution in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to the antisolvent water can produce the particles in the submicron range with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the stabilizer. The particle size decreased with the increase of HPMC concentration from 0 to 0.125% (w/v), further increase of which did not affect the size significantly. Increasing feed drug concentration from 10 to 100 mg/ml resulted in the particle size decrease. In comparison with raw drug, the chemical structure of nanosized spironolactone was not changed but the crystallinity was reduced. Dissolution of spironolactone nanoparticles in 0.1M HCl was 2.59 times faster than raw drugs in 60 min.

  18. Preparation and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanoparticles using laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, K. S.; Jabir, M. S.; Abdulameer, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    Carbon nanoparticles CNPs ecorated by copper oxide nano-sized particles would be successfully equipped using technique named pulsed laser ablation in liquid. The XRD pattern proved the presence of phases assigned to carbon and different phases of copper oxide. The chemical structure of the as-prepared nanoparticles samples was decided by Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS) measurement. EDS analysis results show the contents of Carbon, Oxygen and Copper in the final product. These nanoparticles were spherical shaped with a size distribution 10 to 80 nm or carbon nanoparticles and 5 to 50 nm for carbon decorated copper oxide nanoparticles, according to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and particle-size distribution histogram. It was found that after doping with copper oxide, nanoparticles become smaller and more regular in shape. Optical absorption spectra of prepared nanoparticles were measured using UV–VIS spectroscopy. The absorption spectrum of carbon nanoparticles without doping indicates absorption peak at about 228 nm. After doping with copper oxide, absorption shows appearance of new absorption peak at about (254-264) nm, which is referred to the movement of the charge between 2p and 4s band of Cu2+ ions.

  19. Core/shell structured ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jing; Tao Xia; Pu Yuan; Zeng Xiaofei; Chen Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical synthesis route. Subsequently, SiO 2 layers were successfully coated onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles to modify the photocatalytic activity in acidic or alkaline solutions. The obtained particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and zeta potential. It was found that ultrafine core/shell structured ZnO/SiO 2 nanoparticles were successfully obtained. The photocatalytic performance of ZnO/SiO 2 core/shell structured nanoparticles in Rhodamine B aqueous solution at varied pH value were also investigated. Compared with uncoated ZnO nanoparticles, core/shell structured ZnO/SiO 2 nanoparticles with thinner SiO 2 shell possess improved stability and relatively better photocatalytic activity in acidic or alkaline solutions, which would broaden its potential application in pollutant treatment.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Lim; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:24758929

  1. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  2. Artesunate-loaded chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Renu; Gupta, Sushma; Pathak, Natasha

    2012-12-01

    Artesunate (AST), the most widely used artemisnin derivative, has poor aqueous solubility and suffers from low oral bioavailability (~40%). Under these conditions, nanoparticles with controlled and sustained released properties can be a suitable solution for improving its biopharmaceuticals properties. This work reports the preparation and characterization of auto-assembled chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles loaded with AST and AST complexed with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to boost its antimalarial activity. The nanoparticles prepared by direct injection of lecithin alcoholic solution into chitosan/water solution have shown the particle size distribution below 300 nm. Drug entrapment efficiency was found to be maximum (90%) for nanoparticles containing 100 mg of AST. Transmission electron microscopy images show spherical shape with contrasted corona (chitosan) surrounded by a lipidic core (lecithin + isopropyl myristate). Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated the presence of drug in drug-loaded nanoparticles along with the disappearance of decomposition exotherm suggesting the increased physical stability of drug in prepared formulations. Negligible changes in the characteristic peaks of drug in Fourier-transform infrared spectra indicated the absence of any interaction among the various components entrapped in the nanoparticle formulation. In vitro drug release behavior was found to be influenced by pH value. Increased in vivo antimalarial activity in terms of less mean percent parasitemia was observed in infected Plasmodium berghei mice after the oral administration of all the prepared nanoparticle formulations.

  3. Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Gold Nanoparticles in Radiotherapy

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    Ali Kamiar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was preparation, physicochemical characterization and performance evaluation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs in radiotherapy. Another objective was the investigation of anti-bacterial efficacy of gold nanoparticle against E. coli clinical strains. Methods: Gold nanoparticles prepared by controlled reduction of an aqueous HAuCl4 solution using Tri sodium citrate. Particle size analysis and Transmission electron microscopy were used for physicochemical characterization. Polymer gel dosimetry was used for evaluation of the enhancement of absorbed dose. Diffusion method in agar media was used for investigation of anti-bacterial effect. Results: Gold nanoparticles synthesized in size range from 57 nm to 346 nm by planning different formulation. Gold nanoparticle in 57 nm size increased radiation dose effectiveness with the magnitude of about 21 %. At the concentration of 400 ppm, Nano gold exhibited significant anti-bacterial effect against E. coli clinical strains. Conclusion: It is concluded that gold nanoparticles can be applied as dose enhancer in radiotherapy. The Investigation of anti-bacterial efficacy showed that gold nanoparticle had significant effect against E. coli clinical strains.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites Prepared via a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method

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    Kambiz Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc sulfide (ZnS nanoparticles and nanocomposites powders were prepared by chemical precipitation method using zinc acetate and various sulfur sources. The ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and fourier transform infra-red. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffraction pattern. The crystallite size of ZnS nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the scanning electron microscopy. The grain size of zinc sulfide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by X-ray diffraction results. The optical properties of particles were studied with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum.

  5. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Fazry, Shazrul; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  6. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul

    2015-01-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm

  7. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fazry, Shazrul [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  8. Characterization of silver nanoparticles prepared by wet chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The silver nanoparticles formed were spherical in shape with mean size of 10.3 nm. The ... antibacterial activity against various strains of bacteria. Keywords: Wet ..... Fang J, Zhong C, Mu R. The study of deposited silver particulate ...

  9. Polymeric nanoparticles: A study on the preparation variables and characterization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucho, Carina I C; Barros, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Since the emergence of Nanotechnology in the past decades, the development and design of nanomaterials has become an important field of research. An emerging component in this field is nanomedicine, wherein nanoscale materials are being developed for use as imaging agents or for drug delivery applications. Much work is currently focused in the preparation of well-defined nanomaterials in terms of size and shape. These factors play a significantly role in the nanomaterial behavior in vivo. In this context, this review focuses on the toolbox of available methods for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles. We highlight some recent examples from the literature that demonstrate the influence of the preparation method on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles. Additionally, in the second part, the characterization methods for this type of nanoparticles are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and characterization of amorphous amphotericin B nanoparticles for oral administration through liquid antisolvent precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yuangang; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xiuhua; Wang, Weiguo; Li, Yong; Ge, Yunlong; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kunlun

    2014-03-12

    We prepared amphotericin B (AmB) nanoparticles through liquid antisolvent precipitation (LAP) and by freeze-drying to improve the solubility of AmB for oral administration. The LAP was optimized through a single-factor experiment. We determined the effects of surfactants and their concentration, the stirring time, the precipitation temperature, the stirring intensity, the drug concentration and the volume ratio of antisolvent to solvent on the mean particle size (MPS) of the AmB nanoparticles. Increased stirring intensity and precipitation time favored AmB nanoparticles with smaller MPS, but precipitation times exceeding 30 min did not further reduce the MPS. Increased Tween-80 concentration and the drug concentration decreased the MPS of the AmB nanoparticles. Increased precipitation temperature and antisolvent to solvent volume ratio initially decreased the MPS of the AmB nanoparticles, which increased thereafter. Optimum conditions produced AmB nanoparticles with an MPS of 135.1 nm. The AmB nanoparticles were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mass spectrometry (MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), solvent residue, drug purity test, and dissolution testing. The analyses indicated that the chemical structure of AmB remained unchanged in the nanoparticles, but the structure was changed from crystalline to amorphous. The residual DMSO in the nanoparticles was 0.24% less than the standard set by the International Conference on Harmonization limit for class III solvents. The AmB nanoparticles exhibited 2.1 times faster dissolution rates and 13 times equilibrium solubility compared with the raw drug. The detection results indicate that the AmB nanoparticles potentially improved the oral absorption of AmB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and characterization of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles of pilocarpine HCl for ocular application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütfi, Genç; Müzeyyen, Demirel

    2013-01-01

    Pilocarpine is used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Various studies were performed to improve the bioavailability and prolong the residence time of drugs in ocular drug delivery. Drug loaded polymeric and lipid nanoparticles offer several favourable biological properties, such as biodegradability, nontoxicity, biocompatibility and mucoadhesiveness. Therefore, preparing positively-charged pilocarpine HCl-loaded polymeric and lipid nanoparticles was the purpose of this study. Nanoparticles were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The non-biodegradable positively-charged polymer Eudragit(®) RS 100 and semi-solid lipid excipient Gelucire(®) 44/14 were used as a vehicle, the cationic lipid octadecylamine was used as a cationic agent. The formulations were evaluated in terms of particle size, size distribution, zeta potential measurement, thermal behavior (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC), entrapment efficacy and pH. Characterizations of nanoparticles were analyzed during the storage period of 6 months for stability tests. Polymeric and lipid nanoparticles could be prepared successfully promising their use for ophthalmic delivery.

  12. Preparation and characterization of Ce-doped HfO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gálvez-Barboza, S.; González, L.A.; Puente-Urbina, B.A.; Saucedo-Salazar, E.M.; García-Cerda, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ce-doped HfO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solgel method. • Ce-doped HfO 2 nanoparticles have a semispherical shape with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm. • The samples doped with 10% in weight of Ce directly crystallized in a cubic structure. • A quick, straightforward and effective route for the preparation of Ce-doped nanoparticles. - Abstract: A modified solgel method to synthesize Ce-doped HfO 2 nanoparticles was carried out using a precursor material prepared with cerium nitrate, hafnium chloride, citric acid and ethylene glycol. The obtained precursor material was calcined at 500 and 700 °C for 2 h in air. The influence of the concentration of Ce and the calcination temperature was studied to observe the structural and morphological changes of the obtained materials. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman scattering (RS) were employed. The XRD patterns shown that the Ce-doped HfO 2 undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic to cubic phase, which is significantly dependent on the Ce content and calcination temperature. TEM images have also confirmed the existence of semispherical nanoparticles with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm

  13. Preparation and characterization of Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gálvez-Barboza, S. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Industria Metalúrgica # 1062 Parque Industrial, C.P. 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); González, L.A. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Industria Metalúrgica # 1062 Parque Industrial, C.P. 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Puente-Urbina, B.A.; Saucedo-Salazar, E.M. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); García-Cerda, L.A., E-mail: luis.garcia@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solgel method. • Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a semispherical shape with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm. • The samples doped with 10% in weight of Ce directly crystallized in a cubic structure. • A quick, straightforward and effective route for the preparation of Ce-doped nanoparticles. - Abstract: A modified solgel method to synthesize Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles was carried out using a precursor material prepared with cerium nitrate, hafnium chloride, citric acid and ethylene glycol. The obtained precursor material was calcined at 500 and 700 °C for 2 h in air. The influence of the concentration of Ce and the calcination temperature was studied to observe the structural and morphological changes of the obtained materials. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman scattering (RS) were employed. The XRD patterns shown that the Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic to cubic phase, which is significantly dependent on the Ce content and calcination temperature. TEM images have also confirmed the existence of semispherical nanoparticles with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm.

  14. Paraquat-loaded alginate/chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and soil sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Silva, Mariana dos; Sgarbi Cocenza, Daniela [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Grillo, Renato; Silva de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tonello, Paulo Sergio [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Camargo de Oliveira, Luciana [Department of Chemistry, UFSCAr, Campus Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Lopes Cassimiro, Douglas [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Agrochemicals are amongst the contaminants most widely encountered in surface and subterranean hydrological systems. They comprise a variety of molecules, with properties that confer differing degrees of persistence and mobility in the environment, as well as different toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potentials, which can affect non-target organisms including man. In this work, alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as a carrier system for the herbicide paraquat. The preparation and physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles was followed by evaluation of zeta potential, pH, size and polydispersion. The techniques employed included transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formulation presented a size distribution of 635 {+-} 12 nm, polydispersion of 0.518, zeta potential of -22.8 {+-} 2.3 mV and association efficiency of 74.2%. There were significant differences between the release profiles of free paraquat and the herbicide associated with the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles. Tests showed that soil sorption of paraquat, either free or associated with the nanoparticles, was dependent on the quantity of organic matter present. The results presented in this work show that association of paraquat with alginate/chitosan nanoparticles alters the release profile of the herbicide, as well as its interaction with the soil, indicating that this system could be an effective means of reducing negative impacts caused by paraquat.

  15. Preparation and characterization of the nanoparticle and nanocomposite by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.P.; Choi, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanometer metal particle-organic polymer composites have attracted considerable interests in recent years. These composites not only combine the advantageous properties of metals and polymers but also exhibit many new characters that single-phase materials do not have. They have a wide range of applications including electromagnetic inferences shielding, heat conduction, discharge static electricity, conversion of mechanical to electrical signals, and like. In order to obtain nanocomposite, silver nanoparticle was prepared by γ-irradiation. The obtained Ag nanoparticle was characterized by UV, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and etc. The ethylacetate-Ag nanocomposite was prepared by emulsion polymerization. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, and thermal (TGA/DSC) analysis. Furthermore, the CdS nanocomposite was prepared using CdSO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 by γ-irradiation method. The ethylacetate-CdS nanocomposite was also prepared by emulsion polymerization, and characterized by SEM, XRD, and thermal (TGA/DSC) analysis. The application of such prepared metal particle-organic polymer composites in the field of anti-bacterial film, semiconductor film, and fluorescence film may be of interest

  16. Biodegradable nanoparticles for improved kidney bioavailability of rhein: preparation, characterization, plasma, and kidney pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yinghui; Luo, Xiaoting; Guan, Jiani; Ma, Jianping; Zhong, Yicong; Luo, Jingwen; Li, Fanzhu

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop biodegradable nanoparticles for improved kidney bioavailability of rhein (RH). RH-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using an emulsification solvent evaporation method and fully characterized by several techniques. Kidney pharmacokinetics was assessed by implanting a microdialysis probe in rat's kidney cortex. Blood samples were simultaneously collected (via femoral artery) for assessing plasma pharmacokinetics. Optimized nanoparticles were small, with a mean particle size of 132.6 ± 5.95 nm, and homogeneously dispersed. The charge on the particles was nearly zero, the encapsulation efficiency was 62.71 ± 3.02%, and the drug loading was 1.56 ± 0.15%. In vitro release of RH from the nanoparticles showed an initial burst release followed by a sustained release. Plasma and kidney pharmacokinetics showed that encapsulation of RH into nanoparticles significantly increased its kidney bioavailability (AUC kidney /AUC plasma  = 0.586 ± 0.072), clearly indicating that nanoparticles are a promising strategy for kidney drug delivery.

  17. Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared via a Simple Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hedayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc oxide (ZnO nano-crystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel method using zinc acetate. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using XRD pattern. The crystallite size of ZnO nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the SEM. The grain size of zinc oxide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by XRD results. The optical properties of particles were studied with UV-Vis an FTIR absorption spectrum. The Raman spectrum measurements were carried out using a micro-laser Raman spectrometer forms the ZnO nanoparticles. At the end studied the effect of calcined temperature on the photoluminescence (PL emission of ZnO nanoparticles.

  18. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macková, Hana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Horák, Daniel, E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Donchenko, Georgiy Viktorovich; Andriyaka, Vadim Ivanovich; Palyvoda, Olga Mikhailovna; Chernishov, Vladimir Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Chekhun, Vasyl Fedorovich; Todor, Igor Nikolaevich [R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NASU, 45 Vasylkivska St., 03022 Kiev (Ukraine); Kuzmenko, Oleksandr Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    Maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides and subsequent oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and coated with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(DMAAm-AA)]. They were characterized by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The effect of superparamagnetic P(DMAAm-AA)-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on oxidation of blood lipids, glutathione and proteins in blood serum was detected using 2-thiobarbituric acid and the ThioGlo fluorophore. Finally, mice received magnetic nanoparticles administered per os and the antitumor activity of the particles was tested on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male mice line C57BL/6 as an experimental in vivo metastatic tumor model; the tumor size was measured and the number of metastases in lungs was determined. Surface-modified γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed higher antitumor and antimetastatic activities than commercial CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and the conventional antitumor agent cisplatin. - Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. • Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) coating was synthetized. • Blood lipid, glutathione and protein peroxidation/oxidation was determined. • Antitumor effect of coated particles on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was observed.

  19. Preparation and characterization of polymer nanocomposites coated magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabha, G.; Raj, V.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research work, the anticancer drug ‘curcumin’ is loaded with Chitosan (CS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CS-PEG-PVP) polymer nanocomposites coated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles. The system can be used for targeted and controlled drug delivery of anticancer drugs with reduced side effects and greater efficiency. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Curcumin drug loaded Fe 3 O 4 -CS, Fe 3 O 4 -CS-PEG and Fe 3 O 4 -CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles exhibited the mean particle size in the range of 183–390 nm with a zeta potential value of 26–41 mV as measured using Malvern Zetasizer. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and in-vitro drug release behavior of curcumin drug loaded Fe 3 O 4 -CS, Fe 3 O 4 -CS-PEG and Fe 3 O 4 -CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were studied using UV spectrophotometer. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles using MTT assay was also studied. The curcumin drug release was examined at different pH medium and it was proved that the drug release depends upon the pH medium in addition to the nature of matrix. - Highlights: • The considered drug carrier Fe 3 O 4 -CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were prepared and entrapping (Curcumin). • The amount of the drug had great effect on the drug LC and EE and zeta potential Nanocomposites. • The Curcumin- loaded Fe 3 O 4 -CS, Fe 3 O 4 -CS-PEG and Fe 3 O 4 -CS-PEG-PVP nanocomposites showed pH responsive drug release.

  20. Polymeric Nanoparticles of Brazilian Red Propolis Extract: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant and Leishmanicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; da Silva, Priscilla Fonseca; Azevedo, Lais Farias; da Rocha, Louisianny Guerra; de Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; Lima e Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly; Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Fonseca, Eduardo Jorge da Silva; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Zhang, Alex Tong; Watson, David G.

    2016-06-01

    The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay. The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE). The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38.0

  1. Carbon nanotube/platinum nanoparticle nanocomposites: preparation, characterization and application in electro oxidation of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinke, Adir H.; Zarbin, Aldo J. G.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of different platinum nanoparticle/ carbon nanotube nanocomposite samples are described along with the application of these nanocomposites as electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. Samples were prepared by a biphasic system in which platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) are synthesized in situ in contact with a carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersion. Variables including platinum precursor/CNT ratio, previous chemical treatment of carbon nanotubes, and presence or absence of a capping agent were evaluated and correlated with the characteristic of the synthesized materials. Samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Glassy carbon electrodes were modified by the nanocomposite samples and evaluated as electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. Current densities of 56.1 and 79.8/104.7 mA cm -2 were determined for the oxidation of methanol and ethanol, respectively. (author)

  2. Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan nanoparticles for eosin Y as a model anionic dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Wenli; Xu Zirong; Han Xinyan; Xu Yinglei; Miao Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    The present study dealt with the adsorption of eosin Y, as a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution using chitosan nanoparticles prepared by the ionic gelation between chitosan and tripolyphosphate. The nanoparticles were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), size and zeta potential analysis. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of eosin Y from aqueous solution by chitosan nanoparticles. The results showed that the adsorption of eosin Y on chitosan nanoparticles was affected by contact time, eosin Y concentration, pH and temperature. Experimental data followed Langmuir isotherm model and the adsorption capacity was found to be 3.333 g/g. The adsorption process was endothermic in nature with an enthalpy change (ΔH) of 16.7 kJ/mol at 20-50 deg. C. The optimum pH value for eosin Y removal was found to be 2-6. The dye was desorbed from the chitosan nanoparticles by increasing the pH of the solution

  3. Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan nanoparticles for eosin Y as a model anionic dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Wenli [Institute of Feed Science, College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: wenlidu@126.com; Xu Zirong; Han Xinyan; Xu Yinglei; Miao Zhiguo [Institute of Feed Science, College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-05-01

    The present study dealt with the adsorption of eosin Y, as a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution using chitosan nanoparticles prepared by the ionic gelation between chitosan and tripolyphosphate. The nanoparticles were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), size and zeta potential analysis. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of eosin Y from aqueous solution by chitosan nanoparticles. The results showed that the adsorption of eosin Y on chitosan nanoparticles was affected by contact time, eosin Y concentration, pH and temperature. Experimental data followed Langmuir isotherm model and the adsorption capacity was found to be 3.333 g/g. The adsorption process was endothermic in nature with an enthalpy change ({delta}H) of 16.7 kJ/mol at 20-50 deg. C. The optimum pH value for eosin Y removal was found to be 2-6. The dye was desorbed from the chitosan nanoparticles by increasing the pH of the solution.

  4. Preparation and characterization of biocompatible silver nanoparticles using pomegranate peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiriboroumand, Majid; Montazer, Majid; Barani, Hossein

    2018-02-01

    The potential application of any nanoparticles, including silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), strongly depends on their stability against aggregation. In the current study, an aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was used as a stabilizer during synthesis of AgNPs. Nanoparticles have been prepared by the chemical reduction method from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate in the presence of sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The AgNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements, UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antibacterial efficiency of AgNPs against Escherichia coli was investigated. The size, polydispersity index, FWHM, and colloidal stability of nanoparticles in dispersion depends on the extract concentrations. In the presence of pomegranate peel extract, the nanoparticles suspension shows colloidal stability at least for a week. Our studies show that synthesized AgNPs with the above described procedure were stable at pH = 3-12 and in the temperature range of 25-85 °C. Additionally, AgNPs exhibit antibacterial properties, especially at the lowest amount of extract to silver ratio (K Extract/Ag ). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Astaxanthin Nanoparticles by Solvent-Diffusion Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anarjan, N.; Tan, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, astaxanthin nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous media using solvent-diffusion technique. Sodium caseinate, gelatin, Polysorbate 20 and gum Arabic were selected as different food grade surface active molecules for the stabilization of the produced nanoparticles. Results showed that among produced astaxanthin nanoparticles, the Polysorbate 20-stabilized nanoparticles showed the smallest particle size; gum Arabic-stabilized nanoparticles had the smallest polydispersity index and highest physical stability in simulated gastric fluid (SGF); and those stabilized using gelatin had the highest zeta potential. Sodium caseinate stabilized nanoparticles had the highest astaxanthin content in fresh samples as compared to other prepared nano dispersions. (author)

  6. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorniani D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dena Dorniani,1 Mohd Zobir bin Hussein,1 Aminu Umar Kura,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2 Abdul Halim Shaari,3 Zalinah Ahmad4 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 2Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics Laboratory, 3Physics Department, Faculty of Science, 4Chemical Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. Methods and results: We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D, ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate “burst release” and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively

  7. Preparation and characterization of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, M.; Camilo, R.L.; Sampaio, L.C.; Macedo, M.A.; Nakamura, M.; Toma, H.E.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles coated with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, NH 2 (CH 2 ) 3 Si(OC 2 H 5 ) 3 , were prepared by silanization reaction and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. Both uncoated and organosilane-coated magnetite exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and strong magnetization at room temperature. Basic groups anchored on the external surface of the coated magnetite were observed. The superparamagnetic particles of coated magnetite are able to bind to biological molecules, drugs and metals and in this way remove them from medium by magnetic separation procedures

  8. Preparation and characterization of polymer nanocomposites coated magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabha, G., E-mail: gprabhagovinn@gmail.com; Raj, V., E-mail: alaguraj2@rediffmail.com

    2016-06-15

    In the present research work, the anticancer drug ‘curcumin’ is loaded with Chitosan (CS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CS-PEG-PVP) polymer nanocomposites coated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles. The system can be used for targeted and controlled drug delivery of anticancer drugs with reduced side effects and greater efficiency. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Curcumin drug loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles exhibited the mean particle size in the range of 183–390 nm with a zeta potential value of 26–41 mV as measured using Malvern Zetasizer. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and in-vitro drug release behavior of curcumin drug loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were studied using UV spectrophotometer. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles using MTT assay was also studied. The curcumin drug release was examined at different pH medium and it was proved that the drug release depends upon the pH medium in addition to the nature of matrix. - Highlights: • The considered drug carrier Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were prepared and entrapping (Curcumin). • The amount of the drug had great effect on the drug LC and EE and zeta potential Nanocomposites. • The Curcumin- loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CS-PEG-PVP nanocomposites showed pH responsive drug release.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Cu/Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Badawy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper/Copper oxide (Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were synthesized by modified chemical reduction method in an aqueous medium using hydrazine as reducing agent and copper sulfate pentahydrate as precursor. The Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM. The analysis revealed the pattern of face-centered cubic (fcc crystal structure of copper Cu metal and cubic cuprites structure for Cu2O. The SEM result showed monodispersed and agglomerated particles with two micron sizes of about 180 nm and 800 nm, respectively. The TEM result showed few single crystal particles of face-centered cubic structures with average particle size about 11-14 nm. The catalytic activity of Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was investigated and compared with manganese oxide MnO2. The results showed that the second-order equation provides the best correlation for the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 on Cu/Cu2O. The catalytic activity of hydrogen peroxide by Cu/Cu2O is less than the catalytic activity of MnO2 due to the presence of copper metal Cu with cuprous oxide Cu2O. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th January 2015; Revised: 14th March 2015; Accepted: 15th March 2015How to Cite: Badawy, S.M., El-Khashab, R.A., Nayl, A.A. (2015. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Cu/Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared in Aqueous Medium. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 169-174. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7984.169-174 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7984.169-174  

  10. Resveratrol-loaded glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization, and targeting effect on liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingfang; Lian, Bolin; Deng, Yiping; Feng, Ziqi; Zhong, Chen; Wu, Weiwei; Huang, Yannian; Wang, Lingling; Zu, Chang; Zhao, Xiuhua

    2017-08-01

    In this study, glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles were prepared to establish a tumor targeting nano-sized drug delivery system. Glycyrrhizic acid was coupled to human serum albumin, and resveratrol was encapsulated in glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin by high-pressure homogenization emulsification. The average particle size of sample nanoparticles prepared under the optimal conditions was 108.1 ± 5.3 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.001, and the amount of glycyrrhizic acid coupled with human serum albumin was 112.56 µg/mg. The drug encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency were 83.6 and 11.5%, respectively. The glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles were characterized through laser light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analyses, and gas chromatography. The characterization results showed that resveratrol in glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles existed in amorphous state and the residual amounts of chloroform and methanol in nanoparticles were separately less than the international conference on harmonization (ICH) limit. The in vitro drug-release study showed that the nanoparticles released the drug slowly and continuously. The inhibitory rate of glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2 H-tetrazolium bromide method. The IC50 values of glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles and resveratrol were 62.5 and 95.5 µg/ml, respectively. The target ability of glycyrrhizic acid-conjugated human serum albumin nanoparticles wrapping resveratrol nanoparticles

  11. Poly (acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate nanoparticles: I. Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mohy Eldin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the preparation and characterization of poly (acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate Copolymer, P(AN-co-MMA, nano-particles using precipitation polymerization technique. Potassium per-sulfate redox initiation system was used to perform polymerization process in an alcoholic aqueous system. The impact of different polymerization conditions such as comonomer concentration and ratio, polymerization time, polymerization temperatures, initiator concentration and co-solvent composition on the polymerization yield and particle size was studied. Maximum polymerization yield, 70%, was obtained with MMA:AN (90%:10% comonomer composition. Particle sizes ranging from 16 nm to 1483 nm were obtained and controlled by variation of polymerization conditions. The co-polymerization process was approved by FT-IR and TGA analysis. The copolymer composition was investigated by nitrogen content analysis. Copolymers with a progressive percentage of PAN show thermal stabilities close to PAN Homopolymer. SEM photographs prove spherical structure of the produced copolymers. The investigated system shows promising future in the preparation of nanoparticles from comonomers without using emulsifiers or dispersive agents.

  12. Preparation and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Pt nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ângela Leão, E-mail: angelala01@hotmail.com [Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP), Department of Chemistry, ICEB (Brazil); Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte [Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Center of Natural Sciences (Brazil); Fabris, José Domingos [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry, ICEx (Brazil); Pereira, Márcio César [Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM), Institute of Science, Engineering and Technology (Brazil); Ardisson, José Domingos [Center for the Development of the Nuclear Technology (CDTN), Laboratory of Applied Physics (Brazil); Domingues, Rosana Zacarias [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry, ICEx (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Pt and Pt-based nanomaterials are active anticancer drugs for their ability to inhibit the division of living cells. Nanoparticles of magnetite containing variable proportions of platinum were prepared in the laboratory. The magnetite nanoparticles with platinum (Pt-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were obtained by reducing the Fe{sup 3+} of the maghemite (γ Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) mixed with platinum (II) acetylacetonate and sucrose in two inversely coupled ceramic crucibles and heated in a furnace at 400 °C for 20 min. The formed carbon during this preparation acts to chemically reduce the ferric iron in maghemite. Moreover, its residual layer on the particle surface prevents the forming magnetite from oxidizing in air and helps retain the platinum in the solid mixture. The produced Pt-magnetite samples were characterized by {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. Measurements of AC magnetic-field-induced heating properties of the obtained nanocomposites, in aqueous solution, showed that they are suitable as a hyperthermia agent for biological applications.

  13. Lysozyme-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and colloidal stability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim, Burcu; Kara, Aslı; Vural, İmran; Bozkır, Asuman

    2016-11-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNPs) are polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers, which have emerged as a potent therapeutic nanocarrier alternative to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. The aim of this work was to develop, characterize and evaluate LPNPs to deliver a model protein, lysozyme. Lysozyme-loaded LPNPs were prepared by using the modified w/o/w double-emulsion-solvent-evaporation method. Poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) was used as polymeric core material and tripalmitin:lechitin mixture was used to form a lipid shell around the LPNPs. LPNPs were evaluated for particle size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, stability and cytotoxicity. The DLS measurement results showed that the particle size of LPNPs ranged from 58.04 ± 1.95 nm to 2009.00 ± 0.52 nm. The AFM and TEM images of LPNPs demonstrate that LPNPs are spherical in shape. The protein-loading capacity of LPNPs ranged from 5.81% to 60.32%, depending on the formulation parameters. LPNPs displayed a biphasic drug release pattern with a burst release within 1 h, followed by sustained release afterward. Colloidal stability results of LPNPs in different media showed that particle size and zeta potential values of particles did not change significantly in all media except of FBS 100% for 120 h. Finally, the results of a cellular uptake study showed that LPNPs were significantly taken up by 83.3% in L929 cells. We concluded that the LPNPs prepared with PCL as polymeric core material and tripalmitin:lechitin mixture as lipid shell should be a promising choice for protein delivery.

  14. Preparation and characterization of β-cyclodextrin grafted N-maleoyl chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Hou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available β-cyclodextrin (CD grafted N-maleoyl chitosan (CD-g-NMCS with two different degrees of substitution (DS of N-maleoyl (DS = 21.2% and 30.5% were synthesized from maleic anhydride and chitosan bearing pendant cyclodextrin (CD-g-CS. CD-g-NMCS based nanoparticles were prepared via an ionic gelation method together with chitosan and CD-g-CS nanoparticles. The size and zeta potential of prepared CD-g-NMCS nanoparticles were 179.2~274.0 nm and 36.2~42.4 mV, respectively. In vitro stability test indicated that CD-g-NMCS nanoparticles were more stable in phosphate-buffered saline compared with chitosan nanoparticles. Moreover, a poorly water-soluble drug, ketoprofen (KTP, was selected as a model drug to study the obtained nanoparticle's potentials as drug delivery carriers. The drug loading efficiency of CD-g-NMCS20 nanoparticles were 14.8% for KTP. MTT assay showed that KTP loaded CD-g-NMCS nanoparticles were safe drug carriers. Notably, in vitro drug release studies showed that KTP was released in a sustained-release manner for the nanoparticles. The pharmacokinetic of drug loaded CD-g-NMCS20 nanoparticles were evaluated in rats after intravenous administration. The results of studies revealed that, compared with free KTP, KTP loaded CD-g-NMCS20 nanoparticles exhibited a significant increase in AUC0→24h and mean residence time by 6.6-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively. Therefore, CD-g-NMCS nanoparticles could be used as a novel promising nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for sustained release of poorly water-soluble drugs. The carboxylic acid groups of the CD-g-NMCS molecule provide convenient sites for further structural modifications including introduction of tissue- or disease- specific targeting groups.

  15. Preparing and Characterizing Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom as an Antigen Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadpour Dounighi, N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chitosan nanoparticles have been studied widely for protein delivery. In this study, Hemiscorpius lepturus (HL venom was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The aim of the present work was to carry out a systematic study for preparing biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles for loading HL scorpion venom and to evaluate their potential as an antigen delivery system. In this study, HL venom loaded chitosan nanoparticles fabricated by ionic gelation of chitosan and tripolyphosphate and the factors which may be influenced in the preparation of nanoparticles were analyzed. Also, their physicochemical properties and in vitro release behavior were studied. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and capacity were observed when the chitosan concentration and HL venom were 2mg/ml and 500µg/ml, respectively. The HL venom loaded nanoparticles were in the size range of 130-160nm (polydispersity index values of 0.423 and exhibited the positive zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope imaging showed spherical and smooth surface of nanoparticles. The profiles of the release exhibited a burst releases about 50% in the first 4 hr and then slowed down at a constant rate. The obtained results suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles prepared in this work had the potential for antigen delivery.

  16. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H.

    2010-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  17. Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles containing cyclosporine by the emulsification-diffusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Urbán-Morlán

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Zaida Urbán-Morlán1, Adriana Ganem-Rondero1, Luz María Melgoza-Contreras2, José Juan Escobar-Chávez1,2, María Guadalupe Nava-Arzaluz1, David Quintanar-Guerrero11División de Estudios de Posgrado (Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Estado de México, México; 2Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso, Colonia Villa Quietud, MéxicoAbstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because they improve absorption and bioavailability. The aim of the study was to prepare lipidic nanoparticles containing cyclosporine (CyA by the emulsification-diffusion method and to study their physicochemical stability. Glyceryl behenate (Compritol® ATO 888 and lauroyl macrogolglycerides (Gelucire® 44/14 were used as carrier materials. Nanoparticles with good stability were obtained with Gelucire®, while it was difficult to obtain stable systems with Compritol®. Systems with Gelucire® were characterized by particle size, Z-potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Particle size and Z-potential were evaluated for at least three months. With a high CyA content (≥60 mg in Gelucire® SLNs, variations in size were greater and particle size also increased over time in all batches; this effect may have been caused by a probable expulsion of the drug due to the lipid’s partial rearrangement. While the Z-potential decreased 10 mV after three months, this effect may be explained by the superficial properties of the drug that make the molecules to be preferably oriented at the solid-liquid interface, causing a change in the net charge of the particle. SEM confirmed size and shape of the nanoparticles. DSC studies evidenced that CyA affects the lipid structure by a mechanism still unknown

  18. Preparation and characterization of DOX loaded keratin nanoparticles for pH/GSH dual responsive release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanmei; Zhi, Xuelian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Lin, Jiantao [Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan 523808 (China); You, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: jyuan@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Smart drug carriers are the current need of the hour in controlled drug delivery applications. In this work, pH and redox dual responsive keratin based drug-loaded nanoparticles (KDNPs) were fabricated through two-step strategies. Keratin nanoparticles were first prepared by desolvation method and chemical crosslinking, followed by electrostatic adsorbing doxorubicin (DOX) to afford drug loaded keratin nanoparticles (KDNPs). The size, size distribution, and morphology of the KDNPs were characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scan electronic microscope (SEM). Drug delivery profiles showed that KDNPs exhibited pH and glutathione (GSH) dual-responsive characters. Under tumor tissue/cell microenvironments (more acidic and high GSH level), KDNPs tended to accumulate at the tumor region through a potential enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and perform surface negative-to-positive charge conversion. Hemolysis assay indicated that KDNPs had good blood compatibility. Cellular uptake assay demonstrated that KDNPs could be internalized by A 549 cells through endocytosis. Intriguingly, KDNPs were capable of promoting nitric oxide (NO) release from endogenous donor of S-nitrosoglutathione in the presence of GSH. All of these results demonstrated that keratin based drug carriers had potential for drug/NO delivery and cancer therapy in clinical medicine. - Graphical abstract: pH and redox dual responsive keratin based drug-loaded nanoparticles (KDNPs) were fabricated by desolvation with chemical crosslinking, followed by electrostatic adsorbing DOX to afford DOX loaded keratin nanoparticles (KDNPs). Drug delivery profiles showed that KDNPs exhibited pH and GSH dual-responsive characters. Under tumor tissue/cell microenvironments (more acidic and high GSH level), KDNPs tended to accumulate at the tumor region through a potential enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and perform surface negative-to-positive charge conversion. Hemolysis assay

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Cerium (III Doped Captopril Nanoparticles and Study of their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamami Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research Ce3+ doped Captopril nanoparticles (Ce3+ doped CAP-NP were prepared by a cold welding process and have been studied. Captopril may be applied in the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure and for preventing kidney failure due to high blood pressure and diabetes. CAP-NP was synthesized by a cold welding process. The cerium nitrate was added at a ratio of 10% and the optical properties have been studied by photoluminescence (PL. The synthesized compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of CAP-NP was calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The size of CAP-NP was in the range of 50 nm. Morphology of surface of synthesized nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Finally the luminescence properties of undoped and doped CAP-NP were compared. PL spectra from undoped CAP-NP show a strong pack in the range of 546 nm after doped cerium ion into the captopril appeared two bands at 680 and 357 nm, which is ascribed to the well-known 5d–4f emission band of the cerium.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Tripterygium wilfordii Multi-Glycoside Nanoparticle Using Supercritical Anti-Solvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare nanosized Tripterygium wilfordii multi-glycoside (GTW powders by the supercritical antisolvent precipitation process (SAS, and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects. Ethanol was used as solvent and carbon dioxide was used as an antisolvent. The effects of process parameters such as precipitation pressure (15–35 MPa, precipitation temperature (45–65 °C, drug solution flow rates (3–7 mL/min and drug concentrations (10–30 mg/mL were investigated. The nanospheres obtained with mean diameters ranged from 77.5 to 131.8 nm. The processed and unprocessed GTW were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of the GTW nanoparticles on adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. The processed and unprocessed GTW were tested against Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Blood samples were collected for the estimation of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of GTW nanoparticles could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction using supercritical antisolvent (SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of GTW.

  1. Thiolated Eudragit nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery: preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xiaorong; Meng, Lingkuo; Zhang, Yu; Ai, Ruiting; Qi, Na; He, Haibing; Xu, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2012-10-15

    In the present study thiolated Eudragit L100 (Eul) based polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were employed to develop an oral insulin delivery system. Sulfydryl modification was achieved by grafting cysteine to the carboxylic acid group of Eudragit L100, which displayed maximum conjugate level of 390.3±13.4 μmol thiol groups per gram. Eudragit L100-cysteine (Eul-cys) and Eul nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method, in which reversible swelling of pH-sensitive material was used for insulin loading and release. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their particle size, morphology, loading efficiency (LE%) and in vitro insulin release behavior. The NPs had an average size of 324.2±39.0 nm and 308.8±35.7 nm, maximal LE% of 92.2±1.7% and 96.4±0.5% for Eul-cys and Eul, respectively. The release profile of NPs in vitro showed pH-dependent behavior. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy analysis proved that the secondary structure of the insulin released from NPs was unchanged compared with native insulin. The mucoadhesion study in vitro showed that Eul-cys NPs produced a 3-fold and 2.8-fold increase in rat jejunum and ileum compared with unmodified polymer NPs, respectively, which was due to the immobilization of thiol groups on Eudragit L100. Oral administration of insulin-loaded Eul-cys NPs produced a higher and prolonged hypoglycemic action, and the corresponding relative bioavailability of insulin was found to be 7.33±0.33%, an increase of 2.8-fold compared with Eul NPs (2.65±0.63%). This delivery system is a promising novel tool to improve the absorption of protein and peptide drugs in the intestinal tract. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Preparation and performance characterization of gold nanoparticles modified chiral capillary electrochromatography stationary phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lele; Li, Ruijun; Ji, Yibing

    2017-07-08

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs, 15 nm) were prepared and introduced to amino groups derived silica monolithic column. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilized via covalent modification method onto the carboxylic functionalized GNPs to afford chiral stationary phase (CSP) for enantioseparation. GNPs were well dispersed and successfully incorporated onto the columns with the contents as high as 17.18% by characterization method such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preparation conditions of the BSA modified CSP were optimized and 10% (v/v) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 15 g/L BSA were selected as appropriate reaction conditions. The enantioseparation performance of the BSA modified CSP has been investigated by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Enantiomers of tryptophan, ephedrine and atenolol were resolved, and the baseline separation of tryptophan was achieved. Meanwhile, the influences of pH value, buffer concentrations and applied voltages used on the chiral separation were studied, and the optimal separation conditions were 10 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 15 kV applied voltages. In comparison with the BSA modified CSP prepared by physical adsorption, the CSP prepared by covalent modification method had better separation results, and the analytes could be separated directly without pre-column derivatization. In addition, the prepared BSA modified CSP exhibited good run to run repeatability with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the migration times and selectivity factors not more than 2.3% and 0.96%, respectively. This work offers a good thinking for modification with other proteins or other types of chiral selectors.

  3. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen loaded eudragit RS polymeric nanoparticles for controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Anh, Nguyen; Tuyen Dao, T P; Nhan Le, N T; Mau Chien, Dang; To Hoai, Nguyen; T Chi, Nguyen; Tran, T Khai

    2012-01-01

    Nanospheres containing ketoprofen (Keto) and polymer eudragit RS were prepared using an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The ultrasonic probe (VCX500, vibracell) was used as a tool to disperse oil phase into aqueous phase leading to water/oil emulsion. Nanoparticles were successfully prepared and their morphologies and diameters were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. The result showed that particles were spherical with submicron size. The particle size was dependent on the RS concentration, emulsification tools and the types of organic solvents. For the encapsulation ability, Keto-loaded RS nanoparticle showed 9.8% of Keto in nanoparticle, which was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, the drug release behavior of Keto-loaded eudragit RS nanoparticle was also investigated in vitro at pH 7.4 and compared to referential profenid. (paper)

  4. Cellulose acetate butyrate membrane containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle: Preparation, characterization and permeation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgarkhani, Mohammad Ali Haj; Mousavi, Seyed Mahmoud; Saljoughi, Ehsan [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Cellulose acetate butyrate/TiO{sub 2} hybrid membranes were prepared via phase inversion by dispersing the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in casting solutions. The influence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the morphology and performance of membranes was investigated. The scanning electron microscope images and experiments of membrane performance showed that the membrane thickness and pure water flux were first increased by adding the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to the casting solution up to 4 wt% and then decreased with the addition of further nanoparticles to it. The obtained results indicated that the addition of TiO{sub 2} in the casting solution enhanced the rejection and permeate flux in filtration of bovine serum albumin solution. Furthermore, increasing the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle concentration in the casting solution increased the flux recovery and consequently decreased the fouling of membrane.

  5. Optical characterization of infrared emitting Nd{sup 3+} doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Kumar, G.A., E-mail: ajith@gakumar.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Department of Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Northwest Vista College, 3535 N Ellison Dr, San Antonio, TX 78251 (United States); Manrique, Solange Ivette Rivera [Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Av. Luis Enrique Erro S/N, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Zacatenco, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738, Ciudad de México 2009-2010 (Mexico); Santhosh, C. [Department of Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Sardar, Dhiraj K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Trivalent Nd doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles were prepared by a hydrothermal method using calcium nitrate and diammonium phosphate as precursors. Well crystallized nanoparticles of size less than 200 nm with hexagonal plate and rod morphologies were obtained at a reaction temperature of 180 °C. Under 808 nm excitation the nanoparticles exhibit strong near infrared emission at 1064 nm. All the emission spectral properties such as emission intensity and fluorescence decay time are found to decrease with Nd{sup 3+} concentration. In Hap 0.5% Nd shows the highest decay time of 159 μs and highest emission at 1064 nm emission.

  6. Optical characterization of infrared emitting Nd3+ doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, K.; Kumar, G.A.; Manrique, Solange Ivette Rivera; Santhosh, C.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2017-01-01

    Trivalent Nd doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles were prepared by a hydrothermal method using calcium nitrate and diammonium phosphate as precursors. Well crystallized nanoparticles of size less than 200 nm with hexagonal plate and rod morphologies were obtained at a reaction temperature of 180 °C. Under 808 nm excitation the nanoparticles exhibit strong near infrared emission at 1064 nm. All the emission spectral properties such as emission intensity and fluorescence decay time are found to decrease with Nd 3+ concentration. In Hap 0.5% Nd shows the highest decay time of 159 μs and highest emission at 1064 nm emission.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Nanocomposite of Polyacrylamide/Silica-Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rabiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamides are water soluble macromolecules. These polymers are widely used for flocculation, separation and treatment of solid-liquid phase materials. In this research, organic-inorganic hybrid of polyacrylamide/silica nanoparticle is prepared via radical polymerization. First, the silica nanoparticle surfaces were modified by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent using a sol-gel technique in aqueous media in acidic condition. Afterwards, the modified nanoparticles are copolymerized by acrylamide monomer in presence of a peroxide initiator during a free radical polymerization. The chemical structure of the prepared modified nano-silica as well as polyacrylamide nanocomposite was studied and confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy technique. The morphology of nanocomposite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The SEM micrograph showed that the surface of the composite did not display any phase separation. Nanoparticles distribution was investigated by SEM-EDX technique. The results showed a uniform distribution of particles throughout the polymer bulk. TEM analysis showed the presence of silica nanoparticles in bulk of polymer which is an indicative of suitable dispersion of nanoparticles. The thermal stability of hybrid nanocomosite with that of polyacrylamide was compared by TGA technique. The higher thermal stability of hybrid nanocomposite with respect to homopolymer is indicative of a reaction between the modified nanoparticles and polyacrylamide chain. The presence of silica particles in copolymer was also confirmed with EDX analysis in ash content of hybrid nanocomposite.

  8. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite between poly(aniline-co-m-chloroaniline)–copper sulfide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Saeed J.; Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in

    2014-06-15

    One dimensional nanostructures of poly(aniline-co-m-chloroaniline) nanocomposite (NC) with CuS nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared by template free method. CuS NPs are prepared by chemical method by using trisodium nitilotriacetate acid as a complexing agent. The materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV-Vis), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hexagonal structure of CuS NPs is confirmed from XRD results with lattice parameters, a=3.78 Å and c=16.288 Å. The diameter of CuS NPs is found to be 16 nm from TEM measurements. Different shapes such as NPs, nanorods and nanotubes structures are observed for poly(aniline-co-m-chloroaniline) whereas its NC with CuS NPs have nanorod and nanotube shapes. Significant shift in the absorption edge of CuS NC is observed in comparison with copolymer and CuS NPs. Also the thermal stability of CuS NC is improved as compared with a copolymer and CuS NPs.

  9. Characterization of amylose nanoparticles prepared via nanoprecipitation: Influence of chain length distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanjiao; Yang, Jingde; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2018-08-15

    The influence of chain length distribution of amylose on size and structure of the amylose nanoparticles (ANPs) prepared through nanoprecipitation was investigated. Amylose with different chain length distributions was obtained by β-amylase treating amylose paste for different times and measured by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). ANPs prepared via precipitation were characterized by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the β-amylase treatments led to decrease in chain length of amylose, and it was the most important factor affecting size of ANPs. When hydrolysis degree of amylose was 52.8%, mean size of ANPs decreased from 206.4 nm to 102.7 nm. All the ANPs displayed a V-type crystalline structure and the effect of amylose chain length on crystallinity of the precipitated ANPs was negligible in the investigated range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omwoyo WN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wesley Nyaigoti Omwoyo,1,2 Bernhards Ogutu,3,4 Florence Oloo,3,5 Hulda Swai,6 Lonji Kalombo,6 Paula Melariri,6 Geoffrey Maroa Mahanga,2 Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa3,4 1Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya; 2Department of Chemistry, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya; 3Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Polymers and Composites, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: Primaquine (PQ is one of the most widely used antimalarial drugs and is the only available drug that combats the relapsing form of malaria. PQ use in higher doses is limited by severe tissue toxicity including hematological- and gastrointestinal-related side effects. Nanoformulation of drugs in an appropriate drug carrier system has been extensively studied and shown to have the potential to improve bioavailability, thereby enhancing activity, reducing dose frequency, and subsequently reducing toxicity. The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize PQ-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs (PQ-SLNs as a potential drug-delivery system. SLNs were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification evaporation method based on a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsion. The mean particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the PQ-SLNs were 236 nm, +23 mV, 14%, and 75%, respectively. The zeta potential of the SLNs changed dramatically, from -6.54 mV to +23.0 mV, by binding positively charged chitosan as surface modifier. A spherical morphology of PQ-SLNs was seen by scanning electron microscope. In vitro, release profile depicted a steady drug release over 72 hours. Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated presence

  11. Thermomagnetic characterization of organic-based ferrofluids prepared with Ni ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Mercedes; Bercoff, Paula G.; Jacobo, Silvia E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Kerosene-based ferrofluids of Ni-ferrite NPs from high energy ball milling. • Thermomagnetic characterization of organic-based ferrofluids. • Measured thermal variables enhancements of ferrofluid vs. magnetic field. • Curves successfully fitted by a gas-compression model of nanoaggregates. - Abstract: In this work, a thermomagnetic characterization of kerosene-based ferrofluids (FFs) prepared with Ni-ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) is performed by measuring their thermal conductivity and diffusivity coefficient enhancements. The particles were synthesized by high-energy ball milling, as an alternative to the most commonly chosen NPs synthesis methods for FFs. The action of an applied magnetic field on the FF increases the thermal conductivity and diffusivity due to cooperation between the NPs, as it agglomerates them favoring chain-like and clusters formations. It was found that the heat capacity of the studied FFs decreases under the application of a magnetic field. The obtained results for thermal conductivity of FFs under magnetic fields were fitted by a gas-compression model that considers NPs agglomerates in the fluid.

  12. Thermomagnetic characterization of organic-based ferrofluids prepared with Ni ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.arana@labh2.coppe.ufrj.br [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía, Física y Computación (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, IFEG, CONICET, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Bercoff, Paula G. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía, Física y Computación (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, IFEG, CONICET, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Jacobo, Silvia E. [DiQuiMMAI, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, INTECIN, CONICET, Av. Paseo Colón 850, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Kerosene-based ferrofluids of Ni-ferrite NPs from high energy ball milling. • Thermomagnetic characterization of organic-based ferrofluids. • Measured thermal variables enhancements of ferrofluid vs. magnetic field. • Curves successfully fitted by a gas-compression model of nanoaggregates. - Abstract: In this work, a thermomagnetic characterization of kerosene-based ferrofluids (FFs) prepared with Ni-ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) is performed by measuring their thermal conductivity and diffusivity coefficient enhancements. The particles were synthesized by high-energy ball milling, as an alternative to the most commonly chosen NPs synthesis methods for FFs. The action of an applied magnetic field on the FF increases the thermal conductivity and diffusivity due to cooperation between the NPs, as it agglomerates them favoring chain-like and clusters formations. It was found that the heat capacity of the studied FFs decreases under the application of a magnetic field. The obtained results for thermal conductivity of FFs under magnetic fields were fitted by a gas-compression model that considers NPs agglomerates in the fluid.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Cationic PLA-PEG Nanoparticles for Delivery of Plasmid DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present work was to formulate and evaluate cationic poly(lactic acid-poly(ethylene glycol (PLA-PEG nanoparticles as novel non-viral gene delivery nano-device. Cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. The gene loaded nanoparticles were obtained by incubating the report gene pEGFP with cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties (e.g., morphology, particle size, surface charge, DNA binding efficiency and biological properties (e.g., integrity of the released DNA, protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in Hela cells of the gene loaded PLA-PEG nanoparticles were evaluated, respectively. The obtained cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles and gene loaded nanoparticles were both spherical in shape with average particle size of 89.7 and 128.9 nm, polydispersity index of 0.185 and 0.161, zeta potentials of +28.9 and +16.8 mV, respectively. The obtained cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles with high binding efficiency (>95% could protect the loaded DNA from the degradation by nuclease and plasma. The nanoparticles displayed sustained-release properties in vitro and the released DNA maintained its structural and functional integrity. It also showed lower cytotoxicity than Lipofectamine 2000 and could successfully transfect gene into Hela cells even in presence of serum. It could be concluded that the established gene loaded cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles with excellent properties were promising non-viral nano-device, which had potential to make cancer gene therapy achievable.

  14. Enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles by coaxial electrospray: preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou; Xu, Yingqian

    2014-02-01

    Enteric-coated formulations can delay the release of drugs until they have passed through the stomach. However, high concentration of drugs caused by rapidly released in the small intestine leads to the intestinal damage, and frequent administration would increase the probability of missing medication and reduce the patient compliance. To solve the above-mentioned problems, aspirin-loaded enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles with core-shell structure were prepared via one-step method using coaxial electrospray in this study. Eudragit L100-55 as pH-sensitive polymer and Eudragit RS as sustained-release polymer were used for the outer coating and inner core of the nanoparticles, respectively. The maximum loading capacity of nanoparticles was 23.66 % by changing the flow rate ratio of outer/inner solutions, and the entrapment efficiency was nearly 100 %. Nanoparticles with core-shell structure were observed via fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. And pH-sensitive and sustained drug release profiles were observed in the media with different pH values (1.2 and 6.8). In addition, mild cytotoxicity in vitro was detected, and the nanoparticles could be taken up by Caco-2 cells within 1.0 h in cellular uptake study. These results indicate that prepared enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles would be a more safety and effective carrier for oral drug delivery.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro/vivo studies of oleanolic acid-loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaojing Xia,1,2 Haowei Liu,1 Huixia Lv,1 Jing Zhang,1 Jianping Zhou,1 Zhiying Zhao3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, ZheJiang Pharmaceutical College, Ningbo, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA, a pentacyclic triterpene, is used to safely and economically treat hepatopathy. However, OA, a Biopharmaceutics Classification System IV category drug, has low bioavailability owing to low solubility (<1 µg/mL and biomembrane permeability. We developed a novel OA nanoparticle (OA-NP-loaded lactoferrin (Lf nanodelivery system with enhanced in vitro OA dissolution and improved oral absorption and bioavailability. The OA-NPs were prepared using NP albumin-bound technology and characterized using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro dissolution test. The in vivo pharmacokinetics was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OA-NPs (OA:Lf =1:6, w/w% exhibited spherical morphology, 202.2±8.3 nm particle size, +(27.1±0.32 mV ζ potential, 92.59%±3.24% encapsulation efficiency, and desirable in vitro release profiles. An effective in vivo bioavailability (340.59% was achieved compared to the free drug following oral administration to rats. The Lf novel nanodelivery vehicle enhanced the dissolution rate, intestinal absorption, and bioavailability of OA. These results demonstrate that Lf NPs are a new strategy for improving oral absorption and bioavailability of poorly soluble and poorly absorbed drugs. Keywords: oleanolic acid, nanoparticle, lactoferrin nanodelivery system, drug absorption, bioavailability

  16. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorniani, Dena; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Kura, Aminu Umar; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP) was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D), ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate "burst release" and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively. By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue.

  17. Preparation, characterization and antitumor activity evaluation of apigenin nanoparticles by the liquid antisolvent precipitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Huimei; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingfang; Zhao, Xiuhua; Fu, Yujie

    2017-11-01

    The present work aimed to apply the liquid antisolvent precipitation (LAP) method for preparing the apigenin nanoparticles and thereby improving the solubility and bioavailability of apigenin. The different experimental parameters on particle size were optimized through central composite design (CCD) using the Design-Expert ® software. Under the optimum conditions, the particle size of the apigenin nanosuspension was about 159.2 nm. In order to get apigenin nanoparticles, the freeze-drying method was selected and the mannitol was used as a cryoprotectant. Then the solid state properties of the apigenin nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo gravimetric (TG), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results obtained displayed that the apigenin nanoparticles exhibited near-spherical shape and could be transformed into an amorphous form. In addition, the dissolving test, the bioavailability in rats, and the antitumor activity were also studied. The experimental results showed that the solubility of the apigenin nanoparticles were about 29.61 times and 64.81 times of raw apigenin in artificial gastric juice and in artificial intestinal juice, respectively, and the apigenin nanoparticles showed higher dissolution rates compared to raw apigenin, and was about 6.08 times and 6.14 times than that of raw apigenin in artificial gastric juice and in artificial intestinal juice. The oral bioavailability of apigenin nanoparticles was about 4.96 times higher than that of the raw apigenin, but the apigenin nanoparticles had no toxic effect on the organs of rats. In addition, the apigenin nanoparticles had a higher inhibition to HepG2 cells by lower IC50 than that of raw apigenin.

  18. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Xiufeng; Min, Huihua; Dong, Guanghui; Feng, Qingyuan; Zuo, Songlin

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we report a facile and green approach to prepare a uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite (GO-Ag). The nanocomposite was fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which demonstrated that AgNPs with a diameter of approximately 22 nm were uniformly and compactly deposited on GO. To investigate the silver ion release behaviors, HEPES buffers with different pH (5.5, 7, and 8.5) were selected and the mechanism of release actions was discussed in detail. The cytotoxicity of GO-Ag nanocomposite was also studied using HEK 293 cells. GO-Ag nanocomposite displayed good cytocompatibility. Furthermore, the antibacterial properties of GO-Ag nanocomposite were studied using Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 and Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 6538 by both the plate count method and disk diffusion method. The nanocomposite showed excellent antibacterial activity. These results demonstrated that GO-Ag nanocomposite, as a kind of antibacterial material, had a great promise for application in a wide range of biomedical applications.

  19. Biodegradable Starch/Copolyesters Film Reinforced with Silica Nanoparticles: Preparation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta A.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Wataya, Célio H.; Moura, Esperidiana A. B.

    Biodegradable starch/copolyesters/silica nanocomposite films were prepared by melt extrusion, using a twin screw extruder machine and blown extrusion process. The influence of the silica nanoparticle addition on mechanical and thermal properties of nanocomposite films was investigated by tensile tests; X-rays diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and the correlation between properties was discussed. The results showed that incorporation of 2 % (wt %) of SiO2 nanoparticle in the blend matrix of PBAT/Starch, resulted in a gain of mechanical properties of blend.

  20. Preparation and characterization of betulin nanoparticles for oral hypoglycemic drug by antisolvent precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuhua; Wang, Weiguo; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yong; Sun, Wei; Shan, Chang; Ge, Yunlong

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Betulin, a kind of small molecular compound, was reported that has hypoglycemic effect. Due to its low aqueous solubility and high permeability, betulin has low and variable oral bioavailability. In this work, betulin nanoparticles were thus prepared by antisolvent precipitation for accelerating dissolution of this kind of poorly water-soluble drugs. Ethanol was used as solvent and deionized water was used as antisolvent. The effects of various experimental parameters on the mean particle size (MPS) of nanocrystallization betulin were investigated. The MPS of betulin nanoparticles suspension basically remain unchanged when precipitation time was within 60 min and then increased from 304 nm to 505 nm later. However, the MPS of betulin nanoparticles suspension decreased with increased betulin solution concentration. On the contrary, the MPS of betulin nanoparticles suspension decreased along with the increase of temperature. Stirring intensity and the speed ratio of solvent adding into antisolvent had no significant influences on the MPS of betulin nanoparticles suspension. Betulin nanoparticles suspension with a MPS of approximately 110 nm was achieved under the optimal precipitation conditions. FTIR, Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to analyze the characteristic of betulin nanoparticles powder. These results show that betulin nanoparticles powder has the same chemical structure as raw drug, but a smaller size and lower crystallinity. The dissolution rate and solubility of betulin nanoparticles powder were separately 3.12 and 1.54 times of raw drug. The bioavailability of betulin nanoparticles powder increased 1.21 times compared with raw betulin. The result of in vivo evaluation on diabetic animals demonstrates that the betulin nanoparticles powder show an excellent hypoglycemic effect compared with raw

  1. Preparation, characterization and SRXPS study of polyvinyl alcohol modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Wang Bing; Feng Weiyue; Liu Hui; Kang Yanjie; Kui Rexi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were coated with PVA to synthesize PVA-Fe 3 O 4 complex, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM),thermo gravimetric(TG) analysis, UV-vis spectra,zeta potentials and ICP-MS, in terms of the physicochemical properties, while surface constituents, structures and chemical bonds of the modified and unmodified nanoparticles were characterized with synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(SRXPS), for exploring modification mechanism of the PVA-Fe 3 O 4 . The results indicate that after PVA modification, the suspension stability of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in water and cellular uptake capability were significantly improved compared with unmodified Fe 3 O 4 . The SRXPS analysis reveals that the hydroxy groups on the surface of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and PVA were combined by hydrogen bond to consist a stable system, which would be beneficial to the biomedical applications of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. (authors)

  2. Preparation and characterization of zinc and copper co-doped WO3 nanoparticles: Application in photocatalysis and photobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Sanaz; Sohrabi, Maryam; Golikand, Ahmad Nozad; Fakhri, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this study, pure, Zn, Cu, Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 nanoparticles samples were prepared by precipitation and co-precipitation methods. These nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The synthesized pure, Zn, Cu, Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 nanoparticles have smart optical properties and average sizes with 3.2, 3.12, 3.08 and 2.97eV of band-gap, 18.1, 23.2, 25.7 and 30.2nm, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of four nanoparticles was studying towards degradation of gentamicin antibiotic under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The result showed that Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 possessed high photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of WO3 nanoparticles could be remarkably increased by doping the Zn and Cu impurity. This can be attributed to the fact that the red shift of absorption edge and the trapping effect of the mono and co-doped WO3 nanoparticles. The research result presents a general and effective way to prepare different photocatalysts with enhanced visible and UV light-driven photocatalytic performance. Antibacterial activity of four different WO3 nanoparticles against Escherichia coli bacterium has been assessed by the agar disc method under light irradiation and dark medium. It is concluded from the present findings that WO3 nanoparticles can be used as an efficient antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and characterization of natural polymers as stabilizer for magnetic nanoparticles by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.

    2012-01-01

    A Highly stable and uniformly distributed magnetic nanoparticles have been obtained onto hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-Agar- Fe 3 O 4 (HAF), and HEMA-Gelatin- Fe 3 O 4 (HGF) networks via gamma irradiation and loading technique. The swelling property of the prepared hydrogels in bidistilled water and different ph's was studied and the results showed that, the swelling percent of the plain hydrogel was found to be higher for all different compositions. The morphology and structure of the prepared hydrogels and dispersion of the magnetite nanoparticles in the hydrogel network were examined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The particle size of the formed magnetite nanoparticles has been confirmed by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM), and it was found to be smaller in loading technique than irradiation technique. The HEMA-Gelatin-Fe 3 O 4 has higher particle size than HEMA-Agar-Fe 3 O 4 (HAF). Finally, the drug loading capacities of the magnetite nanoparticles and their releasing dependence on different ph were investigated with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as an anticancer drug model.

  4. Preparation and characterization of oligochitosan-tragacanth nanoparticles as a novel gene carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Ali; Sadrjavadi, Komail; Golozar, Mohammad Ali; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Fathi, Mohammad-Hossein; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Hamid

    2013-09-12

    The nanoparticles of oligochitosan-water soluble tragacanth (OCH-WST) as novel gene carriers have been prepared and their transfection efficiency has been investigated on Hela and HepG2 cell lines. Different OCH:WST weight ratios were prepared to obtain particles with low size distribution and high surface charge, and also in range of below 200 nm. Nanoparticles with 132.5 ± 6.77 nm size, polydispersity index 1.92 ± 0.061, surface charge 30.45 ± 1.84 and spherical morphology, have been chosen as gene carrier. Nanoparticle-DNA complexes (nanoplexes) showed better transfection efficiency in both Hela and HepG2 cells than chitosan polyplexes, with 1.26 × 10(6) versus 9.05 × 10(5) and 7.76 × 10(5) versus 2.16 × 10(5), respectively. Higher transfection efficiency of nanoplexes could be attributed to their weaker complexation. Decreasing of transfection in presence of galactose in HepG2 cells, indicated receptor mediated endocytosis of nanoplexes. These properties all together, make OCH-WST nanoparticles as potential gene carrier for active gene delivery into cells containing sugar receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and characterization of chondroitin‐sulfate‐A‐coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Illés, Erzsébet; Szekeres, Márta; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides are promising candidates for manufacturing biocompatible core–shell nanoparticles with potential in vivo use. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have prospective application in both diagnosis and therapy, and so developing a novel polysaccharide shell on MNP core is of great challenge. MNPs were prepared by co-precipitation, then the surface of purified MNPs was coated with chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain core–shell structured magnetite nanoparticles (CSA@MNP). The effect of the added amount of CSA on the surface charging and the aggregation state of MNPs at various pHs and 10 mM NaCl was measured by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. The amphoteric behavior of MNPs was fundamentally modified by adsorption of CSA polyanions. A very low CSA-loading induces the aggregation of MNPs, while four times more stabilizes the dispersions over the whole pH-range studied. The coagulation kinetics experiments measured at pH=6.3±0.3 showed that salt tolerance of CSA@MNPs rises up to ~150 mM NaCl. - Highlights: • Novel CSA-coated core–shell magnetite nanoparticles were prepared successfully. • The aggregation range of MNPs was shifted gradually to the lower pHs by CSA-loading. • CSA stabilizes electrosterically the MNPs over wide pH-range relevant to biosystems. • The salt tolerance of CSA@MNP enables them to use under physiological condition

  6. Preparation and characterization of chondroitin‐sulfate‐A‐coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Illés, Erzsébet; Szekeres, Márta; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    Polysaccharides are promising candidates for manufacturing biocompatible core–shell nanoparticles with potential in vivo use. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have prospective application in both diagnosis and therapy, and so developing a novel polysaccharide shell on MNP core is of great challenge. MNPs were prepared by co-precipitation, then the surface of purified MNPs was coated with chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain core–shell structured magnetite nanoparticles (CSA@MNP). The effect of the added amount of CSA on the surface charging and the aggregation state of MNPs at various pHs and 10 mM NaCl was measured by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. The amphoteric behavior of MNPs was fundamentally modified by adsorption of CSA polyanions. A very low CSA-loading induces the aggregation of MNPs, while four times more stabilizes the dispersions over the whole pH-range studied. The coagulation kinetics experiments measured at pH=6.3±0.3 showed that salt tolerance of CSA@MNPs rises up to ~150 mM NaCl. - Highlights: • Novel CSA-coated core–shell magnetite nanoparticles were prepared successfully. • The aggregation range of MNPs was shifted gradually to the lower pHs by CSA-loading. • CSA stabilizes electrosterically the MNPs over wide pH-range relevant to biosystems. • The salt tolerance of CSA@MNP enables them to use under physiological condition.

  7. Brain-targeted solid lipid nanoparticles containing riluzole: preparation, characterization and biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondì, Maria Luisa; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Giammona, Gaetano; Drago, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Developments within nanomedicine have revealed a great potential for drug delivery to the brain. In this study nanoparticulate systems as drug carriers for riluzole, with sufficiently high loading capacity and small particle size, were prepared to a reach therapeutic drug level in the brain. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing riluzole have great potential as drug-delivery systems for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and were produced by using the warm oil-in-water microemulsion technique. The resulting systems obtained were approximately 88 nm in size and negatively charged. Drug-release profiles demonstrated that a drug release was dependent on medium pH. Biodistribution of riluzole blended into solid lipid nanoparticles was carried out after administration to rats and the results were compared with those obtained by riluzole aqueous dispersion administration. Rats were sacrificed at time intervals of 8, 16 and 30 h, and the riluzole concentration in the blood and organs such as the brain, liver, spleen, heart and kidney was determined. It was demonstrated that these solid lipid nanoparticles were able to successfully carry riluzole into the CNS. Moreover, a low drug biodistribution in organs such as the liver, spleen, heart, kidneys and lung was found when riluzole was administered as drug-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Riluzole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed colloidal size and high drug loading, a greater efficacy than free riluzole in rats, a higher capability to carry the drug into the brain and a lower indiscriminate biodistribution.

  8. Preparation, characterization and application of urease nanoparticles for construction of an improved potentiometric urea biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhar, Seema; Pundir, C S

    2018-02-15

    The nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates of commercial urease from jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) were prepared by desolvation and glutaraldehyde crosslinking and functionalized by cysteamine dihydrochloride. These enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The TEM images of urease NPs showed their size in the range, 18-100nm with an average of 51.2nm. The ENPs were more active and stable with a longer shelf life than native enzyme molecules. The ENPs were immobilized onto chitosan (CHIT) activated nitrocellulose (NC) membrane via glutaraldehyde coupling with 32.22% retention of initial activity of free ureaseNPs with a conjugation yield of 1.63mg/cm 2 . This NC membrane was mounted at the lower/sensitive end of the ammonium ion selective electrode (AISE) with O-ring and then electrode was connected to a digital pH meter to construct a potentiometric urea biosensor. The biosensor exhibited optimum response within 10s at pH 5.5and 40°C. The biosensor was employed for measurement of potentiometric determination of urea in sera of apparently healthy and persons suffering from kidney disorders. The biosensor displayed a low detection limit of 1µM/L with a wide working range of 2-80µM/L (0.002-0.08mM) and sensitivity of 23mV/decade. The analytical recovery of added urea in serum was 106.33%. The within and between-batch coefficient of variations (CVs) of present biosensor were 0.18% and 0.32% respectively. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between sera urea values obtained by reference method (Enzymic colorimetric kit method) and the present biosensor. The biosensor had negligible interference from Na + ,K + ,NH +4 and Ca 2+ but Mg 2+ ,Cu 2+ and ascorbic acid but had slight interference, which was overcome by specific ion selective electrode. The ENPs bound NC membrane was used maximally 8-9 times per day over a period of 180 days, when stored in 0.01M sodium

  9. Preparation, characterization and immunological evaluation: canine parvovirus synthetic peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Serap; Mustafaeva, Zeynep Akdeste; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2015-10-20

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) remains a significant worldwide canine pathogen and the most common cause of viral enteritis in dogs. The 1 L15 and 7 L15 peptides overlap each other with QPDGGQPAV residues (7-15 of VP2 capsid protein of CPV) is shown to produce high immune response. PLGA nanoparticles were demonstrated to have special properties such as; controlled antigen release, protection from degradation, elimination of booster-dose and enhancing the cellular uptake by antigen presenting cells. Nevertheless, there is no study available in literature, about developing vaccine based on PLGA nanoparticles with adjuvant properties against CPV. Thus, the aim of the present study was to synthesize and characterize high immunogenic W-1 L19 peptide (from the VP2 capsid protein of CPV) loaded PLGA nanoparticle and to evaluate their in vitro immunogenic activity. PLGA nanoparticles were produced with 5.26 ± 0.05 % loading capacity and high encapsulation efficiency with 81.2 ± 3.1 %. Additionally, it was evaluated that free NPs and W-1 L19 peptide encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles have Z-ave of 183.9 ± 12.1 nm, 221.7 ± 15.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.107 ± 0.08, 0.135 ± 0.12 respectively. It was determined that peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles were successfully phagocytized by macrophage cells and increased NO production at 2-folds (*P vaccine candidate against Canine Parvovirus. Studies targeting PLGA nanoparticles based delivery system must be maintained in near future in order to develop new and more effective nano-vaccine formulations.

  10. Auricularia auricular polysaccharide-low molecular weight chitosan polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (AAP/LCS NPs were prepared in this study and these were produced by mixing negatively charged auricularia auricular polysaccharide (AAP with positively charged low molecular weight chitosan (LCS in an aqueous medium. The AAP was extracted and purified from auricularia auricular, and then characterized by micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, moisture analyzer and SEM. The yield, moisture, and total sugar content of the AAP were 4.5%, 6.2% and 90.12% (w/w, respectively. The AAP sample was water-soluble and exhibited white flocculence. The characteristics of AAP/LCS NPs, such as the particle size, zeta potential, morphology, FT-IR spectra, DSC were investigated. The results obtained revealed that the AAP/LCS NPs had a spherical shape with a diameter of 223 nm and a smooth surface, and the results of the FT-IR spectra and DSC investigations indicated that there was an electrostatic interaction between the two polyelectrolyte polymers. Bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI = 4.8 and bovine hemoglobin (BHb, pI = 6.8 were used as model drugs to investigate the loading and release features of the AAP/LCS NPs. The results obtained showed that the AAP/LCS NPs had a higher entrapment efficiency (92.6% for BHb than for BSA (81.5%. The cumulative release of BSA and BHb from AAP/LCS NPs after 24 h in vitro was 95.4% and 91.9%, respectively. The in vitro release demonstrated that AAP/LCS NPs provided a sustained release matrix suitable for the delivery of protein drugs. These studies demonstrate that AAP/LCS NPs have a very promising potential as a delivery system for protein drugs.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Nanoparticles Made from Co-Incubation of SOD and Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Cai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attractive potential of natural superoxide dismutase (SOD in the fields of medicine and functional food is limited by its short half-life in circulation and poor permeability across the cell membrane. The nanoparticle form of SOD might overcome these limitations. However, most preparative methods have disadvantages, such as complicated operation, a variety of reagents—some of them even highly toxic—and low encapsulation efficiency or low release rate. The aim of this study is to present a simple and green approach for the preparation of SOD nanoparticles (NPs by means of co-incubation of Cu/Zn SOD with glucose. This method was designed to prepare nanoscale aggregates based on the possible inhibitory effect of Maillard reaction on heating-induced aggregation during the co-incubation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE results indicated that the Maillard reaction occurred during the co-incubation process. It was found that enzymatically active NPs of Cu/Zn SOD were simultaneously generated during the reaction, with an average particle size of 175.86 ± 0.71 nm, and a Zeta potential of −17.27 ± 0.59 mV, as established by the measurement of enzymatic activity, observations using field emission scanning electron microscope, and analysis of dynamic light scattering, respectively. The preparative conditions for the SOD NPs were optimized by response surface design to increase SOD activity 20.43 fold. These SOD NPs showed storage stability for 25 days and better cell uptake efficacy than natural SOD. Therefore, these NPs of SOD are expected to be a potential drug candidate or functional food factor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the preparation of nanoparticles possessing the bioactivity of the graft component protein, using the simple and green approach of co-incubation with glucose, which occurs frequently in the food industry during thermal processing.

  12. Preparation and Characterization Challenges to Understanding Environmental and Biological Impacts of Ceria Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Hostetler, Kasey E.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Orr, Galya; Pounds, Joel G.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.; Baer, Donald R.

    2012-08-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that understanding and predicting the behaviors of nanoparticles is often limited by the degree to which the particles can be reliably produced and are adequately characterized. Examining data from the literature for ceria nanoparticles suggests that thermal history is one factor that has a strong influence on biological impact. Thermal processing may alter many physicochemical properties of the particles including density, crystal structure and the presence of surface contamination, but these may not be sufficiently recorded or reported to determine the ultimate source of an observed impact. A second example shows the types of difficulties that can be encountered in efforts to apply a well-studied synthesis route to producing well defined particles for biological studies. These examples and others highlight the importance of characterizing particles thoroughly and recording details of particle processing and history that are often not recorded and/or reported.

  13. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of nickel ferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaz, K.; Karim, S.; Mumtaz, A.; Hasanain, S. K.; Liu, J.; Duan, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of nickel ferrite (NiFe 2O 4) have been synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferric and nickel salts with sodium hydroxide as the precipitating agent and oleic acid as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses confirmed the formation of single-phase nickel ferrite nanoparticles in the range 8-28 nm depending upon the annealing temperature of the samples during the synthesis. The size of the particles ( d) was observed to be increasing linearly with annealing temperature of the sample while the coercivity with particle size goes through a maximum, peaking at ˜11 nm and then decreases for larger particles. Typical blocking effects were observed below ˜225 K for all the prepared samples. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature ( T B) was found to be increasing with increasing particle size that has been attributed to the increased effective anisotropy energy of the nanoparticles. The saturation moment of all the samples was found much below the bulk value of nickel ferrite that has been attributed to the disordered surface spins or dead/inert layer in these nanoparticles.

  14. Alginate Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin and Resveratrol: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation Against DU145 Prostate Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralkar, Pushkar; Dash, Alekha K

    2017-10-01

    Curcumin and resveratrol are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds having anti-cancer potential. However, their poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability limit their clinical use. Entrapment of hydrophobic drugs into hydrophilic nanoparticles such as calcium alginate presents a means to deliver these drugs to their target site. Curcumin and resveratrol-loaded calcium alginate nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification and cross-linking process. The nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, moisture content, physical state of the drugs, physical stability, and entrapment efficiency. An UPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of curcumin and resveratrol. Alginate nanoformulation was tested for in vitro efficacy on DU145 prostate cancer cells. The particle size of the nanosuspension and freeze-dried nanoparticles was found to be 12.53 ± 1.06 and 60.23 ± 15 nm, respectively. Both DSC and powder XRD studies indicated that curcumin as well as resveratrol were present in a non-crystalline state, in the nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency for curcumin and resveratrol was found to be 49.3 ± 4.3 and 70.99 ± 6.1%, respectively. Resveratrol showed a higher percentage of release than curcumin (87.6 ± 7.9 versus 16.3 ± 3.1%) in 24 h. Curcumin was found to be taken up by the cells from solution as well as the nanoparticles. Resveratrol had a poor cellular uptake. The drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibit cytotoxic effects on DU145 cells. At high concentration, drug solution exhibited greater toxicity than nanoparticles. The alginate nanoformulation was found to be safe for intravenous administration.

  15. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Dorniani, Dena; Zobir Hussein,Mohd; Kura,Aminu Umar; Fakurazi,Sharida; Halim Shaari,Abdul; Ahmad,Zalinah

    2013-01-01

    Dena Dorniani,1 Mohd Zobir bin Hussein,1 Aminu Umar Kura,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2 Abdul Halim Shaari,3 Zalinah Ahmad4 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 2Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics Laboratory, 3Physics Department, Faculty of Science, 4Chemical Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest beca...

  16. Mn3O4 nanoparticles embedded into graphene nanosheets: Preparation, characterization, and electrochemical properties for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bei; Park, Jinsoo; Wang Chengyin; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang, Guoxiu

    2010-01-01

    Mn 3 O 4 /graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by mixing graphene suspension in ethylene glycol with MnO 2 organosol, followed by subsequent ultrasonication processing and heat treatment. The as-prepared product consists of nanosized Mn 3 O 4 particles homogeneously distributed on graphene nanosheets, which has been confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Atomic force microscope analysis further identified the distribution of dense Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets. When used as electrode materials in supercapacitors, Mn 3 O 4 /graphene nanocomposites exhibited a high specific capacitance of 175 F g -1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte and 256 F g -1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, respectively. The enhanced supercapacitance of Mn 3 O 4 /graphene nanocomposites could be ascribed to both electrochemical contributions of Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles, functional groups attached to graphene nanosheets, and significantly increased specific surface area.

  17. Preparation and characterization of complex ferrite nanoparticles by a polymer-pyrolysis route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianming; Fu Shaoyun; Xiao Hongmei; Zhu Luping

    2007-01-01

    The polymer-pyrolysis route used in this work was to synthesize the copolymeric precursor of the mixed metallic ions and then to pyrolyze the precursor into complex spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the complex ferrite nanoparticles could be obtained by calcination of their precursors at 500 deg. C. The structures, elemental analyses and particle morphology of the as-calcined products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED) pattern. The results revealed that the as-calcined powders were complex spinel ferrites and the size of those nanoparticles ranged from 10 to 20 nm. Magnetic measurements were carried out at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The saturation magnetization of the Mn-Zn ferrites was related to the molar ratio of Mn to Zn and increased with the increase of Mn. The complex Co-Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles showed a high magnetization of 58 emu/g at the applied field of 10 kOe and a low coercivity of 30 Oe, which indicated that this materials exhibited characteristics of soft ferromagnetism

  18. Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe_3O_4) coated with oleic acid at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Marcio Nele de; Feuser, Paulo Emilio

    2010-01-01

    This work studied a method for preparation of Fe_3O_4 magnetic nanoparticles stabilized with acid oleic precipitating Fe"+"2 and Fe"+"3 (1:1) salts at room temperature. The method involved the coprecipitation of Fe_3O_4 in aqueous solution from FeCl_3·6H_2O and FeSO_4·7H_2O solutions using as NH_4OH (30%) precipitation agent. The final size of nanoparticles was 10nn with an initial pH of 0-1 and a final neutral pH, without addition of an acid and/ or hydroxide to adjust the pH of the material. The oleic acid coated nanoparticles were characterized by Ray-X of Diffraction (DRX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy in field emission and dynamic light scattering (FEG-SEM). It is important to standardize the methods of preparation of Fe_3O_4 Magnetic Nanoparticles stabilized with oleic acid, to obtain a desired material for a given application it is in technology or Biomedical. (author)

  19. Preparation and characterization of Ag-doped In2O3 nanoparticles gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kanica; Kaur, Jasmeet; Singh, Ravi Chand; Thangaraj, Rengasamy

    2017-08-01

    Pure and Ag-doped In2O3 nanoparticles are synthesized by the co-precipitation method and are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Gas sensing properties of the sensors has been investigated towards methanol, ethanol, acetone and LPG at different operating temperatures. It is found that the sensor response magnitude of the 3% Ag-doped In2O3 nanoparticles sensors is higher to 50 ppm of ethanol at 300 °C, to acetone at 350 °C and to LPG at 400 °C. This is mainly attributed to the large number of oxygen vacancies and defects in doped sensors as corroborated by the photoluminescence studies.

  20. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles made from beeswax and carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmandnia, Soheila; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Nosrati, Mohsen; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2010-12-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been proposed as suitable colloidal carriers for delivery of drugs with limited solubility. Ketoprofen as a model drug was incorporated into SLNs prepared from a mixture of beeswax and carnauba wax using Tween 80 and egg lecithin as emulsifiers. The characteristics of the SLNs with various lipid and surfactant composition were investigated. The mean particle size of drug-loaded SLNs decreased upon mixing with Tween 80 and egg lecithin as well as upon increasing total surfactant concentration. SLNs of 75 ± 4 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.02 were obtained using 1% (vol/vol) mixed surfactant at a ratio of 60:40 Tween 80 to egg lecithin. The zeta potential of these SLNs varied in the range of -15 to -17 (mV), suggesting the presence of similar interface properties. High drug entrapment efficiency of 97% revealed the ability of SLNs to incorporate a poorly water-soluble drug such as ketoprofen. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis indicated the stability of nanoparticles with negligible drug leakage after 45 days of storage. It was also found that nanoparticles with more beeswax content in their core exhibited faster drug release as compared with those containing more carnauba wax in their structure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of chondroitin-sulfate-A-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Illés, Erzsébet; Szekeres, Márta; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-04-01

    Polysaccharides are promising candidates for manufacturing biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles with potential in vivo use. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have prospective application in both diagnosis and therapy, and so developing a novel polysaccharide shell on MNP core is of great challenge. MNPs were prepared by co-precipitation, then the surface of purified MNPs was coated with chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain core-shell structured magnetite nanoparticles (CSA@MNP). The effect of the added amount of CSA on the surface charging and the aggregation state of MNPs at various pHs and 10 mM NaCl was measured by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. The amphoteric behavior of MNPs was fundamentally modified by adsorption of CSA polyanions. A very low CSA-loading induces the aggregation of MNPs, while four times more stabilizes the dispersions over the whole pH-range studied. The coagulation kinetics experiments measured at pH=6.3±0.3 showed that salt tolerance of CSA@MNPs rises up to ~150 mM NaCl.

  2. Characterization and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared via a temperature-modulated solidification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghavi N; Lakkadwala, Sushant; Majrad, Mohamed S; Injeti, Elisha R; Gollmer, Steven M; Shah, Zahoor A; Boddu, Sai Hanuman Sagar; Nesamony, Jerry

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to advance solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) preparation methodology by preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles using a temperature-modulated solidification process. The technique was reproducible and prepared nanoparticles without the need of organic solvents. An anticancer agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was incorporated in the SLNs. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis, zeta potential analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro cell viability studies. Particle size of the SLN dispersion was below 100 nm, and that of redispersed lyophilizates was ~500 nm. DSC and infrared spectroscopy suggested that the degree of crystallinity did not decrease appreciably when compared to GMS. TEM and AFM images showed well-defined spherical to oval particles. The drug encapsulation efficiency was found to be approximately 46%. In vitro drug release studies showed that 80% of the encapsulated drug was released within 1 h. In vitro cell cultures were biocompatible with blank SLNs but demonstrated concentration-dependent changes in cell viability to 5-FU-loaded SLNs. The 5-FU-loaded SLNs can potentially be utilized in an anticancer drug delivery system.

  3. Preparation and characterization of gelatin mediated silver nanoparticles by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Zamiri, Reza; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shameli, Kamyar; Shahril Husin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → To date, no approach has been carried out on the preparation of Ag-NPs using gelatin as a stabilizer in the PLA method. → In this paper, we used the PLA method to focus on the preparation of Ag-NPs from silver plating in water using gelatin as a stabilizer. → The effect of the laser-pulsed repetition rate on size of Ag-NPs is studied. - Abstract: We successfully prepared colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser, λ = 532 nm, with laser fluence of approximately about 0.6 J/pulse, in an aqueous gelatin solution. The size and optical absorption properties of samples were studied as a function of the laser repetition rates. The results from the UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that the mean diameter of Ag-NPs increase with the laser repetition rate increases. The Ag-NPs have mean diameters ranging from approximately 9 nm to 15 nm. Compared with other preparation methods, this work is clean, rapid, and simple to use.

  4. Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex for oral delivery: preparation, in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fude; Shi, Kai; Zhang, Liqiang; Tao, Anjin; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2006-08-28

    Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex were prepared by a novel reverse micelle-solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of insulin, and biodegradable polymers as carrier materials to control drug release. Solubilization study, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to prove the complex formation. The effects of key parameters such as polymer/SPC weight ratio, organic phase and polymer type on the properties of the nanoparticles were investigated. Spherical particles of 200 nm mean diameter and a narrow size distribution were obtained under optimal conditions. The drug entrapment efficiency was up to 90%. The in vitro drug release was characterized by an initial burst and subsequent delayed release in both pH 6.8 and pH 1.2 dissolution mediums. The specific modality of drug release, i.e., free or SPC-combined, was investigated in the aid of ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration methods. The influence of polymer type on the drug release was also discussed. The pharmacological effects of the nanoparticles made of PLGA 50/50 (Av.Mw 9500) were further evaluated to confirm their potential suitability for oral delivery. Intragastric administration of the 20 IU/kg nanoparticles reduced fasting plasma glucose levels to 57.4% within the first 8 h of administration and this continued for 12 h. PK/PD analysis indicated that 7.7% of oral bioavailability relative to subcutaneous injection was obtained.

  5. Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Soheili, Marzieh; Dadashzadeh, Simin; Saghiri, Reza

    2010-08-09

    The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol)-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs) loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC) as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume) on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84), and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs) have a better physicochemical characterization and can be developed as a drug carrier in order to treat different malignancies.

  6. Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with frankincense and myrrh oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi F

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Feng Shi, Ji-Hui Zhao, Ying Liu, Zhi Wang, Yong-Tai Zhang, Nian-Ping FengSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aim of the present study was to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs for the oral delivery of frankincense and myrrh essential oils (FMO. Aqueous dispersions of SLNs were successfully prepared by a high-pressure homogenization method using Compritol 888 ATO as the solid lipid and soybean lecithin and Tween 80 as the surfactants. The properties of the SLNs such as particle size, zeta potential (ZP, and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE were investigated. The morphology of SLNs was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The crystallinity of the formulation was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD. In addition, drug evaporation release and antitumor activity were also studied. Round SLNs with a mean size of 113.3 ± 3.6 nm, a ZP of -16.8 ± 0.4 mV, and an EE of 80.60% ± 1.11% were obtained. DSC and XRD measurements revealed that less ordered structures were formed in the inner cores of the SLN particles. Evaporation loss of the active components in FMO could be reduced in the SLNs. Furthermore, the SLN formulation increased the antitumor efficacy of FMO in H22-bearing Kunming mice. Hence, the presented SLNs can be used as drug carriers for hydrophobic oil drugs extracted from traditional Chinese medicines.Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, frankincense oil, myrrh oil, evaporation release, antitumor activity, traditional Chinese medicine

  7. Preparation, characterization and toxicological investigation of copper loaded chitosan nanoparticles in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Divya [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Dhanwal, Vandna [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Nayak, Debasis [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Saneja, Ankit [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Amin, Hina [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Rasool, Reyaz ur [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Gupta, Prem Narayan [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Goswami, Anindya, E-mail: agoswami@iiim.ac.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India)

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles often attribute severe adverse effects to the various organs or tissues at the molecular level despite of their applications in medical, laboratory and industrial sectors. The present study highlights the preparation of copper adsorbed chitosan nanoparticles (CuCSNPs), its characterization and validation of cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. Particle size of the CuCSNPs was determined by using Zetasizer and the copper loading was quantified with the help of ICP/MS. Further characterization of CuCSNPs was carried out by FT-IR analysis to determine the formation of nanoparticles and SEM was conducted for the morphological analysis of the CuCSNPs. The CuCSNPs exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects towards HEK-293 cells as analyzed by MTT assay. Moreover, the CuCSNPs inhibited the colony formation and induced nuclear damage at the dose of 100 μg/mL, much more effectively than the in built control copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}). At the molecular level, the CuCSNPs were found to be triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating effector caspases and subsequent PARP cleavage to induce cell death in HEK-293 cells. - Highlights: • Subtoxic levels of CuCSNPs induce apoptosis in HEK-293 cells. • CuCSNPs mediate toxicity via nuclear cleavage and ROS generation. • CuCSNPs favor caspase activation and PARP cleavage to induce cell death.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Estradiol-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Using Homogenization-Solvent Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dinarvand

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inherent shortcomings of conventional drug delivery systems containing estrogens and the potential of nanoparticles (NPs have offered tremendous scope for investigation. Although polymeric NPs have been used as drug carriers for many active agents, the use of appropriate polymer and method of NP preparation to overcome different challenges is very important. Materials and methods: Poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA NPs containing estradiol valerate were prepared by the modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. Several parameters including the drug/polymer ratios in range of 2.5-10%, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA in concentration of 0-4% as stabilizer and internal phase volume and composition were examined to optimize formulation. The size distribution and morphology of the NPs, encapsulation efficacy and in vitro release profile in phosphate buffer medium (pH 7.4 during 12 hrs were then investigated. Results: The NPs prepared in this study were spherical with a relatively mono-dispersed size distribution. By adjustment of the process parameters, the size and the drug encapsulation efficacy as well as the drug release kinetics can be optimally controlled. The mean particle size of the best formula with encapsulation efficiency of 100% was 175 ± 19, in which release profile was best fitted to Higuchi's model of release which showed that release mechanism was mainly controlled by diffusion of the drug to the release medium. Conclusion: According to the size and surface properties of the prepared particles, it may be concluded that they are a good formulation for non-parenteral routes of administration.

  9. Preparation, characterization and in silico modeling of biodegradable nanoparticles containing cyclosporine A and coenzyme Q10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankola, D D; Ravi Kumar, M N V [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow, G4 0NR (United Kingdom); Durbin, E W [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Buxton, G A [Department of Sciences, Robert Morris University, 6001 University Boulevard, Moon Township, PA 15108 (United States); Schaefer, J; Bakowsky, U, E-mail: mnvrkumar@strath.ac.uk [Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmacy, Philipps Universitt, 35037 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-02-10

    Combination therapy will soon become a reality, particularly for those patients requiring poly-therapy to treat co-existing disease states. This becomes all the more important with the increasing cost, time and complexity of the drug discovery process prompting one to look at new delivery systems to increase the efficacy, safety and patient compliance of existing drugs. Along this line, we attempted to design nano-scale systems for simultaneous encapsulation of cyclosporine A (CsA) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and model their encapsulation and release kinetics. The in vitro characterization of the co-encapsulated nanoparticles revealed that the surfactant nature, concentration, external phase volume, droplet size reduction method and drug loading concentration can all influence the overall performance of the nanoparticles. The semi-quantitative solubility study indicates the strong influence of CoQ10 on CsA entrapment which was thought to be due to an increase in the lipophilicity of the overall system. The in vitro dissolution profile indicates the influence of CoQ10 on CsA release (64%) to that of individual particles of CsA, where the release is faster and higher (86%) on 18th day. The attempts to model the encapsulation and release kinetics were successful, offering a possibility to use such models leading to high throughput screening of drugs and their nature, alone or in combination for a particular polymer, if chi-parameters are understood.

  10. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ducnghia264@fpt.vn

    2009-09-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  11. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Nickel Molybdate (NiMoO4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Oudghiri-Hassani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel molybdate (NiMoO4 nanoparticles were synthesized via calcination of an oxalate complex in static air at 500 °C. The oxalate complex was analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The as-synthesized nickel molybdate was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller technique (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and its catalytic efficiency was tested in the reduction reaction of the three-nitrophenol isomers. The nickel molybdate displays a very high activity in the catalytic reduction of the nitro functional group to an amino. The reduction progress was controlled using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis absorption.

  13. Preparation and characterization of PVPI-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an MRI contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangshuo; Chang, Ying; Wang, Ling; Wei, Zhiyong; Kang, Jianyun; Sang, Lin; Dong, Xufeng; Chen, Guangyi; Wang, Hong; Qi, Min

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVPI)-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by using inverse chemical co-precipitation method, in which the PVPI serves as a stabilizer and dispersant. The wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results showed that the inverse spinel structure pure phase polycrystalline Fe 3 O 4 was obtained. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results exhibited that the resulted Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were roughly spherical in shape with narrow size distribution and homogenous shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results suggested that PVPI interacted with Fe 3 O 4 via its carbonyl groups. Results of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) indicated prepared Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and high saturation magnetization. T 2 -weighted MRI images of PVPI-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles showed that the magnetic resonance signal was enhanced significantly with increasing nanoparticles concentration in water at room temperature. These results indicated that the PVPI-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles had great potential for application in MRI as a T 2 contrast agent. - Highlights: • PVPI-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared using inverse co-precipitation method. • Resulted Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were roughly spherical in shape with narrow size distribution and homogenous shape. • Prepared Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior. • T 2 -weighted MRI images of PVPI-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were obtained

  14. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Derakhshandeh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Katayoun Derakhshandeh1, Marzieh Soheili1, Simin Dadashzadeh2, Reza Saghiri31Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medical Science, Kermanshah 67145-1673, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 3Deptartment of Biochemistry, Pasteur Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84, and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs have a better physicochemical characterization

  16. Preparation and characterization of mucus-penetrating papain/poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Christiane; Leithner, Katharina; Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Salvenmoser, Willi; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Particle diffusion through the intestinal mucosal barrier is restricted by the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of the mucus gel layer, preventing their penetration to the underlying absorptive endothelial cells. To overcome this natural barrier, we developed nanoparticles which have a remarkable ability to cleave mucoglycoprotein substructures responsible for the structural and rheological properties of mucus. After rheological screening of various mucolytic proteases, nanoparticles composed of poly(acrylic acid) and papain were prepared and characterized regarding particle size and zeta potential. Analysis of nanoparticles showed mean diameters sub-200 nm (162.8–198.5 nm) and negative zeta potentials advancing the mobility in mucus gel. Using diffusion chamber studies and the rotating diffusion tubes method, we compared the transport rates of papain modified (PAPC) and unaltered poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles through freshly excised intestinal porcine mucus. Results of the diffusion assays demonstrated strongly enhanced permeation behavior of PAPC particles owing to local mucus disruption by papain. Improved transport rates, reduction in mucus viscosity and the retarded release of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds make proteolytic enzyme functionalized nanoparticles of substantial interest for improved targeted drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Although cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticles could not be performed, safety of papain and PAA was already verified making PAPC particles a promising candidate in the pharmaceutical field of research. The focus of the present study was the development of particles which penetrate the mucus barrier to approach the underlying epithelium. Improvements of particles that penetrate the mucus followed by cell uptake in this direction are ongoing.

  17. Preparation and characterization of mucus-penetrating papain/poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christiane; Leithner, Katharina; Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Salvenmoser, Willi; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Particle diffusion through the intestinal mucosal barrier is restricted by the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of the mucus gel layer, preventing their penetration to the underlying absorptive endothelial cells. To overcome this natural barrier, we developed nanoparticles which have a remarkable ability to cleave mucoglycoprotein substructures responsible for the structural and rheological properties of mucus. After rheological screening of various mucolytic proteases, nanoparticles composed of poly(acrylic acid) and papain were prepared and characterized regarding particle size and zeta potential. Analysis of nanoparticles showed mean diameters sub-200 nm (162.8-198.5 nm) and negative zeta potentials advancing the mobility in mucus gel. Using diffusion chamber studies and the rotating diffusion tubes method, we compared the transport rates of papain modified (PAPC) and unaltered poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles through freshly excised intestinal porcine mucus. Results of the diffusion assays demonstrated strongly enhanced permeation behavior of PAPC particles owing to local mucus disruption by papain. Improved transport rates, reduction in mucus viscosity and the retarded release of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds make proteolytic enzyme functionalized nanoparticles of substantial interest for improved targeted drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Although cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticles could not be performed, safety of papain and PAA was already verified making PAPC particles a promising candidate in the pharmaceutical field of research. The focus of the present study was the development of particles which penetrate the mucus barrier to approach the underlying epithelium. Improvements of particles that penetrate the mucus followed by cell uptake in this direction are ongoing.

  18. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: influences of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Zhu, Luyan; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yan; Li, Xihe; Zhou, WenZhong

    2011-04-01

    Enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared using fatty acids (tetradecanoic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid) as lipid matrix by hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The effect of fatty acids on the characteristics and pharmacokinetics of the SLN were investigated. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of nanoparticles varied with fatty acids in the order of stearic acid>palmitic acid>tetradecanoic acid. Furthermore, stearic acid-SLN had larger particle size, bigger polydispersity index (PDI) and higher zeta potential compared with the other two fatty acid formulated SLN. The SLN showed sustained releases in vitro and the released enrofloxacin had the same antibacterial activity as that of the native enrofloxacin. Although in vitro release exhibited similar patterns, within 24 h the releasing rates of the three formulations were significantly different (tetradecanoic acid-SLN>palmitic acid-SLN>stearic acid-SLN). Pharmacokinetic study after a single dose of intramuscular administration to mice demonstrated that tetradecanoic acid-SLN, palmitic acid-SLN, and stearic acid-SLN increased the bioavailability by 6.79, 3.56 and 2.39 folds, and extended the mean residence time (MRT) of the drug from 10.60 h to 180.36, 46.26 and 19.09 h, respectively. These results suggest that the enrofloxacin-fatty acid SLN are promising formulations for sustained release while fatty acids had significant influences on the characteristics and performances of the SLN. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)/silver nanoparticles: preparation and characterization; Nanoparticulas de prata/poli(vinilpirrolidona): obtencao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, P.F.; Goncalves, M.C. [Instituto de Quimica - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: patandrade@iqm.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method using PVP as dispersant agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-vis optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Ag/PVP complex. The transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the concentration of Ag{sup +} precursor influenced the nanoparticles dispersion and size distribution significantly. The results indicated that dispersed nanoparticles with uniform size distribution can be prepared by this methodology to obtain polymeric nano composites. (author)

  20. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gallic acid-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Morshedi, Dina; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Marvian, Amir Tayaranian

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA), as an antioxidant and antiparkinson agent, was loaded onto cationic human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA NPs). Polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated HSA (PEI-HSA) NPs were prepared using three different methods: (I) coating negatively charged HSA NPs with positively charged PEI through attractive electrostatic interactions, (II) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent amide bond formation using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, and (III) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent bonding using glutaraldehyde for linking amine groups of PEI and amine groups of albumin NPs. Method II was selected since it resulted in a higher shift in the zeta potential value (mV) and less zeta potential value deviation, and also less size polydispersity. GA was loaded by adsorption onto the surface of PEI-HSA NPs of two different sizes: 117 ± 2.9 nm (PEI-P1) and 180 ± 3.1 nm (PEI-P2) NPs. Both GA-entrapment and GA-loading efficiencies increased slightly with the increasing size of NPs, and were affected intensely by the mass ratio of GA to PEI-HSA NPs. Free radical scavenging of GA was quantified based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The obtained results showed that GA remains active during the preparation of GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs. The cytotoxicities of HSA, PEI-HSA, and GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs on the PC-12 cells, as the neuroendocrine cell line, were measured. Our results indicate that positively charged PEI-HSA NPs are good candidates for efficient and safe delivery of GA to the brain

  1. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gallic acid-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas, E-mail: shoja-sa@modares.ac.ir [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Morshedi, Dina; Arpanaei, Ayyoob [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Marvian, Amir Tayaranian [Aarhus University, Department of Biomedicine (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    Gallic acid (GA), as an antioxidant and antiparkinson agent, was loaded onto cationic human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA NPs). Polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated HSA (PEI-HSA) NPs were prepared using three different methods: (I) coating negatively charged HSA NPs with positively charged PEI through attractive electrostatic interactions, (II) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent amide bond formation using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, and (III) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent bonding using glutaraldehyde for linking amine groups of PEI and amine groups of albumin NPs. Method II was selected since it resulted in a higher shift in the zeta potential value (mV) and less zeta potential value deviation, and also less size polydispersity. GA was loaded by adsorption onto the surface of PEI-HSA NPs of two different sizes: 117 ± 2.9 nm (PEI-P1) and 180 ± 3.1 nm (PEI-P2) NPs. Both GA-entrapment and GA-loading efficiencies increased slightly with the increasing size of NPs, and were affected intensely by the mass ratio of GA to PEI-HSA NPs. Free radical scavenging of GA was quantified based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The obtained results showed that GA remains active during the preparation of GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs. The cytotoxicities of HSA, PEI-HSA, and GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs on the PC-12 cells, as the neuroendocrine cell line, were measured. Our results indicate that positively charged PEI-HSA NPs are good candidates for efficient and safe delivery of GA to the brain.

  2. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gallic acid-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Morshedi, Dina; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Marvian, Amir Tayaranian

    2015-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA), as an antioxidant and antiparkinson agent, was loaded onto cationic human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA NPs). Polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated HSA (PEI-HSA) NPs were prepared using three different methods: (I) coating negatively charged HSA NPs with positively charged PEI through attractive electrostatic interactions, (II) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent amide bond formation using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, and (III) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent bonding using glutaraldehyde for linking amine groups of PEI and amine groups of albumin NPs. Method II was selected since it resulted in a higher shift in the zeta potential value (mV) and less zeta potential value deviation, and also less size polydispersity. GA was loaded by adsorption onto the surface of PEI-HSA NPs of two different sizes: 117 ± 2.9 nm (PEI-P1) and 180 ± 3.1 nm (PEI-P2) NPs. Both GA-entrapment and GA-loading efficiencies increased slightly with the increasing size of NPs, and were affected intensely by the mass ratio of GA to PEI-HSA NPs. Free radical scavenging of GA was quantified based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The obtained results showed that GA remains active during the preparation of GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs. The cytotoxicities of HSA, PEI-HSA, and GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs on the PC-12 cells, as the neuroendocrine cell line, were measured. Our results indicate that positively charged PEI-HSA NPs are good candidates for efficient and safe delivery of GA to the brain.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles of Hyaluronic Acid-Deoxycholic Acid Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Dong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel amphiphilic biopolymers were synthesized using hyaluronic acid (HA as a hydrophilic segment and deoxycholic acid (DOCA as a hydrophobic segment by a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide mediated coupling reaction. The structural characteristics of the HA-DOCA conjugates were investigated using H1 NMR. Self-assembled nanoparticles were prepared based on HA-DOCA conjugates, and its characteristics were investigated using dynamic laser light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The mean diameter was about 293.5 nm with unimodal size distribution in distilled water. The TEM images revealed that the shape of HA-DOCA self-aggregates was spherical. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC was in the range of 0.025–0.056 mg/mL. The partition equilibrium constant (Kv of pyrene in self-aggregates solution was from 1.45×104 to 3.64×104. The aggregation number of DOCA groups per hydrophobic microdomain, estimated by the fluorescence quenching method using cetylpyridinium chloride, increased with increasing degree of substitution.

  4. Preparation and characterization of polymer nanocomposites based on PVDF/PVC doped with graphene nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Elashmawi

    Full Text Available Novel nanocomposites based on PVDF/PVC blend containing graphene oxide nanoparticles (GO were prepare using sonicator. IR analysis revealed that the addition of GO prompts a crystal transformation of α-phase of PVDF. The change of the structural before and after adding GO to PVDF/PVC were studied by X-ray diffraction. A decrease in activation energy gap from UV data was observed with increasing GO content, implying a variation of reactivity as a result of reaction extent. The variation of ε′ with frequency is nearly the same as that of ε″. At higher frequencies, the decrease of both ε′ and ε″ becomes nearly constant. The dispersion at lower frequencies ε′ of ε′ polarization is of Maxwell–Wagner interfacial polarization but at higher frequencies, it levels off. The behavior of conductivity (σAC tends to acquire constant values approaching it DC values. The values of σAC was increased after doped GO with exponential increase after the critical value of frequency. All nanocomposites behaved the same fashion revealing that a higher number of polarons were getting added to conducting pool in composites as graphene content was increased. Conduction mechanism appeared to be getting expedited with increasing frequency due to fact that increase in frequency enhances polaron hopping frequency. Keywords: Nanocomposites, Graphene oxide, FT-IR, X-ray, AC conductivity

  5. Novel targeted siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dim, Nneka; Perepelyuk, Maryna; Gomes, Olukayode; Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Liu, Yi; Den, Robert; Lakshmikuttyamma, Ashakumary; Shoyele, Sunday A

    2015-09-26

    siRNAs have a high potential for silencing critical molecular pathways that are pathogenic. Nevertheless, their clinical application has been limited by a lack of effective and safe nanotechnology-based delivery system that allows a controlled and safe transfection to cytosol of targeted cells without the associated adverse effects. Our group recently reported a very effective and safe hybrid nanoparticle delivery system composing human IgG and poloxamer-188 for siRNA delivery to cancer cells. However, these nanoparticles need to be optimized in terms of particle size, loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. In the present study, we explored the effects of certain production parameters on particle size, loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. Further, to make these nanoparticles more specific in their delivery of siRNA, we conjugated anti-NTSR1-mAb to the surface of these nanoparticles to target NTSR1-overexpressing cancer cells. The mechanism of siRNA release from these antiNTSR1-mAb functionalized nanoparticles was also elucidated. It was demonstrated that the concentration of human IgG in the starting nanoprecipitation medium and the rotation speed of the magnetic stirrer influenced the encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and the size of the nanoparticles produced. We also successfully transformed these nanoparticles into actively targeted nanoparticles by functionalizing with anti-NTSR1-mAb to specifically target NTSR1-overexpressing cancer cells, hence able to avoid undesired accumulation in normal cells. The mechanism of siRNA release from these nanoparticles was elucidated to be by Fickian diffusion. Using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, we were able to confirm the active involvement of NTSR1 in the uptake of these anti-NTSR1-mAb functionalized hybrid nanoparticles by lung adenocarcinoma cells. This hybrid nanoparticle delivery system can be used as a platform technology for intracellular delivery of siRNAs to NTSR1

  6. Preparation of gold nanoparticles for plasmonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovicova, Monika, E-mail: monika.benkovicova@savba.sk [Institute of Physics SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Polymer Institute SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vegso, Karol; Siffalovic, Peter; Jergel, Matej; Luby, Stefan; Majkova, Eva [Institute of Physics SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-09-30

    We present a simple hot injection method for the preparation of colloidal solutions of hydrophobic spherical gold nanoparticles with the diameter around 20 nm and size dispersion below 20%. Various surfactants with different lengths of hydrocarbon chains, such as oleylamine, 1-octadecanethiol, poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone), and AgNO{sub 3} in 1,5-pentanediol, were used for sterical stabilization in the colloidal solution. The hydrodynamic nanoparticle size and size dispersion were determined by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) while the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from the colloidal solution provided information on the size of the metallic nanoparticle core (without surfactant). Plasmon enhanced resonant absorption peaks between 500 nm and 600 nm were detected by the UV–VIS spectrophotometry. The nanoparticle arrays on silicon prepared by solvent evaporation or Langmuir-Schaefer method were inspected by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and grazing-incidence SAXS (GISAXS). The presence of side maxima in the GISAXS pattern gives evidence of the nanoparticle ordering by self-assembly while very close values of the interparticle distance derived from GISAXS and the nanoparticle size derived from DLS indicate a close-packed order. - Highlights: ► Preparation of gold nanoparticles by use a various of surfactants ► Preparation of monodisperse nanoparticlesCharacterization of nanoparticles on a solid substrate.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Starch Nanoparticles for Controlled Release of Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Fun Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin was loaded onto starch nanoparticles by using in situ nanoprecipitation method and water-in-oil microemulsion system. Curcumin loaded starch nanoparticles exhibited enhanced solubility in aqueous solution as compared to free curcumin. Effects of formulation parameters such as types of reaction medium, types of surfactant, surfactant concentrations, oil/ethanol ratios, loading time, and initial curcumin concentration were found to affect the particle size and loading efficiency (LF of the curcumin loaded starch nanoparticles. Under optimum conditions, curcumin loaded starch nanoparticles with mean particles size of 87 nm and maximum loading efficiency of 78% were achieved. Curcumin was observed to release out from starch nanoparticles in a sustained way under physiological pH over a period of 10 days.

  8. Rapid preparation process of antiparkinsonian drug Mucuna pruriens silver nanoparticle by bioreduction and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkumar, Subramanian; Sabesan, Muthukumaran

    2010-01-01

    Backgorund: Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving an important branch of nanotechnology. Methods: The bioreduction behavior of plant seed extract of Mucuna pruriens in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated employing UV/visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform – infra red (FT- IR). Result: M. pruriens was found to exhibit strong potential for rapid reduction of silver ions. The formation of nanoparticles by this method is extremely rapid, requires no toxic chemicals, and the nanoparticles are stable for several months. Conclusion: The main conclusion is that the bioreduction method to produce nanoparticles is a good alternative to the electrochemical methods and it is expected to be biocompatible. PMID:21808573

  9. The preparation and characterization of gold-conjugated polyphenol nanoparticles as a novel delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh DS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dar-Shih Hsieh1,2, Hsiu-Chin Lu5, Cheng-Cheung Chen1,3, Chang-Jer Wu1,*, Ming-Kung Yeh4,* 1Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan; 2Division of Urology, 3Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, 4Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defence Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Nanogold particles are commonly used in nanomedicine. We generated physical nanogold (pNG conjugated with different ratios of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG and evaluated its physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity in vitro as well as anticancer activity in vivo. Results showed that the EGCG-pNG conjugates were successfully prepared at ratios between 23:1 and 23:5, with the percentage of EGCG content increasing with the EGCG:pNG ratio from 23:1 (2.0% ± 0.02% to 23:5 (28% ± 0.3%. EGCG-pNG particles at ratios of 23:1 and 23:5 demonstrated significantly decreased size from 500 to 20 nm and decreasing zeta potentials of 21 mV to –22 mV, respectively. At a ratio of 23:2.5, the EGCG-pNG particles (27% EGCG, 50 nm in size, zeta potential of –8 mV showed longer EGCG activity half-life (110 days vs 5 hours, controlled release (2 hours vs 30 minutes, and higher antioxidant activity (four times, as well as inhibition of tumor cell growth, than controls. The present study indicated that EGCG-pNG possesses promising therapeutic potential, based on its strong free-radical scavenging and anticancer activities.Keywords: EGCG, nanoparticles, antioxidant, antitumor activity, nanogold

  10. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of altretamine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles using Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidwani, Bina; Vyas, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of altretamine (ALT) by the hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The study was conducted using the Box-Behnken design (BBD), with a 3(3) design and a total of 17 experimental runs, performed in combination with response surface methodology (RSM). The SLNs were evaluated for mean particle size, entrapment efficiency, and drug-loading. The optimized formulation, with a desirability factor of 0.92, was selected and characterized. In vitro release studies showed a biphasic release pattern from the SLNs for up to 24 h. The results of % EE (93.21 ± 1.5), %DL (1.15 ± 0.6), and mean diameter of (100.6 ± 2.1) nm, were very close to the predicted values.

  11. Preparation, characterization and toxicology properties of α- and β-chitosan Maillard reaction products nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Zhang, Yiwen; Bao, Erjaing; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, β-chitosan (CS) Maillard reaction (MR) NPs was prepared to improve the water solubility of CS NPs. The α- and β-CS MR was firstly induced by high intensity ultrasound-assisted (UA) water-bath heating at 80°C for 8h. The α- and β-CS Maillard reaction products (MRPs NPs were then prepared by ionic gelation method between the positively charged primary amino groups of CS and the negatively charged groups of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The α- and β-CS MRPs NPs had particle size of 42.49 and 61.74nm, and Zeta-potential of 27.43 and 35.13mV, respectively. The prepared α- and β-CS MRPs NPs was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)-differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to verify whether α- and β-CS MRPs has been incorporated into the CS NPs. The α- and β-CS MRPs NPs exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in antioxidant activity compared with α- and β-CS MRPs at the same concentration based on reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ORAC values. The cytotoxicity test of α- and β-CS MRPs NPs showed good cell viability (70.86-99.16%) of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) at the concentration range from 0.12 to 1mg/mL, and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-α- and β-CS MRPs NPs maintained the morphological characteristics of living cells. These results showed that α- and β-CS MRPs NPs can be used as water-soluble antioxidant substances for applications in food and other fields. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Properties and characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with various biopolymers and ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-06-15

    This study was aimed to develop biopolymer based antimicrobial films for active food packaging and to reduce environmental pollution caused by accumulation of synthetic packaging. The ZnO NPs were incorporated as antimicrobials into different biopolymers such as agar, carrageenan and CMC. Solvent casting method was performed to prepare active nanocomposite films. Methods such as FE-SEM, FT-IR and XRD were used to characterize resulting films. Physical, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties were also examined. Remarkable surface morphological differences were observed between control and nanocomposite films. The crystallinity of ZnO was confirmed by XRD analysis. The addition of ZnO NPs increased color, UV barrier, moisture content, hydrophobicity, elongation and thermal stability of the films, while decreased WVP, tensile strength and elastic modulus. ZnO NPs impregnated films inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes and E. coli. So these newly prepared nanocomposite films can be used as active packaging film to extend shelf-life of food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of moisturizing and UV protecting effects of topical solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Golmohammadzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN were recently proposed as carriers for various pharmaceutical and cosmetic actives. These lipid nanoparticles can act as moisturizers and physical sunscreens on their own. Therefore, the full potential of these carriers has yet to be determined. The present study was aimed to determine and compare moisturizing and UV-protecting effects of different solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN prepared by different solid lipids including Glyceryl monostearate (GMS, Precirol® (P and cetyl palmitate (CP as carrier systems of moisturizers and sunscreens. The influence of the size and matrix crystallinity of the solid lipids on the occlusive factor, skin hydration and UV-protection were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo methods. The SLN were prepared by high-shear homogenization and ultrasound methods. Size, zeta potential and morphological characteristics of the samples were assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermotropic properties with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique. Results of the assessments showed that SLN-CP significantly increases skin hydration and UV-protection, compared to SLN-GMS and SLN-P. It was demonstrated that the size of SLN, crystallinity index of solid lipid in SLN and probably other mechanisms besides the occlusive factor can influence skin hydration and UV-protection indices. Furthermore, findings of the assessments demonstrated significant difference between in vitro and in vivo assessments regarding occlusive factor and moisturizing effects. Findings of the present study indicate that the SLN-CP could be a promising carrier for sunscreens and moisturizers.Nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas (NLS foram, recentemente, propostas como carreadores de vários ativos cosméticos e farmacêuticos. Essas nanopartículas lipídicas podem atuar como hidratantes e protetores solares físicos por si só. Assim sendo, determinou-se o potencial desses carreadores. Os objetivos do

  14. Structural characterization and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by inverse microemulsion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Irshad A; Khatoon, Sarvari; Ganguly, Aparna; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Ahmad, Tokeer; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized in the inverse microemulsions formed using three different surfactants viz., cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), Tergitol and Triton X-100. We have done a systematic study of the effect of the surfactants on the particle size and properties of the silver nanoparticles. Microscopic studies show the formation of spheres, cubes and discs shaped silver nanostructures with the size in the range from 8 to 40 nm. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak was observed around 400 nm and 500 nm. In addition to SPR some extra peaks have also been observed due to the formation of silver metal clusters. The surface area increases from 3.45 to 15.06 m(2)/g with decreasing the size of silver nanoparticles (40-8 nm). To investigate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles, the nanoparticles were tested against the yeast, Candida albicans and the bacterium, E. coli. The results suggest very good antimicrobial activity of the silver nanoparticles against the test microbes. The mode of action of the antimicrobial activity was also proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Green preparation and spectroscopic characterization of plasmonic silver nanoparticles using fruits as reducing agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, Jes Ærøe; Espina Palanco, Marta; Hagen, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Cl. This explains only modest enhancement factors for near-infrared-excited surface enhanced Raman scattering. In addition to the surface plasmon band, UV-visible absorption spectra show features in the UV range which indicates also the presence of small silver clusters, such as Ag42+. The increase of the plasmon...... absorption correlates with the decrease of absorption band in the UV. This confirms the evolution of silver nanoparticles from silver clusters. The presence of various silver clusters on the surface of the “green” plasmonic silver nanoparticles is also supported by a strong multi-color luminesce signal...

  16. Preparation of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles by microemulsion method and their characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, Petr; Plocek, Jiří; Nižňanský, D.; Vejpravová, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2009), s. 301-305 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/0949 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : magnesium ferrite * microemulsion * nanoparticles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2009

  17. Preparation and characterization of bifunctional dendrimer modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CdTe nanoparticles with both luminescent and superparamagnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiuling, E-mail: wxling_self@163.com [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Gu, Yinjun; Dong, Shuling [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Zhao, Qin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Liu, Yongjian [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The fluorescent superparamagnetic dendrimeric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CdTe nanoparticles are synthesized in this paper. • The synthesized nanocomposites maintain excellent magnetic properties. • The synthesized nanocomposites maintain highly luminescent markers with narrow emission bands. - Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were prepared by hydrothermal coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous ions using NaOH. The surface modification of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle by dendrimers has rendered the nanoparticle surface with enriched amine groups which facilitated the adsorption and conjugation of thioglycolic acid (TGA) modified CdTe quantum dots to form a stable hybrid nanostructure. Three generations (first generation: G0F, second generation: G1F, third generation: G3F) of bifunctional dendrimeric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CdTe nanoparticles were successfully prepared using this technique and characterized by microscopy. The optical and magnetic properties of the dendrimeric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CdTe nanoparticle were also investigated. The microscopic study reveals 3 different sizes for 3 generations, 16 nm (G0F), 31 nm (G1F) and 47 nm (G3F). Among three generations of nanoparticles, the G1F has the best optical property with a luminescent quantum yield of 25.6% and the G0F has the best magnetic property with a saturation magnetization of 19.3 emμ/g.

  18. Preparation and characterization of vinculin-targeted polymer-lipid nanoparticle as intracellular delivery vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Ornek-Ballanco, Ceren; Xu, Jiahua; Yang, Weiguo; Yu, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular delivery vehicles have been extensively investigated as these can serve as an effective tool in studying the cellular mechanism, by delivering functional protein to specific locations of the cells. In the current study, a polymer-lipid nanoparticle (PLN) system was developed as an intracellular delivery vehicle specifically targeting vinculin, a focal adhesion protein associated with cellular adhesive structures, such as focal adhesions and adherens junctions. The PLNs possessed an average size of 106 nm and had a positively charged surface. With a lower encapsulation efficiency 32% compared with poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (46%), the PLNs showed the sustained release profile of model drug BSA, while PLGA nanoparticles demonstrated an initial burst-release property. Cell-uptake experiments using mouse embryonic fibroblasts cultured in fibrin-fibronectin gels observed, under confocal microscope, that the anti-vinculin conjugated PLNs could successfully ship the cargo to the cytoplasm of fibroblasts, adhered to fibronectin-fibrin. With the use of cationic lipid, the unconjugated PLNs were shown to have high gene transfection efficiency. Furthermore, the unconjugated PLNs had nuclear-targeting capability in the absence of nuclear-localization signals. Therefore, the PLNs could be manipulated easily via different type of targeting ligands and could potentially be used as a powerful tool for cellular mechanism study, by delivering drugs to specific cellular organelles.

  19. Preparation and characterization of bismuth oxichloride (BiOCl) nanoparticles and nano zerovalent iron (nZVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwan, Bhawna; Pare, Brijesh; Acharya, Aman Deep

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we have synthesized nano scale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles by borohydride reduction method and bismuth oxichloride (BiOCl) by a hydrolysis method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used for the structural and chemical characterization, while scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) were employed to determine the physical properties of the nanoparticles. The reactivity of synthesized nanoparticles was compared by decolorization of nile blue (NB) dye under visible irradiation. (paper)

  20. Preparation, characterization, drug release and computational modelling studies of antibiotics loaded amorphous chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, N K; Aparna, V; Maya, S; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Mohan, C Gopi

    2017-12-01

    We present a computational investigation of binding affinity of different types of drugs with chitin nanocarriers. Understanding the chitn polymer-drug interaction is important to design and optimize the chitin based drug delivery systems. The binding affinity of three different types of anti-bacterial drugs Ethionamide (ETA) Methacycline (MET) and Rifampicin (RIF) with amorphous chitin nanoparticles (AC-NPs) were studied by integrating computational and experimental techniques. The binding energies (BE) of hydrophobic ETA, hydrophilic MET and hydrophobic RIF were -7.3kcal/mol, -5.1kcal/mol and -8.1kcal/mol respectively, with respect to AC-NPs, using molecular docking studies. This theoretical result was in good correlation with the experimental studies of AC-drug loading and drug entrapment efficiencies of MET (3.5±0.1 and 25± 2%), ETA (5.6±0.02 and 45±4%) and RIF (8.9±0.20 and 53±5%) drugs respectively. Stability studies of the drug encapsulated nanoparticles showed stable values of size, zeta and polydispersity index at 6°C temperature. The correlation between computational BE and experimental drug entrapment efficiencies of RIF, ETA and MET drugs with four AC-NPs strands were 0.999 respectively, while that of the drug loading efficiencies were 0.854 respectively. Further, the molecular docking results predict the atomic level details derived from the electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions of the drug and nanoparticle for its encapsulation and loading in the chitin-based host-guest nanosystems. The present results thus revealed the drug loading and drug delivery insights and has the potential of reducing the time and cost of processing new antibiotic drug delivery nanosystem optimization, development and discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Donchenko, G. V.; Andriyaka, V. I.; Palyvoda, O. M.; Chernishov, V. I.; Chekhun, V. F.; Todor, I. N.; Kuzmenko, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, 15 April (2015), s. 125-131 ISSN 0304-8853. [International Conference on the Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /10./. Dresden, 10.06.2014-14.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12054; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 259796 - DIATOOLS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticle * poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) * protein oxidation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  2. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of γ-irradiated silver nanoparticles in aqueous gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Hakimi, Mohammad; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, Ali Khorsand; Hosseini, Hasan Ali; Zargar, Mohsen

    2013-04-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were obtained through γ-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The absorbed dose of γ-irradiation influences the particle diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. When the γ-irradiation dose was increased (from 2 to 50 kGy), the mean particle size was decreased continuously as a result of γ-induced Ag-NPs fragmentation. The antibacterial properties of the Ag-NPs were tested against Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a) (Gram-negative) bacteria. This approach reveals that the γ-irradiation-mediated method is a promising simple route for synthesizing highly stable Ag-NPs in aqueous solutions with good antibacterial properties for different applications.

  3. Structural Characterization and Magnetic Properties of Undoped and Ti-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Prepared by Modified Oxalate Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekane Peter Etape

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-doped zinc oxide and pure zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified oxalate route using Averrhoa carambola fruit juice as a natural source of oxalate. The characteristics of the precursors have been investigated by FTIR, TGA, and XRD. The results from the investigation revealed that the precursors are zinc oxalate and Ti-doped zinc oxalate which readily decompose at 450°C. The as-prepared precursors were calcined at 450°C for 4 hours, and the decomposition products have been characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, and VSM. XRD results revealed crystallinity with hexagonal wurtzite structure, while the average grain size was found to be 26 nm for Ti-doped ZnO and 29 nm for ZnO, using calculations based on Debye-Scherrer equation. Furthermore, the morphological studies by SEM showed particle agglomeration, while the presence of Ti3+ in the zinc oxide lattice is indicated by EDS analysis. Finally the hysteresis loop from VSM results shows that Ti-doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetism.

  4. Gold nanoparticles tethered cinnamic acid: preparation, characterization, and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Karthika; Ponnuchamy, Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of the study is to tether citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CS©GNPs) with cinnamic acid (CA) and evaluating them against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. To achieve CA CS©GNPs, CS©GNPs prepared were blended with CA under controlled experimental conditions followed by high-throughput characterization. The result from the study demonstrates that positively charged hydrogen moiety present in O-H group of CA provides an opportunity for binding of CS©GNPs via hydrogen bonding evidenced by color change (ruby to light purple) and spectroscopic analysis (UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy). The size and shape of CA CS©GNPs were not the same as CS©GNPs substantiated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. At the end, cytotoxic and morphological assessment against MCF-7 breast cancer cells shows effective suppression of tumor cells and thereby promoting them as promising nanoscale drug delivery system in near future.

  5. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposites of natural rubber with polystyrene and styrene-methacrylic acid copolymer nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nuruk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Composites of natural rubber (NR/vinyl polymer nanoparticles as polystyrene (PS and poly(styrenemethacrylic acid (P(S-MAA were prepared by heterocoagulation technique. The polymer nanoparticles were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerizations at 70°C using potassium persulfate as initiator. Under acidic condition where positive charge was present on the NR latex (NRL surface, the nanoparticles having negative charge mainly from sulfate group of initiator were able to adsorb on the NRL surface, the electrostatic interaction being the driving force. The scanning electron micrographs showed that the polymer nanoparticles are homogenously distributed throughout NR matrix as nanoclusters with an average size of about 500 and 200 nm for PS and P(S-MAA, respectively. The mechanical properties of NR/PS and NR/P(S-MAA composite films were compared with the NR host. The nanocomposites, particularly when the polymer nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed, possess significantly enhanced mechanical properties strongly depending on the morphology of the nanocomposites.

  6. Preparation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in high yield by DC arc discharge and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Cui, Lan; Lin, Kui; Jin, Feng-min; Wang, Bin; Shi, Shu-xiu; Yang, De-an; Wang, Hui; He, Fei; Chen, Xiao-ping; Cui, Shen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CEINPs with core–shell structure and high Fe content were prepared in high yield by DC arc discharge. ► The anode II with a mass ratio of total iron to carbon 8:1 was used in DC arc discharge. ► The possible process of formation of CEINPs is briefly discussed. ► The uniformity of composition of anode is very important for the formation of CEINPs. ► The MEF and MMF of iron element may also play an important role in the formation of CEINPs. -- Abstract: Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINPs) were prepared by DC arc discharge under nitrogen atmosphere of high temperature. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and their magnetic properties were measured by physical property measurement system (PPMS). The product B I , obtained from the anode I, contains the nanoparticles of iron and iron carbide, and carbon coating with imperfect and disordered layer structure. The product B II , obtained from the anode II, mainly consists of CEINPs, whose cores mainly consist of iron and iron carbide and shells contain about 3–7 graphitic layers. The iron contents in the products B I and B II are 44.8 and 82.6 wt.%, respectively. The products B I and B II have similar phase composition which includes carbon, iron, iron carbide, ferrous and ferric oxide, iron nitride, and carbon nitride. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of the products B I and B II are 29.35 and 88.66 emu/g and their coercivity (Hc) are 220 and 240 Oe, respectively. The total yields of all the products formed in the arc discharge chamber from anodes I and II, except for the cylinder-shaped deposits formed on the top of the cathode, are 25.8 and 22.3 wt.%, respectively. The possible process of formation of CEINPs is briefly discussed on the foundation of our results and other

  7. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitz, Iris S., E-mail: irisweitz@braude.ac.il; Maoz, Michal; Panitz, Daniel [ORT Braude College, Department of Biotechnology Engineering (Israel); Eichler, Sigal; Segal, Ester [Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections.

  8. Preparation and characterization compatible pellets for immobilization of colloidal sulphur nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlim, M.; Zarlaida, F.; Khaldun, I.; Dewi, R.; Jamilah, M.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury pollution in atmosphere is dominated by mercury vapour release from coal burning and gold-amalgam separation in gold mining. The initial steps in formulating a compatible mercury absorbent for mercury stabilization was fabrication of pellet supported colloidal sulphur. Sulphur is used to stabilize mercury vapour by formation of metacinnabar that has much lower toxicity. The sulphur reactivity toward mercury vapour can be enhanced by using colloidal sulphur nanoparticles immobilized on compatible pellets. Clay pellets would have heat resistance but in fact, they were less stable in aqueous solution although their stability increased with inclusion of rice husk ash and sawdust or pineapple leaf fibre in the composite. Pellets made of rice husk ash and polyvinyl acetate were stable in water at least for 24 hours. Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor that immobilized onto surface of pellet using chitosan as the stabilizer and the binding agent gave lower sulphur content compared to sulphur from other precursors (sulphur powder and sulphur-CS2). Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor was in form of colloid, has nanosize, and disperse particles on the surface of rice husk ash pellets. Sulphur immobilization methods affect on sulphur particles exposure on the pellet surface.

  9. Preparation and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles and their application in glucose and methanol sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Hasanzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a low cost glucose and methanol nonenzymatic sensor was prepared using nickel oxide (NiO nanofilm electrodeposited on a bare Cu electrode. Electrochemical deposition was assisted with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB as a template. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was applied to observe the surface morphology of the modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and amperometry techniques were used to study the electrocatalytic behavior of NiO porous film in glucose and methanol detection. For glucose sensing, the electrode showed a linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.01-2.14 mM with a low limit of detection (LOD 1.7 µM (signal/noise ratio (S/N=3. Moreover, high sensitivities of 4.02 mA mM−1 cm−2 and 0.38 mA mM−1 cm−2 respectively in glucose and methanol monitoring suggested the modified electrode as an excellent sensor. The NiO-Cu modified electrode was relatively insensitive to common biological interferers. This sensor possessed good poison resistance towards chloride ions, and long term stability and significant selectivity towards glucose and methanol. Finally the proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of glucose in human blood serum samples.

  10. Preparation and characterization of alginate based-fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for fluorescence/magnetic resonance multimodal imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Choi, Kee-Bong; Lim, Hyungjun; Lee, Sunghwi; Lee, Jae-Jong

    2018-06-01

    Simple and versatile methodologies have been reported that customize the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and impart additional fluorescence capabilities to these contrast agents. Herein, we present the rational design, synthesis, characterization, and biological applications of a new magnetic-based fluorescent probe. The dual modality imaging protocol was developed by labeling fluorophore with alginate natural polymers that have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, and using gelification method to form nanocomposites containing SPIO. The formation of alginate-based fluorescent magnetic (AFM) nanoparticles was observed in spherical and elliptical forms with a diameter of less than 500 nm by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The fluorescent wavelength band in the range of 560 nm was also confirmed in the UV–visible spectrophotometer. In this study, we demonstrate that the multi-tasking design of AFM nanoparticles provides an ideal platform for building balanced dual-image probes of magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging.

  11. Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.) fibers impregnated with vancomycin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as new antibacterial wound dressing: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Teresa; Abruzzo, Angela; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Vitali, Beatrice; De Rose, Renata; Chidichimo, Giuseppe; Ceseracciu, Luca; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Saladini, Bruno; Dalena, Francesco; Bigucci, Federica; Luppi, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we propose as new wound dressing, the Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with vancomycin (VM) loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Spanish Broom fibers were extracted by patented method DiCoDe and the morphological, physical and mechanical properties were investigated. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation using different weight ratios between chitosan (CH) and tripolyphosphate (TPP). Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, yield, encapsulation efficiency, stability and drug release. Finally, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well as in vitro cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells were evaluated. The best formulation CH/TPP 4:1 was selected based on the encapsulation efficiency and yield. Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with loaded nanoparticles showed an increased antibacterial activity against S. aureus compared to the same fibers containing VM without nanoparticles. Moreover, these fibers were not toxic to HaCaT keratinocytes cells. In conclusion, Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with VM loaded CH/TPP nanoparticles would appear to be a promising candidate for wound dressing application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sun light mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles as carrier for 6-mercaptopurine: Preparation, characterization and toxicity studies in zebrafish embryo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshkumar, Moorthy [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India); Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara [Bioproducts Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020 (India); Sathish Kumar, Muniram [Department of Pharmaceutics, Anna University, Trichy, Tamilnadu (India); Dinesh, Murugan Girija [Thanthai Hansroever College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu (India); Kannappan, Sudalyandi [Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture, Chennai 600028 (India); Suguna, Lonchin, E-mail: slonchin@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Gold nanoparticles prepared using eco-friendly method with good in vitro stability. ► Can be used as drug delivery system. ► Did not show any toxicity in zebrafish embryo. ► More toxic to cancer cells when compared to N-Au-Mp and Mp. -- Abstract: The objective of this study is to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles by sun light irradiation method. The prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified using folic acid and then coupled with 6-mercaptopurine. These modified nanoparticles were used as a tool for targeted drug delivery to treat laryngeal cancer. In the present study, novel bionanocomposites containing nutrient agar coated gold nano particles (N-AuNPs) coupled with 6-mercaptopurine (drug) (N-AuNPs-Mp), folic acid (ligand) (N-AuNPs-Mp-Fa) and rhodamine (dye) (N-AuNPs-Rd), a fluorescent agent, were prepared and characterized by IR, UV, TEM, Particle size analysis and in vitro stability. The toxicity and fluorescence of N-Au was studied using zebrafish embryo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free Mp, N-Au-Mp and N-Au-Mp-Fa against HEp-2 cells was compared and found that the amount of Mp required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (IC{sub 50}) was much lower in N-Au-Mp-Fa than in free Mp and N-Au-Mp.

  13. Sun light mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles as carrier for 6-mercaptopurine: Preparation, characterization and toxicity studies in zebrafish embryo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshkumar, Moorthy; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara; Sathish Kumar, Muniram; Dinesh, Murugan Girija; Kannappan, Sudalyandi; Suguna, Lonchin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gold nanoparticles prepared using eco-friendly method with good in vitro stability. ► Can be used as drug delivery system. ► Did not show any toxicity in zebrafish embryo. ► More toxic to cancer cells when compared to N-Au-Mp and Mp. -- Abstract: The objective of this study is to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles by sun light irradiation method. The prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified using folic acid and then coupled with 6-mercaptopurine. These modified nanoparticles were used as a tool for targeted drug delivery to treat laryngeal cancer. In the present study, novel bionanocomposites containing nutrient agar coated gold nano particles (N-AuNPs) coupled with 6-mercaptopurine (drug) (N-AuNPs-Mp), folic acid (ligand) (N-AuNPs-Mp-Fa) and rhodamine (dye) (N-AuNPs-Rd), a fluorescent agent, were prepared and characterized by IR, UV, TEM, Particle size analysis and in vitro stability. The toxicity and fluorescence of N-Au was studied using zebrafish embryo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free Mp, N-Au-Mp and N-Au-Mp-Fa against HEp-2 cells was compared and found that the amount of Mp required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (IC 50 ) was much lower in N-Au-Mp-Fa than in free Mp and N-Au-Mp.

  14. Preparation and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their sensor applications for electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumak, Tugrul; Kuralay, Filiz; Muti, Mihrican; Sinag, Ali; Erdem, Arzum; Abaci, Serdar

    2011-09-01

    In this study, ZnO nanoparticles (ZNP) of approximately 30 nm in size were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Braun-Emmet-Teller (BET) N2 adsorption analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ZnO nanoparticles enriched with poly(vinylferrocenium) (PVF+) modified single-use graphite electrodes were then developed for the electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acid hybridization related to the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Firstly, the surfaces of polymer modified and polymer-ZnO nanoparticle modified single-use pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behavior of these electrodes was also investigated using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Subsequently, the polymer-ZnO nanoparticle modified PGEs were evaluated for the electrochemical detection of DNA based on the changes at the guanine oxidation signals. Various modifications in DNA oligonucleotides and probe concentrations were examined in order to optimize the electrochemical signals that were generated by means of nucleic acid hybridization. After the optimization studies, the sequence-selective DNA hybridization was investigated in the case of a complementary amino linked probe (target), or noncomplementary (NC) sequences, or target and mismatch (MM) mixture in the ratio of (1:1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel inorganic precipitation-peptization method for VO2 sol and VO2 nanoparticles preparation: Synthesis, characterization and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Jiang, Peng; Xiang, Wei; Ran, Fanyong; Cao, Wenbin

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, a simple, safe and cost-saving precipitation-peptization method was proposed to prepare VO2 sol by using inorganic VOSO4-NH3⋅H2O-H2O2 reactants system in air under room temperature. In this process, VOSO4 was firstly precipitated to form VO(OH)2, then monometallic species of VO(O2)(OH)(-) were formed through the coordination between VO(OH)2 and H2O2. The rearrangement of VO(O2)(OH)(-) in a nonplanar pattern and intermolecular condensation reactions result in multinuclear species. Finally, VO2 sol is prepared through the condensation reactions between the multinuclear species. After drying the obtained sol at 40°C, VO2 xerogel exhibiting monoclinic crystal structure with the space group of C2/m was prepared. The crystal structure of VO2 nanoparticles was transferred to monoclinic crystal structure with the space group of P21/c (VO2(M)) by annealing the xerogel at 550°C. Both XRD and TEM analysis indicated that the nanoparticles possess good crystallinity with crystallite size of 34.5nm as estimated by Scherrer's method. These results suggest that the VO2 sol has been prepared successfully through the proposed simple method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  17. Preparation, characterization and cytotoxic evaluation of bovine serum albumin nanoparticles encapsulating 5-methylmellein: A secondary metabolite isolated from Xylaria psidii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Divya; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Prasoon; Chashoo, Gousia; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2017-12-01

    In this study, 5-methylmellein (5-MM) loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA NPs) were developed using desolvation technique. The developed nanoparticles were characterized for their mean particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, loading efficiency, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and release profile. The developed nanoparticles were spherical in shape under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The developed 5-MM loaded BSA NPs demonstrated a mean particle size with a diameter of 154.95 ± 4.44 nm. The results from XRD and DSC studies demonstrated that the crystal state of the 5-MM was converted to an amorphous state in polymeric matrix. The encapsulation and loading efficiency was found to be 73.26 ± 4.48% and 7.09 ± 0.43%. The in vitro cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), human colon cancer cells (HCT-116) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) cells demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity of 5-MM BSA NPs as compared to native 5-MM after 72-h treatment. The enhancement in cytotoxicity of 5-MM BSA NPs was also supported by increase in cellular apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential loss and generation of high reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, these findings collectively indicated that BSA nanoparticles may serve as promising drug delivery system for improving the efficacy of 5-methylmellein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation of Metal Nanoparticles via Sonochemical Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Puig, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    Pure nickel, copper and zinc nanoparticles were prepared from chlorides of these elements using ultrasound with three different reducing agents (zinc, aluminum and magnesium). In the second part, syntheses of nickel-copper alloy and nickel-zinc using ultrasound were investigated. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The reaction parameters, such as sonification time, the amount of reagents and reaction conditions were modified to observe variations in...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt/gold bimetallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    Cobalt/gold (Co/Au) bimetallic nanoparticles are prepared by chemically reducing gold (III) chloride to gold in the presence of pre-synthesized Co nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrometry, and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer have been used to characterize as-prepared bimetallic nanoparticles. Our findings demonstrate Au not only grows onto Co nanoparticles, forming a surface coating, but also diffuses into Co nanoparticles. The introduction of Au alters the crystalline structure of Co nanoparticles and changes their magnetic properties. Dodecanethiols induce a reorganization of as-prepared Co/Au bimetallic nanoparticles

  20. Poly ɛ-caprolactone nanoparticles loaded with Uncaria tomentosa extract: preparation, characterization, and optimization using the Box–Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Ferreira; de Oliveira Rezende, Ricardo Leite; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this research was to develop and optimize a process for obtaining poly ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles loaded with Uncaria tomentosa (UT) extract. Methods Nanoparticles were produced by the oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. Preliminary experiments determined the initial conditions of the organic phase (OP) and of the aqueous phase (AP) that would be utilized for this study. Ultimately, a three-factor three-level Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed during the optimization process. PCL and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentrations (X1 and X2, respectively) and the AP/OP volume ratio (X3) were the independent variables studied, while entrapment efficiency (Y1), particle mean diameter (Y2), polydispersity (Y3), and zeta potential (Y4) served as the evaluated responses. Results Preliminary experiments revealed that the optimal initial conditions for the preparation of nanoparticles were as follows: OP composed of 5 mL ethyl acetate/acetone (3/2) mixture containing UT extract and PCL, and an AP of buffered PVA (pH 7.5) solution. Statistical analysis of the BBD results indicated that all of the studied factors had significant effects on the responses Y1, Y2, and Y4, and these effects are closely described or fitted by regression equations. Based on the obtained models and the selected desirability function, the nanoparticles were optimized to maximize Y1 and minimize Y2. These optimal conditions were achieved using 3% (w/v) PCL, 1% (w/v) PVA, and an AP/OP ratio of 1.7, with predicted values of 89.1% for Y1 and 280 nm for Y2. Another batch was produced under the same optimal conditions. The entrapment efficiency of this new batch was measured at 81.6% (Y1) and the particles had a mean size of 247 nm (Y2) and a polydispersity index of 0.062 (Y3). Conclusion This investigation obtained UT-loaded nanoparticle formulations with desired characteristics. The BBD approach was a useful tool for nanoparticle development and optimization, and

  1. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with insulin by sodium cholate-phosphatidylcholine-based mixed micelles: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gong, Tao; Wang, Changguang; Zhong, Zhirong; Zhang, Zhirong

    2007-08-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with insulin-mixed micelles (Ins-MMs) were prepared by a novel reverse micelle-double emulsion method, in which sodium cholate (SC) and soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) were employed to improve the liposolubility of insulin, and the mixture of stearic acid and palmitic acid were employed to prepare insulin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Ins-MM-SLNs). Some of the formulation parameters were optimized to obtain high quality nanoparticles. The particle size and zeta potential measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were 114.7+/-4.68 nm and -51.36+/-2.04 mV, respectively. Nanospheres observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed extremely spherical shape. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) and drug loading capacity (DL%) determined with high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by modified ultracentrifuge method were 97.78+/-0.37% and 18.92+/-0.07%, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of Ins-MM-SLNs indicated no tendency of recrystallisation. The core-shell drug loading pattern of the SLNs was confirmed by fluorescence spectra and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) which also proved the integrity of insulin after being incorporated into lipid carrier. The drug release behavior was studied by in situ and externally sink method and the release pattern of drug was found to follow Weibull and Higuchi equations. Results of stability evaluation showed a relatively long-term stability after storage at 4 degrees C for 6 months. In conclusion, SLNs with small particle size, excellent physical stability, high entrapment efficiency, good loading capacity for protein drug can be produced by this novel reverse micelle-double emulsion method in present study.

  2. Kaempferol loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and their potential applications as a sustainable antifungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Sedef; Saglam, Necdet; Özgen, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Flavonoid compounds are strong antioxidant and antifungal agents but their applications are limited due to their poor dissolution and bioavailability. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture has received increasing attention, with the development of new formulations containing active compounds. In this study, kaempferol (KAE) was loaded into lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (LC NPs) to determine antifungal activity compared to pure KAE against the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporium to resolve the bioavailability problem. The influence of formulation parameters on the physicochemical properties of KAE loaded lecithin chitosan nanoparticles (KAE-LC NPs) were studied by using the electrostatic self-assembly technique. KAE-LC NPs were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties. KAE has been successfully encapsulated in LC NPs with an efficiency of 93.8 ± 4.28% and KAE-LC NPs showed good physicochemical stability. Moreover, in vitro evaluation of the KAE-LC NP system was made by the release kinetics, antioxidant and antifungal activity in a time-dependent manner against free KAE. Encapsulated KAE exhibited a significantly inhibition efficacy (67%) against Fusarium oxysporium at the end of the 60 day storage period. The results indicated that KAE-LC NP formulation could solve the problems related to the solubility and loss of KAE during use and storage. The new nanoparticle system enables the use of smaller quantities of fungicide and therefore, offers a more environmentally friendly method of controlling fungal pathogens in agriculture.

  3. Preparation, characterization and applications of novel carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO2 nanoparticles from annealing TiN under CO atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Song, Peng; Li, Jing; Cui, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were firstly fabricated by calcining TiN powder under CO atmosphere at different temperatures between 400 and 600 °C, both the improved photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue and enhanced photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized solar cells were demonstrated. - Highlights: • CN-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by calcining TiN under CO atmosphere. • More visible light response was confirmed by UV–vis DRS and photocatalytic results. • Enhanced conversion efficiency was observed for the DSSCs from CN-TiO 2 photoanode. • CN-codoping played an important role to improve the photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped titania (CN-TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were fabricated by calcining titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles under carbon monoxide (CO) atmosphere at four different temperatures in a range of 400–600 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Enhanced light absorption in both the UV and visible light region was observed for the resulted CN-TiO 2 nanoparticles in ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). Improved photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of methylene blue by the CN-TiO 2 nanoparticles was demonstrated under UV and visible light, respectively. The highest degradation rate was achieved for CN-TiO 2 nanoparticles (13%) compared to N-TiO 2 (10%) and the commercial P25 (5%) under visible light illumination for 40 min. Furthermore, the improved photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO 2 was also confirmed by the degradation of colorless resorcinol under UV–vis light irradiation. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using P25, N-TiO 2 and CN-TiO 2 photoanodes, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency of 3.31% was achieved by the DSSCs based on the

  4. Depot injectable biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan AH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali Habiballah Hassan,1 Khaled Mohamed Hosny,2,3 Zuahir A Murshid,1 Adel Alhadlaq,4 Ahmed Alyamani,5 Ghada Naguib6 1Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 4Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 5Department of Oral Surgery, 6Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: The aim of this study is to utilize the biocompatibility characteristics of biodegradable polymers, viz, poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and polycaprolactone (PCL, to prepare sustained-release injectable nanoparticles (NPs of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 for the repair of alveolar bone defects in rabbits. The influence of formulation parameters on the functional characteristics of the prepared NPs was studied to develop a new noninvasive injectable recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 containing grafting material for the repair of alveolar bone clefts.Materials and methods: BMP-2 NPs were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction method. The influence of molar ratio of PLGA to PCL on a suitable particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and sustained drug release was studied. Critical size alveolar defects were created in the maxilla of 24 New Zealand rabbits divided into three groups, one of them treated with 5 µg/kg of rhBMP-2 NP formulations.Results: The results found that NPs formula prepared using blend of PLGA and PCL in 4:2 (w/w ratio showed the best sustained-release pattern with lower initial burst, and showed up to 62.7% yield, 64.5% encapsulation efficiency, 127 nm size, and more than 90% in vitro release. So, this formula was selected for

  5. Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded into graphene nanosheets: Preparation, characterization, and electrochemical properties for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bei [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering and Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)] [Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Park, Jinsoo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwa-dong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660 -701 (Korea, Republic of); Wang Chengyin [Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ahn, Hyojun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwa-dong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660 -701 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.Wang@uts.edu.a [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering and Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)] [Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2010-09-01

    Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by mixing graphene suspension in ethylene glycol with MnO{sub 2} organosol, followed by subsequent ultrasonication processing and heat treatment. The as-prepared product consists of nanosized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles homogeneously distributed on graphene nanosheets, which has been confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Atomic force microscope analysis further identified the distribution of dense Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets. When used as electrode materials in supercapacitors, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposites exhibited a high specific capacitance of 175 F g{sup -1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte and 256 F g{sup -1} in 6 M KOH electrolyte, respectively. The enhanced supercapacitance of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposites could be ascribed to both electrochemical contributions of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, functional groups attached to graphene nanosheets, and significantly increased specific surface area.

  6. Preparation, characterization and catalytic application of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the synthesis of benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borade, Ravikumar M.; Shinde, Pavan R.; Kale, Swati B.; Pawar, Rajendra P.

    2018-05-01

    A highly efficient magnetically recoverable cobalt ferrite nano-catalyst was prepared by sol-gel autocombustion method using glycine as green fuel. The prepared material has been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning. An investigation of its catalytic activity showed it to be a heterogeneous Lewis acid catalyst for the synthesis of substituted benzimidazoles. The aqueous ethanol used as green solvent for the reaction. The nm size range of these particles facilitates the catalysis process, as an increased surface area available for the reaction. The easy separation of the catalyst by an external magnet and their recovery and reuse in next cycle reaction are additional benefits.

  7. Lyophilized insulin nanoparticles prepared from quaternized N-aryl derivatives of chitosan as a new strategy for oral delivery of insulin: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjub, Reza; Radmehr, Moojan; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Ostad, Seyed Naser; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was the development, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization of lyophilized insulin nanoparticles prepared from quaternized N-aryl derivatives of chitosan. Insulin nanoparticles were prepared from methylated N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl), methylated N-(4 pyridinyl) and methylated N-(benzyl). Insulin nanoparticles containing non-modified chitosan and also trimethyl chiotsan (TMC) were also prepared as control. The effects of the freeze-drying process on physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles were investigated. The release of insulin from the nanoparticles was studied in vitro. The mechanism of the release of insulin from different types of nanoparticles was determined using curve fitting. The secondary structure of the insulin released from the nanoparticles was analyzed using circular dichroism and the cell cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on a Caco-2 cell line was determined. Ex vivo studies were performed on excised rat jejunum using Frantz diffusion cells. In vivo studies were performed on diabetic male Wistar rats and blood glucose level and insulin serum concentration were determined. Optimized nanoparticles with proper physico-chemical properties were obtained. The lyophilization process was found to cause a decrease in zeta potential and an increase in PdI as well as and a decrease in entrapment efficiency (EE%) and loading efficiency (LE%) but conservation in size of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed non-aggregated, stable and spherical to sub-spherical nanoparticles. The in vitro release study revealed higher release rates for lyophilized compared to non-lyophilized nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity studies on Caco-2 cells revealed no significant cytotoxicity for prepared nanoparticles after 3-h post-incubation but did show the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity after 24 h. The percentage of cumulative insulin determined from ex vivo studies was significantly higher in nanoparticles prepared

  8. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  9. Preparation, characterization of Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles and their application for immunoassay of biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Hongbo; Yang, Chunming; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2013-03-15

    Novel Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and developed for a new nanoparticle-based immunosensor for electrochemical quantification of organophosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma, a specific biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) agents. The Fe3O4 at TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres, and characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectra, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The functional Fe3O4 at TiO2 nanoparticles were performed as capture antibody to selectively enrich phosphorylated moiety instead of phosphoserine antibody in the traditional sandwich immunoassays. The secondary recognition was served by quantum dots (QDs)-tagged anti-BChE antibody (QDs-anti-BChE). With the help of a magnet, the resulting sandwich-like complex, Fe3O4 at TiO2/OP-BChE/QDs-anti-BChE, was easily isolated from sample solutions and the released cadmium ions were detected on a disposable screen-printed electrode (SPE). The binding affinities were investigated by both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). This method not only avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody but also amplifies detection signal by QDs-tags together with easy separation of samples by magnetic forces. The proposed immunosensor yields a linear response over a broad OP-BChE concentrations range from 0.02 to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.01 nM. Moreover, the disposable nanoparticle-based immunosensor has been validated with human plasma samples. It offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive screening/evaluating exposure to OP pesticides.

  10. Characterization of nanoparticles using Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A; Schoenenberger, M; Gnecco, E; Glatzel, Th; Meyer, E; Braendlin, D; Scandella, L

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles are becoming increasingly important in many areas, including catalysis, biomedical applications, and information storage. Their unique size-dependent properties make these materials superior. Using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), individual particles and groups of particles can be resolved and unlike other microscopy techniques, the AFM offers visualization and analysis in three dimensions. We prepared titanium oxide, zirconium oxide and alumina nanoparticles and/or agglomerates on different surfaces and characterized them by AFM in the dynamic mode. The goal was to determine the shape, size and/or size distribution of nanoparticles. Different dilutions of nanoparticles were applied on various substrates e.g. clean silicon, mica and chemically treated silicon and imaged at ambient conditions. Nanoparticles deposited on mica appeared to be coagulated as compared to those on silicon. Whereas, on a chemically treated surface the density of the nanoparticles was very low because of the increased hydrophobicity of the surface

  11. Preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin- and florfenicol-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Z; Yonghong, L; Changqing, S; Junfeng, L; Li, Z; Chunyu, J; Xianqiang, L

    2017-06-01

    To effectively control bovine mastitis, tilmicosin (TIL)- and florfenicol (FF)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) were prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, and pharmacokinetics of the TIL-FF-SLN were studied. The results demonstrated that TIL and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. The size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of nanoparticles were 289.1 ± 13.7 nm, 0.31 ± 0.05, and -26.7 ± 1.3 mV, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies for TIL and FF were 62.3 ± 5.9% and 85.1 ± 5.2%, and the loading capacities for TIL and FF were 8.2 ± 0.6% and 3.3 ± 0.2%, respectively. The TIL-FF-SLN showed no irritation in the injection site and sustained release in vitro. After medication, TIL and FF could maintain about 0.1 μg/mL for 122 and 6 h. Compared to the control solution, the SLN increased the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0-t ), elimination half-life (T ½ke ), and mean residence time (MRT) of TIL by 33.09-, 23.29-, and 37.53-fold, and 1.69-, 5.00-, and 3.83-fold for FF, respectively. These results of this exploratory study suggest that the HCO-SLN could be a useful system for the delivery of TIL and FF for bovine mastitis therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Phenoxo bridged dinuclear Zn(II) Schiff base complex as new precursor for preparation zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures and photoluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeednia, S., E-mail: sami_saeednia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan 77188-97111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iranmanesh, P. [Department of physics, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan 77188-97111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ardakani, M. Hatefi; Mohammadi, M.; Norouzi, Gh. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan 77188-97111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A novel nano-scale Zn(II) complex was synthesized by solvothermal method. • Chemical structure of the nanostructures was characterized as well as bulk complex. • The photoluminescence property of the complex was investigated at room temperature. • The thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were carried out. • Thermal decomposition of the nanostructures was prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of a novel Zn(II) Schiff base complex, [Zn(HL)NO{sub 3}]{sub 2} (1), (H{sub 2}L = 2-[(2-hydroxy-propylimino) methyl] phenol), was synthesized by using solvothermal method. Shape, morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectoscopy (FT-IR) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Structural determination of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results were revealed that the zinc complex is a centrosymmetric dimer in which deprotonated phenolates bridge the two five-coordinate metal atoms and link the two halves of the dimer. The thermal stability of compound 1 was analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the initial substrates concentration and reaction time on size and morphology of compound 1 nanostructure was investigated as well. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of the complex 1 were examined. ZnO nanoparticles with diameter between 15 and 20 nm were simply synthesized by solid-state transformation of compound 1 at 700 °C.

  13. Protein-Based Nanoparticle Preparation via Nanoprecipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Tarhini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are nowadays largely investigated in the field of drug delivery. Among nanoparticles, protein-based particles are of paramount importance since they are natural, biodegradable, biocompatible, and nontoxic. There are several methods to prepare proteins containing nanoparticles, but only a few studies have been dedicated to the preparation of protein- based nanoparticles. Then, the aim of this work was to report on the preparation of bovine serum albumin (BSA-based nanoparticles using a well-defined nanoprecipitation process. Special attention has been dedicated to a systematic study in order to understand separately the effect of each operating parameter of the method (such as protein concentration, solvent/non-solvent volume ratio, non-solvent injection rate, ionic strength of the buffer solution, pH, and cross-linking on the colloidal properties of the obtained nanoparticles. In addition, the mixing processes (batch or drop-wise were also investigated. Using a well-defined formulation, submicron protein-based nanoparticles have been obtained. All prepared particles have been characterized in terms of size, size distribution, morphology, and electrokinetic properties. In addition, the stability of nanoparticles was investigated using Ultraviolet (UV scan and electrophoresis, and the optimal conditions for preparing BSA nanoparticles by the nanoprecipitation method were concluded.

  14. Preparation and characterization of LTA-type zeolite framework dispersed ruthenium nanoparticles and their catalytic application in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia–borane for efficient hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahmakiran, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ru(0)NPs-ZK-4 were prepared and characterized by advanced analytical techniques. ► They achieve the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane with TOF = 5410 h −1 and TTO = 36700. ► They maintain 85% of their activity even at the fifth catalytic run. - Abstract: The safe and efficient hydrogen storage and production are major obstacles to use hydrogen as an energy carrier. Therefore, significant efforts have been focused on the development of new materials for the chemical hydrogen storage and production. Of particular importance, ammonia–borane (NH 3 BH 3 ) is emerging as one of the most promising solid hydrogen carrier due to its high gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (19.6 wt.%) and low molecular weight (30.8 g/mol). ammonia–borane can release hydrogen gas upon catalytic hydrolysis under mild conditions. Herein, the discovery of a new catalytic material, ruthenium nanoparticles stabilized by ZK-4 zeolite framework, for this important reaction has been reported. This new catalyst system was prepared by borohydride reduction of ruthenium(III)-exchanged ZK-4 zeolite in water at room temperature. The characterization of the resulting material by advanced analytical tools shows the formation of ZK-4 zeolite dispersed ruthenium nanoparticles (2.9 ± 0.9 nm). The catalytic performance of the resulting supported ruthenium nanoparticles depending on activity, lifetime and reusability was demonstrated in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia–borane. They were found to be highly active (initial TOF = 5410 h −1 ), long-lived (TTO = 36,700) and reusable catalyst (retaining of >85% of initial activity in the 5th reuse) in this important catalytic reaction at room temperature under air.

  15. Preparation, characterization of silver phyto nanoparticles and their impact on growth potential of Lupinus termis L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma A. Al-Huqail

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports rapid and easy method for synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Coriandrum sativum leaves extract as a reducing and covering agent. The bio-reductive synthesis of AgNPs was monitored using a scanning double beam UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to characterize the morphology of AgNPs obtained from plant extracts. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of AgNPs indicate that the structure of AgNPs is the face centered cubic structure of metallic silver. The surface morphology and topography of the AgNPs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the energy dispersive spectrum revealed the presence of elemental silver in the sample. The silver phyto nanoparticles were collected from plant extract and tested growth potential and metabolic pattern in (Lupinus termis L. seedlings upon exposure to different concentrations of AgNPs. The seedlings were exposed to various concentrations of (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg L−1 AgNPs for ten days. Significant reduction in shoot and root elongation, shoot and root fresh weights, total chlorophyll and total protein contents were observed under the higher concentrations of AgNPs. Exposure to 0.5 mg L−1 of AgNPs decreased sugar contents and caused significant foliar proline accumulation which considered as an indicator of the stressful effect of AgNPs on seedlings. AgNPs exposure resulted in a dose dependent decrease in different growth parameters and also caused metabolic disorders as evidenced by decreased carbohydrates and protein contents. Further studies needed to find out the efficacy, longevity and toxicity of AgNPs toward photosynthetic system and antioxidant parameters to improve the current investigation.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Atenolol Delivery Application of Functionalized Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Prepared by Microwave-Assisted Co-precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Derazkola, Sobhan; Naimi-Jamal, Mohammad Reza; Ghoreishi, Seyedeh Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Atenolol has been used to treat angina and hypertension, either alone or with other antihypertensives. Despite its usefulness, it shows some side effects such as diarrhea and nausea in some patients. A method for slow release of atenolol in intestine is helpful to prevent such side effects. A facile co-precipitation microwave-assisted method was used to fabricate mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (mHAp). It was then functionalized to have SO3H groups. The synthesized material was used for storage/slow release study of atenolol. Atenolol loaded mHAp shows immediate release of atenolol in pH 8, whileafter functionalizing shows up to ca. 30% release at the beginning. In pH 1, 50% of drug was released after 10 h from AT@mHAp and after 18h the drug was almost completely released.The drug release profiles of functionalized HAp at pH value 1 and 8reveals the complete release of atenolol in intestine pH, while no complete release is observed in stomach environment. The aims of this work were synthesis and characterization of mesoporous HAp through the microwave-assisted co-precipitation method and elucidate the underlying drug release capability of mesoporous HAp nanoparticles. The SO3H group was incorporated into the mesoporous HAp and then used as drug delivery carriers using atenolol as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Increasing pH value to 8 causes increase in the drug release.

  17. Canna edulis Leaf Extract-Mediated Preparation of Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles: Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Toxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otari, S V; Pawar, S H; Patel, Sanjay K S; Singh, Raushan K; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jai Hyo; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-04-28

    A novel approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Canna edulis Ker-Gawl. (CELE) under ambient conditions is reported here. The as-prepared AgNPs were analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission emission microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The AgNPs showed excellent antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including bacteria and various fungi. The biocompatibility of the AgNPs was analyzed in the L929 cell line using NRU and MTT assays. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was used to determine whether the AgNPs had necrotic or apoptotic effects on L929 cells. The concentration of AgNPs required for 50% inhibition of growth of mammalian cells is far more than that required for inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, CELE is a candidate for the eco-friendly, clean, cost-effective, and nontoxic synthesis of AgNPs.

  18. Preparation and characterization of silk sericin/PVA blend film with silver nanoparticles for potential antimicrobial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huawei; Cai, Rui; Wang, Yejing; Tao, Gang; Guo, Pengchao; Zuo, Hua; Chen, Liqun; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2017-11-01

    Sericin has great potentials in biomedical applications for its good reactive activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the undesirable mechanical performance limits its application. Here, we developed a green, facile and economic approach to prepare sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend film. Further, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on the surface of sericin/PVA film via UV-assisted green synthesis method. Mechanical performance, swelling, mass losing and water retention tests showed the blend film had good mechanical performance, hygroscopicity, water retention capacity and low mass losing ratio. Scanning electron microscopy, fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the blending of PVA and sericin promoted the formation of hydrogen bond network between sericin and PVA, thus enhanced the mechanical performance and the stability of sericin, as well as the hygroscopicity and water retention capacity. UV irradiation and AgNPs modification did not affect the inner crystalline structure of sericin/PVA blend film. The inhibition zone and bacteria growth curve assay suggested AgNPs-sericin/PVA film had good antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus. This novel AgNPs-sericin/PVA film shows great potentials in biomedical materials such as wound dressing and skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted nanoparticles for MRI of human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yaoqi; Zhong, Yuejiao; Ji, Guozhong; Lu, Qianling; Dai, Xinyu; Guo, Zhirui; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Gang; Zhang, Kangzhen; Li, Yuntao

    2018-01-01

    To study the characterization of Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs. Fe3O4@Au-C225 was prepared by the absorption method. The immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate its absorption efficiency at C225 Fc. ZETA SIZER3000 laser particle size analyzer, ultraviolet photometer and its characteristics were analyzed by VSM. the targeting effect of Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs on U251 cells in vitro were detected by 7.0 Tesla Micro-MR; and subcutaneous transplanted human glioma in nude mice were performed the targeting effect in vivo after tail vein injection of Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs by MRI. The self-prepared Fe3O4@Au composite MNPs can adsorb C225 with high efficiency of adsorption so that Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs were prepared successfully. Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs favorably targeted human glioma cell line U251 in vitro; Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs have good targeting ability to xenografted glioma on nude mice in vivo, and can be traced by MRI. The Fe3O4@Au-C225 composite targeted MNPs have the potential to be used as a tracer for glioma in vivo.

  20. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of water-soluble L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles as fluorescence probe for detection of Hg(II) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zhaoxia; Yang Hong; Zhang Yi; Yan Xiuping

    2006-01-01

    Water-soluble L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution at room temperature through a straightforward one-pot process by using safe and low-cost inorganic salts as precursors, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, spectrofluorometry and ultraviolet-visible spectrometry. The prepared L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles were evaluated as fluorescence probe for Hg(II) detection. The fluorescence quenching of the L-cysteine-capped-CdS nanoparticles depended on the concentration and pH of Hg(II) solution. Maximum fluorescence quenching was observed at pH 7.4 with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 360 nm and 495 nm, respectively. Quenching of its fluorescence due to Hg(II) at the 20 nmol l -1 level was unaffected by the presence of 5 x 10 6 -fold excesses of Na(I) and K(I), 5 x 10 5 -fold excesses of Mg(II), 5 x 10 4 -fold excesses of Ca(II), 500-fold excesses of Al(III), 91-fold excesses of Mn(II), 23.5-fold excesses of Pb(II), 25-fold excesses of Fe(III), 25-fold excesses of Ag(I), 8.5-fold excesses of Ni(II) and 5-fold excesses of Cu(II). Under optimal conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity increased linearly with the concentration of Hg(II) ranging from 16 nmol l -1 to 112 nmol l -1 . The limit of detection for Hg(II) was 2.4 nmol l -1 . The developed method was applied to the detection of trace Hg(II) in aqueous solutions

  1. Preparation and characterization of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyethylenimine through a facile one-pot deposition route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Isa; Aghazadeh, Mustafa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Doroudi, Taher; Kolivand, Peir Hossein

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we report the electrochemical synthesis and simultaneous in situ coating of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylenimine (PEI). The cathodic deposition was carried out through electro-generation of OH- on the surface of cathode. An aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3·9H2O (3.4 g/L) and FeCl2·4H2O (1.6 g/L) was used as the deposition bath. The electrochemical precipitation experiments were performed in the direct current mode under a 10 mA cm-2 current density for 30 min. Polymer coating was performed in an identical deposition bath containing of 0.5 g PVP and 0.5 g PEI. The deposited uncoated and PVP-PEI coated MNPs were characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies (FE-SEM and TEM). Structural XRD and IR analyses revealed both samples to be composed of pure crystalline magnetite (Fe3O4). Morphological observations through FE-SEM and TEM proved the product to be spherical nanoparticles in the range of 10-15 nm. The presence of two coating polymers (i.e. PVP and PEI) on the surface of the electro-synthesized MNPs was proved by FTIR and DLS results. The percentage of the polymer coating (31.8%) on the MNPs surface was also determined based on DSC-TGA data. The high magnetization value, coercivity and remanence values measured by VSM indicated the superparamagnetic nature of both prepared MNPs. The obtained results confirmed that the prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles had suitable physico-chemical and magnetic properties for biomedical applications.

  2. Preparation and characterization of silver nanoparticles immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes by poly(dopamine) functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yi; Lu Yonglai; Zhang Liqun; Liu Li; Dai Yajie; Wang Wencai

    2012-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized with poly(dopamine) (PDA) were found to cause the immobilization of silver nanoparticles on the surface. The PDA functional layer not only improved the dispersion of MWNTs in aqueous solution, but also was used as a platform for subsequent silver nanoparticle immobilization. The surface morphology of the functionalized MWNTs was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that PDA layers with controlled thickness on the nanometer scale were formed on MWNT surfaces by in situ spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine, and that high-density of homogeneously dispersed spherical silver nanoparticles with sizes of 3–4 nm were immobilized on their outer surface. The space between spherical silver nanoparticles is less than 10 nm. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed that the Ag nanoparticles on the surface of hybrids exist in the zero valent state.

  3. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial Ce-doped ZnO nanoparticles for photocatalytic detoxification of cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Gomathisankar, Paramasivan; Manikandan, Govindasamy

    2010-01-01

    2% Ce-doped ZnO, prepared by sonochemical wet impregnation method and calcined at 500 deg. C, was characterized by XRD, EDS, XPS, SEM, FT-IR, UV-visible DRS, PL, EIS, and N 2 -adsorption and desorption isotherms. Doping reduces the intragranular resistance and recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. It also shifts the optical absorption edge to visible region. Under UV-A light or natural sunlight (950 ± 25 W m -2 ), the doped oxide effectively catalyzes the oxidation of cyanide and subsequently the cyanate also. The catalysis follows Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The solar photocatalysis depends on the area of catalyst bed and the UV photocatalysis enhances with the photon flux. The doped oxide is also an antibacterial agent and its bactericidal efficiency, tested with Escherichia coli in absence of any illumination, is larger than those of undoped oxides.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of CoPt nanoparticles prepared by room temperature chemical reduction with PAMAM dendrimer as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haiying; Shi, Shifan; Bai, Litao; Shamsuzzoha, Mohammad; Harrell, J W; Street, Shane C

    2010-08-01

    We describe an approach to synthesize monodisperse CoPt nanoparticles with dendrimer as template by a simple chemical reduction method in aqueous solution using NaBH4 as reducing agent at room temperature. The as-made CoPt nanoparticles buried in the dendrimer matrix have the chemically disordered fcc structure and can be transformed to the fct phase after annealing at 700 degrees C. This is the first report of dendrimer-mediated room temperature synthesis of monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solution.

  5. DNA Modified with Metal Nanoparticles: Preparation and Characterization of Ordered Metal-DNA Nanostructures in a Solution and on a Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kasyanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA interaction with silver and aluminum nanoparticles in a solution has been investigated with the AFM, SEM, dynamic light scattering, viscometry, and spectral methods. The comparison of DNA interaction with nanoparticles synthesized by the reduction of Ag+ ions and with nanoparticles obtained by the electric discharge plasma method was done. DNA metallization in a solution and on n-silicon surface with metal nanoparticles or by the reduction of silver ions after their binding to DNA was executed and studied. It was shown that DNA strands with regular location of silver or aluminum nanoparticles can be prepared. The conditions for the formation of silver nanoparticles and silver nanoclusters on DNA were analyzed.

  6. Preparation and characterization of iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyethylenimine through a facile one-pot deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimzadeh, Isa [Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Khatam ol Anbia Specialty and Subspecialty Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghazadeh, Mustafa, E-mail: maghazadeh@aeoi.org.ir [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), P.O. Box 14395-834, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Doroudi, Taher; Kolivand, Peir Hossein [Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Khatam ol Anbia Specialty and Subspecialty Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • MNPs were prepared by cathodic electrodeposition. • In situ double polymer coating was achieved during electrodeposition. • The prepared MNPs have proper size and properties for biomedical applications. - Abstract: In this article, we report the electrochemical synthesis and simultaneous in situ coating of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylenimine (PEI). The cathodic deposition was carried out through electro-generation of OH{sup −} on the surface of cathode. An aqueous solution of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O (3.4 g/L) and FeCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O (1.6 g/L) was used as the deposition bath. The electrochemical precipitation experiments were performed in the direct current mode under a 10 mA cm{sup −2} current density for 30 min. Polymer coating was performed in an identical deposition bath containing of 0.5 g PVP and 0.5 g PEI. The deposited uncoated and PVP-PEI coated MNPs were characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies (FE-SEM and TEM). Structural XRD and IR analyses revealed both samples to be composed of pure crystalline magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Morphological observations through FE-SEM and TEM proved the product to be spherical nanoparticles in the range of 10–15 nm. The presence of two coating polymers (i.e. PVP and PEI) on the surface of the electro-synthesized MNPs was proved by FTIR and DLS results. The percentage of the polymer coating (31.8%) on the MNPs surface was also determined based on DSC-TGA data. The high magnetization value, coercivity and remanence values measured by VSM indicated the superparamagnetic nature of both prepared MNPs. The obtained results confirmed that the prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles had suitable physico

  7. Preparation, characterization, and safety evaluation of poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for protein delivery into macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedj AS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Sophie Guedj,1 Arnold J Kell,2 Michael Barnes,2 Sandra Stals,1 David Gonçalves,3 Denis Girard,3 Carole Lavigne11National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, 2National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, 3Laboratoire de recherche en inflammation et physiologie des granulocytes, Université du Québec, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC, CanadaAbstract: Following infection, HIV establishes reservoirs within tissues that are inaccessible to optimal levels of antiviral drugs or within cells where HIV lies latent, thus escaping the action of anti-HIV drugs. Macrophages are a persistent reservoir for HIV and may contribute to the rebound viremia observed after antiretroviral treatment is stopped. In this study, we further investigate the potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-based nanocarriers as a new strategy to enhance penetration of therapeutic molecules into macrophages. We have prepared stable PLGA nanoparticles (NPs and evaluated their capacity to transport an active molecule into the human monocyte/macrophage cell line THP-1 using bovine serum albumin (BSA as a proof-of-concept compound. Intracellular localization of fluorescent BSA molecules encapsulated into PLGA NPs was monitored in live cells using confocal microscopy, and cellular uptake was quantified by flow cytometry. In vitro and in vivo toxicological studies were performed to further determine the safety profile of PLGA NPs including inflammatory effects. The size of the PLGA NPs carrying BSA (PLGA-BSA in culture medium containing 10% serum was ~126 nm in diameter, and they were negatively charged at their surface (zeta potential =-5.6 mV. Our confocal microscopy studies and flow cytometry data showed that these PLGA-BSA NPs are rapidly and efficiently taken up by THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs at low doses. We found that PLGA-BSA NPs increased cellular uptake and internalization of the protein in vitro. PLGA

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Films Based on LDPE/Ag Nanoparticles with Potential Uses in Food and Health Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes-Quero, Gloria María; Corral, Angélica

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles in polyethylene based nanocomposites has been investigated using a non-conventional processing method to produce homogeneous materials. High energy ball milling under cryogenic conditions was used to achieve a powder of well-blended low-density polyethylene and commercial silver nanoparticles. The final composites in the form of films were obtained by hot pressing. The effect of various silver nanoparticles content (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt %) on the properties of low-density polyethylene and the antimicrobial effectiveness of the composite against DH5α Escherichia coli were studied. The presence of silver nanoparticles did not seem to affect the surface energy and thermal properties of the materials. Apart from the inhibition of bacterial growth, slight changes in the aspect ratio of the bacteria with the content of particles were observed, suggesting a direct relationship between the presence of silver nanoparticles and the proliferation of DH5α E. coli (Escherichia coli) cells. Results indicate that these materials may be used to commercially produce antimicrobial polymers with potential applications in the food and health industries. PMID:29364193

  9. Poly (ɛ-caprolactone) nanoparticles of carboplatin: Preparation, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation in U-87 MG cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanam, Vamshikrishna; Marslin, Gregory; Krishnamoorthy, Balakumar; Chellan, Vijayaraghavan; Siram, Karthik; Natarajan, Tamilselvan; Bhaskar, Balaji; Franklin, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum based drug used in the treatment of several malignancies. Due to poor cellular uptake, generally, a larger dose of drug is administered to achieve therapeutic levels, causing harmful side-effects such as hematologic toxicity. In order to enhance the cellular uptake of carboplatin, we have developed carboplatin loaded nanoparticles using the biodegradable polymer poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL). Nanoparticles ranging from the size of 23.77±1.37 to 96.73±2.79 nm with positive zeta potential and moderate entrapment efficiency (54.21±0.98%) were obtained. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the spherical morphology and smooth surface of all nanoformulations. The concentrations of PCL and the stabilizer (DMAB) are found to play a role in determining the size and the entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles. Drug release from nanoparticles followed a biphasic pattern with an initial burst release followed by a sustained release for 10h. Results of in vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies revealed that carboplatin in the form of PCL-nanoparticles were efficiently up taken and displayed profound cytotoxicity to U-87 MG (human glioma) cells than the free drug. Importantly, unlike the free carboplatin, carboplatin in the form of PCL nanoparticles did not present any haemolytic activity in rat erythrocytes, a major side effect of this chemotherapeutic drug. This suggests that poly (ɛ-caprolactone) nanoencapsulation of carboplatin might be an efficient approach to treat cancer, while reducing carboplatin induced haemolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ultrafine well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.L.; Wang, H.B.; Lu, Q.H.; Du, G.H.; Peng, L.; Du, Y.Q.; Zhang, S.M.; Yao, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafine well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles were directly prepared in aqueous solution using controlled coprecipitation method. The structure, size, size distributions and magnetic properties of the magnetic nanoparticles, characterized by TEM, XRD and VSM, indicated the formation of single domain nanoparticles with average size smaller than 5 nm. The magnetic nanoparticles show superparamagnetism and a lower saturation magnetization is found as a consequence of smaller particle size. The relevant conditions for obtaining these magnetic colloids are discussed and the so-prepared magnetic nanoparticles are stable in a wide pH range

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoparticles and Nanocomposite of ZnO and MgO by Sonochemical Method and their Application for Zinc Polycarboxylate Dental Cement Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Karimi; Saeed Haghdar Roozbahani; Reza Asadiniya; Abdolhamid Hatefi-Mehrjardi; Mohammad Hossein Mashhadizadeh; Reza Behjatmanesh-Ardakani; Mohammad Mazloum-Ardakani; Hadi Kargar; Seyed Mojtaba Zebarjad

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the synthesis of nanoparticles of ZnO and MgO and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite by the sonochemical method. At first, nanoparticles were synthesized by the reaction of Zn(CHCOO3)2 and Mg(CHCOO3)2 with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and constant frequency ultrasonic waves (sonochemical method). Then, ZnO/MgO nanocomposite was prepared through reaction of magnesium acetate with TMAH in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles and PVP as...

  12. Preparation of curcumin nanoparticle by using reinforcement ionic gelation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Halid, Nur Hatidjah Awaliyah; Akib, Nur Illiyyin; Rahmanpiu, Mutmainnah, Nina

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound present in curcuma longa has a wide range of activities including anti-inflammatory properties. The potency of curcumin is limited by its poor oral bioavailability because of its poor solubility in aqueous. Various methods have been tried to solve the problem including its encapsulation into nanoparticle. The aim of this study is to develop curcumin nanoparticle by using reinforcement ionic gelation technique and to evaluate the stability of curcumin nanoparticles in gastrointestinal fluid. Curcumin nanoparticles were prepared by using reinforcement ionic gelation technique with different concentrations of chitosan, trypolyphosphate, natrium alginate and calcium chloride. Curcumin nanoparticles were then characterized including particle size and zeta potential by using particle size analyzer and morphology using a transmission electron microscope, entrapment efficiency using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and chemical structure analysis by Infra Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR). Furthermore, the stability of curcumin nanoparticles were evaluated on artificial gastric fluid and artificial intestinal fluids by measuring the amount of curcumin released in the medium at a time interval. The result revealed that curcumin nanoparticles can be prepared by reinforcement ionic gelation technique, the entrapment efficiency of curcumin nanoparticles were from 86.08 to 91.41%. The average of particle size was 272.9 nm and zeta potential was 12.05 mV. The morphology examination showed that the curcumin nanoparticles have spherical shape. The stability evaluation of curcumin nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticles were stable on artificial gastric fluid and artificial intestinal fluid. This result indicates that curcumin nanoparticles have the potential to be developed for oral delivery.

  13. Characterization and evaluation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, and benzophenone-3 in anti-solar preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Débora Freitas; Silva, Anna Claudia; Mansur, Claudia Regina Elias; Presgrave, Rosaura de Faria; Alves, Eloisa Nunes; Silva, Ronald Santos; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Ultraviolet radiation can bring both harm and benefits to human health. Among those harms are erythemas, photosensitivity, photoaging, and the most worrying, skin cancer. Nanoencapsulation of sunscreen agents (SA) by using a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer such as poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) is advantageous as it increases the retention of UV absorbers in the skin, avoids systemic absorption, and consequently, improves water resistance and stability of the preparation. The aim of this work is to develop, characterize, and study the encapsulation of 3 different SA: 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3, and octocrylene in PCL nanoparticles (Nps). Nps were prepared by the solvent emulsification and evaporation method. The process yield was calculated, and the Nps were characterized in terms of size, polydispersity index (PI), morphology, zeta potential (ZP), encapsulation efficiency (EE) (%), and sunscreen agent content (SAC). The final formulations were submitted to the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM), chorioallantoic membrane-trypan blue staining (CAM-TBS), red blood cell (RBC), Draize tests, in vitro release, in vitro sun protection factor (SPF), UVA protection factor (PF-UVA), and photostability. All the Nps were in the nanometric scale. PI showed monodisperse systems. ZP became more negative as the Np were lyophilized and were added to the formulations. EE varied from 84 to 90%. The SAC went from 44 to 65 microg of sunscreen agents by milligram of Np. The process yield went from 60 to 76%. Nps were predominantly spherical and elliptical forms. The addition of Np diminished the release of the SA. The SPF increased with Np presence and helped to maintain the PF-UVA after irradiation. The HET-CAM assay evaluated the formulation as slightly irritant, CAM-TBS and RBC tests as non irritant, and the Draize test as moderately irritant.

  14. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Alvarez, S. A.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A.; Nino-Martinez, N.; Reyes-Macias, J. F.; Patino-Marin, N.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Ruiz, Facundo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 μg/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  15. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Alvarez, S. A. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales (Mexico); Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.m [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Nino-Martinez, N. [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F.; Patino-Marin, N.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P. [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 {mu}g/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoparticles and Nanocomposite of ZnO and MgO by Sonochemical Method and their Application for Zinc Polycarboxylate Dental Cement Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the synthesis of nanoparticles of ZnO and MgO and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite by the sonochemical method. At first, nanoparticles were synthesized by the reaction of Zn(CHCOO32 and Mg(CHCOO32 with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and constant frequency ultrasonic waves (sonochemical method. Then, ZnO/MgO nanocomposite was prepared through reaction of magnesium acetate with TMAH in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles and PVP as structure director using ultrasonic assisted method. After filtration, the synthesized solution was obtained containing magnesium hydroxide in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles. It was calcinated at the temperature of 550 ºC, so that ZnO/MgO nanocomposite could be produced. The effects of different parameters on particle size and morphology of final ZnO and MgO powders and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite were optimized by ‘‘one at a time’’ method. Under optimum conditions, spongy shaped, uniformed and homogeneous nanostructured zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders were obtained with particle sizes of 25–50 and 30-60 nm, respectively. ZnO/MgO nanocomposite was also obtained with more spongy morphology and particle size about 65 nm. Both synthesized ZnO and MgO nanoparticles and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite were successfully applied to the preparation of zinc polycarboxylate dental cement.

  17. Poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles for oral delivery of quercetin: preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagad M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayur Bagad, Zaved Ahmed KhanMedical Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore Tamil Nadu, IndiaBackground: Quercetin (QT is a potential bioflavonol and antioxidant with poor bioavailability and very low distribution in the brain. A new oral delivery system comprising of poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PBCA NPs was introduced to improve the oral bioavailability of QT and to increase its distribution in the brain. Physicochemical characteristics, in vitro release, stability in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluids, and pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies of QT-PBCA NPs coated with polysorbate-80 (P-80 were investigated.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, in vitro release, stability in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluids, and pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies of QT-PBCA NPs coated with polysorbate-80 (P-80.Results: The results showed that QT-PBCA NPs and QT-PBCA NPs coated with P-80 (QT-PBCA+P-80 had mean particle sizes of 161.1±0.44 nm and 166.6±0.33 nm respectively, and appeared spherical in shape under transmission electron microscopy. The mean entrapment efficiency was 79.86%±0.45% for QT-PBCA NPs and 74.58%±1.44% for QT-PBCA+P-80. The in vitro release of QT-PBCA NPs and QT-PBCA+P-80 showed an initial burst release followed by a sustained release when compared to free QT. The relative bioavailability of QT-PBCA NPs and QT-PBCA+P-80 enhanced QT bioavailability by 2.38- and 4.93-fold respectively, when compared to free QT. The biodistribution study in rats showed that a higher concentration of QT was detected in the brain after the NPs were coated with P-80.Conclusion: This study indicates that PBCA NPs coated with P-80 can be potential drug carriers for poorly water-soluble drugs. These NPs were observed to improve the drugs’ oral bioavailability and enhance their transport to the brain

  18. The preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetic studies of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye YJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Jing Ye,1 Yun Wang,1 Kai-Yan Lou,1 Yan-Zuo Chen,1 Rongjun Chen,2 Feng Gao1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, 4Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A novel biocompatible and biodegradable drug-delivery nanoparticle (NP has been developed to minimize the severe side effects of the poorly water-soluble anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX for clinical use. PTX was loaded into the hydrophobic cavity of a hydrophilic cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD, using an aqueous solution-stirring method followed by lyophilization. The resulting PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex dramatically enhanced the solubility of PTX in water and was directly incorporated into chitosan (CS to form NPs (with a size of 323.9–407.8 nm in diameter using an ionic gelation method. The formed NPs had a zeta potential of +15.9–23.3 mV and showed high colloidal stability. With the same weight ratio of PTX to CS of 0.7, the loading efficiency of the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs was 30.3-fold higher than that of the PTX-loaded CS NPs. Moreover, it is notable that PTX was released from the DM-β-CD/CS NPs in a sustained-release manner. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, compared with reference formulation (Taxol®, the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs exhibited a significant increase in AUC0→24h (the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over the period of 24 hours and mean residence time by 2.7-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. Therefore, the novel drug/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs have promising applications for the

  19. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo investigation of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for intestinal delivery of exendin-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mengshu Wang,1* Yong Zhang,1* Jiao Feng,1 Tiejun Gu,1 Qingguang Dong,1 Xu Yang,2 Yanan Sun,1 Yongge Wu,1 Yan Chen,1 Wei Kong1 1National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2BCHT Biopharm Co, Ltd, Changchun, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Exendin-4 is an incretin mimetic agent approved for type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the required frequent injections restrict its clinical application. Here, the potential use of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (CS-PLGA nanoparticles was investigated for intestinal delivery of exendin-4.Methods and results: Nanoparticles were prepared using a modified water–oil–water (w/o/w emulsion solvent-evaporation method, followed by coating with chitosan. The physical properties, particle size, and cell toxicity of the nanoparticles were examined. The cellular uptake mechanism and transmembrane permeability were performed in Madin-Darby canine kidney-cell monolayers. Furthermore, in vivo intraduodenal administration of exendin-4-loaded nanoparticles was carried out in rats. The PLGA nanoparticle coating with chitosan led to a significant change in zeta potential, from negative to positive, accompanied by an increase in particle size of ~30 nm. Increases in both the molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of chitosan resulted in an observable increase in zeta potential but no apparent change in the particle size of ~300 nm. Both unmodified PLGA and chitosan-coated nanoparticles showed only slight cytotoxicity. Use of different temperatures and energy depletion suggested that the cellular uptake of both types of nanoparticles was energy-dependent. Further investigation revealed that the uptake of PLGA nanoparticles occurred via caveolin-mediated endocytosis and that of CS-PLGA nanoparticles involved both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis

  20. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo investigation of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for intestinal delivery of exendin-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengshu; Zhang, Yong; Feng, Jiao; Gu, Tiejun; Dong, Qingguang; Yang, Xu; Sun, Yanan; Wu, Yongge; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Exendin-4 is an incretin mimetic agent approved for type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the required frequent injections restrict its clinical application. Here, the potential use of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (CS-PLGA) nanoparticles was investigated for intestinal delivery of exendin-4. Methods and results Nanoparticles were prepared using a modified water–oil–water (w/o/w) emulsion solvent-evaporation method, followed by coating with chitosan. The physical properties, particle size, and cell toxicity of the nanoparticles were examined. The cellular uptake mechanism and transmembrane permeability were performed in Madin-Darby canine kidney-cell monolayers. Furthermore, in vivo intraduodenal administration of exendin-4-loaded nanoparticles was carried out in rats. The PLGA nanoparticle coating with chitosan led to a significant change in zeta potential, from negative to positive, accompanied by an increase in particle size of ~30 nm. Increases in both the molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of chitosan resulted in an observable increase in zeta potential but no apparent change in the particle size of ~300 nm. Both unmodified PLGA and chitosan-coated nanoparticles showed only slight cytotoxicity. Use of different temperatures and energy depletion suggested that the cellular uptake of both types of nanoparticles was energy-dependent. Further investigation revealed that the uptake of PLGA nanoparticles occurred via caveolin-mediated endocytosis and that of CS-PLGA nanoparticles involved both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as evidenced by using endocytic inhibitors. However, under all conditions, CS-PLGA nanoparticles showed a greater potential to be transported into cells, as shown by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Transmembrane permeability analysis showed that unmodified and modified PLGA nanoparticles could improve the transport of exendin-4 by up to 8.9- and 16.5-fold, respectively

  1. Biodegradable Nanoparticles Made of Amino-Acid-Based Ester Polymers: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Biocompatibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temur Kantaria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of fabricating nanoparticles (NPs by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement (nanoprecipitation method has been carried out. Five amino acid based biodegradable (AABB ester polymers (four neutral and one cationic, four organic solvents miscible with water, and eight surfactants were tested for the fabrication of the goal NPs. Depending on the nature of the AABB polymers, organic solvents and surfactants, as well as on the fabrication conditions, the size (Mean Particle Diameter of the NPs could be tuned within 42 ÷ 398 nm, the zeta-potential within 12.5 ÷ +28 mV. The stability (resuspendability of the NPs upon storage (at room temperature and refrigerated was tested as well. In Vitro biocompatibility study of the NPs was performed with four different stable cell lines: A549, HeLa (human; RAW264.7, Hepa 1-6 (murine. Comparing the NPs parameters, their stability upon storage, and the data of biological examinations the best were found: As the AABB polymer, a poly(ester amide composed of l-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and sebacic acid–8L6, as a solvent (organic phase—DMSO, and as a surfactant, Tween 20.

  2. Preparation and characterization of PEG-modified PCL nanoparticles for oxygen carrier: a new application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of the hemoglobin in nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoqian; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    The influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molar ratio on the nanoparticles (NPs) properties is described herein. Especially, a facile and nondestructive determination route has been raised to quantify the hemoglobin (Hb) amounts in NPs via an internal standard FTIR method. The subsequent results indicated that, briefly, the PEG molar ratio did negligible influence on the size distribution of NPs, however, it did have great effect on the NPs zeta potential and hydrophilicity as well as the Hb loading amount. These findings highlight that the PEG density on the surface is a key parameter affecting the NPs properties.

  3. Silicon nanoparticles: Preparation, properties, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Huan; Sun Shu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles have attracted great attention in the past decades because of their intriguing physical properties, active surface state, distinctive photoluminescence and biocompatibility. In this review, we present some of the recent progress in preparation methodologies and surface functionalization approaches of silicon nanoparticles. Further, their promising applications in the fields of energy and electronic engineering are introduced. (invited review — international conference on nanoscience and technology, china 2013)

  4. Electroless preparation and characterization of Ni-B nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Zhilin [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Feng, E-mail: wangf@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu, Jingjun; Ji, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Park, Ki Chul [Institute of Carbon Science and Technology (ICST), Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano-shi, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Endo, Morinobu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano-shi, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The MWCNT/Ni-B catalyst has been successfully prepared by an electroless deposition process. The Ni-B nanoparticles on the supporter are amorphous and are well-distributed. The catalytic conversion towards hydrogenation of styrene shows excellent catalytic activity of the obtained materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step treatment of MWCNTs enabled the homogeneous growth of Ni-B nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-B nanoparticles were amorphous with an average size of 60 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were electron transfer between Ni and B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst had excellent catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene. -- Abstract: Nickel-boron (Ni-B) nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were successfully synthesized through an electroless deposition process using the plating bath with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The structural and morphological analyses using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the Ni-B nanoparticles deposited on the sidewalls of MWCNTs are fine spheres comprised of amorphous structure with the morphologically unique fine-structure like flowers, and homogenously dispersed with a narrow particle size distribution centered at around 60 nm diameter. The catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles was evaluated with respect to hydrogenation of styrene. The hydrogenation catalyzed by MWCNT-supported Ni-B nanoparticles has been found to make styrene selectively converted into ethylbenzene. The highest conversion reaches 99.8% under proper reaction conditions, which demonstrates the high catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles.

  5. Preparation and characterization of layer-by-layer self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer films doped with surface-capped SiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangbin; Ma, Hongxia; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2009-05-15

    SiO(2) nanoparticles capped with gamma-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane were doped into polyelectrolyte (poly(allylamine hydrochloride), PAH, and poly(acrylic acid), PAA) multilayer films via spin-assisted layer-by-layer self-assembly. The resulting as-prepared multilayer films were heated at a proper temperature to generate cross-linked composite films with increased adhesion to substrates. The tribological behavior of the multilayer films was evaluated on a microtribometer. It was found that SiO(2)-doped composite films had better wear resistance than pure polyelectrolyte multilayers, possibly because doped SiO(2) nanoparticles were capable of enhancing load-carrying capacity and had "miniature ball bearings" effect. Moreover, heat-treatment had significant effect on the morphology of the composite films. Namely, heat-treated (SiO(2)/PAA)(9) film had a larger roughness than the as-prepared one, due to heat-treatment-induced agglomeration of SiO(2) nanoparticles and initiation of defects. However, heat-treated (PAH/PAA)(3)/(SiO(2)/PAA)(3)(PAH/PAA)(3) film had greatly reduced roughness than the as-prepared one, and it showed considerably improved wear resistance as well. This could be closely related to the "sandwich-like" structure of the composite multilayer film. Namely, the outermost strata of composite multilayer film were able to eliminate defects associated with the middle strata, allowing nanoparticles therein to maintain strength and robustness while keeping soft and fluid-like exposed surface. And the inner strata were well anchored to substrate and acted as an initial "bed" for SiO(2) nanoparticles to be inhabited, resulting in good antiwear ability.

  6. Preparation and characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) composite thin films highly loaded with platinum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chao-Ching, E-mail: ccchang@tku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Energy and Opto-Electronic Materials Research Center, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Ming-Tai [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chen-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Lan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Energy and Opto-Electronic Materials Research Center, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Nano-sized and mono-dispersed Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by a polyol method. {yields} A thin film of PEDOT:PSS loaded with high concentration of Pt nanoparticles has been prepared. {yields} The PEDOT:PSS-Pt modified electrode has good potential to serve as a counter electrode in DSSC. - Abstract: In this work, we propose a simple and efficient, low-temperature ({approx}120 deg. C) process to prepare transparent thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) loaded with high concentration (up to 22.5 wt%) of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. Firstly, an improved polyol method was modified to synthesize nano-sized ({approx}5 nm) and mono-dispersed Pt particles. These nanoparticles were incorporated into the matrix of PEDOT:PSS thin films via a spin coating/drying procedure. The electrochemical activities of the PEDOT:PSS thin film modified electrodes with respect to the I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} redox reactions were investigated. It was found that the modified electrode of PEDOT:PSS thin film containing 22.5 wt% Pt exhibited the electrochemical activity comparable to the conventional Pt thin film electrode, suggesting that this electrode has good potential to serve as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  7. Structural characterization of copolymer embedded magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelcu, G.G., E-mail: ggnedelcu@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, University “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Carol I Bulevard, Nr.11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Nastro, A.; Filippelli, L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Cazacu, M.; Iacob, M. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry “Petru Poni”, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, nr. 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Rossi, C. Oliviero [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Popa, A.; Toloman, D. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca 5 (Romania); Dobromir, M.; Iacomi, F. [Faculty of Physics, University “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Carol I Bulevard, Nr.11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The emulsion polymerization method was used to synthesize three samples of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) coated magnetite obtained before through co-precipitation technique. • Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) coated magnetite nanoparticles were prepared having spherical shape and dimensions between 13 and 16 nm without agglomerations. • Fourier transform infrared spectra have found that the magnetite was pure and spectral characteristics of PMMA-co-AAc were present. • The electron spin resonance spectra revealed that interactions between nanoparticles are very weak due to the fact that the nanoparticles have been individually embedded in polymer. • The resonance field values as function of temperature demonstrate that the presence of polymer has not modified essentially its magnetic properties, except that at temperatures below 140 K there was a change due to decreasing of the magnetic anisotropy. - Abstract: Small magnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were synthesized by co-precipitation and coated by emulsion polymerization with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-co-AAc) to create surface functional groups that can attach drug molecules and other biomolecules. The coated and uncoated magnetite nanoparticles were stored for two years in normal closed ships and than characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solid phase transformation of magnetite to maghemite, as well as an increase in particle size were evidenced for the uncoated nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles preserved their magnetite structure and magnetic properties. The influences of monomers and surfactant layers on interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles evidenced that the thickness of the polymer has a significant effect on magnetic properties.

  8. Preparation and characterization of bi-metallic nanoparticle catalyst having better anti-coking properties using reverse micelle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Thomas

    Energy needs are rising on an exponential basis. The mammoth energy sources like coal, natural gas and petroleum are the cause of pollution. The large outcry for an alternate energy source which is environmentally friendly and energy efficient is heard during the past few years. This is where “Clean-Fuel” like hydrogen gained its ground. Hydrogen is mainly produced by steam methane reforming (SMR). An alternate sustainable process which can reduce the cost as well as eliminate the waste products is Tri-reforming. In both these reforming processes nickel is used as catalyst. However as the process goes on the catalyst gets deactivated due to coking on the catalytic surface. This goal of this thesis work was to develop a bi-metallic catalyst which has better anti-coking properties compared to the conventional nickel catalyst. Tin was used to dope nickel. It was found that Ni3Sn complex around a core of Ni is coking resistant compared to pure nickel catalyst. Reverse micelle synthesis of catalyst preparation was used to control the size and shape of catalytic particles. These studies will benefit researches on hydrogen production and catalyst manufactures who work on different bi-metallic combinations.

  9. Characterization and study of reduction and sulfurization processing in phase transition from molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 2}) to molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) chalcogenide semiconductor nanoparticles prepared by one-stage chemical reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shomalian, K.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.M.; Ardyanian, M. [Damghan University, School of Physics, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this research, molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method using MoO{sub 3} and thiourea as a precursor. The physical properties of the synthesized MoO{sub 2}-MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles annealed at different temperatures of 200, 300, 750 C have been investigated, before and after exposure to sulfur vapor. The nanostructure of nanoparticles has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analyses and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of MoS{sub 2} single phase at annealing temperature of 750 C in the presence of sulfur vapor. The Raman spectrum of the nanoparticles revealed that the formation of MoS{sub 2} at 750 C after annealing in sulfur vapor. The values of band gap were obtained in the range of 3.64-3.17 eV and 3.47-1.95 eV for MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles before and after exposure to sulfur vapor, respectively. According to SEM images, the grain size decreases with increasing annealing temperature up to 750 C. Also, nanoplate-nanoparticles of MoS{sub 2} are formed at annealing temperature of 200-750 C. The TEM images of MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles at T{sub a} = 750 C confirm that the nanoparticles have a homogeneous distribution with a hexagonal structure. The FTIR spectra of the MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles showed the peaks at about 467 cm {sup -1} belong to the characteristic bands of Mo-S. (orig.)

  10. Biocompatible and Biodegradable Ultrafine Nanoparticles of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate-co-Methacrylic Acid Prepared via Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization: Kinetics and Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henned Saade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine nanoparticles, less than 10 nm in mean diameter, of the FDA approved copolymer methyl methacrylate- (MMA- co-methacrylic acid (MAA, 2/1 (mol/mol, were prepared. The method used for the preparation of these particles stabilized in a latex containing around 11% solids includes the dosing of the monomers mixture on a micellar solution preserving monomer starved conditions. It is thought that the operation at these conditions combined with the hydrophilicity of MMA and MAA units favors the formation of ultrafine particles; the propagation reaction carried out within so small compartments renders copolymer chains rich in syndiotactic units very likely as consequence of the restricted movements of the end propagation of the chains. Because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their extremely small size these nanoparticles could be used as vehicles for improved drug delivery in the treatment of chronic-degenerative diseases.

  11. Preparation and application of various nanoparticles in biology and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Vardan Gasparyan

    2013-01-01

    The present paper considers prospects for application of various nanoparticles in biology and medicine. Here are presented data on preparation of gold and silver nanoparticles, and effects of shape of these nanoparticles on their optical properties. Application of these nanoparticles in diagnostics, for drug delivery and therapy, and preparation of magnetic nanoparticles from iron and cobalt salts are also discussed. Application of these nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contr...

  12. A simple route to prepare stable hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingchao; Wang Xinyu; Li Shipu

    2009-01-01

    A simple ultrasound assisted precipitation method with addition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is proposed to prepare stable hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles suspension from the mixture of Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 solution and Ca(OH) 2 solution. The product was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, HRTEM and particle size, and zeta potential analyzer. TEM observation shows that the suspension is composed of 10-20 nm x 20-50 nm short rod-like and 10-30 nm similar spherical HAP nanoparticles. The number-averaged particle size of stable suspension is about 30 nm between 11.6 and 110.5 nm and the zeta potential is -60.9 mV. The increase of stability of HAP nanoparticles suspension mainly depends on the electrostatic effect and steric effect of GAGs. The HAP nanoparticles can be easily transported into the cancer cells and exhibit good potential as gene or drug carrier system.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene coated iron oxide nanoparticles and asymmetric assemblies by phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2014-01-01

    nanoparticle assemblies were then prepared by solution casting and immersion in water. The nanocomposite film production with functionalized nanoparticles is fast and technically scalable. The morphologies of films were characterized by scanning electron

  14. Preparation of metallic nanoparticles by irradiation in starch aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemţanu, Monica R., E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Braşoveanu, Mirela, E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Iacob, Nicuşor, E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Electron Accelerators Laboratory, 409 Atomiştilor St., PO Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Măgurele (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a single step by electron beam irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution containing starch. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotocolorimetry and compared with those obtained by chemical (thermal) reduction method. The results showed that the smaller sizes of AgNPs were prepared with higher yields as the irradiation dose increased. The broadening of particle size distribution occurred by increasing of irradiation dose and dose rate. Chromatic parameters such as b* (yellow-blue coordinate), C* (chroma) and ΔE{sub ab} (total color difference) could characterize the nanoparticles with respect of their concentration. Hue angle h{sup o} was correlated to the particle size distribution. Experimental data of the irradiated samples were also subjected to factor analysis using principal component extraction and varimax rotation in order to reveal the relation between dependent variables and independent variables and to reduce their number. The radiation-based method provided silver nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrower size distribution than those produced by chemical reduction method. Therefore, the electron beam irradiation is effective for preparation of silver nanoparticles using starch aqueous solution as dispersion medium.

  15. Preparation of copper nanoparticles by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yajian; Guo Xiongbin; Li Zhaolong; Fu Junjie; Tan Yuanyuan; Zhou Xinyao; Xu Furong

    2013-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by 60 Co-γ radiation with aqueous solution of cupric sulfate under inert nitrogen-purged conditions. Cu nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), laser particle size distribution analyzer (LSPSDA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) techniques, respectively. The effects of solution system, pH, additive of surfactant and absorbed doses on the particle size and its distribution as well as stored stability of Cu naoparticles were investigated. High resolution TEM pictures showed the formation of homogeneous cubic-structured copper nanoparticles with different sizes depends on the synthetic conditions. This new kind of synthesis method shows the excellent stability, which may provide an efficient way to improve the fine tuning of the structure and size of copper nanoparticles. (authors)

  16. Preparation of silver nanoparticles at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Mini, E-mail: mishramini5@gmail.com [Centre of Environmental Science, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, U.P. (India); Chauhan, Pratima, E-mail: mangu167@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad U.P. (India)

    2016-04-13

    Silver from ancient time is used as antimicrobial agent in the bulk form but now with the advancement in nanotechnology silver in the form of nanoparticles shown potential effect against microbes which make us easy to fight with many diseases plants and animals. In this work silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical routes using sodium borohydride as reducing agent at low temperature. The particles were characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy as well as X-Ray Diffraction. The UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibited absorption at 425 cm; the crystallite size of the particles is between 19nm to 39nm. EDAX graph shows two peaks of silver and oxygen. Water absorbed by silver nanoparticles was removed by the calcinations.

  17. Preparation of silver nanoparticles at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Mini; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-01-01

    Silver from ancient time is used as antimicrobial agent in the bulk form but now with the advancement in nanotechnology silver in the form of nanoparticles shown potential effect against microbes which make us easy to fight with many diseases plants and animals. In this work silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical routes using sodium borohydride as reducing agent at low temperature. The particles were characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy as well as X-Ray Diffraction. The UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibited absorption at 425 cm; the crystallite size of the particles is between 19nm to 39nm. EDAX graph shows two peaks of silver and oxygen. Water absorbed by silver nanoparticles was removed by the calcinations.

  18. Preparation of Risedronate Nanoparticles by Solvent Evaporation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Vaculikova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One approach for the enhancement of oral drug bioavailability is the technique of nanoparticle preparation. Risedronate sodium (Biopharmaceutical Classification System Class III was chosen as a model compound with high water solubility and low intestinal permeability. Eighteen samples of risedronate sodium were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique with sodium dodecyl sulfate, polysorbate, macrogol, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl dextran as nanoparticle stabilizers applied in three concentrations. The prepared samples were characterized by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy was used for verification of the composition of the samples. The particle size of sixteen samples was less than 200 nm. Polysorbate, sodium carboxymethyl dextran and macrogol were determined as the most favourable excipients; the particle size of the samples of risedronate with these excipients ranged from 2.8 to 10.5 nm.

  19. Preparation and characterization of PLGA-β-CD polymeric nanoparticles containing methotrexate and evaluation of their effects on T47D cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjikhah, Fatemeh; Azizi Jalalian, Farid; Salehi, Roya; Panahi, Yunes; Hasanzadeh, Arash; Alizadeh, Effat; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-05-01

    Among all cancers that affect women, breast cancer has most mortality rate. It is essential to attain more safe and efficient anticancer drugs. Recent advances in medical nanotechnology and biotechnology have caused in novel improvements in breast and other cancer drug delivery. Methotrexate is an anticancer drug that prevents the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, which inhibits in the formation of DNA, RNA and proteins which have poor water-solubility. For enhancing the solubility and stability of drugs in delivery systems, we used methotrexate-loaded PLGA- beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles. The PLGA- beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles were synthesized by a double emulsion method and characterized with FT-IR and SEM. T47D breast cancer cell lines were treated with equal concentrations of methotrexate-loaded PLGA- beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles and free methotrexate. MTT assay confirmed that methotrexate-loaded PLGA- beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles enhanced cytotoxicity and drug delivery in T47D breast cancer cells. These results indicate that encapsulated drugs could be effective in controlled drug release for a sustained period would serve the purpose for long-term treatment of many diseases such as breast cancer.

  20. Structural characterization of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Paulo Ricardo; Sousa, Edi Carlos Pereira de; Pontuschka, Walter Maigon; Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto de, E-mail: pauloricardoafg@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Due to magnetic, optical and electrical properties metallic nanoparticles have been extensively studied to potential applications in biosensor production, separation of biological molecules, image techniques, drug delivery among several others. For such applications, it is crucial to have crystals with morphology and well defined structure. In this work we presented a detailed structured characterization of silver nanoparticles using small angle x-rays and light scattering methods. The comparison and correlation of these results with electron microscopy images permitted the determination of interesting structural parameters for the studied systems. The oscillations of the intensity curve of SAXS data reveal that this sample has particles with reasonable stability and well defined sizes. The mean radius obtained from the size distribution curve is in good agreement with the ones obtained by TEM images. As will be shown, the combination of several techniques and the correct analysis for the obtained experimental data provides unique information on the structure of the studied systems. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial active silver nanoparticles and silver/polystyrene core-shell nanoparticles prepared in room-temperature ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Jing; Wang Desong; Luo Qingzhi; Yuan Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    Uniform silver nanoparticles and silver/polystyrene core-shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM].BF 4 ). [BMIM].BF 4 plays a protective role to prevent the nanoparticles from aggregation during the preparation process. Transmission electron micrographs confirm that both silver nanoparticles and core-shell nanoparticles are regular spheres with the sizes in the range of 5-15 nm and 15-25 nm, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the face-centered cubic geometry of silver nanoparticles. The as-prepared nanoparticles were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, antimicrobial activities against E. coli and S. aureus were studied and the results show that both silver nanoparticles and core-shell nanoparticles possess excellent antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial mechanism of the as-prepared nanoparticles was discussed.

  2. Nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and mesoporous silica nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and nanobiointeractions with red blood cells and human plasma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Leandro C.; de Araújo, Maciel M.; de Moraes, Ana Carolina M.; da Silva, Douglas S.; Ferreira, Ariane G.; Franqui, Lidiane S.; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T.; Alves, Oswaldo L.

    2018-04-01

    The current work refers to the development of a novel nanocomposite based on graphene oxide (GO) and mesoporous amino silica nanoparticles (H2N-MSNs) and its biological interaction with red blood cells (RBCs) and human blood plasma toward the investigation of nanobiointeractions. Silica nanoparticles and several graphene oxide-based materials are, separately, known for their high hemolytic potential and strong interaction with human plasma proteins. In this context, the GO-MSN interaction and its influence in minimizing the reported effects were investigated. The materials were synthesized by covalently attaching H2N-MSNs onto the surface of GO through an amidation reaction. GO-MSN nanocomposites were obtained by varying the mass of H2N-MSNs and were characterized by FTIR, NMR, XRD, TGA, zeta potential and TEM. The characterization results confirm that nanocomposites were obtained, suggest covalent bond attachment mostly by amine-epoxy reactions and evidence an unexpected reduction reaction of GO by H2N-MSNs, whose mechanism is proposed. Biological assays showed a decrease of hemolysis (RBC lysis) and a minimization of the interaction with human plasma proteins (protein corona formation). These are important findings toward achieving in vivo biocompatibility and understanding the nanobiointeractions. Finally, this work opens possibilities for new nanomedicine applications of GO-MSN nanocomposites, such as drug delivery system.

  3. Preparation of epigallocatechin gallate-loaded nanoparticles and characterization of their inhibitory effects on Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Yun; Feng, Chun-Lung; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Jui-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    A variety of approaches have been proposed for overcoming the unpleasant side effects associated with antibiotics treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections. Research has shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major ingredient in green tea, has antibacterial activity for antiurease activity against H. pylori. Oral EGCG is not good because of its digestive instability and the fact that it often cannot reach the targeted site of antibacterial activity. To localize EGCG to H. pylori infection site, this study developed a fucose–chitosan/gelatin nanoparticle to encapsulate EGCG at the target and make direct contact with the region of microorganisms on the gastric epithelium. Analysis of a simulated gastrointestinal medium indicated that the proposed in vitro nanocarrier system effectively controls the release of EGCG, which interacts directly with the intercellular space at the site of H. pylori infection. Meanwhile, results of in vivo clearance assays indicated that our prepared fucose–chitosan/gelatin/EGCG nanoparticles had a significantly greater H. pylori clearance effect and more effectively reduced H. pylori-associated gastric inflammation in the gastric-infected mouse model than the EGCG solution alone. (paper)

  4. Characterization and magnetic properties of SrTi{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaphun, Attaphol [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hunpratub, Sitchai; Phokha, Sumalin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Rajabhat Udon Thani University, Udon Thani 41000 (Thailand); Putjuso, Thanin [Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin Wang Klai Kangwon Campus, Prachuap Khiri Khan 77110 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2017-01-01

    SrTi{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) nanoparticles were prepared by the hydrothermal method. All as-prepared samples were annealed at 800 °C for 3 h in argon to study the annealing effect on their magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were used to study the crystalline structure, morphology, oxidation state and magnetic properties of samples. XRD results indicate a cubic perovskite structure of all samples with the impurity phase of SrCO{sub 3} in all as-prepared samples and Ni metal in annealed samples of x=0.10 and 0.15. SEM and TEM images confirmed a cubic shape for all samples with decreasing average particle sizes from 136.8±4.7 to 126.2±6.9 nm for annealed samples upon Ni doping. XANES results revealed the existence of Ni metal in sample of x=0.05 with the oxidation state of +2 for Ni ion in a SrTi{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} sample. XPS results indicated the promotion of oxygen vacancies. VSM results revealed a paramagnetic behavior at room temperature of all as-prepared samples. Ni-doped samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior after annealing in argon with the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) above 380 K for a sample with x=0.05 as shown by field cooling (FC) and zero-field cooling (ZFC) measurements. The room temperature ferromagnetism (RT-FM) of ferromagnetic samples was suggested to be originated from Ni metal and F-center exchange (FCE) mechanism due to the promotion of oxygen vacancies in the perovskite structure.

  5. Preparation, Characterization, and Optimization of Folic Acid-Chitosan-Methotrexate Core-Shell Nanoparticles by Box-Behnken Design for Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi Beidokhti, Hamid Reza; Ghaffarzadegan, Reza; Mirzakhanlouei, Sasan; Ghazizadeh, Leila; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the combined influence of independent variables in the preparation of folic acid-chitosan-methotrexate nanoparticles (FA-Chi-MTX NPs). These NPs were designed and prepared for targeted drug delivery in tumor. The NPs of each batch were prepared by coaxial electrospray atomization method and evaluated for particle size (PS) and particle size distribution (PSD). The independent variables were selected to be concentration of FA-chitosan, ratio of shell solution flow rate to core solution flow rate, and applied voltage. The process design of experiments (DOE) was obtained with three factors in three levels by Design expert software. Box-Behnken design was used to select 15 batches of experiments randomly. The chemical structure of FA-chitosan was examined by FTIR. The NPs of each batch were collected separately, and morphologies of NPs were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The captured pictures of all batches were analyzed by ImageJ software. Mean PS and PSD were calculated for each batch. Polynomial equation was produced for each response. The FE-SEM results showed the mean diameter of the core-shell NPs was around 304 nm, and nearly 30% of the produced NPs are in the desirable range. Optimum formulations were selected. The validation of DOE optimization results showed errors around 2.5 and 2.3% for PS and PSD, respectively. Moreover, the feasibility of using prepared NPs to target tumor extracellular pH was shown, as drug release was greater in the pH of endosome (acidic medium). Finally, our results proved that FA-Chi-MTX NPs were active against the human epithelial cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

  6. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for hydrogel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Erik; Harling, Steffen; Poehlig, Kai; Ludwig, Frank; Menzel, Henning; Schilling, Meinhard

    2007-01-01

    A new characterization method for hydrogels based on the relaxation behavior of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is proposed. MNPs are incorporated in the hydrogel to examine its network properties. By analyzing their relaxation behavior, incorporated and mobile nanoparticles can be studied. In the case of mobile nanoparticles, the microviscosity of the hydrogel can be determined. Thus, this method allows the studying of gelation as well as the degradation process of hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogel can have any shape (e.g. microspheres or larger blocks) and no sample preparation is needed, avoiding artefacts

  7. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Interfacial Electrochemical Properties of Nanoparticles of Anatase-TiO2 Prepared by the Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Daou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we prepared by the sol-gel method titanium dioxide nanoparticles having a large specific area (SBET = 218 m2/g. The isotherm of N2 adsorption-desorption at 77K revealed that it concerns a mesoporous solid with a maximum pore diameter of 43 Å. The X-ray diffraction showed that the solid is constituted of the anatase phase. The transmission electron microscopy revealed us that the synthesized grains of TiO2 are of nanometric sizes (diameter between 8 and 20 nm and manifest under agglomerated shape. The study of its solubility in dispersing phase, by conductometric titrations, showed that the prepared solid is totally insoluble in all the domain of the studied pH. The measured inter-facial electrochemical properties, based on the isotherms of ionic adsorption and the conductometric titrations, are: the point of zero charge found equal to 6,2±0,1, the total number of sites of surface found equal to 5,8 OH/nm2 and the nature of action of the dispersed phase on the dispersing phase which is found organizer of the structure of water. Besides, the difference of the ionizationconstants pK is found superior to 4 for all the adsorbed ions and the constants of surface complexation are independent from the nature of the adsorbed ion.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Pistacia khinjuk Gum Nanoparticles Using Response Surface Method: Evaluation of Its Anti-Bacterial Performance and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fattahi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to prepare a novel, natural nanoparticle (NP as a drug carrier, which also has inherent therapeutic effects. Methods: Pistacia khinjuk gum NPs were prepared and Response surface methodology (RSM was used for statistical analysis of data and optimizing the size of NPs. Results: NPs were in the range of 75.85–241.3 nm. The optimization study was carried out, and an optimized size (70.86nm was obtained using DMSO as a solvent. The volume of the organic phase was 111.25µl, and the concentration of gum was 1% w/v. The cell viability assay was performed on the pure gum and NPs toward β-TC3, MCF7, and HT29 cell lines. It was observed that NPs have higher cytotoxic activity in comparison with pure gum, and that the IC50value was achieved at 1% of NPs in β-TC3 cells. The obtained NPs demonstrated antibacterial activity against two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Altogether, according to the obtained results, these NPs with inherent cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity are an attractive carrier for drug delivery.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of iron-cobalt (FeCo) alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutsopoulos, Sotiris; Barfod, Rasmus; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    2017-01-01

    of the alloy nanoparticles differed depending on the preparation method. When the wet impregnation technique of acetate precursor salts of Fe and Co were used for the synthesis, the size of FeCo alloy nanoparticles was approximately 13 nm. FeCo alloy nanoparticles were characterized by crystallography (XRD...

  10. Preparation and characterization of sub-20 nm Cu{sub X}@Ag{sub 1} core-shell nanoparticles by changing concentration of silver precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Jong-Hyun, E-mail: pljh@snut.ac.kr

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafine Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) less than 20 nm in diameter were prepared. After synthesizing ultrafine Cu NPs using a solvothermal method to serve as the core particles, Cu@Ag NPs were fabricated with different initial Ag precursor concentrations, resulting in different thicknesses, densities, and uniformities of Ag shells. The average thickness and density of the Ag shell increased with increasing initial Ag precursor concentration in a Cu:Ag atomic ratio from 6:1 to 1:1. However, excessive Ag precursor concentrations induced homogeneous nucleation and growth of surplus fine pure NPs. Ag dewetting behavior and Cu oxidation in the Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} NPs were observed, they occurred during heating at 200 and 250 °C, respectively. The electrical resistivities of sintered Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} films decreased with increasing temperature from 200 to 240 °C. The resistivity after washing the OA and sintering for 60 min at 240 °C in air was measured to be 4.96 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm. The film was sintered in nitrogen using the ink containing non-washed Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} NPs indicated the lower resistivity of 2.70 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm owing to the non-oxidation atmosphere, although the chemically capped oleylamine in the core-shell NPs hindered the sintering behavior. - Highlights: • Ultrafine Ag-coated Cu nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter were fabricated. • Different Ag precursor concentrations influenced thickness and density of Ag shell. • Excessive Ag precursor concentrations induced formation of surplus fine pure NPs. • Ag dewetting behavior and Cu oxidation in Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} nanoparticles were observed. • Electrical resistivities of sintered Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} films were 2.70–4.96 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm.

  11. Structural characterization and properties of YCrO3 nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... C. As-prepared YCrO3 nanoparticles were characterized by various sophisticated techniques like. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analyzer, high frequency. LCR-meter, superconducting quantum interface device magnetometer and P–E loop ...

  12. Characterization of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Mang, Joseph T.; Smith, Bettina L.; Son, Steven F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from ∼25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  13. Preparation and protection of silver nanoparticles with chitosan derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Cuc; Cao Van Du; Nguyen Cuu Khoa; Tran Ngoc Quyen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, nano silver solution is prepared and stabilized by chitosan dihydroxyphenyl acetamide (CDHPA). Chitosan is a natural carbohydrate polymer deriving from chitin that has biodegradable, biocompatible, antibacterial and antifungal properties, so when conjugation of the polymer and silver nanoparticles could be expected to increase bactericidal features of the obtained product. The chemical and physical methods were used to characterize the chitosan derivative such as transmission spectrum (UV-Vis), IR spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Morphology of the obtained nano silver particles were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (author)

  14. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles for enhancing oral absorption of docetaxel: preparation, in vitro and ex vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Shahrooz; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive core-shell nanoparticles based on copolymerization of thiolated chitosan coated on poly methyl methacrylate cores as a carrier for oral delivery of docetaxel. Docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles with various concentrations were prepared via a radical emulsion polymerization method using cerium ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized by: dynamic light-scattering analysis for their mean size, size distribution, and zeta potential; scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for surface morphology; and differential scanning calorimetry analysis for confirmation of molecular dispersity of docetaxel in the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were spherical with mean diameter below 200 nm, polydispersity of below 0.15, and positive zeta potential values. The entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles was approximately 90%. In vitro release studies showed a sustained release characteristic for 10 days after a burst release at the beginning. Ex vivo studies showed a significant increase in the transportation of docetaxel from intestinal membrane of rat when formulated as nanoparticles. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles was investigated using fluoresceinamine-loaded nanoparticles. Docetaxel nanoparticles showed a high cytotoxicity effect in the Caco-2 and MCF-7 cell lines after 72 hours. It can be concluded that by combining the advantages of both thiolated polymers and colloidal particles, these nanoparticles can be proposed as a drug carrier system for mucosal delivery of hydrophobic drugs. PMID:21289989

  15. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles for enhancing oral absorption of docetaxel: preparation, in vitro and ex vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Shahrooz; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2011-01-12

    The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive core-shell nanoparticles based on copolymerization of thiolated chitosan coated on poly methyl methacrylate cores as a carrier for oral delivery of docetaxel. Docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles with various concentrations were prepared via a radical emulsion polymerization method using cerium ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized by: dynamic light-scattering analysis for their mean size, size distribution, and zeta potential; scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for surface morphology; and differential scanning calorimetry analysis for confirmation of molecular dispersity of docetaxel in the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were spherical with mean diameter below 200 nm, polydispersity of below 0.15, and positive zeta potential values. The entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles was approximately 90%. In vitro release studies showed a sustained release characteristic for 10 days after a burst release at the beginning. Ex vivo studies showed a significant increase in the transportation of docetaxel from intestinal membrane of rat when formulated as nanoparticles. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles was investigated using fluoresceinamine-loaded nanoparticles. Docetaxel nanoparticles showed a high cytotoxicity effect in the Caco-2 and MCF-7 cell lines after 72 hours. It can be concluded that by combining the advantages of both thiolated polymers and colloidal particles, these nanoparticles can be proposed as a drug carrier system for mucosal delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

  16. PREPARATIONS AND APPLICATION OF METAL NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Adlim, Adlim

    2010-01-01

    Terminology of metal nanoparticles, the uniqueness properties in terms of the surface atom, the quantum dot, and the magnetism are described. The further elaboration was on the synthesis of nanoparticles. Applications of metal nanoparticles in electronic, ceramic medical and catalysis were overviewed. The bibliography includes 81 references with 99% are journal articles.   Keywords: metal nanoparticles

  17. PREPARATIONS AND APPLICATION OF METAL NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlim Adlim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminology of metal nanoparticles, the uniqueness properties in terms of the surface atom, the quantum dot, and the magnetism are described. The further elaboration was on the synthesis of nanoparticles. Applications of metal nanoparticles in electronic, ceramic medical and catalysis were overviewed. The bibliography includes 81 references with 99% are journal articles.   Keywords: metal nanoparticles

  18. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Omrani, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NiWO 4 nanoparticles were prepared via precipitation technique. Experimental parameters of procedure were optimized statistically. Highlights: ► NiWO 4 spherical nanoparticles were synthesized via direct precipitation method. ► Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of synthesis reaction parameters. ► Composition and structural properties of NiWO 4 nanoparticles were characterized. ► EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV–vis and photoluminescence techniques were employed. ► Catalytic activity of the product in a cyclo-addition reaction was investigated. - Abstract: Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO 4 particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO 4 were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Finally, catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in a cycloaddition reaction was examined.

  19. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi, E-mail: pourmortazavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Material and Manufacturing Technologies, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi, E-mail: rahiminasrabadi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh [Islamic Azad University, Varamin Pishva Branch, Varamin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omrani, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via precipitation technique. Experimental parameters of procedure were optimized statistically. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiWO{sub 4} spherical nanoparticles were synthesized via direct precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of synthesis reaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition and structural properties of NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis and photoluminescence techniques were employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of the product in a cyclo-addition reaction was investigated. - Abstract: Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO{sub 4} particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO{sub 4} were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV

  20. Preparation, characterization and application of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with natural polymers for removal of {sup 60}Co-radionuclides from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharaf El-Deen, Gehan E. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radioactive Waste Management Dept.; Imam, Neama G. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Experimental Physics Dept.; Elettra, Sincrotrone, Trieste (Italy); Ayoub, Refaat R. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Chemistry Dept.

    2017-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-MNPs) coated with natural polymers, starch (IO-S MNPs) and dextrin (IO-D MNPs), were synthesized by modified co-precipitation method. IO and hybrid-IO-MNPs were characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta potential (ZP). IO-S MNPs and IO-D MNPs have IO core-shell structure with core of 10.8 nm and 13.8 nm and shell of 7.5 nm and 5.9 nm, respectively. The efficiency of the hybrid IO-MNPs for sorption of {sup 60}Co(II)-radionuclides from aqueous solution was investigated under varying experimental conditions. Kinetic data were described well by pseudo-second-order mode, sorption isotherms were fitted quite with Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacity 36.89 (mmol.g{sup -1})/(L.mmol{sup -1}){sup n} for IO-S MNPs and 24.9 (mmol.g{sup -1})/(L.mmol{sup -1}){sup n} for IO-D MNPs. Sorption of {sup 60}Co-radionuclides by IO-S MNPs was suppressed with salinity and most of the adsorbed {sup 60}Co onto IO-S MNPs could be remove with 0.1 M HCl solution. IO-S MNPs exhibits superparamagnetic properties, easier separation according to higher saturation magnetization (47 emu/g) and better adsorption for {sup 60}CO-radionuclides than IO-D MNPs.

  1. Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of nano-sized zinc(II coordination complex as a precursor for the preparation of pure-phase zinc(II oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In current study, nanoparticles and single crystals of a Zn(II coordination complex, [Zn(dmphI2](1, {dmph=2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline(neocuproine}, have been synthesized by the reaction of zinc(II acetate, KI and neocuproine as ligand in methanol using sonochemical and heat gradient methods, respectively. The nanostructure of 1 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses, and the structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of nano-sized 1 has been studied by thermogravimetric (TG and differential thermal analyses (DTA. Structural determination of compound 1 reveals the Zn(II ion is four-coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral configuration by two N atoms from a 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-Phenanthroline ligand and two terminal I atoms. The effect of supercritical condition on stability, size and morphology of nano-structured compound 1 has also been studied. The XRD pattern of the residue obtained from thermal decomposition of nano-sized compound 1 at 600 °C under air atmosphere provided pure phase of ZnO with the average particles size of about 31 nm.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Sulfides Nanoparticles/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Ajibade, Peter A.; Mbese, Johannes Z.

    2014-01-01

    Metal sulfides nanoparticles in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices were prepared and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The FTIR confirms the dispersion of the nanoparticles in PMMA matrices with the C=O and C–O–C bonds of the PMMA shifting slightly which may be attributed to the interactions between the nanoparticles and PMMA. The ZnS nanoparticles in PMM...

  3. Construction and characterization of curcumin nanoparticles system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weitong; Zou, Yu; Guo, Yaping; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Rui; Zhao, Kun

    2014-03-01

    This study was aimed at developing a nanoparticles system for curcumin, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, but with the disadvantage of poor aqueous solubility. The objective was intended to improve in vitro release characteristics, enhance blood and gastrointestinal stability, increase bioavailability and pharmacological activities. Curcumin nanoparticles system (Cur-NS) was prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. Cur-NS was characterized by particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and physical stability, respectively. Cur-NS presented controlled release properties, and the release properties of Cur from NS were fit non-Fickian mechanism, controlled by the expected diffusional release and the erosion or solubilization from the crosslink layer of polymer carrier. In addition, the pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed a notable improved oral bioavailability of Cur, and the anti-tumor activity in vivo of Cur-NS on tumor growth was investigated. Cur-NS significantly inhibited tumor effect compared with non-vehicle group, thus making it a potential candidate for cancer therapy.

  4. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  5. Polyisoprene Nanoparticles Prepared by Polymerization in Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Apolinar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch polymerization of isoprene was carried out at 25∘C in a normal microemulsion stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate and initiated with the redox couple tert-butyl hydroperoxide/tetraethylene-pentamine. Characterization by transmission electronic microscopy showed that polyisoprene nanoparticles with number-average diameter close to 20 nm were obtained. The low molecular weights obtained, as determined by gel permeation chromatography, were probably due to chain scission as inferred from the oxidative ambient at which polymerization was carried out. Microstructure calculated from infrared spectroscopy data indicates that the obtained polyisoprene contains around 80% total 1,4 units, which is in accordance with its glass transition temperature (-60.8∘C determined by differential scanning calorimetry.

  6. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide; Preparacao e caracterizacao de fibras de bagaco de cana modificadas com nanoparticulas de oxido de zirconio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H., E-mail: kcccarvalho@hotmail.com.b [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia(FEG)

    2010-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  7. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-sphere-supported Au-nanoparticle catalysts with high activity for CO oxidation at ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lili; Huang, Shouying; Zhu, Baolin; Zhang, Shoumin; Huang, Weiping, E-mail: hwp914@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, College of Chemistry, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), and Tianjin Key Lab of Metal and Molecule-based Material Chemistry (China)

    2016-11-15

    Mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-sphere-supported Au-nanoparticles (Au/m-TiO{sub 2}-spheres) catalysts have been synthesized by a simple method using tetrabutyl titanate as TiO{sub 2} precursor and characterized with XRD, BET, ICP, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis DRS, XPS, as well as FT-IR. The samples with the size in the range of 200–400 nm were almost perfectly spherical. The average diameter of pores was about 3.6 nm, and the mesopore size distribution was in the range of 2–6 nm with a narrow distribution. When the catalyst was calcined at 300 °C, the Au NPs with the size ca. 5 nm were highly dispersed on the surfaces of m-TiO{sub 2} spheres and partially embedded in the supports. Remarkably, the specific surface area of the Au/m-TiO{sub 2}-spheres was as high as 117 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The CO-adsorbed catalyst showed an apparent IR adsorption peak at 1714 cm{sup −1} that matched with bridging model CO. It means the catalysts should be of high catalytic activity for the CO oxidation due to they could adsorb and activate CO commendably. When Au-content was 0.48 wt.%, the Au/m-TiO{sub 2}-spheres could convert CO completely into CO{sub 2} at ambient temperature.

  8. Preparation and characterization of novel wound dressing based on silver nanoparticle-impregnated bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose-aloe vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventigan, Sarla V.; Santiago, Karen S.; Balitaan, Jolleen Natalie I.

    2015-01-01

    Ideal wound dressings stimulate wound healing, control unpleasant odors, and provide antimicrobial action in wounds. However, most traditional wound dressings such as gauze and biological dressings exhibit exudate leaking which increases the risk of infection and delayed wound healing of tissues. This study aims to develop and characterize a bio-composite of bacterial cellulose and aloe vera having the ideal features of a wound dressing from Acetobacter xylinum-activated culture medium supplemented with various aloe vera concentrations from )-50% (v/v) and the film which exhibits the most uniform results is used for the incorporation of silver nanoparticle as an antibacterial agent. The biopolymer composites of bacterial cellulose and aloe vera were developed by adding 0-50% aloe vera (v/v) in the A. xylinum-activated coconut water medium during biosynthesis in static cultivation for 10 days. The films obtained after drying the membranes were named as bacterial cellulose-aloe vera (BC-A) films. The moisture content of films reached 99% which indicates that the films may be suitable for providing a moist environment to facilitate wound healing fast. With the addition of aloe vera up to 30% (v/v) during BC synthesis, it resulted in a significant improvement in the water absorption capacity of the films showing a WAC ration of 36.46 (r.s.d.= 12.17%, n=3) compared to the unmodified film having a ratio of 9.03 (r.s.d.= 13.95%, n=3). However, the addition of aloe vera at a concentration greater than 30% (v/v) resulted in a decrease in pellicle formation which can be observed from the very weak properties of the films. The BC-A (30%) displayed significantly improved in comparison to the unmodified BC film. Also, it is capable of absorbing high amount of water than its weight and can act as a potential wound dressing which reduces irritation and inflammation. (author)

  9. Photoluminescent properties of ZnS nanoparticles prepared by electro-explosion of Zn wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Navendu; Sen, P.

    2007-01-01

    We study the photoluminescent properties of ZnS nanoparticles without the influence of dopants or magnetic impurities. The ZnS nanoparticles reported in this case were synthesized by a novel method of electro-explosion of wire (EEW). The nanoparticles were prepared employing electro-explosion of pure zinc wires in a cell filled with sulfide ions to produce a free-standing compound ZnS semiconductor. To investigate the structural and optical properties, these nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Consistent with the enhancement of the PL intensity of the 443 nm peak due to deep blue emission of ZnS particles, the XRD of the nanoparticles reveals a hexagonal phase of ZnS nanocrystallites prepared by our novel synthesis technique

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles using Ex-Situ Co-Precipitation Method and Tripolyphosphate/Sulphate as Dual Crosslinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Ika O.; Mardila, Vita T.; Santjojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterial provide great opportunities to develop in several fields. Several types of nanoparticles have been proven beneficial for biomedical and therapeutic agent development. Particularly for clinical use, nanoparticles must be biocompatible and non-toxic. Iron oxide nanoparticles consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) was eligible to use for in vivo application including targeting drug delivery. Due to their distinct properties, these nanoparticles could be directed to the specific target under external magnetic field. However, nanoparticles have a tendency to form agglomeration. Therefore, surface modification was required to reduce the agglomeration. In this study, nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were produced and coated by biomaterial (chitosan) using ex-situ co-precipitation method. Nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized by adding ammonia water into iron ferric and ferrous solution. Synthesis process of Fe3O4 was conducted prior to adding chitosan. Chitosan was then cross-linked by a combination of tripolyphosphate/sulphate. The different composition ratio and crosslinking time provide the different physical and magnetic characteristics of nanoparticles. Particle and crystallite size was determined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) respectively, whereas magnetic characteristic was determined by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). The results showed that the ratio enhancement between chitosan: Fe3O4 increase the particle size, while decreased the crystallite size. Morphology and particle size were influenced by the ratio of crosslinkers. It was found that the higher tripolyphosphate content was contributed to the small size and more spherical morphology. In addition, the influence of crosslinking time toward crystallite size was determined by altering stirring time. The longer duration of crosslinking time, provide the larger crystallite size of chitosan-Fe3O4. There was an interesting

  11. Chemical synthesis and characterization of palladium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Viet Long; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Nogami, Masayuki; Nguyen, Duc Chien; Hirata, Hirohito; Ohtaki, Michitaka

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the successful preparation of Pd nanoparticles by the polyol method and the proposed techniques of controlling their size and shape. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized Pd nanoparticles of various shapes with the largest sizes in the forms of octahedrons (24 nm), tetrahedrons (22 nm) and cubes (20 nm) have been obtained by alcohol reduction in ethanol with the addition of a hydrochloric acid catalyst. Moreover, PVP–Pd nanoparticles of well-controlled spherical shapes have also been prepared by a modified polyol method. PVP–Pd nanoparticles of cubic, octahedral, tetrahedral and spherical shapes with well-controlled size achieved by using ethylene glycol (EG) as reductant and various inorganic species were also fabricated. In particular, Pd nanorods with sizes of 47 nm and 16 nm formed due to the anisotropic growth mechanism of Pd nanoparticles were found. At the same time, tetrahedral particles of sharp shapes of 120 nm and 70 nm sizes have been observed. A high concentration of inorganic species was used to control the size and shape of the Pd nanoparticles, leading to the appearance of various irregular sizes and shapes. There was evidence of the very sharp corners and edges of tetrahedral and octahedral Pd nanoparticles or others that were formed in the clustering and combination of the seeds of smaller particles

  12. Preparation and characterization of flexible ferromagnetic nanocomposites for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Teena; Kanoth, Bipinbal P.; Nijas, C.M.; Joy, P.A.; Joseph, Joseph M.; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Thachil, Eby T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesised by co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in natural rubber through latex stage processing. • Mechanical properties and magnetic properties of composites improved with loading Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. • Imaginary part of permeability increases with nanoparticle loading improving the microwave absorption characteristics. • Infrared spectra reveal strong interaction between NR and iron oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method with a view of developing flexible and easily processable ferromagnetic materials with high mouldability to be used as microwave absorbers. The nanoparticles prepared were incorporated into natural rubber through latex stage processing. This novel processing method gives better dispersion of particles in the rubber matrix. The composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, cavity perturbation, thermogravimetry (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). A notable improvement in the mechanical properties of composites was observed upon adding Fe 3 O 4 particles. Magnetic and microwave characteristics of the composites indicate the formation of a flexible ferromagnetic material with good microwave absorption characteristics

  13. Preparation and characterization of flexible ferromagnetic nanocomposites for microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Teena; Kanoth, Bipinbal P. [Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India); Nijas, C.M. [Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India); Joy, P.A. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Joseph, Joseph M. [Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Kuthirummal, Narayanan, E-mail: kuthirummaln@cofc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Thachil, Eby T., E-mail: ethachil@gmail.com [Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesised by co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in natural rubber through latex stage processing. • Mechanical properties and magnetic properties of composites improved with loading Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Imaginary part of permeability increases with nanoparticle loading improving the microwave absorption characteristics. • Infrared spectra reveal strong interaction between NR and iron oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method with a view of developing flexible and easily processable ferromagnetic materials with high mouldability to be used as microwave absorbers. The nanoparticles prepared were incorporated into natural rubber through latex stage processing. This novel processing method gives better dispersion of particles in the rubber matrix. The composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, cavity perturbation, thermogravimetry (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). A notable improvement in the mechanical properties of composites was observed upon adding Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles. Magnetic and microwave characteristics of the composites indicate the formation of a flexible ferromagnetic material with good microwave absorption characteristics.

  14. Primary investigation of the preparation of nanoparticles by precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculikova, Eliska; Grunwaldova, Veronika; Kral, Vladimir; Dohnal, Jiri; Jampilek, Josef

    2012-09-13

    The absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of a drug involve its transport across cell membranes. This process is essential and influenced by the characteristics of the drug, especially its molecular size and shape, solubility at the site of its absorption, relative lipid solubility, etc. One of the progressive ways for increasing bioavaibility is a nanoparticle preparation technique. Cholesterol, cholestenolone and pregnenolone acetate as model active pharmaceutical ingredients and some of the commonly used excipients as nanoparticle stabilizers were used in the investigated precipitation method that was modified and simplified and can be used as an effective and an affordable technique for the preparation of nanoparticles. All 120 prepared samples were analyzed by means of dynamic light scattering (Nanophox). The range of the particle size of the determined 100 nanoparticle samples was from 1 nm to 773 nm, whereas 82 samples contained nanoparticles of less than 200 nm. Relationships between solvents and used excipients and their amount are discussed.

  15. Primary Investigation of the Preparation of Nanoparticles by Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Jampilek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of a drug involve its transport across cell membranes. This process is essential and influenced by the characteristics of the drug, especially its molecular size and shape, solubility at the site of its absorption, relative lipid solubility, etc. One of the progressive ways for increasing bioavaibility is a nanoparticle preparation technique. Cholesterol, cholestenolone and pregnenolone acetate as model active pharmaceutical ingredients and some of the commonly used excipients as nanoparticle stabilizers were used in the investigated precipitation method that was modified and simplified and can be used as an effective and an affordable technique for the preparation of nanoparticles. All 120 prepared samples were analyzed by means of dynamic light scattering (Nanophox. The range of the particle size of the determined 100 nanoparticle samples was from 1 nm to 773 nm, whereas 82 samples contained nanoparticles of less than 200 nm. Relationships between solvents and used excipients and their amount are discussed.

  16. Sonochemical preparation of magnetite nanoparticles by reverse precipitation method

    OpenAIRE

    Shuto, Tatsuya; Nakagoe, Osamu; Tanabe, Shuji

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were successfully prepared by reverse precipitation method with the assistance of ultrasound. Obtained nanoparticles were identified as magnetite (Fe_3O_4) by XRD measurement. It was found that obtained magnetite nanoparticles have small sizes (about 10.7 ±2.9 nm in diameter) and spherical shape by TEM observations. In reverse precipitation method, the dropping conditions of aqueous FeSO_4 solution affect on the sizes and uniformity of the products.

  17. Magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles prepared by exploding wire technique

    OpenAIRE

    Alqudami, Abdullah; Annapoorni, S.; Lamba, Subhalakshmi; Kothari, P C; Kotnala, R K

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles of iron were prepared in distilled water using very thin iron wires and sheets, by the electro-exploding wire technique. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the size of the nanoparticles to be in the range 10 to 50 nm. However, particles of different sizes can be segregated by using ultrahigh centrifuge. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the presence of the cubic phase of iron. These iron nanoparticles were found to exhibit fluorescence in the visible region in contrast to ...

  18. Preparation and characterization of a magneto-polymeric nanocomposite: Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles in a grafted, cross-linked and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Oliverio S.; Rodríguez-Calzadíaz, C. A.; Yáñez-Flores, Isaura G.; Montemayor, Sagrario M.

    In this work two kind of materials: (1) grafted, cross-linked and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) "plastic films" and (2) magnetic plastic films "magneto-polymeric nanocomposites" were prepared. Precursor solutions or "plastisols" used to obtain the plastic films were obtained by mixing PVC (emulsion grade) as polymeric matrix, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer, a thermal stabilizer based in Ca/Zn salts, and a cross-linking agent, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATES), at several concentrations. Flexible films were obtained from the plastisols using static casting. The stress-strain behavior and the gel content (determined by Soxhlet extraction with boiling THF) of the flexible films were measured in order to evaluate the effect of the cross-linking agent and their content on the degree of cross-linking. The magneto-polymeric nanocomposites were obtained by mixing the optimum composition of the plastisols (analyzed previously) with magnetite (Fe 3O 4)-based ferrofluid and DOP. Later, flexible films were obtained by static casting of the plastisol/ferrofluid systems. The magnetic films were characterized by the above-mentioned techniques and X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and thermogravimetrical analysis.

  19. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals: Simple preparation, characterization and formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Fereshteh, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a simple precipitation method. To control the shape and particle size of HAP nanocrystals, coordination ligands derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde were first prepared, characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectroscopies, and finally applied in the synthesis process of HAP. On the other hand, the HAP nanocrystals were also characterized by several techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the FE-SEM and TEM micrographs, it was found that the morphology and crystallinity of the HAP powders depended on the coordination mode of the ligands. - Highlights: • HAP nanobundles and nanoparticles have been prepared by a precipitation method. • Morphologies of HAP nanocrystals were controlled by different coordination ligands. • The formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was also considered

  20. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals: Simple preparation, characterization and formation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fereshteh, Zeinab [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-01

    Crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a simple precipitation method. To control the shape and particle size of HAP nanocrystals, coordination ligands derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde were first prepared, characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectroscopies, and finally applied in the synthesis process of HAP. On the other hand, the HAP nanocrystals were also characterized by several techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the FE-SEM and TEM micrographs, it was found that the morphology and crystallinity of the HAP powders depended on the coordination mode of the ligands. - Highlights: • HAP nanobundles and nanoparticles have been prepared by a precipitation method. • Morphologies of HAP nanocrystals were controlled by different coordination ligands. • The formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was also considered.

  1. Preparation of manganese-based perovskite nanoparticles using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preparation of manganese-based perovskite nanoparticles using a reverse microemulsion method: ... ted much attention in various fields of medicine and pharma- cology such as .... In addition, the SAR value of sample was calculated through ...

  2. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2013; 12 (3): 295-298 ... Applications Using Chemometric Technique. Soheila Honary. 1* ... approach for optimizing and testing the robustness of gold nanoparticle preparation method.

  3. Radiation chemical route for preparation of metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles show properties that are neither seen in the bulk or at atomic level. The unusual properties are governed by quantum size effect. Due to this various methodologies have been endeavored to control the size of the particles. In the present work we show the use of two complimentary techniques (radiation and photo) to synthesize and control the size of the metal particles. In-situ synthesis of fine silver, thallium and cadmium particles has been carried out by gamma-irradiation and electron pulse irradiation at room temperature in the pre-organized gel of polyacrylamide or cyclodextrin cavity. The role of generation of nuclei in high concentrations in stabilization of metal nanoparticles in hydrophobic cavity is shown. Similarly the importance of entrapment of metal ions in the polymer matrix during its formation is highlighted. The work is further extended to exploit the microemulsion droplets for stabilization of Cd nanoparticles. Utility of pulse radiolysis in probing the mechanism of the formation of metal nanoparticles is also shown. Ultrafast laser pulses were employed to control the morphology of the pre-prepared Pt nanoparticles. The changes in reduction of shape and size are considered to occur through melting and vaporization of the nanoparticles. Pt nanoparticles were coated on the inner walls of the tubular pyrex reactor and tested for their catalytic activity for oxidation of CO. It was observed that Pt nanoparticles prepared in the presence of a stabilizer (gelatin) showed a higher tendency to adhere to the inner walls of the pyrex reactor as compared to that prepared in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The catalyst was found to be active at ≥150 degree C giving CO 2 . Chemically reduced Pt nanoparticles stabilized on silica nanoparticles gave ∼7% CO conversion per hr. However, radiolytically prepared Pt nanoaprticles stabilized by gelatin gave ∼10% conversion per hr. The data indicates that catalytic oxidation of CO takes place

  4. Gold nanoparticles: generation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2013-07-01

    In this presentation we report the reduction of Au 3+ through chemical and free radical (e solv - ) reactions both in non-aqueous and aqueous media. In chemical reduction, the spectral nature in ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) systems was different. The band intensity of gold nanoparticles was lower in AA system. While in free radical reaction, the yield of nanoparticles was pure i.e. free from excess reactants. Under the study 60-200 nm size nanoparticles were generated, which are inert to oxygen. Using pulse radiolysis technique, the initial rate for e solv - reaction with Au 3+ was determined to be 7.6 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 . (author)

  5. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropeza, S.; Corea, M.; Gómez-Yáñez, C.; Cruz-Rivera, J.J.; Navarro-Clemente, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH 3 ) 3 ) 2 ] 2 ] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. Highlights: ► Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH 3 ) 3 ) 2 ] 2 ]. ► The conditions of reaction were at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. ► The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. -- Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH 3 ) 3 ) 2 ] 2 ] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. To monitor the reaction, a stainless steel pressure reactor lined with PTFE and mechanically stirred was designed. This design allowed the extraction of samples at different times, minimizing the perturbation in the system. In this way, the shape and the diameter of the nanoparticles produced during the reaction were also monitored. The results showed the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles that were approximately 5 nm in diameter arranged in agglomerates. The agglomerates grew to 900 nm when the reaction time increased up to 12 h; however, the diameter of the individual nanoparticles remained almost the same. During the reaction, some byproducts constituted by amino species acted as surfactants; therefore, no other surfactants were necessary.

  6. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropeza, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Corea, M., E-mail: mcoreat@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Gómez-Yáñez, C. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Rivera, J.J. [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Instituto de Metalurgia, Sierra Leona 550, San Luis Potosí, C.P. 78210 (Mexico); Navarro-Clemente, M.E., E-mail: mnavarroc@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. Highlights: ► Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}]. ► The conditions of reaction were at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. ► The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. -- Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. To monitor the reaction, a stainless steel pressure reactor lined with PTFE and mechanically stirred was designed. This design allowed the extraction of samples at different times, minimizing the perturbation in the system. In this way, the shape and the diameter of the nanoparticles produced during the reaction were also monitored. The results showed the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles that were approximately 5 nm in diameter arranged in agglomerates. The agglomerates grew to 900 nm when the reaction time increased up to 12 h; however, the diameter of the individual nanoparticles remained almost the same. During the reaction, some byproducts constituted by amino species acted as surfactants; therefore, no other surfactants were necessary.

  7. Preparation of amine coated silver nanoparticles using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    concentrations without the precipitation of particles. In this work, an analysis of the temperature influ- ence on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles was carried out. Also, the nanoparticles were func- tionalized using triethylenetetramine in order to im- prove the adhesion between the epoxy resin and the filler.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prepared material. It was observed that surface modification such as with silica coating on the cobalt ferrite will have significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties. It is also observed that, silica coated nanoparticles could be used in biomedical applications (Hong et al., 2013). In this work we have chosen sol-gel ...

  9. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  10. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m 2 /g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m 2/ g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl 2 and NaBH 4 as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl 2 , however, NaBH 4 produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m 2 /g for 7 nm and 269 m 2 /g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H + efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  11. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Omrani, Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO4 particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO4 were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Finally, catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in a cycloaddition reaction was examined.

  12. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  13. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities

  14. Preparation and characterization of Ba{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles and investigation of size & shape effect on microwave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peymanfar, Reza; Javanshir, Shahrzad, E-mail: shjavan@iust.ac.ir

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of Ba{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} performed in the presence of PMMA. • Shape and size-controlled synthesis of NPs over the range 15–50 Nm was explored. • Investigation of shape and size effect of NPs on microwave absorption properties. - Abstract: In this paper, the design and characterization of a radar absorbing material (RAM) was investigated at microwave frequency. Ba{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized thru a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the possibility of shape and size-controlled synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) over the range 15–50 Nm was also explored. Afterward, the effect of shape and size of the synthesized Ba{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} NPs on microwave absorption properties was investigated in KU-band. The crystal structures and morphology of as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed by FESEM, XRD, VSM, FTIR analysis. The RAM samples were prepared by dispersion of magnetic NPs in silicone rubber in an ultrasonic bath. The maximum reflection loss (RL) values NPs were 12.04 dB at 14.82 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 1.22 GHz) with RL values <−10 dB are obtained and the maximum reflection loss (RL) values of decrease and shaped NPs were 22.36 dB at 14.78 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 2.67 GHz) with RL values <−10 dB are obtained. The results indicated that the particle size and shape play a major role on the absorption properties of the composites in the 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. It is observed that microwave absorption properties increased with the decrease in average particle size of NPs.

  15. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation at gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film prepared from oppositely charged nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Celebanska, Anna; Nogala, Wojciech; Sashuk, Volodymyr; Chernyaeva, Olga; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticulate film electrodes were prepared by layer-by-layer method from oppositely charged nanoparticles. • Positively charged nanoparticles play dominant role in glucose oxidation in alkaline solution. • Gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film electrodes exhibit similar glucose oxidation current and onset potential. - Abstract: Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose was studied at nanoparticulate gold and gold-carbon film electrodes. These electrodes were prepared by a layer-by-layer method without application of any linker molecules. Gold nanoparticles were stabilized by undecane thiols functionalized by trimethyl ammonium or carboxylate groups, whereas the carbon nanoparticles were covered by phenylsulfonate functionalities. The gold nanoparticulate electrodes were characterized by UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and voltammetry, before and after heat-treatment. Heat-treatment facilitates the aggregation of the nanoparticles and affects the structure of the film. The comparison of the results obtained with film electrodes prepared from gold nanoparticles with the same charge and with gold-carbon nanoparticulate electrodes, proved that positively charged nanoparticles are responsible for the high electrocatalytic activity, whereas negatively charged ones act rather as a linker of the film

  16. Metal nanoparticles (other than gold or silver) prepared using plant extracts for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Roxana-Diana; Santa, Szabolcs; Racz, Levente Zsolt; Racz, Csaba Pal

    2016-12-01

    There are many modalities to prepare metal nanoparticles, but the reducing of the metal ions with plant extracts is one of the most promising because it is considerate less toxic for the environment, suitable for the use of those nanoparticles in vivo and not very expensive. Various metal ions have been already studied such as: cobalt, copper, iron, platinum, palladium, zinc, indium, manganese and mercury and the number of plant extracts used is continuously increasing. The prepared systems were characterized afterwards with a great number of methods of investigation: both spectroscopic (especially UV-Vis spectroscopy) and microscopic (in principal, electron microscopy-TEM) methods. The applications of the metal nanoparticles obtained are diverse and not completely known, but the medical applications of such nanoparticles occupy a central place, due to their nontoxic components, but some diverse industrial applications do not have to be forgotten.

  17. Preparation of gold nanoparticles-agarose gel composite and its application in SERS detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Ni, Lili; Song, Liangjing; Wang, Zhouping

    2014-03-01

    Agarose gel/gold nanoparticles hybrid was prepared by adding gold nanoparticles to preformed agarose gel. Nanocomposite structures and properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. Based on the swelling-contraction characteristics of agarose gel and the adjustable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the gold nanoparticles, the nanocomposites were used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to detect the Raman signal molecules (NBA, MBA, 1NAT). Results revealed that the porous structure of the agarose gel provided a good carrier for the enrichment of the gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles dynamic hot-spot effect arising from the agarose gel contraction loss of water in the air greatly enhanced the Raman signal. Furthermore, the gel could be cleaned with washing solution and recycling could be achieved for Raman detection.

  18. One-Step Method for Preparation of Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla M. Gregorio-Jauregui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan in one step by the coprecipitation method in the presence of different chitosan concentrations is reported here. Obtaining of magnetic superparamagnetic nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscopy allowed to identify spheroidal nanoparticles with around 10-11 nm in average diameter. Characterization of the products by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that composite chitosan-magnetic nanoparticles were obtained. Chitosan content in obtained nanocomposites was estimated by thermogravimetric analysis. The nanocomposites were tested in Pb2+ removal from a PbCl2 aqueous solution, showing a removal efficacy up to 53.6%. This work provides a simple method for chitosan-coated nanoparticles obtaining, which could be useful for heavy metal ions removal from water.

  19. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  20. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel method has been developed by electron beam irradiation to prepare PbSe nanoparticles. 2 MeV 10mA GJ-2-II electronic accelerator was used as radiation source. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents. The structure and ...

  1. Preparation and characterization of lamivudine microcapsules using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of the present study was to prepare and evaluate microcapsules for the controlled release of lamivudine using various cellulose polymers. Methods: The microcapsules were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. The prepared microcapsules were characterized for the percent drug content, ...

  2. Silver oxide nanoparticles embedded silk fibroin spuns: Microwave mediated preparation, characterization and their synergistic wound healing and anti-bacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Doble, Mukesh; Raichur, Ashok M

    2018-03-01

    The synergistic wound healing and antibacterial activity of silver oxide nanoparticles embedded silk fibroin (Ag 2 O-SF) spuns is reported here. UV-Vis spectro photometric analysis of these spuns showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) confirming the formation of the silver oxide nanoparticles (Ag 2 O NPs) on the surface of the silk fibroin (SF). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) also confirmed the presence of Ag 2 O NPs on surface of SF. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the crystalline nature of both SF and Ag 2 O-SF. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results showed the different forms of silk (I and II) and their corresponding protein (amide I, II, III) confirmations. Biodegradation study revealed insignificant changes in the morphology of Ag 2 O-SF spuns even after 14 days of immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Ag 2 O-SF spuns showed excellent antibacterial activity against both pathogen (S. aureus and M. tuberculosis) and non-pathogen (E. coli) bacteria. More importantly, In vitro wound healing (scratch assay) assay revealed fast migration of the T3T fibroblast cells through the scratch area treated with extract of Ag 2 O-SF spuns and the area was completely covered within 24 h. Cytotoxicity assay confirmed the biocompatible nature of the Ag 2 O-SF spuns, thus suggesting an ideal material for wound healing and anti-bacterial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of nanoparticles with an environment-friendly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kefu; Peng, Zhen; Fan, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Developing various approaches for preparing high performance materials has long been topics and tasks both for scientists and for engineers. Despite that many methods have been developed for preparing nanomaterials, developing simple and environment-friendly ways for preparing nanomaterials is very attractive. Here a simple approach of synthesizing Fe3O4 nanoparticles by arc-discharge submerging in water was reported. The results showed that by this method Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be synthesized at large scale. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited uniform spherical shape and their diameters varied with arc-discharging parameters. The experimental results showed that the size of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be controlled through adjusting the processing parameters. Since no vacuum system has been used, the synthesizing process is greatly simplified. In addition, only cheap deionized water and industrial iron bar are used and no pollution or harmful byproducts are found in the synthesis process. It indicated that the present approach is a simple, low-cost and environment-friendly one for preparing nanoparticles.

  4. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, Jen-Kuang; Huang, Jen-Chuen; Tien, Der-Chi; Liao, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Tsung, Tsing-Tshin; Kao, Wen-Shiow; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Jwo, Ching-Song; Lin, Hong-Ming; Stobinski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been attracting attention due to their extensive application in chemistry, physics, material science, electronics, catalysis and bionanotechnology. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles often involves toxic and expensive physical-chemistry methods. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water is proposed for the first time. Fabrication of gold nanostructures in deionized water has been successfully established. The evidence of gold particles' light absorbance reveals a unique surface plasmon resonance for Au nanoparticles suspended in deionized water. Gold nanostructures uniformly dispersed in water, their UV-Vis absorption and crystalline size are shown. Our experimental results demonstrate that fabrication of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water is an alternative, cheap, effective and environmentally friendly method

  5. Peptide-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Prepared through Coacervation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gallarate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stearic acid solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared according to a new technique, called coacervation. The main goal of this experimental work was the entrapment of peptide drugs into SLN, which is a difficult task, since their chemical characteristics (molecular weight, hydrophilicity, and stability hamper peptide-containing formulations. Insulin and leuprolide, chosen as model peptide drugs, were encapsulated within nanoparticles after hydrophobic ion pairing with anionic surfactants. Peptide integrity was maintained after encapsulation, and nanoparticles can act in vitro as a sustained release system for peptide.

  6. Preparation of alpha-elastin nanoparticles by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Mari [Department of Biological Science, Graduate school of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Okamoto, Kouji [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu [Department of Biological Science, Graduate school of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)], E-mail: mfuruta@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2009-12-15

    Nanoparticles were prepared by utilizing the thermosensitive aggregation of alpha-elastin and gamma ray crosslinking. Three different heating process, 'Slow heating', 'Fast heating', and 'Heat shock', were applied for the aggregation of the alpha-elastin and examined to yield nanoparticles by gamma rays crosslinking. As a result, only 'Slow heating' process yielded nanoparticles with diameters of about ca. 300 nm above cloud point (CP) and about ca. 100 nm below CP, and a narrow size distribution above 1.0 mg/ml concentration (exclude 1.0 mg/ml)

  7. Preparation of alpha-elastin nanoparticles by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Mari; Okamoto, Kouji; Furuta, Masakazu

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles were prepared by utilizing the thermosensitive aggregation of alpha-elastin and gamma ray crosslinking. Three different heating process, 'Slow heating', 'Fast heating', and 'Heat shock', were applied for the aggregation of the alpha-elastin and examined to yield nanoparticles by gamma rays crosslinking. As a result, only 'Slow heating' process yielded nanoparticles with diameters of about ca. 300 nm above cloud point (CP) and about ca. 100 nm below CP, and a narrow size distribution above 1.0 mg/ml concentration (exclude 1.0 mg/ml).

  8. The preparation of magnetic nanoparticles for applications in biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaj, Pedro; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Gonzalez-Carreno, Teresita; Serna, Carlos J

    2003-01-01

    This review is focused on describing state-of-the-art synthetic routes for the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles useful for biomedical applications. In addition to this topic, we have also described in some detail some of the possible applications of magnetic nanoparticles in the field of biomedicine with special emphasis on showing the benefits of using nanoparticles. Finally, we have addressed some relevant findings on the importance of having well-defined synthetic routes to produce materials not only with similar physical features but also with similar crystallochemical characteristics. (topical review)

  9. Optical and structural properties of colloidal zirconia nanoparticles prepared by arc discharge in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peymani forooshani, Reza; Poursalehi, Reza; Yourdkhani, Amin

    2018-01-01

    Zirconia is one of the important ceramic materials with unique properties such as high melting point, high ionic conductivity, high mechanical properties and low thermal conductivity. Therefore, zirconia is one of the useful materials in refractories, thermal barriers, cutting tools, oxygen sensors electrolytes, catalysis, catalyst supports and solid oxide fuel cells. Recently, direct current (DC) arc discharge is extensively employed to synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures in liquid environments. The aim of this work is the synthesis of colloidal zirconia nanoparticles by DC arc discharge method in water as a medium. Arc discharge was ignited between two pure zirconium electrodes in water. Optical and structural properties of prepared colloidal nanoparticles were investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy, were employed for characterization of particle size, morphology, crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. SEM images demonstrate that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average size lower than 38 nm. The XRD patterns of the nanoparticles were consistent with tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia crystal structures. The optical transmission spectra of the colloidal solution show optical characteristic of zirconia nanoparticles as a wide band gap semiconductor with no absorption peak in visible wavelength with the considerable amount of oxygen deficiency. Oxidation of colloidal nanoparticles in water could be explained via reaction with either dissociated oxygen from water in hot plasma region or with dissolved oxygen in water. The results provide a simple and flexible method for preparation of zirconia nanoparticles with a capability of mass production without environmental footprints.

  10. Synthesis and preparation of biocompatible and pH-responsive cyclodextrin-based nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaohong; Chen, Shangneng; Gong, Xiao; Gao, Ziyu; Wang, Xin; Chen, Pin

    2017-01-01

    As a temporarily protective reaction for active hydrogen group, acetylation is reversible and responsive to low pH value. According to the reaction, pH-sensitive β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was synthesized in the first step of our research. During the synthesis, the acetal groups including linear acetal (LA) groups and cyclic acetal (CA) groups were successfully modified onto β-CD. Particularly, the structural details of acetalated β-CD (Ac-β-CD) were greatly influenced by reaction time. Furthermore, in respect to water solubility, Ac-β-CDs exhibited different pH response properties due to their different structure. In the second step, Ac-β-CD1 nanoparticles were prepared by a single oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion technique using a biocompatible emulsifier, gelatin. Meanwhile, gelatin was absorbed onto the surface of nanoparticle, which was confirmed by FTIR spectra. The formed nanoparticles showed monodispersion and nearly spherical morphology. In order to obtain optimal preparing conditions, the effects of preparative parameters such as gelatin concentration, Ac-β-CD concentration, and water/oil ratio on properties including diameters and zeta potential as well as gelatin content were investigated. Moreover, the pH response properties of nanoparticle were characterized by transparency of nanoparticle solution. Finally, in vitro cell culture confirmed that Ac-β-CD nanoparticle could support cell survival and enhance cell viability.

  11. Synthesis and preparation of biocompatible and pH-responsive cyclodextrin-based nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaohong, E-mail: huxiaohong07@163.com; Chen, Shangneng [Jinling Institute of Technology, School of Material Engineering (China); Gong, Xiao [Wuhan University of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures (China); Gao, Ziyu; Wang, Xin; Chen, Pin [Jinling Institute of Technology, School of Material Engineering (China)

    2017-03-15

    As a temporarily protective reaction for active hydrogen group, acetylation is reversible and responsive to low pH value. According to the reaction, pH-sensitive β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was synthesized in the first step of our research. During the synthesis, the acetal groups including linear acetal (LA) groups and cyclic acetal (CA) groups were successfully modified onto β-CD. Particularly, the structural details of acetalated β-CD (Ac-β-CD) were greatly influenced by reaction time. Furthermore, in respect to water solubility, Ac-β-CDs exhibited different pH response properties due to their different structure. In the second step, Ac-β-CD1 nanoparticles were prepared by a single oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion technique using a biocompatible emulsifier, gelatin. Meanwhile, gelatin was absorbed onto the surface of nanoparticle, which was confirmed by FTIR spectra. The formed nanoparticles showed monodispersion and nearly spherical morphology. In order to obtain optimal preparing conditions, the effects of preparative parameters such as gelatin concentration, Ac-β-CD concentration, and water/oil ratio on properties including diameters and zeta potential as well as gelatin content were investigated. Moreover, the pH response properties of nanoparticle were characterized by transparency of nanoparticle solution. Finally, in vitro cell culture confirmed that Ac-β-CD nanoparticle could support cell survival and enhance cell viability.

  12. Flame spray synthesis under a non-oxidizing atmosphere: Preparation of metallic bismuth nanoparticles and nanocrystalline bulk bismuth metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Robert N.; Stark, Wendelin J. [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: wendelin.stark@chem.ethz.ch

    2006-10-15

    Metallic bismuth nanoparticles of over 98% purity were prepared by a modified flame spray synthesis method in an inert atmosphere by oxygen-deficient combustion of a bismuth-carboxylate based precursor. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy confirming the formation of pure, crystalline metallic bismuth nanoparticles. Compression of the as-prepared powder resulted in highly dense, nanocrystalline pills with strong electrical conductivity and bright metallic gloss.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Man

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous-dispersed graphene oxide was prepared by the improved Hummers method, which would be reduced to graphene with the reducing agent called hydrazine hydrate. The X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Transmission electron microscopy were used to analysis the phase, morphology and structure of the graphene and graphene oxide. The results show that the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared via this method, whose degree of oxidation and reduction are high; Also obtained a higher well-disperses and less structural imperfection of the graphene that was manufactured in the reducing system that added ammonia reduction

  14. Preparation and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szűcs, Júlia [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Szilágyi, Imre M., E-mail: imre.szilagyi@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-03-25

    In this study, monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH{sub 4}){sub x}WO{sub 3} in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO{sub 2} films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO{sub 3} and core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  15. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIALDEHYDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) was prepared by the reaction of dialdehyde starch (DAS) from ... is representative one for the treatment of heavy metal ... It was reported that Potassium ... 0.2mol/L sulfuric acid, 100cm3 of water and 2cm3 of.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene coated iron oxide nanoparticles and asymmetric assemblies by phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2014-09-02

    Films with a gradient concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are reported, based on a phase inversion membrane process. Nanoparticles with ∼13 nm diameter were prepared by coprecipitation in aqueous solution and stabilized by oleic acid. They were further functionalized by ATRP leading to grafted polystyrene brush. The final nanoparticles of 33 nm diameter were characterized by TGA, FTIR spectroscopy, GPC, transmission electron microscopy, and dynanmic light scattering. Asymmetric porous nanoparticle assemblies were then prepared by solution casting and immersion in water. The nanocomposite film production with functionalized nanoparticles is fast and technically scalable. The morphologies of films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, demonstrating the presence of sponge-like structures and finger-like cavities when 50 and 13 wt % casting solutions were, respectively, used. The magnetic properties were evaluated using vibrating sample magnetometer.

  17. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles and Methods of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention relates to magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites and methods of preparing the same. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and surfactant. The composites may have enhanced mechanical, thermal, and/or electrical properties.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and optical studies of Ru2S3 nanoparticles prepared from single-source molecular precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbese, Johannes Z.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2017-09-01

    Homonuclear tris-dithiocarbamato ruthenium(III) complexes, [Ru(S2CNR2)3] were prepared and characterized by spectroscopic techniques and thermogravimetric analyses. The thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) of the ruthenium complexes showed that the complexes decompose to ruthenium(III) sulfide nanoparticles. The ruthenium(III) complexes were dispersed in oleic acid and thermolysed in hexadecylamine to prepared oleic acid/hexadecylamine capped Ru2S3 nanoparticles. FTIR revealed that Ru2S3 nanoparticles are capped through the interaction of the -NH2 group of hexadecylamine HDA adsorbed on the surfaces of nanoparticles and it also showed that oleic acid (OA) is acting as both coordinating stabilizing surfactant and capping agent. EDS spectra revealed that the prepared nanoparticles are mainly composed of Ru and S, confirming the formation of Ru2S3 nanoparticles. Powder XRD confirms that the nanoparticles are in cubic phase. The inner morphology of nanoparticles obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed nanoparticles with narrow particle size distributions characterized by an average diameter of 8.45 nm with a standard deviation of 1.6 nm. The optical band gap (Eg) determined from Tauc plot are in the range 3.44-4.18 eV.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of titania-based monodisperse fluorescent europium nanoparticles for biolabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Mingqian; Wang Guilan; Ye Zhiqiang; Yuan Jingli

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid titania-based nanoparticles covalently bound to a fluorescent Eu 3+ chelate of 4,4'-bis(1'',1'',1'',2'',2'',3'',3''-heptafluoro-4'',6''-hexanedion-6''-yl) chlorosulfo-o-terphenyl (BHHCT-Eu 3+ ) were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. A conjugate of BHHCT with 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (APTS) was used as a precursor for the nanoparticle preparation and monodisperse nanoparticles consisting of titania network and silica sub-network covalently bound to the Eu 3+ chelate were prepared by the copolymerization of APTS-BHHCT conjugate, titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and free APTS in EuCl 3 water-alcohol solution. The effects of reaction conditions on size and fluorescence lifetime of the nanoparticles were investigated. The characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and fluorometric methods indicate that the nanoparticles are near spherical and strongly fluorescent having a fluorescence quantum yield of 11.6% and a long fluorescence lifetime of ∼0.4 ms. The direct-introduced amino groups on the nanoparticle's surface by using free APTS in nanoparticle preparation facilitated the biolabeling process of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-labeled streptavidin (SA) was prepared and used in a sandwich-type time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) of human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by using a 96-well microtiter plate as the solid phase carrier. The method gives a detection limit of 66 pg/ml for the PSA assay

  20. Oromucosal film preparations: classification and characterization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Maren; Woertz, Christina; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-09-01

    Recently, the regulatory authorities have enlarged the variety of 'oromucosal preparations' by buccal films and orodispersible films. Various film preparations have entered the market and pharmacopoeias. Due to the novelty of the official monographs, no standardized characterization methods and quality specifications are included. This review reports the methods of choice to characterize oromucosal film preparations with respect to biorelevant characterization and quality control. Commonly used dissolution tests for other dosage forms are not transferable for films in all cases. Alternatives and guidance on decision, which methods are favorable for film preparations are discussed. Furthermore, issues about requirements for film dosage forms are reflected. Oromucosal film preparations offer a wide spectrum of opportunities. There are a lot of suggestions in the literature on how to control the quality of these innovative products, but no standardized tests are available. Regulatory authorities need to define the standards and quality requirements more precisely.

  1. Study on fluorouracil–chitosan nanoparticle preparation and its antitumor effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaimin Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To successfully prepare fluorouracil–chitosan nanoparticles, and further analyze its anti-tumor activity mechanism, this paper makes a comprehensive study of existing preparation prescription and makes a detailed analysis of fluorouracil–chitosan in vitro release and pharmacodynamic behavior of animals. Two-step synthesis method is adopted to prepare 5-FU–CS–mPEG prodrugs, and infrared, 1H NMR and differential thermal analysis are adopted to analyze characterization synthetic products of prepared drugs. To ensure clinical efficacy of prepared drugs, UV spectrophotometry is adopted for determination of drug loading capacity of prepared drugs, transmission electron microscopy is adopted to observe the appearance, dynamic dialysis method is used to observe in vitro drug release of prepared drugs and fitting of various release models is done. Anti-tumor effect is studied via level of animal pharmacodynamics. After the end of the experiment, tumor inhibition rate, spleen index and thymus index of drugs are calculated. Experimental results show that the prepared drugs are qualified in terms of regular shape, dispersion, drug content, etc. Animal pharmacodynamics experiments have shown that concentration level of drug loading capacity of prepared drugs has a direct impact on anti-tumor rate. The higher the concentration, the higher the anti-tumor rate. Results of pathological tissue sections of mice show that the prepared drugs cause varying degrees of damage to receptor cells, resulting in cell necrosis or apoptosis problem. It can thus be concluded that ion gel method is an effective method to prepare drug-loading nanoparticles, with prepared nanoparticles evenly distributed in regular shape which demonstrate good slow-release characteristics in receptor vitro and vivo. At the same time, after completion of drug preparation, relatively strong anti-tumor activity can be generated for the receptor, so this mode of preparation enjoys broad

  2. Characterization of Microemulsions Prepared using Isopropyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    subjected to further characterization by polarized light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry. (DSC) ... preparation and phase inversion. The aim .... propanol, D = butanol, E = pentanol .... and water-soluble compounds in triglycerides. In.

  3. Preparing Methods and Its Influencing Factors about Nanoparticles Based on Dendritic Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jianwei; Li Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Based on the properties, structure and application of dendritic polymer, this paper analysed the methods of the preparation of nanoparticles using dendritic polymer, detailed preparation process, technical parameters and application effect about a single metal nanoparticles, bimetallic nanoparticles, sulfide and halide nanoparticles. The influencing factors of the preparation about nanoparticles were discussed, including the molecular algebra, the molar ratio of the metal ions to the dendriti...

  4. Preparation of Candesartan and Atorvastatin Nanoparticles by Solvent Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Jampilek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The solubility, absorption and distribution of a drug are involved in the basic aspects of oral bioavailability Solubility is an essential characteristic and influences the efficiency of the drug. Over the last ten years, the number of poorly soluble drugs has steadily increased. One of the progressive ways for increasing oral bioavaibility is the technique of nanoparticle preparation, which allows many drugs to thus reach the intended site of action. Candesartan cilexetil and atorvastatin, belonging to class II of the biopharmaceutical classification system, were chosen as model active pharmaceutical ingredients in this study. Forty samples were prepared either by antisolvent precipitation/solvent evaporation method or by the emulsion/solvent evaporation technique with various commonly used surface-active excipients as nanoparticle stabilizers. All samples were analyzed by means of dynamic light scattering. The particle size of the determined 36 nanoparticle samples was to 574 nm, whereas 32 samples contained nanoparticles of less than 200 nm. Relationships between solvents and excipients used and their amount are discussed. Based on the results the investigated solvent evaporation methods can be used as an effective and an affordable technique for the preparation of nanoparticles.

  5. The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Reaction Studies of Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles in Mesoporous Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioux, Robert M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst design program was implemented in which Pt nanoparticles, either of monodisperse size and/or shape were synthesized, characterized and studied in a number of hydrocarbon conversion reactions. The novel preparation of these materials enables exquisite control over their physical and chemical properties that could be controlled (and therefore rationally tuned) during synthesis. The ability to synthesize rather than prepare catalysts followed by thorough characterization enable accurate structure-function relationships to be elucidated. This thesis emphasizes all three aspects of catalyst design: synthesis, characterization and reactivity studies. The precise control of metal nanoparticle size, surface structure and composition may enable the development of highly active and selective heterogeneous catalysts.

  6. A novel electrochemical preparation of PbS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yujun

    2006-01-01

    A simple one-step anodic sonoelectrochemical method to synthesize PbS nanoparticles has been developed. With the lead foil as the sacrificing anode, Pb(II) was anodically dissolved from the lead electrode into the aqueous solution of sodium sulfide, supporting electrolyte (potassium nitrate) and capping agent (PVA) at a constant potential, and then the produced Pb(II) reacted with the sulfide anion to form PbS nanoparticles under ultrasonic irradiation. The effects of the applied potential, capping agent and ultrasound in the formation of PbS nanoparticles are discussed, and the results suggest that the anodic sonoelectrochemical method may be a general and convenient way to prepare metal sulfide nanoparticles

  7. Danish Nanochemistry Researchers Use Nanosight NTA to Characterize Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    NanoSight, leading manufacturers of unique nanoparticle characterization technology, describes how the Nano Chemistry group at DTU Copenhagen is utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis, NTA, in its research and teaching programs....

  8. Enhanced bioavailability of sirolimus via preparation of solid dispersion nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Min-Soo Kim1, Jeong-Soo Kim1, Hee Jun Park1, Won Kyung Cho1,3, Kwang-Ho Cha1,3, Sung-Joo Hwang2,31College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 2College of Pharmacy, 3Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of KoreaBackground: The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble sirolimus via preparation of a solid dispersion of nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent (SAS process.Methods: First, excipients for enhancing the stability and solubility of sirolimus were screened. Second, using the SAS process, solid dispersions of sirolimus-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30 nanoparticles were prepared with or without surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, tocopheryl propylene glycol succinate, Sucroester 15, Gelucire 50/13, and Myrj 52. A mean particle size of approximately 250 nm was obtained for PVP K30-sirolimus nanoparticles. Solid state characterization, kinetic solubility, powder dissolution, stability, and pharmacokinetics were analyzed in rats.Results: X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated that sirolimus existed in an anhydrous amorphous form within a solid dispersion of nanoparticles and that no degradation occurred after SAS processing. The improved supersaturation and dissolution of sirolimus as a solid dispersion of nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced bioavailability of oral sirolimus in rats. With oral administration of a solid dispersion of PVP K30-SLS-sirolimus nanoparticles, the peak concentration and AUC0→12h of sirolimus were increased by approximately 18.3-fold and 15.2-fold, respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that preparation of PVP K30-sirolimus-surfactant nanoparticles using the SAS process may be a promising approach for improving the bioavailability of sirolimus

  9. Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatha Christy, A.; Umadevi, M.

    2012-09-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has become a fascinating and important field of applied chemical research. In this paper silver NPs were prepared using silver nitrate (AgNO3), gelatin, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The prepared silver NPs were exposed under the laser ablation. In our photochemical procedure, gelatin acts as a biopolymer and CTAB acts as a reducing agent. The appearance of surface plasmon band around 410 nm indicates the formation of silver NPs. The nature of the prepared silver NPs in the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Monodispersed, stable, spherical silver NPs with diameter about 10 nm were obtained and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM).

  10. Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, A Jegatha; Umadevi, M

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has become a fascinating and important field of applied chemical research. In this paper silver NPs were prepared using silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), gelatin, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The prepared silver NPs were exposed under the laser ablation. In our photochemical procedure, gelatin acts as a biopolymer and CTAB acts as a reducing agent. The appearance of surface plasmon band around 410 nm indicates the formation of silver NPs. The nature of the prepared silver NPs in the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Monodispersed, stable, spherical silver NPs with diameter about 10 nm were obtained and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). (paper)

  11. Preparation of manganese-based perovskite nanoparticles using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, the heating ability of the LSMTO nanoparticles was evaluated under a safe alternating magnetic field used in magnetic hyperthermia therapy. The results showed the fast magneto-temperature response of the prepared samplewith sufficient heat loss at the therapeutic temperature range, indicating the LSMTO ...

  12. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-03

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  13. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  14. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himansu Sekhar Nanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl triethoxysilane (MEEETES were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of photoswitchable fluorescent silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölling, Jonas; Polyakova, Svetlana; Belov, Vladimir; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Bossi, Mariano L; Hell, Stefan W

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized a new functional (amino reactive) highly efficient fluorescent molecular switch (FMS) with a photochromic diarylethene and a rhodamine fluorescent dye. The reactive group in this FMS -N-hydroxysuccinimide ester- allows selective labeling of amino containing molecules or other materials. In ethanolic solutions, the compound displays a large fluorescent quantum yield of 52 % and a large fluorescence modulation ratio (94 %) between two states that may be interconverted with red and near-UV light. Silica nanoparticles incorporating the new FMS were prepared and characterized, and their spectroscopic and switching properties were also studied. The dye retained its properties after the incorporation into the silica, thereby allowing light-induced reversible high modulation of the fluorescence signal of a single particle for up to 60 cycles, before undergoing irreversible photobleaching. Some applications of these particles in fluorescence microscopy are also demonstrated. In particular, subdiffraction images of nanoparticles were obtained, in the focal plane of a confocal microscope.

  16. Modified ferrite core-shell nanoparticles magneto-structural characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekotka, Urszula; Piotrowska, Beata; Satuła, Dariusz; Kalska-Szostko, Beata

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ferrite nanoparticles with core-shell structures and different chemical compositions of both the core and shell were prepared with success. Proposed nanoparticles have in the first and second series magnetite core, and the shell is composed of a mixture of ferrites with Fe3+, Fe2+ and M ions (where M = Co2+, Mn2+ or Ni2+) with a general composition of M0.5Fe2.5O4. In the third series, the composition is inverted, the core is composed of a mixture of ferrites and as a shell magnetite is placed. Morphology and structural characterization of nanoparticles were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Infrared spectroscopy (IR). While room temperature magnetic properties were measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). It is seen from Mössbauer measurements that Co always increases hyperfine magnetic field on Fe atoms at RT, while Ni and Mn have opposite influences in comparison to pure Fe ferrite, regardless of the nanoparticles structure.

  17. Europium polyoxometalates encapsulated in silica nanoparticles - characterization and photoluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Cristina S.; Granadeiro, Carlos M.; Cunha-Silva, Luis; Eaton, Peter; Balula, Salete S.; Pereira, Eulalia [REQUIMTE/Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Ananias, Duarte [CICECO, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal); Gago, Sandra [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Feio, Gabriel [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, Patricia A. [ICEMS/Departamento de Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    The incorporation of europium polyoxometalates into silica nanoparticles can lead to a biocompatible nanomaterial with luminescent properties suitable for applications in biosensors, biological probes, and imaging. Keggin-type europium polyoxometalates Eu(PW{sub 11}){sub x} (x = 1 and 2) with different europium coordination environments were prepared by using simple methodologies and no expensive reactants. These luminescent compounds were then encapsulated into silica nanoparticles for the first time through the water-in-oil microemulsion methodology with a nonionic surfactant. The europium polyoxometalates and the nanoparticles were characterized by using several techniques [FTIR, FT-Raman, {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, and TEM/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), AFM, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) analysis]. The stability of the material and the integrity of the europium compounds incorporated were also examined. Furthermore, the photoluminescence properties of the Eu(PW{sub 11}){sub x} rate at SiO{sub 2} nanomaterials were evaluated and compared with those of the free europium polyoxometalates. The silica surface of the most stable nanoparticles was successfully functionalized with appropriate organosilanes to enable the covalent binding of oligonucleotides. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of oxide (Cu2O and ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films preparation by the dip-coating technique

    OpenAIRE

    Salek, Guillaume; Tenailleau, Christophe; Dufour, Pascal; Guillemet-Fritsch, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Oxide thin solid filmswere prepared by dip-coating into colloidal dispersions of oxide nanoparticles stabilized at room temperaturewithout the use of chelating or complex organic dispersing agents. Crystalline oxide nanoparticles were obtained by inorganic polycondensation and characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticle method was optimized to prepar...

  19. Loading technique for preparing radionuclide containing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    associated with leaky blood vessels. The composition and methods of the invention find particular use in diagnosing and imaging cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associated with leaky blood vessels in a subject. The present invention provides a new diagnostic tool for the utilization......Source: US2012213698A The present invention relates to a novel composition and method for loading delivery systems such as liposome compositions with radionuclides useful in targeted diagnostic and/or therapy of target site, such as cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions...... of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique. One specific aspect of the invention is directed to a method of producing nanoparticles with desired targeting properties for diagnostic and/or radio-therapeutic applications....

  20. Synthesis and magnetic characterizations of uniform iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, FuYi; Li, XiaoYi; Zhu, Yuan; Tang, ZiKang

    2014-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles with a cubic shape were prepared by the decomposition of homemade iron oleate in 1-octadecene with the presence of oleic acid. The particle shape and size uniformity are sensitive to the quantity of oleic acid. XRD, HRTEM and SAED results indicated that the main phase content of as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles is Fe 3 O 4 with an inverse spinel structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles display a ferromagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 295 K. At low temperatures the magnetic anisotropy of the aligned nanoparticles caused the appearance of a hysteresis loop.

  1. Prednisolone multicomponent nanoparticle preparation by aerosol solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Fukino, Mika; Tozuka, Yuichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2009-10-01

    Prednisolone nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer and a surfactant by the aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES). A ternary mixture of prednisolone, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in methanol was sprayed through a nozzle into the reaction vessel filled with supercritical carbon dioxide. After the ASES process was repeated, precipitates of the ternary components were obtained by depressurizing the reaction vessel. When a methanolic solution of prednisolone/PEG 4000/SDS at a weight ratio of 1:6:2 was sprayed under the optimized ASES conditions, the mean particle size of prednisolone obtained after dispersing the precipitates in water was observed to be ca. 230 nm. Prednisolone nanoparticles were not obtained by the binary ASES process for prednisolone, in the presence of either PEG or SDS. Furthermore, ternary cryogenic cogrinding, as well as solvent evaporation, was not effective for the preparation of prednisolone nanoparticles. As the ASES process can be conducted under moderate temperature conditions, the ASES process that was applied to the ternary system appeared to be one of the most promising methods for the preparation of drug nanoparticles using the multicomponent system.

  2. Characterization of hydrothermally synthesized SnS nanoparticles for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Birendra Kumar; Sharma, Shailendra Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, SnS nanoparticles were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method using stannous chloride and thiourea as tin (Sn) and sulfur (S) precursor respectively. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis Spectroscopy techniques. XRD pattern reveals that as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit orthorhombic structure. Average particles size was calculated using Scherrer's formula and found to be 23 nm. FESEM image shows that the as-prepared nanoparticles are in plate like structure. Direct optical band gap (Eg) of as-synthesized nanoparticles was calculated through UV-Vis Spectroscopy measurement and found to be 1.34 eV, which is near to optimum need for photovoltaic solar energy conversion (1.5 eV). Thus this SnS, narrowband gap semiconductor material can be applied as an alternative absorber material for solar cell application.

  3. Preparation of DNA/Gold Nanoparticle Encapsulated in Calcium Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible DNA/gold nanoparticle complex with a protective calcium phosphate (CaP coating was prepared by incubating DNA/gold nanoparticle complex coated by hyaluronic acid in SBF (simulated body fluid with a Ca concentration above 2 mM. The CaP-coated DNA complex was revealed to have high compatibility with cells and resistance against enzymatic degradation. By immersion in acetate buffer (pH 4.5, the CaP capsule released the contained DNA complex. This CaP capsule including a DNA complex is promising as a sustained-release system of DNA complexes for gene therapy.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Preparation of polyelectrolyte microcapsules containing ferrosoferric oxide nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Qing; Zheng, Chun-Li; Zhu, Jia-Bi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, polyelectrolyte microcapsules have been fabricated by biocompatible ferrosoferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and poly allyamine hydrochloride (PAH) using layer by layer assembly technique. The Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by chemical co-precipitation, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectrum (IR). Quartz cell also was used as a substrate for building multilayer films to evaluate the capability of forming planar film. The result showed that Fe3O4 NPs were selectively deposited on the surface of quartz cell. Microcapsules containing Fe3O4 NPs were fabricated by Fe3O4 NPs and PAH alternately self-assembly on calcium carbonate microparticles firstly, then 0.2 molL(-1) EDTA was used to remove the calcium carbonate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Zetasizer and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the microcapsule's morphology, size and magnetic properties. The result revealed that Fe3O4 NPs and PAH were successfully deposited on the surface of CaCO3 microparticles, the microcapsule manifested superparamagnetism, size and saturation magnetization were 4.9 +/- 1.2 microm and 8.94 emu x g(-1), respectively. As a model drug, Rhodamin B isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin (RBITC-BSA) was encapsulated in microcapsule depended on pH sensitive of the microcapsule film. When pH 5.0, drug add in was 2 mg, the encapsulation efficiency was (86.08 +/- 3.36) % and the drug loading was 8.01 +/- 0.30 mg x m(L-1).

  6. Template preparation of twisted nanoparticles of mesoporous silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Niu; Zhongbin Ni; Chengwu Fu; Tatsuo Kaneko; Mingqing Chen

    2011-01-01

    Optical isomers of N-lauroyl-L-(or-D-) alanine sodium salt {C12-L-(or-D-)AlaS} surfactants were used for the preparation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a twisted hexagonal rod-like morphology. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the temperature for template removal. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the surfactant solution with various compositions illustrated the formation and supramolecular assembly of protein-like molecular architecture leading to formation of twisted nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of these as-synthesized mesoporous silica confirmed that the twisted morphology of these nanoparticles was closely related to the supramolecular-assembled complex of amino acid surfactants.

  7. Preparation and characterization of a supported system of Ni2P/Ni12P5 nanoparticles and their use as the active phase in chemoselective hydrogenation of acetophenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dolly C.; Soldati, Analía L.; Pecchi, Gina; Bengoa, José Fernando; Marchetti, Sergio Gustavo; Vetere, Virginia

    2018-05-01

    Ni2P/Ni12P5 nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of nickel organometallic salt at low temperature. The use of different characterization techniques allowed us to determine that this process produced a mixture of two nickel phosphide phases: Ni2P and Ni12P5. These nickel phosphides nanoparticles, supported on mesoporous silica, showed activity and high selectivity for producing the hydrogenation of the acetophenone carbonyl group to obtain 1-phenylethanol. This is a first report that demonstrates the ability of supported Ni2P/Ni12P5 nanoparticles to produce the chemoselective hydrogenation of acetophenone. We attribute these special catalytic properties to the particular geometry of the Ni–P sites on the surface of the nanoparticles. This is an interesting result because the nickel phosphides have a wide composition range (from Ni3P to NiP3), with different crystallographic structures, therefore we think that different phases could be active and selective to hydrogenate many important molecules with more than one functional group.

  8. Carbon nanotube/platinum nanoparticle nanocomposites: preparation, characterization and application in electro oxidation of alcohols; Nanocompósitos entre nanotubos de carbono e nanopartículas de platina: preparação, caracterização e aplicação em eletro-oxidação de álcoois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinke, Adir H.; Zarbin, Aldo J. G., [Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization of different platinum nanoparticle/ carbon nanotube nanocomposite samples are described along with the application of these nanocomposites as electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. Samples were prepared by a biphasic system in which platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) are synthesized in situ in contact with a carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersion. Variables including platinum precursor/CNT ratio, previous chemical treatment of carbon nanotubes, and presence or absence of a capping agent were evaluated and correlated with the characteristic of the synthesized materials. Samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Glassy carbon electrodes were modified by the nanocomposite samples and evaluated as electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. Current densities of 56.1 and 79.8/104.7 mA cm{sup -2} were determined for the oxidation of methanol and ethanol, respectively. (author)

  9. Preparation and characterization of nano gold supported over montmorillonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraja, P.V.; Binitha, N.N.; Yaakob, Z.; Silija, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The use of montmorillonite clays as a matrix, or as a host, for obtaining intercalated/supported metal particles has potential applications in catalysis and other areas. The gold nanoparticles were obtained from the most common anionic gold precursor HAuCl 4 ·3H 2 O by deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. However, it is difficult to prepare nano scale gold catalysts supported on silica surfaces with lower isoelectric point (IEP). Homogeneous precipitation method using urea also fails on silica surfaces. Reasons for the inefficiency of these methods are the negative charge of the metal precursor as well as the support surface and the high pH required for depositing gold nanoparticles. In the present work, we use glucose as the reductant in the presence of stabilizer for preparation of nano gold supported on montmorillonite clay. Here there is no need of increasing the pH of the solution to reduce the Au 3+ ions. The prepared systems are characterized using various techniques such as using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Fourier Transform infra red spectra (FTIR) to prove the efficiency of the present method. (author)

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Nano Gold Supported over Montmorillonite Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suraja, P V; Binitha, N N; Yaakob, Z; Silija, P P, E-mail: binithann@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The use of montmorillonite clays as a matrix, or as a host, for obtaining intercalated/supported metal particles has potential applications in catalysis and other areas. The gold nanoparticles were obtained from the most common anionic gold precursor HAuCl4{center_dot}3H2O by deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. However, it is difficult to prepare nanoscale gold catalysts supported on silica surfaces with lower isoelectric point (IEP). Homogeneous precipitation method using urea also fails on silica surfaces. Reasons for the inefficiency of these methods are the negative charge of the metal precursor as well as the support surface and the high pH required for depositing gold nanoparticles. In the present work, we use glucose as the reductant in the presence of stabilizer for preparation of nano gold supported on montmorillonite clay. There is no need of increasing the pH of the solution to reduce the Au3+ ions. The prepared systems are characterized using various techniques such as using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-VIS Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Fourier Transform infra red spectra (FTIR) to prove the efficiency of the present method.

  11. Comparison and functionalization study of microemulsion-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chuka; Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven; Civera, Concepción; Solans, Conxita; Kuttuva, Gunaratna Rajarao

    2012-06-05

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) for protein binding and separation were obtained from water-in-oil (w/o) and oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsions. Characterization of the prepared nanoparticles have been performed by TEM, XRD, SQUID magnetometry, and BET. Microemulsion-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) with sizes ranging from 2 to 10 nm were obtained. Study on the magnetic properties at 300 K shows a large increase of the magnetization ~35 emu/g for w/o-ME-MION with superparamagnetic behavior and nanoscale dimensions in comparison with o/w-ME-MION (10 emu/g) due to larger particle size and anisotropic property. Moringa oleifera coagulation protein (MOCP) bound w/o- and o/w-ME-MION showed an enhanced performance in terms of coagulation activity. A significant interaction between the magnetic nanoparticles and the protein can be described by changes in fluorescence emission spectra. Adsorbed protein from MOCP is still retaining its functionality even after binding to the nanoparticles, thus implying the extension of this technique for various applications.

  12. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-01-01

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection

  13. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  14. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  15. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 , on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  16. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An, E-mail: lian2010@lut.cn

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  17. Preparation and structure of carbon encapsulated copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Chuncheng; Xiao Feng; Cui Zuolin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-encapsulated copper nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified arc plasma method using methane as carbon source. The particles were characterized in detail by transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated copper nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter with 3-5 nm graphitic carbon shells. The outside graphitic carbon layers effectively prevented unwanted oxidation of the copper inside. The effect of the ratio of He/CH 4 on the morphologies and the formation of the carbon shell were investigated

  18. Application of a new coordination compound for the preparation of AgI nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silver iodide nanoparticles have been sonochemically synthesized by using silver salicylate complex, [Ag(HSal)], as silver precursor. A series of control experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of solvent, surfactant concentration, sonication time and temperature on the morphology of AgI nanostructures. - Highlights: • Silver salicylate as a new precursor was applied to fabricate γ-AgI nanoparticles. • To further decrease the particle size of AgI, SDS was used as surfactant. • The effect of preparation parameters on the particle size of AgI was investigated. - Abstract: AgI nanoparticles have been sonochemically synthesized by using silver salicylate, [Ag(HSal)], as silver precursor. To investigate the effects of solvent, surfactant concentration, sonication time and temperature on the morphology of AgI nanostructures, several experiments were carried out. The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA/DTA, UV–vis, and FT-IR. Based on the experimental findings in this research, it was found that the size of AgI nanoparticles was dramatically dependent on the silver precursor, sonochemical irradiation, and surfactant concentration. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was applied as surfactant. When the concentration of SDS was 0.055 mM, very uniform sphere-like AgI nanoparticles with grain size of about 25–30 nm were obtained. These results indicated that the high concentration of SDS could prevent the aggregation between colloidal nanoparticles due to its steric hindrance effect

  19. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by shear alone: Characteristics, activity and stability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Nan; Du, Xin-Ying; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Catalase is a promising therapeutic enzyme; however, it carries risks of inactivation and rapid degradation when it is used in practical bioprocess, such as delivery in vivo. To overcome the issue, we made catalase-only nanoparticles using shear stress alone at a moderate shear rate of 217s(-1) in a coaxial cylinder flow cell. Properties of nanoparticles, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential, were characterized. The conformational changes of pre- and post-sheared catalase were determined using spectroscopy techniques. The results indicated that the conformational changes of catalase and reduction in α-helical content caused by shear alone were less significant than that by desolvation method. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by single shear retained over 90% of its initial activity when compared with the native catalase. Catalase nanoparticles lost only 20% of the activity when stored in phosphate buffer solution for 72h at 4°C, whereas native catalase lost 53% under the same condition. Especially, the activity of nanogranulated catalase was decreased only slightly in the simulated intestinal fluid containing α-chymotrypsin during 4h incubation at 37°C, implying that the catalase nanoparticle was more resistant to the degradation of proteases than native catalase molecules. Overall, catalase-only nanoparticles offered a great potential to stabilize enzymes for various pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of a new coordination compound for the preparation of AgI nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver iodide nanoparticles have been sonochemically synthesized by using silver salicylate complex, [Ag(HSal)], as silver precursor. A series of control experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of solvent, surfactant concentration, sonication time and temperature on the morphology of AgI nanostructures. - Highlights: • Silver salicylate as a new precursor was applied to fabricate γ-AgI nanoparticles. • To further decrease the particle size of AgI, SDS was used as surfactant. • The effect of preparation parameters on the particle size of AgI was investigated. - Abstract: AgI nanoparticles have been sonochemically synthesized by using silver salicylate, [Ag(HSal)], as silver precursor. To investigate the effects of solvent, surfactant concentration, sonication time and temperature on the morphology of AgI nanostructures, several experiments were carried out. The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA/DTA, UV–vis, and FT-IR. Based on the experimental findings in this research, it was found that the size of AgI nanoparticles was dramatically dependent on the silver precursor, sonochemical irradiation, and surfactant concentration. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was applied as surfactant. When the concentration of SDS was 0.055 mM, very uniform sphere-like AgI nanoparticles with grain size of about 25–30 nm were obtained. These results indicated that the high concentration of SDS could prevent the aggregation between colloidal nanoparticles due to its steric hindrance effect.

  1. Methodology for sample preparation and size measurement of commercial ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jia Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the strategies on sample preparation to acquire images with sufficient quality for size characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM using two commercial ZnO nanoparticles of different surface properties as a demonstration. The central idea is that micrometer sized aggregates of ZnO in powdered forms need to firstly be broken down to nanosized particles through an appropriate process to generate nanoparticle dispersion before being deposited on a flat surface for SEM observation. Analytical tools such as contact angle, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential have been utilized to optimize the procedure for sample preparation and to check the quality of the results. Meanwhile, measurements of zeta potential values on flat surfaces also provide critical information and save lots of time and efforts in selection of suitable substrate for particles of different properties to be attracted and kept on the surface without further aggregation. This simple, low-cost methodology can be generally applied on size characterization of commercial ZnO nanoparticles with limited information from vendors. Keywords: Zinc oxide, Nanoparticles, Methodology

  2. Preparation of Cu{sup 2+}/NTA-derivatized branch polyglycerol magnetic nanoparticles for protein adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ShiXing Wang, E-mail: wsxkm@sina.com; Sun Wentong [Yunnan Institute of Product Quality Supervision and Inspection (China); Zhou Yang, E-mail: zhouyang8250@sohu.co [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering (China)

    2010-09-15

    In this report, we described the preparation of Cu{sup 2+}/nitrilotriacetic acids (NTA)-derivatized branch polyglycerol magnetic nanoparticles for protein adsorption with avoidance of nonspecific interactions at the same time. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method. The transmission electron microscopy results showed that the average diameter of MNPs was 15.8 {+-} 4.6 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier Transform infrared measurements indicated that branch polyglycerols were grafted on MNPs via the ring-opening polymerization of glycidol and that Cu{sup 2+} ions had been successfully immobilized on the surface of MNPs. The protein immobilization effect was characterized by UV-Vis spectrum. The results proved that Cu{sup 2+}/NTA-derivatized branch polyglycerol magnetic nanoparticles effectively adsorbed bovine haemoglobin and rarely adsorbed lysozyme and {gamma}-globin.

  3. Electrochemical preparation of iron cuboid nanoparticles and their catalytic properties for nitrite reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanxin; Chen Shengpei; Chen Qingsong; Zhou Zhiyou; Sun Shigang

    2008-01-01

    Iron cuboid nanoparticles supported on glassy carbon (denoted nm-Fe/GC) were prepared by electrochemical deposition under cyclic voltammetric (CV) conditions. The structure and composition of the Fe nanomaterials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results demonstrated that the Fe cuboid nanoparticles are dispersed discretely on GC substrate with an average size ca. 171 nm, and confirmed that the electrochemical synthesized nanocubes are single crystals of pure Fe. The catalytic properties of the Fe cuboid nanoparticles towards nitrite electroreduction were investigated, and enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the Fe nanocubes has been determined. In comparison with the data obtained on a bulk-Fe electrode, the onset potential of nitrite reduction on nm-Fe/GC is positively sifted by 100 mV, and the steady reduction current density is enhanced about 2.4-3.2 times

  4. Preparation of albumin based nanoparticles for delivery of fisetin and evaluation of its cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pooja; Singha Roy, Atanu; Chaudhury, Susmitnarayan; Jana, Saikat Kumar; Chaudhury, Koel; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2016-05-01

    Fisetin is a well known flavonoid that shows several properties such as antioxidant, antiviral and anticancer activities. Its use in the pharmaceutical field is limited due to its poor aqueous solubility which results in poor bioavailability and poor permeability. The aim of our present study is to prepare fisetin loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles to improve its bioavailability. The nanoparticles were prepared by a desolvation method and characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The particles were smooth and spherical in nature with an average size of 220 ± 8 nm. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be 84%. The in vitro release profile showed a biphasic pattern and the release rate increases with increase in ionic strength of solution. We have also confirmed the antioxidant activity of the prepared nanoparticles by a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Further its anticancer activity was evaluated using MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Our findings suggest that fisetin loaded HSA nanoparticles could be used to transfer fisetin to target areas under specific conditions and thus may find use as a delivery vehicle for the flavonoid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of hydrophilic fenretinide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Grace A; Graves, Richard A; Glotser, Elena Y; Mandal, Tarun K; Bostanian, Levon A

    2015-02-20

    Fenretinide is an effective anti-cancer drug with high in vitro cytotoxicity and low in vivo systemic toxicity. In clinical trials, fenretinide has shown poor therapeutic efficacy following oral administration - attributed to its low bioavailability and solubility. The long term goal of this project is to develop a formulation for the oral delivery of fenretinide. The purpose of this part of the study was to prepare and characterize hydrophilic nanoparticle formulations of fenretinide. Three different ratios of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to fenretinide were used, namely, 3:1, 4:1, and 5:1. Both drug and polymer were dissolved in a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane (2:23 v/v). Rotary evaporation was used to remove the solvents, and, following reconstitution with water, a high pressure homogenizer was used to form nanoparticles. The particle size and polydispersity index were measured before and after lyophilization. The formulations were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The effectiveness of the formulations was assessed by release studies and Caco-2 cell permeability assays. As the PVP content increased, the recovered particle size following lyophilization became more consistent with the pre-lyophilization particle size, especially for those formulations with less lactose. The DSC scans of the formulations did not show any fenretinide melting endotherms, indicating that the drug was either present in an amorphous form in the formulation or that a solid solution of the drug in PVP had formed. For the release studies, the highest drug release among the formulations was 249.2±35.5ng/mL for the formulation with 4:1 polymer-to-drug. When the permeability of the formulations was evaluated in a Caco-2 cell model, the mean normalized flux for each treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05) from the fenretinide control. The formulation containing 4:1 polymer

  6. Synthesis and characterization of iron based nanoparticles for novel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Hafsa

    The work in this thesis has been focused on the fabrication and characterization of iron based nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology with the aim: (i) to investigate their properties for potential applications in MICR toners and biomedical field and (ii) to study finite size effects on the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. For the biomedical applications, core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide and hollow shell nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron organometallic compounds [Fe(CO)5] at high temperature. Core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles have been prepared in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. Particle size and composition was controlled by varying the reaction parameters during synthesis. The as-made particles are hydrophobic and not dispersible in water. Water dispersibility was achieved by ligand exchange a with double hydrophilic diblock copolymer. Relaxometery measurements of the transverse relaxation time T2 of the nanoparticles solution at 3 Tesla confirm that the core/shell nanoparticles are an excellent MRI contrast agent using T2 weighted imaging sequences. In comparison to conventionally used iron oxide nanoparticles, iron/iron-oxide core/shell nanoparticles offer four times stronger T2 shortening effect at comparable core size due to their higher magnetization. The magnetic properties were studied as a function of particle size, composition and morphology. Hollow nanostructures are composed of randomly oriented grains arranged together to make a shell layer and make an interesting class of materials. The hollow morphology can be used as an extra degree of freedom to control the magnetic properties. Owing to their hollow morphology, they can be used for the targeted drug delivery applications by filling the drug inside their cavity. For the magnetic toners applications, particles were synthesized by chemically reducing iron salt using sodium borohydride and then coated with polyethylene

  7. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  8. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe 3 O 4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g −1 and 131 emu g −1 , respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  9. Preparation of transition metal sulfide nanoparticles via hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei-Ling, P.; Chin-Hua, C.; Sarani Zakaria; Tze-Khong, L.; Mohd Ambar Yarmo; Nay-Ming, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nano sized copper sulfide, iron sulfide and molybdenum sulfide were successfully synthesised via a simple hydrothermal method. Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ·5H 2 O) and hydroxylamine sulfate ((H 3 NO) 2 ·H 2 SO 4 ) were used as the starting materials and reacted with the transition metal source at 200 degree Celsius for 90 min. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Spherical shape CuS and FeS 2 nanoparticles with high crystallinity were successfully produced. The transmission electron micrographs revealed the well-dispersibility of the produced nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrograph showed the MoS 2 nanoparticles possessed a spherical shape with sheet-like structure covering on the outer surface of the particles. (author)

  10. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals: simple preparation, characterization and formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Fereshteh, Zeinab

    2014-12-01

    Crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a simple precipitation method. To control the shape and particle size of HAP nanocrystals, coordination ligands derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde were first prepared, characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopies, and finally applied in the synthesis process of HAP. On the other hand, the HAP nanocrystals were also characterized by several techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the FE-SEM and TEM micrographs, it was found that the morphology and crystallinity of the HAP powders depended on the coordination mode of the ligands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetite–hematite nanoparticles prepared by green methods for heavy metal ions removal from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.; Ali, S.M.; El-Dek, S.I.; Galal, A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The negatively charged cubic magnetite nanoparticles, prepared by the coprecipitation method in N 2 atmosphere, can adsorb up to 99% of the positively charged toxic heavy metal ions at a proper pH value. -- Highlights: • Mixed magnetite–hematite nanoparticles were synthesized via different routes. • Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, HRTEM, BET and magnetic hysteresis. • The material was employed as a sorbent for removal of some heavy metal ions from water. • The effects of pH and the contact time on the adsorption process were studied and optimized. -- Abstract: Mixed magnetite–hematite nanoparticles were synthesized via different routes such as, coprecipitation in air and N 2 atmosphere, citrate–nitrate, glycine–nitrate and microwave-assisted citrate methods. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), BET measurements and magnetic hysteresis. XRD data showed the formation of magnetite–hematite mixture with different compositions according to the synthesis method. The particle size was in the range of 4–52 nm for all the prepared samples. From HRTEM micrographs, it was found that, the synthesis method affects the moropholgy of the prepared samples in terms of crystallinity and porosity. The magnetite–hematite mixture was employed as a sorbent material for removal of some heavy metal ions from water such as lead(II), cadmium(II) and chromium(III). The effects of pH value and the contact time on the adsorption process were studied and optimized in order to obtain the highest possible adsorption efficiency of the magnetite–hematite mixture. The effect of the synthesis method of the magnetite–hematite mixture on the adsorption process was also investigated. It was found that samples prepared by the coprecipitation method had better adsorption efficiency than those prepared by other combustion methods

  12. Quantitative characterization of nanoparticle agglomeration within biological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondow, Nicole; Brydson, Rik; Wang, Peiyi; Holton, Mark D.; Brown, M. Rowan; Rees, Paul; Summers, Huw D.; Brown, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle dispersion state within biological media is essential to understanding cellular uptake and the roles of diffusion, sedimentation, and endocytosis in determining nanoparticle dose. The dispersion of polymer-coated CdTe/ZnS quantum dots in water and cell growth medium with and without fetal bovine serum was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. Characterization by TEM of samples prepared by plunge freezing the blotted solutions into liquid ethane was sensitive to the dispersion state of the quantum dots and enabled measurement of agglomerate size distributions even in the presence of serum proteins where DLS failed. In addition, TEM showed a reduced packing fraction of quantum dots per agglomerate when dispersed in biological media and serum compared to just water, highlighting the effect of interactions between the media, serum proteins, and the quantum dots. The identification of a heterogeneous distribution of quantum dots and quantum dot agglomerates in cell growth medium and serum by TEM will enable correlation with the previously reported optical metrology of in vitro cellular uptake of this quantum dot dispersion. In this paper, we present a comparative study of TEM and DLS and show that plunge-freeze TEM provides a robust assessment of nanoparticle agglomeration state.

  13. Dipodal Silane-modified Nano Fe3O4/Polyurethane Magnetic Nanocomposites: Preparation and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanocomposites were prepared by incorporation of pure Fe3O4 and surface-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (dipodal silane-modified Fe3O4 into a polyurethane elastomer matrix by in situ polymerization method. In preparation of these magnetic nanocomposites, polycaprolactone (PCL was used as a polyester polyol. Because of dipole-dipole interactions between nanoparticles and a large surface area to volume ratio, the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles tended to agglomerate. Furthermore, the most important challenge was to coat the surface of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles in order to prepare well dispersed and stabilized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. It was observed that surface modification of Fe3O4 nanoparticles enhanced the dispersion of the nanoparticles in polyurethane matrices and allowed magnetic nanocomposites to be prepared with better properties. Surface modification of Fe3O4 was performed by dipodal silane synthesized based on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS and γ-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTS. Dipodal silane-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DScMNPs were synthesized and incorporated into the polyurethane elastomer matrix as reinforcing agents. The formation of dipodal silane was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Characterization and study on the magnetic polyurethane elastomer nanocomposites were performed by FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The VSM results showed that the synthesized polyurethane elastomer nanocomposites had a superparamagnetic behavior. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability of dipodal silane-modified Fe3O4/PU nanocomposite was higher than that of Fe3O4/PU nanocomposite. This could be attributed to better dispersion and compatibility of dipodal silane

  14. Graphene nanosheets preparation using magnetic nanoparticle assisted liquid phase exfoliation of graphite: The coupled effect of ultrasound and wedging nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Alireza; Zahirifar, Jafar; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Dastbaz, Abolfazl

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to investigate a novel technique to improve the yield of liquid phase exfoliation of graphite to graphene sheets. The method is based on the utilization of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles as "particle wedge" to facilitate delamination of graphitic layers. Strong shear forces resulted from the collision of Fe 3 O 4 particles with graphite particles, and intense ultrasonic waves lead to enhanced exfoliation of graphite. High quality of graphene sheets along with the ease of Fe 3 O 4 particle separation from graphene solution which arises from the magnetic nature of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are the unique features of this approach. Initial graphite flakes and produced graphene sheets were characterized by various methods including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, the effect of process factors comprising initial graphite concentration, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles concentration, sonication time, and sonication power were investigated. Results revealed that graphene preparation yield and the number of layers could be manipulated by the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and in-vitro evaluation of indomethacin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei Mokarram

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: During the last two decades one of the most important problems in drug formulations has been low aqueous solubility of new molecules. However, numerous techniques, such as milling, co-solvent solubilization and solid dispersion have been used conventionally for aqueous solubility enhancement and the rate of solubility. Recently, nanoparticle engineering processes have been developed and reported for pharmaceutical applications to increase the dissolution rate of low-soluble drugs which in turn may leads to substantial increases in bioavailability. In this study, a controlled precipitation method was used to produce indomethacin nano-solid suspension in a polymeric matrix (as a model, in order to increase the solubility and rate of the dissolution of poorly soluble model drug. "nMethods: Nano-solid suspension of indomethacin in polyvinyl pyrrolidine (PVP was prepared by controlled precipitation technique, characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and evaluated for in vitro solubility and dissolution rate. Results and major conclusion:Absence of thermal and diffractional peaks in DSC and XRD studies indicated that indomethacin interacts with PVP in solid phase. The solubility of indomethacin in nano-solid suspension compared to crystalline form was increased to about four-fold. It was found that particle size distribution depend to the polymer MW and drug: polymer ratios. Spectroscopy methods and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images showed that indomethacin dispersed as amorphous nanosize particles in freeze dried powder. Enhanced solubility and dissolution rate of indomethacin compared to physical mixtures and crystalline form of indomethacin (polymorph I, demonstrated that it interacts with PVP via hydrogen bond and probably forming eutectic mixture.

  16. Preparation of Photoresponsive Functionalized Acrylic Nanoparticles Cantaining Carbazole Groups for Smart Cellulosic Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Keyvan Rad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoresponsive functionalized polymer nanoparticles were prepared as useful materials for preparation of smart papers. Such polymer nanoparticles have wide applications in several fields including papers, sensors, bioimaging and biomedicine. First, carbazole as a photosensitive compound was modified with 2-bromoethanol through substitution nucleation reaction to its hydroxyl derivative (N-(2-hydroxyethyl carbazole, CzEtOH. The synthesis of 2-N-carbazolylethyl acrylate (CzEtA monomer was carried out by modification reaction of CzEtOH with acryloyl chloride and the chemical structures of the products were characterized. Next, CzEtA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and butyl acrylate were copolymerized to prepare photoresponsive functionalized polymer nanoparticles through mini-emulsion polymerization in order to form a hydrophobic core. This was followed by copolymerization of MMA and glycidyl methacrylate by seeded emulsion polymerization to give a functionalized outer layer on the latex particles. Absorption characteristics, size, size distribution (narrow size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic laser light scattering (DLS analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs, respectively. Finally, due to the importance of photoresponsive smart papers and their wide applications, cellulosic fibers were reacted with the prepared functionalized latex particles for preparation of smart papers. Morphology of the fibers was investigated with respect to the surface-immobilized polymers on the cellulosic paper and their smart behavior was evaluated by UV irradiation at 254 nm. The results revealed fast color changes and the obtained cellulosic papers became violet upon irradiation. This work shows some promising feature of these materials for preparation of anti-counterfeiting papers, where the safety becomes a major concern.

  17. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles via sonochemical method and their characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Hassanjani-Roshan; Mohammad Reza Vaezi; Ali Shokuhfar; Zohreh Rajabali

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles was carried out via a sonochemical process. The process parameters such as temperature,sonication time and power of ultrasonication play important roles in the size and morphology of the final products. The iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy,X-ray powder diffraction,and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. From transmission electron microscopy observations,the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles is estimated to be significantly smaller than 19 nm. X-ray diffraction data of the powder after annealing provide direct evidence that the iron oxide was formed during the sonochemical process.

  18. Colloidal silver nanoparticle gradient layer prepared by drying between two walls of different wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, S V; Kuhlmann, M; Walter, H; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I; Burghammer, M; Riekel, C; Lengeler, B; Schroer, C G; Mueller-Buschbaum, P

    2009-01-01

    A one-dimensional silver (Ag) nanoparticle gradient layer is prepared from an aqueous colloidal solution upon a polystyrene (PS) coated silicon (Si) substrate. For preparation two walls of different wettability are used. The 40 nm PS-layer exhibits a locally constant film thickness due to the strong roughness correlation with the underlying Si-substrate and is less wettable as compared to the glass plate placed above. The Ag nanoparticles have a triangular prism-like shape. The structural characterization of the obtained complex gradient formed by drying is performed with microbeam grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering based on compound refractive lenses. Due to the adsorption from aqueous solution in the selective geometry a double gradient type structure defined by two areas with characteristic lateral lengths and a cross-over regime between both is observed.

  19. Preparation of new composite ceramics based on gadolinium-doped ceria and magnesia nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jingying; Schelter, Matthias; Zosel, Jens; Oelssner, Wolfram [Kurt-Schwabe-Institut fuer Mess- und Sensortechnik e.V. Meinsberg, Waldheim (Germany); Mertig, Michael [Kurt-Schwabe-Institut fuer Mess- und Sensortechnik e.V. Meinsberg, Waldheim (Germany); Physikalische Chemie, Mess- und Sensortechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To achieve solid electrolyte materials for electrochemical energy storage devices with very high oxygen ion conductivity, composites of gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) and magnesia (MgO) are developed in this study. Three different preparation methods are used to prepare nanoparticles from these two components. According to the characterization results, the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis is best suited for the preparation of both nanometer-sized GDC powder as solid electrolyte and MgO powder as insulator. The structures of the prepared nanometer-sized powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. They show narrow size distributions in the lower nanometer range. Then, dense composite ceramics are prepared from a MgO-GDC mixture by sintering. The size of the crystallite domains in the sintered ceramic is in the upper nanometer range. TEM and TEM-EDX images of a new composite ceramic based on gadolinium-doped ceria and magnesia nanoparticles. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Preparation of new composite ceramics based on gadolinium-doped ceria and magnesia nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jingying; Schelter, Matthias; Zosel, Jens; Oelssner, Wolfram; Mertig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To achieve solid electrolyte materials for electrochemical energy storage devices with very high oxygen ion conductivity, composites of gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) and magnesia (MgO) are developed in this study. Three different preparation methods are used to prepare nanoparticles from these two components. According to the characterization results, the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis is best suited for the preparation of both nanometer-sized GDC powder as solid electrolyte and MgO powder as insulator. The structures of the prepared nanometer-sized powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. They show narrow size distributions in the lower nanometer range. Then, dense composite ceramics are prepared from a MgO-GDC mixture by sintering. The size of the crystallite domains in the sintered ceramic is in the upper nanometer range. TEM and TEM-EDX images of a new composite ceramic based on gadolinium-doped ceria and magnesia nanoparticles. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Gelatin/chitosan biofilm: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, Luciane da C.; Nunes, Raquel A.; Diniz, Nadie K.S.; Braga, Carla R.C.; Silva, Suedina M. de Lima

    2011-01-01

    In this study, gelatin, chitosan and gelatin/chitosan bio films using the ratio of gelatin/chitosan (50/50) were prepared by casting method. The bio films prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dissolution ratio. According to the results, the incorporation of chitosan into gelatin indicate the decrease of crystallinity of chitosan, a compact structure without large pores and that the dissolution of gelatin/chitosan film is little influenced by hot water than gelatin films. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani, J.B., E-mail: javierbm@einstein.br [Instituto do Cérebro-InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein-HIAE, 05651-901 São Paulo (Brazil); Costa-Filho, A.J. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto (Brazil); Cornejo, D.R. [Instituto de Física Universidade de São Paulo, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Vieira, E.D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia (Brazil); Gamarra, L.F. [Instituto do Cérebro-InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein-HIAE, 05651-901 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Understanding the process of synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is important for its implementation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this work we report the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles made from ferrous oxide through coprecipitation chemical process. The nanostructured material was coated with lauric acid and dispersed in aqueous medium containing surfactant that yielded a stable colloidal suspension. The characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with distinct physico-chemical configurations is fundamental for biomedical applications. Therefore magnetic nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphology by means of TEM and DLS, which showed a polydispersed set of spherical nanoparticles (average diameter of ca. 9 nm) as a result of the protocol. The structural properties were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD pattern showed the presence of peaks corresponding to the spinel phase of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The relaxivities r{sub 2} and r{sub 2}* values were determined from the transverse relaxation times T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}* at 3 T. Magnetic characterization was performed using SQUID and FMR, which evidenced the superparamagnetic properties of the nanoparticles. Thermal characterization using DSC showed exothermic events associated with the oxidation of magnetite to maghemite. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles coated with lauric acid • Characterization of magnetic nanoparticles • Morphological, structural, magnetic, calorimetric and relaxometric characterization.

  3. CuO nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, optical properties and interaction with amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Trass, A.; ElShamy, H.; El-Mehasseb, I. [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh, University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt); El-Kemary, M., E-mail: elkemary@yahoo.com [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh, University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm have been successfully prepared by an alcothermal method. The prepared CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. A strong sharp emission under UV excitation is reported from the prepared CuO nanoparticles. The results show that the CuO nanoparticles have high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The fluorescence emission spectra display an intense sharp emission at 365 nm and weak broad intensity emission at 470 nm. Picosecond fluorescence measurements of the nanoparticles suggest bi-exponential function giving time constants of {tau}{sub 1} (330 ps, 94.21%) and {tau}{sub 2} (4.69 ns, 5.79%). In neutral and alkaline solutions, Zeta potential values of CuO nanoparticles are negative, due to the adsorption of COO{sup -} group via the coordination of bidentate. At low pH the zeta potential value is positive due to the increased potential of H{sup +} ions in solution. Comparative UV-visible absorption experiments with the model amino acid compounds of positive and negative charges as arginine and aspartic acid, respectively confirmed the negative surface of CuO nanoparticles. The results should be extremely useful for understanding the mode of the interaction with biological systems. This binding process also affects the particle's behavior inside the body.

  4. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc carbonate and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Marashianpour, Zahra; Karimi, Meisam Sadeghpour; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Zinc oxide and its precursor i.e., zinc carbonate is widely utilized in various fields of industry, especially in solar energy conversion, optical, and inorganic pigments. In this work, a facile and clean electrodeposition method was utilized for the synthesis of zinc carbonate nanoparticles. Also, zinc oxide nanoparticles were produced by calcination of the prepared zinc carbonate powder. Zinc carbonate nanoparticles with different sizes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate as anode in the solution of sodium carbonate. It was found that the particle size of zinc carbonate might be tuned by process parameters, i.e., electrolysis voltage, carbonate ion concentration, solvent composition and stirring rate of the electrolyte solution. An orthogonal array design was utilized to identify the optimum experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that the minimum size of the electrodeposited ZnCO3 particles is about 24 nm whereas the maximum particle size is around 40 nm. The TG-DSC studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation of ZnCO3 occurs in two steps over the temperature ranges of 150-250 and 350-400 °C. The electrosynthesized ZnCO3 nanoparticles were calcined at the temperature of 600 °C to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. The prepared ZnCO3 and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FT-IR techniques.

  5. Surface Characterization of Nanoparticles: Critical Needs and Significant Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that nanoparticles and other nanostructured materials are sometimes inadequately characterized and that this may limit or even invalidate some of the conclusions regarding particle properties and behavior. A number of international organizations are working to establish the essential measurement requirements that enable adequate understanding of nanoparticle properties for both technological applications and for environmental health issues. Our research on the interaction of iron metal-core oxide-shell nanoparticles with environmental contaminants and studies of the behaviors of ceria nanoparticles, with a variety of medical, catalysis and energy applications, have highlighted a number of common nanoparticle characterization challenges that have not been fully recognized by parts of the research community. This short review outlines some of these characterization challenges based on our research observations and using other results reported in the literature. Issues highlighted include: (1) the importance of surfaces and surface characterization, (2) nanoparticles are often not created equal - subtle differences in synthesis and processing can have large impacts; (3) nanoparticles frequently change with time having lifetime implications for products and complicating understanding of health and safety impacts; (4) the high sensitivity of nanoparticles to their environment complicates characterization and applications in many ways; (5) nanoparticles are highly unstable and easily altered (damaged) during analysis.

  6. Silver nanoparticles prepared by using poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulphonic acid) as a surfactant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Zheng, F.; Laven, J.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesised successfully using poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulphonic acid) (PAMPS) as a surfactant. Silver nanoparticles prepared through this approach possess high purity and narrow size distribution. The size distribution result shows that the diameters ranging from

  7. Bioinspired preparation of alginate nanoparticles using microbubble bursting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Mohamed; Huang, Jie; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are considered to be one of the most advanced tools for drug delivery applications. In this research, alginate (a model hydrophilic polymer) nanoparticles 80 to 200 nm in diameter were obtained using microbubble bursting. The natural process of bubble bursting occurs through a number of stages, which consequently produce nano- and microsized droplets via two main production mechanisms, bubble shell disintegration and a jetting process. In this study, nano-sized droplets/particles were obtained by promoting the disintegrating mechanism and suppressing (limiting) the formation of larger microparticles resulting from the jetting mechanism. A T-junction microfluidic device was used to prepare alginate microbubbles with different sizes in a well-controlled manner. The size of the bubbles was varied by controlling two processing parameters, the solution flow rate and the bubbling pressure. Crucially, the bubble size was found to be the determining factor for inducing (or limiting) the bubble shell disintegration mechanism and the size needed to promote this process was influenced by the properties of the solution used for preparing the bubbles, particularly the viscosity. The size of alginate nanoparticles produced via the disintegration mechanism was found to be directly proportional to the viscosity of the alginate solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of Fe–Ni bimetallic nanoparticles from pixel target ablation: plume dynamics and surface characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Xiaoxu; Murray, Paul T.; Sarangan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A novel Fe–Ni bimetallic nanoparticle synthesis technique, denoted pixel target ablation, is reported. The technique entails ablating a thin film target consisting of patterned Fe and Ni pixels with a selected ratio using a KrF excimer laser. The laser energy breaks a known amount of target materials into metal atoms, which then form nanoparticles by recombination in the gas phase. Due to the nature of thin-film ablation, splashing of large particles was eliminated with the added benefit of minimizing nanoparticle agglomeration. Plume dynamics and surface characterizations were carried out to exploit the formation of Fe–Ni nanoparticles more fully. The composition was readily controlled by varying the initial relative amount of Fe and Ni target pixels. Synthesis of multi-element nanoparticles by pixel target ablation should be possible with any element combination that can be prepared as a thin-film target.

  9. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  10. Contrast agents for MRI based on iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, M.P. E-mail: puerto@icmm.csic.es; Bomati-Miguel, O.; Perez de Alejo, R.; Ruiz-Cabello, J.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; O' Grady, K

    2003-10-01

    Colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles with application as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging have been prepared by coating iron oxide nanoparticles with dextran. The particles were prepared by laser-induced pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl vapors. By adjusting the experimental conditions, the particle and crystal size of the iron oxide nanoparticles were varied in the range 2-7 nm with a very narrow size distribution. The suspensions consisted of dextran-coated nanoparticle aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of around 50 nm and unimodal size distributions. It was observed that an important enhancement of the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the suspensions (saturation magnetization and susceptibility values) takes place as the particle and the crystallite size increases. Consequently, the {sup 1}H NMR relaxation times of the suspensions, characterized by the longitudinal (R{sub 1}) and transversal (R{sub 2}) relaxation rates, also increase with the crystal order. This effect was more pronounced for the values of R{sub 2}. The mechanism of MRI enhancement appears to be related to water protons diffusing within the inhomogeneous magnetic field created by the magnetic clusters. The global structure of the cluster, the anisotropy and the magnetic field around it are important factors affecting the value of R{sub 2}.

  11. Contrast agents for MRI based on iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, M.P.; Bomati-Miguel, O.; Perez de Alejo, R.; Ruiz-Cabello, J.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; O'Grady, K.

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles with application as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging have been prepared by coating iron oxide nanoparticles with dextran. The particles were prepared by laser-induced pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl vapors. By adjusting the experimental conditions, the particle and crystal size of the iron oxide nanoparticles were varied in the range 2-7 nm with a very narrow size distribution. The suspensions consisted of dextran-coated nanoparticle aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of around 50 nm and unimodal size distributions. It was observed that an important enhancement of the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the suspensions (saturation magnetization and susceptibility values) takes place as the particle and the crystallite size increases. Consequently, the 1 H NMR relaxation times of the suspensions, characterized by the longitudinal (R 1 ) and transversal (R 2 ) relaxation rates, also increase with the crystal order. This effect was more pronounced for the values of R 2 . The mechanism of MRI enhancement appears to be related to water protons diffusing within the inhomogeneous magnetic field created by the magnetic clusters. The global structure of the cluster, the anisotropy and the magnetic field around it are important factors affecting the value of R 2

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Elvitegravir-Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the drug as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using solvent injection method. Methods: EVG-loaded ... preparation SLN'S which include high pressure homogenization, high .... particles and high PDI value is due to increased viscosity of organic.

  13. Preparation of antimony-doped nanoparticles by hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ming-xi; YANG Tian-zu; GU Ying-ying; DU Zuo-juan; LIU Jian-ling

    2005-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide(ATO) nanoparticles were prepared by the mild hydrothermal method at 200 ℃ using sodium stannate, antimony oxide, sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid as the starting materials. The doped powders were examined by differential thermal analysis(DTA), X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The doping levels of antimony were determined by volumetric method and iodimetry.The results show that antimony is incorporated into the crystal lattice of tin oxide and the doping levels of antimony in the resulting powders are 2.4%, 4.3 % and 5.1 % (molar fraction). The mean particle size of ATO nanoparticles is in the range of 25 - 30 nm. The effects of antimony doping level on the crystalline size and crystallinity were also discussed.

  14. Characterization of manufactured nanoparticles at workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, C; Ravanel, X; Derrough, S; Zimmermann, E; Fromaget, J L; Garrione, J; Locatelli, D; Lefranc, E; Farouz, T, E-mail: catherine.durand@cea.fr [CEA-Grenoble, DSP/SMR, Nanoparticles Expertise Center, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054, Cedex 9, Grenoble (France)

    2011-07-06

    French government has launched a dedicated program on nanotechnologies in May 2009. One of the topics was to develop measurements and characterisations at workplace, with the aim of getting the experience over 100 of them, either in research centres, universities and industries. At this time, about 80 have been realized. The methodology is based on the study of nanoparticles emission, during the whole duration of the process and / or operation, in real time, by comparison between background level and process ones. Parameters such as number of particles, size and developed surface are obtained. Shape, agglomerate state and chemical composition are obtained by further microscopy analysis. Currently, dustiness and surface state are not characterized and future developments are needed. It has to be pointed out that, at this time, and thanks to very various scenarios met, data collected from this program lead in a field database already used in different European research programs.

  15. Synthesis of ferrite nanoparticle by milling process for preparation of single domain magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryadi; Hasbiyallah; Agus S W; Nurul TR; Budhy Kurniawan

    2009-01-01

    Study of ferrite nanoparticle synthesis for preparation of single domain magnet by milling of scrap magnet material have been done. Sample preparation were done using disk mill continued with high energy milling (HEM). Some powder were taken after 5, 10 dan 20 hours milling using HEM-E3D. The powder were then characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRF characterization result, confirmed by XRD analysis result, showed that the sample are of Strontium ferrite phase. Microstructure analysis result showed the occurrence of grain refining process of ferrite particle with increasing of milling time. Particle having size of nanometers successfully obtained, although in unhomogeneous distribution. Magnetic properties characterization result showed the increasing of hysteresis curve area of sample for longer milling time and sintering process. (author)

  16. Characterization of nanoparticles released during construction of photocatalytic pavements using engineered nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, Heather; Hassan, Marwa M.

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing use of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles in self-cleaning materials such as photocatalytic concrete pavements, the release of nanoparticles into the environment is inevitable. Nanoparticle concentration, particle size, surface area, elemental composition, and surface morphology are pertinent to determine the associated risks. In this study, the potential of exposure to synthetic nanoparticles released during construction activities for application of photocatalytic pavements was measured during laboratory-simulated construction activities of photocatalytic mortar overlays and in an actual field application of photocatalytic spray coat. A scanning mobility particle sizer system measured the size distribution of nanoparticles released during laboratory and field activities. Since incidental nanoparticles are released during construction activities, nanoparticle emissions were compared to those from similar activities without nano-TiO 2 . Nanoparticle counts and size distribution suggest that synthetic nanoparticles are released during application of photocatalytic pavements. In order to identify the nanoparticle source, nanoparticles were also collected for offline characterization using transmission electron microscopy. However, positive identification of synthetic nanoparticles was not possible due to difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images. As a result, further research is recommended to identify nanoparticle composition and sources.

  17. Preparation and characterization of highly water-soluble magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles via surface double-layered self-assembly method of sodium alpha-olefin sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Honghong; Qin, Li [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Feng, Ying [Department of Bridge Engineering, Shanxi Railway Institute, Weinan 714000 (China); Hu, Lihua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Zhou, Chunhua, E-mail: chm_zhouch@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-06-15

    A kind of double-layered self-assembly sodium alpha-olefin sulfonate (AOS) capped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN) with highly water-solubility was prepared by a wet co-precipitation method with a pH of 4.8. The resulting Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN could be dispersed into water to form stable magnetic fluid without other treatments. The result of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN maintained original crystalline structure and exhibited a diameter of about 7.5 nm. The iron oxide phase of nanoparticles determined by Raman spectroscopy is Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN with spherical morphology were uniformly dispersed in water. FT-IR spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) verified the successful preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN capped with double-layered self-assembled AOS. The corresponding capacities of monolayer chemical absorption and the second-layer self-assembly absorption were respectively 4.07 and 14.71 wt% of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MN, which were much lower than those of other surfactants. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) test result showed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN possessed superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization value of about 44.45 emu/g. The blocking temperature T{sub B} of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN capped with double-layered AOS is 170 K. - Highlights: • Double-layered self-assembly sodium alpha-olefin sulfonate (AOS) capped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles are prepared by a wet co-precipitation method. • Double-layered Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN exhibits highly water-solubility. • The iron oxide phase is determined by Raman spectroscopy. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN capped with double-layered AOS possesses super-paramagnetic behavior. • The blocking temperature T{sub B} of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-AOS-MN capped with double-layered AOS is 170 K.

  18. Preparation and characterization of highly water-soluble magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles via surface double-layered self-assembly method of sodium alpha-olefin sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Honghong; Qin, Li; Feng, Ying; Hu, Lihua; Zhou, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    A kind of double-layered self-assembly sodium alpha-olefin sulfonate (AOS) capped Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN) with highly water-solubility was prepared by a wet co-precipitation method with a pH of 4.8. The resulting Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN could be dispersed into water to form stable magnetic fluid without other treatments. The result of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN maintained original crystalline structure and exhibited a diameter of about 7.5 nm. The iron oxide phase of nanoparticles determined by Raman spectroscopy is Fe 3 O 4 . Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed that the Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN with spherical morphology were uniformly dispersed in water. FT-IR spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) verified the successful preparation of Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN capped with double-layered self-assembled AOS. The corresponding capacities of monolayer chemical absorption and the second-layer self-assembly absorption were respectively 4.07 and 14.71 wt% of Fe 3 O 4 -MN, which were much lower than those of other surfactants. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) test result showed Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN possessed superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization value of about 44.45 emu/g. The blocking temperature T B of Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN capped with double-layered AOS is 170 K. - Highlights: • Double-layered self-assembly sodium alpha-olefin sulfonate (AOS) capped Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles are prepared by a wet co-precipitation method. • Double-layered Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN exhibits highly water-solubility. • The iron oxide phase is determined by Raman spectroscopy. • Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN capped with double-layered AOS possesses super-paramagnetic behavior. • The blocking temperature T B of Fe 3 O 4 -AOS-MN capped with double-layered AOS is 170 K

  19. Standardization of Nanoparticle Characterization: Methods for Testing Properties, Stability, and Functionality of Edible Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, Jake; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-10

    There has been a rapid increase in the fabrication of various kinds of edible nanoparticles for oral delivery of bioactive agents, such as those constructed from proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and/or minerals. It is currently difficult to compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different kinds of nanoparticle-based delivery systems because researchers use different analytical instruments and protocols to characterize them. In this paper, we briefly review the various analytical methods available for characterizing the properties of edible nanoparticles, such as composition, morphology, size, charge, physical state, and stability. This information is then used to propose a number of standardized protocols for characterizing nanoparticle properties, for evaluating their stability to environmental stresses, and for predicting their biological fate. Implementation of these protocols would facilitate comparison of the performance of nanoparticles under standardized conditions, which would facilitate the rational selection of nanoparticle-based delivery systems for different applications in the food, health care, and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Preparation of mixed matrix PES-based nanofiltration membrane filled with PANI-co-MWCNT composite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheripour, Ehsan; Moghadassi, Abdolreza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Mixed matrix polyethersulfone/PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle nanofiltration membrane was prepared by casting solution technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was also used as membrane pore former in membrane fabrication. The effect of polyaniline-co-multi walled carbon nanotubes composite nanoparticle concentration in the casting solution on membrane structure and performance was investigated. Scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, FTIR analysis, porosity, mean pore size, contact angle, water content, NaCl/Na2SO4 rejection, water flux, tensile strength measurements and 3D surface image were also carried out in membrane characterization. SOM images showed nanoparticle agglomeration at high additive loading ratio. SEM images showed the membrane sub-layer porosity and thickness were changed by use of nanoparticles in membrane matrix. The membrane water content, porosity and pore size were increased by increase of nanoparticle concentration, except for 1%wt. Use of PANI-co- MWCNT nanoparticles in the membrane matrix caused a decrease of membrane contact angle from 63.43 to 46.76o. Salt rejection and water flux were improved initially by increase of nanoparticle concentration up to 0.1%wt and then decreased by more additive concentration. In addition, the membranes tensile strength was reduced by increase of PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle concentration. 3D surface images showed a smoother surface for mixed matrix membrane filled with 0.1wt% PANI-co-MWCNTs. Modified membrane containing 0.1wt% composite nanoparticles showed better performance compared to others.

  1. Preparation of mixed matrix PES-based nanofiltration membrane filled with PANI-co-MWCNT composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheripour, Ehsan; Moghadassi, Abdolreza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Mixed matrix polyethersulfone/PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle nanofiltration membrane was prepared by casting solution technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was also used as membrane pore former in membrane fabrication. The effect of polyaniline-co-multi walled carbon nanotubes composite nanoparticle concentration in the casting solution on membrane structure and performance was investigated. Scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, FTIR analysis, porosity, mean pore size, contact angle, water content, NaCl/Na2SO4 rejection, water flux, tensile strength measurements and 3D surface image were also carried out in membrane characterization. SOM images showed nanoparticle agglomeration at high additive loading ratio. SEM images showed the membrane sub-layer porosity and thickness were changed by use of nanoparticles in membrane matrix. The membrane water content, porosity and pore size were increased by increase of nanoparticle concentration, except for 1%wt. Use of PANI-co- MWCNT nanoparticles in the membrane matrix caused a decrease of membrane contact angle from 63.43 to 46.76o. Salt rejection and water flux were improved initially by increase of nanoparticle concentration up to 0.1%wt and then decreased by more additive concentration. In addition, the membranes tensile strength was reduced by increase of PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle concentration. 3D surface images showed a smoother surface for mixed matrix membrane filled with 0.1wt% PANI-co-MWCNTs. Modified membrane containing 0.1wt% composite nanoparticles showed better performance compared to others.

  2. Preparation of Multifunctional Fe@Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Surface Grafting as a Potential Treatment for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jei Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron core gold shell nanoparticles grafted with Methotrexate (MTX and indocyanine green (ICG were synthesized for the first time in this study, and preliminarily evaluated for their potential in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The core-shell Fe@Au nanoparticles were prepared via the microemulsion process and then grafted with MTX and ICG using hydrolyzed poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid (PSMA to obtain core-shell Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles. MTX is an anti-cancer therapeutic, and ICG is a fluorescent dye. XRD, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry were performed to characterize the nanoparticles. The data indicated that the average size of the nanoparticles was 6.4 ± 09 nm and that the Au coating protected the Fe core from oxidation. MTX and ICG were successfully grafted onto the surface of the nanoparticles. Under exposure to high frequency induction waves, the superparamagnetic nanoparticles elevated the temperature of a solution in a few minutes, which suggested the potential for an application in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The in vitro studies verified that the nanoparticles were biocompatible; nonetheless, the Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles killed cancer cells (Hep-G2 via the magnetic hyperthermia mechanism and the release of MTX.

  3. Preparation of Multifunctional Fe@Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Surface Grafting as a Potential Treatment for Magnetic Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ren-Jei; Shih, Hui-Ting

    2014-01-24

    Iron core gold shell nanoparticles grafted with Methotrexate (MTX) and indocyanine green (ICG) were synthesized for the first time in this study, and preliminarily evaluated for their potential in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The core-shell Fe@Au nanoparticles were prepared via the microemulsion process and then grafted with MTX and ICG using hydrolyzed poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) to obtain core-shell Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles. MTX is an anti-cancer therapeutic, and ICG is a fluorescent dye. XRD, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry were performed to characterize the nanoparticles. The data indicated that the average size of the nanoparticles was 6.4 ± 09 nm and that the Au coating protected the Fe core from oxidation. MTX and ICG were successfully grafted onto the surface of the nanoparticles. Under exposure to high frequency induction waves, the superparamagnetic nanoparticles elevated the temperature of a solution in a few minutes, which suggested the potential for an application in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The in vitro studies verified that the nanoparticles were biocompatible; nonetheless, the Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles killed cancer cells (Hep-G2) via the magnetic hyperthermia mechanism and the release of MTX.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predescu, Andra Mihaela; Matei, Ecaterina; Berbecaru, Andrei Constantin; Pantilimon, Cristian; Drăgan, Claudia; Vidu, Ruxandra; Predescu, Cristian; Kuncser, Victor

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a large molar weight dextran for environmental applications are reported. The first experiments involved the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles which were coated with dextran at different concentrations. The synthesis was performed by a co-precipitation technique, while the coating of iron oxide nanoparticles was carried out in solution. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The results demonstrated a successful coating of iron oxide nanoparticles with large molar weight dextran, of which agglomeration tendency depended on the amount of dextran in the coating solution. SEM and TEM observations have shown that the iron oxide nanoparticles are of about 7 nm in size.

  5. Classification of analysis methods for characterization of magnetic nanoparticle properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, O.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Steinhoff, U.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a roadmap for the standardization of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) characterization. We have assessed common MNP analysis techniques under various criteria in order to define the methods that can be used as either standard techniques for magnetic particle...... characterization or those that can be used to obtain a comprehensive picture of a MNP system. This classification is the first step on the way to develop standards for nanoparticle characterization....

  6. Polycaprolactone Based Nanoparticles Loaded with Indomethacin for Anti-Inflammatory Therapy: From Preparation to Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Waisudin; Miladi, Karim; Robin, Sophie; Viennet, Céline; Nazari, Qand Agha; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-09-01

    This work focused on the preparation of polycaprolactone based nanoparticles containing indomethacin to provide topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect for symptomatic treatment of inflammatory diseases. Indomethacin loaded nanoparticles are prepared for topical application to decrease indomethacin side effects and administration frequency. Oppositely to already reported works, in this research non-invasive method has been used for the enhancement of indomethacin dermal drug penetration. Ex-vivo skin penetration study was carried out on fresh human skin. Nanoprecipitation was used to prepare nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using numerous techniques; dynamic light scattering, SEM, TEM, DSC and FTIR. Regarding ex-vivo skin penetration of nanoparticles, confocal laser scanning microscopy has been used. The results showed that NPs hydrodynamic size was between 220 to 245 nm and the zeta potential value ranges from -19 to -13 mV at pH 5 and 1 mM NaCl. The encapsulation efficiency was around 70% and the drug loading was about 14 to 17%. SEM and TEM images confirmed that the obtained nanoparticles were spherical with smooth surface. The prepared nanoparticles dispersions were stable for a period of 30 days under three temperatures of 4°C, 25°C and 40°C. In addition, CLSM images proved that obtained NPs can penetrate the skin as well. The prepared nanoparticles are submicron in nature, with good colloidal stability and penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the skin. This formulation potentiates IND skin penetration and as a promising strategy would be able to decline the side effects of IND.

  7. Preparation and characterization of magnetizable aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Romy; Glöckl, Gunnar; Nagel, Stefan; Weitschies, Werner

    2012-04-11

    Magnetizable aerosols can be used for inhalative magnetic drug targeting in order to enhance the drug concentration at a certain target site within the lung. The aim of the present study was to clarify how a typical ferrofluid can be atomized in a reproducible way. The influence of the atomization principle, the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles within the carrier liquid and the addition of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients on the aerosol droplet size were investigated. Iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles were synthesized by alkaline precipitation of mixtures of iron(II)- and iron(III)-chloride and coated with citric acid. The resulting ferrofluid was characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Two different nebulizers (Pari Boy and eFlow) with different atomization principles were used to generate ferrofluid aerosols. A range of substances that influence the surface tension, viscosity, density or vapor pressure of the ferrofluid were added to investigate their impact on the generated aerosol droplets. The particle size was determined by laser diffraction. A stable ferrofluid with a magnetic core diameter of 10.7 ± 0.45 nm and a hydrodynamic diameter of 124 nm was nebulized by Pari Boy and eFlow. The aerosol droplet size of Pari Boy was approximately 2.5 μm and remained unaffected by the addition of substances that changed the physical properties of the solvent. The droplet size of aerosols generated by eFlow was approximately 5 μm. It was significantly reduced by the addition of Cremophor RH 40, glycerol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethanol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and characterization of titania based nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Natalie; Vecernikova, Eva; Subrt, Jan; Balek, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new method for preparation of titania nanowires with diameter around 10 nm and length up to 2-3 μm is described. The precursor was prepared from sodium titanate by adding ethylene glycole (EG) and heating at temperature of 198 deg. C for 6 h under reflux. The sodium titanate glycolate formed by this way aggregated into 1D nanostructures and was subsequently transformed into titania glycolate during a chemical treatment with 98% sulfuric acid. Titania nanowires with variable amount of anatase and rutile were prepared by heating to temperatures in the range 350-1000 deg. C. The precursor as well as titania based samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, High resolution transmission microscopy, Thermogravimetry, Differential thermal analysis, Evolved gas analysis and Emanation thermal analysis. The nitrogen adsorption/desorption was used for surface area and porosity determination. The photoactivity of the prepared titania samples was assessed by the photocatalytic decomposition of 4-chlorophenol in an aqueous slurry under UV irradiation of 365 nm wavelength

  9. Oral nano-delivery of anticancer ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD, a natural inhibitor of the MDM2 oncogene: Nanoparticle preparation, characterization, in vitro and in vivo anti-prostate cancer activity, and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Sukesh; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Sarkar, Sushanta; Nag, Subhasree; Walbi, Ismail A; Wang, Shu; Zhao, Yuqing; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-08-28

    The Mouse Double Minute 2 (MDM2) oncogene plays a critical role in cancer development and progression through p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Both natural and synthetic MDM2 inhibitors have been shown anticancer activity against several human cancers. We have recently identified a novel ginsenoside, 25-OCH3-PPD (GS25), one of the most active anticancer ginsenosides discovered thus far, and have demonstrated its MDM2 inhibition and anticancer activity in various human cancer models, including prostate cancer. However, the oral bioavailability of GS25 is limited, which hampers its further development as an oral anticancer agent. The present study was designed to develop a novel nanoparticle formulation for oral delivery of GS25. After GS25 was successfully encapsulated into PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (GS25NP) and its physicochemical properties were characterized, the efficiency of MDM2 targeting, anticancer efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of human prostate cancer. Our results indicated that, compared with the unencapsulated GS25, GS25NP demonstrated better MDM2 inhibition, improved oral bioavailability and enhanced in vitro and in vivo activities. In conclusion, the validated nano-formulation for GS25 oral delivery improves its molecular targeting, oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy, providing a basis for further development of GS25 as a novel agent for cancer therapy and prevention.

  10. Preparation of ceramic materials for surface characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipperian, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how microstructural preparation permits a microscopic analysis of a material's internal structure, which is related to the physical properties of the material. Today, numerous microstructural quantitative and qualitative measurements are commonly utilized. Several of these include phase determination, phase hardness, phase distribution, grain size and shape, and porosity and size distribution. The most widely used surface characterization techniques are optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and x-ray microscopy. Optical microscopy includes both transmitted-and reflected-light techniques and requires a surface preparation prior to analysis. Transmitted-light microscopy samples require thinning and polishing of both sides of the sample, whereas reflected light techniques require polishing of only one side of the sample

  11. Preparation and characterization of Bi-2223 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hense, K.; Kirchmayr, H.; Kovac, P.; Lackner, R.; Mueller, M.; Pachla, W.; Pitel, J.; Polak, M.; Usak, P.

    2003-01-01

    In a concerted action between Austrian, Slovakian and Polish research institutes Bi-2223 tapes have been prepared and characterized by different physical methods. Metallographic studies by optical as well as electron microscopy, measurements of critical current (angle dependent) and losses have been performed. Properties of individual filaments extracted from multifilamentary tapes were also studied. Uniformity of local I C of these filaments were considerably lower than that of the whole tape. This indicates that improvement of filament homogeneity could improve the over all J C in tapes. The application of these tapes for optimized magnet coils will also be discussed. From these investigations a better understanding of the mechanisms, limiting the critical current could be achieved and more optimized preparation methods can be envisioned

  12. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Luo, Yangchao; Ge, Mei; Yang, Tian; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and characterization of polyindole - iron oxide nanocomposite electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasudha, G.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A novel polyindole-iron oxide containing LiClO 4 solid polymer electrolyte has been prepared. The diverse property of magnetic nanoparticle has elicited wide interest from the point of view of technological applications. Their properties are known to be strongly dependent on size, anisotropy and inter particle interactions. The proton conducting materials has received considerable attention as electrolyte materials in technological applications such as fuel cells, sensors and electrochromic display. In this work, polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite containing LiClO 4 was prepared by in situ polymerization. The indole was polymerized in the presence of iron oxide, using ammonium peroxy disulphate as an oxidizing agent. The polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, IR, SEM, TGA and TEM. The iron oxide nano particles was incorporated into polyindole and was confirmed by XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface Morphology and thermal stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM respectively. The ionic conductivity of polyindole electrolyte was analyzed from impedance spectrum. The prepared polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite could be used as solid electrolyte in lithium ion batteries

  14. Preparation and characterization of bentonite organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Almeida Neto, A.F.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bentonite clays organically modified have great potential use for environmental remediation, especially in the separation of organic compounds from the water. The aim of this work was the preparation of organophilic clays from 'Verde-Lodo' bentonite clay with the quaternary ammonium salts cetyl-pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. The materials obtained were characterized by XRD, thermogravimetric analyses, Helium picnometry, SEM and energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The results show consistently successful synthesis of the organoclay through the increase in the basal spacing, as well as salt elimination picks and presence of carbon and chlorine in the modified clays; they are inexistent elements in the natural clay. (author)

  15. Preparation and characterization of functionalized cellulose nano crystals with methyl adipoyl chloride used to prepare chitosan grafting nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Joao Paulo de; Teixeira, Ivo F.; Donnici, Claudio L.; Pereira, Fabiano V.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose nano crystals (CNCs) were prepared from eucalyptus pulp and functionalized with methyl adipoyl chloride. The nano materials were characterized by different techniques including FTIR, 1H NMR and XRD which showed that the functionalization occurs only on the surface of the nano structures without change in crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The new-functionalized CNCs were used as reinforcement in the preparation of a nano composite with chitosan, through the formation of a covalent bond between the nano filler and matrix. Preliminary results of mechanical tests indicate an improvement in tensile strength and increase in deformation of chitosan. (author)

  16. Recent Trends in Preparation of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide Nanoparticles by Mixing Polymeric Organic Solution with Antisolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Sah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been a plethora of nanoengineering approaches for the development of poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticulate carrier systems. However, overlooking the multifaceted issues in the preparation and characterization of PLGA-based nanoparticles, many reports have been focused on their in vivo behaviors. It is imperative to fully assess technological aspects of a nanoencapsulation method of choice and to carefully evaluate the nanoparticle quality. The selection of a nanoencapsulation technique should consider drug property, nanoparticle quality, scale-up feasibility, manufacturing costs, personnel safety, environmental impact, waste disposal, and the like. Made in this review are the fundamentals of classical emulsion-templated nanoencapsulation methods used to prepare PLGA nanoparticles. More specifically, this review provides insight into emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction, salting-out, nanoprecipitation, membrane emulsification, microfluidic technology, and flow focusing. Innovative nanoencapsulation techniques are being developed to address many challenges existing in the production of PLGA-based nanoparticles. In addition, there are various out-of-the-box approaches for the development of novel PLGA hybrid systems that could deliver multiple drugs. Latest trends in these areas are also dealt with in this review. Relevant information might be helpful to those who prepare and develop PLGA-based nanoparticles that meet their specific demands.

  17. Preparation of Cefquinome Nanoparticles by Using the Supercritical Antisolvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Kefeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical antisolvent process was used successfully to prepare nanoparticles of cefquinome. These particles were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and their average diameter was measured by laser particle size analyzer. In the experiments, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO was selected as solvent to dissolve cefquinome sulfate. It was confirmed by orthogonal experiments that the concentration of solution was the primary factor in this process followed by feeding speed of solution, precipitation pressure, and precipitation temperature. Moreover, the optimal conditions of preparing nanoparticles of cefquinome by supercritical antisolvent process were that solution concentration was 100 mg/mL, solution flow speed was 1.5 mL/min, operating pressure was 13 Mpa, and operating temperature was 33°C. Confirmatory experiment was conducted under this condition. It was found that the appearance of particles was flakes and the average diameter of particles was 0.71 microns. Finally, influence law of individual factor on particle size was investigated by univariate analysis.

  18. Preparation and characterizations of polyaniline (PANI)/ZnO nanocomposites film using solution casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Faheem; Kumar, Shalendra; Arshi, Nishat; Anwar, M.S.; Su-Yeon, Lee; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Park, Dae-Won; Koo, Bon Heun; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)-ZnO nanoparticles composites film has been successfully fabricated by solution casting technique on glass substrate in which ZnO nanopowder was prepared via auto combustion method and used as inorganic materials. The as-grown nanocomposites film has been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for their structural and morphological characterizations. X-ray diffraction studies of as-grown film showed the reflection of ZnO nanoparticles along with a broad peak of PANI. The AFM study of the film shows the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the polymer matrix which was further supported by roughness measurement. TEM images showed that the size of ZnO nanoparticles in the nanocomposites increase from ∼ 35 nm to ∼ 45 nm, indicating the interaction of nanoparticles with PANI molecular chains. FTIR spectra showed a band at 501 cm -1 due to ZnO nanoparticles while the hydrogen bonding between the amine group of PANI and ZnO nanoparticles had been confirmed from the presence of the absorption band at 1148 cm -1 .

  19. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran stabilized silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankura, K P; Maity, D; Mollick, M M R; Mondal, D; Bhowmick, B; Bain, M K; Chakraborty, A; Sarkar, J; Acharya, K; Chattopadhyay, D

    2012-08-01

    A simple one-step rapid synthetic route is described for the preparation of silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) using aqueous dextran solution which acts as both reducing and capping agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles is assured by characterization with UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The absorbance of the silver nanoparticles is observed at 423 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with size range of 10-60 nm. TEM images show that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape with ∼5-10 nm dimensions. The crystallinity of Ag nanoparticles is assured by XRD analysis. The antimicrobial activity of as synthesized silver nanoparticles is tested against the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial growth is inhibited by gradual reduction of the concentration of the silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extracts: Characterization and their stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Mohammadzadeh, M; Babakhani, B

    2015-07-01

    Various methods invented and developed for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles that increases daily consumed. According to this method, including potential environmental pollution problems and the complexity of the synthesis, in this study, the feasibility of using the leaves extract of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) for the reduction of gold ions to nanoparticles form have been studied. Stevia leaves were used to prepare the aqueous extract for this study. Gold nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed and its size is from 5 to 20 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that gold nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (NH2), carbonyl group, OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of gold nanoparticles with size of 17 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) implies the right of forming gold nanoparticles. The results, confirm that gold nanoparticles have synthesized by the leaves extract of S. rebaudiana (SR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with fucan polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, V.A.J.; Andrade, P.L.; Silva, M.P.C.; Bustamante D, A.; De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Albino Aguiar, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the preparation of fucan-coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles by the co-precipitation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The nanoparticles showed quasi-spherical morphology with mean sizes around 10 nm. XRD and FT-IR confirmed the functionalization of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with the fucan polysaccharide. Room temperature magnetization measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K and the magnetic properties of the Fe 3 O 4 are partly screened by the coating preventing aggregation. - Highlights: • Syntheses of fucan-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were made by co-precipitation method. • The efficiency of polysaccharide coated was analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. • The magnetic nanoparticles mean size was 10–20 nm. • The fucan-coated magnetite nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic behavior

  2. Preparation, Characterization and In vitro Evaluation of Theophylline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To design and characterize theophylline nanoparticles synthesized with dextran-conjugated soy protein ... However, reports on the synthesis and evaluation of SPI- ... Calcium chloride and all other reagents were of analytical grade.

  3. Design and preparation of bi-functionalized short-chain modified zwitterionic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fenglin; Chen, Kaimin; Xu, Hong; Gu, Hongchen

    2018-05-01

    An ideal nanomaterial for use in the bio-medical field should have a distinctive surface capable of effectively preventing nonspecific protein adsorption and identifying target bio-molecules. Recently, the short-chain zwitterion strategy has been suggested as a simple and novel approach to create outstanding anti-fouling surfaces. In this paper, the carboxyl end group of short-chain zwitterion-coated silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 -ZWS) was found to be difficult to functionalize via a conventional EDC/NHS strategy due to its rapid hydrolysis side-reactions. Hence, a series of bi-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 -ZWS/COOH) were designed and prepared by controlling the molar ratio of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to short-chain zwitterionic organosiloxane (ZWS) in order to achieve above goal. The synthesized SiO 2 -ZWS/COOH had similar excellent anti-fouling properties compared with SiO 2 -ZWS, even in 50% fetal bovine serum characterized by DLS and turbidimetric titration. Subsequently, SiO 2 -ZWS/COOH 5/1 was chosen as a representative and then demonstrated higher detection signal intensity and more superior signal-to-noise ratios compare with the pure SiO 2 -COOH when they were used as a bio-carrier for chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). These unique bi-functionalized silica nanoparticles have many potential applications in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields. Reducing nonspecific protein adsorption and enhancing the immobilized efficiency of specific bio-probes are two of the most important issues for bio-carriers, particularly for a nanoparticle based bio-carrier. Herein, we designed and prepared a bi-functional nanoparticle with anti-fouling property and bio conjugation capacity for further bioassay by improving the short-chain zwitterionic modification strategy we have proposed previously. The heterogeneous surface of this nanoparticle showed effective anti-fouling properties both in model protein solutions and fetal bovine serum

  4. Composite nanoparticles containing rare earth metal and methods of preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandapallil, Binil Itty Ipe; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Johnson, Francis

    2018-04-10

    The present invention is directed to composite nanoparticles comprising a metal, a rare earth element, and, optionally, a complexing ligand. The invention is also directed to composite nanoparticles having a core-shell structure and to processes for preparation of composite nanoparticles of the invention.

  5. Preparation of Metallic and Polymer Nanoparticles, Responsive Nanogels and Nanofibers by Radiation Initiated Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. -Pill; Gopalan, A. I. [Department of Chemistry Education, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Synthesis of nanomaterials have become the focus of intensive research due to their numerous applications in diverse fields such as electronics, optics, ceramics, metallurgy, pulp and paper, environmental, pharmaceutics, biotechnology and biomedical fields. Due to expanding demand for the nanomaterials with defined properties, extensive research activities have been focused on the synthesis and characterization of “functional nanomaterials”. Our research group launched into research activities on the preparation of varieties of functional materials using radiation as the source for inducing functionalities ino these new nanomaterials. Importantly, we kept final goals for specific applications. Thus, we have prepared few interesting functional nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles decorated multi wall carbon nanotubes, pore filled functional electrospun nanofibers and nanocables based on conducting polymer and carbon nanotubes and demonstrated their applications toward electrocatalysts, polymer electrolyte in energy devices and biosensors. In the forthcoming sections, a brief outline on the use of radiation for the preparation of those functional nanomaterials are presented. (author)

  6. Nanoparticles for intravascular applications: physicochemical characterization and cytotoxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matuszak, J.; Baumgartner, J.; Zaloga, J.; Juenet, M.; Da Silva, A.E.; Franke, D.; Almer, G.; Texier, I.; Faivre, D.; Metselaar, Josbert Maarten; Navarro, F.P.; Chauvierre, C.; Prassl, R.; Dézsi, L.; Urbanics, R.; Alexiou, C.; Mangge, H.; Szebeni, J.; Letourneur, D.; Cicha, I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We report the physicochemical analysis of nanosystems intended for cardiovascular applications and their toxicological characterization in static and dynamic cell culture conditions. Methods: Size, polydispersity and ζ-potential were determined in 10 nanoparticle systems including liposomes,

  7. The development of latent fingerprints by zinc oxide and tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by precipitation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Deepali; Kumar, Sacheen

    2018-05-01

    Fingerprints are the very important evidence at the crime scene which must be developed clearly with shortest duration of time to solve the case. Metal oxide nanoparticles could be the mean to develop the latent fingerprints. Zinc oxide and Tin Oxide Nanoparticles were prepared by using chemical precipitation technique which were dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The size of zinc oxide crystallite was found to be 14.75 nm with minimum reflectance at 360 nm whereas tin oxide have the size of 90 nm and reflectance at minimum level 321 nm. By using these powdered samples on glass, plastic and glossy cardboard, latent fingerprints were developed. Zinc oxide was found to be better candidate than tin oxide for the fingerprint development on all the three types of substrates.

  8. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M. [Optics and Materials Group–OPTMA, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, CAIXA POSTAL 2051, 57061-970 Maceió (Brazil); Wender, Heberton [Brazilian Synchrotron National Laboratory (LNLS), CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900, Campo Grande (Brazil); Teixeira, Sergio R. [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Dupont, Jairton [Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  9. Influences of surfactants on the preparation of copper nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ruimin [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: zhourm47@staff.shu.edu.cn; Wu Xinfeng; Hao Xufeng; Zhou Fei [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Hongbin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Rao Weihong [Shenzhen Tianding Fine Chemical Engineering Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Electron beam radiation was applied to prepare nano-size copper in water system using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, gluten and polyethylene glycol as the surfactants, respectively. The irradiated products were characterized by XRD, TEM and LSPSDA. The XRD and TEM showed that relative pure copper products with an average size of 20 nm, 40 nm and 20 nm can be obtained by using gluten, PEG and SDBS as surfactant, respectively. An admixture of copper and cuprous oxide was obtained in PVA system. The LSPSDA showed that the size of the Cu nanoparticles decreased with increasing the glutin concentration.

  10. Nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: Novel sample preparation methods and nanoparticle screening for plant metabolite imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagnik, Gargey B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The main goal of the presented research is development of nanoparticle based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This dissertation includes the application of previously developed data acquisition methods, development of novel sample preparation methods, application and comparison of novel nanoparticle matrices, and comparison of two nanoparticle matrix application methods for MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS imaging.

  11. Zein/caseinate/pectin complex nanoparticles: Formation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Luo, Yangchao

    2017-11-01

    In this study, pectin was used as coating material to form zein/caseinate/pectin complex nanoparticles through pH adjustment and heating treatment for potential oral delivery applications. The preparation conditions were studied by applying heating treatment at different pHs, either the isoelectric point of zein (pH 6.2) or caseinate (pH 4.6), or consecutively at both pHs. The particulate characteristics, including particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential were monitored for complex nanoparticles formed under different preparation conditions. The complex nanoparticles generally exhibited particle size smaller than 200nm with narrow distribution, spherical shape, and strong negative charge. Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds were involved in the formation of complex nanoparticles, in addition to electrostatic interactions. Fresh colloidal dispersion and freeze-dried powders varied in their morphology, depending on their preparation conditions. Our results suggested that heating pH and sequence significantly affected the morphology of complex nanoparticles, and pectin coating exerted stabilization effect under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The present study provides insight into the formation of protein/polysaccharide complex nanoparticles under different preparation conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Water-Based Nano-fluids for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.C.; Forrest, E.; Hu, L.W.; Buongiorno, J.

    2006-01-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate water-based nano-fluids for nuclear applications, preparation and characterization has been performed for nano-fluids being considered for MIT's nano-fluid heat transfer experiments. Three methods of generating these nano-fluids are available: creating them from chemical precipitation, purchasing the nano-particles in powder form and mixing them with the base fluid, and direct purchase of prepared nano-fluids. Characterization of nano-fluids includes colloidal stability, size distribution, concentration, and elemental composition. Quality control of the nano-fluids to be used for heat transfer testing is crucial; an exact knowledge of the fluid constituents is essential to uncovering mechanisms responsible for heat transport enhancement. Testing indicates that nano-fluids created by mixing a liquid with nano-particles in powder form are often not stable, although some degree of stabilization is obtainable with pH control and/or surfactant addition. Some commercially available prepared nano-fluids have been found to contain unacceptable levels of impurities and/or include a different weight percent of nano-particles compared to vendor specifications. Tools utilized to characterize and qualify nano-fluids for this study include neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Preparation procedures and characterization results for selected nano-fluids will be discussed in detail. (authors)

  13. Synthesis and characterization of carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Ted V.

    Silicon nanoparticles are of great interest in a great number of fields. Silicon nanoparticles show great promise particularly in the field of bioimaging. Carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles have the ability to covalently bond to biomolecules through the conjugation of the carboxylic acid to an amine functionalized biomolecule. This thesis explores the synthesis of silicon nanoparticles functionalized by both carboxylic acids and alkenes and their carboxylic acid functionality. Also discussed is the characterization of the silicon nanoparticles by the use of x-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the nature of the Si-H bond that is observed on the surface of the silicon nanoparticles will be investigated using photoassisted exciton mediated hydrosilation reactions. The silicon nanoparticles are synthesized from both carboxylic acids and alkenes. However, the lack of solubility of diacids is a significant barrier to carboxylic acid functionalization by a mixture of monoacids and diacids. A synthesis route to overcome this obstacle is to synthesize silicon nanoparticles with terminal vinyl group. This terminal vinyl group is distal to the surface of the silicon nanoparticle. The conversion of the vinyl group to a carboxylic acid is accomplished by oxidative cleavage using ozonolysis. The carboxylic acid functionalized silicon nanoparticles were then successfully conjugated to amine functionalized DNA strand through an n-hydroxy succinimide ester activation step, which promotes the formation of the amide bond. Conjugation was characterized by TEM and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The PAGE results show that the silicon nanoparticle conjugates move slower through the polyacrylamide gel, resulting in a significant separation from the nonconjugated DNA. The silicon nanoparticles were then characterized by the use of x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (Xanes) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the bonding and chemical

  14. Ultrasonic-assisted chemical reduction synthesis and structural characterization of copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh-Nga, Nguyen T.; Tuan-Anh, Nguyen; Thanh-Quoc, Nguyen; Ha, Do Tuong

    2018-04-01

    Copper nanoparticles, due to their special properties, small dimensions and low-cost preparation, have many potential applications such as in optical, electronics, catalysis, sensors, antibacterial agents. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method with different conditions in order to investigate the optimum conditions which gave the smallest (particle diameter) dimensions. The synthesis step used copper (II) acetate salt as precursor, ascorbic acid as reducing agent, glycerin and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as protector and stabilizer. The assistance of ultrasonic was were considered as the significant factor affecting the size of the synthesized particles. The results showed that the copper nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the diameter as small as 20-40 nm and the conditions of ultrasonic waves were 48 kHz of frequency, 20 minutes of treated time and 65-70 °C of temperature. The synthesized copper nanoparticles were characterized by optical absorption spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles obtained by precipitation in inverse microemulsion for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puca Pacheco, Mercedes; Guerrero Aquino, Marco; Tacuri Calanchi, Enrique; Lopez Campos, Raul G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the preparation of nanoparticles of magnetite by methods of precipitation in inverse microemulsions and the conventional method 'Chemical Co-precipitation' is reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanoparticles obtained by the method of precipitation in inverse microemulsion showed a superparamagnetic behavior and had a particle average diameter of 9 nm, while by the conventional method 'Chemical Co-precipitation' were 17 nm. In addition, other benefits observed in the application of the method of precipitation in inverse microemulsion with regard to the conventional method is that it allowed obtaining spheroidal magnetite nanoparticles, monodisperse and with magnetic and chemical properties which might have better results in medical applications. (author)

  16. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Silver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser Doppler electrophoresis (LDE). The antibacterial ... silver nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles can be modulated by varying both chitosan MW and process conditions such as temperature and stirring speed.

  17. Development of a novel and customizable two-solution mixing type spray nozzle for one-step preparation of nanoparticle-containing microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Yusuke; Takahashi, Norimitsu; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Masashi; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Production of drug nanoparticles is an effective strategy to enhance solubility and oral absorption of water-insoluble drugs. The handling of drug nanoparticles has been an important issue in drug formulation because nanoparticles easily aggregate each other and redispersion of these particles is very difficult. In the present study, we developed a unique two-solution mixing type spray nozzle that can prepare drug nanoparticles in microparticles in one step without any common solvent and surfactant, and then, the prepared formulation were evaluated. Ethylcellulose (EC) and mannitol (MAN) were used as a model polymer of water-insoluble compound and a water-soluble carrier, respectively. We characterized the EC/MAN microparticles produced by the novel spray nozzle when customizing the nozzle parts to mix EC and MAN solution. Relatively smaller EC nanoparticles (customizable parts in the nozzle. In addition, the core of EC nanoparticles (<50 nm) was also observed by atomic force microscopy. We also found that the mixing time in the nozzle parts affected the size and the standard deviation of EC nanoparticles. These results suggest that the size of EC nanoparticles in MAN microparticles is controllable by using this unique nozzle. After all, we could prepare MAN microparticles containing EC nanoparticles in one step by using the novel nozzle. The drug/MAN microparticles formulation produced by the nozzle may be useful for the handling of drug nanoparticles.

  18. Inulin hydrolysis by inulinase immobilized covalently on magnetic nanoparticles prepared with wheat gluten hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Torabizadeh; Asieh Mahmoudi

    2018-01-01

    Inulinase can produce a high amount of fructose syrup from inulin in a one-step enzymatic process. Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized covalently on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). Wheat gluten was enzymatically hydrolyzed by two endopeptidases Alcalase and Neutrase and related nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method. Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with WGHs nanoparticles and then inulinase was immobilized onto it ...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Amidoamine Dendrimers Encapsulatd 198Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ritawidya1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachytherapy or internal radiotherapy is one of many methods used for treatment of cancer. This modality requires an agent with radionuclides that emits  or β particle with a proper energy. 198Au (99% β max = 0.96 MeV and t1/2 = 2.69 days is one of radionuclides that has been considered to be effective for the above-mentioned purpose. The purpose of this research was to synthesis and characterize poly(amidoamine (PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles as a new brachytherapy agent. PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles was successfully synthesized by a bottom-up method using sodium borohydride as a reductor. Purification was then performed by a size exclusion chromatography in order to separate large Au nanoparticles that were formed outside the cavity of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers. Prior to the synthesis of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles, the synthetic procedure was first established by using a non-radioactive Au. The PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles produced was then characterized by using an UV-Vis spectroscopy, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM, particle size analyzer (PSA, and an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Characterization results revealed that PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles that were prepared from a reaction mixture of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers and Au HAuCl4 with mol ratio of 2.8, was found to be a proper formula. It produced PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles with diameter of 1.743 nm, spheris, uniform and drug loading value of 26.34%. This formula was then used in synthesis using radioactive Au, 198Au. Characterization results of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles gave a radiochemical purity of 99.4% and zero charge.

  20. Preparation of microspheres containing methyl methacrylate (MMA) with magnetic nanoparticles; Preparacao de microesferas contendo metacrilato de metila (PMMA) com nanoparticulas magneticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuser, P.E.; Souza, M.N. de, E-mail: paulofeuser@hotmail.co, E-mail: nele@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have found many technological applications and has been intensively studied due to its special magnetic properties. In most biomedical applications, microspheres containing magnetic nanoparticles is used as a vehicle for transporting drugs, presenting several advantages when compared to other conventional methods. PMMA is a polymer which has biocompatibility and can be used for the encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles, showing a great degree of saturation magnetization. PMMA microparticles containing magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by suspension polymerization. Polymers containing magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetization, thermogravimetric analysis, optical microscopy, chromatography gel permeation, analysis of particle size - malversizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments). The average size of magnetic nanoparticles was approximately 150 {mu}m and depending on the amount of magnetic nanoparticles in the reaction medium Mw of microspheres can be altered. (author)

  1. Synthesis of β-cyclodextrin hydrogel nanoparticles for improving the solubility of dexibuprofen: characterization and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Qandeel; Ahmad, Mahmood; Minhas, Muhammad Usman

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to enhance aqueous solubility of dexibuprofen through designing β-cyclodextrin (βCD) hydrogel nanoparticles and to evaluate toxicological potential through acute toxicity studies in rats. Dexibuprofen is a non-steroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug that is one of safest over the counter medications. However, its clinical effectiveness is hampered due to poor aqueous solubility. βCD hydrogel nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by percent yield, drug loading, solubilization efficiency, FTIR, XRD, DSC, FESEM and in-vitro dissolution studies. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted to assess safety of oral administration of prepared βCD hydrogel nanoparticles. βCD hydrogel nanoparticles dramatically enhanced the drug loading and solubilization efficiency of dexibuprofen in aqueous media. FTIR, TGA and DSC studies confirmed the formation of new and a stable nano-polymeric network and interactions of dexibuprofen with these nanoparticles. Resulting nanoparticles were highly porous with 287 nm in size. XRD analysis revealed pronounced reduction in crystalline nature of dexibuprofen within nanoparticles. Release of dexibuprofen in βCD hydrogel nanoparticles was significantly higher compared with dexibuprofen tablet at pH 1.2 and 6.8. In acute toxicity studies, no significant changes in behavioral, physiological, biochemical or histopathologic parameters of animals were observed. The efficient preparation, high solubility, excellent physicochemical characteristics, improved dissolution and non-toxic βCD hydrogel nanoparticles may be a promising approach for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs.

  2. Nanostructural Characters of β-SiC Nanoparticles Prepared from Indonesian Natural Resource using Sonochemical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, A.; Kultsum, U.; Taufiq, A.; Hartatiek; Latifah, E.

    2018-04-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles become one of the interesting non-oxide ceramics due to their physical and chemical properties. For an extended period, SiC nanoparticles have been prepared by several methods that usually performed at high temperatures ranging from 1200 - 2000 °C from inexpensive commercial precursors. In this work, we prepared SiC nanoparticles from the low priced precursor of Indonesia natural resource using the sonochemical method at a temperature that is lower than 1000 °C. To produce samples with particular characters, we varied the sintering holding time (1, 10, and 20 hours) and the sintering temperatures (850, 950, and 1050 °C) during the synthesis. The samples were then characterized using XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, and FTIR. The XRD data analysis showed that the samples have a dominant phase of SiC in the form of β-SiC with a 3C-SiC structure and SiO2 phase in a low composition within a good agreement with the EDX characterization. Interestingly, the sample prepared at the sintering temperature of 850 °C for 1 hour showed a non-crystallite phase. Using a Scherer’s equation, the particles of the samples sized from 13 to 18 nm, which were validated by SEM and TEM images. Furthermore, the FT-IR spectra presented several peaks, i.e., at wavenumbers of 482.2 and 1150 cm-1 representing Si-O-Si bonding and also at 798.5 cm-1 regarding with Si-C bonding.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of BSA Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles (Ag/BSA Nanoparticles) and Evaluation of Biological Properties of Ag/BSA Nanoparticles and Ag/BSA Nanoparticles Loaded Poly(hydroxy butyrate valerate) PHBV Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaye, Almaz

    Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the etiological agents of several infectious diseases. Antibiotic resistance by these three microbes has emerged as a prevalent problem due in part to the misuse of existing antibiotics and the lack of novel antibiotics. Nanoparticles have emerged as an alternative antibacterial agents to conventional antibiotics owing to their high surface area to volume ratio and their unique chemical and physical properties. Among the nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have gained increasing attention because silver nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial activity against a range of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Nanoparticles of well-defined chemistry and morphology can be used in broad biomedical applications, especially in bone tissue engineering applications, where bone infection by bacteria can be acute and lethal. It is commonly noted in the literature that the activity of nanoparticles against microorganisms is dependent upon the size and concentration of the nanoparticles as well as the chemistry of stabilizing agent. To the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive study that evaluates the antibacterial activity of well characterized silver nanoparticles in particular Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) stabilized against S. aureus and E. coli and cytotoxicity level of BSA stabilized silver nanoparticles towards osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) is currently lacking. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to characterize protein conjugated silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 and BSA mixture. The formation of Ag/BSA nanoparticles was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The molar ratio of silver to BSA in the Ag/BSA nanoparticles was established to be 27+/- 3: 1, based on Thermogravimetric Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Based on atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering,and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) measurements, the particle size (diameter) of

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Silver Liquid Thin Films for Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver liquid thin film, formed by silver nanoparticles stacking and spreading on the surface of the liquid, is one of the important parts of magnetic fluid deformable mirror. First, silver nanoparticles were prepared by liquid phase chemical reduction method using sodium citrate as reducing agent and stabilizer and silver nitrate as precursor. Characterization of silver nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffractometer, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results showed that silver nanoparticles are spherical and have a good monodispersity. Additionally, the effect of the reaction conditions on the particle size of silver is obvious. And then silver liquid thin films were prepared by oil-water two-phase interface technology using as-synthesized silver nanoparticles. Properties of the film were investigated using different technology. The results showed that the film has good reflectivity and the particle size has a great influence on the reflectivity of the films. SEM photos showed that the liquid film is composed of multilayer silver nanoparticles. In addition, stability of the film was studied. The results showed that after being stored for 8 days under natural conditions, the gloss and reflectivity of the film start to decrease.

  5. Controllable synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4/Au composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Yan; Jin, Yan-Yan; Si, Jian-Chao; Peng, Ming-Li; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Chen, Chao; Cui, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanoparticles (GoldMag NPs) have received considerable attention because of their advantageous properties arisen from both individual Au and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Many efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of these composite nanoparticles. Herein, GoldMag NPs were reported to be synthesized by two-step method. Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and modified by the citric acid, and then citric acid-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were used as seeds in sodium citrate solution to reduce the HAuCl 4 . The size of obtained nanoparticles was geared from 25 to 300 nm by controlling the concentration of reactants. The GoldMag NPs were characterized by UV–vis spectrometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The GoldMag NPs showed good superparamagnetism at room temperature and were well dispersed in water with surface plasmon resonance absorption peak varied from 538 nm to 570 nm. - Highlights: • A low cost, simple manipulation and nontoxic approach was designed for preparation of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 /Au (GoldMag NPs) nanocomposites. • The size of GoldMag NPs could be controlled from 25 to 300 nm by varying the concentration of reactants. • GoldMag NPs possessed good magnetic response, high dispersion, and good stability

  6. Synthesis and characterization of arsenic-doped cysteine-capped thoria-based nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, F. J.; Díez, M. T.; Aller, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Thoria materials have been largely used in the nuclear industry. Nonetheless, fluorescent thoria-based nanoparticles provide additional properties to be applied in other fields. Thoria-based nanoparticles, with and without arsenic and cysteine, were prepared in 1,2-ethanediol aqueous solutions by a simple precipitation procedure. The synthesized thoria-based nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (ED-XRS), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The presence of arsenic and cysteine, as well as the use of a thermal treatment facilitated fluorescence emission of the thoria-based nanoparticles. Arsenic-doped and cysteine-capped thoria-based nanoparticles prepared in 2.5 M 1,2-ethanediol solutions and treated at 348 K showed small crystallite sizes and strong fluorescence. However, thoria nanoparticles subjected to a thermal treatment at 873 K also produced strong fluorescence with a very narrow size distribution and much smaller crystallite sizes, 5 nm being the average size as shown by XRD and TEM. The XRD data indicated that, even after doping of arsenic in the crystal lattice of ThO 2 , the samples treated at 873 K were phase pure with the fluorite cubic structure. The Raman and FT-IR spectra shown the most characteristics vibrational peaks of cysteine together with other peaks related to the bonds of this molecule to thoria and arsenic when present

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, G.S.; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature using a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) and high resolution Raman spectroscopic techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction studies showed that the diameter of the particles was around 2–3 nm. Broadened XRD peaks revealed the formation of nanoparticles with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. DRS studies confirmed that the band gap increased with an increase in the dopant concentration. The Raman spectra of undoped and Ce, Cu ions co-doped ZnS nanoparticles showed longitudinal optical mode and transverse optical mode. Compared with the Raman modes (276 and 351 cm −1 ) of undoped ZnS nanoparticles, the Raman modes of Ce, Cu co- doped ZnS nanoparticles were slightly shifted towards lower frequency. PL spectra of the samples showed remarkable enhancement in the intensity upon doping

  8. Multidomain iron nanoparticles for the preparation of polyacrylamide ferrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Ajay, E-mail: ashankar@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, Alexander P. [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, 106 Amundsen Str., 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Mikhnevich, Ekaterina A. [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Beketov, Igor V. [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, 106 Amundsen Str., 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Ferrogels (FG) based on poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) with embedded multidomain iron magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by radical polymerization in water. Iron MNPs prepared by the electrical explosion of wire were spherical in shape and have an average diameter around 100 nm. MNPs were modified by a surfactant – oleic acid to improve their dispersion in water. DLVO theoretical consideration was done to understand the stability of dispersions. By microcalorimetry it was shown that the oleic layer on the surface of MNPs prevents their interaction with PAAm network of FG. Mechanical testing of the compression modulus and the deformation of FGs in magnetic field show up their prospectiveness as a material for magnetically sensitive MEMS and actuators. - Highlights: • Ferrogels were synthesized by radical polymerization in water. • DLVO theoretical consideration was done to understand the stability of dispersions. • Surfactant blocks the interfacial interaction of PAAm chains with particles. • Ferrogels show magnetodeformation when placed in magnetic field. • Grinding approach can also be used for other nanoparticles viz., Ni, Al, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} etc.

  9. Nanocomposite Coatings: Preparation, Characterization, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen-Tri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of nanofillers into the organic coatings might enhance their barrier performance, by decreasing the porosity and zigzagging the diffusion path for deleterious species. Thus, the coatings containing nanofillers are expected to have significant barrier properties for corrosion protection and reduce the trend for the coating to blister or delaminate. On the other hand, high hardness could be obtained for metallic coatings by producing the hard nanocrystalline phases within a metallic matrix. This article presents a review on recent development of nanocomposite coatings, providing an overview of nanocomposite coatings in various aspects dealing with the classification, preparative method, the nanocomposite coating properties, and characterization methods. It covers potential applications in areas such as the anticorrosion, antiwear, superhydrophobic area, self-cleaning, antifouling/antibacterial area, and electronics. Finally, conclusion and future trends will be also reported.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kabiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is preparation of SnO2 nanowires by means of Thermal chemical reaction vapor transport deposition (TCRVTD method from SnO powders. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure properties of the nanowires are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The XRD diffraction patterns reveal that the SnO2 nanowires have been grown in the form of tetragonal crystal structures with the lattice parameter of a=b=0.440 nm, and c=0.370 nm. The SEM images reveal that SnO2 nanowires have successfully been grown on the Si substrate. The EDS patterns show that only elements of Sn, O and Au are detected. Prior to the VLS process the substrate is coated by a thin layer of Au. The diameter of nanowires is measured to be something between 20-100 nm.

  11. Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hoang Hai; Nguyen Hoang Luong; Nguyen Chau; Ngo Quy Tai

    2009-01-01

    Superparamagnetic particles are widely used for biological applications such as cell separation. The size of the particles is normally in the range of 10 - 20 nm which is much smaller than the size of a cell. Therefore small particles create small force which is not strong enough to separate the cells from solution. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles embedded in Polystyrene microspheres (magnetic beads) are very useful for cell separation. Magnetic beads have been prepared by solvent evaporation of an emulsion. The beads with size of 0.2 μm - 1.0 μm have a saturation magnetization of 10 - 25 emu/g. The change of the amount of surfactants, volatile solvent, magnetic particles resulted to the change of size, magnetic properties of the magnetic beads.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Jaime; Melendres, Julio; Almada, Mario; Burboa, María G.; Taboada, Pablo; Juárez, Josué; Valdez, Miguel A.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new hybrid nanoparticles system performed by magnetite nanoparticles, loaded in a PLGA matrix, and stabilized by different concentrations of chitosan. Magnetite nanoparticles were hydrophobized with oleic acid and entrapped in a PLGA matrix by the emulsion solvent evaporation method, after that, magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by adding dropwise magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles in chitosan solutions. Magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles produced with different molar ratios did not show significant differences in size and the 3:1 molar ratio showed best spherical shapes as well as uniform particle size. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies demonstrated that the first stage of PLGA-chitosan interaction is mostly regulated by electrostatic forces. Based on a single set of identical sites model, we obtained for the average number of binding sites a value of 3.4, which can be considered as the number of chitosan chains per nanoparticle. This value was confirmed by using a model based on the DLVO theory and fitting zeta potential measurements of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles. From the adjusted parameters, we found that an average number of chitosan molecules of 3.6 per nanoparticle are attached onto the surface of the PLGA matrix. Finally, we evaluated the effect of surface charge of nanoparticles on a membrane model of endothelial cells performed by a mixture of three phospholipids at the air-water interface. Different isotherms and adsorption curves show that cationic surface of charged nanoparticles strongly interact with the phospholipids mixture and these results can be the basis of future experiments to understand the nanoparticles- cell membrane interaction.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Jaime; Melendres, Julio; Almada, Mario; Juárez, Josué; Valdez, Miguel A; Burboa, María G; Taboada, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new hybrid nanoparticles system performed by magnetite nanoparticles, loaded in a PLGA matrix, and stabilized by different concentrations of chitosan. Magnetite nanoparticles were hydrophobized with oleic acid and entrapped in a PLGA matrix by the emulsion solvent evaporation method, after that, magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by adding dropwise magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles in chitosan solutions. Magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles produced with different molar ratios did not show significant differences in size and the 3:1 molar ratio showed best spherical shapes as well as uniform particle size. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies demonstrated that the first stage of PLGA-chitosan interaction is mostly regulated by electrostatic forces. Based on a single set of identical sites model, we obtained for the average number of binding sites a value of 3.4, which can be considered as the number of chitosan chains per nanoparticle. This value was confirmed by using a model based on the DLVO theory and fitting zeta potential measurements of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles. From the adjusted parameters, we found that an average number of chitosan molecules of 3.6 per nanoparticle are attached onto the surface of the PLGA matrix. Finally, we evaluated the effect of surface charge of nanoparticles on a membrane model of endothelial cells performed by a mixture of three phospholipids at the air–water interface. Different isotherms and adsorption curves show that cationic surface of charged nanoparticles strongly interact with the phospholipids mixture and these results can be the basis of future experiments to understand the nanoparticles- cell membrane interaction. (paper)

  14. Physical-Chemical Characterization and Formulation Considerations for Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Harsh; Mohapatra, Sarat; Munt, Daniel J; Chandratre, Shantanu; Dash, Alekha

    2016-06-01

    Pure glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) (lipid) and different batches of GMO commonly used for the preparation of GMO-chitosan nanoparticles were characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), cryo-microscopy, and cryo-X-ray powder diffraction techniques. GMO-chitosan nanoparticles containing poloxamer 407 as a stabilizer in the absence and presence of polymers as crystallization inhibitors were prepared by ultrasonication. The effect of polymers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragits, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), polyethylene glycol (PEG)), surfactants (poloxamer), and oils (mineral oil and olive oil) on the crystallization of GMO was investigated. GMO showed an exothermic peak at around -10°C while cooling and another exothermic peak at around -12°C while heating. It was followed by two endothermic peaks between 15 and 30 C, indicative of GMO melting. The results are corroborated by cryo-microscopy and cryo-X-ray. Significant differences in exothermic and endothermic transition were observed between different grades of GMO and pure GMO. GMO-chitosan nanoparticles resulted in a significant increase in particle size after lyophilization. MDSC confirmed that nanoparticles showed similar exothermic crystallization behavior of lipid GMO. MDSC experiments showed that PVP inhibits GMO crystallization and addition of PVP showed no significant increase in particle size of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) during lyophilization. The research highlights the importance of extensive physical-chemical characterization for successful formulation of SLN.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Zulkepli, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Activated alumina is a high surface area and highly porous form of aluminum oxide that can be employed for contaminant species adsorb from ether gases or liquids without changing its form. The research in getting this material has generated huge interested. Thus, this paper presented preparation of activated alumina from chemical process. Pure aluminum (99.9% pure) reacted at room temperature with an aqueous NaOH in a reactor to produce a solution of sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). This solution was passed through filter paper and the clear filtrate was neutralized with H2SO4, to pH 6, 7 or 8, resulting in the precipitation of a white gel, Al(OH)3·XH2O. The washed gel for sulfate ions were dried at 80 °C for 6 h, a 60 mesh sieve was to separate and sort them into different sizes. The samples were then calcined (burn) for 3h in a muffle furnace, in air, at a heating rate of 2 °C min-1. The prepared activated alumina was further characterized for better understanding of its physical properties in order to predict its chemical mechanism.

  16. Silver, gold and the corresponding core shell nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Fraser; Yanez, Ramon; Ros, Josep; Marin, Sergio; Escosura-Muniz, Alfredo de la; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoci, Arben

    2008-01-01

    Simple strategies for producing silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNP and AuNP) along with the corresponding core shell nanoparticles (Au-Ag and Ag-Au) by reduction of the metal salts AgBF 4 and HAuCl 4 by NaBH 4 in water will be presented. The morphologies of the obtained nanoparticles are determined by the order of addition of reactants. The obtained NPs, with sizes in the range 3-40 nm, are characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, so as to evaluate their qualities. Moreover, a direct electrochemical detection protocol based on a cyclic voltammetry in water solution that involves the use of glassy carbon electrode is also applied to characterize the prepared NPs. The developed NPs and the related electroanalytical method seem to be with interest for future sensing and biosensing applications including DNA sensors and immunosensors.

  17. Studies on Preparation of Photosensitizer Loaded Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles and Their Anti-Tumor Effects for Targeting Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhi-Long

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a fast developing alternative of traditional therapeutics, photodynamic therapy (PDT is an effective, noninvasive, nontoxic therapeutics for cancer, senile macular degeneration, and so on. But the efficacy of PDT was compromised by insufficient selectivity and low solubility. In this study, novel multifunctional silica-based magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs were strategically designed and prepared as targeting drug delivery system to achieve higher specificity and better solubility. 2,7,12,18-Tetramethyl-3,8-di-(1-propoxyethyl-13,17-bis-(3-hydroxypropyl porphyrin, shorted as PHPP, was used as photosensitizer, which was first synthesized by our lab with good PDT effects. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 and PHPP were incorporated into silica nanoparticles by microemulsion and sol–gel methods. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were approximately spherical with 20–30 nm diameter. Intense fluorescence of PHPP was monitored in the cytoplasm of SW480 cells. The nanoparticles possessed good biocompatibility and could generate singlet oxygen to cause remarkable photodynamic anti-tumor effects. These suggested that PHPP-SMNPs had great potential as effective drug delivery system in targeting photodynamic therapy, diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia therapy.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles by laser ablation of zinc in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, R.K.; Shukla, Shobha

    2007-01-01

    We report formation of colloidal suspension of zinc oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at room temperature in different liquid environment. We have used photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize the nanoparticles. The sample ablated in deionized water showed the photoluminescence peak at 384 nm (3.23 eV), whereas peaks at 370 nm (3.35 eV) were observed for sample prepared in isopropanol. The use of water and isopropanol as a solvent yielded spherical nanoparticles of 14-20 nm while in acetone we found two types of particles, one spherical nanoparticles with sizes around 100 nm and another platelet-like structure of 1 μm in diameter and 40 nm in width. The absorption peak of samples prepared in deionized water and isopropanol are seen to be substantially blue shifted relative to that of the bulk zinc oxide due to the strong confinement effect. The technique offers an alternative for preparing the nanoparticles of active metal

  19. Synthesis and characterization of lead oxides for preparation of nanocomposites with polyamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cado, Ronan Gorski; Severo, Vinicius A.; Bulhores, Luis Otavio S.

    2016-01-01

    Lead oxide nanoparticles with diameters between 100 to 250 nm were obtained using a polymeric precursor method in the presence of citric acid and ethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering to measure the size and zeta potential in solution in dispersions with different pH were used to characterize the as-obtained samples. The nanoparticles were incorporated into polyamide 6.6 and composite films were prepared by electrospinning being evaluated the variation of the mechanical properties of the polymer and its effectiveness in attenuation of X-rays. (author)

  20. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of k ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Nanocomposite; k-Carrageenan; SiO2 nanoparticles; mechanical strength; antimicrobial activity. 1. Introduction ... Silicon dioxide (SiO2)-filled polymer matrix com- posites have ... by using the agar disk diffusion method. 2.

  1. Characterization and Biocompatibility of Chitosan Gels with Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sámano-Valencia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a very important issue and the search of new alternatives is necessary. In this work, a combination of chitosan gel with silver or gold nanoparticles was prepared and characterized using thermal, rheology, bactericide, and biocompatibility analyses. ESEM images were also taken to visualize the incorporation of the nanoparticles into the gel matrix. Thermal analysis showed a better thermal stability in the chitosan-gold nanoparticles gels compared to the chitosan-silver nanoparticles gels. Rheology analyses showed that the viscosity of the gels decreased when velocity increased and there were differences in viscosity when silver and gold nanoparticles concentrations change. ESEM images showed the presence of agglomerates of silver and gold nanoparticles into the gel matrix with a good distribution; in some cases the formation of microstructures was found. Bactericide results show that these materials present an antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. mutans, and E. coli. The biocompatibility test showed neither negative reaction nor wound healing delay after the application of the gels in an in vivo test. The gels with silver and gold nanoparticles could be used to treat wound infections in oral or skin applications.

  2. Direct Precipitation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Moharram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles are prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of zinc acetate dihydrate by potassium hydroxide in alcoholic medium at low temperatures. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the precursor is made in order to specify the temperature range over which the weight loss and thermal effect are significant. X-ray diffraction of the as-prepared specimens shows that the hexagonal (a=3.2459 Å, c=5.1999 Å structure is the predominant crystallographic structure. According to Scherer’s formula, the average size of the nanoparticles is 22.4 ± 0.6 nm. The structural properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles have been confirmed using the TEM micrographs. The optical energy gap of the ZnO nanoparticles, as obtained from applying Tauc’s equation, is equal to 3.52 eV, which is higher than that of the bulk material. Absorption peak of the as-prepared sample is 298 nm which is highly blue shifted as compared to the bulk (360 nm. Large optical energy gap and highly blue shifted absorption edge confirm that the prepared ZnO nanoparticle exhibits strong quantum confinement effect.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Co-Fe Prussian blue nanoparticles within MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vien Vo; Nguyen Van Minh; Lee, Hyung Ik; Kim, Ji Man; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Sung Jin

    2009-01-01

    A Prussian blue analogue, K 0.84 Co 1.08 [Fe(CN) 6 ] is prepared by reaction between [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3- in aqueous solution and ion-exchanged Co 2+ in the channels of MCM-41. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and magnetic measurements were employed to characterize the product. The results show that the Prussian blue analogue is in nanoparticles within the channels and the hexagonal phase of MCM-41 remains intact during the reactions. A particle size effect on optical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles was observed

  4. Mixed matrix membranes prepared from high impact polystyrene with dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for gas separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Safaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents synthesis and characterization of high impact polystyrene - TiO2 nanoparticles mixed matrix membranes for separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen. The solution-casting method was used for preparation of membranes. The nano mixed matrix membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to ensure the suitable dispersion of nano particles in high impact polystyrene matrix. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles loading on membrane performance was investigated. The separation performance of synthesized membranes was investigated in separation of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture. Effect of feed pressure and TiO2 content on separation of CO2 was studied. The results revealed that increase of feed pressure decreases flux of gases through the mixed matrix membrane. The results also confirmed that the best separation performance can be obtained at TiO2 nanoparticles loading of 7 wt.%.

  5. Smart Magnetically Responsive Hydrogel Nanoparticles Prepared by a Novel Aerosol-Assisted Method for Biomedical and Drug Delivery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. El-Sherbiny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel spray gelation-based method to synthesize a new series of magnetically responsive hydrogel nanoparticles for biomedical and drug delivery applications. The method is based on the production of hydrogel nanoparticles from sprayed polymeric microdroplets obtained by an air-jet nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. Oligoguluronate (G-blocks was prepared through the partial acid hydrolysis of sodium alginate. PEG-grafted chitosan was also synthesized and characterized (FTIR, EA, and DSC. Then, magnetically responsive hydrogel nanoparticles based on alginate and alginate/G-blocks were synthesized via aerosolization followed by either ionotropic gelation or both ionotropic and polyelectrolyte complexation using CaCl2 or PEG-g-chitosan/CaCl2 as crosslinking agents, respectively. Particle size and dynamic swelling were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS and microscopy. Surface morphology of the nanoparticles was examined using SEM. The distribution of magnetic cores within the hydrogels nanoparticles was also examined using TEM. In addition, the iron and calcium contents of the particles were estimated using EDS. Spherical magnetic hydrogel nanoparticles with average particle size of 811 ± 162 to 941 ± 2 nm were obtained. This study showed that the developed method is promising for the manufacture of hydrogel nanoparticles, and it represents a relatively simple and potential low-cost system.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles using polyol method for antimicrobial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Idrus, N. F.; Jai, J.; Hadi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles are well-known as the good antimicrobial agent. The nano-size of particles influences in enhancing the antimicrobial activity. This paper discusses the effect of molarity on the microstructure and morphology of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles prepared by a polyol method. In this study, silver-copper nanoparticles are synthesized through the green approach of polyol method using ethylene glycol (EG) as green solvent and reductant, and polyoxyethylene-(80)-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) as a nontoxic stabilizer. The phase and morphology of silver-copper nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results XRD confirm the pure crystalline of silver and copper nanoparticles with face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. FESEM and TEM analysis confirm the existence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in core-shell shape.

  7. New Perspective in the Formulation and Characterization of Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide (DMAB Stabilized Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gossmann

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades the establishment of nanoparticles as suitable drug carriers with the transport of drugs across biological barriers such as the gastrointestinal barrier moved into the focus of many research groups. Besides drug transport such carrier systems are well suited for the protection of drugs against enzymatic and chemical degradation. The preparation of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA is intensively described in literature, while especially nanoparticles with cationic properties show a promising increased cellular uptake. This is due to the electrostatic interaction between the cationic surface and the negatively charged lipid membrane of the cells. Even though several studies achieved the successful preparation of nanoparticles stabilized with the cationic surfactants such as didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB, in most cases insufficient attention was paid to a precise analytical characterization of the nanoparticle system. The aim of the present work was to overcome this deficit by presenting a new perspective in the formulation and characterization of DMAB-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles. Therefore these nanoparticles were carefully examined with regard to particle diameter, zeta potential, the effect of variation in stabilizer concentration, residual DMAB content, and electrolyte stability. Without any steric stabilization, the DMAB-modified nanoparticles were sensitive to typical electrolyte concentrations of biological environments due to compression of the electrical double layer in conjunction with a decrease in zeta potential. To handle this problem, the present study proposed two modifications to enable electrolyte stability. Both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and polyethylene glycol (PEG modified DMAB-PLGA-nanoparticles were stable during electrolyte addition. Furthermore, in contrast to unmodified DMAB-PLGA-nanoparticles and free DMAB, such modifications led to

  8. Preparation of curcumin-loaded pluronic F127/chitosan nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Le, Thi Minh; Pham, Van Phuc; Lua Dang, Thi Minh; Huyen La, Thi; Le, Thi Hanh; Le, Quang Huan

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven to be an effective delivery system with few side effects for anticancer drugs. In this study, curcumin-loaded NPs have been prepared by an ionic gelation method using chitosan (Chi) and pluronic ® F-127 (PF) as carriers to deliver curcumin to the target cancer cells. Prepared NPs were characterized using Zetasizer, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was approximately 50%. The average size of curcumin-loaded PF/Chi NPs was 150.9 nm, while the zeta potential was 5.09 mV. Cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded NPs into HEK293 cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. (paper)

  9. Preparation of lanthanum sulfide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of lanthanum complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Peisen; LI Huanyong; JIE Wanqi

    2011-01-01

    γ-La2S3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by thermal decomposition of lanthanum complex La(Et2S2CN)3·phen at low temperature. The obtained sample was characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and element analysis. The decomposition mechanism of lanthanum complex was studied by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The results showed that the obtained samples were cubic phase particles with uniform sizes among 10-30 nm and γ-La2S3 was prepared by decomposition of La(Et2S2CN)3 phen via La4(Et2S2CN)3 as an intermediate product. The band gap of γ-La2S3 was 2.97 eV, which was bigger than bulk crystal because of pronounced quantum confinement effect.

  10. Purification, immobilization, and characterization of nattokinase on PHB nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Venkataraman; Pandian, Suresh babu Ram Kumar; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2009-12-01

    In this study, nattokinase was purified from Bacillus subtilis using ion exchange chromatography and immobilized upon polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanoparticles. A novel strain isolated from industrial dairy waste was found to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and the strain was identified as Brevibacterium casei SRKP2. PHA granules were extracted from 48 h culture and the FT-IR analysis characterized them as PHB, a natural biopolymer from B. casei. Nanoprecipitation by solvent displacement technique was used to synthesize PHB nanoparticles. PHB nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and particle size ranged from 100-125 nm. Immobilization of nattokinase upon PHB nanoparticles resulted in a 20% increase in the enzyme activity. Immobilization also contributed to the enhanced stability of the enzyme. Moreover, the activity was completely retained on storage at 4 degrees C for 25 days. The method has proven to be highly simple and can be implemented to other enzymes also.

  11. Nickel Oxide (NiO nanoparticles prepared by solid-state thermal decomposition of Nickel (II schiff base precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, plate-like NiO nanoparticles were prepared by one-pot solid-state thermal decomposition of nickel (II Schiff base complex as new precursor. First, the nickel (II Schiff base precursor was prepared by solid-state grinding using nickel (II nitrate hexahydrate, Ni(NO32∙6H2O, and the Schiff base ligand N,N′-bis-(salicylidene benzene-1,4-diamine for 30 min without using any solvent, catalyst, template or surfactant. It was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHN. The resultant solid was subsequently annealed in the electrical furnace at 450 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of NiO were produced and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD at 2θ degree 0-140°, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD and FT-IR results showed that the product is pure and has good crystallinity with cubic structure because no characteristic peaks of impurity were observed, while the SEM and TEM results showed that the obtained product is tiny, aggregated with plate-like shape, narrow size distribution with an average size between 10-40 nm. Results show that the solid state thermal decomposition method is simple, environmentally friendly, safe and suitable for preparation of NiO nanoparticles. This method can also be used to synthesize nanoparticles of other metal oxides.

  12. Biosynthesis and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles from bacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, Sahar; El Kady, M.F.; Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this study five bacterial isolates belong to different genera were found to be able to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. Biosynthesis and spectral characterization are reported here. Highlights: → About 300 bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce nanosilvers → Five of them were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles → Production of silver nanoparticles was examined using UV-Vis, XRD, SEM and EDS. → The presence of nanoparticles with all five bacterial isolates was confirmed. -- Abstract: This study aimed to develop a green process for biosynthesis of silver nanomaterials by some Egyptian bacterial isolates. This target was achieved by screening an in-house culture collection consists of 300 bacterial isolates for silver nanoparticle formation. Through screening process, it was observed that strains belonging to Escherichia coli (S30, S78), Bacillus megaterium (S52), Acinetobacter sp. (S7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S54) were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by positive isolates was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrated that UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ion showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 15-50 nm. XRD-spectrum of the silver nanoparticles exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal that produce in hexagonal and cubic crystal configurations with different plane of orientation. In addition, the signals of the silver atoms were observed by EDS-spectrum analysis that confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in all positive

  13. Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Wang, Chao; Hwang, Kyu Hyon; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the strain Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DC2 was explored for the efficient and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which detected the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture and showed a maximum absorbance at 420 nm. In addition, field emission transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The dynamic light scattering results indicated the average particle size of the product was 97 nm with a 0.191 polydispersity index. Furthermore, the product was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping, which displayed the presence of elemental silver in the product. Moreover, on a medical platform, the product was checked against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all of these pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their combined effects with the commercial antibiotics lincomycin, oleandomycin, vancomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, and rifampicin against these pathogenic microorganisms. These results indicated that the combination of antibiotics with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. Therefore, the current study is a demonstration of an efficient biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by B. frigoritolerans DC2 and its effect on the enhancement of the antimicrobial efficacy of well-known commercial antibiotics.

  14. Micro structural and magnetic characterization of Gd doped SnO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, R.; Das, A.K.; Karmakar, D.; Chandrasekhar Rao, T.V.; Ghatak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Gd doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared samples were calcined at 600 deg C. The annealed samples were characterized using XRD, TEM and SQUID magnetometry. The structural characterizations showed formation of particles in the nanometer regime. The M(T) and M(H) studies indicated an antiferromagnetic (AFM) interaction in 3 and 6% (at. wt.) Gd doped SnO 2 nanoparticles. The M(H) plot of both samples indicate a super paramagnetic (SPM) behavior at 7K as against the perfect AFM nature at 300K. The samples exhibit an insulating DMS nature, but we do not observe any ferromagnetism as was observed for other Gd doped systems like GaN and ZnO. (author)

  15. Preparation of highly dispersed palladium–phosphorus nanoparticles and its electrocatalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hanjun; Xu Jiangfeng; Fu Gengtao; Mao Xinbiao; Zhang, Lu; Chen Yu; Zhou Yiming; Lu Tianhong; Tang Yawen

    2012-01-01

    Highly dispersed and ultrafine palladium–phosphorus (Pd–P) nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared with a novel phosphorus reduction method. The structural and electronic properties of Pd–P NPs are characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrooxidation of formic acid on Pd–P NPs are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and CO-stripping measurements. The physical characterizations indicate the doped P element can enhance the content of Pd 0 species in Pd NPs, decrease the particle size and improve the dispersion of Pd–P NPs. The electrochemical measurements show the Pd–P NPs have a better catalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation than Pd NPs.

  16. Development of Nano-Particles Within Polymeric Materials Prepared by Gamma Radiation and their Possible Practical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegazy, E. S.A.; Ali, A. E.; AbdEl-Rehim, H.; Mohammady, M.; Abdel Aal, A. S. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-07-01

    Nanoparticles can be used in biomedical applications, where they facilitate laboratory diagnostics, or in medical drug targeting nanoparticles based on a core consisting of iron oxides that can be targeted through external magnets. Polyvinyl alcohol/Polyacrylic acid nanoparticles were prepared using gamma rays. The prepared PVA/AAc nano copolymers were treated with Fe{sup 2+}/ Fe{sup 3+} solution followed by ammonia solution to obtain PVA/AAc-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle ferrogel. Characterization of the PVA/AAc-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle ferrogel was carried out using XRD, TGA, DSc , TEM and AFM. The use of magnetic field sensitive nano-ferrogels as a drug carrier was investigated. It was found that the release of drug in absence of the effect of magnetic field is mostly slow than that under the influence of magnetic field. On the other hand, development of nanoparticles within radiation grafted polymeric surfaces using electroless plating technique was investigated. Surface modification of polypropylene films (PP) was carried out via radiation induced graft copolymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) and acrylamide (AAm) to enhance the adhesion ability of the PP surface for electroless deposition of copper. The produced grafted films were characterized by studying their FTIR and thermal stability. The prepared grafted films were copper-plated by electroless deposition using the Pd as a catalyst to initiate the redox reaction. The influences of catalytic activation method parameters on the plating rate have been studied. The electrical characteristics of the copper plated films in comparison with grafted films were studied. The results showed the high adhesion of the deposited copper film to the grafted PP film as well as high electrical conductivity. (author)

  17. The preparation, physicochemical properties, and the cohesive energy of liquid sodium containing titanium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Itami, Toshio; Ara, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    Liquid sodium containing titanium nanoparticles (LSnanop) of 10-nm diameter was prepared by dispersing titanium nanoparticles (2 at.% Ti) into liquid sodium with the addition of stirring and ultrasonic sound wave. The titanium nanoparticles themselves were prepared by the vapor deposition method. This new liquid metal, LSnanop, shows a remarkable stability due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles in liquid sodium medium. In addition, the difference of measured heat of reaction to water between this LSnanop and liquid sodium indicates the existence of cohesive energy between the liquid sodium medium and dispersed titanium nanoparticles. The origin of the cohesive energy, which serves to stabilize this new liquid metal, was explained by the model of screened nanoparticles in liquid sodium. In this model, negatively charged nanoparticles with transferred electrons from liquid sodium are surrounded by the positively charged screening shell, which may inhibit the gathering of nanoparticles by the “Coulombic repulsion coating.” The atomic volume of LSnanop shows the shrinkage from the linear law, which also suggests the existence of cohesive energy. The viscosity of LSnanop is almost the same as that of liquid sodium. This behavior was explained by the Einstein equation. The surface tension of LSnanop is 17 % larger than that of liquid sodium. The cohesive energy and the negative adsorption may be responsible to this increase. Titanium nanoparticles in liquid sodium seem to be free from the Coulomb fission. This new liquid metal containing nanoparticles suggests the possibility to prepare various stable suspensions with new properties.

  18. Titanate nanotubes sensitized with silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and in-situ pollutants photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrocas, B.; Nunes, C.D. [Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L. [LIBPhys-UNL, Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação and Departamento de Física da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Monteiro, O.C., E-mail: ocmonteiro@ciencias.ulisboa.pt [Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)