WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanomaterials including genotoxicity

  1. The comet assay in testing the potential genotoxicity of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Azqueta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades the production and use of nanomaterials (NMs has impressively increased. Their small size, given a mass equal to that of the corresponding bulk material, implies an increase in the surface area and consequently in the number of atoms that can be reactive. They possess different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to bulk materials of the same composition, which makes them very interesting and valuable for many different applications in technology, energy, construction, electronics, agriculture, optics, paints, textiles, food, cosmetics, medicine... Toxicological assessment of NMs is crucial; the same properties that make them interesting also make them potentially harmful for health and the environment. However, the term NM covers many different kinds of particle , and so there is no simple, standard approach to assessing their toxicity. NMs can enter the cell, interact with cell components and even penetrate the nucleus and interfere with the genetic material. Among the different branches of toxicology, genotoxicity is a main area of concern since it is closely related with the carcinogenic potential of compounds. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD has published internationally agreed in vitro and in vivo validated test methods to evaluate different genotoxic endpoints of chemicals, including chromosome and gene mutations, and DNA breaks. However not all the assays are suitable to study the genotoxic potential of NMs as has been shown by the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN. Moreover, alterations to DNA bases, which are precursors to mutations and of great importance in elucidating the mechanism of action of NMs, are not covered by the OECD guidelines. The in vivo standard comet assay (which measures DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites was included in the OECD assays battery in September 2014 while the in vitro standard comet assay is currently under

  2. High throughput comet assay to study genotoxicity of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naouale El Yamani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (NMs have accelerated their use in diverse industrial and domestic products. Although their presence in consumer products represents a major concern for public health safety, their potential impact on human health is poorly understood. There is therefore an urgent need to clarify the toxic effects of NMs and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. In view of the large number of NMs currently being used, high throughput (HTP screening technologies are clearly needed for efficient assessment of toxicity. The comet assay is the most used method in nanogenotoxicity studies and has great potential for increasing throughput as it is fast, versatile and robust; simple technical modifications of the assay make it possible to test many compounds (NMs in a single experiment. The standard gel of 70-100 μL contains thousands of cells, of which only a tiny fraction are actually scored. Reducing the gel to a volume of 5 μL, with just a few hundred cells, allows twelve gels to be set on a standard slide, or 96 as a standard 8x12 array. For the 12 gel format, standard slides precoated with agarose are placed on a metal template and gels are set on the positions marked on the template. The HTP comet assay, incorporating digestion of DNA with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG to detect oxidised purines, has recently been applied to study the potential induction of genotoxicity by NMs via reactive oxygen. In the NanoTEST project we investigated the genotoxic potential of several well-characterized metal and polymeric nanoparticles with the comet assay. All in vitro studies were harmonized; i.e. NMs were from the same batch, and identical dispersion protocols, exposure time, concentration range, culture conditions, and time-courses were used. As a kidney model, Cos-1 fibroblast-like kidney cells were treated with different concentrations of iron oxide NMs, and cells embedded in minigels (12

  3. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  5. Genotoxicity of nanomaterials: DNA damage and micronuclei induced by carbon nanotubes and graphite nanofibres in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Suhonen, Satu; Vippola, Minnamari; Vanhala, Esa; Catalán, Julia; Savolainen, Kai; Norppa, Hannu

    2009-05-08

    Despite the increasing industrial use of different nanomaterials, data on their genotoxicity are scant. In the present study, we examined the potential genotoxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs; >50% single-walled, approximately 40% other CNTs; 1.1 nm x 0.5-100 microm; Sigma-Aldrich) and graphite nanofibres (GNFs; 95%; outer diameter 80-200 nm, inner diameter 30-50 nm, length 5-20 microm; Sigma-Aldrich) in vitro. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and the micronucleus assay (cytokinesis-block method) in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells cultured for 24h, 48h, or 72h with various doses (1-100 microg/cm(2), corresponding to 3.8-380 microg/ml) of the carbon nanomaterials. In the comet assay, CNTs induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage at all treatment times, with a statistically significant effect starting at the lowest dose tested. GNFs increased DNA damage at all doses in the 24-h treatment, at two doses (40 and 100 microg/cm(2)) in the 48-h treatment (dose-dependent effect) and at four doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)) in the 72-h treatment. In the micronucleus assay, no increase in micronucleated cells was observed with either of the nanomaterials after the 24-h treatment or with CNTs after the 72-h treatment. The 48-h treatment caused a significant increase in micronucleated cells at three doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)) of CNTs and at two doses (5 and 10 microg/cm(2)) of GNFs. The 72-h treatment with GNFs increased micronucleated cells at four doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)). No dose-dependent effects were seen in the micronucleus assay. The presence of carbon nanomaterial on the microscopic slides disturbed the micronucleus analysis and made it impossible at levels higher than 20 microg/cm(2) of GNFs in the 24-h and 48-h treatments. In conclusion, our results suggest that both CNTs and GNFs are genotoxic in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro. This activity may be due to the fibrous nature

  6. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...... Nanomaterials (WPMN) (NM-401, NM-402, and NM-403), materials (NRCWE-026 and MWCNT-XNRI-7), and three sets of surface-modified MWCNT grouped by physical characteristics (thin, thick, and short I-III, respectively). Each Groups I-III included pristine, hydroxylated and carboxylated MWCNT. Group III also included...... an amino-functionalized MWCNT. The level of surface functionalization of the MWCNT was low. The level and type of elemental impurities of the MWCNT varied by...

  7. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  8. Genotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nanomaterial industry has recently seen rapid growth, therefore, the risk assessment of human exposure to nanomaterials in consumer products is of paramount importance. The genotoxicity of nanomaterials is a fundamental aspect of hazard identification and regulatory guidance....

  9. The Genotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the exponential growth of the nanomaterial industry, risk assessment of human exposure to nanomaterials in consumer products is of paramount importance. The genotoxicity of nanomaterials is an important aspect of hazard identification and regulatory guidance. However, this...

  10. An in vitro liver model--assessing oxidative stress and genotoxicity following exposure of hepatocytes to a panel of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gaiser, Birgit K; Hutchison, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    Following exposure via inhalation, intratracheal instillation or ingestion some nanomaterials (NM) have been shown to translocate to the liver. Since oxidative stress has been implicated as a possible mechanism for NM toxicity this study aimed to investigate the effects of various materials (five...... titanium dioxide (TiO2), two zinc oxide (ZnO), two multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and one silver (Ag) NM) on oxidative responses of C3A cell line as a model for potential detrimental properties of nanomaterials on the liver.......Following exposure via inhalation, intratracheal instillation or ingestion some nanomaterials (NM) have been shown to translocate to the liver. Since oxidative stress has been implicated as a possible mechanism for NM toxicity this study aimed to investigate the effects of various materials (five...

  11. Advances in nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Zishan

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a review of the latest research findings and key applications in the field of nanomaterials. The book contains twelve chapters on different aspects of nanomaterials. It begins with key fundamental concepts to aid readers new to the discipline of nanomaterials, and then moves to the different types of nanomaterials studied. The book includes chapters based on the applications of nanomaterials for nano-biotechnology and solar energy. Overall, the book comprises chapters on a variety of topics on nanomaterials from expert authors across the globe. This book will appeal to researchers and professional alike, and may also be used as a reference for courses in nanomaterials.

  12. The cda GenoTox assay: A new and sensitive method for detection of environmental genotoxins, including nitroarenes and aromatic amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Trine G.; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2007-01-01

    A new bacterial test system for detection of genotoxic compounds was developed, based on two new Sahnonella typhimurium tester strains, TGO1 and TGO2. Both strains contain a gene fusion between a strong SOS-promotor, P-cda, and the gfp gene, which allows detection of genotoxic compounds that indu...

  13. Purifying Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor); Hurst, Janet (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of purifying a nanomaterial and the resultant purified nanomaterial in which a salt, such as ferric chloride, at or near its liquid phase temperature, is used to penetrate and wet the internal surfaces of a nanomaterial to dissolve impurities that may be present, for example, from processes used in the manufacture of the nanomaterial.

  14. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  15. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  16. Advanced nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Elby; Ventura, João; Pedro Araújo, João; Campos Gil, João

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterials provide a remarkably novel outlook to the design and fabrication of materials. The know-how of designing, modelling and fabrication of nanomaterials demands sophisticated experimental and analytical techniques. The major impact of nanomaterials will be in the fields of electronics, energy and medicine. Nanoelectronics hold the promise of improving the quality of life of electronic devices through superior performance, weight reduction and lower power consumption. New energy production systems based on hydrogen, solar and nuclear sources have also benefited immensely from nanomaterials. In modern medicine, nanomaterials research will have great impact on public health care due to better diagnostic methods and design of novel drugs.

  17. Towards Safer Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    As nanomaterials become more widespread in everything from industrial processes to consumer products, concerns about human and environmental safety are being taken increasingly more seriously. In our research we are working with minimizing the impact and risks of engineered nanomaterials by looking...... or the exposure and optimally both. Examples include the 5 SAFER principles (Morose, 2010) or screenings of early warning signs (Hansen et al., 2013). Taking the full life cycle of nanomaterials into account, the principles of Green chemistry and Green engineering could also prove useful to reduce...... the environmental impact of nanomaterials (Eckelman et al., 2008). Our research interests include the feasibility of “safer-­‐by-­‐design” approaches, the production of greener nanomaterials and operationalization, adaption and creation of frameworks to facilitate safety engineering. Research and insight...

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrello, Bruna [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Brazil); Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza de [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez [University of São Paulo (USP), Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology Group, Physics Institute of São Carlos (IFSC) (Brazil); Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Ximenes, Valdecir Farias, E-mail: vfximenes@fc.unesp.br [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were −10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and −5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  19. Bioengineered nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Many varieties of new, complex diseases are constantly being discovered, which leaves scientists with little choice but to embrace innovative methods for controlling the invasion of life-threatening problems. The use of nanotechnology has given scientists an opportunity to create nanomaterials that could help medical professionals in diagnosing and treating problems quickly and effectively. Bioengineered Nanomaterials presents in-depth information on bioengineered nanomaterials currently being developed in leading research laboratories around the world. In particular, the book focuses on nanom

  20. Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bréchignac, Catherine; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanomaterials are a fast developing field of research and applications lie in many separate domains, such as in hi-tech (optics, electronics, biology, aeronautics), but also in consumer industries (automotive, concrete, surface treatments (including paints), cosmetics, etc.).

  1. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  2. Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body. © The Author(s) 2012.

  3. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  4. Nanomaterial Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — By leveraging and developing a set of Minimal Information About Nanomaterials (MIAN), ontology and standards through a community effort, it has developed a data...

  5. Applications of nanomaterials in sensors and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuantranont, Adisorn (ed.) [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Pathumthani (Thailand). Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory

    2013-11-01

    Recent progress in the synthesis of nanomaterials and our fundamental understanding of their properties has led to significant advances in nanomaterial-based gas, chemical and biological sensors. Leading experts around the world highlight the latest findings on a wide range of nanomaterials including nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, molecularly imprinted nanostructures or plastibodies, nanometals, DNA-based structures, smart nanomaterials, nanoprobes, magnetic nanomaterials, organic molecules like phthalocyanines and porphyrins, and the most amazing novel nanomaterial, called graphene. Various sensing techniques such as nanoscaled electrochemical detection, functional nanomaterial-amplified optical assays, colorimetry, fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence, as well as biomedical diagnosis applications, e.g. for cancer and bone disease, are thoroughly reviewed and explained in detail. This volume will provide an invaluable source of information for scientists working in the field of nanomaterial-based technology as well as for advanced students in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, electrochemistry, material science, micro- and nanotechnology.

  6. LCA of Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials in products has led to an increase in number of nanoproducts introduced to the consumer market. However, along with new and improved products, there is a concern about the potential life cycle environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment is able to include a wide range...... of environmental impacts but, due to data limitations, it is commonly applied with focus on the cradle-to-gate part of the nanoproducts life cycle, neglecting use and disposal of the products. These studies conclude that nanomaterials are more energy demanding and have an inferior environmental profile than...

  7. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Makoto, E-mail: ema-makoto@aist.go.jp; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-15

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs. - Highlights: • We review the developmental toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). • Various developmental endpoints have been

  8. Applications and toxicity of graphene family nanomaterials and their composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zorawar Singh Department of Zoology, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab, India Abstract: Graphene has attracted much attention of scientific community due to its enormous potential in different fields, including medical sciences, agriculture, food safety, cancer research, and tissue engineering. The potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs. Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, graphene and its derivatives have found important places in their respective application fields, yet they are being found to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects too. Since the discovery of graphene, a number of researches are being conducted to find out the toxic potential of GFNs to different cell and animal models, finding their suitability for being used in new and varied innovative fields. This paper presents a systematic review of the research done on GFNs and gives an insight into the mode and action of these nanosized moieties. The paper also emphasizes on the recent and up-to-date developments in research on GFNs and their nanocomposites for their toxic effects. Keywords: graphene, quantum dots, desalination, drug delivery, antibacterial, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity

  9. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  10. EDITORIAL: Whither nanomaterials? Whither nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouk, Thomas E.; Pinkerton, Fred; Stetson, Ned

    2009-10-01

    As the journal Nanotechnology enters its third decade it is interesting to look back on the field and to think about where it may be headed in the future. The growth of the journal over the past twenty years mirrors that of the field, with exponentially rising numbers of citations and a widening diversity of topics that we identify as nanotechnology. In the early 1990s, Nanotechnology was focused primarily on nanoscale electronics and on scanning probe tools for fabricating and characterizing nanostructures. The synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials was already an active area in chemical research; however, it did not yet intersect strongly with the activities of the physics community, which was interested primarily in new phenomena that emerged on the nanoscale and on the devices that derived from them. In the 1990s there were several key advances that began to bridge this gap. Techniques were developed for making nanocrystals of compound semiconductors, oxides, and metals with very fine control over shape and superstructure. Carbon nanotubes were discovered and their unique electronic properties were demonstrated. Research on the self-assembly of organic molecules on surfaces led to the development of soft lithography and layer-by- layer assembly of materials. The potential to use DNA and then proteins as building blocks of precise assemblies of nanoparticles was explored. These bottom-up structures could not be made by top-down techniques, and their unique properties as components of sensors, electronic devices, biological imaging agents, and drug delivery vehicles began to change the definition of the field. Ten years ago, Inelke Malsch published a study on the scientific trends and organizational dynamics of nanotechology in Europe (1999 Nanotechnology 10 1-7). Scientists from a variety of disciplines were asked which areas of research they would include in the definition of nanotechnology. Although the article concluded with forward-looking thoughts in the

  11. Genotoxicity test of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Noriho

    2004-01-01

    Safety tests of radiation irradiated foods started as early as from 1967 in Japan and genotoxicity tests in the Hatano Res. Inst., from 1977. The latter is unique in the world and is reviewed in this paper. Tests included those for the initial injury of DNA, mutagenicity, chromosomal aberration and transformation with use of bacteria, cultured mammalian cells and animals (for chromosomal aberration, micronucleus formation and dominant lethality). Foods tested hitherto were onion, rice, wheat and flour, Vienna sausage, fish sausage (kamaboko), mandarian orange, potato, black pepper and red capsicum, of which extract or powder was subjected to the test. Irradiation doses and its purposes were 0.15-6 kGy γ-ray ( 60 Co) or electron beam by the accelerator (only for the orange), and suppression of germination, pesticide action or sterilization, respectively. Genotoxicity of all foods under tested conditions is shown negative. (N.I.)

  12. Plasma nanofabrication and nanomaterials safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Z J; Levchenko, I; Kumar, S; Yajadda, M M A; Yick, S; Seo, D H; Martin, P J; Ostrikov, K; Peel, S; Kuncic, Z

    2011-01-01

    The fast advances in nanotechnology have raised increasing concerns related to the safety of nanomaterials when exposed to humans, animals and the environment. However, despite several years of research, the nanomaterials safety field is still in its infancy owing to the complexities of structural and surface properties of these nanomaterials and organism-specific responses to them. Recently, plasma-based technology has been demonstrated as a versatile and effective way for nanofabrication, yet its health and environment-benign nature has not been widely recognized. Here we address the environmental and occupational health and safety effects of various zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials and elaborate the advantages of using plasmas as a safe nanofabrication tool. These advantages include but are not limited to the production of substrate-bound nanomaterials, the isolation of humans from harmful nanomaterials, and the effective reforming of toxic and flammable gases. It is concluded that plasma nanofabrication can minimize the hazards in the workplace and represents a safe way for future nanofabrication technologies.

  13. Nanomaterials in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers engineered nanomaterials, deliberately engineered and manufactured to have certain properties and have at least one primary dimension of less than 100 nm. Materials produced with the aid of nanotechnologies are used in many areas of everyday life. Researches with nanomaterials have shown that the physiochemical characteristic of particles can influence their effects in biological systems. The field of nanotechnology has created risk for environment and human health. The toxicity of nanoparticles may be affected by different physicochemical properties, including size, shape, chemistry, surface properties, agglomeration, solubility, and charge, as well as effects from attached functional groups and crystalline structure. The greater surface-area-to-mass ratio of nanoparticles makes them generally more reactive than their macro-sized counterparts. Exposure to nanomaterials can occur at different life-cycle stages of the materials and/or products. The knowledge gaps limiting the understanding of the human and environment hazard and risk of nanotechnology should be explained by the scientific investigations for help to protect human and environmental health and to ensure the benefits of the nanotechnology products without excessive risk of this new technology. In this review are presented the proposal measurement methods for NMs characteristic.

  14. A predictive toxicogenomics signature to classify genotoxic versus non-genotoxic chemicals in human TK6 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity testing is a critical component of chemical assessment. The use of integrated approaches in genetic toxicology, including the incorporation of gene expression data to determine the DNA damage response pathways involved in response, is becoming more common. In companion papers previously published in Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Li et al. (2015 [6] developed a dose optimization protocol that was based on evaluating expression changes in several well-characterized stress-response genes using quantitative real-time PCR in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells in culture. This optimization approach was applied to the analysis of TK6 cells exposed to one of 14 genotoxic or 14 non-genotoxic agents, with sampling 4 h post-exposure. Microarray-based transcriptomic analyses were then used to develop a classifier for genotoxicity using the nearest shrunken centroids method. A panel of 65 genes was identified that could accurately classify toxicants as genotoxic or non-genotoxic. In Buick et al. (2015 [1], the utility of the biomarker for chemicals that require metabolic activation was evaluated. In this study, TK6 cells were exposed to increasing doses of four chemicals (two genotoxic that require metabolic activation and two non-genotoxic chemicals in the presence of rat liver S9 to demonstrate that S9 does not impair the ability to classify genotoxicity using this genomic biomarker in TK6cells.

  15. “NaKnowBase”: A Nanomaterials Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaKnowBase is a relational database populated with data from peer-reviewed ORD nanomaterials research publications. The database focuses on papers describing the actions of nanomaterials in environmental or biological media including their interactions, transformations and poten...

  16. “NaKnowBase”: A Nanomaterials Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaKnowBase is an internal relational database populated with data from peer-reviewed ORD nanomaterials research publications. The database focuses on papers describing the actions of nanomaterials in environmental or biological media including their interactions, transformations...

  17. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  18. Genotoxicity of metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Mason, Michael M; Wise, John Pierce

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently used in industry, medicine, and military applications, as well as in more than 300 commercial products. Yet, the same properties that make these particles exciting for technology also make them daunting public health concerns because their toxicity is unknown and relatively unexplored. Increased attention is being placed on the study of metal particle genotoxicity; however, a lot of unknowns remain about their effects and the mechanisms. In this article, we highlight some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles of interest and discuss the current in vivo and in vitro studies of genotoxic effects. Many metal nanoparticles were found to cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage, and mutations. Inconsistencies are found in the literature, however, thus drawing conclusions is difficult due to a variety of factors. Therefore, the areas requiring further attention are highlighted and recommendations to improve our understanding of the genotoxic potential are addressed.

  19. Handbook of nanomaterials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Dan; Schricker, Scott R; Sigmund, Wolfgang; Zauscher, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials attract tremendous attention in recent researches. Although extensive research has been done in this field it still lacks a comprehensive reference work that presents data on properties of different Nanomaterials. This Handbook of Nanomaterials Properties will be the first single reference work that brings together the various properties with wide breadth and scope.

  20. Nanomaterials Toxicity and Cell Death Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the nanotechnology advancement has developed a plethora of novel and intriguing nanomaterial application in many sectors, including research and medicine. However, many risks have been highlighted in their use, particularly related to their unexpected toxicity in vitro and in vivo experimental models. This paper proposes an overview concerning the cell death modalities induced by the major nanomaterials.

  1. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion in yeast diploid strain XS2316.

  2. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in testicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asare, Nana; Instanes, Christine; Sandberg, Wiggo J.; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per; Kruszewski, Marcin; Brunborg, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of engineered nanoparticles. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use of nanomaterials in consumer products and medicines; including the potential effects on reproduction and fertility, are relevant for this risk evaluation. In this study, we examined effects of silver particles of nano- (20 nm) and submicron- (200 nm) size, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs; 21 nm), with emphasis on reproductive cellular- and genotoxicity. Ntera2 (NT2, human testicular embryonic carcinoma cell line), and primary testicular cells from C57BL6 mice of wild type (WT) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase knock-out (KO, mOgg1 −/− ) genotype were exposed to the particles. The latter mimics the repair status of human testicular cells vs oxidative damage and is thus a suitable model for human male reproductive toxicity studies. The results suggest that silver nano- and submicron-particles (AgNPs) are more cytotoxic and cytostatic compared to TiO 2 -NPs, causing apoptosis, necrosis and decreased proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The 200 nm AgNPs in particular appeared to cause a concentration-dependent increase in DNA-strand breaks in NT2 cells, whereas the latter response did not seem to occur with respect to oxidative purine base damage analysed with any of the particles tested.

  3. Regional Knowledge Production in Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Patuelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials are seen as a key technology for the twenty-first century, and much is expected of them in terms of innovation and economic growth. They could open the way to many radically new applications, which would form the basis of innovative products. As nanomaterials are still in their infa......Nanomaterials are seen as a key technology for the twenty-first century, and much is expected of them in terms of innovation and economic growth. They could open the way to many radically new applications, which would form the basis of innovative products. As nanomaterials are still...... in their infancy, universities, public research institutes and private businesses seem to play a vital role in the innovation process. Existing literature points to the importance of knowledge spillovers between these actors and suggests that the opportunities for these depend on proximity, with increasing...... on nanomaterial patenting. Based on European Patent Office data at the German district level (NUTS-3), we estimate two negative binomial models in a knowledge production function framework and include a spatial filtering approach to adjust for spatial autocorrelation. Our results indicate...

  4. Price tag in nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, D. A.; Vordos, N.; Nolan, J. W.; Mitropoulos, A. C.; Vansant, E. F.; Cool, P.; Braet, J.

    2017-05-01

    With the evolution of the field of nanomaterials in the past number of years, it has become apparent that it will be key to future technological developments. However, while there are unlimited research undertakings on nanomaterials, limited research results on nanomaterial costs exist; all in spite of the generous funding that nanotechnology projects have received. There has recently been an exponential increase in the number of studies concerning health-related nanomaterials, considering the various medical applications of nanomaterials that drive medical innovation. This work aims to analyze the effect of the cost factor on acceptability of health-related nanomaterials independently or in relation to material toxicity. It appears that, from the materials studied, those used for cancer treatment applications are more expensive than the ones for drug delivery. The ability to evaluate cost implications improves the ability to undertake research mapping and develop opinions on nanomaterials that can drive innovation.

  5. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2018-04-03

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  6. Carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption

    CERN Document Server

    Terranova, Maria Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Research in adsorption of gases by carbon nanomaterials has experienced considerable growth in recent years, with increasing interest for practical applications. Many research groups are now producing or using such materials for gas adsorption, storage, purification, and sensing. This book provides a selected overview of some of the most interesting scientific results regarding the outstanding properties of carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption and of interest both for basic research and technological applications. Topics receiving special attention in this book include storage of H, purific

  7. Genotoxicity Expert Panel review: weight of evidence evaluation of the genotoxicity of glyphosate, glyphosate-based formulations, and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusick, David; Aardema, Marilyn; Kier, Larry; Kirkland, David; Williams, Gary

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph concluding there was strong evidence for genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations and moderate evidence for genotoxicity of the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). These conclusions contradicted earlier extensive reviews supporting the lack of genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations. The IARC Monograph concluded there was strong evidence of induction of oxidative stress by glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA. The Expert Panel reviewed the genotoxicity and oxidative stress data considered in the IARC Monograph, together with other available data not considered by IARC. The Expert Panel defined and used a weight of evidence (WoE) approach that included ranking of studies and endpoints by the strength of their linkage to events associated with carcinogenic mechanisms. Importantly, the Expert Panel concluded that there was sufficient information available from a very large number of regulatory genotoxicity studies that should have been considered by IARC. The WoE approach, the inclusion of all relevant regulatory studies, and some differences in interpretation of individual studies led to significantly different conclusions by the Expert Panel compared with the IARC Monograph. The Expert Panel concluded that glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA do not pose a genotoxic hazard and the data do not support the IARC Monograph genotoxicity evaluation. With respect to carcinogenicity classification and mechanism, the Expert Panel concluded that evidence relating to an oxidative stress mechanism of carcinogenicity was largely unconvincing and that the data profiles were not consistent with the characteristics of genotoxic carcinogens.

  8. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  9. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  10. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  11. Nanomaterials and Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar BASU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials and nanosensors are two most important iconic words of the modern science & Technology. Though nano technology is relatively a new area of research & development it will soon be included in the most modern electronic circuitry used for advanced computing systems. Since it will provide the potential link between the nanotechnology and the macroscopic world the development is primarily directed towards exploitation of nanotechnology to computer chip miniaturization and vast storage capacity. However, for implementation in the consumer products the present high cost of production must be overcome. There are different ways to make nanosensors e.g. top-down lithography, bottom-up assembly, and self molecular assembly. Consequently, nanomaterials & nanosensors have to be made compatible with the consumer technologies. The progress in detecting and sensing different chemical species with increased accuracy may transform the human society from uncertainty and inaccuracy to more precise and definite world of information. For example, extremely low concentrations of air pollutants or toxic materials in air & water around us can be accurately and economically detected in no time to save the human beings from the serious illnesses. Also, the medical sensors will help in diagnoses of the diseases, their treatment and in predicting the future profile of the individual so that the health insurance companies may exploit the opportunity to grant or to deny the health coverage. Other social issues like privacy invasion and security may be best monitored by the widespread use of the surveillance devices using nanosensors.

  12. Green processes for nanotechnology from inorganic to bioinspired nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Basiuk, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This book provides the state-of-the-art survey of green techniques in preparation of different classes of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on the use of renewable sources. Key topics covered include fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques as well as their properties and applications, the use of renewable sources to obtain nanomaterials of different classes, from simple metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to complex bioinspired nanomaterials, economic contributions of nanotechnology to green and sustainable growth, and more. This is an ideal book for students, lecturers, researchers and engineers dealing with versatile (mainly chemical, biological, and medical) aspects of nanotechnology, including fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques and their properties and applications. This book also: Maximizes reader insights into the design and fabrication of bioinspired nanomaterials and the design of complex bio-nanohybrids Covers many different applications for nanomaterials, bioinspired nanom...

  13. Magnetic nanomaterials undamentals, synthesis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David J

    2017-01-01

    Timely and comprehensive, this book presents recent advances in magnetic nanomaterials research, covering the latest developments, including the design and preparation of magnetic nanoparticles, their physical and chemical properties as well as their applications in different fields, including biomedicine, magnetic energy storage, wave–absorbing and water remediation. By allowing researchers to get to the forefront developments related to magnetic nanomaterials in various disciplines, this is invaluable reading for the nano, magnetic, energy, medical, and environmental communities.

  14. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  15. Reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyukova, I.; Gusev, A.; Tkachev, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the current review, we assembled the experimental evidences of an association between carbon nanomaterials including carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets, graphene, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and fullerene exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in vitro and in vivo studies. It is shown that carbon nanomaterials reveal toxic effect on reproductive system and offspring development of the animals of various system groups to a certain degree depending on carbon crystal structure. Although this paper provides initial information about the potential male and female reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, further studies, using characterized nanoparticles, relevant routes of administration, and doses closely reflecting all the expected levels of exposure are needed.

  16. Generating Electricity from Water through Carbon Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Chen, Peining; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-01-09

    Over the past ten years, electricity generation from water in carbon-based materials has aroused increasing interest. Water-induced mechanical-to-electrical conversion has been discovered in carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and graphene, through the interaction with flowing water as well as moisture. In this Concept article, we focus on the basic principles of electric energy harvesting from flowing water through carbon nanomaterials, and summarize the material modification and structural design of these nanogenerators. The current challenges and potential applications of power conversion with carbon nanomaterials are finally highlighted. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  18. Nanomaterials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    technology revolution. Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world.The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks.The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However

  19. Applications and toxicity of graphene family nanomaterials and their composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Zorawar

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention of scientific community due to its enormous potential in different fields, including medical sciences, agriculture, food safety, cancer research, and tissue engineering. The potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs). Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, graphene and its derivatives have found important places in their respective application fields, yet they are being found to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects too. Since the discovery of graphene, a number of researches are being conducted to find out the toxic potential of GFNs to different cell and animal models, finding their suitability for being used in new and varied innovative fields. This paper presents a systematic review of the research done on GFNs and gives an insight into the mode and action of these nanosized moieties. The paper also emphasizes on the recent and up-to-date developments in research on GFNs and their nanocomposites for their toxic effects. PMID:27051278

  20. Nanomaterial-Enabled Wearable Sensors for Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Swetha, Puchakayala; Zhu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review. Integration of multiple sensors for multimodal sensing and integration with other components into wearable systems are summarized. Representative applications of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors for healthcare, including continuous health monitoring, daily and sports activity tracking, and multifunctional electronic skin are highlighted. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the field of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

  2. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    . Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world. The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks. The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However, an effective team

  3. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc−/−p53+/− mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Speksnijder, Ewoud N.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Salvatori, Daniela C.F.; Schaap, Mirjam M.; Maas, Saskia; Robinson, Joke; Verhoef, Aart; Benthem, Jan van; Luijten, Mirjam; Steeg, Harry van

    2013-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed the Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Highlights: ► The Xpc*p53 mouse model is able to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. ► Time, animals and cost can be significantly reduced compared to the 2-year bioassay. ► Xpc*p53 mice are more advantageous for carcinogen identification than Xpa*p53 mice. ► Xpc*p53 mice exhibit a wild type response upon exposure to genotoxicants.

  4. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  5. Techniques for physicochemical characterization of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-Chang; Lin, Stephen; Wang, Paul C.; Sridhar, Rajagopalan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have opened up a new era of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases and traumatic injuries. Nanomaterials, including those with potential for clinical applications, possess novel physicochemical properties that have an impact on their physiological interactions, from the molecular level to the systemic level. There is a lack of standardized methodologies or regulatory protocols for detection or characterization of nanomaterials. This review summarizes the techniques that are commonly used to study the size, shape, surface properties, composition, purity and stability of nanomaterials, along with their advantages and disadvantages. At present there are no FDA guidelines that have been developed specifically for nanomaterial based formulations for diagnostic or therapeutic use. There is an urgent need for standardized protocols and procedures for the characterization of nanoparticles, especially those that are intended for use as theranostics. PMID:24252561

  6. National Survey of Workplaces Handling and Manufacturing Nanomaterials, Exposure to and Health Effects of Nanomaterials, and Evaluation of Nanomaterial Safety Data Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A national survey on workplace environment nanomaterial handling and manufacturing was conducted in 2014. Workplaces relevant to nanomaterials were in the order of TiO2 (91), SiO2 (88), carbon black (84), Ag (35), Al2O3 (35), ZnO (34), Pb (33), and CeO2 (31). The survey results indicated that the number of workplaces handling or manufacturing nanomaterials was 340 (0.27% of total 126,846) workplaces. The number of nanomaterials used and products was 546 (1.60 per company) and 583 (1.71 per company), respectively. For most workplaces, the results on exposure to hazardous particulate materials, including nanomaterials, were below current OELs, yet a few workplaces were above the action level. As regards the health status of workers, 9 workers were diagnosed with a suspected respiratory occupational disease, where 7 were recommended for regular follow-up health monitoring. 125 safety data sheets (SDSs) were collected from the nanomaterial-relevant workplaces and evaluated for their completeness and reliability. Only 4 CNT SDSs (3.2%) included the term nanomaterial, while most nanomaterial SDSs were not regularly updated and lacked hazard information. When taken together, the current analysis provides valuable national-level information on the exposure and health status of workers that can guide the next policy steps for nanomaterial management in the workplace. PMID:27556041

  7. Characterization of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montone, Amelia; Aurora, Annalisa; Di Girolamo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the main techniques used for the characterization of nanomaterials. The knowledge of some basic characteristics, inherent morphology, microstructure, the distribution phase and chemical composition, it is essential to evaluate the functional properties of nanomaterials and make predictions about their behavior in operation. For the characterization of nanomaterials can be used in both imaging techniques both analytic techniques. Among the first found wide application optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Among the latter some types of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For each type of material to characterize the choice of the most appropriate technique it is based on the type of details that you want to obtain, and on their scale. In this paper are discussed in detail some examples and the main methods used for the characterization of nanomaterials. [it

  8. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) explores the unique properties of materials and processes at the nanoscale. The CFN is a user-oriented research center...

  9. Nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xueping; Hu, Hui; Wang, Shengfu; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensing has been demonstrated to represent an efficient way to quantify nitric oxide (NO) in challenging physiological environments. A sensing interface based on nanomaterials opens up new opportunities and broader prospects for electrochemical NO sensors. This review (with 141 refs.) gives a general view of recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials. It is subdivided into sections on (i) carbon derived nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphenes, fullerenes), (ii) metal nanoparticles (including gold, platinum and other metallic nanoparticles); (iii) semiconductor metal oxide nanomaterials (including the oxides of titanium, aluminum, iron, and ruthenium); and finally (iv) nanocomposites (such as those formed from carbon nanomaterials with nanoparticles of gold, platinum, NiO or TiO 2 ). The various strategies are discussed, and the advances of using nanomaterials and the trends in NO sensor technology are outlooked in the final section. (author)

  10. Determination of spectral markers of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using in vitro Raman microspectroscopy: cellular responses to polyamidoamine dendrimer exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efeoglu, Esen; Casey, Alan; Byrne, Hugh J

    2017-10-09

    Although consumer exposure to nanomaterials is ever increasing, with potential increased applications in areas such as drug and/or gene delivery, contrast agents and diagnosis, the determination of the cyto- and geno-toxic effects of nanomaterials on human health and the environment still remains challenging. Although many techniques have been established and adapted to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nano-sized materials, these techniques remain limited by the number of assays required, total cost, and use of labels and they struggle to explain the underlying interaction mechanisms. In this study, Raman microspectroscopy is employed as an in vitro label-free, high content screening technique to observe toxicological changes within the cell in a multi-parametric fashion. The evolution of spectral markers as a function of time and applied dose has been used to elucidate the mechanism of action of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers associated with cytotoxicity and their impact on nuclear biochemistry. PAMAM dendrimers are chosen as a model nanomaterial due to their widely studied cytotoxic and genotoxic properties and commercial availability. Point spectra were acquired from the cytoplasm to monitor the cascade of toxic events occurring in the cytoplasm upon nanoparticle exposure, whereas the spectra acquired from the nucleus and the nucleolus were used to explore PAMAM-nuclear material interaction as well as genotoxic responses.

  11. The Nanomaterial Registry: facilitating the sharing and analysis of data in the diverse nanomaterial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostraat ML

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Michele L Ostraat, Karmann C Mills, Kimberly A Guzan, Damaris MurryRTI International, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The amount of data being generated in the nanotechnology research space is significant, and the coordination, sharing, and downstream analysis of the data is complex and consistently deliberated. The complexities of the data are due in large part to the inherently complicated characteristics of nanomaterials. Also, testing protocols and assays used for nanomaterials are diverse and lacking standardization. The Nanomaterial Registry has been developed to address such challenges as the need for standard methods, data formatting, and controlled vocabularies for data sharing. The Registry is an authoritative, web-based tool whose purpose is to simplify the community's level of effort in assessing nanomaterial data from environmental and biological interaction studies. Because the registry is meant to be an authoritative resource, all data-driven content is systematically archived and reviewed by subject-matter experts. To support and advance nanomaterial research, a set of minimal information about nanomaterials (MIAN has been developed and is foundational to the Registry data model. The MIAN has been used to create evaluation and similarity criteria for nanomaterials that are curated into the Registry. The Registry is a publicly available resource that is being built through collaborations with many stakeholder groups in the nanotechnology community, including industry, regulatory, government, and academia. Features of the Registry website (https://www.nanomaterialregistry.org/ currently include search, browse, side-by-side comparison of nanomaterials, compliance ratings based on the quality and quantity of data, and the ability to search for similar nanomaterials within the Registry. This paper is a modification and extension of a proceedings paper for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.Keywords: nanoinformatics

  12. Health and safety implications of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebounova, Larissa V; Morgan, Hallie; Grassian, Vicki H; Brenner, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth and commercialization of nanotechnology are currently outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. As the production and use of nanomaterials increase, so does the possibility that there will be exposure of workers and the public to these materials. This review provides a summary of current research and regulatory efforts related to occupational exposure and medical surveillance for the nanotechnology workforce, focusing on the most prevalent industrial nanomaterials currently moving through the research, development, and manufacturing pipelines. Their applications and usage precedes a discussion of occupational health and safety efforts, including exposure assessment, occupational health surveillance, and regulatory considerations for these nanomaterials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R; Feitosa, L O; Ballottin, D; Tasic, L; Durán, N; Marcato, P D

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (− 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  14. METABOLISM, GENOTOXICITY, AND CARCINOGENICITY OF COMFREY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P.; Fuscoe, James C.; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction. PMID:21170807

  15. Metabolism, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Fu, Peter P; Fuscoe, James C; Luan, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2010-10-01

    Comfrey has been consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea and used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, produces hepatotoxicity in livestock and humans and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), including 7-acetylintermedine, 7-acetyllycopsamine, echimidine, intermedine, lasiocarpine, lycopsamine, myoscorpine, symlandine, symphytine, and symviridine. The mechanisms underlying comfrey-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. The available evidence suggests that the active metabolites of PA in comfrey interact with DNA in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes, resulting in DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development. Genotoxicities attributed to comfrey and riddelliine (a representative genotoxic PA and a proven rodent mutagen and carcinogen) are discussed in this review. Both of these compounds induced similar profiles of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts and similar mutation spectra. Further, the two agents share common mechanisms of drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction.

  16. Preparation and characterization of flower-like gold nanomaterials and iron oxide/gold composite nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zusing; Lin, Z H; Tang, C-Y; Chang, H-T

    2007-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized flower-like gold nanomaterials and Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials through the use of wet chemical methods in aqueous solution. In the presence of 0.5 mM citrate, 0.313 mM poly(ethylene glycol), and 109.72 mM sodium acetate (NaOAc), we prepared Au nanoflowers (NFs) having diameters ranging from 300 to 400 nm in aqueous solution after the reduction of Au ions at room temperature for 10 min. In the presence of spherical Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials, we applied a similar synthetic method to prepare Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials, including nanowires (NWs) that have a length of 1.58 μm and a width of 28.3 nm. We conducted energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, and x-ray powder diffraction measurements to characterize the as-prepared flower-like Au nanomaterials and Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials. From time-evolution TEM measurements, we suggested that Au atoms that were bound to the Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials grew to form Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials. The as-prepared Au NFs absorbed light strongly in the visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) region (500-1200 nm). The Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials had electronic conductivities greater than 100 nA at an applied voltage of 20 mV, which induced a temperature increase of 20.5 ± 0.5 deg. C under an alternating magnetic field (62 μT)

  17. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2018-01-30

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  18. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  19. Biomarkers of nanomaterial exposure and effect: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Manno, Maurizio; Schulte, Paul A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have induced a widespread production and application of nanomaterials. As a consequence, an increasing number of workers are expected to undergo exposure to these xenobiotics, while the possible hazards to their health remain not being completely understood. In this context, biological monitoring may play a key role not only to identify potential hazards from and to evaluate occupational exposure to nanomaterials, but also to detect their early biological effects to better assess and manage risks of exposure in respect of the health of workers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a critical evaluation of potential biomarkers of nanomaterial exposure and effect investigated in human and animal studies. Concerning exposure biomarkers, internal dose of metallic or metal oxide nanoparticle exposure may be assessed measuring the elemental metallic content in blood or urine or other biological materials, whereas specific molecules may be carefully evaluated in target tissues as possible biomarkers of biologically effective dose. Oxidative stress biomarkers, such as 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine, genotoxicity biomarkers, and inflammatory response indicators may also be useful, although not specific, as biomarkers of nanomaterial early adverse health effects. Finally, potential biomarkers from "omic" technologies appear to be quite innovative and greatly relevant, although mechanistic, ethical, and practical issues should all be resolved before their routine application in occupational settings could be implemented. Although all these findings are interesting, they point out the need for further research to identify and possibly validate sensitive and specific biomarkers of exposure and effect, suitable for future use in occupational biomonitoring programs. A valuable contribution may derive from the studies investigating the biological behavior of nanomaterials and the factors influencing their toxicokinetics and reactivity. In

  20. Grouping nanomaterials to predict their potential to induce pulmonary inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Oomen, Agnes G; Cassee, Flemming R

    2016-05-15

    The rapidly expanding manufacturing, production and use of nanomaterials have raised concerns for both worker and consumer safety. Various studies have been published in which induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanomaterials has been described. Nanomaterials can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Currently, efforts are made to increase the knowledge on the characteristics of nanomaterials that can be used to categorise them into hazard groups according to these characteristics. Grouping helps to gather information on nanomaterials in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. Here, we discuss different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation. Since the relation between single intrinsic particle characteristics and the severity of pulmonary inflammation is unknown, grouping of nanomaterials by their intrinsic characteristics alone is not sufficient to predict their risk after inhalation. The biokinetics of nanomaterials should be taken into account as that affects the dose present at a target site over time. The parameters determining the kinetic behaviour are not the same as the hazard-determining parameters. Furthermore, characteristics of nanomaterials change in the life-cycle, resulting in human exposure to different forms and doses of these nanomaterials. As information on the biokinetics and in situ characteristics of nanomaterials is essential but often lacking, efforts should be made to include these in testing strategies. Grouping nanomaterials will probably be of the most value to risk assessors when information on intrinsic characteristics, life-cycle, biokinetics and effects are all combined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative genotoxicity assays for analysis of medicinal plants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Graziela; Adam, Mônica Lucia; Silva, Caroline Dadalt; Soley, Bruna Silva; de Mello-Sampayo, Cristina; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Correr, Cassyano Januário; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2016-02-03

    Medicinal plants are known to contain numerous biologically active compounds, and although they have proven pharmacological properties, they can cause harm, including DNA damage. Review the literature to evaluate the genotoxicity risk of medicinal plants, explore the genotoxicity assays most used and compare these to the current legal requirements. A quantitative systematic review of the literature, using the keywords "medicinal plants", "genotoxicity" and "mutagenicity", was undertakenQ to identify the types of assays most used to assess genotoxicity, and to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plant extracts. The database searches retrieved 2289 records, 458 of which met the inclusion criteria. Evaluation of the selected articles showed a total of 24 different assays used for an assessment of medicinal plant extract genotoxicity. More than a quarter of those studies (28.4%) reported positive results for genotoxicity. This review demonstrates that a range of genotoxicity assay methods are used to evaluate the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plant extracts. The most used methods are those recommended by regulatory agencies. However, based on the current findings, in order to conduct a thorough study concerning the possible genotoxic effects of a medicinal plant, we indicate that it is important always to include bacterial and mammalian tests, with at least one in vivo assay. Also, these tests should be capable of detecting outcomes that include mutation induction, clastogenic and aneugenic effects, and structural chromosome abnormalities. In addition, the considerable rate of positive results detected in this analysis further supports the relevance of assessing the genotoxicity potential of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Eating nanomaterials: cruelty-free and safe? the EFSA guidance on risk assessment of nanomaterials in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2011-12-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being added to food handling and packaging materials, or directly, to human food and animal feed. To ensure the safety of such engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), in May 2011, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a guidance document on Risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in the food and feed chain. It states that risk assessment should be performed by following a step-wise procedure. Whenever human or animal exposure to nanomaterials is expected, the general hazard characterisation scheme requests information from in vitro genotoxicity, toxicokinetic and repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity studies in rodents. Numerous prevailing uncertainties with regard to nanomaterial characterisation and their hazard and risk assessment are addressed in the guidance document. This article discusses the impact of these knowledge gaps on meeting the goal of ensuring human safety. The EFSA's guidance on the risk assessment of ENMs in food and animal feed is taken as an example for discussion, from the point of view of animal welfare, on what level of uncertainty should be considered acceptable for human safety assessment of products with non-medical applications, and whether animal testing should be considered ethically acceptable for such products.

  3. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  4. Observations of the effect of atmospheric processes on the genotoxic potency of airborne particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between genotoxic potency and the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and nitro-PAH in urban and semi-rural air masses has been investigated. The Salmonella/microsome assay has been used as a measure of genotoxic po...

  5. Antibacterial properties and toxicity from metallic nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbela GV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gina V Vimbela,1,* Sang M Ngo,2,* Carolyn Fraze,3 Lei Yang,4,5 David A Stout5–7 1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, CA, 3Brigham Young University Idaho, Rexburg, ID, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedics, Orthopaedic Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, 5International Research Center for Translational Orthopaedics (IRCTO, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The era of antibiotic resistance is a cause of increasing concern as bacteria continue to develop adaptive countermeasures against current antibiotics at an alarming rate. In recent years, studies have reported nanoparticles as a promising alternative to antibacterial reagents because of their exhibited antibacterial activity in several biomedical applications, including drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, and imaging. Moreover, nanomaterial research has led to reports of a possible relationship between the morphological characteristics of a nanomaterial and the magnitude of its delivered toxicity. However, conventional synthesis of nanoparticles requires harsh chemicals and costly energy consumption. Additionally, the exact relationship between toxicity and morphology of nanomaterials has not been well established. Here, we review the recent advancements in synthesis techniques for silver, gold, copper, titanium, zinc oxide, and magnesium oxide nanomaterials and composites, with a focus on the toxicity exhibited by nanomaterials of multidimensions. This article highlights the benefits of selecting each material or metal-based composite for certain applications while also addressing possible setbacks and the toxic effects of the nanomaterials on the environment. Keywords

  6. Characterization of nanomaterials with transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-08-01

    The field of nanotechnology is about research and development on materials whose at least one dimension is in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. In recent years, the research activity for developing nano-materials has grown exponentially owing to the fact that they offer better solutions to the challenges faced by various fields such as energy, food, and environment. In this paper, the importance of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based techniques is demonstrated for investigating the properties of nano-materials. Specifically the nano-materials that are investigated in this report include gold nano-particles (Au-NPs), silver atom-clusters (Ag-ACs), tantalum single-atoms (Ta-SAs), carbon materials functionalized with iron cobalt (Fe-Co) NPs and titania (TiO2) NPs, and platinum loaded Ceria (Pt-CeO2) Nano composite. TEM techniques that are employed to investigate nano-materials include aberration corrected bright-field TEM (BF-TEM), high-angle dark-field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and BF-TEM electron tomography (ET). With the help presented of results in this report, it is proved herein that as many TEM techniques as available in a given instrument are essential for a comprehensive nano-scale analysis of nanomaterials.

  7. Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can be of crucial importance for the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways have also been shown to be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials, effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future.

  8. Nanomaterials as stationary phases and supports in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeram, Sandya R; Rodriguez, Elliott; Doddavenkatanna, Suresh; Li, Zhao; Pekarek, Allegra; Peev, Darin; Goerl, Kathryn; Trovato, Gianfranco; Hofmann, Tino; Hage, David S

    2017-10-01

    The development of various nanomaterials over the last few decades has led to many applications for these materials in liquid chromatography (LC). This review will look at the types of nanomaterials that have been incorporated into LC systems and the applications that have been explored for such systems. A number of carbon-based nanomaterials and inorganic nanomaterials have been considered for use in LC, ranging from carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and nanodiamonds to metal nanoparticles and nanostructures based on silica, alumina, zirconia and titanium dioxide. Many ways have been described for incorporating these nanomaterials into LC systems. These methods have included covalent immobilization, adsorption, entrapment, and the synthesis or direct development of nanomaterials as part of a chromatographic support. Nanomaterials have been used in many types of LC. These applications have included the reversed-phase, normal-phase, ion-exchange, and affinity modes of LC, as well as related methods such as chiral separations, ion-pair chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Both small and large analytes (e.g., dyes, drugs, amino acids, peptides and proteins) have been used to evaluate possible applications for these nanomaterial-based methods. The use of nanomaterials in columns, capillaries and planar chromatography has been considered as part of these efforts. Potential advantages of nanomaterials in these applications have included their good chemical and physical stabilities, the variety of interactions many nanomaterials can have with analytes, and their unique retention properties in some separation formats. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Grouping nanomaterials to predict their potential to induce pulmonary inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M., E-mail: hedwig.braakhuis@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Oomen, Agnes G. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Cassee, Flemming R. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.163, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    The rapidly expanding manufacturing, production and use of nanomaterials have raised concerns for both worker and consumer safety. Various studies have been published in which induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanomaterials has been described. Nanomaterials can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Currently, efforts are made to increase the knowledge on the characteristics of nanomaterials that can be used to categorise them into hazard groups according to these characteristics. Grouping helps to gather information on nanomaterials in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. Here, we discuss different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation. Since the relation between single intrinsic particle characteristics and the severity of pulmonary inflammation is unknown, grouping of nanomaterials by their intrinsic characteristics alone is not sufficient to predict their risk after inhalation. The biokinetics of nanomaterials should be taken into account as that affects the dose present at a target site over time. The parameters determining the kinetic behaviour are not the same as the hazard-determining parameters. Furthermore, characteristics of nanomaterials change in the life-cycle, resulting in human exposure to different forms and doses of these nanomaterials. As information on the biokinetics and in situ characteristics of nanomaterials is essential but often lacking, efforts should be made to include these in testing strategies. Grouping nanomaterials will probably be of the most value to risk assessors when information on intrinsic characteristics, life-cycle, biokinetics and effects are all combined. - Highlights: • Grouping of nanomaterials helps to gather information in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. • Different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation are

  10. Grouping nanomaterials to predict their potential to induce pulmonary inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M.; Oomen, Agnes G.; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly expanding manufacturing, production and use of nanomaterials have raised concerns for both worker and consumer safety. Various studies have been published in which induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanomaterials has been described. Nanomaterials can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Currently, efforts are made to increase the knowledge on the characteristics of nanomaterials that can be used to categorise them into hazard groups according to these characteristics. Grouping helps to gather information on nanomaterials in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. Here, we discuss different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation. Since the relation between single intrinsic particle characteristics and the severity of pulmonary inflammation is unknown, grouping of nanomaterials by their intrinsic characteristics alone is not sufficient to predict their risk after inhalation. The biokinetics of nanomaterials should be taken into account as that affects the dose present at a target site over time. The parameters determining the kinetic behaviour are not the same as the hazard-determining parameters. Furthermore, characteristics of nanomaterials change in the life-cycle, resulting in human exposure to different forms and doses of these nanomaterials. As information on the biokinetics and in situ characteristics of nanomaterials is essential but often lacking, efforts should be made to include these in testing strategies. Grouping nanomaterials will probably be of the most value to risk assessors when information on intrinsic characteristics, life-cycle, biokinetics and effects are all combined. - Highlights: • Grouping of nanomaterials helps to gather information in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. • Different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation are

  11. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  12. Toxicity of nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Behzadi, Shahed; Laurent, Sophie; Forrest, M. Laird; Stroeve, Pieter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There

  13. In silico prediction of genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Jörg D

    2017-08-01

    The in silico prediction of genotoxicity has made considerable progress during the last years. The main driver for the pharmaceutical industry is the ICH M7 guideline about the assessment of DNA reactive impurities. An important component of this guideline is the use of in silico models as an alternative approach to experimental testing. The in silico prediction of genotoxicity provides an established and accepted method that defines the first step in the assessment of DNA reactive impurities. This was made possible by the growing amount of reliable Ames screening data, the attempts to understand the activity pathways and the subsequent development of computer-based prediction systems. This paper gives an overview of how the in silico prediction of genotoxicity is performed under the ICH M7 guideline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  15. Overview of Risk Management for Engineered Nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, P A; Geraci, C L; Hodson, L L; Zumwalde, R D; Kuempel, E D; Murashov, V; Martinez, K F; Heidel, D S

    2013-01-01

    Occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is considered a new and challenging occurrence. Preliminary information from laboratory studies indicates that workers exposed to some kinds of ENMs could be at risk of adverse health effects. To protect the nanomaterial workforce, a precautionary risk management approach is warranted and given the newness of ENMs and emergence of nanotechnology, a naturalistic view of risk management is useful. Employers have the primary responsibility for providing a safe and healthy workplace. This is achieved by identifying and managing risks which include recognition of hazards, assessing exposures, characterizing actual risk, and implementing measures to control those risks. Following traditional risk management models for nanomaterials is challenging because of uncertainties about the nature of hazards, issues in exposure assessment, questions about appropriate control methods, and lack of occupational exposure limits (OELs) or nano-specific regulations. In the absence of OELs specific for nanomaterials, a precautionary approach has been recommended in many countries. The precautionary approach entails minimizing exposures by using engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). Generally, risk management utilizes the hierarchy of controls. Ideally, risk management for nanomaterials should be part of an enterprise-wide risk management program or system and this should include both risk control and a medical surveillance program that assesses the frequency of adverse effects among groups of workers exposed to nanomaterials. In some cases, the medical surveillance could include medical screening of individual workers to detect early signs of work-related illnesses. All medical surveillance should be used to assess the effectiveness of risk management; however, medical surveillance should be considered as a second line of defense to ensure that implemented risk management practices are effective.

  16. Overview of Risk Management for Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Hodson, L. L.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Kuempel, E. D.; Murashov, V.; Martinez, K. F.; Heidel, D. S.

    2013-04-01

    Occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is considered a new and challenging occurrence. Preliminary information from laboratory studies indicates that workers exposed to some kinds of ENMs could be at risk of adverse health effects. To protect the nanomaterial workforce, a precautionary risk management approach is warranted and given the newness of ENMs and emergence of nanotechnology, a naturalistic view of risk management is useful. Employers have the primary responsibility for providing a safe and healthy workplace. This is achieved by identifying and managing risks which include recognition of hazards, assessing exposures, characterizing actual risk, and implementing measures to control those risks. Following traditional risk management models for nanomaterials is challenging because of uncertainties about the nature of hazards, issues in exposure assessment, questions about appropriate control methods, and lack of occupational exposure limits (OELs) or nano-specific regulations. In the absence of OELs specific for nanomaterials, a precautionary approach has been recommended in many countries. The precautionary approach entails minimizing exposures by using engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). Generally, risk management utilizes the hierarchy of controls. Ideally, risk management for nanomaterials should be part of an enterprise-wide risk management program or system and this should include both risk control and a medical surveillance program that assesses the frequency of adverse effects among groups of workers exposed to nanomaterials. In some cases, the medical surveillance could include medical screening of individual workers to detect early signs of work-related illnesses. All medical surveillance should be used to assess the effectiveness of risk management; however, medical surveillance should be considered as a second line of defense to ensure that implemented risk management practices are effective.

  17. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  18. Synthesis of nanoparticles and nanomaterials biological approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullaeva, Zhypargul

    2017-01-01

    This book covers biological synthesis approaches for nanomaterials and nanoparticles, including introductory material on their structure, phase compositions and morphology, nanomaterials chemical, physical, and biological properties. The chapters of this book describe in sequence the synthesis of various nanoparticles by microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, algae, and actynomycetes; plant and plant extract-based synthesis; and green synthesis methods. Each chapter provides basic knowledge on the synthesis of nanomaterials, defines fundamental terms, and aims to build a solid foundation of knowledge, followed by explanations, examples, visual photographs, schemes, tables and illustrations. Each chapter also contains control questions, problem drills, as well as case studies that clarify theory and the explanations given in the text. This book is ideal for researchers and advanced graduate students in materials engineering, biotechnology, and nanotechnology fields. As a reference book this work is also appropriate ...

  19. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  20. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e......) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors...

  1. Plant genotoxicity: a molecular cytogenetic approach in plant bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluszynska, Jolanta; Juchimiuk, Jolanta

    2005-06-01

    It is important for the prevention of DNA changes caused by environment to understand the biological consequences of DNA damages and their molecular modes of action that lead to repair or alterations of the genetic material. Numerous genotoxicity assay systems have been developed to identify DNA reactive compounds. The available data show that plant bioassays are important tests in the detection of genotoxic contamination in the environment and the establishment of controlling systems. Plant system can detect a wide range of genetic damage, including gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. Recently introduced molecular cytogenetic methods allow analysis of genotoxicity, both at the chromosomal and DNA level. FISH gives a new possibility of the detection and analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in a great detail. DNA fragmentation can be estimated using the TUNEL test and the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay).

  2. Energy Device Applications of Synthesized 1D Polymer Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long-Biao; Xu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    1D polymer nanomaterials as emerging materials, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanopillars, have attracted extensive attention in academia and industry. The distinctive, various, and tunable structures in the nanoscale of 1D polymer nanomaterials present nanointerfaces, high surface-to-volume ratio, and large surface area, which can improve the performance of energy devices. In this review, representative fabrication techniques of 1D polymer nanomaterials are summarized, including electrospinning, template-assisted, template-free, and inductively coupled plasma methods. The recent advancements of 1D polymer nanomaterials in energy device applications are demonstrated. Lastly, existing challenges and prospects of 1D polymer nanomaterials for energy device applications are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cellulosic Nanomaterials in Food and Nutraceutical Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Avik; Wen, Yangbing; Huq, Tanzina; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-01-10

    Cellulosic nanomaterials (CNMs) are organic, green nanomaterials that are obtained from renewable sources and possess exceptional mechanical strength and biocompatibility. The associated unique physical and chemical properties have made these nanomaterials an intriguing prospect for various applications including the food and nutraceutical industry. From the immobilization of various bioactive agents and enzymes, emulsion stabilization, direct food additives, to the development of intelligent packaging systems or pathogen or pH detectors, the potential food related applications for CNMs are endless. Over the past decade, there have been several reviews published covering different aspects of cellulosic nanomaterials, such as processing-structure-property relationship, physical and chemical properties, rheology, extraction, nanocomposites, etc. In this critical review, we have discussed and provided a summary of the recent developments in the utilization of cellulosic nanomaterials in applications related to food and nutraceuticals.

  4. Nanomaterials for membrane fouling control: accomplishments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Mi, Baoxia

    2013-11-01

    We report a review of recent research efforts on incorporating nanomaterials-including metal/metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials, and polymeric nanomaterials-into/onto membranes to improve membrane antifouling properties in biomedical or potentially medical-related applications. In general, nanomaterials can be incorporated into/onto a membrane by blending them into membrane fabricating materials or by attaching them to membrane surfaces via physical or chemical approaches. Overall, the fascinating, multifaceted properties (eg, high hydrophilicity, superparamagnetic properties, antibacterial properties, amenable functionality, strong hydration capability) of nanomaterials provide numerous novel strategies and unprecedented opportunities to fully mitigate membrane fouling. However, there are still challenges in achieving a broader adoption of nanomaterials in the membrane processes used for biomedical applications. Most of these challenges arise from the concerns over their long-term antifouling performance, hemocompatibility, and toxicity toward humans. Therefore, rigorous investigation is still needed before the adoption of some of these nanomaterials in biomedical applications, especially for those nanomaterials proposed to be used in the human body or in contact with living tissue/body fluids for a long period of time. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to predict that the service lifetime of membrane-based biomedical devices and implants will be prolonged significantly with the adoption of appropriate fouling control strategies. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials on Plants Growth: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  6. Characterization of nanomaterials with transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-01-01

    -Co) NPs and titania (TiO2) NPs, and platinum loaded Ceria (Pt-CeO2) Nano composite. TEM techniques that are employed to investigate nano-materials include aberration corrected bright-field TEM (BF-TEM), high-angle dark-field scanning TEM (HAADF

  7. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  9. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of bacterial magnetosomes against human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lei; Lv, Xiujuan; Zhang, Tongwei; Jia, Peina; Yan, Ruiying; Li, Shuli; Zou, Ruitao; Xue, Yuhua; Dai, Liming

    2016-06-01

    A variety of nanomaterials have been developed for ocular diseases. The ability of these nanomaterials to pass through the blood-ocular barrier and their biocompatibility are essential characteristics that must be considered. Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) are a type of biogenic magnetic nanomaterials synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria. Due to their unique biomolecular membrane shell and narrow size distribution of approximately 30 nm, BMs can pass through the blood-brain barrier. The similarity of the blood-ocular barrier to the blood-brain barrier suggests that BMs have great potential as treatments for ocular diseases. In this work, BMs were isolated from magnetotactic bacteria and evaluated in various cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies in human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells. The BMs entered ARPE-19 cells by endocytosis after a 6-h incubation and displayed much lower cytotoxicity than chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs exhibited significantly higher genotoxicity than BMs and promoted the expression of Bax (the programmed cell death acceleration protein) and the induction of greater cell necrosis. In BM-treated cells, apoptosis tended to be suppressed via increased expression of the Bcl-2 protein. In conclusion, BMs display excellent biocompatibility and potential for use in the treatment of ocular diseases.

  10. Genotoxic evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Iglesias Alonso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An important strategy for optimizing the therapeutic efficacy of many conventional drugs is the development of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs, as it may expand their activities, reduce their toxicity, increase their bioactivity and improve biodistribution. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of 8 different poly (anhydride NPs designed for the oral administration of therapeutic compounds by using the comet assay in combination with the enzyme formamidopypiridine DNA-glycosylase (FPG. Furthermore, the mitogen capacity of the NPs was evaluated by the proliferation assay. All NPs were tested at four concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL in Caco-2 cells after 3 hours of treatment while selected NPs were also tested after 24 h. The comet assay was performed immediately after the treatment and cell proliferation was assessed by counting the treated cells after their incubation at 37 °C for 48h. Cells treated with 1 µM of the photosensitizer Ro 19-8022 plus 5 min of light, as well as cells treated with 100 µM H2O2 were included as positive controls in all the experiments. All NPs studied did not result in any increase in the frequency of strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in Caco-2 cells but they induced a slight concentration-dependent increase in net FPG sensitive sites (oxidized and/or alkylated bases. Furthermore, treated cells did not show changes in levels of proliferation in comparison with the negative control.

  11. Biomarkers of susceptibility: State of the art and implications for occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Schulte, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances and applications in nanotechnology are expected to result in increasing occupational exposure to nano-sized materials whose health impacts are still not completely understood. Scientific efforts are required to identify hazards from nanomaterials and define risks and precautionary management strategies for exposed workers. In this scenario, the definition of susceptible populations, which may be at increased risk of adverse effects may be important for risk assessment and management. The aim of this review is to critically examine available literature to provide a comprehensive overview on susceptibility aspects potentially affecting heterogeneous responses to nanomaterials workplace exposure. Genetic, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations induced by nanomaterials in experimental studies were assessed with respect to their possible function as determinants of susceptibility. Additionally, the role of host factors, i.e. age, gender, and pathological conditions, potentially affecting nanomaterial toxicokinetic and health impacts, were also analysed. Overall, this review provides useful information to obtain insights into the nanomaterial mode of action in order to identify potentially sensitive, specific susceptibility biomarkers to be validated in occupational settings and addressed in risk assessment processes. The findings of this review are also important to guide future research into a deeper characterization of nanomaterial susceptibility in order to define adequate risk communication strategies. Ultimately, identification and use of susceptibility factors in workplace settings has both scientific and ethical issues that need addressing. PMID:26724381

  12. Biomarkers of susceptibility: State of the art and implications for occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Schulte, Paul A

    2016-05-15

    Rapid advances and applications in nanotechnology are expected to result in increasing occupational exposure to nano-sized materials whose health impacts are still not completely understood. Scientific efforts are required to identify hazards from nanomaterials and define risks and precautionary management strategies for exposed workers. In this scenario, the definition of susceptible populations, which may be at increased risk of adverse effects may be important for risk assessment and management. The aim of this review is to critically examine available literature to provide a comprehensive overview on susceptibility aspects potentially affecting heterogeneous responses to nanomaterials workplace exposure. Genetic, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations induced by nanomaterials in experimental studies were assessed with respect to their possible function as determinants of susceptibility. Additionally, the role of host factors, i.e. age, gender, and pathological conditions, potentially affecting nanomaterial toxicokinetic and health impacts, were also analysed. Overall, this review provides useful information to obtain insights into the nanomaterial mode of action in order to identify potentially sensitive, specific susceptibility biomarkers to be validated in occupational settings and addressed in risk assessment processes. The findings of this review are also important to guide future research into a deeper characterization of nanomaterial susceptibility in order to define adequate risk communication strategies. Ultimately, identification and use of susceptibility factors in workplace settings has both scientific and ethical issues that need addressing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Smart nanomaterials for biomedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonmo; Tripathi, Anuj; Singh, Deepti

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology has become important in various disciplines of technology and science. It has proven to be a potential candidate for various applications ranging from biosensors to the delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to tissue engineering. Scaffolds for every application can be tailor made to have the appropriate physicochemical properties that will influence the in vivo system in the desired way. For highly sensitive and precise detection of specific signals or pathogenic markers, or for sensing the levels of particular analytes, fabricating target-specific nanomaterials can be very useful. Multi-functional nano-devices can be fabricated using different approaches to achieve multi-directional patterning in a scaffold with the ability to alter topographical cues at scale of less than or equal to 100 nm. Smart nanomaterials are made to understand the surrounding environment and act accordingly by either protecting the drug in hostile conditions or releasing the "payload" at the intended intracellular target site. All of this is achieved by exploiting polymers for their functional groups or incorporating conducting materials into a natural biopolymer to obtain a "smart material" that can be used for detection of circulating tumor cells, detection of differences in the body analytes, or repair of damaged tissue by acting as a cell culture scaffold. Nanotechnology has changed the nature of diagnosis and treatment in the biomedical field, and this review aims to bring together the most recent advances in smart nanomaterials.

  14. Capillary electrophoresis and nanomaterials - Part I: Capillary electrophoresis of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials are in analytical science used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection, and identification of target molecules. This part of the review covers capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nanomaterials and focuses on the application of CE as a method for characterization used during nanomaterial synthesis and modification as well as the monitoring of their properties and interactions with other molecules. The heterogeneity of the nanomaterial family is extremely large. Depending on different definitions of the term Nanomaterial/Nanoparticle, the group may cover metal and polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, liposomes and even dendrimers. Moreover, these nanomaterials are usually subjected to some kind of surface modification or functionalization, which broadens the diversity even more. Not only for purposes of verification of nanomaterial synthesis and batch-to-batch quality check, but also for determination the polydispersity and for functionality characterization on the nanoparticle surface, has CE offered very beneficial capabilities. Finally, the monitoring of interactions between nanomaterials and other (bio)molecules is easily performed by some kind of capillary electromigration technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Application of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In the present report, we give a brief description of the present state, development, and application of nanotechnologies (NT) and nanomaterials (NM) in some key industries, such as chemical industry and power industry (nanocatalysts, and nanocatalysis, hydrogen storage and fuel cells, artificial photosynthesis and Gratzel's cell, energy efficiency, energy storage); fabrication of consolidated nanostructures (ceramic nano-materials, nanostructured coatings, production of low-combustibility plastics, nanostructured hard materials, nanostructures with colossal magnetoresistance); fabrication of ultra-high strength carbon fibres; nano-technologies for environmental protection (adsorption of heavy metals by self-ordered self-organized nano-structure ensembles, photocatalyric purification of liquids, fabrication of mesoporous materials, application of nanoporous polymers for water purification, nanoparticles and environment); medical applications; military applications and fight against terrorism; household applications; energetic and some other [1-7].; In 2010, the European Union and the governments of the USA and Japan each invested over $ 2 billion in nanoscience, which is ample evidence to substantiate the claim that the 21 st century will be the century of nanotechnologies. Some of the optimistic forecasts predict that in 2014 the total revenues from NT will exceed those brought by the information technologies and telecommunications combined. At present, more than 800 companies are involved in R&TD in this field (including giants such as Intel, IBM, Samsung, and Mitsubishi) while more than ten Nobel prizes were awarded for research in nanoscience

  16. Genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Julia; Felder, Eva; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Kaltbeitzel, Anke; Heinrich, Ulf Ruediger; Brochhausen, Christoph; Mailänder, Volker; Tremel, Wolfgang; Brieger, Juergen

    2015-05-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles has currently provoked public and scientific discussions, and attempts to develop generally accepted handling procedures for nanoparticles are under way. The investigation of the impact of nanoparticles on human health is overdue and reliable test systems accounting for the special properties of nanomaterials must be developed. Nanoparticular zinc oxide (ZnO) may be internalised through ambient air or the topical application of cosmetics, only to name a few, with unpredictable health effects. Therefore, we analysed the determinants of ZnO nanoparticle (NP) genotoxicity. ZnO NPs (15-18 nm in diameter) were investigated at concentrations of 0.1, 10 and 100 μg mL-1 using the cell line A549. Internalised NPs were only infrequently detectable by TEM, but strongly increased Zn2+ levels in the cytoplasm and even more in the nuclear fraction, as measured by atom absorption spectroscopy, indicative of an internalised zinc and nuclear accumulation. We observed a time and dosage dependent reduction of cellular viability after ZnO NP exposure. ZnCl2 exposure to cells induced similar impairments of cellular viability. Complexation of Zn2+ with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) resulted in the loss of toxicity of NPs, indicating the relevant role of Zn2+ for ZnO NP toxicity. Foci analyses showed the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by ZnO NPs and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Treatment of the cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) resulted in strongly decreased intracellular ROS levels and reduced DNA damage. However, a slow increase of ROS after ZnO NP exposure and reduced but not quashed DSBs after NAC-treatment suggest that Zn2+ may exert genotoxic activities without the necessity of preceding ROS-induction. Our data indicate that ZnO NP toxicity is a result of cellular Zn2+ intake. Subsequently increased ROS-levels cause DNA damage. However, we found evidence for

  17. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of solid waste leachates: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... There is need for a shift from waste disposal to sustainable waste management. Awareness on possible health ... Key words: Solid waste leachate, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, environmental pollution. INTRODUCTION. Solid wastes .... landfills and incineration residues from Japan include persistent organic ...

  18. QSAR ligand dataset for modelling mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and rodent carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy Guan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Five datasets were constructed from ligand and bioassay result data from the literature. These datasets include bioassay results from the Ames mutagenicity assay, Greenscreen GADD-45a-GFP assay, Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE assay, and 2 year rat carcinogenicity assay results. These datasets provide information about chemical mutagenicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

  19. Evaluation of perfluorooctanoate for potential genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Butenhoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA is a fully fluorinated eight-carbon fatty acid analog with exceptional stability toward degradation that has been used as an industrial surfactant and has been detected in environmental and biological matrices. Exposures to PFOA in the workplace and in the environment have continuously stimulated investigations into its potential human health hazards. In this article, the results of fifteen unpublished genotoxicity assays conducted with perfluorooctanoate (as either the linear or linear/branched ammonium salt (APFO or the linear/branched sodium salt are reported and include: seven mutation assays (three in vitro reverse mutation assays with histidine auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium, two in vitro reverse mutation assays with the tryptophan auxotrophic Escherichia coli WP2uvr strain, one in vitro mitotic recombination (gene conversion assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4, and an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO HGPRT forward mutation assay; seven studies to assess potential for chromosomal damage (three in vitro CHO chromosomal aberration studies, an in vitro human whole blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration study, and three in vivo mouse micronucleus assays; and an in vitro C3H 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. Although PFOA has not been demonstrated to be metabolized, all in vitro assays were conducted both in the presence and in the absence of a mammalian hepatic microsomal activation system. These assays were originally described in twelve contract laboratory reports which have been available via the United States Environmental Protection Agency public docket (Administrative Record 226 for over a decade; however, the details of these assays have not been published previously in the open scientific literature. With the exception of limited positive findings at high and cytotoxic concentrations in some assay trials which reflected the likely consequence of cytotoxic disruption of normal cellular

  20. Impact of humic/fulvic acid on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using nanomaterials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wang-Wang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Bin-Bin

    2014-01-15

    Nowadays nanomaterials have been widely used to remove heavy metals from water/wastewater due to their large surface area and high reactivity. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) exist ubiquitously in aquatic environments and have a variety of functional groups which allow them to complex with metal ions and interact with nanomaterials. These interactions can not only alter the environmental behavior of nanomaterials, but also influence the removal and transportation of heavy metals by nanomaterials. Thus, the interactions and the underlying mechanisms involved warrant specific investigations. This review outlined the effects of HA/FA on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by various nanomaterials, mainly including carbon-based nanomaterials, iron-based nanomaterials and photocatalytic nanomaterials. Moreover, mechanisms involved in the interactions were discussed and potential environmental implications of HA/FA to nanomaterials and heavy metals were evaluated. © 2013.

  1. Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The CFN at Brookhaven National Laboratory focuses on understanding the chemical and physical response of nanomaterials to make functional materials such as sensors,...

  2. [Evaluation of cyto- and genotoxic action of ferronanomagnetic and constant magnetic field in in vivo system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhun, V F; Lozovs'ka, Iu V; Luk'ianova, N Iu; Demash, D V; Todor, I M; Nalieskina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Cyto- and genotoxic effects of nanoparticles on the basis of FM, CMF or their combination have been studied in AKE cells, BM cells of erythroid line, and peripheral blood lymphocytes with the use of MN test and "DNA-comet" assay. It has been shown that expression of mentioned effects is related to FM concentration and duration of tested agent action. It has been also demonstrated that action of CMF alone in the studied cells did not cause any changes in cell architectonics or affect MN counts which are associated with DNA damage. When FM and CMF were used in combination there has been observed the phenomenon of induction of CMF action with FM nanoparticles. The obtained results allow recommend MN test and "DNA-comet" assay as the markers of genome stability in the tests of genotoxic effects of nanomaterials for development of vector nanosystems.

  3. Biomedical nanomaterials from design to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical Nanomaterials brings together the engineering applications and challenges of using nanostructured surfaces and nanomaterials in healthcare in a single source. Each chapter covers important and new information in the biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

  4. [Nanomaterials in cosmetics--present situation and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.

  5. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their application to environmental remediation. While research has devoted to develop nanotechnology for environm...

  7. Genistein genotoxicity: Critical considerations of in vitro exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Catherine B.; King, Audrey A.

    2007-01-01

    The potential health benefits of soy-derived phytoestrogens include their reported utility as anticarcinogens, cardioprotectants and as hormone replacement alternatives in menopause. Although there is increasing popularity of dietary phytoestrogen supplementation and of vegetarian and vegan diets among adolescents and adults, concerns about potential detrimental or other genotoxic effects persist. While a variety of genotoxic effects of phytoestrogens have been reported in vitro, the concentrations at which such effects occurred were often much higher than the physiologically relevant doses achievable by dietary or pharmacologic intake of soy foods or supplements. This review focuses on in vitro studies of the most abundant soy phytoestrogen, genistein, critically examining dose as a crucial determinant of cellular effects. In consideration of levels of dietary genistein uptake and bioavailability we have defined in vitro concentrations of genistein > 5 μM as non-physiological, and thus 'high' doses, in contrast to much of the previous literature. In doing so, many of the often-cited genotoxic effects of genistein, including apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, topoisomerase inhibition and others become less obvious. Recent cellular, epigenetic and microarray studies are beginning to decipher genistein effects that occur at dietarily relevant low concentrations. In toxicology, the well accepted principle of 'the dose defines the poison' applies to many toxicants and can be invoked, as herein, to distinguish genotoxic versus potentially beneficial in vitro effects of natural dietary products such as genistein

  8. Cellulose-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Yao, Chunhua; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on earth, providing a sustainable green resource that is renewable, degradable, biocompatible, and cost effective. Recently, nanocellulose-based mesoporous structures, flexible thin films, fibers, and networks are increasingly developed and used in photovoltaic devices, energy storage systems, mechanical energy harvesters, and catalysts components, showing tremendous materials science value and application potential in many energy-related fields. In this Review, the most recent advancements of processing, integration, and application of cellulose nanomaterials in the areas of solar energy harvesting, energy storage, and mechanical energy harvesting are reviewed. For solar energy harvesting, promising applications of cellulose-based nanostructures for both solar cells and photoelectrochemical electrodes development are reviewed, and their morphology-related merits are discussed. For energy storage, the discussion is primarily focused on the applications of cellulose-based nanomaterials in lithium-ion batteries, including electrodes (e.g., active materials, binders, and structural support), electrolytes, and separators. Applications of cellulose nanomaterials in supercapacitors are also reviewed briefly. For mechanical energy harvesting, the most recent technology evolution in cellulose-based triboelectric nanogenerators is reviewed, from fundamental property tuning to practical implementations. At last, the future research potential and opportunities of cellulose nanomaterials as a new energy material are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nanomaterials for Craniofacial and Dental Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Zhou, T; Lin, S; Shi, S; Lin, Y

    2017-07-01

    Tissue engineering shows great potential as a future treatment for the craniofacial and dental defects caused by trauma, tumor, and other diseases. Due to the biomimetic features and excellent physiochemical properties, nanomaterials are of vital importance in promoting cell growth and stimulating tissue regeneration in tissue engineering. For craniofacial and dental tissue engineering, the frequently used nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets. Nanofibers are attractive for cell invasion and proliferation because of their resemblance to extracellular matrix and the presence of large pores, and they have been used as scaffolds in bone, cartilage, and tooth regeneration. Nanotubes and nanoparticles improve the mechanical and chemical properties of scaffold, increase cell attachment and migration, and facilitate tissue regeneration. In addition, nanofibers and nanoparticles are also used as a delivery system to carry the bioactive agent in bone and tooth regeneration, have better control of the release speed of agent upon degradation of the matrix, and promote tissue regeneration. Although applications of nanomaterials in tissue engineering remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to face, the current results indicate that nanomaterials have massive potential in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering.

  10. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  11. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, Charles; Heidel, Donna; Sayes, Christie; Hodson, Laura; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne; Brenner, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial

  12. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, Charles [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Heidel, Donna [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States); Sayes, Christie [Baylor University (United States); Hodson, Laura, E-mail: lhodson@cdc.gov; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Brenner, Sara [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, (SUNY Poly) (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial.

  13. Weight of evidence analysis for assessing the genotoxic potential of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a nanomaterial that has received interest because of its high-tensile strength and low weight. Although CNTs differ substantially in physico-chemical properties, they share high aspect ratio which resembles that of asbestos and other fibers causing lung cancer...... and insufficient mechanistic evidence. Damage to DNA is considered to be a key mechanistic step in the development of fiber-induced cancer. Thus, the genotoxic potential can be a cornerstone in the evaluation of hazards of CNTs. The present study used a weight of evidence (WoE) analysis to evaluate...

  14. Carbon nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao; He, Xiulan; Li, Fangping; Fei, Junjie; Feng, Bo; Ding, Yonglan

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the use of carbon nanomaterials for electroanalytical detection of biogenic amines (BAs). It starts with a short introduction into carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, and their composites. Next, electrochemical sensing schemes are discussed for various BAs including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Examples are then given for methods for simultaneous detection of various BAs. Finally, we discuss the current and future challenges of carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for BAs. The review contains 175 references. (author)

  15. Silicon nanomaterials platform for bioimaging, biosensing, and cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Su, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Yiling; Fan, Chunhai; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2014-02-18

    Silicon nanomaterials are an important class of nanomaterials with great potential for technologies including energy, catalysis, and biotechnology, because of their many unique properties, including biocompatibility, abundance, and unique electronic, optical, and mechanical properties, among others. Silicon nanomaterials are known to have little or no toxicity due to favorable biocompatibility of silicon, which is an important precondition for biological and biomedical applications. In addition, huge surface-to-volume ratios of silicon nanomaterials are responsible for their unique optical, mechanical, or electronic properties, which offer exciting opportunities for design of high-performance silicon-based functional nanoprobes, nanosensors, and nanoagents for biological analysis and detection and disease treatment. Moreover, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) on earth, providing plentiful and inexpensive resources for large-scale and low-cost preparation of silicon nanomaterials for practical applications. Because of these attractive traits, and in parallel with a growing interest in their design and synthesis, silicon nanomaterials are extensively investigated for wide-ranging applications, including energy, catalysis, optoelectronics, and biology. Among them, bioapplications of silicon nanomaterials are of particular interest. In the past decade, scientists have made an extensive effort to construct a silicon nanomaterials platform for various biological and biomedical applications, such as biosensors, bioimaging, and cancer treatment, as new and powerful tools for disease diagnosis and therapy. Nonetheless, there are few review articles covering these important and promising achievements to promote the awareness of development of silicon nanobiotechnology. In this Account, we summarize recent representative works to highlight the recent developments of silicon functional nanomaterials for a new, powerful platform for biological and

  16. Nanomaterials for Electronics and Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes(CNTs), graphene, and inorganic nanowires(INWs) have shown interesting electronic, mechanical, optical, thermal, and other properties and therefore have been pursued for a variety of applications by the nanotechnology community ranging from electronics to nanocomposites. While the first two are carbon-based materials, the INWs in the literature include silicon, germanium, III-V, II-VI, a variety of oxides, nitrides, antimonides and others. In this talk, first an overview of growth of these three classes of materials by CVD and PECVD will be presented along with results from characterization. Then applications in development of chemical sensors, biosensors, energy storage devices and novel memory architectures will be discussed.

  17. Granular biodurable nanomaterials: No convincing evidence for systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Horn, Marcus; Gebel, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterials are usually defined by primary particle diameters ranging from 1 to 100 nm. The scope of this review is an evaluation of experimental animal studies dealing with the systemic levels and putative systemic effects induced by nanoparticles which can be characterized as being granular biodurable particles without known specific toxicity (GBP). Relevant examples of such materials comprise nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black. The question was raised whether GBP nanomaterials systemically accumulate and may possess a relevant systemic toxicity. With few exceptions, the 56 publications reviewed were not performed using established standard protocols, for example, OECD guidelines but used non-standard study designs. The studies including kinetic investigations indicated that GBP nanomaterials were absorbed and systemically distributed to rather low portions only. There was no valid indication that GPB nanomaterials possess novel toxicological hazard properties. In addition, no convincing evidence for a relevant specific systemic toxicity of GBP nanomaterials could be identified. The minority of the papers reviewed (15/56) investigated both nanosized and microsized GBP materials in parallel. A relevant different translocation of GBP nanomaterials in contrast to GBP micromaterials was not observed in these studies. There was no evidence that GPB nanomaterials possess toxicological properties other than their micromaterial counterparts.

  18. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  19. Selenium and tellurium nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Zonaro, Emanuele; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last 40 years, the rapid and exponential growth of nanotechnology led to the development of various synthesis methodologies to generate nanomaterials different in size, shape and composition to be applied in various fields. In particular, nanostructures composed of Selenium (Se) or Tellurium (Te) have attracted increasing interest, due to their intermediate nature between metallic and non-metallic elements, being defined as metalloids. Indeed, this key shared feature of Se and Te allows us the use of their compounds in a variety of applications fields, such as for manufacturing photocells, photographic exposure meters, piezoelectric devices, and thermoelectric materials, to name a few. Considering also that the chemical-physical properties of elements result to be much more emphasized when they are assembled at the nanoscale range, huge efforts have been made to develop highly effective synthesis methods to generate Se- or Te-nanomaterials. In this context, the present book chapter will explore the most used chemical and/or physical methods exploited to generate different morphologies of metalloid-nanostructures, focusing also the attention on the major advantages, drawbacks as well as the safety related to these synthetic procedures.

  20. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  1. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  2. Biological interactions of carbon-based nanomaterials: From coronation to degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Mukherjee, Sourav P; Gallud, Audrey; Burkert, Seth C; Bistarelli, Silvia; Bellucci, Stefano; Bottini, Massimo; Star, Alexander; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, fullerenes and nanodiamonds are potential candidates for various applications in medicine such as drug delivery and imaging. However, the successful translation of nanomaterials for biomedical applications is predicated on a detailed understanding of the biological interactions of these materials. Indeed, the potential impact of the so-called bio-corona of proteins, lipids, and other biomolecules on the fate of nanomaterials in the body should not be ignored. Enzymatic degradation of carbon-based nanomaterials by immune-competent cells serves as a special case of bio-corona interactions with important implications for the medical use of such nanomaterials. In the present review, we highlight emerging biomedical applications of carbon-based nanomaterials. We also discuss recent studies on nanomaterial 'coronation' and how this impacts on biodistribution and targeting along with studies on the enzymatic degradation of carbon-based nanomaterials, and the role of surface modification of nanomaterials for these biological interactions. Advances in technology have produced many carbon-based nanomaterials. These are increasingly being investigated for the use in diagnostics and therapeutics. Nonetheless, there remains a knowledge gap in terms of the understanding of the biological interactions of these materials. In this paper, the authors provided a comprehensive review on the recent biomedical applications and the interactions of various carbon-based nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragay, Gemma; Merkoçi, Arben

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review the recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. ► Different types of nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, different carbon nanomaterials or nanochannels have been applied on the electrochemical analysis of heavy metals in various sensing formats/configurations. ► The great properties of nanomaterials allow the new devices to show advantages in terms of sensing performance (i.e. increase the sensitivity, decrease the detection limits and improve the stability). ► Between the various electrochemical techniques, voltammetric and potentiometric based ones are particularly taking interesting advantages by the incorporation of new nanomaterials due to the improved electrocatalytic properties beside the increase of the sensor's transducing area. - Abstract: Recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals are shown. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanochannels, graphene, etc. have been explored either as modifiers of electrodes or as new electrode materials with interest to be applied in electrochemical stripping analysis, ion-selective detection, field-effect transistors or other indirect heavy metals (bio)detection alternatives. The developed devices have shown increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits between other improvements of analytical performance data. The phenomena behind nanomaterials responses are also discussed and some typical responses data of the developed systems either in standard solutions or in real samples are given. The developed nanomaterials based electrochemical systems are giving new inputs to the existing devices or leading to the development of novel heavy metal detection tools with interest for applications in field such as diagnostics, environmental and safety and security controls or other industries.

  4. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps.

  5. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of green synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Fatih Doğan; Duman, Fatih

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, nanomaterials that are smaller than 100 nm in size are very attractive owing to their enhanced physicochemical properties. Although they have been used widely for industrial applications, their toxicity still remains a problem. This article is a new record of the synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) by a Mentha aquatica leaf extract and determination of its toxicity to rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we aimed to determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of biologically synthetized TiO2 NPs. The characteristic peak of the nanomaterial was observed at 354 nm. The mean size of the nanomaterial was measured to be 69 nm from SEM images. According to zeta analysis, the surface charge of the nanomaterial was - 37.6 mV. The crystalline structure of the nanomaterial was determined using XRD analysis. It was concluded that the obtained nanomaterial was TiO2 The results of the FT-IR analysis showed that the functional groups that were found in the plant extract could play an important role in the formation and stabilization of TiO2 NPs. The effective size of the TiO2 NPs was found to be 304 nm using DLS analysis. The TGA analysis results showed that the total mass loss was 4% at 900 °C. According to DNA cleavage analysis results, TiO2 NPs cause damage to the plasmid pBR322 DNA in a concentration-dependant matter. It has been noted that TiO2 NPs lead to decreased cell viability during increased time and concentration of applications on rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. It has also been determined that bulk TiO2 causes a greater reduction in the stem cell viability compared to the biosynthesized NPs. The obtained results could be useful for further application and toxicity studies.

  6. Plasma processing of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaran, R Mohan

    2014-01-01

    CRC Press author R. Mohan Sankaran is the winner of the 2011 Peter Mark Memorial Award "… for the development of a tandem plasma synthesis method to grow carbon nanotubes with unprecedented control over the nanotube properties and chirality." -2011 AVS Awards Committee"Readers who want to learn about how nanomaterials are processed, using the most recent methods, will benefit greatly from this book. It contains very recent technical details on plasma processing and synthesis methods used by current researchers developing new nano-based materials, with all the major plasma-based processing techniques used today being thoroughly discussed."-John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3.

  7. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Amrin Shaikh; Darshana Barot; Divya Chandel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. Methods: The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group) and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group). Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation ...

  8. Environmental effects of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Brinch, Anna

    This report presents ecotoxicological data and Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for nine selected nanomaterials which are considered to be environmentally relevant due to high usage or how they are used. These data will together with data from other reports/projects be used in an overall...... assessment of the environmental risk of nanomaterials in Denmark. The nine investigated nanomaterials are: Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Silver, Carbon Nanotubes, Copper Oxide, Nano Zero Valent Iron, Cerium Dioxide, Quantum Dots and Carbon Black. To support the assessment of the data found in the peer...

  9. Biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanodevices links interdisciplinary research from leading experts to provide graduate students, academics, researchers, and industry professionals alike with a comprehensive source for key advancements and future trends in nanostructured biosensor development. It describes the concepts, principles, materials, device fabrications, functions, system integrations, and applications of various types of biosensors based on signal transduction mechanisms, including fluorescence, photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemistry, electro-lumine

  10. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  11. Applications of radiotracer techniques for the toxicology studies of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuhui; Zhang Zhiyong; Zhang Yuan; He Xiao; Zhang Haifeng; Chai Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanosciences and nanotechnology, a wide variety of manufactured nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. While nanomaterials possess more novel and unique physicochemical properties than bulk materials, they also have an unpredictable impact on human health. In the toxicology studies of nanomaterials, it is essential to know the basic behaviors in vivo, that is absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of these newly designed materials. Radiotracer techniques are especially well suited to such studies and has got the chance to demonstrate its enchantment. In this presentation, studies on radiotracer techniques used in nanotoxicology will be reviewed and new progresses at Institute of High Energy Physics, including the label methods and behaviors of labeled nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and nanometer metal oxide in animals and in aquatic environments will be reported. (authors)

  12. Biomarkers of susceptibility: State of the art and implications for occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Schulte, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances and applications in nanotechnology are expected to result in increasing occupational exposure to nano-sized materials whose health impacts are still not completely understood. Scientific efforts are required to identify hazards from nanomaterials and define risks and precautionary management strategies for exposed workers. In this scenario, the definition of susceptible populations, which may be at increased risk of adverse effects may be important for risk assessment and management. The aim of this review is to critically examine available literature to provide a comprehensive overview on susceptibility aspects potentially affecting heterogeneous responses to nanomaterials workplace exposure. Genetic, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations induced by nanomaterials in experimental studies were assessed with respect to their possible function as determinants of susceptibility. Additionally, the role of host factors, i.e. age, gender, and pathological conditions, potentially affecting nanomaterial toxicokinetic and health impacts, were also analysed. Overall, this review provides useful information to obtain insights into the nanomaterial mode of action in order to identify potentially sensitive, specific susceptibility biomarkers to be validated in occupational settings and addressed in risk assessment processes. The findings of this review are also important to guide future research into a deeper characterization of nanomaterial susceptibility in order to define adequate risk communication strategies. Ultimately, identification and use of susceptibility factors in workplace settings has both scientific and ethical issues that need addressing. - Highlights: • To define susceptible populations is important for risk assessment and management; • Genetic susceptibility may influence the individual response to nanomaterial exposure; • Susceptibility factors in workplace settings have both scientific and ethical issues.

  13. Biomarkers of susceptibility: State of the art and implications for occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iavicoli, Ivo, E-mail: ivo.iavicoli@unina.it [Department of Public Health, Division of Occupational Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Leso, Veruscka, E-mail: veruscka@email.it [Institute of Public Health, Section of Occupational Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Schulte, Paul A., E-mail: pas4@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS C-14, Cincinnati, OH 45226 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Rapid advances and applications in nanotechnology are expected to result in increasing occupational exposure to nano-sized materials whose health impacts are still not completely understood. Scientific efforts are required to identify hazards from nanomaterials and define risks and precautionary management strategies for exposed workers. In this scenario, the definition of susceptible populations, which may be at increased risk of adverse effects may be important for risk assessment and management. The aim of this review is to critically examine available literature to provide a comprehensive overview on susceptibility aspects potentially affecting heterogeneous responses to nanomaterials workplace exposure. Genetic, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations induced by nanomaterials in experimental studies were assessed with respect to their possible function as determinants of susceptibility. Additionally, the role of host factors, i.e. age, gender, and pathological conditions, potentially affecting nanomaterial toxicokinetic and health impacts, were also analysed. Overall, this review provides useful information to obtain insights into the nanomaterial mode of action in order to identify potentially sensitive, specific susceptibility biomarkers to be validated in occupational settings and addressed in risk assessment processes. The findings of this review are also important to guide future research into a deeper characterization of nanomaterial susceptibility in order to define adequate risk communication strategies. Ultimately, identification and use of susceptibility factors in workplace settings has both scientific and ethical issues that need addressing. - Highlights: • To define susceptible populations is important for risk assessment and management; • Genetic susceptibility may influence the individual response to nanomaterial exposure; • Susceptibility factors in workplace settings have both scientific and ethical issues.

  14. Nanomaterials in consumer's goods: the problems of risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmoshinski, I. V.; Khotimchenko, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials are currently used in wide variety of cosmetic products, while their use in food industry, packaging materials, household chemicals etc. still includes a limited number of items and does not show a significant upward trend. However, the problem of priority nanomaterials associated risks is relevant due to their high production volumes and an constantly growing burden on the environment and population. In accordance with the frequency of use in mass-produced consumer goods, leading priority nanomaterials are silver nanoparticles (NPs) and (by a wide margin) NPs of gold, platinum, and titanium dioxide. Frequency of nanosized silica introduction into food products as a food additive, at the moment, seems to be underestimated, since the use of this nanomaterial is not declared by manufacturers of products and objective control of its content is difficult. Analysis of literature data on toxicological properties of nanomaterials shows that currently accumulated amount of information is sufficient to establish the safe doses of nanosized silver, gold and titanium dioxide. Data have been provided in a series of studies concerning the effect of oral intake of nanosized silica on the condition of laboratory animals, including on the performance of the immune system. The article examines the existing approaches to the assessment of population exposure to priority nanomaterials, characteristics of existing problems and risk management.

  15. Genotoxicity Biomonitoring Along a Coastal Zone Under Influence of Offshore Petroleum Exploration (Southeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; da Conceição, Moisés Basilio; Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Weber, Laura Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Offshore oil exploration creates threats to coastal ecosystems, including increasing urbanization and associated effluent releases. Genotoxicity biomarkers in mussels were determined across a gradient of coastal zone influences of offshore petroleum exploration in southeastern Brazil. Coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, beaches and islands were seasonally monitored for genotoxicity evaluation using the brown mussel Perna perna. The greatest DNA damage (5.2% ± 1.9% tail DNA and 1.5‰  ± 0.8‰ MN) were observed in urban estuaries, while Santana Archipelago showed levels of genotoxicity near zero and is considered a reference site. Mussels from urban and pristine beaches showed intermediate damage levels, but were also influenced by urbanization. Thus, mussel genotoxicity biomarkers greatly indicated the proposed oil exploration and urbanization scenarios that consequently are genetically affecting coastal organisms.

  16. Optical Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    owner

    K. George Thomas. Photosciences & Photonics Group. National Institute for Interdisciplinary. Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR,. Trivandrum- 695 019, INDIA. (kgt@vsnl.com). Optical Properties of Hybrid. Nanomaterials ...

  17. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  18. Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu Chun Ke [Laboratory of Single-Molecule Biophysics and Polymer Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Qiao Rui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2007-09-19

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment. (topical review)

  19. Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Chun Ke; Qiao Rui

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment. (topical review)

  20. Toward a Genotoxic Protection Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.; Demanneville, S.

    2000-01-01

    P53, a molecule normally expressed before mitosis, is considered as the 'guardian of the genome'. In the skin its level is normally very low (<3% of cells), detected by immunohistochemical methods. At least 50% of the keratinocytes express p53 protein, 24 h following a significant UV irradiation (2 SED). It is expected using sunscreens to reduce the expression of p53 in parallel with their ability to reduce the actinic erythema, the endpoint adopted to evaluate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of sunscreens. P53 detection on biopsies performed on the buttocks of human volunteers was used to evaluate the genotoxic protecting factor (GPF) of several sunscreens with either high UVB filtration or high UVA filtration, characterised by various SPF (COLIPA) from 10 to 40. The p53 count in parallel with sunburn cell count were the parameters studied. In general, the GPF of the sunscreens was found below the proprietary SPF. If a genotoxic effect is shown in an increased p53 expression, this effect is still observed at a dose lower than the dose inducing the faintest actinic erythema. (author)

  1. Toward a Genotoxic Protection Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, J.P.; Demanneville, S

    2000-07-01

    P53, a molecule normally expressed before mitosis, is considered as the 'guardian of the genome'. In the skin its level is normally very low (<3% of cells), detected by immunohistochemical methods. At least 50% of the keratinocytes express p53 protein, 24 h following a significant UV irradiation (2 SED). It is expected using sunscreens to reduce the expression of p53 in parallel with their ability to reduce the actinic erythema, the endpoint adopted to evaluate the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of sunscreens. P53 detection on biopsies performed on the buttocks of human volunteers was used to evaluate the genotoxic protecting factor (GPF) of several sunscreens with either high UVB filtration or high UVA filtration, characterised by various SPF (COLIPA) from 10 to 40. The p53 count in parallel with sunburn cell count were the parameters studied. In general, the GPF of the sunscreens was found below the proprietary SPF. If a genotoxic effect is shown in an increased p53 expression, this effect is still observed at a dose lower than the dose inducing the faintest actinic erythema. (author)

  2. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liming, E-mail: wangliming@ihep.ac.cn; Chen, Chunying, E-mail: chenchy@nanoctr.cn

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs.

  3. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs

  4. Nanomaterials for In Vivo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan Ronain; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2017-02-08

    In vivo imaging, which enables us to peer deeply within living subjects, is producing tremendous opportunities both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool. Contrast material is often required to clearly visualize the functional architecture of physiological structures. Recent advances in nanomaterials are becoming pivotal to generate the high-resolution, high-contrast images needed for accurate, precision diagnostics. Nanomaterials are playing major roles in imaging by delivering large imaging payloads, yielding improved sensitivity, multiplexing capacity, and modularity of design. Indeed, for several imaging modalities, nanomaterials are now not simply ancillary contrast entities, but are instead the original and sole source of image signal that make possible the modality's existence. We address the physicochemical makeup/design of nanomaterials through the lens of the physical properties that produce contrast signal for the cognate imaging modality-we stratify nanomaterials on the basis of their (i) magnetic, (ii) optical, (iii) acoustic, and/or (iv) nuclear properties. We evaluate them for their ability to provide relevant information under preclinical and clinical circumstances, their in vivo safety profiles (which are being incorporated into their chemical design), their modularity in being fused to create multimodal nanomaterials (spanning multiple different physical imaging modalities and therapeutic/theranostic capabilities), their key properties, and critically their likelihood to be clinically translated.

  5. [International trend of guidance for nanomaterial risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, several kinds of opinions or recommendations on the nanomaterial safety assessment have been published from international or national bodies. Among the reports, the first practical guidance of risk assessment from the regulatory body was published from the European Food Safety Authorities in May 2011, which included the determination of exposure scenario and toxicity testing strategy. In October 2011, European Commission (EC) adopted the definition of "nanomaterial" for regulation. And more recently, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety of EC released guidance for assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics in June 2012. A series of activities in EU marks an important step towards realistic safety assessment of nanomaterials. On the other hand, the US FDA announced a draft guidance for industry in June 2011, and then published draft guidance documents for both "Cosmetic Products" and "Food Ingredients and Food Contact Substances" in April 2012. These draft documents do not restrictedly define the physical properties of nanomaterials, but when manufacturing changes alter the dimensions, properties, or effects of an FDA-regulated product, the products are treated as new products. Such international movements indicate that most of nanomaterials with any new properties would be assessed or regulated as new products by most of national authorities in near future, although the approaches are still case by case basis. We will introduce such current international activities and consideration points for regulatory risk assessment.

  6. Engineering of Multifunctional Nanomaterials for Cancer Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shreya

    Development of novel imaging probes for cancer diagnosis is critical for early disease detection and management. The past two decades have witnessed a surge in the development and evolution of radiolabeled nanoparticles as a new frontier in personalized cancer nanomedicine. The dynamic synergism of positron emission tomography (PET) and nanotechnology combines the sensitivity and quantitative nature of PET with the multifunctionality and tunability of nanomaterials, which can help overcome certain key challenges in the field. Silica, "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States, has emerged as one of the leading nanomaterials employed for molecular imaging and therapy of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. However in vivo biodistribution and active targeting of silica-based nanomaterials has remained a relatively under explored area, based mainly on semi-quantitative techniques such as fluorescence imaging. In this dissertation, I explore the concept of radiolabeled silica nanoparticles for vasculature-targeted imaging of different tumor types. Both chelator-based and chelator-free radiolabeling techniques were employed for accurate and quantitative analysis of the in vivo pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled silica nanomaterials. (Chapters 2 and 3) The large surface area, ease of tunability and facile silica chemistry were employed to create multifunctional silica-based materials to simultaneously seek-and-treat cancers, by incorporating multiple components into a single nanoplatform. Photodynamic agent, porphyrin was loaded into the central cavity of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and the shell was decorated with photothermal nanoparticles, CuS, yielding a multimodal theranostic nanoplatform which could synergistically annihilate the tumor without relapse. (Chapter 4). A major hurdle in the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their rapid sequestration by the organs of the

  7. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  8. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa; Krul, Cyrille A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  9. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa [TNO Triskelion BV, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE, Zeist (Netherlands); Krul, Cyrille A.M., E-mail: cyrille.krul@tno.nl [TNO, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  10. Biomedical Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can exhibit a wide variety of nanostructures, possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties hence has been investigated for a wide variety of applications. One of the most important features of ZnO nanomaterials is low toxicity and biodegradability. Zn2+ is an indispensable trace element for adults (~10 mg of Zn2+ per day is recommended) and it is involved in various aspects of metabolism. Chemically, the surface of ZnO is rich in -OH groups, which can be readily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. In this review article, we summarized the current status of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as biomedical imaging (which includes fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, as well as dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide array of molecules of interest. Research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will continue to flourish over the next decade, and much research effort will be needed to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation. PMID:24206130

  11. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  12. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, G

    1988-07-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  13. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  14. A functional assay-based strategy for nanomaterial risk forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendren, Christine Ogilvie, E-mail: christine.hendren@duke.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Unrine, Jason M., E-mail: jason.unrine@uky.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Agricultural Science Center, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Wiesner, Mark R., E-mail: wiesner@duke.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall PO Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The study of nanomaterial impacts on environment, health and safety (nanoEHS) has been largely predicated on the assumption that exposure and hazard can be predicted from physical–chemical properties of nanomaterials. This approach is rooted in the view that nanoöbjects essentially resemble chemicals with additional particle-based attributes that must be included among their intrinsic physical–chemical descriptors. With the exception of the trivial case of nanomaterials made from toxic or highly reactive materials, this approach has yielded few actionable guidelines for predicting nanomaterial risk. This article addresses inherent problems in structuring a nanoEHS research strategy based on the goal of predicting outcomes directly from nanomaterial properties, and proposes a framework for organizing data and designing integrated experiments based on functional assays (FAs). FAs are intermediary, semi-empirical measures of processes or functions within a specified system that bridge the gap between nanomaterial properties and potential outcomes in complex systems. The three components of a functional assay are standardized protocols for parameter determination and reporting, a theoretical context for parameter application and reference systems. We propose the identification and adoption of reference systems where FAs may be applied to provide parameter estimates for environmental fate and effects models, as well as benchmarks for comparing the results of FAs and experiments conducted in more complex and varied systems. Surface affinity and dissolution rate are identified as two critical FAs for characterizing nanomaterial behavior in a variety of important systems. The use of these FAs to predict bioaccumulation and toxicity for initial and aged nanomaterials is illustrated for the case of silver nanoparticles and Caenorhabditis elegans. - Highlights: • Approaches to predict risk directly from nanomaterial (NM) properties are problematic. • We propose

  15. A functional assay-based strategy for nanomaterial risk forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Lowry, Gregory V.; Unrine, Jason M.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The study of nanomaterial impacts on environment, health and safety (nanoEHS) has been largely predicated on the assumption that exposure and hazard can be predicted from physical–chemical properties of nanomaterials. This approach is rooted in the view that nanoöbjects essentially resemble chemicals with additional particle-based attributes that must be included among their intrinsic physical–chemical descriptors. With the exception of the trivial case of nanomaterials made from toxic or highly reactive materials, this approach has yielded few actionable guidelines for predicting nanomaterial risk. This article addresses inherent problems in structuring a nanoEHS research strategy based on the goal of predicting outcomes directly from nanomaterial properties, and proposes a framework for organizing data and designing integrated experiments based on functional assays (FAs). FAs are intermediary, semi-empirical measures of processes or functions within a specified system that bridge the gap between nanomaterial properties and potential outcomes in complex systems. The three components of a functional assay are standardized protocols for parameter determination and reporting, a theoretical context for parameter application and reference systems. We propose the identification and adoption of reference systems where FAs may be applied to provide parameter estimates for environmental fate and effects models, as well as benchmarks for comparing the results of FAs and experiments conducted in more complex and varied systems. Surface affinity and dissolution rate are identified as two critical FAs for characterizing nanomaterial behavior in a variety of important systems. The use of these FAs to predict bioaccumulation and toxicity for initial and aged nanomaterials is illustrated for the case of silver nanoparticles and Caenorhabditis elegans. - Highlights: • Approaches to predict risk directly from nanomaterial (NM) properties are problematic. • We propose

  16. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  17. Engineered Nanomaterials Elicit Cellular Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials are being developed continuously and incorporated into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on toxicity endpoints without further investigating potential mechanisms or pathway...

  18. Nanomaterials: Opportunities and Challenges for Aerospace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obieta, Isabel; Marcos, J

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials are regarded world-wide as key materials of the 21st Century. Also, in aerospace a high potential for nanomaterials applications is postulated and technological breakthroughs are expected in this area...

  19. How Do Enzymes 'Meet' Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Piao; Lai, Cui; Tang, Lin

    2017-11-01

    Enzymes are fundamental biological catalysts responsible for biological regulation and metabolism. The opportunity for enzymes to 'meet' nanoparticles and nanomaterials is rapidly increasing due to growing demands for applications in nanomaterial design, environmental monitoring, biochemical engineering, and biomedicine. Therefore, understanding the nature of nanomaterial-enzyme interactions is becoming important. Since 2014, enzymes have been used to modify, degrade, or make nanoparticles/nanomaterials, while numerous nanoparticles/nanomaterials have been used as materials for enzymatic immobilization and biosensors and as enzyme mimicry. Among the various nanoparticles and nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials have received extensive attention due to their fascinating properties. This review provides an overview about how enzymes meet nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genotoxicity assessment of some cosmetic and food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Maffei, Francesca; Hrelia, Patrizia; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Pagano, Ester; Borrelli, Francesca; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    α-Hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA) and p-tert-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (BMHCA) are synthetic aldehydes, characterized by a typical floral scent, which makes them suitable to be used as fragrances in personal care (perfumes, creams, shampoos, etc.) and household products, and as flavouring additives in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aldehydic structure suggests the need for a safety assessment for these compounds. Here, HCA and BMHCA were evaluated for their potential genotoxic risk, both at gene level (frameshift or base-substitution mutations) by the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), and at chromosomal level (clastogenicity and aneuploidy) by the micronucleus test. In order to evaluate a primary and repairable DNA damage, the comet assay has been also included. In spite of their potential hazardous chemical structure, a lack of mutagenicity was observed for both compounds in all bacterial strains tested, also in presence of the exogenous metabolic activator, showing that no genotoxic derivatives were produced by CYP450-mediated biotransformations. Neither genotoxicity at chromosomal level (i.e. clastogenicity or aneuploidy) nor single-strand breaks were observed. These findings will be useful in further assessing the safety of HCA and BMHCA as either flavour or fragrance chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular and cytogenetic assessment of Dipterygium glaucum genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA H. ALTWATY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to assess the genotoxicity of Dipterygium glaucum grows widely in Saudi Arabia desert to produce safety herbal products. This work is considered the first and pioneer report so far due to the lack and poor evaluated reports of the plant species for their mutagensity, genotoxicity and cytogenetics effects. Cytogenetic effects of D. glaucum on mitotic in roots of Vicia faba showed reduction in mitotic activity using three extracts; water, ethanol and ethyl acetate. Chromosomal abnormalities were recorded that included stickiness of chromosomes, chromatin bridge, fragments, lagging chromosome and micronuclei. Protein bands and RAPD analyses of V. faba treated with three D. glaucum extracts revealed some newly induced proteins and DNA fragments and other disappeared. Chemical constitution of the plant species should be identified with their biological activities against human and animal cells like HeLa cancer cell line. We are recommending using additional genotoxicity tests and other toxicity tests on animal culture with different concentrations and also utilizing several drought and heat tolerant genes of the plant species in gene cloning to develop and improve other economical crop plants instead of using the species as oral herbal remedy

  2. Regulating the electrical behaviors of 2D inorganic nanomaterials for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Wu, Junchi; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2015-02-11

    Recent years have witnessed great developments in inorganic 2D nanomaterials for their unique dimensional confinement and diverse electronic energy bands. Precisely regulating their intrinsic electrical behaviors would bring superior electrical conductivity, rendering 2D nanomaterials ideal candidates for active materials in electrochemical applications when combined with the excellent reaction activity from the inorganic lattice. This Concept focuses on highly conducting inorganic 2D nanomaterials, including intrinsic metallic 2D nanomaterials and artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials. The intrinsic metallicity of 2D nanomaterials is derived from their closely packed atomic structures that ensure maximum overlapping of electron orbitals, while artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials could be achieved by designed methodologies of surface modification, intralayer ion doping, and lattice strain, in which atomic-scale structural modulation plays a vital role in realizing conducting behaviors. Benefiting from fast electron transfer, high reaction activity, as well as large surface areas arising from the 2D inorganic lattice, highly conducting 2D nanomaterials open up prospects for enhancing performance in electrochemical catalysis and electrochemical capacitors. Conductive 2D inorganic nanomaterials promise higher efficiency for electrochemical applications of energy conversion and storage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. High pressure structural phase transitions of TiO2 nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan-Jun; Liu Bing-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the high pressure study on the TiO 2 nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention due to the typical crystal structure and the fascinating properties of TiO 2 with nanoscale sizes. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials. We discuss the size effects and morphology effects on the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials with different particle sizes, morphologies, and microstructures. Several typical pressure-induced structural phase transitions in TiO 2 nanomaterials are presented, including size-dependent phase transition selectivity in nanoparticles, morphology-tuned phase transition in nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials, and pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) and polyamorphism in ultrafine nanoparticles and TiO 2 -B nanoribbons. Various TiO 2 nanostructural materials with high pressure structures are prepared successfully by high pressure treatment of the corresponding crystal nanomaterials, such as amorphous TiO 2 nanoribbons, α -PbO 2 -type TiO 2 nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials. These studies suggest that the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials depend on the nanosize, morphology, interface energy, and microstructure. The diversity of high pressure behaviors of TiO 2 nanomaterials provides a new insight into the properties of nanomaterials, and paves a way for preparing new nanomaterials with novel high pressure structures and properties for various applications. (topical review)

  4. Nanomaterials for practical functional uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lines, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    are commonly found with these materials. Some key attributes include: ·Grain size on the order of 10 -9 m (1-100 nm). ·Extremely large specific surface area. ·Manifest fascinating and useful properties. ·Structural and non-structural applications. ·Stronger, more ductile materials. ·Chemically very active materials. Production of nanomaterials. There are various widely known methods to produce nanomaterials other than by direct atom manipulation. In plasma arcing, the very high temperatures associated with the formation of an arc or plasma is used to effectively separate the atomic species of feedstock, which quickly recombine outside the plasma to form nanosized particles, which may have novel compositions. In the case of chemical vapour deposition, feed gases are reacted in a chamber and the resulting species attracted to a substrate. Once again the reaction products can be controlled and not only in terms of composition but also in terms of how they are deposited. The substrate effectively provides a template from where the deposited coating can grow in a very well controlled manner. Electro-deposition involves a similar process; however the controlled coating is deposited from solution by the application of an electric field. Sol-gel synthesis uses chemical means to produce intimately mixed compounds that are hydrolysed into gels. The gels can be deposited on any surface and shape at well controlled thicknesses and on subsequent heating, decompose to leave a thin layer of the desired coating. This technique is well suited to coating large surface areas with very well defined nanometre scale compounds. In high intensity ball milling, as the name suggested, high impact collisions are used to reduce macrocrystalline materials down into nano-crystalline structures without chemical change. A relatively new technique termed Mechanochemical Processing (MCP) technology, being developed by Advanced Nanotechnologies based in Perth, is a novel, solid-state pr ocess for

  5. Genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants genotoxic monitoring and detection of antigenotoxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, D.; Knezevic-Vukcevic, J.; Vukovi -Gacic, B.; Mitic, D.; Beric, T.; Nikolic, B.; Stanojevic, J.; Stankovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    The control of genotoxic agents mass release, which can adversely affect the ecosystem stability and human health is of the greatest importance. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously elaborate the strategy of genotoxic monitoring and relevant legislation. Additional approach is the study and dietary use of antigenotoxic plant substances for prevention of mutation-related diseases. (author)

  6. Genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants genotoxic monitoring and detection of antigenotoxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simic, D; Knezevic-Vukcevic, J; Vukovi -Gacic, B; Mitic, D; Beric, T; Nikolic, B; Stanojevic, J; Stankovic, S [Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2002-05-01

    The control of genotoxic agents mass release, which can adversely affect the ecosystem stability and human health is of the greatest importance. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously elaborate the strategy of genotoxic monitoring and relevant legislation. Additional approach is the study and dietary use of antigenotoxic plant substances for prevention of mutation-related diseases. (author)

  7. Progress in electronics and photonics with nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Murugan, Arul; Kotakoski, Jani

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have been at the center of attraction for almost five decades as their contributions to different disciplines such as electronics, photonics and medicine are enormous. Various kinds of nanomaterials have been developed and are currently utilized in innumerable applications. Neverthe......Nanomaterials have been at the center of attraction for almost five decades as their contributions to different disciplines such as electronics, photonics and medicine are enormous. Various kinds of nanomaterials have been developed and are currently utilized in innumerable applications...

  8. LCA of metal nanomaterial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Diaz, Elsa Gabriela Alvarado; Olsen, Stig Irving

    The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial product has reached a new stage, where consumers in their daily life are frequently encountered with products containing this new material class. Metal and metal-oxide nanomaterials are among the most commonly used ENMs in products. Potential......(OH)2 applied as additives in polypropylene (PP), and the production of PP with conventional additives that provide similar properties as the ENMs. Different scenarios of nanoproducts consisting of metal ENMs and PP were compared with current use of additives in PP products through a detailed cradle...

  9. Exploring release and recovery of nanomaterials from commercial polymeric nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquets-Fité, Martí; Puntes, Víctor; Fernandez, Elisabet; Janer, Gemma; Vilar, Gemma; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro; Zanasca, R; Citterio, C; Mercante, L

    2013-01-01

    Much concern has been raised about the risks associated with the broad use of polymers containing nanomaterials. Much is known about degradation and aging of polymers and nanomaterials independently, but very few studies have been done in order to understand degradation of polymeric nanocomposites containing nanomaterials and the fate of these nanomaterials, which may occur in suffering many processes such as migration, release and physicochemical modifications. Throughout the UE funded FP7 project NANOPOLYTOX, studies on the migration, release and alteration of mechanical properties of commercial nanocomposites due to ageing and weathering have been performed along with studies on the feasibility of recovery and recycling of the nanomaterials. The project includes the use as model nanocomposites of Polyamide-6 (PA), Polypropylene (PP) and Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA) as polymeric matrix filled with a 3% in mass of a set of selected broadly used nanomaterials; from inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (SiO2, TiO2 and ZnO) to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and Nanoclays. These model nanocomposites were then treated under accelerated ageing conditions in climatic chamber. To determine the degree of degradation of the whole nanocomposite and possible processes of migration, release and modification of the nanofillers, nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques. Additionally, recovery of the nanomaterials fro m the polymeric matrix was addressed, being successfully achieved for PA and PP based nanocomposites. In the case of PA, dissolution of the polymeric matrix using formic acid and further centrifugation steps was the chosen approach, while for PP based nanocomposites calcination was performed.

  10. Current investigations into the genotoxicity of zinc oxide and silica nanoparticles in mammalian models in vitro and in vivo: carcinogenic/genotoxic potential, relevant mechanisms and biomarkers, artifacts, and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon JY

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jee Young Kwon,1,* Preeyaporn Koedrith,2,* Young Rok Seo1 1Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Dongguk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University, Phuttamonthon District, NakhonPathom, Thailand *These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered as co-first authors Abstract: Engineered nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in many sectors, such as food, medicine, military, and sport, but their unique characteristics may cause deleterious health effects. Close attention is being paid to metal NP genotoxicity; however, NP genotoxic/carcinogenic effects and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this review, we address some metal and metal oxide NPs of interest and current genotoxicity tests in vitro and in vivo. Metal NPs can cause DNA damage such as chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage, and mutations. We also discuss several parameters that may affect genotoxic response, including physicochemical properties, widely used assays/end point tests, and experimental conditions. Although potential biomarkers of nanogenotoxicity or carcinogenicity are suggested, inconsistent findings in the literature render results inconclusive due to a variety of factors. Advantages and limitations related to different methods for investigating genotoxicity are described, and future directions and recommendations for better understanding genotoxic potential are addressed. Keywords: carcinogenicity, exposure assessment, genotoxicity, nanoparticles, risk evaluation

  11. Photo and radiation chemistry of polymeric systems and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaylov, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    New approaches of analytical ESR-spectroscopy to studying of free-radical and electron-transport processes at radiation-chemical and photochemical modification both fictionalization of polymeric systems and nanomaterials were surveyed. Measuring techniques using of ESR-spectroscopy of paramagnetic centers were fulfilled. The radiation-chemical processes of modification, microencapsulation and kinetic stabilization of thermodynamically incompatible systems and interfaces for nanomaterials including fullerenes, nanotubes, nanofibres, etc. and composites on the basis of synthetic and natural polymers including plant fibers, fluoropolymers, polyolefins, etc. were developed

  12. Toxicity of engineered nanomaterials and their transformation products following wastewater treatment on A549 human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we characterize the toxicity of environmentally-relevant forms of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs, which can transform during wastewater treatment and persist in aqueous effluents and biosolids. In an aerosol exposure scenario, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of effluents and biosolids from lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs to A549 human lung epithelial cells were examined. The SBRs were dosed with nanoAg, nano zero-valent iron (NZVI, nanoTiO2 and nanoCeO2 at sequentially increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 20 mg/L. Toxicities were compared to outputs from SBRs dosed with ionic/bulk analogs, undosed SBRs, and pristine ENMs. Pristine nanoAg and NZVI showed significant cytotoxicity to A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner from 1 to 67 μg/mL, while nanoTiO2 and nanoCeO2 only exerted cytotoxicity at 67 μg/mL. Only nanoAg induced a genotoxic response, at 9, 33 and 53 μg/mL. However, no significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects of the SBR effluents or biosolids containing nanomaterials were observed.

  13. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part I: TYPES OF CNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. The synthesis techniques are used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as zero-dimensional CNs (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nanodiamond, and onion-like carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene and carbon nanowalls.

  14. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment requirements...

  15. Computational design of safer nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burello, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are expected to find applications in numerous consumer products, posing the challenge to guarantee their safety and environmental sustainability before they can be transferred from research labs to end-consumer products. One emerging solution, called safe design, relies on the

  16. Magnetic characterization techniques for nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Sixth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Magnetic Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  17. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  18. Chemical Design of Functional Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten

    This thesis deals with a very specific class of functional nanomaterials known as mesoporous zeolites. Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicate minerals characterized by featuring pores or cavities of molecular dimensions as part of their crystal structure. Mesoporous zeolites are zeol...

  19. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mostofizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nanodiamond, and onion-like carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene and carbon nanowalls are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nanomaterials.

  20. Risk of dust explosions of combustible nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Ritsu

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials have several valuable properties and are widely used for various practical applications. However, safety matters are suspected such as the influence on health and environment, and fire and explosion hazards. To minimize the risk of nanomaterials, appropriate understanding of these hazards is indispensable. Nanoparticles of combustible materials have potential hazard of dust explosion accidents. However, the explosion risk of nanomaterials has not yet been understood adequately because of the lack of data for nanomaterials. In this presentation, the risk of dust explosions of nanomaterials is discussed.

  1. DNA dosimetry assessment for sunscreen genotoxic photoprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Passaglia Schuch

    Full Text Available Due to the increase of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV incidence over the last few decades, the use of sunscreen has been widely adopted for skin protection. However, considering the high efficiency of sunlight-induced DNA lesions, it is critical to improve upon the current approaches that are used to evaluate protection factors. An alternative approach to evaluate the photoprotection provided by sunscreens against daily UV radiation-induced DNA damage is provided by the systematic use of a DNA dosimeter.The Sun Protection Factor for DNA (DNA-SPF is calculated by using specific DNA repair enzymes, and it is defined as the capacity for inhibiting the generation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD and oxidised DNA bases compared with unprotected control samples. Five different commercial brands of sunscreen were initially evaluated, and further studies extended the analysis to include 17 other products representing various formulations and Sun Protection Factors (SPF. Overall, all of the commercial brands of SPF 30 sunscreens provided sufficient protection against simulated sunlight genotoxicity. In addition, this DNA biosensor was useful for rapidly screening the biological protection properties of the various sunscreen formulations.The application of the DNA dosimeter is demonstrated as an alternative, complementary, and reliable method for the quantification of sunscreen photoprotection at the level of DNA damage.

  2. DNA dosimetry assessment for sunscreen genotoxic photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Lago, Juliana Carvalhães; Yagura, Teiti; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) incidence over the last few decades, the use of sunscreen has been widely adopted for skin protection. However, considering the high efficiency of sunlight-induced DNA lesions, it is critical to improve upon the current approaches that are used to evaluate protection factors. An alternative approach to evaluate the photoprotection provided by sunscreens against daily UV radiation-induced DNA damage is provided by the systematic use of a DNA dosimeter. The Sun Protection Factor for DNA (DNA-SPF) is calculated by using specific DNA repair enzymes, and it is defined as the capacity for inhibiting the generation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and oxidised DNA bases compared with unprotected control samples. Five different commercial brands of sunscreen were initially evaluated, and further studies extended the analysis to include 17 other products representing various formulations and Sun Protection Factors (SPF). Overall, all of the commercial brands of SPF 30 sunscreens provided sufficient protection against simulated sunlight genotoxicity. In addition, this DNA biosensor was useful for rapidly screening the biological protection properties of the various sunscreen formulations. The application of the DNA dosimeter is demonstrated as an alternative, complementary, and reliable method for the quantification of sunscreen photoprotection at the level of DNA damage.

  3. DNA Dosimetry Assessment for Sunscreen Genotoxic Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, André Passaglia; Lago, Juliana Carvalhães; Yagura, Teiti; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the increase of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) incidence over the last few decades, the use of sunscreen has been widely adopted for skin protection. However, considering the high efficiency of sunlight-induced DNA lesions, it is critical to improve upon the current approaches that are used to evaluate protection factors. An alternative approach to evaluate the photoprotection provided by sunscreens against daily UV radiation-induced DNA damage is provided by the systematic use of a DNA dosimeter. Methodology/Principal Findings The Sun Protection Factor for DNA (DNA-SPF) is calculated by using specific DNA repair enzymes, and it is defined as the capacity for inhibiting the generation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and oxidised DNA bases compared with unprotected control samples. Five different commercial brands of sunscreen were initially evaluated, and further studies extended the analysis to include 17 other products representing various formulations and Sun Protection Factors (SPF). Overall, all of the commercial brands of SPF 30 sunscreens provided sufficient protection against simulated sunlight genotoxicity. In addition, this DNA biosensor was useful for rapidly screening the biological protection properties of the various sunscreen formulations. Conclusions/Significance The application of the DNA dosimeter is demonstrated as an alternative, complementary, and reliable method for the quantification of sunscreen photoprotection at the level of DNA damage. PMID:22768281

  4. Comparison of occupational exposure assessment tools and concepts for nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    The development, production and application of engineered nanomaterials have been growing in different fields. This leads to a consequent increased potential of exposure to nanomaterials in the working environment. However to determine the potential exposure risk is a challenging task for risk...... for Nanomaterials”; “NanoSafer vs. 1.1 – A web-based precautionary risk assessment tool for manufactured nanomaterials using first order modeling” Based on the literature information we have analyzed these tools and discussed elements regarding: the domain of application and whether it accounts for the nanospecific...... factor or nano-relevance; the work exposure scenario, for which types of processes they may be used; are the tools using the source-transmission-receptor approach; the input data requirements; whether the tools included qualitative or semi-quantitative or quantitative evaluations of the exposure; whether...

  5. Introduction to nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanomaterials an introduction for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Vollath, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the demand for a readily understandable introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology, this textbook specifically addresses the needs of students - and engineers - who need to get the gist of nanoscale phenomena in materials without having to delve too deeply into the physical and chemical details. The book begins with an overview of the consequences of small particle size, such as the growing importance of surface effects, and covers successful, field-tested synthesis techniques of nanomaterials. The largest part of the book is devoted to the particular magnetic, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of materials at the nanoscale, leading on to emerging and already commercialized applications, such as nanofluids in magnetic resonance imaging, high-performance nanocomposites and carbon nanotube-based electronics. Based on the author's experience in teaching nanomaterials courses and adapted, in style and level, for students with only limited background knowledge, the textbook includes fur...

  6. Why the Immune System Should Be Concerned by Nanomaterials?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. Pallardy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Particles possess huge specific surface area and therefore nanomaterials exhibit unique characteristics, such as special physical properties and chemical hyper-reactivity, which make them particularly attractive but also raise numerous questions concerning their safety. Interactions of nanomaterials with the immune system can potentially lead to immunosuppression, hypersensitivity (allergy, immunogenicity and autoimmunity, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses. Inherent physical and chemical NP characteristics may influence their immunotoxicity, i.e., the adverse effects that can result from exposure. This review will focus on the possible interaction of nanomaterials including protein aggregates with the innate immune system with specific emphasis on antigen-presenting cells, i.e., dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  7. Considerations on the EU definition of a nanomaterial: science to support policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Eric A J; de Jong, Wim H; Geertsma, Robert E; Groenewold, Monique; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Koers-Jacquemijns, Marjorie; van de Meent, Dik; Popma, Jan R; Rietveld, Anton G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Cassee, Flemming R; Oomen, Agnes G

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of applications and products containing or using nanomaterials have become available. This has raised concerns that some of these materials may introduce new risks for humans or the environment. A clear definition to discriminate nanomaterials from other materials is prerequisite to include provisions for nanomaterials in legislation. In October 2011 the European Commission published the 'Recommendation on the definition of a nanomaterial', primarily intended to provide unambiguous criteria to identify materials for which special regulatory provisions might apply, but also to promote consistency on the interpretation of the term 'nanomaterial'. In this paper, the current status of various regulatory frameworks of the European Union with regard to nanomaterials is described, and major issues relevant for regulation of nanomaterials are discussed. This will contribute to better understanding the implications of the choices policy makers have to make in further regulation of nanomaterials. Potential issues that need to be addressed and areas of research in which science can contribute are indicated. These issues include awareness on situations in which nano-related risks may occur for materials that fall outside the definition, guidance and further development of measurement techniques, and dealing with changes during the life cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  9. The role of intracellular redox imbalance in nanomaterial induced cellular damage and genotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Chauché, Caroline; Brown, David M

    2015-01-01

    The terms oxidative stress, free radical generation, and intracellular antioxidant protection have become part of everyday nanotoxicology terminology. In recent years, an ever increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies have implicated disruptions to the redox balance and oxidative stress...

  10. Assessment of Genotoxicity of Ionizing radiation using Tradescantia-Comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min; Ryu, Tae Ho; Hyun, Kyung Man; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Wilhelmova, Nad [Institute of Experimental Botany, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-05-15

    Over the last two decades, several new methodologies for the detection of DNA damage have been developed. The comet assay is currently used in different areas of biological sciences to detect DNA damage. The comet assay, also called the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was first introduced by Ostling and Johanson as a microelectrophoretic technique for the direct visualization of DNA damage in individual cells. The comet assay, due to its simplicity, sensitivity and need of a few cells, is ideal as a short-term genotoxicity test. The comet assay can theoretically be applied to every type of eukaryotic cell, including plant cells. Plants are very useful as monitors of genetic effects caused by pollution in the atmosphere, water and soil. Although the genotoxic effects detected by Tradescantia tests cannot be associated with mutagenesis or even carcinogenesis in humans, these bioassays are very useful tools for screening the mutagenic potential in the environment. Experiments were conducted to study the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiations on the genome integrity, particularly of Tradescantia. The increasingly frequent use of Tradescantia as a sensitive environmental bioindicator of genotoxic effects. This study was designed to assess the genotoxicity of ionizing radiation using Tradescnatia-comet assay

  11. Synthesis and Application of Graphene Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei

    Graphene, a two-dimensional sp2-bonded carbon material, has recently attracted major attention due to its excellent electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Depending on different applications, graphene and its derived hybrid nanomaterials can be synthesized by either bottom-up chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for electronics, or various top-down chemical reaction methods for energy generation and storage devices. My thesis begins with the investigation of CVD synthesis of graphene thin films in Chapter 1, including the direct growth of bilayer graphene on insulating substrates and synthesis of "rebar graphene": a hybrid structure with graphene and carbon or boron nitride nanotubes. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis of nanoribbon-shaped materials and their applications, including splitting of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube carpets for supercapacitors, synthesis of dispersable ferromagnetic graphene nanoribbon stacks with enhanced electrical percolation properties in magnetic field, graphene nanoribbon/SnO 2 nanocomposite for lithium ion batteries, and enhanced electrocatalysis for hydrogen evolution reactions from WS2 nanoribbons. Next, Chapter 3 discusses graphene coated iron oxide nanomaterials and their use in energy storage applications. Finally, Chapter 4 introduces the development, characterization, and fabrication of laser induced graphene and its application as supercapacitors.

  12. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, P N; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  13. Terahertz Dynamics in Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2012-02-01

    This NSF Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) project supports a unique interdisciplinary and international partnership investigating terahertz (THz) dynamics in nanostructures. The 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum is where electrical transport and optical transitions merge, offering exciting opportunities to study a variety of novel physical phenomena in condensed matter. By combining THz technology and nanotechnology, we can advance our understanding of THz physics while improving and developing THz devices. Specifically, this PIRE research explores THz dynamics of electrons in carbon nanomaterials, namely, nanotubes and graphene --- low-dimensional, sp^2-bonded carbon systems with unique finite-frequency properties. Japan and the U.S. are global leaders in both THz research and carbon research, and stimulating cooperation is critical to further advance THz science and to commercialize products developed in the lab. However, obstacles exist for international collaboration --- primarily linguistic and cultural barriers --- and this PIRE project aims to address these barriers through the integration of our research and education programs. Our strong educational portfolio endeavours to cultivate interest in nanotechnology amongst young U.S. undergraduate students and encourage them to pursue graduate study and academic research in the physical sciences, especially those from underrepresented groups. Our award-winning International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program, NanoJapan, provides structured research internships in Japanese university laboratories with Japanese mentors --- recognized as a model international education program for science and engineering students. The project builds the skill sets of nanoscience researchers and students by cultivating international and inter-cultural awareness, research expertise, and specific academic interests in nanotechnology. U.S. project partners include Rice

  14. Final Report: ''Energetics of Nanomaterials''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra; Ross, Nancy; Woodfield, Brian F

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, solids with very small particle size, form the basis of new technologies that are revolutionizing fields such as energy, lighting, electronics, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. These nanoparticles are different from conventional bulk materials in many ways we do not yet fully understand. This project focused on their structure and thermodynamics and emphasized the role of water in nanoparticle surfaces. Using a unique and synergistic combination of high-tech techniques-namely oxide melt solution calorimetry, cryogenic heat capacity measurements, and inelastic neutron scattering-this work has identified differences in structure, thermodynamic stability, and water behavior on nanoparticles as a function of composition and particle size. The systematics obtained increase the fundamental understanding needed to synthesize, retain, and apply these technologically important nanomaterials and to predict and tailor new materials for enhanced functionality, eventually leading to a more sustainable way of life. Highlights are reported on the following topics: surface energies, thermochemistry of nanoparticles, and changes in stability at the nanoscale; heat capacity models and the gapped phonon spectrum; control of pore structure, acid sites, and thermal stability in synthetic γ-aluminas; the lattice contribution is the same for bulk and nanomaterials; and inelastic neutron scattering studies of water on nanoparticle surfaces.

  15. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia; Castelli, Stefano; Pettirossi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials. [it

  16. Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

  17. NaKnowBaseTM: The EPA Nanomaterials Research ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to predict the environmental and health implications of engineered nanomaterials is an important research priority due to the exponential rate at which nanotechnology is being incorporated into consumer, industrial and biomedical applications. To address this need and develop predictive capability, we have created the NaKnowbaseTM, which provides a platform for the curation and dissemination of EPA nanomaterials data to support functional assay development, hazard risk models and informatic analyses. To date, we have combined relevant physicochemical parameters from other organizations (e.g., OECD, NIST), with those requested for nanomaterial data submitted to EPA under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Physiochemical characterization data were collated from >400 unique nanomaterials including metals, metal oxides, carbon-based and hybrid materials evaluated or synthesized by EPA researchers. We constructed parameter requirements and table structures for encoding research metadata, including experimental factors and measured response variables. As a proof of concept, we illustrate how SQL-based queries facilitate a range of interrogations including, for example, relationships between nanoparticle characteristics and environmental or toxicological endpoints. The views expressed in this poster are those of the authors and may not reflect U.S. EPA policy. The purpose of this submission for clearance is an abstract for submission to a scientific

  18. In vitro and in vivo genotoxic evaluation of Bothrops moojeni snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Zobiole, Nathalia; Caon, Thiago; Wildgrube Bertol, Jéssica; Pereira, Cintia Alves de Souza; Okubo, Brunna Mary; Moreno, Susana Elisa; Cardozo, Francielle Tramontini Gomes de Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Bothrops moojeni Hoge (Viperidae) venom is a complex mixture of compounds with therapeutic potential that has been included in the research and development of new drugs. Along with the biological activity, the pharmaceutical applicability of this venom depends on its toxicological profile. This study evaluates the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the Bothrops moojeni venom (BMV). The in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a pooled sample of BMV was assessed by the MTT and Comet assay, respectively. Genotoxicity was also evaluated in vivo through the micronucleus assay. BMV displayed a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) on Vero cells of 4.09 µg/mL. Vero cells treated with 4 µg/mL for 90 min and 6 h presented significant (p < 0.05, ANOVA/Newman-Keuls test) higher DNA damage than the negative control in the Comet assay. The lower DNA damage found after 6 h compared with the 90 min treatment suggests a DNA repair effect. Mice intraperitoneally treated with BMV at 10, 30, or 80 µg/animal presented significant genotoxicity (p < 0.05, ANOVA/Newman-Keuls test) in relation to the negative control after 24 h of treatment. Contrary to the in vitro results, no DNA repair seemed to occur in vivo up to 96 h post-venom inoculation at a dose of 30 µg/animal. The results show that BMV presents cyto- and genotoxicity depending on the concentration/dose used. These findings emphasize the importance of toxicological studies, including assessment of genotoxicity, in the biological activity research of BMV and/or in the development of BMV-derived products.

  19. A novel mechanism of oxidative genotoxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The genotoxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is well established. The underlying mechanism involves oxidation of DNA by ROS. However, we have recently shown that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the major mediator of oxidative stress, can also cause genomic damage indirectly. Thus, H2O2 at pathologically relevant ...

  20. Comparative Physicochemical and Genotoxicity Assessments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The textile industry has become indispensable in view of its basic and social importance to human life, but its environmental impact has continued to be a subject of concern. ... the economy of many countries. ... Textile and clothing production process ..... Genotoxicity screening of industrial effluents using.

  1. "Aspartame: A review of genotoxicity data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Gatehouse, David

    2015-10-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is 200× sweeter than sucrose and is approved for use in food products in more than 90 countries around the world. Aspartame has been evaluated for genotoxic effects in microbial, cell culture and animal models, and has been subjected to a number of carcinogenicity studies. The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity data available on aspartame are considered sufficient for a thorough evaluation. There is no evidence of induction of gene mutations in a series of bacterial mutation tests. There is some evidence of induction of chromosomal damage in vitro, but this may be an indirect consequence of cytotoxicity. The weight of evidence from in vivo bone marrow micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and Comet assays is that aspartame is not genotoxic in somatic cells in vivo. The results of germ cell assays are difficult to evaluate considering limited data available and deviations from standard protocols. The available data therefore support the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) that aspartame is non-genotoxic. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The applications of nanomaterials in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinjian; Liu Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, nanotechnology and nanomaterials have gained rapid development in medical application, especially in targeted drug delivery and gene transfer vector domain, and nano-materials are also beginning to applied in nuclear medicine. This paper is to make a view of the application research of several types of nanomaterials in nuclear medicine, and discuss some problems and the main direction of future development. (authors)

  3. Comet Assay: A Method to Evaluate Genotoxicity of Nano-Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandghanooni, Somayeh; Eskandani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Drug delivery systems could induce cellular toxicity as side effect of nanomaterials. The mechanism of toxicity usually involves DNA damage. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) is a sensitive method for detecting strand damages in the DNA of a cell with applications in genotoxicity testing and molecular epidemiology as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. Methods In the current study, we reviewed recent drug delivery researches related to SCGE. Results We found that one preference for choosing the assay is that comet images may result from apoptosis-mediated nuclear fragmentation. This method has been widely used over the last decade in several different areas. Overall cells, such as cultured cells are embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, lysed with detergent, and treated with high salt. Nucleoids are supercoiled DNA form. When the slide is faced to alkaline electrophoresis any breakages present in the DNA cause the supercoiling to relax locally and loops of DNA extend toward the anode as a ‘‘comet tail’’. Conclusion This article provides a relatively comprehensive review upon potentiality of the comet assay for assessment of DNA damage and accordingly it can be used as an informative platform in genotoxicity studies of drug delivery systems. PMID:23678412

  4. p53-competent cells and p53-deficient cells display different susceptibility to oxygen functionalized graphene cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibone, Dayton M; Mustafa, Thikra; Bourdo, Shawn E; Lafont, Andersen; Ding, Wei; Karmakar, Alokita; Nima, Zeid A; Watanabe, Fumiya; Casciano, Daniel; Morris, Suzanne M; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Biris, Alexandru S

    2017-11-01

    Due to the distinctive physical, electrical, and chemical properties of graphene nanomaterials, numerous efforts pursuing graphene-based biomedical and industrial applications are underway. Oxidation of pristine graphene surfaces mitigates its otherwise hydrophobic characteristic thereby improving its biocompatibility and functionality. Yet, the potential widespread use of oxidized graphene derivatives raises concern about adverse impacts on human health. The p53 tumor suppressor protein maintains cellular and genetic stability after toxic exposures. Here, we show that p53 functional status correlates with oxygen functionalized graphene (f-G) cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in vitro. The f-G exposed p53-competent cells, but not p53-deficient cells, initiated G 0 /G 1 phase cell cycle arrest, suppressed reactive oxygen species, and entered apoptosis. There was p53-dependent f-G genotoxicity evident as increased structural chromosome damage, but not increased gene mutation or chromatin loss. In conclusion, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential for f-G in exposed cells was dependent on the p53 functional status. These findings have broad implications for the safe and effective implementation of oxidized graphene derivatives into biomedical and industrial applications. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Engineering nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Man; Liu, Yang; Geng, Jinhui; Kou, Xiaohong; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Dayong

    2018-05-30

    Food safety always remains a grand global challenge to human health, especially in developing countries. To solve food safety pertained problems, numerous strategies have been developed to detect biological and chemical contaminants in food. Among these approaches, nanomaterials-based biosensors provide opportunity to realize rapid, sensitive, efficient and portable detection, overcoming the restrictions and limitations of traditional methods such as complicated sample pretreatment, long detection time, and relying on expensive instruments and well-trained personnel. In this review article, we provide a cross-disciplinary perspective to review the progress of nanomaterials-based biosensors for the detection of food contaminants. The review article is organized by the category of food contaminants including pathogens/toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and illegal additives. In each category of food contaminant, the biosensing strategies are summarized including optical, colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, and immune- biosensors; the relevant analytes, nanomaterials and biosensors are analyzed comprehensively. Future perspectives and challenges are also discussed briefly. We envision that our review could bridge the gap between the fields of food science and nanotechnology, providing implications for the scientists or engineers in both areas to collaborate and promote the development of nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  7. Mequindox Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ, acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N-oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM mice (50 mice/sex/group were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration. Additionally, MEQ significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice. Furthermore, MEQ increased the incidence of tumors, including mammary fibroadenoma, breast cancer, corticosuprarenaloma, haemangiomas, hepatocarcinoma, and pulmonary adenoma. Interestingly, the higher incidence of tumors was noted in M25 mg/kg group, the lowest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 2.25 and 1.72 mg/kg b.w./day in females and males, respectively. It was assumed that the lower toxicity might be a reason for its higher tumor incidence in M25 mg/kg group. This finding suggests a potential relationships among the dose, general toxicity and carcinogenicity in vivo, and further study is required to reveal this relationship. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that MEQ is a genotoxic carcinogen in KM mice.

  8. Tungsten carbide-cobalt as a nanoparticulate reference positive control in in vitro genotoxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Hélène; Chevalier, Dany; Barois, Nicolas; Lorge, Elisabeth; Claude, Nancy; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing human exposure to nanoparticles (NP), the evaluation of their genotoxic potential is of significant importance. However, relevance for NP of the routinely used in vitro genotoxicity assays is often questioned, and a nanoparticulate reference positive control would therefore constitute an important step to a better testing of NP, ensuring that test systems are really appropriate. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) NP as reference positive control in in vitro genotoxicity assays, including 2 regulatory assays, the mouse lymphoma assay and the micronucleus assay, and in the Comet assay, recommended for the toxicological evaluation of nanomedicines by the French Agency of Human Health Products (Afssaps). Through these assays, we were able to study different genetic endpoints in 2 cell types commonly used in regulatory genotoxicity assays: the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell line and primary cultures of human lymphocytes. Our results showed that the use of WC-Co NP as positive control in in vitro genotoxicity assays was conceivable, but that different parameters have to be considered, such as cell type and treatment schedule. L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells did not provide satisfactory results in the 3 performed tests. However, human lymphocytes were more sensitive to genotoxic effects induced by WC-Co NP, particularly after a 24-h treatment in the in vitro micronucleus assay and after a 4-h treatment in the in vitro Comet assay. Under such conditions, WC-Co could be used as a nanoparticulate reference positive control in these assays.

  9. Nanophotonics and Optical Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) is to plays a leadership role in integration of nanostructured materials to enable novel capabilities and applications through its function as a Department of Energy/Office of Science Nanoscale Science Research Center (NSRC) national user facility. By coupling open access to unique and world-class capabilities and scientific expertise to an active user community, CINT supports high-impact research that no other single institution could achieve – the whole of CINT including its user community is greater than the sum of its parts.

  10. Genotoxic thresholds, DNA repair, and susceptibility in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gareth J.S.; Zair, Zoulikha; Johnson, George E.; Doak, Shareen H.

    2010-01-01

    It has been long assumed that DNA damage is induced in a linear manner with respect to the dose of a direct acting genotoxin. Thus, it is implied that direct acting genotoxic agents induce DNA damage at even the lowest of concentrations and that no 'safe' dose range exists. The linear (non-threshold) paradigm has led to the one-hit model being developed. This 'one hit' scenario can be interpreted such that a single DNA damaging event in a cell has the capability to induce a single point mutation in that cell which could (if positioned in a key growth controlling gene) lead to increased proliferation, leading ultimately to the formation of a tumour. There are many groups (including our own) who, for a decade or more, have argued, that low dose exposures to direct acting genotoxins may be tolerated by cells through homeostatic mechanisms such as DNA repair. This argument stems from the existence of evolutionary adaptive mechanisms that allow organisms to adapt to low levels of exogenous sources of genotoxins. We have been particularly interested in the genotoxic effects of known mutagens at low dose exposures in human cells and have identified for the first time, in vitro genotoxic thresholds for several mutagenic alkylating agents (Doak et al., 2007). Our working hypothesis is that DNA repair is primarily responsible for these thresholded effects at low doses by removing low levels of DNA damage but becoming saturated at higher doses. We are currently assessing the roles of base excision repair (BER) and methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) for roles in the identified thresholds (Doak et al., 2008). This research area is currently important as it assesses whether 'safe' exposure levels to mutagenic chemicals can exist and allows risk assessment using appropriate safety factors to define such exposure levels. Given human variation, the mechanistic basis for genotoxic thresholds (e.g. DNA repair) has to be well defined in order that susceptible individuals are

  11. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  12. Carbon nanomaterials for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liming; Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom; Lu, Wen

    2012-04-23

    It is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. Comparing to conventional energy materials, carbon nanomaterials possess unique size-/surface-dependent (e.g., morphological, electrical, optical, and mechanical) properties useful for enhancing the energy-conversion and storage performances. During the past 25 years or so, therefore, considerable efforts have been made to utilize the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, as energy materials, and tremendous progress has been achieved in developing high-performance energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) devices. This article reviews progress in the research and development of carbon nanomaterials during the past twenty years or so for advanced energy conversion and storage, along with some discussions on challenges and perspectives in this exciting field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis and post-processing of nanomaterials using microreaction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Paul, Brian K.; Remcho, Vincent T.; Atre, Sundar; Hutchison, James E.

    2008-01-01

    A critical barrier to the routine use of nanomaterials is the tedious, expensive means of their synthesis. Microreaction technology takes advantage of the large surface area-to-volume ratios within microchannel structures to accelerate heat and mass transport. This accelerated transport allows for rapid changes in reaction temperatures and concentrations leading to more uniform heating and mixing which can have dramatic impacts on macromolecular yields and nanoparticle size distributions. Benefits of microreaction technology include higher yield and reactant conversion, better energy efficiency and less by-product generation. Microreactors can help minimize the environmental impact of nanoproduction by enabling solvent free mixing, integrated separation techniques and reagent recycling. The possibility of synthesizing nanomaterials in the required volumes at the point-of-use eliminates the need to store and transport potentially hazardous materials and provides the flexibility for tailoring complex functional nanomaterials. Recognizing these benefits for nanosynthesis, continuous flow microreactors have been used by several research groups to synthesize and characterize nanomaterials. An overview of these efforts and issues related to scale up and other post synthesis processes such as separation and deposition are presented in this paper.

  14. Nanotechnology in reproductive medicine: emerging applications of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalina, Natalia; Charalambous, Charis; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade, nanotechnology has been extensively introduced for biomedical applications, including bio-detection, drug delivery and diagnostic imaging, particularly in the field of cancer diagnostics and treatment. However, there is a growing trend towards the expansion of nanobiotechnological tools in a number of non-cancer applications. In this review, we discuss the emerging uses of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology. For the first time, we summarise the available evidence regarding the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection and treatment of malignant and benign reproductive conditions. We also present an overview of potential applications for nanomaterials in reproductive biology, discuss the benefits and concerns associated with their use in a highly delicate system of reproductive tissues and gametes, and address the feasibility of this innovative and potentially controversial approach in the clinical setting and for investigative research into the mechanisms underlying reproductive diseases. This unique review paper focuses on the emerging use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology, highlighting the role of nanomaterials in the detection and treatment of various reproductive conditions, keeping in mind the benefits and potential concerns associated with nanomaterial use in the delicate system of reproductive tissue and gametes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part II: GRAPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As was presented in the first part of this review paper, lately, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. In this part of the paper are presented the synthesis techniques used to produce the two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene, and also the most important properties and potential applications of graphene.

  16. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Bansi D; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Chandra Mouli

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection. (paper)

  17. Multi-metal oxide ceramic nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Liu, Shuangyi; Huang, Limin

    2016-06-07

    A convenient and versatile method for preparing complex metal oxides is disclosed. The method uses a low temperature, environmentally friendly gel-collection method to form a single phase nanomaterial. In one embodiment, the nanomaterial consists of Ba.sub.AMn.sub.BTi.sub.CO.sub.D in a controlled stoichiometry.

  18. Environmental fate and behaviour of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    In the current report, the existing knowledge on the fate of nanomaterials in the environment is reviewed and the major knowledge gaps are identified.......In the current report, the existing knowledge on the fate of nanomaterials in the environment is reviewed and the major knowledge gaps are identified....

  19. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  20. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  1. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-07

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  2. Antimicrobial and biocompatible properties of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, M; Shehzad, A; Khan, S; Khattak, W A; Ullah, M W; Park, J K

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of drug-resistant characteristics in pathogenic viral, bacterial, and fungal species and the consequent spread of infectious diseases are currently receiving serious attention. Indeed, there is a pressing demand to explore novel materials and develop new strategies that can address these issues of serious concern. Nanomaterials are currently proving to be the most capable therapeutic agents to cope with such hazards. The exceptional physiochemical properties and impressive antimicrobial capabilities of nanoparticles have provoked their utilization in biomedical fields. Nanomaterials of both organic and inorganic nature have shown the capabilities of disrupting microbial cells through different mechanisms. Along with the direct influence on the microbial cell membrane, DNA and proteins, these nanomaterials produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cell components and viruses. Currently, a serious hazard associated with these antimicrobial nanomaterials is their toxicity to human and animal cells. Extensive studies have reported the dose, time, and cell-dependent toxicology of various nanomaterials, and some have shown excellent biocompatible properties. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the use of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, in this review, the antimicrobial activities of various nanomaterials with details of their acting mechanisms were compiled. The relative toxic and biocompatible behavior of nanomaterials emphasized in this study provides information pertaining to their practical applicability in medical fields.

  3. Managing the Life Cycle Risks of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Nanomaterials Report Research to date focuses predominantly on aquatic organisms of the oceans or seas; no groundwater or soil exposure scenarios have been...pollution, create medical innovations, or develop new materials based on old concepts (e.g., plastics , thin films, and transistors). As already...Risks of Nanomaterials Report consumption, land use, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification , eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation

  4. In vitro assessments of nanomaterial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clinton F; Grainger, David W

    2009-06-21

    Nanotechnology has grown from a scientific interest to a major industry with both commodity and specialty nanomaterial exposure to global populations and ecosystems. Sub-micron materials are currently used in a wide variety of consumer products and in clinical trials as drug delivery carriers and imaging agents. Due to the expected growth in this field and the increasing public exposure to nanomaterials, both from intentional administration and inadvertent contact, improved characterization and reliable toxicity screening tools are required for new and existing nanomaterials. This review discusses current methodologies used to assess nanomaterial physicochemical properties and their in vitro effects. Current methods lack the desired sensitivity, reliability, correlation and sophistication to provide more than limited, often equivocal, pieces of the overall nanomaterial performance parameter space, particularly in realistic physiological or environmental models containing cells, proteins and solutes. Therefore, improved physicochemical nanomaterial assays are needed to provide accurate exposure risk assessments and genuine predictions of in vivo behavior and therapeutic value. Simpler model nanomaterial systems in buffer do not accurately duplicate this complexity or predict in vivo behavior. A diverse portfolio of complementary material characterization tools and bioassays are required to validate nanomaterial properties in physiology.

  5. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, Tommi, E-mail: t.p.tervonen@rug.n [University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor, E-mail: igor.linkov@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Figueira, Jose Rui, E-mail: figueira@ist.utl.p [Technical University of Lisbon, CEG-IST, Centre for Management Studies, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Steevens, Jeffery, E-mail: jeffery.a.steevens@usace.army.mil; Chappell, Mark, E-mail: mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Merad, Myriam, E-mail: myriam.merad@ineris.f [INERIS BP 2, Societal Management of Risks Unit/Accidental Risks Division (France)

    2009-05-15

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  6. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopic studies for bioeffects of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Cai, Xiaoqing; Li, Jiang; Zhong, Zengtao; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-04-01

    There have been increasing interests in studying biological effects of nanomaterials, which are nevertheless faced up with many challenges due to the nanoscale dimensions and unique chemical properties of nanomaterials. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, an advanced imaging technology with high spatial resolution and excellent elemental specificity, provides a new platform for studying interactions between nanomaterials and living systems. In this article, we review the recent progress of X-ray microscopic studies on bioeffects of nanomaterials in several living systems including cells, model organisms, animals and plants. We aim to provide an overview of the state of the art, and the advantages of using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for characterizing in vitro and in vivo behaviors and biodistribution of nanomaterials. We also expect that the use of a combination of new synchrotron techniques should offer unprecedented opportunities for better understanding complex interactions at the nano-biological interface and accounting for unique bioeffects of nanomaterials. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy is a non-destructive imaging technique that enables high resolution spatial mapping of metals with elemental level detection methods. This review summarizes the current use and perspectives of this novel technique in studying the biology and tissue interactions of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulating Exposure Concentrations of Engineered Nanomaterials in Surface Water Systems: Release of WASP8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Bouchard, D.; Zepp, R. G.; Henderson, W. M.; Han, Y.; Hsieh, H. S.; Avant, B. K.; Acrey, B.; Spear, J.

    2017-12-01

    The unique properties of engineered nanomaterials led to their increased production and potential release into the environment. Currently available environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate nanomaterials' environmental behavior. This is due to an incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces. The well-known Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was updated to incorporate nanomaterial-specific processes, specifically hetero-aggregation with particulate matter. In parallel with this effort, laboratory studies were used to quantify parameter values parameters necessary for governing processes in surface waters. This presentation will discuss the recent developments in the new architecture for WASP8 and the newly constructed Advanced Toxicant Module. The module includes advanced algorithms for increased numbers of state variables: chemicals, solids, dissolved organic matter, pathogens, temperature, and salinity. This presentation will focus specifically on the incorporation of nanomaterials, with the applications of the fate and transport of hypothetical releases of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and Graphene Oxide (GO) into the headwaters of a southeastern US coastal plains river. While this presentation focuses on nanomaterials, the advanced toxicant module can also simulate metals and organic contaminants.

  8. Organic nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization, and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology have given rise to a new generation of functional organic nanomaterials with controlled morphology and well-defined properties, which enable a broad range of useful applications. This book explores some of the most important of these organic nanomaterials, describing how they are synthesized and characterized. Moreover, the book explains how researchers have incorporated organic nanomaterials into devices for real-world applications.Featuring contributions from an international team of leading nanoscientists, Organic Nanomaterials is divided into five parts:Part One introduces the fundamentals of nanomaterials and self-assembled nanostructuresPart Two examines carbon nanostructures—from fullerenes to carbon nanotubes to graphene—reporting on properties, theoretical studies, and applicationsPart Three investigates key aspects of some inorganic materials, self-assembled monolayers,...

  9. One-dimensional nanomaterials for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Fan, Yuqi; Gu, Jianhang; Wu, Liming; Passerini, Stefano; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-03-01

    The search for higher energy density, safer, and longer cycling-life energy storage systems is progressing quickly. One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have a large length-to-diameter ratio, resulting in their unique electrical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties, and have wide applications as electrode materials in different systems. This article reviews the latest hot topics in applying 1D nanomaterials, covering both their synthesis and their applications. 1D nanomaterials can be grouped into the categories: carbon, silicon, metal oxides, and conducting polymers, and we structure our discussion accordingly. Then, we survey the unique properties and application of 1D nanomaterials in batteries and supercapacitors, and provide comments on the progress and advantages of those systems, paving the way for a better understanding of employing 1D nanomaterials for energy storage.

  10. Environmental assessment of nanomaterial use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølholt, Jesper; Gottschalk, Fadri; Brinch, Anna

    This is the concluding report of the project "Nanomaterials – occurrence and effects in the Danish environment" (abbreviated NanoDEN), which part the Danish Government's initiative "Better Control of Nanomaterials" (“Bedre styr på nanomaterialer”) which is administered by the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency. The projects in NanoDEN have aimed to investigate and generate new environmentally relevant knowledge on of nanomaterials on the Danish market and to assess the possible associated risks to the environment. The results from the sub-projects are summarized in the current report...... and it is assessed whether and how nanomaterials may pose a risk for the environment in Denmark. The assessment is based on investigations of nine selected nanomaterials, which are expected to be environmentally relevant based on knowledge of consumption quantities or how they are used. These data contribute...

  11. Genotoxicity of formaldehyde: Molecular basis of DNA damage and mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu eKawanishi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is commonly used in the chemical industry and is present in the environment, such as vehicle emissions, some building materials, food and tobacco smoke. It also occurs as a natural product in most organisms, the sources of which include a number of metabolic processes. It causes various acute and chronic adverse effects in humans if they inhale its fumes. Among the chronic effects on human health, we summarize data on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in this review, and we particularly focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in the formaldehyde mutagenesis. Formaldehyde mainly induces N-hydroxymethyl mono-adducts on guanine, adenine and cytosine, and N-methylene crosslinks between adjacent purines in DNA. These crosslinks are types of DNA damage potentially fatal for cell survival if they are not removed by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. In the previous studies, we showed evidence that formaldehyde causes intra-strand crosslinks between purines in DNA using a unique method (Matsuda et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 1769-1774,1998. Using shuttle vector plasmids, we also showed that formaldehyde as well as acetaldehyde induces tandem base substitutions, mainly at 5’-GG and 5’-GA sequences, which would arise from the intra-strand crosslinks. These mutation features are different from those of other aldehydes such as crotonaldehyde, acrolein, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. These findings provide molecular clues to improve our understanding of the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde.

  12. Genotoxicity evaluation of HMG CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ahmet Ali; Celik, Mustafa; Aksoy, Hüseyin

    2014-07-01

    The genotoxic potential of rosuvastatin as one of the statin drugs was assessed by chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronucleus (MN) and DNA damage by comet assay in the human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rosuvastatin was used at concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/mL for these in vitro assays. In all assays, a negative and positive control were also included. CA frequencies were significantly increased in all concentrations at 24 hours and significantly increased in all concentrations except 0.0625 µg/mL at 48 hours, compared to the negative control. Rosuvastatin has a decreased mitotic index (MI) at 0.5- and 1-µg/mL concentrations at 24 hours and at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/mL at 48 hours. A significant increase was observed for induction of MN in all treatments, compared to the negative control. Cytokinesis-block proliferation indices were not affected by treatments with rosuvastatin. In the comet assay, significant increases in comet tail length and tail moment were observed at 0.0625-, 0.5- and 1-µg/mL concentrations. Comet intensity was significantly increased in all concentrations except 0.0625 µg/mL. According to these results, rosuvastatin is cytotoxic and clastogenic/aneugenic in human peripheral lymphocytes. Further studies should be conducted in other test systems to evaluate the full genotoxic potential of rosuvastatin.

  13. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of cytostatic pharmaceuticals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zounková, R.; Odráška, P.; Doležalová, L.; Hilscherová, Klára; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Luděk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2007), s. 2208-2214 ISSN 0730-7268 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06171; ECODIS(XE) 518043-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cytostatic pharmaceuticals * genotoxicity * antineoplastics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  14. Genoprotective and Genotoxic Effects of Thymoquinone on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comet assays and apoptotic cell studies were performed to evaluate the effect of TQ on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity-induced by DXR. Results: TQ treatment, alone, (5.0, 10, or 20 µM) increased DNA damage index (DI) in a concentrationdependent manner (0.64 ± 0.09, 0.84 ± 0.07, and 0.93 ± 0.06, respectively).

  15. A decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; Hadi, Mackenzie; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-03-15

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) 'Nano Task Force' proposes a Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) that consists of 3 tiers to assign nanomaterials to 4 main groups, to perform sub-grouping within the main groups and to determine and refine specific information needs. The DF4nanoGrouping covers all relevant aspects of a nanomaterial's life cycle and biological pathways, i.e. intrinsic material and system-dependent properties, biopersistence, uptake and biodistribution, cellular and apical toxic effects. Use (including manufacture), release and route of exposure are applied as 'qualifiers' within the DF4nanoGrouping to determine if, e.g. nanomaterials cannot be released from a product matrix, which may justify the waiving of testing. The four main groups encompass (1) soluble nanomaterials, (2) biopersistent high aspect ratio nanomaterials, (3) passive nanomaterials, and (4) active nanomaterials. The DF4nanoGrouping aims to group nanomaterials by their specific mode-of-action that results in an apical toxic effect. This is eventually directed by a nanomaterial's intrinsic properties. However, since the exact correlation of intrinsic material properties and apical toxic effect is not yet established, the DF4nanoGrouping uses the 'functionality' of nanomaterials for grouping rather than relying on intrinsic material properties alone. Such functionalities include system-dependent material properties (such as dissolution rate in biologically relevant media), bio-physical interactions, in vitro effects and release and exposure. The DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard and risk assessment tool that applies modern toxicology and contributes to the sustainable development of nanotechnological products. It ensures that no studies are performed that do not provide crucial data and therefore saves animals and resources. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. QSAR pre-screen of 70,983 substances for genotoxic carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and developmental toxicity in the EU FP7 project ChemScreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    be performed in REACH on known genotoxic carcinogens or germ cell mutagens with appropriate risk management measures implemented, a QSAR pre-screen for genotoxic carcinogenicity, germ cell mutagenicity and (limited) developmental toxicity was included in the project. Predictions for estrogenic and anti...... algorithms were applied to combine the predictions from the individual models to reach overall predictions for genotoxic carcinogenicity, germ cell mutagenicity and developmental toxicity. Furthermore, the full list of REACH pre-registered substances (143,835) was searched for substances containing certain...

  17. Review on the Synthesis and Applications of Fe3O4 Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Fe3O4 nanomaterials have attracted tremendous attention because of their favorable electric and magnetic properties. Fe3O4 nanostructures with various morphologies have been successfully synthesized and have been used in many fields such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, wastewater treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. In this paper, we provide an in-depth discussion of recent development of Fe3O4 nanomaterials, including their effective synthetic methods and potential applications.

  18. Induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Guandu River waters in the Allium cepa system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vieira Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guandu River is the main source of water supply for the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and has been facing serious environmental problems due to increasing population and industrial pollution, as well as the presence of polluted tributaries. This study analyzed the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the Guandu River’s waters, through the use of the Allium cepa test system. Collection points were chosen at the greatest confluences of pollutant sources. The sampling included two different seasons: the rainy season (January and February and the dry season (June and July. The analyses of 5000 cells per treatment showed that all the points studied had some degree of cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. Two sampling locations, which receive major influxes from the polluted waters of the Poços/Queimados and Cabuçu/Ipiranga Rivers, stood out for the strong presence of micronuclei, sticky chromosomes, mitotic spindle abnormalities, necrotic cells and nucleolar changes compared to the negative control. At least two locations also found changes in the mitotic index. The existence of variations in the number of cytotoxic and genotoxic changes between periods of rain and drought indicates that the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the water pollutants varies according to time, depending on the discharges of the tributary rivers and the increase of contaminated effluents. The results highlight the importance of bio-monitoring to assist managers in the control of effluent discharge.

  19. Genotoxicity evaluation of dental restoration nanocomposite using comet assay and chromosome aberration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, Marahaini; Ponnuraj, Kannan Thirumulu; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahman, Ismail Ab

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposite is used as a dental filling to restore the affected tooth, especially in dental caries. The dental nanocomposite (KelFil) for tooth restoration used in this study was produced by the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia and is incorporated with monodispersed, spherical nanosilica fillers. The aim of the study was to determine the genotoxic effect of KelFil using in vitro genotoxicity tests. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of KelFil was evaluated using MTT assay, comet assay and chromosome aberration tests with or without the addition of a metabolic activation system (S9 mix), using the human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Concurrent negative and positive controls were included. In the comet assay, no comet formation was found in the KelFil groups. There was a significant difference in tail moment between KelFil groups and positive control (p < 0.05). Similarly, no significant aberrations in chromosomes were noticed in KelFil groups. The mitotic indices of treatment groups and negative control were significantly different from positive controls. Hence, it can be concluded that the locally produced dental restoration nanocomposite (KelFil) is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions. (paper)

  20. Exposure to sorbitol during lactation causes metabolic alterations and genotoxic effects in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Felipe S; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Aiub, Claudia A F; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2016-10-17

    Sorbitol is a polyol used by the food industry as a sweetener. Women are consuming diet and light products containing sorbitol during pregnancy and in the postnatal period to prevent themselves from excessive weight gain and maintain a slim body. Although there is no evidence for the genotoxicity of sorbitol in the perinatal period, this study focused on evaluating the effects of the maternal intake of sorbitol on the biochemical and toxicological parameters of lactating Wistar rat offspring after 14days of mother-to-offspring exposure. A dose-dependent reduction of offspring length was observed. An increase in sorbitol levels determined in the milk was also observed. However, we detected an inverse relationship between the exposition dose in milk fructose and triacylglycerols concentrations. There was an increase in the plasmatic levels of ALT, AST and LDLc and a decrease in proteins, cholesterol and glucose levels in the offspring. Sorbitol exposure caused hepatocyte genotoxicity, including micronuclei induction. Maternal sorbitol intake induced myelotoxicity and myelosuppression in their offspring. The Comet assay of the blood cells detected a dose-dependent genotoxic response within the sorbitol-exposed offspring. According to our results, sorbitol is able to induce important metabolic alterations and genotoxic responses in the exposed offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic effect of Gentiana lutea L. on methyl methanesulfonate genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenković, Aleksandra; Stamenković-Radak, Marina; Nikolić, Dragana; Marković, Tamara; Anđelković, Marko

    2013-03-27

    Gentiana lutea L., the yellow gentian, is herb known for its pharmacological properties, with a long tradition of use for the treatment of a variety of diseases including the use as a remedy for digestion, also in food products and in bitter beverages. The aim of the present study is to evaluate, for the first time, genotoxicity of gentian alone, and its antigenotoxicity against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The water infusion of the underground part of gentian were evaluated in vivo using the Drosophila wing spot test, at the dose commonly used in traditional medicine. For antigenotoxic study two types of treatment with gentian and MMS were performed: chronic co-treatment, as well as post-treatment with gentian after acute exposure with MMS. Water infusion of gentian alone did not exhibit genotoxicity. The results of co- and post-treatment experiments with gentian show that gentian enhanced the frequency of mutant clones over the values obtained with MMS alone, instead of reducing the genotoxicity of MMS, for 22.64% and 27.13% respectively. This result suggests a synergism of gentian with MMS, and indicates that water infusion of gentian used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to genotoxicity indicating careful use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity assessment of shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley Pegler using the Comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Miyaji

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley Pegler is been widely consumed in many countries, including Brazil, because of its pleasant flavor and reports of its therapeutic properties, although there is little available information on the genotoxicity and/or antigenotoxicity of this mushroom. We used the Comet assay and HEp-2 cells to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of shiitake prepared in three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/mL and three different temperatures (4, 22 and 60 °C, using methyl methanesulfonate (MMS as a positive control and untreated cells as a negative control. Two concentrations (1.0 and 1.5 mg/mL of extract prepared at 4 °C and all of the concentrations prepared at 22 ± 2 and 60 °C showed moderate genotoxic activity. To test the protective effect of the three concentrations of the extracts against the genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate, three protocols were used: pre-treatment, simultaneous-treatment and post-treatment. Treatments were repeated for all combinations of preparation temperature and concentration. Two extracts (22 ± 2 °C 1.0 mg/mL (simultaneous-treatment and 4 °C 0.5 mg/mL (post-treatment showed antigenotoxic activity.

  3. Biodetection of potential genotoxic pollutants entering the human food chain through ashes used in livestock diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vicente, Laura; Herraez, Elisa; Briz, Oscar; Nogales, Rogelio; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda; Marin, Jose J G

    2016-08-15

    Ash derived from energy generation is used as a source of minerals in livestock feeds. The microbial biosensor recApr-Luc2 was built to detect genotoxic hazard in recycled ash. Escherichia coli SOS gene (recA, lexA, dinI and umuC) expression in response to cisplatin-induced DNA damage led to the selection of the recA promoter. The biosensor required functional RecA expression to respond to genotoxic heavy metals (Cr>Cd≈Pb), and polluted ash induced a strong recApr-Luc2 response. In human liver and intestinal cells, heavy metals induced acute toxicity (Cr>Cd>Pb) at concentrations sufficient to activate recApr-Luc2. Cytostatic effects, including genotoxicity, were cell- and metal-dependent, apart from Cr. In agreement with the recApr-Luc2 bioassay, Cr had the strongest effect in all cells. In conclusion, recApr-Luc2 could be useful for evaluating the genotoxic risk of pollutants present in ash that might be concentrated in animal products and, thus, entering the human food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerativitayanan, Punyavee; Carrow, James K; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-05

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Modeling Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) Fate and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to perform new chemical reviews of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) identified in pre-manufacture notices. However, environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate the environmental behavior of nanomaterials due to incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces. We have updated the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), version S, to incorporate nanomaterials as an explicitly simulated state variable. WASPS now has the capability to simulate nanomaterial fate and transport in surface waters and sediments using heteroaggregation, the kinetic process governing the attachment of nanomaterials to particles and subsequently ENM distribution in the aqueous and sediment phases. Unlike dissolved chemicals which use equilibrium partition coefficients, heteroaggregation consists of a particle collision rate and an attachment efficiency ( lXhet) that generally acts as a one direction process. To demonstrate, we used a derived a het value from sediment attachment studies to parameterize WASP for simulation of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) transport in Brier Creek, a coastal plain river located in central eastern Georgia, USA and a tr

  6. 2nd international conference on advanced nanomaterials and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, D; Perumal, A

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale science and technology have occupied centre stage globally in modern scientific research and discourses in the early twenty first century. The enabling nature of the technology makes it important in modern electronics, computing, materials, healthcare, energy and the environment. This volume contains selected articles presented (as Invited/Oral/Poster presentations) at the 2nd international conference on advanced materials and nanotechnology (ICANN-2011) held recently at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, during Dec 8-10, 2011. The list of topics covered in this proceedings include: Synthesis and self assembly of nanomaterials Nanoscale characterisation Nanophotonics & Nanoelectronics Nanobiotechnology Nanocomposites  F   Nanomagnetism Nanomaterials for Enery Computational Nanotechnology Commercialization of Nanotechnology The conference was represented by around 400 participants from several countries including delegates invited from USA, Germany, Japan, UK, Taiwan, Italy, Singapor...

  7. Assembly of ordered carbon shells on semiconducting nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2012-10-02

    In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

  8. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  9. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Rorrer, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts. For example, advances in the production of biogeneic nanomaterials from algal cell cultures, such as crystalline β-chitin nanofibrils and gold and silver nanoparticles, could enable the 'green' production of biomaterials such as tissue-engineering scaffolds or drug carriers, supercapacitors and optoelectric materials. The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evanescent wave assisted nanomaterial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Samir K; Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Kumbhakar, Dharmadas; Tiwari, Umesh; Bhatnagar, Randhir

    2013-08-01

    In this work we present a novel nanomaterial coating technique using evanescent wave (EW). The gradient force in the EW is used as an optical tweezer for tweezing and self-assembling nanoparticles on the source of EW. As a proof of the concept, we have used a laser coupled etched multimode optical fiber, which generates EW for the EW assisted coating. The section-wise etched multimode optical fiber is horizontally and superficially dipped into a silver/gold nanoparticles solution while the laser is switched on. The fiber is left until the solution recedes due to evaporation leaving the fiber in air. The coating time usually takes 40-50 min at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope image shows uniform and thin coating of self-assembled nanoparticles due to EW around the etched section. A coating thickness optical fiber probes and other plasmonic circuits.

  11. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  12. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  13. Performance Enhancement of Carbon Nanomaterials for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M. Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene are exploited extensively due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and recently investigated for energy storage application (supercapacitor due to additional high specific surface area and chemical inertness properties. The supercapacitor is an energy storage device which, in addition to long cycle life (one million, can give energy density higher than parallel plate capacitor and power density higher than battery. In this paper, carbon nanomaterials and their composites are reviewed for prospective use as electrodes for supercapacitor. Moreover, different physical and chemical treatments on these nanomaterials which can potentially enhance the capacitance are also reviewed.

  14. Biophysical Influence of Airborne Carbon Nanomaterials on Natural Pulmonary Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Russell P.; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air–water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handl...

  15. Raman Spectrometer for the Characterization of Advanced Materials and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The grant focused on the purchase of a Renishaw InVia Raman microscope to support and enhance the research in...laser. The system includes an accessory for polarization (for 785 nm) and an optical cable that allows external Raman measurements. The manufacturer...UU 18-04-2016 1-Feb-2015 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Raman Spectrometer for the Characterization of Advanced Materials and Nanomaterials The views

  16. Applications and toxicity of graphene family nanomaterials and their composites

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Zorawar

    2016-01-01

    Zorawar Singh Department of Zoology, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab, India Abstract: Graphene has attracted much attention of scientific community due to its enormous potential in different fields, including medical sciences, agriculture, food safety, cancer research, and tissue engineering. The potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs). Due to their unique chemical and physical pro...

  17. Comparative Study of the Electrochemical, Biomedical, and Thermal Properties of Natural and Synthetic Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Ferial; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Kargarzadeh, Hanieh; Abdi, Mahnaz M.; Azli, Nur Farhana Waheeda Mohd; Abbasian, Maryam

    2018-04-01

    In this research, natural nanomaterials including cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), nanofiber cellulose (NFC), and synthetic nanoparticles such as carbon nanofiber (CNF) and carbon nanotube (CNT) with different structures, sizes, and surface areas were produced and analyzed. The most significant contribution of this study is to evaluate and compare these nanomaterials based on the effects of their structures and morphologies on their electrochemical, biomedical, and thermal properties. Based on the obtained results, the natural nanomaterials with low dimension and surface area have zero cytotoxicity effects on the living cells at 12.5 and 3.125 μg/ml concentrations of NFC and CNC, respectively. Meanwhile, synthetic nanomaterials with the high surface area around 15.3-21.1 m2/g and significant thermal stability (480 °C-600 °C) enhance the output of electrode by creating a higher surface area and decreasing the current flow resistance.

  18. Plasmonic Nanomaterial-Based Optical Biosensing Platforms for Virus Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanomaterials (P-NM are receiving attention due to their excellent properties, which include surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR effects, plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET, and magneto optical (MO effects. To obtain such plasmonic properties, many nanomaterials have been developed, including metal nanoparticles (MNP, bimetallic nanoparticles (bMNP, MNP-decorated carbon nanotubes, (MNP-CNT, and MNP-modified graphene (MNP-GRP. These P-NMs may eventually be applied to optical biosensing systems due to their unique properties. Here, probe biomolecules, such as antibodies (Ab, probe DNA, and probe aptamers, were modified on the surface of plasmonic materials by chemical conjugation and thiol chemistry. The optical property change in the plasmonic nanomaterials was monitored based on the interaction between the probe biomolecules and target virus. After bioconjugation, several optical properties, including fluorescence, plasmonic absorbance, and diffraction angle, were changed to detect the target biomolecules. This review describes several P-NMs as potential candidates of optical sensing platforms and introduces various applications in the optical biosensing field.

  19. Considerations on photochemical genotoxicity. II: Report of the 2009 International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing Working Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, A.M.; Guzzie, P.J.; Bauer, D.; Gocke, E.; Itoh, S.; Jacobs, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Schepky, A.; Tanaka, N.; Kasper, P.

    2011-01-01

    A workshop to reappraise the previous IWGT recommendations for photogenotoxicity testing [E. Gocke, L. Muller, P.J. Guzzie, S. Brendler-Schwaab, S. Bulera, C.F. Chignell, L.M. Henderson, A. Jacobs, H. Murli, R.D. Snyder, N. Tanaka, Considerations on photochemical genotoxicity: report of the

  20. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai; Zhong, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating. (paper)

  1. Nanomaterials in consumer's goods: the problems of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmoshinski, I V; Khotimchenko, S A

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials are currently used in wide variety of cosmetic products, while their use in food industry, packaging materials, household chemicals etc. still includes a limited number of items and does not show a significant upward trend. However, the problem of priority nanomaterials associated risks is relevant due to their high production volumes and an constantly growing burden on the environment and population. In accordance with the frequency of use in mass-produced consumer goods, leading priority nanomaterials are silver nanoparticles (NPs) and (by a wide margin) NPs of gold, platinum, and titanium dioxide. Frequency of nanosized silica introduction into food products as a food additive, at the moment, seems to be underestimated, since the use of this nanomaterial is not declared by manufacturers of products and objective control of its content is difficult. Analysis of literature data on toxicological properties of nanomaterials shows that currently accumulated amount of information is sufficient to establish the safe doses of nanosized silver, gold and titanium dioxide. Data have been provided in a series of studies concerning the effect of oral intake of nanosized silica on the condition of laboratory animals, including on the performance of the immune system. The article examines the existing approaches to the assessment of population exposure to priority nanomaterials, characteristics of existing problems and risk management. (paper)

  2. The effects of nanomaterials on blood coagulation in hemostasis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simak, Jan; De Paoli, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The blood coagulation balance in the organism is achieved by the interaction of the blood platelets (PLTs) with the plasma coagulation system (PCS) and the vascular endothelial cells. In healthy organism, these systems prevent thrombosis and, in events of vascular damage, enable blood clotting to stop bleeding. The dysregulation of hemostasis may cause serious thrombotic and/or hemorrhagic pathologies. Numerous engineered nanomaterials are being investigated for biomedical purposes and are unavoidably exposed to the blood. Also, nanomaterials may access vascular system after occupational, environmental, or other types of exposure. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the effects of engineered nanomaterials on hemostasis. This review focuses on investigations of nanomaterial interactions with the blood components involved in blood coagulation: the PCS and PLTs. Particular emphases include the pathophysiology of effects of nanomaterials on the PCS, including the kallikrein-kinin system, and on PLTs. Methods for investigating these interactions are briefly described, and a review of the most important studies on the interactions of nanomaterials with plasma coagulation and platelets is provided. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1448. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1448 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for speciation, quantitation and nano-eco-toxicology of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J R; Swerhone, G D W; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R; Hitchcock, A P

    2016-02-01

    There is a critical need for methods that provide simultaneous detection, identification, quantitation and visualization of nanomaterials at their interface with biological and environmental systems. The approach should allow speciation as well as elemental analysis. Using the intrinsic X-ray absorption properties, soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) allows characterization and imaging of a broad range of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides and organic materials, and at the same time is able to provide detailed mapping of biological components. Thus, STXM offers considerable potential for application to research on nanomaterials in biology and the environment. The potential and limitations of STXM in this context are discussed using a range of examples, focusing on the interaction of nanomaterials with microbial cells, biofilms and extracellular polymers. The studies outlined include speciation and mapping of metal-containing nanomaterials (Ti, Ni, Cu) and carbon-based nanomaterials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, C60 fullerene). The benefits of X-ray fluorescence detection in soft X-ray STXM are illustrated with a study of low levels of Ni in a natural river biofilm. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... In this study, the genotoxic effects of ethion were investigated in the mitotic cell division of Allium ... The use of plant root tips, particularly those of A. cepa and Vicia faba, as a bioassay test system for the genotoxicity of pesticides has shown extremely ..... the long run, even below the recommended dose.

  5. Engineered nanomaterials: toward effective safety management in research laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Hofmann, Heinrich; Meyer, Thierry

    2016-03-15

    It is still unknown which types of nanomaterials and associated doses represent an actual danger to humans and environment. Meanwhile, there is consensus on applying the precautionary principle to these novel materials until more information is available. To deal with the rapid evolution of research, including the fast turnover of collaborators, a user-friendly and easy-to-apply risk assessment tool offering adequate preventive and protective measures has to be provided. Based on new information concerning the hazards of engineered nanomaterials, we improved a previously developed risk assessment tool by following a simple scheme to gain in efficiency. In the first step, using a logical decision tree, one of the three hazard levels, from H1 to H3, is assigned to the nanomaterial. Using a combination of decision trees and matrices, the second step links the hazard with the emission and exposure potential to assign one of the three nanorisk levels (Nano 3 highest risk; Nano 1 lowest risk) to the activity. These operations are repeated at each process step, leading to the laboratory classification. The third step provides detailed preventive and protective measures for the determined level of nanorisk. We developed an adapted simple and intuitive method for nanomaterial risk management in research laboratories. It allows classifying the nanoactivities into three levels, additionally proposing concrete preventive and protective measures and associated actions. This method is a valuable tool for all the participants in nanomaterial safety. The users experience an essential learning opportunity and increase their safety awareness. Laboratory managers have a reliable tool to obtain an overview of the operations involving nanomaterials in their laboratories; this is essential, as they are responsible for the employee safety, but are sometimes unaware of the works performed. Bringing this risk to a three-band scale (like other types of risks such as biological, radiation

  6. Modification and characterization of (energetic) nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Peppel, R.J.E. van de; Abadjieva, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nanomaterials are a topic of increased interest, since they have properties which differ from their macroscopic counterparts. Many applications nowadays take advantage of the new functionalities which natural and manufactured nanoparticles possess. Based on these developments, also the research on

  7. Review of ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a letter report from the Executive Committee of the BOSC concerning the review of the ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide.

  8. Engineered nanomaterials: Exposures, hazards and risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public) are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, understanding of the health and sa...

  9. Assessing the Environmental Safety of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology research in the United States is coordinated under the National Nano-technology Initiative with the goal of fostering development and implementation of nanomaterials and products that incorporate them and assuring that they are environmentally safe. The environmen...

  10. Method to synthesize metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2016-12-13

    Metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials can be synthesized from metal alkoxide precursors by solution precipitation or solvothermal processing. The synthesis routes are more scalable, less complex and easier to implement than other synthesis routes.

  11. Recent applications of nanomaterials in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Varela-Martínez, Diana Angélica; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties. This review article pretends to provide a general and critical revision of the most recent applications of nanomaterials in this field (period 2010-2017). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Characterization of nanomaterials in food by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Tiede, Karen; Löschner, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    (e.g., size and shape).This review presents an overview of electron microscopy (EM)-based methods that have been, or have the potential to be, applied to imaging ENMs in foodstuffs. We provide an overview of approaches to sample preparation, including drying, chemical treatment, fixation......Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly being used in the food industry. In order to assess the efficacy and the risks of these materials, it is essential to have access to methods that not only detect the nanomaterials, but also provide information on the characteristics of the materials...... and cryogenic methods. We then describe standard and non-standard EM-based approaches that are available for imaging prepared samples. Finally, we present a strategy for selecting the most appropriate method for a particular foodstuff....

  13. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Renata; Oliveira Feitosa, Leandro; Rodrigues Maruyama, Cintia; Abreu Barga, Mariana; Yamawaki, Patrícia Cristina; Vieira, Isolda Jesus; Teixeira, Eliangela M; Corrêa, Ana Carolina; Caparelli Mattoso, Luiz Henrique; Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural products and by products provide the primary materials for a variety of technological applications in diverse industrial sectors. Agro-industrial wastes, such as cotton and curaua fibers, are used to prepare nanofibers for use in thermoplastic films, where they are combined with polymeric matrices, and in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, amongst other applications. The development of products containing nanofibers offers a promising alternative for the use of agricultural products, adding value to the chains of production. However, the emergence of new nanotechnological products demands that their risks to human health and the environment be evaluated. This has resulted in the creation of the new area of nanotoxicology, which addresses the toxicological aspects of these materials. Contributing to these developments, the present work involved a genotoxicological study of different nanofibers, employing chromosomal aberration and comet assays, as well as cytogenetic and molecular analyses, to obtain preliminary information concerning nanofiber safety. The methodology consisted of exposure of Allium cepa roots, and animal cell cultures (lymphocytes and fibroblasts), to different types of nanofibers. Negative controls, without nanofibers present in the medium, were used for comparison. The nanofibers induced different responses according to the cell type used. In plant cells, the most genotoxic nanofibers were those derived from green, white, and brown cotton, and curaua, while genotoxicity in animal cells was observed using nanofibers from brown cotton and curaua. An important finding was that ruby cotton nanofibers did not cause any significant DNA breaks in the cell types employed. This work demonstrates the feasibility of determining the genotoxic potential of nanofibers derived from plant cellulose to obtain information vital both for the future usage of these materials in agribusiness and for an understanding of their environmental

  14. Cells behaviors and genotoxicity on topological surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, N.; Yang, M.K.; Bi, S.X.; Chen, L.; Zhu, Z.Y.; Gao, Y.T.; Du, Z.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate different cells behaviors and genotoxicity, which were driven by specific microenvironments, three patterned surfaces (pillars, wide grooves and narrow grooves) and one smooth surface were prepared by template-based technique. Vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques and associates with cell–cell and cell–matrix junctions, which can promote cell adhesion and spreading. The immunofluorescence staining of vinculin revealed that the narrow grooves patterned substrate was favorable for L929 cell adhesion. For cell multiplication, the narrow grooves surface was fitted for the proliferation of L929, L02 and MSC cells, the pillars surface was only in favor of L929 cells to proliferate during 7 days of cell cultivation. Cell genetic toxicity was evaluated by cellular micronuclei test (MNT). The results indicated that topological surfaces were more suitable for L929 cells to proliferate and maintain the stability of genome. On the contrary, the narrow grooves surface induced higher micronuclei ratio of L02 and MSC cells than other surfaces. With the comprehensive results of cell multiplication and MNT, it was concluded that the wide grooves surface was best fitted for L02 cells to proliferate and have less DNA damages, and the smooth surface was optimum for the research of MSC cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Different cells behaviors on microstructure surfaces were discussed in this paper. • The expression of cell protein of Vinculin was studied in this research. • Cellular micronuclei test was applied to evaluate cells' genotoxicity. • Cell genotoxicity was first studied in the research field of topological surfaces

  15. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa Temitayo; Yekeen, Olaide Maruf; Odusina, Paul Olayinka; Ologun, Taiwo Mary; Ogbaide, Orezimena Michelle; Olaleye, Olayinka Israel; Bakare, Adekunle A.

    2015-01-01

    Spondias mombin (Linn), Nymphaea lotus (Linn) and Luffa cylindrica (Linn) (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antig...

  16. Effects of wood dust:Inflammation, Genotoxicity and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jette Bornholdt

    cell line A549 measuring inflammatory and DNA damaging effects. The second part consists of a molecular analysis of the K-ras gene for mutations in the hotspots codons in human sinonasal cancers. Design, calibration and validation of the assays were performed. Cancer at the sinonasal cavities is rare...... with incidence rates between of 0.3 to 1.4 per 100,000 for men and 0.1 to 0.8 per 100,000 for women in Europe, depending on country. However, cancer at this site is associated with occupational exposures including wood dust. Especially the adenocarcinoma subtype is strongly associated with exposure to wood dust...... and their potential to cause DNA damage. Contrary to our hypothesis, we showed that pure wood dust is able to cause primary DNA damage, independent of inflammation as well as hardwoods had no higher inflammatory or genotoxic potential than softwoods. To investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the wood dust...

  17. Systemic Absorption of Nanomaterials by Oral Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Bredsdorff, Lea; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches.......This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches....

  18. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, Karel; Pavlová, Martina; Prokop, Zbynek; Mendel, Jan; Bozková, Katerina; Kubát, Zdenek; Zajícková, Veronika; Damborský, Jiri

    2007-02-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  19. Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Claus T.; Petersen, Anne; Licht, Tine R.; Conlon, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human colonic simulator consisting of a proximal vessel (PV) (pH 5.5) and a distal vessel (DV) (pH 6.8) inoculated with human faeces and media containing soy protein. Genotoxicity of the liquid phase and microbial population changes in the vessels were measured. Soy protein (3%) was fermented with 1% low amylose cornstarch for 10 day followed by soy protein with 1% XOS or 1% inulin for 10 day. Inulin did not alter genotoxicity but XOS significantly reduced PV genotoxicity and increased DV genotoxicity. Inulin and XOS significantly increased butyrate concentration in the DV but not PV. Numbers of the key butyrate-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly increased in the PV and DV by inulin but significantly decreased by XOS in both vessels. Other bacteria examined were also significantly impacted by the carbohydrate treatments or by the vessel (i.e., pH). There was a significant overall inverse correlation between levels of damage induced by the ferments and levels of sulphate-reducing bacteria, Bacteroides fragilis, and acetate. In conclusion, dietary XOS can potentially modulate the genotoxicity of the colonic environment and specific bacterial groups and short chain fatty acids may mediate this. PMID:24064573

  20. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2015-08-26

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.

  1. Electrical discharge machining of carbon nanomaterials in air: machining characteristics and the advanced field emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, Jong Girl; Kim, Bo Hyun; Chung, Do Kwan; Sung, Woo Yong; Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Se Won; Kim, Wal Jun; Park, Jin Woo; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and precise machining process, electrical discharge machining (EDM), was investigated in depth as a novel method for the engineering of carbon nanomaterials. The machining characteristics of EDM applied to carbon nanomaterials 'in air' were systematically examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The EDM process turned out to 'melt' carbon nanomaterials with the thermal energy generated by electrical discharge, which makes both the materially and geometrically unrestricted machining of nanomaterials possible. Since the EDM process conducted in air requires neither direct contact nor chemical agents, it protects the carbon nanomaterial workpieces against physical damage and unnecessary contamination. From this EDM method, several advanced field emission applications including 'top-down' patterning and the creative lateral comb-type triode device were derived, while our previously reported study on emission uniformity enhancement by the EDM method was also referenced. The EDM method has great potential as a clean, effective and practical way to utilize carbon nanomaterials for various uses

  2. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1-100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic), which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS). Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems.

  3. No cytotoxicity or genotoxicity of graphene and graphene oxide in murine lung epithelial FE1 cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Kling, Kirsten; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide receive much attention these years, because they add attractive properties to a wide range of applications and products. Several studies have shown toxicological effects of other carbon‐based nanomaterials such as carbon black nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes in vitro...... and in vivo. Here, we report in‐depth physicochemical characterization of three commercial graphene materials, one graphene oxide (GO) and two reduced graphene oxides (rGO) and assess cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the murine lung epithelial cell line FE1. The studied GO and rGO mainly consisted of 2......–3 graphene layers with lateral sizes of 1–2 µm. GO had almost equimolar content of C, O, and H while the two rGO materials had lower contents of oxygen with C/O and C/H ratios of 8 and 12.8, respectively. All materials had low levels of endotoxin and low levels of inorganic impurities, which were mainly...

  4. Nanomaterials for Cancer Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilong; Sun, Shuyang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Shi, Donglu

    2018-04-01

    Medical science has recently advanced to the point where diagnosis and therapeutics can be carried out with high precision, even at the molecular level. A new field of "precision medicine" has consequently emerged with specific clinical implications and challenges that can be well-addressed by newly developed nanomaterials. Here, a nanoscience approach to precision medicine is provided, with a focus on cancer therapy, based on a new concept of "molecularly-defined cancers." "Next-generation sequencing" is introduced to identify the oncogene that is responsible for a class of cancers. This new approach is fundamentally different from all conventional cancer therapies that rely on diagnosis of the anatomic origins where the tumors are found. To treat cancers at molecular level, a recently developed "microRNA replacement therapy" is applied, utilizing nanocarriers, in order to regulate the driver oncogene, which is the core of cancer precision therapeutics. Furthermore, the outcome of the nanomediated oncogenic regulation has to be accurately assessed by the genetically characterized, patient-derived xenograft models. Cancer therapy in this fashion is a quintessential example of precision medicine, presenting many challenges to the materials communities with new issues in structural design, surface functionalization, gene/drug storage and delivery, cell targeting, and medical imaging. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Xylo-oligosaccharides and inulin affect genotoxicity and bacterial populations differently in a human colonic simulator challenged with soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, C. T.; Petersen, Anne; Licht, Tine Rask

    2013-01-01

    High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human colonic...... cornstarch for 10 day followed by soy protein with 1% XOS or 1% inulin for 10 day. Inulin did not alter genotoxicity but XOS significantly reduced PV genotoxicity and increased DV genotoxicity. Inulin and XOS significantly increased butyrate concentration in the DV but not PV. Numbers of the key butyrate......-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly increased in the PV and DV by inulin but significantly decreased by XOS in both vessels. Other bacteria examined were also significantly impacted by the carbohydrate treatments or by the vessel (i.e., pH). There was a significant overall inverse...

  6. An evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the anti-obesity drugs sibutramine and fenproporex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cristiano José; dos Santos, José Ernesto; Satie Takahashi, Catarina

    2010-03-01

    Anti-obesity medications deserve special considerations at the present time due to an increasing number of overweight and obese people who require these therapeutic alternatives. Obesity is positively associated with several chronic illnesses, including cancer. In this work, we evaluated the possible genotoxic and/or cytotoxic actions of two drugs, sibutramine and fenproporex, in the doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight (bw), administered intraperitoneally in male Swiss mice. The genotoxic effect was analyzed by comet assay and micronucleus test. We found that both drugs increased the frequency of genotoxic damage in Swiss mice, but did not present cytotoxic activities towards the polychromatic erythrocytes of the bone marrow of these animals.

  7. Genotoxicity tests on D-tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a low-calorie sweetener that tastes like sucrose. Its genotoxic potential was examined in five standard assays: the Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, the Escherichia coli/mammalian microsome assay, a chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells, a mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, and an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. D-tagatose was not found to increase the number of revertants per plate relative to vehicle controls in either the S. typhimurium tester strains or the WP2uvrA- tester strain with or without metabolic activation at doses up to 5000 microg/plate. No significant increase in Chinese hamster ovary cells with chromosomal aberrations was observed at concentrations up to 5000 microg/ml with or without metabolic activation. D-tagatose was not found to increase the mutant frequency in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells with or without metabolic activation up to concentrations of 5000 microg/ml. D-tagatose caused no significant increase in micronuclei in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes at doses up to 5000 mg/kg. D-tagatose was not found to be genotoxic under the conditions of any of the assays described above. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. Recent Development of Nanomaterial-Doped Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyraf, Mohammad; Anwar, Mahmood; Sheng, Law Ming; Danquah, Michael K.

    2017-12-01

    Conductive polymers (CPs) have received significant research attention in material engineering for applications in microelectronics, micro-scale sensors, electromagnetic shielding, and micro actuators. Numerous research efforts have been focused on enhancing the conductivity of CPs by doping. Various conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanoparticles, and structures, such as silver nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets, have been converted into polypyrrole and polypyrrole compounds as the precursors to developing hybrids, conjugates, or crystal nodes within the matrix to enhance the various structural properties, particularly the electrical conductivity. This article reviews nanomaterial doping of conductive polymers alongside technological advancements in the development and application of nanomaterial-doped polymeric systems. Emphasis is given to conductive nanomaterials such as nano-silver particles and carbon-based nanoparticles, graphene nano-sheets, fullerene, and carbon nanotubes (CNT) as dopants for polypyrrole-based CPs. The nature of induced electrical properties including electromagnetic absorption, electrical capacitance, and conductivities of polypyrrole systems is also discussed. The prospects and challenges associated with the development and application of CPs are also presented.

  9. Cellulose nanomaterials as green nanoreinforcements for polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Alain

    2017-12-01

    Unexpected and attractive properties can be observed when decreasing the size of a material down to the nanoscale. Cellulose is no exception to the rule. In addition, the highly reactive surface of cellulose resulting from the high density of hydroxyl groups is exacerbated at this scale. Different forms of cellulose nanomaterials, resulting from a top-down deconstruction strategy (cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrils) or bottom-up strategy (bacterial cellulose), are potentially useful for a large number of industrial applications. These include the paper and cardboard industry, use as reinforcing filler in polymer nanocomposites, the basis for low-density foams, additives in adhesives and paints, as well as a wide variety of filtration, electronic, food, hygiene, cosmetic and medical products. This paper focuses on the use of cellulose nanomaterials as a filler for the preparation of polymer nanocomposites. Impressive mechanical properties can be obtained for these materials. They obviously depend on the type of nanomaterial used, but the crucial point is the processing technique. The emphasis is on the melt processing of such nanocomposite materials, which has not yet been properly resolved and remains a challenge. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  10. Current applications and future prospects of nanomaterials in tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yu Huang,1 Chao-Qiang Fan,1 Hui Dong,1 Su-Min Wang,1 Xiao-Chao Yang,2 Shi-Ming Yang1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tumors are one of the most serious human diseases and cause numerous global deaths per year. In spite of many strategies applied in tumor therapy, such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and a combination of these treatments, tumors are still the foremost killer worldwide among human diseases, due to their specific limitations, such as multidrug resistance and side effects. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to develop new strategies for tumor therapy. Recently, the fast development of nanoscience has paved the way for designing new strategies to treat tumors. Nanomaterials have shown great potential in tumor therapy, due to their unique properties, including passive targeting, hyperthermia effects, and tumor-specific inhibition. This review summarizes the recent progress using the innate antitumor properties of metallic and nonmetallic nanomaterials to treat tumors, and related challenges and prospects are discussed. Keywords: tumor, nanomaterials, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

  11. Biocompatible Nanomaterials and Nanodevices Promising for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkowska, Izabela; Giannona, Suna; Rojas-Chapana, José A.; Luecke, Klaus; Brüstle, Oliver; Giersig, Michael

    Nanotechnology applied to biology requires a thorough understanding of how molecules, sub-cellular entities, cells, tissues, and organs function and how they are structured. The merging of nanomaterials and life science into hybrids of controlled organization and function is possible, assuming that biology is nanostructured, and therefore man-made nano-materials can structurally mimic nature and complement each other. By taking advantage of their special properties, nanomaterials can stimulate, respond to and interact with target cells and tissues in controlled ways to induce desired physiological responses with a minimum of undesirable effects. To fulfill this goal the fabrication of nano-engineered materials and devices has to consider the design of natural systems. Thus, engineered micro-nano-featured systems can be applied to biology and biomedicine to enable new functionalities and new devices. These include, among others, nanostructured implants providing many advantages over existing, conventional ones, nanodevices for cell manipulation, and nanosensors that would provide reliable information on biological processes and functions.

  12. Pb low doses induced genotoxicity in Lactuca sativa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Silva, P; Oliveira, H; Gaivão, I; Matos, M; Pinto-Carnide, O; Santos, C

    2017-03-01

    Soil and water contamination by lead (Pb) remains a topic of great concern, particularly regarding crop production. The admissible Pb values in irrigation water in several countries range from ≈0.1 to ≈5 mg L -1 . In order to evaluate putative effects of Pb within legal doses on crops growth, we exposed Lactuca sativa seeds and seedlings to increasing doses of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 up to 20 mg L -1 . The OECD parameter seed germination and seedling/plant growth were not affected by any of the Pb-concentrations used. However, for doses higher than 5 mg L -1 significant DNA damage was detected: Comet assay detected DNA fragmentation at ≥ 5 mg L -1 and presence of micronuclei (MN) were detected for 20 mg L -1 . Also, cell cycle impairment was observed for doses as low as 0.05 mg L -1 and 0.5 mg L -1 (mostly G 2 arrest). Our data show that for the low doses of Pb used, the OECD endpoints were not able to detect toxicity, while more sensitive endpoints (related with DNA damage and mitotic/interphase disorders) identified genotoxic and cytostatic effects. Furthermore, the nature of the genotoxic effect was dependent on the concentration. Finally, we recommend that MN test and the comet assay should be included as sensitive endpoints in (eco)toxicological assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A re-assessment of the safety of silver in household water treatment: rapid systematic review of mammalian in vivo genotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Lorna; Majuru, Batsirai; Hunter, Paul R

    2017-06-20

    Despite poor evidence of their effectiveness, colloidal silver and silver nanoparticles are increasingly being promoted for treating potentially contaminated drinking water in low income countries. Recently, however, concerns have been raised about the possible genotoxicity of particulate silver. The goal of this paper was to review the published mammalian in vivo genotoxicity studies using silver micro and nanoparticles. SCOPUS and Medline were searched using the following search string: ("DNA damage" OR genotox* OR Cytotox* OR Embryotox*) AND (silver OR AgNP). Included papers were any mammalian in vivo experimental studies investigating genotoxicity of silver particles. Studies were quality assessed using the ToxRTool. 16 relevant papers were identified. There were substantial variations in study design including the size of silver particles, animal species, target organs, silver dose, route of administration and the method used to detect genotoxicity. Thus, it was not possible to produce a definitive pooled result. Nevertheless, most studies showed evidence of genotoxicity unless using very low doses. We also identified one human study reporting evidence of "severe DNA damage" in silver jewellery workers occupationally exposed to silver particles. With the available evidence it is not possible to be definitive about risks to human health from oral exposure to silver particulates. However, the balance of evidence suggests that there should be concerns especially when considering the evidence from jewellery workers. There is an urgent need to determine whether people exposed to particulate silver as part of drinking water treatment have evidence of DNA damage.

  14. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Amrin; Barot, Darshana; Chandel, Divya

    2018-04-01

    Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group) and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group). Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation of gasoline fumes. The frequencies of micronucleated cells, nuclear bud, condensed chromatin cells, karyorrhectic cells, pyknotic cells, and karyolytic cells were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the comparison group. Exposure to gasoline fumes is associated with increased frequency of cell abnormalities. This may lead to various health consequences including cancer in those occupationally exposed to gasoline fumes.

  15. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrin Shaikh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. Methods: The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation of gasoline fumes. Results: The frequencies of micronucleated cells, nuclear bud, condensed chromatin cells, karyorrhectic cells, pyknotic cells, and karyolytic cells were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Exposure to gasoline fumes is associated with increased frequency of cell abnormalities. This may lead to various health consequences including cancer in those occupationally exposed to gasoline fumes.

  16. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Due to the extensive use of chlorophenols (CPs) in anthropogenic activities, 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP), among other CPs, can enter aquatic ecosystems and can be harmful to a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fish and humans, that are exposed directly and/or indirectly to such contaminated environments. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of cyanobacterial toxins - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegura, Bojana; Straser, Alja; Filipič, Metka

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms has increased significantly in many regions of the world in the last century due to water eutrophication. These blooms are hazardous to humans, animals, and plants due to the production of cyanotoxins, which can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). There is evidence that certain cyanobacterial toxins are genotoxic and carcinogenic; however, the mechanisms of their potential carcinogenicity are not well understood. The most frequently occurring and widespread cyanotoxins in brackish and freshwater blooms are the cyclic heptapeptides, i.e., microcystins (MCs), and the pentapeptides, i.e., nodularins (NODs). The main mechanism associated with potential carcinogenic activity of MCs and NOD is the inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to the hyperphosphorylation of cellular proteins, which is considered to be associated with their tumor-promoting activity. Apart from this, MCs and NOD induce increased formation of reactive oxygen species and, consequently, oxidative DNA damage. There is also evidence that MCs and NOD induce micronuclei, and NOD was shown to have aneugenic activity. Both cyanotoxins interfere with DNA damage repair pathways, which, along with DNA damage, is an important factor involved in the carcinogenicity of these agents. Furthermore, these toxins increase the expression of TNF-α and early-response genes, including proto-oncogenes, genes involved in the response to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Rodent studies indicate that MCs and NOD are tumor promotors, whereas NOD is thought to have also tumor-initiating activity. Another cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN), which has been neglected for a long time, is lately being increasingly found in the freshwater environment. The principal mechanism of its toxicity is the irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. It is pro-genotoxic

  18. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  19. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-05-07

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  20. Nanomaterials derived from metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Song; Zhu, Qi-Long; Xu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The thermal transformation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) generates a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon-based materials, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal phosphides and metal carbides. These derivatives of MOFs have characteristics such as high surface areas, permanent porosities and controllable functionalities that enable their good performance in sensing, gas storage, catalysis and energy-related applications. Although progress has been made to tune the morphologies of MOF-derived structures at the nanometre scale, it remains crucial to further our knowledge of the relationship between morphology and performance. In this Review, we summarize the synthetic strategies and optimized methods that enable control over the size, morphology, composition and structure of the derived nanomaterials. In addition, we compare the performance of materials prepared by the MOF-templated strategy and other synthetic methods. Our aim is to reveal the relationship between the morphology and the physico-chemical properties of MOF-derived nanostructures to optimize their performance for applications such as sensing, catalysis, and energy storage and conversion.

  1. Antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusin Tanja I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging industry presents one of the fastest growing industries nowadays. New trends in this industry, which include reducing food as well as packaging waste, improved preservation of food and prolonged shelf-life together with substitution of petrochemical sources with renewable ones are leading to development of this industrial area in diverse directions. This multidisciplinary challenge is set up both in front of food and material scientists. Nanotechnology is recently answering to these challenges, with different solutions-from improvements in materials properties to active packaging solutions, or both at the same time. Incorporation of nanoparticles into polymer matrix and preparation of hybrid materials is one of the methods of modification of polymer properties. Nano scaled materials with antimicrobial properties can act as active components when added into polymer, thereby leading to prolonged protective function of pristine food packaging material. This paper presents a review in the field of antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging in turn of technology, application and regulatory issues.

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopic Characterization of Nanomaterials and Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengchen

    Nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention in recent research due to their wide applications in various fields such as material science, physical science, electrical engineering, and biomedical engineering. Researchers have developed many methods for synthesizing different types of nanostructures and have further applied them in various applications. However, in many cases, a molecular level understanding of nanoparticles and their associated surface chemistry is lacking investigation. Understanding the surface chemistry of nanomaterials is of great significance for obtaining a better understanding of the properties and functions of the nanomaterials. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can provide a familiar means of looking at the molecular structure of molecules bound to surfaces of nanomaterials as well as a method to determine the size of nanoparticles in solution. Here, a combination of NMR spectroscopic techniques including one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies was used to investigate the surface chemistry and physical properties of some common nanomaterials, including for example, thiol-protected gold nanostructures and biomolecule-capped silica nanoparticles. Silk is a natural protein fiber that features unique properties such as excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and non-linear optical properties. These appealing physical properties originate from the silk structure, and therefore, the structural analysis of silk is of great importance for revealing the mystery of these impressive properties and developing novel silk-based biomaterials as well. Here, solid-state NMR spectroscopy was used to elucidate the secondary structure of silk proteins in N. clavipes spider dragline silk and B. mori silkworm silk. It is found that the Gly-Gly-X (X=Leu, Tyr, Gln) motif in spider dragline silk is not in a beta-sheet or alpha-helix structure and is very likely to be present in a disordered structure with evidence for 31-helix

  3. Carbon Nanomaterials for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Casais-Molina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, breast cancer is considered as a health problem worldwide. Furthermore, current treatments neither are capable of stopping its propagation and/or recurrence nor are specific for cancer cells. Therefore, side effects on healthy tissues and cells are common. An increase in the efficiency of treatments, along with a reduction in their toxicity, is desirable to improve the life quality of patients affected by breast cancer. Nanotechnology offers new alternatives for the design and synthesis of nanomaterials that can be used in the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer and has now become a very promising tool for its use against this disease. Among the wide variety of nanomaterials, the scientific community is particularly interested in carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene due to their physical properties, versatile chemical functionalization, and biocompatibility. Recent scientific evidence shows the potential uses of carbon nanomaterials as therapeutic agents, systems for selective and controlled drug release, and contrast agents for diagnosing and locating tumors. This generates new possibilities for the development of innovative systems to treat breast cancer and can be used to detect this disease at much earlier stages. Thus, applications of carbon nanomaterials in breast cancer treatment are discussed in this article.

  4. Electron accelerators and nanomaterials - a symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Kavita P.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Electron Accelerators and Nanomaterials share a symbiotic relationship. While electron accelerators are fast emerging as popular tools in the field of nanomaterials, use of nanomaterials so developed for sub-systems of accelerators is being explored. Material damage studies, surface modification and lithography in the nanometre scale are some of the areas in which electron accelerators are being extensively used. New methods to characterize the structure of nanoparticles use intense X-ray sources, generated from electron accelerators. Enhancement of field emission properties of carbon nanotubes using electron accelerators is another important area that is being investigated. Research on nanomaterials for use in the field of accelerators is still in the laboratory stage. Yet, new trends and emerging technologies can effectively produce materials which can be of significant use in accelerators. Properties such as enhanced field emission can be put to use in cathodes of electron guns. Superconducting properties some materials may also be useful in accelerators. This paper focusses on the electron accelerators used for synthesis, characterization and property-enhancement of nanomaterials. The details of electron accelerators used for these applications will be highlighted. Some light will be thrown on properties of nano materials which can have potential use in accelerators. (author)

  5. The use of genotoxicity biomarkers in molecular epidemiology: applications in environmental, occupational and dietary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiology is an approach increasingly used in the establishment of associations between exposure to hazardous substances and development of disease, including the possible modulation by genetic susceptibility factors. Environmental chemicals and contaminants from anthropogenic pollution of air, water and soil, but also originating specifically in occupational contexts, are potential sources of risk of development of disease. Also, diet presents an important role in this process, with some well characterized associations existing between nutrition and some types of cancer. Genotoxicity biomarkers allow the detection of early effects that result from the interaction between the individual and the environment; they are therefore important tools in cancer epidemiology and are extensively used in human biomonitoring studies. This work intends to give an overview of the potential for genotoxic effects assessment, specifically with the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay in environmental and occupational scenarios, including diet. The plasticity of these techniques allows their inclusion in human biomonitoring studies, adding important information with the ultimate aim of disease prevention, in particular cancer, and so it is important that they be included as genotoxicity assays in molecular epidemiology.

  6. Bacterial Cellulose: A Robust Platform for Design of Three Dimensional Carbon-Based Functional Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Hai-Wei; Chen, Li-Feng; Hu, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-19

    , converting cheap biomass into high value-added 3D carbon nanomaterials and designing diverse functional materials on 3D carbon structure. We first briefly introduce the history, constituent, and microstructure features of BC and discuss its advantages as a raw material for preparing the CNF aerogels. Then, we summarize the methods and strategies for preparing various 3D carbon-based nanomaterials from BC. In addition, the potential applications of the developed CNF aerogel based functional materials are also highlighted in this Account, including stretchable conductors, oxygen reduction reaction catalysts, supercapacitors, lithium-ion battery, and oil cleanup. Finally, we give some prospects on the future challenges in this emerging research area of designing CNF aerogel based functional nanomaterials from BC.

  7. Exposure, uptake, distribution and toxicity of nanomaterials in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2010-02-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented explosion in nanotechnology to take advantage of the unique physicochemical properties that emerge at the nanoscale including quantum effects. However, the excitement generated by new applications of nanotechnology in products has not been matched by a parallel appreciation or understanding of their potential toxic effects in humans and the wider ecology. This review draws some parallels to what we already know about the toxicity of particles in the workplace and in association with air pollution, and then discusses what is known about the toxicology of nanomaterials in mammals including humans. The review identifies substantial gaps in knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  8. Analyzing the Genotoxicity of Retroviral Vectors in Hematopoietic Cell Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Biasco

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral vectors, including those derived from gammaretroviruses and lentiviruses, have found their way into the clinical arena and demonstrated remarkable efficacy for the treatment of immunodeficiencies, leukodystrophies, and globinopathies. Despite these successes, gene therapy unfortunately also has had to face severe adverse events in the form of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes, related to the semi-random vector integration into the host cell genome that caused deregulation of neighboring proto-oncogenes. Although improvements in vector design clearly lowered the risk of this insertional mutagenesis, analysis of potential genotoxicity and the consequences of vector integration remain important parameters for basic and translational research and most importantly for the clinic. Here, we review current assays to analyze biodistribution and genotoxicity in the pre-clinical setting and describe tools to monitor vector integration sites in vector-treated patients as a biosafety readout.

  9. Fabrication and Design of Optical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark D.

    Over the past several decades, advances in nanometer scale fabrication has sparked interes in applications that take advantage of materials that are structured at these small length scales. Specifically, metallic optical nanomaterials have emerged as a new way to control light at length scales that are smaller than the wavelength of light and have optical properties that are distinctly different from their macroscale counterparts. Although there have been may advances in nanofabrication, the performance and widespread use of optical nanomaterials is still limited by fabrication and design challenges. This dissertation describes advances in the fabrication, characterization, and design of optical nanomaterials. First we demonstrate how a portable and compact photolithography system can be made using a light source composed of UV LEDs. Our solid-state photolithography (SSP) system brings the capabilities of one of the most important yet workhorse tools of micro- and nanotechnology--the mask aligner--to the benchtop. The two main highlights of chapter 2 include: (i) portable, low-cost photolithography and (ii) high quality patterning. We replace the mask aligner with a system composed of UV LEDs and a diffuser that can be built for as little as $30. The design of the SSP system alleviates the need for dedicated power supplies, vacuum lines and cooling systems, which makes it a true benchtop photolithography system. We further show that sub-wavelength features can be fabricated across 4-in wafers and that these patterns are of high quality such that they can be easily transferred into functional materials. Chapter 3 describes a parallel method to create nanometer scale textures over large areas with unprecedented control over wrinkle wavelength. The main points of this chapter include: (i) a new material system for nanowrinkles, (ii) wrinkles with tunable wavelengths, and (iii) a method for measuring the skin thickness. First, we show that RIE treatment of PS with

  10. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. - Highlights: • We review the types of carbon nanomaterials used in electrochemical sensors. • Different materials and sensor designs are compared for classes of biomolecules. • Future challenges of better sensor design and implementation are assessed

  11. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill, E-mail: jventon@virginia.edu

    2015-08-05

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. - Highlights: • We review the types of carbon nanomaterials used in electrochemical sensors. • Different materials and sensor designs are compared for classes of biomolecules. • Future challenges of better sensor design and implementation are assessed.

  12. Genotoxicity in the eyes of bystander cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hei, Tom K.; Persaud, Rudranath; Zhou, Hongning; Suzuki, Masao

    2004-01-01

    The controversial use of a linear, no threshold extrapolation model for low dose risk assessment has become even more so in light of the recent reports on the bystander phenomenon. The answer to the question as to which of the two phenomena, bystander versus adaptive response, is more important has practical implication in terms of low dose radiation risk assessment. In this review, genotoxicity is used as an endpoint to introduce the two phenomena, provide some insight into the mechanisms of bystander effect and to bridge the two low dose phenomena which operate in opposite directions: the bystander effect tends to exaggerate the effect at low doses, by communicating damage from hit to non-hit cells whereas the adaptive response confers resistance to a subsequent challenging dose by an initial low priming dose

  13. Studies and Development of Radiation Processed Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil; Francis, Sanju; Biswal, Jayashree [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2009-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the emerging technology that deals with processing, manipulating and manufacturing devices and products at the microscopic scale of molecules or atoms with structures smaller than 100 nanometers. Realizing its potential, Government of India spending on R&D in nanotechnology has gone up by an order of magnitude in last 5 years through various national and international programs. High energy gamma radiation and electron beams could be a useful tool to create innovative and newer nano-materials for various applications in medical field for treatment and detection purposes. Considering its certain advantage for producing nano-materials, radiation technology will play a crucial role in development of such materials. Research and development in the area of nano--particles on polymer films, hydrogels, silica particles and their nano-clusters using radiation technology could be a possible route for development of new functional nano-materials. (author)

  14. 4th International Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 4th International Science and Practice Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (NANO2016) held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 24-27, 2016. The International Conference was organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine), University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Presents cutting-edge advances in nanocomposites and carbon and silicon-based nanomaterials for a wide range of engineering and medical applications Co...

  15. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in nuclear energy chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, W.Q.; Yuan, L.Y.; Li, Z.J.; Lan, J.H.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F.

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of human demands for nuclear energy and in response to the challenges of nuclear energy development, the world's major nuclear countries have started research and development work on advanced nuclear energy systems in which new materials and new technologies are considered to play important roles. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies, which have gained extensive attention in recent years, have shown a wide range of application potentials in future nuclear energy system. In this review, the basic research progress in nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for advanced nuclear fuel fabrication, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, nuclear waste disposal and nuclear environmental remediation is selectively highlighted, with the emphasis on Chinese research achievements. In addition, the challenges and opportunities of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in future advanced nuclear energy system are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. 3rd International Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 3rd International Science and Practice Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (NANO2015) held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 26-30, 2015. The International Conference was organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine), University of Turin (Italy), Pierre and Marie Curie University (France), and European Profiles A.E. (Greece). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Presents cutting-edge advances in nanocomposites and carbon and silicon-based nanomaterials for a wide range of engine...

  17. Production of nanomaterials: physical and chemical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, Leonardo; Salernitano, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Are define nanomaterials those materials which have at least one dimension in the range between 1 and 100 nm. By the term nanotechnology refers, instead, to the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at the atomic and molecular level. The materials brought to the nanometric dimensions take particular chemical-physical properties different from the corresponding conventional macro materials. Speaking about the structure of nanoscale, you can check some basic properties materials (eg. Melting temperature, magnetic and electrical properties) without changing its chemical composition. In this perspective are crucial knowledge and control of production processes in order to design and get the nanomaterial more suitable for a specific application. For this purpose, it describes a series of processes of production of nanomaterials with application examples. [it

  18. Synthesis of camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhimin; Liu Zhiguo; Zu Yuangang; Fu Yujie; Zhao Chunjian; Zhao Xiuhua; Meng Ronghua; Tan Shengnan

    2010-01-01

    Camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials have been synthesized by the sodium borohydride reduction method under a strong basic condition. The obtained gold nanomaterials have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The camptothecin-loaded gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored for more than two months at room temperature without obvious changes. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to purple and blue during the acidifying process. It was revealed that the release of camptothecin and the aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the solution pH. The present study implied that the gold nanomaterials can be used as the potential carrier for CPT delivery.

  19. Carbon nanomaterials for non-volatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ethan C.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Pop, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Carbon can create various low-dimensional nanostructures with remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. These features make carbon nanomaterials especially interesting for next-generation memory and storage devices, such as resistive random access memory, phase-change memory, spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory and ferroelectric random access memory. Non-volatile memories greatly benefit from the use of carbon nanomaterials in terms of bit density and energy efficiency. In this Review, we discuss sp2-hybridized carbon-based low-dimensional nanostructures, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, in the context of non-volatile memory devices and architectures. Applications of carbon nanomaterials as memory electrodes, interfacial engineering layers, resistive-switching media, and scalable, high-performance memory selectors are investigated. Finally, we compare the different memory technologies in terms of writing energy and time, and highlight major challenges in the manufacturing, integration and understanding of the physical mechanisms and material properties.

  20. Synthesis of camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Zhimin [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu Zhiguo, E-mail: zguoliu@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Zu Yuangang, E-mail: nefunano@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Fu Yujie; Zhao Chunjian; Zhao Xiuhua; Meng Ronghua; Tan Shengnan [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials have been synthesized by the sodium borohydride reduction method under a strong basic condition. The obtained gold nanomaterials have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The camptothecin-loaded gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored for more than two months at room temperature without obvious changes. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to purple and blue during the acidifying process. It was revealed that the release of camptothecin and the aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the solution pH. The present study implied that the gold nanomaterials can be used as the potential carrier for CPT delivery.

  1. Studies and Development of Radiation Processed Nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil; Francis, Sanju; Biswal, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the emerging technology that deals with processing, manipulating and manufacturing devices and products at the microscopic scale of molecules or atoms with structures smaller than 100 nanometers. Realizing its potential, Government of India spending on R&D in nanotechnology has gone up by an order of magnitude in last 5 years through various national and international programs. High energy gamma radiation and electron beams could be a useful tool to create innovative and newer nano-materials for various applications in medical field for treatment and detection purposes. Considering its certain advantage for producing nano-materials, radiation technology will play a crucial role in development of such materials. Research and development in the area of nano--particles on polymer films, hydrogels, silica particles and their nano-clusters using radiation technology could be a possible route for development of new functional nano-materials. (author)

  2. Nanomaterial-based drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Tao

    2017-01-01

    This brief summarizes different types of organic and inorganic nanomaterials for drug delivery in cancer therapy. It highlights that precisely designed nanomaterials will be the next-generation therapeutic agents for cancer treatment.

  3. Current Progress of Nanomaterials in Molecularly Imprinted Electrochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunju; Yang, Bin; Jiang, Xinxin; Li, Jianping

    2018-01-02

    Nanomaterials have received much attention during the past decade because of their excellent optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Nanomaterials possess high chemical reactivity, also high surface energy. Thus, provide a stable immobilization platform for biomolecules, while preserving their reactivity. Due to the conductive and catalytic properties, nanomaterials can also enhance the sensitivity of molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensors by amplifying the electrode surface, increasing the electron transfer, and catalyzing the electrochemical reactions. Molecularly imprinted polymers that contain specific molecular recognition sites can be designed for a particular target analyte. Incorporating nanomaterials into molecularly imprinted polymers is important because nanomaterials can improve the response signal, increase the sensitivity, and decrease the detection limit of the sensors. This study describes the classification of nanomaterials in molecularly imprinted polymers, their analytical properties, and their applications in the electrochemical sensors. The progress of the research on nanomaterials in molecularly imprinted polymers and the application of nanomaterials in molecularly imprinted polymers is also reviewed.

  4. Development and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Alternative Sustainable Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel nanomaterial types are rapidly being developed for the value they may add to consumer products without sufficient evaluation of implications for human health, toxicity, environmental impact and long-term sustainability. Nanomaterials made of metals, semiconductors and vario...

  5. Systems and methods for automated production of multi-composition nanomaterial

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-12-24

    Various methods and systems are provided for production of nanowires or other nanomaterials. In one example, among others, a system includes a furnace configured to heat at least a portion of a tube, a material feeder coupled to a first end of the tube, and a vacuum pumping system coupled to a second end of the tube. The material feeder can include a source material manipulator that can position a source material in a fixture of a feeder arm and a linear manipulator that can extend the fixture into the tube, where it can be heated to produce a precursor vapor that can be used to form a nanomaterial on a substrate. In another example, a method includes extending a fixture holding source material into a furnace tube, drawing a precursor vapor produced from the source material across a substrate in the furnace tube, and forming nanomaterial on the substrate.

  6. Genotoxicity Screening of Industrial Effluents using Onion bulbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three industrial wastewaters (brewery .... National recommended water quality criteria – correction; cWorld Health Organisation (1996). ..... Industrial Pollution Policy Management Study.

  7. Determination of heavy metals and genotoxicity of water from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of heavy metals and genotoxicity of water from an artesian well ... do Amaral, Vanessa Marques de Oliveira Moraes, Luciana Pereira Silva ... environmental interest because it is the most important zinc producer district of Brazil.

  8. Genotoxic Effect of Atrazine, Arsenic, Cadmium and Nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atrazine has clastogenic effects and may also act as tumor promoter as it induces the aromatase enzyme. ... bladder cancer. This study ... in MCF-10A cells, suggesting that estrogen receptor modulated the genotoxicity of estrogen. Cd caused ...

  9. In vitro evaluation of mutagenicity and genotoxicity of sitagliptin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Sitagliptin, Artificial sweeteners, Comet assay, DNA damage, Ames assay, Genotoxicity,. Mutagenicity. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African.

  10. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products is steadily increasing. However, the health effects of exposure to these nanoparticles are not thoroughly understood. This study investigated the genotoxicity of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide nanoparticles of va...

  11. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  12. Structure and multiscale mechanics of carbon nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book aims at providing a broad overview on the relationship between structure and mechanical properties of carbon nanomaterials from world-leading scientists in the field. The main aim is to get an in-depth understanding of the broad range of mechanical properties of carbon materials based on their unique nanostructure and on defects of several types and at different length scales. Besides experimental work mainly based on the use of (in-situ) Raman and X-ray scattering and on nanoindentation, the book also covers some aspects of multiscale modeling of the mechanics of carbon nanomaterials.

  13. ISA-TAB-Nano: A Specification for Sharing Nanomaterial Research Data in Spreadsheet-based Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background and motivation The high-throughput genomics communities have been successfully using standardized spreadsheet-based formats to capture and share data within labs and among public repositories. The nanomedicine community has yet to adopt similar standards to share the diverse and multi-dimensional types of data (including metadata) pertaining to the description and characterization of nanomaterials. Owing to the lack of standardization in representing and sharing nanomaterial data, most of the data currently shared via publications and data resources are incomplete, poorly-integrated, and not suitable for meaningful interpretation and re-use of the data. Specifically, in its current state, data cannot be effectively utilized for the development of predictive models that will inform the rational design of nanomaterials. Results We have developed a specification called ISA-TAB-Nano, which comprises four spreadsheet-based file formats for representing and integrating various types of nanomaterial data. Three file formats (Investigation, Study, and Assay files) have been adapted from the established ISA-TAB specification; while the Material file format was developed de novo to more readily describe the complexity of nanomaterials and associated small molecules. In this paper, we have discussed the main features of each file format and how to use them for sharing nanomaterial descriptions and assay metadata. Conclusion The ISA-TAB-Nano file formats provide a general and flexible framework to record and integrate nanomaterial descriptions, assay data (metadata and endpoint measurements) and protocol information. Like ISA-TAB, ISA-TAB-Nano supports the use of ontology terms to promote standardized descriptions and to facilitate search and integration of the data. The ISA-TAB-Nano specification has been submitted as an ASTM work item to obtain community feedback and to provide a nanotechnology data-sharing standard for public development and adoption. PMID

  14. Integrating sustainable biofuel and silver nanomaterial production for in situ upgrading of cellulosic biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Junjie; Dou, Guolan; Ziade, Elbara; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Integrated production of biotemplated nanomaterials and upgraded biofuels (solid lines indicate current processes, dashed lines indicated proposed pathway). - Highlights: • Novel integrated process to co-produce nanomaterials and biofuels via pyrolysis. • Impregnation of biomass with silver nitrate upgrades bio-oil during pyrolysis. • Co-synthesis enhances syngas produced with more hydrogen. • Biomass template impacts bio-fuels and morphology of resulting nanomaterials. - Abstract: Replacing fossil fuels with biomass-based alternatives is a potential carbon neutral, renewable and sustainable option for meeting the world’s growing energy demand. However, pyrolytic conversions of biomass-to-biofuels suffer marginal total energy gain, and technical limitations such as bio-oils’ high viscosity and oxygen contents that result in unstable, corrosive and low-value fuels. This work demonstrates a new integrated biorefinery process for the co-production of biofuels and silver nanomaterials. By impregnating pure cellulose and corn stalk with silver nitrate, followed by pyrolysis, the gas yield (especially hydrogen) increases substantially. The condensable bio-oil components of the impregnated samples are considerably higher in furfurals (including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). Though the overall activation energy barrier, as determined via the Distributed Activation Energy Model, does not change significantly with the silver nitrate pre-treatment, the increase in gases devolatilized, and improved 5-hydroxymethylfurfural yield, suggest a catalytic effect, potentially increasing decarboxylation reactions. After using this metal impregnation to improve pyrolysis fuel yield, following pyrolysis, the silver-char composite materials are calcined to remove the biomass template to yield silver nanomaterials. While others have demonstrated the ability to biotemplate such nanosilver on cellulosic biomass, they consider only impregnation and oxidation of the

  15. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hua Kun, E-mail: hua@uow.edu.au

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  16. Bioinspired synthesis and self-assembly of hybrid organic–inorganic nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Honghu [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    Nature is replete with complex organic–inorganic hierarchical materials of diverse yet specific functions. These materials are intricately designed under physiological conditions through biomineralization and biological self-assembly processes. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to investigating mechanisms of such biomineralization and biological self-assembly processes as well as gaining inspiration to develop biomimetic methods for synthesis and self-assembly of functional nanomaterials. In this work, we focus on the bioinspired synthesis and self-assembly of functional inorganic nanomaterials templated by specialized macromolecules including proteins, DNA and polymers. The in vitro biomineralization process of the magnetite biomineralizing protein Mms6 has been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering. Templated by Mms6, complex magnetic nanomaterials can be synthesized on surfaces and in the bulk. DNA and synthetic polymers have been exploited to construct macroscopic two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) superlattices of gold nanocrystals. Employing X-ray scattering and spectroscopy techniques, the self-assembled structures and the self-assembly mechanisms have been studied, and theoretical models have been developed. Our results show that specialized macromolecules including proteins, DNA and polymers act as effective templates for synthesis and self-assembly of nanomaterials. These bottom-up approaches provide promising routes to fabricate hybrid organic–inorganic nanomaterials with rationally designed hierarchical structures, targeting specific functions.

  17. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  18. Grouping nanomaterials to predict their potential to induce pulmonary inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Oomen, Agnes G; Cassee, Flemming R

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly expanding manufacturing, production and use of nanomaterials have raised concerns for both worker and consumer safety. Various studies have been published in which induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanomaterials has been described. Nanomaterials can vary in

  19. Genotoxicity evaluation of alpha-linolenic acid-diacylglycerol oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Honda

    Full Text Available The alpha-linolenic acid (ALA-diacylglycerol (DAG oil is an edible oil enriched with DAG (>80% and ALA (>50%. Although DAG oil, which mainly consists of oleic and linoleic acids has no genotoxic concerns, the fatty acid composition could affect the chemical property of DAG. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of ALA-DAG oil using standard genotoxicity tests in accordance with the OECD guidelines. ALA-DAG oil showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells with and without metabolic activation, and in the in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test in mice. Our results did not show any genotoxicity, suggesting that the fatty acid composition had no deleterious effects. We conclude that ALA-DAG oil had no genotoxicity concerns under the testing conditions. Keywords: Alpha-linolenic acid-rich diacylglycerol, Diacylglycerol, Alpha-linolenic acid, Fatty acid composition, Genotoxicity

  20. Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPhail Robert C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public in industrialized nations are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs or ENM-containing products. However, our understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of ENMs is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified, and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment, and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards. These latter approaches include engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness - or lack thereof - of some of these controls are also included. This review is presented in the context of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework, as a paradigm to systematically work through issues regarding human health hazards of ENMs. Examples are discussed of current knowledge of nanoscale materials for each component of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations. This review may serve as an overview for health and safety personnel, management, and ENM workers to establish and maintain a safe work environment. Small start-up companies and research institutions with limited personnel or expertise in nanotechnology health and safety issues may find this review particularly useful.

  1. Fabrication of Solid-State Gas Sensors by Drawing: An Undergraduate and High School Introduction to Functional Nanomaterials and Chemical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Merry K.; Martin-Peralta, Daphnie G.; Pivak, Polina A.; Mirica, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have promising utility in chemical sensing including applications in preserving occupational safety, monitoring of environmental pollution, and human health. While recent advances in device fabrication and molecular design of functional materials have enabled rapid fabrication of chemical sensors from carbon nanomaterials,…

  2. Genotoxicity of meso-2,3-dimercapto succinic acid-coated silver sulfide quantum dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özkan Vardar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotecnology products have been used in wide applications in chemistry, electronics, energy generation, and medicine. Despite significant interest in developing quantum dots (QDs for biomedical applications, many researchers are convinced that QDs will never be used for the treatment of patients because of their potential toxicity. In various in vitro cell culture studies, the cytotoxic properties of some QD have been demonstrated and they have been suggested to be toxic in humans. In this study, the cytotoxic properties of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid nanomaterials in V79 cells (Chinese lung fibroblast cell line were determined by MTT assay. The genotoxic effects of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid were evaluated by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. The cells were treated with Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid at the concentrations of 5- 2000 µg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid at all concentrations studied was observed. No significant increases in DNA damage were found at the studied concentrations when compared to negative control in V79 cells. In conclusion, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the safety doses of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid.

  3. Nanomaterials on flexible substrates to explore innovative functions: From energy harvesting to bio-integrated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Ja Hoon; Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Taeyoon

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts in the semiconductor industry have focused on the realization of electronics with unusual form factors and functions which are not achievable using the current planar Si-based technology. Deposition of high-quality films or nanomaterials on low-temperature elastomeric substrates has been a technical challenge for flexible electronics. However, together with the development of new synthesis routes that enable the formation of robust thin films and nanomaterials on compliant substrates, including the dry transfer printing technique and fabrication of uniform nanogaps/nanowrinkles using the unique stretchable characteristics of elastomeric substrates, flexible electronics has emerged as a promising technology that can enrich our lives in a variety of ways. As examples, potential applications include skin-like smart prostheses, paper-like displays, disposable electronic noses, and hemispherically-shaped electronic eye cameras. Here, we review recent results demonstrating ingenious new functionalities using nanomaterials on flexible substrates, focusing on fabrication techniques, materials, operation mechanisms, and signal outputs.

  4. Nanomaterials on flexible substrates to explore innovative functions: From energy harvesting to bio-integrated electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja Hoon; Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Taeyoon, E-mail: taeyoon.lee@yonsei.ac.kr

    2012-12-01

    Recent efforts in the semiconductor industry have focused on the realization of electronics with unusual form factors and functions which are not achievable using the current planar Si-based technology. Deposition of high-quality films or nanomaterials on low-temperature elastomeric substrates has been a technical challenge for flexible electronics. However, together with the development of new synthesis routes that enable the formation of robust thin films and nanomaterials on compliant substrates, including the dry transfer printing technique and fabrication of uniform nanogaps/nanowrinkles using the unique stretchable characteristics of elastomeric substrates, flexible electronics has emerged as a promising technology that can enrich our lives in a variety of ways. As examples, potential applications include skin-like smart prostheses, paper-like displays, disposable electronic noses, and hemispherically-shaped electronic eye cameras. Here, we review recent results demonstrating ingenious new functionalities using nanomaterials on flexible substrates, focusing on fabrication techniques, materials, operation mechanisms, and signal outputs.

  5. The classification and labeling of nanomaterials according to Regulation 1272/2008 (CLP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia

    2015-01-01

    From a regulatory standpoint for nanomaterials it may take parameters and specific information requirements can describe their properties. Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP) is closely linked to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH, which stands for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), directly applicable to suppliers who manufacture, import, use or distribute chemical substances and mixtures and which aims to ensure the free movement of substances, mixtures and articles always in accordance with a high level of human health and the environment. REACH and CLP cover substances, in any size, shape or physical state, but does not include any specific definition or provision relating to nanomaterials. The moment when a substance is produced or marketed in the form of nanomaterials, the registration dossier needs to be updated to include the different classification and labeling of the substance in the nano form. [it

  6. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  7. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Calatayud, Vicent; Garrec, Jean Pierre; He Shang; Penuelas, Josep; Ribas, Angela; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Rasmussen, Stine; Sanz, Maria Jose; Vergne, Phillippe

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites

  8. Genotoxic effects of vinclozolin on the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Vinclozolin (Vz) is a pollutant found in aquatic environments whose antiandrogenic effects in reproduction are well known in mammals. Although its reproductive effects have been less studied in invertebrates, other effects, including genotoxicity, have been described. Therefore, in this work, we studied the genotoxic effects of Vz in the freshwater benthic invertebrate Chironomus riparius. DNA damage was evaluated with the comet assay (tail area, olive moment, tail moment and % DNA in tail), and the transcriptional levels of different genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) and apoptosis (DECAY) were measured by RT-PCR. Fourth instar larvae of C. riparius, were exposed to Vz for 24 h at 20 and 200 μg/L. The Vz exposures affected the DNA integrity in this organism, since a dose-response relationship occurred, with DNA strand breaks significantly increased with increased dose for tail area, olive moment and tail moment parameters. Additionally, the lower concentration of Vz produced a significant induction of the transcripts of three genes under study (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) showing the activation of the cellular repair mechanism. In contrast, the expression of these genes with the highest concentration were downregulated, indicating failure of the cellular repair mechanism, which would explain the higher DNA damage. These data report for the first time the alterations of Vz on gene transcription of an insect and confirm the potential genotoxicity of this compound on freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: aklumpp@uni-hohenheim.de; Ansel, Wolfgang [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Klumpp, Gabriele [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Calatayud, Vicent [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garrec, Jean Pierre [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); He Shang [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); Penuelas, Josep [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Angela [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ro-Poulsen, Helge [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Rasmussen, Stine [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Vergne, Phillippe [ENS Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2006-02-15

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites.

  10. Cyto- and genotoxic profile of groundwater used as drinking water supply before and after disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellacani, C; Cassoni, F; Bocchi, C; Martino, A; Pinto, G; Fontana, F; Furlini, M; Buschini, A

    2016-12-01

    The assessment of the toxicological properties of raw groundwater may be useful to predict the type and quality of tap water. Contaminants in groundwater are known to be able to affect the disinfection process, resulting in the formation of substances that are cytotoxic and/or genotoxic. Though the European directive (98/83/EC, which establishes maximum levels for contaminants in raw water (RW)) provides threshold levels for acute exposure to toxic compounds, the law does not take into account chronic exposure at low doses of pollutants present in complex mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cyto- and genotoxic load in the groundwater of two water treatment plants in Northern Italy. Water samples induced cytotoxic effects, mainly observed when human cells were treated with RW. Moreover, results indicated that the disinfection process reduced cell toxicity, independent of the biocidal used. The induction of genotoxic effects was found, in particular, when the micronucleus assay was carried out on raw groundwater. These results suggest that it is important to include bio-toxicological assays as additional parameters in water quality monitoring programs, as their use would allow the evaluation of the potential risk of groundwater for humans.

  11. Applicability of in silico genotoxicity models on food and feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anna; Bellion, Phillip; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of food and feed ingredients is required in the development of new substances and for their registration. In addition to in vitro and in vivo assays, in silico tools such as expert alert-based and statistical models can be used for data generation. These in silico models are commonly used among the pharmaceutical industry, whereas the food industry has not widely adopted them. In this study, the applicability of in silico tools for predicting genotoxicity was evaluated, with a focus on bacterial mutagenicity, in vitro and in vivo chromosome damage assays. For this purpose, a test set of 27 food and feed ingredients including vitamins, carotenoids, and nutraceuticals with experimental genotoxicity data was constructed from proprietary data. This dataset was run through multiple models and the model applicability was analyzed. The compounds were generally within the applicability domain of the models and the models predicted the compounds correctly in most of the cases. Although the regulatory acceptance of in silico tools as single data source is still limited, the models are applicable and can be used in the safety evaluation of food and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Study on the chemical components of edible oil fume in kitchen and its genotoxity on Drosophila].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Wang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, X

    1999-01-30

    To study the chemical components of the condensate of edible oil fume in kitchen and its genotoxicity on Drosophila. Analysis for the chemical components was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC/MS) and its genotoxicity was studied by sex linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test in Drosophila. A total of 74 organic compounds were found in samples of condensed oil from the fume in kitchen. It included hydroxylic acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic compounds, and steroids, etc. The total mutagenicity rates in SLRL test induced by the samples at concentrations of 110,320 and 960 mg/L were 0.1732%, 0.4306% and 0.1707% respectively. The sterility rates of the first broods were 2.564%, 2.056% and 2.845% at above 3 concentrations respectively(P < 0.05, as compared with the control). The mutagenicity rate of the second brood at 320 mg/L was 0.530% and that of the third brood at 110 mg/L 0.540%(P < 0.001). Some of the compounds in the condensate of edible oil fume were proved to have high recessive lethal effect and genotoxic effect on the reproductive system of Drosophila.

  13. Multi-functional carbon nanomaterials: Tailoring morphology for multidisciplinary applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervishi, Enkeleda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Carbon based nanomaterials are being developed to have many new properties and applications. Graphene, is a mono-layer 2D atomic thick structure formed from hexagons of carbon atoms bound together by sp^2hybrid bonds. A carbon nanotube (CNT) can be viewed as a sheet of graphene rolled up into a cylinder, usually 1-2 nanometers in diameter and a few microns thick. A few applications of graphene and carbon nanotubes include the development of Nanoelectronics, nanocomposite materials, Hydrogen storage and Li⁺ battery, etc.

  14. Black Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials in Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanomaterials are widely considered to be state-of-the-art photocatalysts for environmental protection and energy conversion. However, the low photocatalytic efficiency caused by large bandgap and rapid recombination of photo-excited electrons and holes is a challenging issue that needs to be settled for their practical applications. Structure engineering has been demonstrated to be a highly promising approach to engineer the optical and electronic properties of the existing materials or even endow them with unexpected properties. Surface structure engineering has witnessed the breakthrough in increasing the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 nanomaterials by creating a defect-rich or amorphous surface layer with black color and extension of optical absorption to the whole visible spectrum, along with markedly enhanced photocatalytic activities. In this review, the recent progress in the development of black TiO2 nanomaterials is reviewed to gain a better understanding of the structure-property relationship with the consideration of preparation methods and to project new insights into the future development of black TiO2 nanomaterials in photocatalytic applications.

  15. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate

  16. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Julia; Norppa, Hannu

    2017-12-01

    Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi-cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF MCM-41 NANOMATERIAL FROM ALGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T. Ali-Dahmane

    1 mai 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. SYNTHESIS OF MCM-41 NANOMATERIAL FROM ALGERIAN BENTONITE:.

  18. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  19. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  20. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  1. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  2. The influence of selected nanomaterials on microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandeburová, P.; Birošová, L.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Gál, M.; Tichý, J.; Híveš, J.; Mackul´ak, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 525-530 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanomaterials * nanotechnologies * microorganisms * toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  3. Redefining risk research priorities for nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders; Owen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical-based risk assessment underpins the current approach to responsible development of nanomaterials (NM). It is now recognised, however, that this process may take decades, leaving decision makers with little support in the near term. Despite this, current and near future research efforts...

  4. Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Bhardwaj; Ajeet Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    The spurring growth and clinical adoption of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in medicine, i.e. “nanomedicine”, to shape global health care system is a collective effort that comprises academia research, industrial drive, and political and financial support from government.[...

  5. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Catalán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi­cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues.

  6. Relative risk analysis of several manufactured nanomaterials: an insurance industry context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Christine Ogilvie; Tanzil, Dicksen; Weilenmann, Ulrich; Wiesner, Mark R

    2005-11-15

    A relative risk assessment is presented for the industrial fabrication of several nanomaterials. The production processes for five nanomaterials were selected for this analysis, based on their current or near-term potential for large-scale production and commercialization: single-walled carbon nanotubes, bucky balls (C60), one variety of quantum dots, alumoxane nanoparticles, and nano-titanium dioxide. The assessment focused on the activities surrounding the fabrication of nanomaterials, exclusive of any impacts or risks with the nanomaterials themselves. A representative synthesis method was selected for each nanomaterial based on its potential for scaleup. A list of input materials, output materials, and waste streams for each step of fabrication was developed and entered into a database that included key process characteristics such as temperature and pressure. The physical-chemical properties and quantities of the inventoried materials were used to assess relative risk based on factors such as volatility, carcinogenicity, flammability, toxicity, and persistence. These factors were first used to qualitatively rank risk, then combined using an actuarial protocol developed by the insurance industry for the purpose of calculating insurance premiums for chemical manufacturers. This protocol ranks three categories of risk relative to a 100 point scale (where 100 represents maximum risk): incident risk, normal operations risk, and latent contamination risk. Results from this analysis determined that relative environmental risk from manufacturing each of these five materials was comparatively low in relation to other common industrial manufacturing processes.

  7. Nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics (nanozymes): next-generation artificial enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Erkang

    2013-07-21

    Over the past few decades, researchers have established artificial enzymes as highly stable and low-cost alternatives to natural enzymes in a wide range of applications. A variety of materials including cyclodextrins, metal complexes, porphyrins, polymers, dendrimers and biomolecules have been extensively explored to mimic the structures and functions of naturally occurring enzymes. Recently, some nanomaterials have been found to exhibit unexpected enzyme-like activities, and great advances have been made in this area due to the tremendous progress in nano-research and the unique characteristics of nanomaterials. To highlight the progress in the field of nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes (nanozymes), this review discusses various nanomaterials that have been explored to mimic different kinds of enzymes. We cover their kinetics, mechanisms and applications in numerous fields, from biosensing and immunoassays, to stem cell growth and pollutant removal. We also summarize several approaches to tune the activities of nanozymes. Finally, we make comparisons between nanozymes and other catalytic materials (other artificial enzymes, natural enzymes, organic catalysts and nanomaterial-based catalysts) and address the current challenges and future directions (302 references).

  8. Global life cycle releases of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Arturo A.; McFerran, Suzanne; Lazareva, Anastasiya; Suh, Sangwon

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now becoming a significant fraction of the material flows in the global economy. We are already reaping the benefits of improved energy efficiency, material use reduction, and better performance in many existing and new applications that have been enabled by these technological advances. As ENMs pervade the global economy, however, it becomes important to understand their environmental implications. As a first step, we combined ENM market information and material flow modeling to produce the first global assessment of the likely ENM emissions to the environment and landfills. The top ten most produced ENMs by mass were analyzed in a dozen major applications. Emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages were estimated, including intermediate steps through wastewater treatment plants and waste incineration plants. In 2010, silica, titania, alumina, and iron and zinc oxides dominate the ENM market in terms of mass flow through the global economy, used mostly in coatings/paints/pigments, electronics and optics, cosmetics, energy and environmental applications, and as catalysts. We estimate that 63–91 % of over 260,000–309,000 metric tons of global ENM production in 2010 ended up in landfills, with the balance released into soils (8–28 %), water bodies (0.4–7 %), and atmosphere (0.1–1.5 %). While there are considerable uncertainties in the estimates, the framework for estimating emissions can be easily improved as better data become available. The material flow estimates can be used to quantify emissions at the local level, as inputs for fate and transport models to estimate concentrations in different environmental compartments.

  9. Soft Sensors and Actuators based on Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan

    The focus of this research is using novel bottom-up synthesized nanomaterials and structures to build up devices for wearable sensors and soft actuators. The applications of the wearable sensors towards motion detection and health monitoring are investigated. In addition, flexible heaters for bimorph actuators and stretchable patches made of microgel depots containing drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) for stretch-triggered wearable drug delivery are studied. Considerable efforts have been made to achieve highly sensitive and wearable sensors that can simultaneously detect multiple stimuli such as stretch, pressure, temperature or touch. Highly stretchable multifunctional sensors that can detect strain (up to 50%), pressure (up to 1 MPa) and finger touch with good sensitivity, fast response time ( 40 ms) and good pressure mapping function were developed. The sensors were demonstrated for several wearable applications including monitoring thumb movements and knee motions, illustrating the potential utilities of such sensors in robotic systems, prosthetics, healthcare and flexible touch panels. In addition to mechanical sensors, a wearable skin hydration sensor made of silver nanowires (AgNWs) in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix was demonstrated based on skin impedance measurement. The hydration sensors were packaged into a flexible wristband for skin hydration monitoring and a chest patch consisting of a strain sensor, three electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes and a skin hydration sensor for multimodal sensing. The wearable wristband and chest patch may be used for low-cost, wireless and continuous sensing of skin hydration and other health parameters. Two representative applications of the nanomaterials for soft actuators were investigated. In the first application on bimorph actuation, low-voltage and extremely flexible electrothermal bimorph actuators were fabricated in a simple, efficient and scalable process. The bimorph actuators were made of flexible Ag

  10. The current limitations of in vitro genotoxicity testing and their relevance to the in vivo situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesslany, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    The standard regulatory core battery of genotoxicity tests generally includes 2 or 3 validated tests with at least one in vitro test in bacteria and one in vitro test on cell cultures. However, limitations in in vitro genotoxicity testing may exist at many levels. The knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of genotoxicity is particularly useful to assess the level of relevance for the in vivo situation. In order to avoid wrong conclusions regarding the actual genotoxicity status of any test substance, it appears very important to be aware of the various origins of related bias leading to 'false positives and negatives' by using in vitro methods. Among these, mention may be made on the metabolic activation system, experimental (extreme) conditions, specificities of the test systems implemented, cell type used etc. The knowledge of the actual 'limits' of the in vitro test systems used is clearly an advantage and may contribute to avoid some pitfalls in order to better assess the level of relevance for the in vivo situation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Lack of genotoxicity in medical oncology nurses handling antineoplastic drugs: effect of work environment and protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulten, Tuna; Evke, Elif; Ercan, Ilker; Evrensel, Turkkan; Kurt, Ender; Manavoglu, Osman

    2011-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate the genotoxic effects of antineoplastic agents in occupationally exposed oncology nurses. Genotoxic effects mean the disruptive effects in the integrity of DNA and they are associated with cancer development. Biomonitoring of health care workers handling antineoplastic agents is helpful for the evaluation of exposure to cytostatics. The study included an exposed and two control groups. The exposed group (n=9) was comprised of oncology nurses. The first (n=9) and second (n=10) control groups were comprised of subjects who did not come into contact with antineoplastic drugs working respectively in the same department with oncology nurses and in different departments. Genotoxicity evaluation was performed using SCE analysis. After applying culture, harvest and chromosome staining procedures, a total of 25 metaphases were analyzed per person. Kruskal Wallis test was used to perform statistical analysis. A statistically significant difference of sister chromatid exchange frequencies was not observed between the exposed and control groups. Lack of genotoxicity in medical oncology nurses might be due to good working conditions with high standards of technical equipment and improved personal protection.

  12. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  13. Chemical approaches toward graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Shaomin; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-03-12

    A 'gold rush' has been triggered all over the world for exploiting the possible applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. For this purpose, two important problems have to be solved; one is the preparation of graphene-based nanomaterials with well-defined structures, and the other is the controllable fabrication of these materials into functional devices. This review gives a brief overview of the recent research concerning chemical and thermal approaches toward the production of well-defined graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas, including solar cells, lithium ion secondary batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genotoxicity assessment of ethylenediamine dinitrate (EDDN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gunda; Song, Jian; Kirby, Paul; Johnson, Mark S

    2011-12-24

    Ethylenediamine dinitrate (EDDN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) are relatively insensitive explosive compounds that are being explored as safe alternatives to other more sensitive compounds. When used in combination with other high explosives they are an improvement and may provide additional safety during storage and use. The genetic toxicity of these compounds was evaluated to predict the potential adverse human health effects from exposure by using a standard genetic toxicity test battery which included: a gene mutation test in bacteria (Ames), an in vitro Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell chromosome aberration test and an in vivo mouse micronucleus test. The results of the Ames test showed that EDDN increased the mean number of revertants per plate with strain TA100, without activation, at 5000μg/plate compared to the solvent control, which indicated a positive result. No positive results were observed with the other tester strains with or without activation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1535, TA1537, and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA. DETN was negative for all Salmonella tester strains and E. coli up to 5000μg/plate both with and without metabolic activation. The CHO cell chromosome aberration assay was performed using EDDN and DETN at concentrations up to 5000μg/mL. The results indicate that these compounds did not induce structural chromosomal aberrations at all tested concentrations in CHO cells, with or without metabolic activation. EDDN and DETN, when tested in vivo in the CD-1 mouse at doses up to 2000mg/kg, did not induce any significant increase in the number of micronuclei in bone marrow erythrocytes. These studies demonstrate that EDDN is mutagenic in one strain of Salmonella (TA100) but was negative in other strains, for in vitro induction of chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells, and for micronuclei in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. DETN was not genotoxic in all in vitro and in vivo tests. These results show the in

  15. New nanomaterials for applications in conservation and restoration of stony materials: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Fernandez, A.; Gomez-Villalba, L.S.; Rabanal, M.E.; Fort, R.

    2017-01-01

    In recent times, nanomaterials have been applied in the construction and maintenance of the world's cultural heritage with the aim of improving the consolidation and protection treatments of damaged stone. These nanomaterials include important advantages that could solve many problems found in the traditional interventions. The present paper aims to carry out a review of the state of art on the application of nanotechnology to the conservation and restoration of the stony cultural heritage. We highlight the different types of nanoparticles currently used to produce conservation treatments with enhanced material properties and novel functionalities.

  16. Nanomaterials-Based Optical Techniques for the Detection of Acetylcholinesterase and Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The large amount of pesticide residues in the environment is a threat to global health by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Biosensors for inhibition of AChE have been thus developed for the detection of pesticides. In line with the rapid development of nanotechnology, nanomaterials have attracted great attention and have been intensively studied in biological analysis due to their unique chemical, physical and size properties. The aim of this review is to provide insight into nanomaterial-based optical techniques for the determination of AChE and pesticides, including colorimetric and fluorescent assays and surface plasmon resonance.

  17. A framework for health-related nanomaterial grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, D A; Nolan, J W; Vansant, E F; Vordos, N; Kontogoulidou, C; Mitropoulos, A Ch; Cool, P; Braet, J

    2017-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been in the limelight since its emergence and its products affect everyday lives. Nanomaterials are characterized by features such as size and shape, thus rendering their possible number essentially unlimited, which in turn makes them difficult to study and categorize regarding possible dangers. This work suggests that grouping could allow studying them with limited testing efforts without endangering safety. Initially, the materials are identified and grouped according to their applications in health/medicine, as well as on their environmentally-friendly potential. The materials are then categorized using various toxicity classification methods to identify those with highest risks and group them with others that demonstrate similar behavior. The materials studied show promising uses in diagnostics, drug delivery, biosensors, water purification, oil spill cleaning, emission control and other fields. The toxicity risk assessment shows that the majority pose little to moderate risk, however there are certain materials that can be extremely hazardous or even cause death under specific circumstances. A risk mitigation plan was also developed. Nanomaterials applications, including drug delivery, cancer treatment, waste treatment, solar energy generation etc. can be very beneficiary, but at the same time, these materials can be extremely harmful or even cause death, thus making the need to prioritize research on high risk materials crucial. A clear regulatory framework that addresses both benefits and risks and communicates that information effectively should play an important part in European and worldwide efforts. The risk analysis validated the impression that there is limited research on nanomaterial toxicity risks, which calls for a more organized approach. The framework outlined in this work can be utilized by researchers as well as government bodies, in order to form regulatory policies and adopt a universally accepted labeling system. This

  18. Genotoxic damage in auto body shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Basso da Silva, Luciano

    2010-10-01

    Some studies have shown increased DNA damage among car painters, but other professionals working in auto body and paint shops have not been extensively assessed. The aim of this study was to assess DNA damage in different types of auto body shop workers by measuring micronucleus (MN) levels in exfoliated buccal cells. The mean number of cells with MN per 2000 exfoliated buccal cells was analyzed in three groups of male workers: auto body repair technicians, painters, and office workers (control group). All participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about age, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, work practices, occupational exposure time, job activities, and use of protective equipment. The mean number of cells with MN was 3.50 ± 1.50 in auto body painters, 3.91 ± 2.10 in auto body repair technicians, and 0.80 ± 0.78 in office workers, with a significant difference between the control group and the two other groups (p = 0.0001). Age, occupational exposure time, use of protective masks, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit did not affect MN results. The findings indicate that technicians and painters working in auto body shops are at risk for genotoxic damage, while office workers seem to be protected.

  19. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H; Engelward, Bevin P; Heinen, Christopher D; Johnson, George E; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance of a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Engelward, Bevin P.; Heinen, Christopher D.; Johnson, George E.; Clewell, Rebecca A.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:27036068

  1. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa Temitayo; Yekeen, Olaide Maruf; Odusina, Paul Olayinka; Ologun, Taiwo Mary; Ogbaide, Orezimena Michelle; Olaleye, Olayinka Israel; Bakare, Adekunle A

    2015-12-01

    Spondias mombin (Linn), Nymphaea lotus (Linn) and Luffa cylindrica (Linn) (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test. The highest attainable dose of 5 000 mg/kg according to OECD guidelines was first used to assess acute toxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts in Swiss albino mice. For each extract, there were five groups of mice (n=4/group) treated with different concentrations of the extract as against the negative and positive control group for the genotoxicity study. In the antigenotoxicity study, five groups of mice were exposed to five different concentrations of the extracts along with 60 mg/kg of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), which was used to induce genotoxicity. The mice were administered 0.2 mL of extract per day for 10 days in the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity groups. Administration of each of the extracts at the concentration of 5 000 mg/kg did not induce acute toxicity in mice. At the concentrations tested, all the extracts, except aqueous S. mombin, increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of N. lotus increased the frequency of aberrant sperm cells. All the extracts were also able to ameliorate MMS induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of the exposed mice. The results showed the potential of the extracts to induce somatic and germ cell mutation in male mice. The extracts also ameliorated the genotoxic effect of MMS.

  2. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity study of aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of Spondias mombin L., Nymphaea lotus L. and Luffa cylindrical L. using animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Ifeoluwa Temitayo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spondias mombin (Linn, Nymphaea lotus (Linn and Luffa cylindrica (Linn (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test. The highest attainable dose of 5 000 mg/kg according to OECD guidelines was first used to assess acute toxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts in Swiss albino mice. For each extract, there were five groups of mice (n=4/group treated with different concentrations of the extract as against the negative and positive control group for the genotoxicity study. In the antigenotoxicity study, five groups of mice were exposed to five different concentrations of the extracts along with 60 mg/kg of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, which was used to induce genotoxicity. The mice were administered 0.2 mL of extract per day for 10 days in the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity groups. Administration of each of the extracts at the concentration of 5 000 mg/kg did not induce acute toxicity in mice. At the concentrations tested, all the extracts, except aqueous S. mombin, increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The aqueous and hydro-methanol extracts of N. lotus increased the frequency of aberrant sperm cells. All the extracts were also able to ameliorate MMS induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of the exposed mice. The results showed the potential of the extracts to induce somatic and germ cell mutation in male mice. The extracts also ameliorated the genotoxic effect of MMS.

  3. A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marambio-Jones, Catalina; Hoek, Eric M. V.

    2010-06-01

    Here, we present a review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials, including proposed antibacterial mechanisms and possible toxicity to higher organisms. For purpose of this review, silver nanomaterials include silver nanoparticles, stabilized silver salts, silver-dendrimer, polymer and metal oxide composites, and silver-impregnated zeolite and activated carbon materials. While there is some evidence that silver nanoparticles can directly damage bacteria cell membranes, silver nanomaterials appear to exert bacteriocidal activity predominantly through release of silver ions followed (individually or in combination) by increased membrane permeability, loss of the proton motive force, inducing de-energization of the cells and efflux of phosphate, leakage of cellular content, and disruption DNA replication. Eukaryotic cells could be similarly impacted by most of these mechanisms and, indeed, a small but growing body of literature supports this concern. Most antimicrobial studies are performed in simple aquatic media or cell culture media without proper characterization of silver nanomaterial stability (aggregation, dissolution, and re-precipitation). Silver nanoparticle stability is governed by particle size, shape, and capping agents as well as solution pH, ionic strength, specific ions and ligands, and organic macromolecules—all of which influence silver nanoparticle stability and bioavailability. Although none of the studies reviewed definitively proved any immediate impacts to human health or the environment by a silver nanomaterial containing product, the entirety of the science reviewed suggests some caution and further research are warranted given the already widespread and rapidly growing use of silver nanomaterials.

  4. A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marambio-Jones, Catalina; Hoek, Eric M. V., E-mail: emvhoek@ucla.ed [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, California NanoSystems Institute (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Here, we present a review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials, including proposed antibacterial mechanisms and possible toxicity to higher organisms. For purpose of this review, silver nanomaterials include silver nanoparticles, stabilized silver salts, silver-dendrimer, polymer and metal oxide composites, and silver-impregnated zeolite and activated carbon materials. While there is some evidence that silver nanoparticles can directly damage bacteria cell membranes, silver nanomaterials appear to exert bacteriocidal activity predominantly through release of silver ions followed (individually or in combination) by increased membrane permeability, loss of the proton motive force, inducing de-energization of the cells and efflux of phosphate, leakage of cellular content, and disruption DNA replication. Eukaryotic cells could be similarly impacted by most of these mechanisms and, indeed, a small but growing body of literature supports this concern. Most antimicrobial studies are performed in simple aquatic media or cell culture media without proper characterization of silver nanomaterial stability (aggregation, dissolution, and re-precipitation). Silver nanoparticle stability is governed by particle size, shape, and capping agents as well as solution pH, ionic strength, specific ions and ligands, and organic macromolecules-all of which influence silver nanoparticle stability and bioavailability. Although none of the studies reviewed definitively proved any immediate impacts to human health or the environment by a silver nanomaterial containing product, the entirety of the science reviewed suggests some caution and further research are warranted given the already widespread and rapidly growing use of silver nanomaterials.

  5. A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marambio-Jones, Catalina; Hoek, Eric M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials, including proposed antibacterial mechanisms and possible toxicity to higher organisms. For purpose of this review, silver nanomaterials include silver nanoparticles, stabilized silver salts, silver-dendrimer, polymer and metal oxide composites, and silver-impregnated zeolite and activated carbon materials. While there is some evidence that silver nanoparticles can directly damage bacteria cell membranes, silver nanomaterials appear to exert bacteriocidal activity predominantly through release of silver ions followed (individually or in combination) by increased membrane permeability, loss of the proton motive force, inducing de-energization of the cells and efflux of phosphate, leakage of cellular content, and disruption DNA replication. Eukaryotic cells could be similarly impacted by most of these mechanisms and, indeed, a small but growing body of literature supports this concern. Most antimicrobial studies are performed in simple aquatic media or cell culture media without proper characterization of silver nanomaterial stability (aggregation, dissolution, and re-precipitation). Silver nanoparticle stability is governed by particle size, shape, and capping agents as well as solution pH, ionic strength, specific ions and ligands, and organic macromolecules-all of which influence silver nanoparticle stability and bioavailability. Although none of the studies reviewed definitively proved any immediate impacts to human health or the environment by a silver nanomaterial containing product, the entirety of the science reviewed suggests some caution and further research are warranted given the already widespread and rapidly growing use of silver nanomaterials.

  6. Nanomaterials: a challenge for toxicological risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Andrea; Tentschert, Jutta; Luch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the central technologies in the twenty-first century. This judgment becomes apparent by considering the increasing numbers of people employed in this area; the numbers of patents, of scientific publications, of products on the market; and the amounts of money invested in R&D. Prospects originating from different fields of nanoapplication seem unlimited. However, nanotechnology certainly will not be able to meet all of the ambitious expectations communicated, yet has high potential to heavily affect our daily life in the years to come. This might occur in particular in the field of consumer products, for example, by introducing nanomaterials in cosmetics, textiles, or food contact materials. Another promising area is the application of nanotechnology in medicine fueling hopes to significantly improve diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases. In addition, novel technologies applying nanomaterials are expected to be instrumental in waste remediation and in the production of efficient energy storage devices and thus may help to overcome world's energy problems or to revolutionize computer and data storage technologies. In this chapter, we will focus on nanomaterials. After a brief historic and general overview, current proposals of how to define nanomaterials will be summarized. Due to general limitations, there is still no single, internationally accepted definition of the term "nanomaterial." After elaborating on the status quo and the scope of nanoanalytics and its shortcomings, the current thinking about possible hazards resulting from nanoparticulate exposures, there will be an emphasis on the requirements to be fulfilled for appropriate health risk assessment and regulation of nanomaterials. With regard to reliable risk assessments, until now there is still the remaining issue to be resolved of whether or not specific challenges and unique features exist on the nanoscale that have to be tackled and distinctively

  7. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  8. Metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.; Krauter, P.W.; Lawton, M.P.; Harrison, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) and bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) were used to investigate the comparative metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in vivo. These organisms were selected because they possess distinctly different metabolic capabilities: mussels lack an active mixed-function-oxidase enzyme system that is present in most other organisms, including amphibians. Using 14 C-labeled chemical probes (o- and p-toluidine, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)), mussels and tadpoles well dosed with individual compounds by direct immersion in aqueous solutions. The identities of metabolites were then determined by HPLC and GC/MS methods. Results indicate that the N-conjugating pathways used by mussels result primarily in the detoxification of aromatic amines by limiting the amount of primary amine available for activation. The tadpoles excreted a number of 2-AAF metabolites but did form DNA and protein adducts in the liver. Induction of micronuclei in the peripheral red blood cells was also demonstrated. The tadpole was shown to be a sensitive biological indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems

  9. The yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2 is involved in the cellular response to genotoxic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Carot María

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for cell viability. Complex signalling pathways (DNA integrity checkpoints mediate the response to genotoxic stresses. Identifying new functions involved in the cellular response to DNA-damage is crucial. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SLT2 gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade whose main function is the maintenance of the cell wall integrity. However, different observations suggest that SLT2 may also have a role related to DNA metabolism. Results This work consisted in a comprehensive study to connect the Slt2 protein to genome integrity maintenance in response to genotoxic stresses. The slt2 mutant strain was hypersensitive to a variety of genotoxic treatments, including incubation with hydroxyurea (HU, methylmetanosulfonate (MMS, phleomycin or UV irradiation. Furthermore, Slt2 was activated by all these treatments, which suggests that Slt2 plays a central role in the cellular response to genotoxic stresses. Activation of Slt2 was not dependent on the DNA integrity checkpoint. For MMS and UV, Slt2 activation required progression through the cell cycle. In contrast, HU also activated Slt2 in nocodazol-arrested cells, which suggests that Slt2 may respond to dNTP pools alterations. However, neither the protein level of the distinct ribonucleotide reductase subunits nor the dNTP pools were affected in a slt2 mutant strain. An analysis of the checkpoint function revealed that Slt2 was not required for either cell cycle arrest or the activation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase in response to DNA damage. However, slt2 mutant cells showed an elongated bud and partially impaired Swe1 degradation after replicative stress, indicating that Slt2 could contribute, in parallel with Rad53, to bud morphogenesis control after genotoxic stresses. Conclusions Slt2 is activated by several genotoxic treatments and is required to properly cope with DNA damage. Slt

  10. Current Knowledge on the Use of Computational Toxicology in Hazard Assessment of Metallic Engineered Nanomaterials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Guangchao; Peijnenburg, Willie; Xiao, Yinlong; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-01-01

    As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment.

  11. Systems and methods for automated production of multi-composition nanomaterial

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Li, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    Various methods and systems are provided for production of nanowires or other nanomaterials. In one example, among others, a system includes a furnace configured to heat at least a portion of a tube, a material feeder coupled to a first end

  12. Insights into biogenic and chemical production of inorganic nanomaterials and nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sadighi, Armin

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials and nanostructures by the means of diverse physical, chemical, and biological principles has been developed in recent decades. The nanoscale materials and structures creation continue to be an active area of researches due to the exciting properties of the resulting nanomaterials and their innovative applications. Despite physical and chemical approaches which have been used for a long time to produce nanomaterials, biological resources as green candidates that can replace old production methods have been focused in recent years to generate various inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) or other nanoscale structures. Cost-effective, eco-friendly, energy efficient, and nontoxic produced nanomaterials using diverse biological entities have been received increasing attention in the last two decades in contrast to physical and chemical methods owe using toxic solvents, generate unwanted by-products, and high energy consumption which restrict the popularity of these ways employed in nanometric science and engineering. In this review, the biosynthesis of gold, silver, gold-silver alloy, magnetic, semiconductor nanocrystals, silica, zirconia, titania, palladium, bismuth, selenium, antimony sulfide, and platinum NPs, using bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, yeasts, plant extracts and also informational bio-macromolecules including proteins, polypeptides, DNA, and RNA have been reported extensively to mention the current status of the biological inorganic nanomaterial production. In other hand, two well-known wet chemical techniques, namely chemical reduction and sol-gel methods, used to produce various types of nanocrystalline powders, metal oxides, and hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials have presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  14. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Eyler; Michel Junker; Emanuelle Breysse Carraboeuf; Laurent Allidieres; David Guichardot; Fabien Roy; Isabelle Verdier; Edward Mc Rae; Moulay Rachid Babaa; Gilles Flamant; David Luxembourg; Daniel Laplaze; Patrick Achard; Sandrine Berthon-Fabry; David Langohr; Laurent Fulcheri

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a French project related to hydrogen storage in carbon nano-materials. This 3 years project, co-funded by the ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and the Energy Management), aimed to assess the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nano-materials. Four different carbon materials were synthesized and characterized in the frame of present project: - Carbon Nano-tubes; - Carbon Nano-fibres; - Carbon Aerogel; - Carbon Black. All materials tested in the frame of this project present a hydrogen uptake of less than 1 wt% (-20 C to 20 C). A state of the art of hydrogen storage systems has been done in order to determine the research trends and the maturity of the different technologies. The choice and design of hydrogen storage systems regarding fuel cell specifications has also been studied. (authors)

  15. Learning from nature: binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this Review, nature-inspired binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials (BCCNMs), consisting of two components with entirely opposite physiochemical properties at the nanoscale, are presented as a novel concept for the building of promising materials. Once the distance between the two nanoscopic components is comparable to the characteristic length of some physical interactions, the cooperation between these complementary building blocks becomes dominant and endows the macroscopic materials with novel and superior properties. The first implementation of the BCCNMs is the design of bio-inspired smart materials with superwettability and their reversible switching between different wetting states in response to various kinds of external stimuli. Coincidentally, recent studies on other types of functional nanomaterials contribute more examples to support the idea of BCCNMs, which suggests a potential yet comprehensive range of future applications in both materials science and engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Optical response from functionalized atomically thin nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, Ermin; Berghaeuser, Gunnar; Feierabend, Maja [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Knorr, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Chemical functionalization of atomically thin nanostructures presents a promising strategy to create new hybrid nanomaterials with remarkable and externally controllable properties. Here, we review our research in the field of theoretical modeling of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and transition metal dichalcogenides located in molecular dipole fields. In particular, we provide a microscopic view on the change of the optical response of these technologically promising nanomaterials due to the presence of photo-active spiropyran molecules. The feature article presents a review of recent theoretical work providing microscopic view on the optical response of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes, graphene, and monolayered transition metal dichalcogenides. In particular, we propose a novel sensor mechanism based on the molecule-induced activation of dark excitons. This results in a pronounced additional peak presenting an unambiguous optical fingerprint for the attached molecules. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  18. Toxicology of Nanomaterials: Permanent interactive learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castranova Vince

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particle and Fibre Toxicology wants to play a decisive role in a time where particle research is challenged and driven by the developments and applications of nanomaterials. This aim is not merely quantitative in publishing a given number of papers on nanomaterials, but also qualitatively since the field of nanotoxicology is rapidly emerging and benchmarks for good science are needed. Since then a number of things have happened that merit further analysis. The interactive learning issue is best shown by report and communications on the toxicology of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT. A special workshop on the CNT has now been organized twice in Nagano (Japan and this editorial contains a summary of the most important outcomes. Finally, we take the opportunity discuss some recent reports from the nanotech literature, and more specifically a Chinese study that claims severe consequences of nanoparticle exposure.

  19. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naseer; Mujahid, Adnan; Afzal, Adeel; Hussain, Tajamal; Sharif, Ahsan; Ahmad, Ejaz; Athar, Muhammad Makshoof

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is a well-established technology to mimic antibody-antigen interaction in a synthetic platform. Molecularly imprinted polymers and nanomaterials usually possess outstanding recognition capabilities. Imprinted nanostructured materials are characterized by their small sizes, large reactive surface area and, most importantly, with rapid and specific analysis of analytes due to the formation of template driven recognition cavities within the matrix. The excellent recognition and selectivity offered by this class of materials towards a target analyte have found applications in many areas, such as separation science, analysis of organic pollutants in water, environmental analysis of trace gases, chemical or biological sensors, biochemical assays, fabricating artificial receptors, nanotechnology, etc. We present here a concise overview and recent developments in nanostructured imprinted materials with respect to various sensor systems, e.g., electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive, etc. Finally, in light of recent studies, we conclude the article with future perspectives and foreseen applications of imprinted nanomaterials in chemical sensors. PMID:28348356

  20. Carbon Nanomaterials in Biological Studies and Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teradal, Nagappa L; Jelinek, Raz

    2017-09-01

    The "carbon nano-world" has made over the past few decades huge contributions in diverse scientific disciplines and technological advances. While dramatic advances have been widely publicized in using carbon nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene in materials sciences, nano-electronics, and photonics, their contributions to biology and biomedicine have been noteworthy as well. This Review focuses on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and carbon quantum dots [encompassing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon dots (C-dots)] in biologically oriented materials and applications. Examples of these remarkable nanomaterials in bio-sensing, cell- and tissue-imaging, regenerative medicine, and other applications are presented and discussed, emphasizing the significance of their unique properties and their future potential. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-10-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification.

  2. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification

  3. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  4. Characterisation of nanomaterial hydrophobicity using engineered surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmet, Cloé; Valsesia, Andrea; Oddo, Arianna; Ceccone, Giacomo; Spampinato, Valentina; Rossi, François; Colpo, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.colpo@ec.europa.eu [Directorate Health, Consumer and Reference Materials, Consumer Products Safety Unit (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Characterisation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is of outmost importance for the assessment of the potential risks arising from their extensive use. NMs display indeed a large variety of physico-chemical properties that drastically affect their interaction with biological systems. Among them, hydrophobicity is an important property that is nevertheless only slightly covered by the current physico-chemical characterisation techniques. In this work, we developed a method for the direct characterisation of NM hydrophobicity. The determination of the nanomaterial hydrophobic character is carried out by the direct measurement of the affinity of the NMs for different collectors. Each collector is an engineered surface designed in order to present specific surface charge and hydrophobicity degrees. Being thus characterised by a combination of surface energy components, the collectors enable the NM immobilisation with surface coverage in relation to their hydrophobicity. The experimental results are explained by using the extended DLVO theory, which takes into account the hydrophobic forces acting between NMs and collectors.

  5. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pöttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5 were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA, or with dextran (SEONDEX. Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system.

  6. Performance Enhancement of Carbon Nanomaterials for Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Amin M.; Desmaris, Vincent; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene are exploited extensively due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and recently investigated for energy storage application (supercapacitor) due to additional high specific surface area and chemical inertness properties. The supercapacitor is an energy storage device which, in addition to long cycle life (one million), can give energy density higher than parallel plate capacitor and power ...

  7. Nanomaterials for electrochemical sensing and biosensing

    CERN Document Server

    Pumera, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Nanomaterial-Based ElectrodesCarbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors, Martin Pumera, National Institute for Materials Science, JapanElectrochemistry on Single Carbon Nanotube, Pat Collier, Caltech, USATheory of Voltammetry at Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes, Richard G. Compton, Oxford University, UKMetal Oxide Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes, Frank Marken, University of Bath, UKSemiconductor Quantum Dots for Electrochemical Bioanalysis, Eugenii Katz, Clarkson University, USAN

  8. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regeneration based on HA, gold nanoparticles, and graphene. We devised a one-step method in which Au and hydroxyapatite were used as a catalytic system in a...magnetic and spectroscopic properties. They were linked with targeting agents and used for successful Radio- Frequency (RF) driven thermal ablation of...State University (KSU). This work encompassed outstanding research at the nanostructural level and the use of advanced multifunctiona l nanomaterials in

  9. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Liming Dai

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their high energy density and power density, supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for advanced technologies. Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. This article summarizes the recent progresses on the development of high-performance supercapacitors bas...

  10. Thermoelectric nanomaterials materials design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-01-01

    Presently, there is an intense race throughout the world to develop good enough thermoelectric materials which can be used in wide scale applications. This book focuses comprehensively on very recent up-to-date breakthroughs in thermoelectrics utilizing nanomaterials and methods based in nanoscience. Importantly, it provides the readers with methodology and concepts utilizing atomic scale and nanoscale materials design (such as superlattice structuring, atomic network structuring and properties control, electron correlation design, low dimensionality, nanostructuring, etc.). Furthermore, also

  11. Study of various synthesis techniques of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Madhuri; Sharma, Deepika; Dive, Avinash; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sharma, Ramphal

    2018-05-01

    Development of synthesis techniques of realizing nano-materials over a range of sizes, shapes, and chemical compositions is an important aspect of nanotechnology. The remarkable size dependent physical & chemical properties of particles have fascinated and inspired research activity in this direction. This paper describes some aspects on synthesis and characterization of particles of metals, metal alloys, and oxides, either in the form of thin films or bulk shapes. A brief discussion on processing of thin-films is also described.

  12. Nanomaterials for biosensing applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHolzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor device is defined by its biological, or bioinspired receptor unit with unique specificities towards corresponding analytes. These analytes are often of biological origin like DNAs or proteins from the immune system (antibodies, antigens of diseases or infections. Such analytes can also be simple molecules like glucose or pollutants when a biological receptor unit with particular specificity is available. One of many other challenges in biosensor development is the efficient signal capture of the biological recognition event (transduction. Such transducers translate the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into electrochemical, electrochemiluminescent, magnetic, gravimetric, or optical signals. In order to increase sensitivities and to lower detection limits down to even individual molecules, nanomaterials are promising candidates due to the possibility to immobilize an enhanced quantity of bioreceptor units at reduced volumes and even to act itself as transduction element. Among such nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles, semi-conductor quantum dots, polymer nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and graphene are intensively studied. Due to the vast evolution of this research field, this review summarizes in a non-exhaustive way the advantages of nanomaterials by focusing on nano-objects which provide further beneficial properties than just an enhanced surface area.

  13. Octanol-water distribution of engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Westerhoff, Paul K; Posner, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of pH and ionic strength on octanol-water distribution of five model engineered nanomaterials. Distribution experiments resulted in a spectrum of three broadly classified scenarios: distribution in the aqueous phase, distribution in the octanol, and distribution into the octanol-water interface. Two distribution coefficients were derived to describe the distribution of nanoparticles among octanol, water and their interface. The results show that particle surface charge, surface functionalization, and composition, as well as the solvent ionic strength and presence of natural organic matter, dramatically impact this distribution. Distributions of nanoparticles into the interface were significant for nanomaterials that exhibit low surface charge in natural pH ranges. Increased ionic strengths also contributed to increased distributions of nanoparticle into the interface. Similarly to the octanol-water distribution coefficients, which represent a starting point in predicting the environmental fate, bioavailability and transport of organic pollutants, distribution coefficients such as the ones described in this study could help to easily predict the fate, bioavailability, and transport of engineered nanomaterials in the environment.

  14. Strain-controlled electrocatalysis on multimetallic nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingchuan; Guo, Shaojun

    2017-11-01

    Electrocatalysis is crucial for the development of clean and renewable energy technologies, which may reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. Multimetallic nanomaterials serve as state-of-the-art electrocatalysts as a consequence of their unique physico-chemical properties. One method of enhancing the electrocatalytic performance of multimetallic nanomaterials is to tune or control the surface strain of the nanomaterials, and tremendous progress has been made in this area in the past decade. In this Review, we summarize advances in the introduction, tuning and quantification of strain in multimetallic nanocrystals to achieve more efficient energy conversion by electrocatalysis. First, we introduce the concept of strain and its correlation with other key physico-chemical properties. Then, using the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen as a model reaction, we discuss the underlying mechanisms behind the strain-adsorption-reactivity relationship based on combined classical theories and models. We describe how this knowledge can be harnessed to design multimetallic nanocrystals with optimized strain to increase the efficiency of oxygen reduction. In particular, we highlight the unexpectedly beneficial (and previously overlooked) role of tensile strain from multimetallic nanocrystals in improving electrocatalysis. We conclude by outlining the challenges and offering our perspectives on the research directions in this burgeoning field.

  15. Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions by Carbon Nanomaterials of One and Two Dimensions: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Luz-Asunción

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials have a great potential in environmental studies; they are considered as superior adsorbents of pollutants due to their physical and chemical properties. Functionalization and dimension play an important role in many functions of these nanomaterials including adsorption. In this research, adsorption process was achieved with one-dimension nanomaterials: single walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as received and after oxidation treatment also two-dimensional nanomaterials were used: graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Carbon nanotubes were modified by hydrogen peroxide under microwave irradiation. The reduction of graphene oxide was achieved by using ascorbic acid. R2 values obtained with the pseudo-second-order model are higher than 0.99. The results demonstrate that Freundlich isotherm provides the best fit for the equilibrium data (R2>0.94. RL values are between 0 and 1; this represents favorable adsorption between carbon nanomaterials and phenol. The adsorption process occurs by π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding and not by electrostatic interactions. The results indicate that the adsorption of phenol on carbon nanomaterials depends on the adsorbents’ surface area, and it is negatively influenced by the presence of oxygenated groups.

  16. Hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folarin O. Owagboriaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of gasoline fumes have been reported, but evidence of its hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity are rare. Therefore, this study assesses hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes on forty Albino rats randomly assigned to five experimental treatments (T with eight rats per treatment (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. T1(Control was housed in a section of experimental animal house free from gasoline fumes while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for one, three, five and nine hours daily respectively for twelve weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and histopathological examination of the liver tissues were used as diagnostic markers to assess liver dysfunction. Genotoxicity test was conducted on the lung tissues using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR technique. Significant increase (p < 0.05 in the level of ALT, AST and ALP for T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to T1 were recorded. Photomicrograph examination of the liver sections of T1 showed hepatic tissue with normal liver cell architecture while that of T2, T3, T4 and T5 revealed degenerative changes in the ultrastructural integrity of the hepatic cells. Genotoxicity test revealed DNA bands at a reducing intensity from T1 to T5. Dendrogram showed DNA damage in the lungs of T3, T4 and T5 were closely similar and the genotoxic impact was more in T3. Frequent exposure to gasoline fumes was observed to induce hepatoxicity and genotoxicity, hence impairing the normal liver function and gene structure.

  17. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y

    2015-05-26

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung.

  18. An efficient analysis of nanomaterial cytotoxicity based on bioimpedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sanghyo; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2010-01-01

    In the emerging nanotechnology field, there is an urgent need for the development of a significant and sensitive method that can be used to analyse and compare the cytotoxicities of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), since such materials can be applied as contrast agents or drug delivery carriers. The bioimpedance system possesses great potential in many medical research fields including nanotechnology. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is a particular bioimpedance system that offers a real-time, non-invasive, and quantitative measurement method for the cytotoxicity of various materials. The present work compared the cytotoxicity of AuNPs to that of purchased single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The size-controlled and monodispersed AuNPs were synthesized under autoclaved conditions and reduced by ascorbic acid (AA) whereas the purchased SWCNTs were used without any surface modifications. Bioimpedance results were validated by conventional WST-1 and trypan blue assays, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were performed to examine nanomaterials inside the VERO cells. This research evaluates the ability of the ECIS system compared to those of conventional methods in analyzing the cytotoxicity of AuNPs and SWCNTs with higher sensitivity under real-time conditions.

  19. Is adaptation or transformation needed? Active nanomaterials and risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Roberts, John Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology has been a key area of funding and policy for the United States and globally for the past two decades. Since nanotechnology research and development became a focus and nanoproducts began to permeate the market, scholars and scientists have been concerned about how to assess the risks that they may pose to human health and the environment. The newest generation of nanomaterials includes biomolecules that can respond to and influence their environments, and there is a need to explore whether and how existing risk-analysis frameworks are challenged by such novelty. To fill this niche, we used a modified approach of upstream oversight assessment (UOA), a subset of anticipatory governance. We first selected case studies of "active nanomaterials," that are early in research and development and designed for use in multiple sectors, and then considered them under several, key risk-analysis frameworks. We found two ways in which the cases challenge the frameworks. The first category relates to how to assess risk under a narrow framing of the term (direct health and environmental harm), and the second involves the definition of what constitutes a "risk" worthy of assessment and consideration in decision making. In light of these challenges, we propose some changes for risk analysis in the face of active nanostructures in order to improve risk governance.

  20. Is adaptation or transformation needed? Active nanomaterials and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Roberts, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been a key area of funding and policy for the United States and globally for the past two decades. Since nanotechnology research and development became a focus and nanoproducts began to permeate the market, scholars and scientists have been concerned about how to assess the risks that they may pose to human health and the environment. The newest generation of nanomaterials includes biomolecules that can respond to and influence their environments, and there is a need to explore whether and how existing risk-analysis frameworks are challenged by such novelty. To fill this niche, we used a modified approach of upstream oversight assessment (UOA), a subset of anticipatory governance. We first selected case studies of “active nanomaterials,” that are early in research and development and designed for use in multiple sectors, and then considered them under several, key risk-analysis frameworks. We found two ways in which the cases challenge the frameworks. The first category relates to how to assess risk under a narrow framing of the term (direct health and environmental harm), and the second involves the definition of what constitutes a “risk” worthy of assessment and consideration in decision making. In light of these challenges, we propose some changes for risk analysis in the face of active nanostructures in order to improve risk governance.

  1. Is adaptation or transformation needed? Active nanomaterials and risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzma, Jennifer, E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs and Genetic Engineering and Society Center (United States); Roberts, John Patrick [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Nanotechnology has been a key area of funding and policy for the United States and globally for the past two decades. Since nanotechnology research and development became a focus and nanoproducts began to permeate the market, scholars and scientists have been concerned about how to assess the risks that they may pose to human health and the environment. The newest generation of nanomaterials includes biomolecules that can respond to and influence their environments, and there is a need to explore whether and how existing risk-analysis frameworks are challenged by such novelty. To fill this niche, we used a modified approach of upstream oversight assessment (UOA), a subset of anticipatory governance. We first selected case studies of “active nanomaterials,” that are early in research and development and designed for use in multiple sectors, and then considered them under several, key risk-analysis frameworks. We found two ways in which the cases challenge the frameworks. The first category relates to how to assess risk under a narrow framing of the term (direct health and environmental harm), and the second involves the definition of what constitutes a “risk” worthy of assessment and consideration in decision making. In light of these challenges, we propose some changes for risk analysis in the face of active nanostructures in order to improve risk governance.

  2. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  3. DNA nanomaterials for preclinical imaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dawei; England, Christopher G; Cai, Weibo

    2016-10-10

    Besides being the carrier of genetic information, DNA is also an excellent biological organizer to establish well-designed nanostructures in the fields of material engineering, nanotechnology, and biomedicine. DNA-based materials represent a diverse nanoscale system primarily due to their predictable base pairing and highly regulated conformations, which greatly facilitate the construction of DNA nanostructures with distinct shapes and sizes. Integrating the emerging advancements in bioconjugation techniques, DNA nanostructures can be readily functionalized with high precision for many purposes ranging from biosensors to imaging to drug delivery. Recent progress in the field of DNA nanotechnology has exhibited collective efforts to employ DNA nanostructures as smart imaging agents or delivery platforms within living organisms. Despite significant improvements in the development of DNA nanostructures, there is limited knowledge regarding the in vivo biological fate of these intriguing nanomaterials. In this review, we summarize the current strategies for designing and purifying highly-versatile DNA nanostructures for biological applications, including molecular imaging and drug delivery. Since DNA nanostructures may elicit an immune response in vivo, we also present a short discussion of their potential toxicities in biomedical applications. Lastly, we discuss future perspectives and potential challenges that may limit the effective preclinical and clinical employment of DNA nanostructures. Due to their unique properties, we predict that DNA nanomaterials will make excellent agents for effective diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, improving patient outcome in cancer and other related diseases in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. PMID:26320782

  5. Management of nanomaterials safety in research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Magrez, Arnaud; Riediker, Michael; Meyer, Thierry

    2010-12-10

    Despite numerous discussions, workshops, reviews and reports about responsible development of nanotechnology, information describing health and environmental risk of engineered nanoparticles or nanomaterials is severely lacking and thus insufficient for completing rigorous risk assessment on their use. However, since preliminary scientific evaluations indicate that there are reasonable suspicions that activities involving nanomaterials might have damaging effects on human health; the precautionary principle must be applied. Public and private institutions as well as industries have the duty to adopt preventive and protective measures proportionate to the risk intensity and the desired level of protection. In this work, we present a practical, 'user-friendly' procedure for a university-wide safety and health management of nanomaterials, developed as a multi-stakeholder effort (government, accident insurance, researchers and experts for occupational safety and health). The process starts using a schematic decision tree that allows classifying the nano laboratory into three hazard classes similar to a control banding approach (from Nano 3--highest hazard to Nano1--lowest hazard). Classifying laboratories into risk classes would require considering actual or potential exposure to the nanomaterial as well as statistical data on health effects of exposure. Due to the fact that these data (as well as exposure limits for each individual material) are not available, risk classes could not be determined. For each hazard level we then provide a list of required risk mitigation measures (technical, organizational and personal). The target 'users' of this safety and health methodology are researchers and safety officers. They can rapidly access the precautionary hazard class of their activities and the corresponding adequate safety and health measures. We succeed in convincing scientist dealing with nano-activities that adequate safety measures and management are promoting

  6. Management of nanomaterials safety in research environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riediker Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite numerous discussions, workshops, reviews and reports about responsible development of nanotechnology, information describing health and environmental risk of engineered nanoparticles or nanomaterials is severely lacking and thus insufficient for completing rigorous risk assessment on their use. However, since preliminary scientific evaluations indicate that there are reasonable suspicions that activities involving nanomaterials might have damaging effects on human health; the precautionary principle must be applied. Public and private institutions as well as industries have the duty to adopt preventive and protective measures proportionate to the risk intensity and the desired level of protection. In this work, we present a practical, 'user-friendly' procedure for a university-wide safety and health management of nanomaterials, developed as a multi-stakeholder effort (government, accident insurance, researchers and experts for occupational safety and health. The process starts using a schematic decision tree that allows classifying the nano laboratory into three hazard classes similar to a control banding approach (from Nano 3 - highest hazard to Nano1 - lowest hazard. Classifying laboratories into risk classes would require considering actual or potential exposure to the nanomaterial as well as statistical data on health effects of exposure. Due to the fact that these data (as well as exposure limits for each individual material are not available, risk classes could not be determined. For each hazard level we then provide a list of required risk mitigation measures (technical, organizational and personal. The target 'users' of this safety and health methodology are researchers and safety officers. They can rapidly access the precautionary hazard class of their activities and the corresponding adequate safety and health measures. We succeed in convincing scientist dealing with nano-activities that adequate safety measures and

  7. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  8. Size effects of latex nanomaterials on lung inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Shimada, Akinori

    2009-01-01

    Effects of nano-sized materials (nanomaterials) on sensitive population have not been well elucidated. This study examined the effects of pulmonary exposure to (latex) nanomaterials on lung inflammation related to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or allergen in mice, especially in terms of their size-dependency. In protocol 1, ICR male mice were divided into 8 experimental groups that intratracheally received a single exposure to vehicle, latex nanomaterials (250 μg/animal) with three sizes (25, 50, and 100 nm), LPS (75 μg/animal), or LPS plus latex nanomaterials. In protocol 2, ICR male mice were divided into 8 experimental groups that intratracheally received repeated exposure to vehicle, latex nanomaterials (100 μg/animal), allergen (ovalbumin: OVA; 1 μg/animal), or allergen plus latex nanomaterials. In protocol 1, latex nanomaterials with all sizes exacerbated lung inflammation elicited by LPS, showing an overall trend of amplified lung expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, LPS plus nanomaterials, especially with size less than 50 nm, significantly elevated circulatory levels of fibrinogen, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, and keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant, and von Willebrand factor as compared with LPS alone. The enhancement tended overall to be greater with the smaller nanomaterials than with the larger ones. In protocol 2, latex nanomaterials with all sizes did not significantly enhance the pathophysiology of allergic asthma, characterized by eosinophilic lung inflammation and Igs production, although latex nanomaterials with less than 50 nm significantly induced/enhanced neutrophilic lung inflammation. These results suggest that latex nanomaterials differentially affect two types of (innate and adaptive immunity-dominant) lung inflammation

  9. Airborne engineered nanomaterials in the workplace—a review of release and worker exposure during nanomaterial production and handling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yaobo [Institute for Work and Health (IST), Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Route de la Corniche 2, 1066, Epalinges (Switzerland); Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J. [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Centre for Nanointegration (CENIDE), University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Van Tongeren, Martie; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez [Centre for Human Exposure Science, Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Research Avenue North, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Tuinman, Ilse [TNO, Lange Kleiweg 137, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Chen, Rui [CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190 (China); Alvarez, Iñigo Larraza [ACCIONA Infrastructure, Materials Area, Innovation Division, C/Valportillo II 8, 28108, Alcobendas (Spain); Mikolajczyk, Urszula [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Nickel, Carmen; Meyer, Jessica; Kaminski, Heinz [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Wohlleben, Wendel [Dept. Material Physics, BASF SE, Advanced Materials Research, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Stahlmecke, Burkhard [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Clavaguera, Simon [NanoSafety Platform, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, 38054 (France); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Release characteristics can be grouped by the type of occupational activities. • Release levels may be linked to process energy. • A better data reporting practice will facilitate exposure assessment. • The results help prioritize industrial processes for human risk assessment. - Abstract: For exposure and risk assessment in occupational settings involving engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), it is important to understand the mechanisms of release and how they are influenced by the ENM, the matrix material, and process characteristics. This review summarizes studies providing ENM release information in occupational settings, during different industrial activities and using various nanomaterials. It also assesses the contextual information — such as the amounts of materials handled, protective measures, and measurement strategies — to understand which release scenarios can result in exposure. High-energy processes such as synthesis, spraying, and machining were associated with the release of large numbers of predominantly small-sized particles. Low-energy processes, including laboratory handling, cleaning, and industrial bagging activities, usually resulted in slight or moderate releases of relatively large agglomerates. The present analysis suggests that process-based release potential can be ranked, thus helping to prioritize release assessments, which is useful for tiered exposure assessment approaches and for guiding the implementation of workplace safety strategies. The contextual information provided in the literature was often insufficient to directly link release to exposure. The studies that did allow an analysis suggested that significant worker exposure might mainly occur when engineering safeguards and personal protection strategies were not carried out as recommended.

  10. Airborne engineered nanomaterials in the workplace—a review of release and worker exposure during nanomaterial production and handling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yaobo; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J.; Van Tongeren, Martie; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Tuinman, Ilse; Chen, Rui; Alvarez, Iñigo Larraza; Mikolajczyk, Urszula; Nickel, Carmen; Meyer, Jessica; Kaminski, Heinz; Wohlleben, Wendel; Stahlmecke, Burkhard; Clavaguera, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Release characteristics can be grouped by the type of occupational activities. • Release levels may be linked to process energy. • A better data reporting practice will facilitate exposure assessment. • The results help prioritize industrial processes for human risk assessment. - Abstract: For exposure and risk assessment in occupational settings involving engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), it is important to understand the mechanisms of release and how they are influenced by the ENM, the matrix material, and process characteristics. This review summarizes studies providing ENM release information in occupational settings, during different industrial activities and using various nanomaterials. It also assesses the contextual information — such as the amounts of materials handled, protective measures, and measurement strategies — to understand which release scenarios can result in exposure. High-energy processes such as synthesis, spraying, and machining were associated with the release of large numbers of predominantly small-sized particles. Low-energy processes, including laboratory handling, cleaning, and industrial bagging activities, usually resulted in slight or moderate releases of relatively large agglomerates. The present analysis suggests that process-based release potential can be ranked, thus helping to prioritize release assessments, which is useful for tiered exposure assessment approaches and for guiding the implementation of workplace safety strategies. The contextual information provided in the literature was often insufficient to directly link release to exposure. The studies that did allow an analysis suggested that significant worker exposure might mainly occur when engineering safeguards and personal protection strategies were not carried out as recommended.

  11. Evalution of the genotoxic effects of tiamulin S-in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Biljana; Stanimirović Zoran Ž.; Đelić Ninoslav J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the genotoxic effect of the antibiotic preparation Tiamulin S was investigated. The experiments were done in vivo using cytogenetic analysis on BALB/c mouse bone marrow cells. The occurrence of chromosomal alterations was monitored in bone marrow and germ cells. The clastogenic effect of Tiamulin S was monitored at three doses (0.01 ml/kg, 0.2 ml/kg and 0.4 ml/kg) through eight experimental cycles. The results obtained showed that Tiamulin S induces kariotype changes including bo...

  12. Nanomaterials in Lubricants: An Industrial Perspective on Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zhmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed.

  13. Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Channu, V.S.; Holze, Rudolf; Yeo, In-Hyeong; Mho, Sun-il; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV 6 O 16 .4H 2 O and Na 1.1 V 3 O 7.9 . The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

  14. SIGNALING TO THE P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR THROUGH PATHWAYS ACTIVATED BY GENOTOXIC AND NON-GENOTOXIC STRESSES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2002-07-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is post-translational modified at {approx}18 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review the posttranslational modifications to p53 and the pathways that produce them in response to both genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses.

  15. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF SOS-GFP BIOSENSOR TO IN VITRO RAPID SCREENING OF CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF ANTICANCER AND ANTIDIABETIC PHARMACIST RESIDUES IN SURFACE WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Matejczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli K-12 GFP-based bacterial biosensors allowed the detection of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer drug– cyclophosphamide and antidiabetic drug – metformin in PBS buffer and surface water. Experimental data indicated that recA::gfpmut2 genetic system was sensitive to drugs and drugs mixture applied in experiment. RecA promoter was a good bioindicator in cytotoxic and genotoxic effect screening of cyclophosphamide, metformin and the mixture of the both drugs in PBS buffer and surface water. The results indicated that E. coli K-12 recA::gfp mut2 strain could be potentially useful for first-step screening of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer and antidiabetic pharmacist residues in water. Next steps in research will include more experimental analysis to validate recA::gfpmut2 genetic system in E. coli K-12 on different anticancer drugs.

  16. A mixture of honey bee products ameliorates the genotoxic side effects of cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Aly Fahmy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the protective role of a mixture of honey bee products (honey, royal jelly and pollen grains against the genotoxicity induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CP. Methods: The study included chromosomal aberration analysis in mice bone marrow cells, induction of morphological sperm abnormalities, DNA fragmentation and histopathological changes induced in liver cells of mice. CP was injected intraperitoneally at the dose of 20 mg/ kg body weight. The mixture of honey bee products was administrated orally for different periods of time 5, 10 and 15 days with a dose exactly equivalent to the daily intake of human beings. Results: The results revealed that honey mixture ameliorated the genotoxic side effects of CP. For chromosomal aberrations the percentage reached 25.20 ± 1.30 for CP treated group, while it reached half of that value 12.30 ± 0.54 in CP-group pretreated with honey mixture for 15 days. Breaks, fragments and multiple aberrations were the most pronounced types of aberrations induced after CP treatment and honey mixture reduced these types of abnormalities. CP induced significant percentage of sperm abnormalities 8.52 ± 0.17 compared to control 3.10 ± 0.10. The percentage of sperm abnormalities reached nearly to the control value in CP- mice treated with honey mixture for 15 days. Honey also reduced the incidence of liver DNA damage induced by CP. The results also indicated that CP had a marked damaging effect on liver tissue including severe dilatation, congestion of main blood vessels and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells with irregular general pattern of the tissue. These effects were greatly ameliorated by using oral administration of honey mixture for different periods of time. Conclusions: The results concluded that honey bee mixture can be used as chemopreventive agent for minimizing the genotoxic side effects of the anticancer drug CP and open the field for its use in many applications.

  17. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of lipid nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Gaël; Moche, Hélène; Nieto, Alejandro; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Nesslany, Fabrice; Lagarce, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) offer a promising method for the entrapment and nanovectorisation of lipophilic molecules. This new type of nanocarrier, formulated according to a solvent-free process and using only regulatory-approved components, exhibits many prerequisites for being well tolerated. Although toxicological reference values have already been obtained in mice, interaction of LNCs at the cell level needs to be elucidated. LNCs, measuring from 27.0±0.1nm (25nm LNCs) and 112.1±1.8nm (100nm LNCs) and with a zeta potential between -38.7±1.2mV and +9.18±0.4mV, were obtained by a phase inversion process followed by post-insertion of carboxy- or amino-DSPE-PEG. Trypan blue, MTS and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of LNCs on mouse macrophage-like cells RAW264.7 after 24h of exposure. The determination of 50% lethal concentration (LC50) showed a size effect of LNCs on toxicity profiles: LC50 ranged from 1.036mg/L (MTS) and 0.477mg/mL (NRU) for 25nm LNCs, to 4.42mg/mL (MTS) and 2.18mg/mL (NRU) for 100nm LNCs. Surfactant Solutol® HS15 has been shown to be the only constituent to exhibit cytotoxicity; its LC50 reached 0.427mg/mL. Moreover, LNCs were not more toxic than their components in simple mixtures. At sublethal concentration, 100nm LNCs only were able to induce a significant production of nitric oxide (NO) by RAW264.7 cells, as assessed by the Griess reaction. Again, surfactant was the only component responsible for an increased NO release (1.8±0.2-fold). Genotoxicity assays revealed no DNA damage on human lymphocytes in both the in vitro Comet and micronucleus assays using 4-hour and 24-hour treatments, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Titanium dioxide nanomaterials for photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Zhe; Green, Michael; Just, Michael; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been long regarded as one of the more promising photocatalysts to remove environmental pollution and to generate hydrogen from water under sunlight irradiation via photocatalysis. TiO 2 is environmentally benign and thus is considered a ‘green’ catalyst. In this review we present a short introduction to the physical and electronic properties of TiO 2 , its photocatalytic mechanisms, and some recent examples of various TiO 2 materials used for photocatalysis; these examples include 0, 1, 2, 3D, faceted, defected, composited, and hydrogenated TiO 2 materials. (topical review)

  19. Soft Biological and Composite Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Millicent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) is to plays a leadership role in integration of nanostructured materials to enable novel capabilities and applications through its function as a Department of Energy/Office of Science Nanoscale Science Research Center (NSRC) national user facility. By coupling open access to unique and world-class capabilities and scientific expertise to an active user community, CINT supports high-impact research that no other single institution could achieve – the whole of CINT including its user community is greater than the sum of its parts.

  20. Defining Occupational and Consumer Exposure Limits for Nanomaterials – First Experiences from REACH Registrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschberger, K; Christensen, F M; Klöslova, Z; Falck, G

    2013-01-01

    By 1 December 2010 substances manufactured or imported in the EU ≥ 1000 t (as well as certain other substances) had to be registered under the REACH Regulation 1907/2006. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) in close cooperation with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) carried out an analysis and assessment of what type of information on nanomaterials was provided in the received registrations. The aim of the assessment was to develop options for an adaptation of the REACH regulation to ensure proper information generation and reporting and an appropriate risk/safety assessment of nanomaterials (Nano Support project). It should be noted that this analysis and assessment was not a compliance check of the dossiers. From 26000 submitted registration dossiers covering 4700 substances finally 25 dossiers (19 substances) were identified to cover nanomaterials or nanoforms of a substance. It is possible that other dossiers are considered to cover nanomaterials or nanoforms by the registrants, however such dossiers could not be identified to address nanoforms given the information contained in those dossiers. The identified 25 dossiers were subject to a detailed analysis and assessment of information provided for all endpoints including substance identity, physico-chemical properties, human health, environmental fate and behaviour, ecotoxicity, PBT 6 assessment, Classification and Labelling as well as the attached Chemical Safety Report documenting the Chemical Risk/Safety Assessment. In order to evaluate how the safety of workers and consumers was ensured, it was appropriate to check how the 'Derived No (Minimum) Effect Levels' (DN(M)ELs) were established for substances, covering nanomaterials or nanoforms. DNELs were established mainly for long term inhalation exposure of workers. Half of the assessed dossiers included an oral long term DNEL for the general population. DNELs were usually not specific for nanosized forms and, in the few cases where they were calculated for

  1. Genotoxic Maillard byproducts in current phytopharmaceutical preparations of Echinodorus grandiflorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISANGELA C. LIMA-DELLAMORA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Echinodorus grandiflorus obtained from dried leaves by three different techniques were evaluated by bacterial lysogenic induction assay (Inductest in relation to their genotoxic properties. Before being added to test cultures, extracts were sterilized either by steam sterilization or ultraviolet light. Only the extracts prepared by infusion and steam sterilized have shown genotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of the flavonoids isovitexin, isoorientin, swertisin and swertiajaponin, isolated from a genotoxic fraction. They were assayed separately and tested negative in the Inductest protocol. The development of browning color and sweet smell in extracts submitted to heat, prompted further chemical analysis in search for Maillard's reaction precursors. Several aminoacids and reducing sugars were cast in the extract. The presence of characteristic Maillard's melanoidins products was determined by spectrophotometry in the visible region and the inhibition of this reaction was observed when its characteristic inhibitor, sodium bisulfite, was added prior to heating. Remarkably, this is the first paper reporting on the appearance of such compounds in a phytomedicine preparation under a current phytopharmaceutical procedure. The genotoxic activity of such heat-prepared infusions imply in some risk of developing degenerative diseases for patients in long-term, uncontrolled use of such phytomedicines.

  2. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  3. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  4. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals-sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significant (Ppercentage (%), tail length (mum), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  5. Formation and removal of genotoxic activity during UV/H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.B.; Harmsen, D.J.H.; Beerendonk, E.F.; Reus, A.A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Metz, D.H.; Ijpelaar, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxic activity of water after UV/H2O2 oxidation and GAC filtration. Pre-treated surface water from three locations was treated with UV/H2O2 with medium pressure (MP) lamps and passed through granulated

  6. Mercury-induced genotoxicity in marine diatom (Chaetoceros tenuissimus)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarker, S.; Desai, S.R.; Verlecar, X.N.; Sarker, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    In this paper, we present an evaluation of genotoxic responses in marine diatom, Chaetoceros tenuissimus, isolated from Kandla Creek (lat 23.03° N, long 70.22° E), Gujarat, India, in terms of impairment of DNA integrity as a function...

  7. Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falaq Naz

    2012-06-29

    Jun 29, 2012 ... Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes of oral ... catechol estrogens and quinines, via redox reactions causes oxidative damage to .... volume was prepared for each donor. About, 0.8 ml of cell sus .... duce the adverse effects of OCs, such as the reduction in the estrogen content.

  8. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential of alcoholic extracts of C. bonducella against methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced genotoxicity. In this experiment we have used in vitro method i.e., human lymphocyte culture and in vivo method in bone marrow cells of albino mice, ...

  9. Evaluation of Genotoxic Pressure along the Sava River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoimir Kolarević

    Full Text Available In this study we have performed a comprehensive genotoxicological survey along the 900 rkm of the Sava River. In total, 12 sites were chosen in compliance with the goals of GLOBAQUA project dealing with the effects of multiple stressors on biodiversity and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The genotoxic potential was assessed using a complex battery of bioassays performed in prokaryotes and aquatic eukaryotes (freshwater fish. Battery comprised evaluation of mutagenicity by SOS/umuC test in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. The level of DNA damage as a biomarker of exposure (comet assay and biomarker of effect (micronucleus assay and the level of oxidative stress as well (Fpg-modified comet assay was studied in blood cells of bleak and spirlin (Alburnus alburnus/Alburnoides bipunctatus respectively. Result indicated differential sensitivity of applied bioassays in detection of genotoxic pressure. The standard and Fpg-modified comet assay showed higher potential in differentiation of the sites based on genotoxic potential in comparison with micronucleus assay and SOS/umuC test. Our data represent snapshot of the current status of the river which indicates the presence of genotoxic potential along the river which can be traced to the deterioration of quality of the Sava River by communal and industrial wastewaters. The major highlight of the study is that we have provided complex set of data obtained from a single source (homogeneity of analyses for all samples.

  10. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the genotoxic effects of ethion were investigated in the mitotic cell division of Allium cepa. Primary roots of A. cepa were treated with various concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) of ethion solutions for different duration of time. The result revealed that increase in the concentration and duration of treatment ...

  11. Nanoparticles containing allotropes of carbon have genotoxic effects on glioblastomamultiforme cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinzmann M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mateusz Hinzmann,1 Slawomir Jaworski,1 Marta Kutwin,1 Joanna Jagiello,2 Rafal Kozinski,2 Mateusz Wierzbicki,1 Marta Grodzik,1 Ludwika Lipinska,2 Ewa Sawosz,1 Andrè Chwalibog31Division of Nanobiotechnology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 2Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: The carbon-based nanomaterial family consists of nanoparticles containing allotropes of carbon, which may have a number of interactions with biological systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles comprised of pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide, graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond in a U87 cell line. The scope of the work consisted of structural analysis of the nanoparticles using transmission electron microscopy, evaluation of cell morphology, and assessment of cell viability by Trypan blue assay and level of DNA fragmentation of U87 cells after 24 hours of incubation with 50 µg/mL carbon nanoparticles. DNA fragmentation was studied using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Incubation with nanoparticles containing the allotropes of carbon did not alter the morphology of the U87 cancer cells. However, incubation with pristine graphene and reduced graphene oxide led to a significant decrease in cell viability, whereas incubation with graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond led to a smaller decrease in cell viability. The results of a comet assay demonstrated that pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond caused DNA damage and were therefore genotoxic in U87 cells, whereas graphene oxide was not.Keywords: nanostructures, graphene, graphite, diamond, glioblastoma multiforme, geno toxicity

  12. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy for Studying the Generation and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species by Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Zhao, Baozhong; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P.

    2013-09-01

    One fundamental mechanism widely described for nanotoxicity involves oxidative damage due to generation of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Indeed, the ability of nanoscale materials to facilitate the transfer of electrons, and thereby promote oxidative damage or in some instances provide antioxidant protection, may be a fundamental property of these materials. Any assessment of a nanoscale material's safety must therefore consider the potential for toxicity arising from oxidative damage. Therefore, rapid and predictive methods are needed to assess oxidative damage elicited by nanoscale materials. The use of electron spin resonance (ESR) to study free radical related bioactivity of nanomaterials has several advantages for free radical determination and identification. Specifically it can directly assess antioxidant quenching or prooxidant generation of relevant free radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this chapter, we have reported some nonclassical behaviors of the electron spin relaxation properties of unpaired electrons in different fullerenes and the investigation of anti/prooxidant activity by various types of nanomaterials using ESR. In addition, we have reviewed the mechanisms of free radical formation photosensitized by different nanomaterials. This chapter also included the use of spin labels, spin traps and ESR oximetry to systematically examine the enzymatic mimetic activities of nanomaterials.

  13. Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds from Hospital Wastewaters Using Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bagheri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, residual pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antipyretics drugs, hormones have begun to be considered as emerging environmental pollutants due to their continuous input and persistence to aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Therefore, the development of efficient, cost-effective, and stable methods and materials for the wastewaters treatment have gained more recognition in recent years. In the path of meeting these developments, nanomaterials have attracted much attention as economical, convenient and ecofriendly tools for removing of pharmaceuticals from the hospital wastewaters because of their unique properties. The present review deals with recent advances in removal and/or destruction of residual pharmaceutical in wastewater samples using nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and nanofilters. In spite of using a variety of nanomaterials to remove the residual of pharmaceuticals, there is still a dearth of successful applicability of them in industrial processes. Therefore, some defects of nanomaterials to be used for the removal of pharmaceutical contaminate in environmental samples and their impacts on human health and environment is briefly discussed.

  14. Two-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Next-Generation Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Liao, Ting; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Ziqi

    2017-12-01

    The exponential increase in research focused on two-dimensional (2D) metal oxides has offered an unprecedented opportunity for their use in energy conversion and storage devices, especially for promising next-generation rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), as well as some post-lithium batteries, including lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-air batteries, etc. The introduction of well-designed 2D metal oxide nanomaterials into next-generation rechargeable batteries has significantly enhanced the performance of these energy-storage devices by providing higher chemically active interfaces, shortened ion-diffusion lengths, and improved in-plane carrier-/charge-transport kinetics, which have greatly promoted the development of nanotechnology and the practical application of rechargeable batteries. Here, the recent progress in the application of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in a series of rechargeable LIBs, NIBs, and other post lithium-ion batteries is reviewed relatively comprehensively. Current opportunities and future challenges for the application of 2D nanomaterials in energy-storage devices to achieve high energy density, high power density, stable cyclability, etc. are summarized and outlined. It is believed that the integration of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in these clean energy devices offers great opportunities to address challenges driven by increasing global energy demands. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Ram Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, reduced graphene oxide (rGO, SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH, and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics.

  16. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.H.; Grant, S.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N OE) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N OE and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs

  17. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junhong [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  18. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials: review of inventions. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOV Leonid Alexeevich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new technical solutions including inventions in the area of nanotechnology and nanomaterials are efficiently applied in communal and housing services as well as in construction and other joint fields. The invention «Protection system of urban housing and the method to build it (RU 2604933» refers to construction including environmental structures and can be used to protect cities, objects of national economy from destruction, floods and other types of natural and antropogenic disasters. Reinforcement of basements of city buildings is performed with barrels with fillers and flexible dampener-ties that receive natural and antropogenic impacts thus providing safety, including ecological one, for urban housing. The system is equipped with solar accumulators that supply energy to people in case of emergencies and additional monitoring system to inform people about emergencies. Storm discharge facilities protect cities and towns from floods. All that provides safety of inhabitants’ lives and functioning of enterprises when natural and antropogenic disasters such as floods, mud-and-stone flows and other types occur. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to produce hardening mortar (RU 2601885, increase of durability of basalt fiber concrete by nanostructural additives, the method to treat surface and underground waters from titanium and its compounds by means of carbon nanotubes and ultrasound (RU 2575029, material on polymer basis for combined radio- and radiation protection (RU 2605696, thermoelectric heat pump with nanofilm semiconductor sides (RU 2595911, polymer composite nanomaterial (RU 2605590, the method to produce compositions from polymer and nanosize fillers (RU 2586979, the method to produce complex nanodispersed additive for highstrength concrete (RU 2563264 et al.

  19. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to hawksbill sea turtle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Sandra S., E-mail: sandra.wise@maine.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Xie, Hong, E-mail: hongxie@usm.maine.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Fukuda, Tomokazu, E-mail: tomofukuda009@gmail.com [Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University, Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Second Research Building, Rm 112, 1-1 Amamiyamachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Douglas Thompson, W., E-mail: dougt@usm.maine.edu [Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); and others

    2014-09-01

    Sea turtles are a charismatic and ancient ocean species and can serve as key indicators for ocean ecosystems, including coral reefs and sea grass beds as well as coastal beaches. Genotoxicity studies in the species are absent, limiting our understanding of the impact of environmental toxicants on sea turtles. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental problem worldwide, and recent studies show it is a global marine pollutant of concern. Thus, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) in hawksbill sea turtle cells. Particulate Cr(VI) was both cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea turtle cells. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm{sup 2} lead chromate induced 108, 79, 54, and 7% relative survival, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm{sup 2} lead chromate induced damage in 4, 10, 15, 26, and 36% of cells and caused 4, 11, 17, 30, and 56 chromosome aberrations in 100 metaphases, respectively. For soluble Cr, concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate induced 84, 69, 46, 25, and 3% relative survival, respectively. Sodium chromate induced 3, 9, 9, 14, 21, and 29% of metaphases with damage, and caused 3, 10, 10, 16, 26, and 39 damaged chromosomes in 100 metaphases at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate, respectively. These data suggest that Cr(VI) may be a concern for hawksbill sea turtles and sea turtles in general. - Highlights: • Particulate Cr(VI) is cytotoxic and clastogenic to hawksbill sea turtle cells. • Soluble Cr(VI) is cytotoxic and clastogenic to hawksbill sea turtle cells. • Cr(VI) may be a risk factor for hawksbill sea turtle health.

  20. Hexavalent Chromium Is Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to Hawksbill Sea Turtle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sandra S.; Xie, Hong; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Thompson, W. Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Sea turtles are a charismatic and ancient ocean species and can serve as key indicators for ocean ecosystems, including coral reefs and sea grass beds as well as coastal beaches. Genotoxicity studies in the species are absent, limiting our understanding of the impact of environmental toxicants on sea turtles. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental problem worldwide, and recent studies show it is a global marine pollutant of concern. Thus, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) in hawksbill sea turtle cells. Particulate Cr(VI) was both cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea turtle cells. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm2 lead chromate induced 108, 79, 54, and 7 percent relative survival, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm2 lead chromate induced damage in 4, 10, 15, 26, and 36 percent of cells and caused 4, 11, 17, 30, and 56 chromosome aberrations in 100 metaphases, respectively. For soluble Cr, concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate induced 84, 69, 46, 25, and 3 percent relative survival, respectively. Sodium chromate induced 3, 9, 9, 14, 21, and 29 percent of metaphases with damage, and caused 3, 10, 10, 16, 26, and 39 damaged chromosomes in 100 metaphases at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate, respectively. These data suggest that Cr(VI) may be a concern for hawksbill sea turtles and sea turtles in general. PMID:24952338

  1. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to hawksbill sea turtle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, Sandra S.; Xie, Hong; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Douglas Thompson, W.

    2014-01-01

    Sea turtles are a charismatic and ancient ocean species and can serve as key indicators for ocean ecosystems, including coral reefs and sea grass beds as well as coastal beaches. Genotoxicity studies in the species are absent, limiting our understanding of the impact of environmental toxicants on sea turtles. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental problem worldwide, and recent studies show it is a global marine pollutant of concern. Thus, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) in hawksbill sea turtle cells. Particulate Cr(VI) was both cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea turtle cells. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm 2 lead chromate induced 108, 79, 54, and 7% relative survival, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm 2 lead chromate induced damage in 4, 10, 15, 26, and 36% of cells and caused 4, 11, 17, 30, and 56 chromosome aberrations in 100 metaphases, respectively. For soluble Cr, concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate induced 84, 69, 46, 25, and 3% relative survival, respectively. Sodium chromate induced 3, 9, 9, 14, 21, and 29% of metaphases with damage, and caused 3, 10, 10, 16, 26, and 39 damaged chromosomes in 100 metaphases at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate, respectively. These data suggest that Cr(VI) may be a concern for hawksbill sea turtles and sea turtles in general. - Highlights: • Particulate Cr(VI) is cytotoxic and clastogenic to hawksbill sea turtle cells. • Soluble Cr(VI) is cytotoxic and clastogenic to hawksbill sea turtle cells. • Cr(VI) may be a risk factor for hawksbill sea turtle health

  2. Chlorination of tramadol: Reaction kinetics, mechanism and genotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hanyang; Song, Dean; Chang, Yangyang; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-12-01

    Tramadol (TRA) is one of the most detected analgesics in environmental matrices, and it is of high significance to study the reactivity of TRA during chlorination considering its potential toxicity to the environment. The chlorine/TRA reaction is first order with respect to the TRA concentration, and a combination of first-order and second-order with respect to chlorine concentration. The pH dependence of the observed rate constants (kobs) showed that the TRA oxidation reactivity increased with increasing pH. kobs can be quantitatively described by considering all active species including Cl2, Cl2O and HOCl, and the individual rate constants of HOCl/TRA(0), HOCl/TRAH(+), Cl2/TRA and Cl2O/TRA reactions were calculated to be (2.61±0.29)×10(3)M(-1)s(-1), 14.73±4.17M(-1)s(-1), (3.93±0.34)×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) and (5.66±1.83)×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Eleven degradation products were detected with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the corresponding structures of eight products found under various pH conditions were proposed. The amine group was proposed to be the initial attack site under alkaline pH conditions, where reaction of the deprotonated amine group with HOCl is favorable. Under acidic and neutral pH conditions, however, two possible reaction pathways were proposed. One is an electrophilic substitution on the aromatic ring, and another is an electrophilic substitution on the nitrogen, leading to an N-chlorinated intermediate, which can be further oxidized. Finally, the SOS/umu test showed that the genotoxicity of TRA chlorination products increased with increasing dosage of chlorine, which was mostly attributed to the formation of some chlorine substitution products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymer-mediated formation of polyoxomolybdate nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Quan

    A polymer-mediated synthetic pathway to a polyoxomolybdate nanomaterial is investigated in this work. Block copolymers or homopolymers containing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) are mixed with a MoO2(OH)(OOH) aqueous solution to form a golden gel or viscous solution. As revealed by synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements, electron microscopy, and other characterization techniques, the final dark blue polyoxomolybdate product is a highly ordered simple cubic network similar to certain zeolite structure but with a much larger lattice constant of ˜5.2 nm. The average size of the cube-like single crystals is close to 1 mum. Based on its relatively low density (˜2.2 g/cm3), the nanomaterial can be highly porous if the amount of the residual polymer can be substantially reduced. The valence of molybdenum is ˜5.7 based on cerimetric titration, representing the mixed-valence nature of the polyoxomolybdate structure. The self-assembled structures (if any) of the polymer gel do not have any correlation with the final polyoxomolybdate nanostructure, excluding the possible role of polymers being a structure-directing template. On the other hand, the PEO polymer stabilizes the precursor molybdenum compound through coordination between its ether oxygen atoms and molybdenum atoms, and reduces the molybdenum (VI) precursor compound with its hydroxyl group being a reducing agent. The rare simple cubic ordering necessitates the existence of special affinities among the polyoxomolybdate nanosphere units resulted from the reduction reaction. Our mechanism study shows that the acidified condition is necessary for the synthesis of the mixed-valence polyoxomolybdate clusters, while H2O2 content modulates the rate of the reduction reaction. The polymer degradation is evidenced by the observation of a huge viscosity change, and is likely through a hydrolysis process catalyzed by molybdenum compounds. Cube-like polyoxomolybdate nanocrystals with size of ˜40 nm are obtained by means of

  4. A 3-dimensional in vitro model of epithelioid granulomas induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurt Robert H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of granulomatous inflammation are persistent pathogens and poorly-degradable irritating materials. A characteristic pathological reaction to intratracheal instillation, pharyngeal aspiration, or inhalation of carbon nanotubes is formation of epithelioid granulomas accompanied by interstitial fibrosis in the lungs. In the mesothelium, a similar response is induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials, including asbestos fibers, following intraperitoneal injection. This asbestos-like behaviour of some engineered nanomaterials is a concern for their potential adverse health effects in the lungs and mesothelium. We hypothesize that high aspect ratio nanomaterials will induce epithelioid granulomas in nonadherent macrophages in 3D cultures. Results Carbon black particles (Printex 90 and crocidolite asbestos fibers were used as well-characterized reference materials and compared with three commercial samples of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. Doses were identified in 2D and 3D cultures in order to minimize acute toxicity and to reflect realistic occupational exposures in humans and in previous inhalation studies in rodents. Under serum-free conditions, exposure of nonadherent primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages to 0.5 μg/ml (0.38 μg/cm2 of crocidolite asbestos fibers or MWCNTs, but not carbon black, induced macrophage differentiation into epithelioid cells and formation of stable aggregates with the characteristic morphology of granulomas. Formation of multinucleated giant cells was also induced by asbestos fibers or MWCNTs in this 3D in vitro model. After 7-14 days, macrophages exposed to high aspect ratio nanomaterials co-expressed proinflammatory (M1 as well as profibrotic (M2 phenotypic markers. Conclusions Induction of epithelioid granulomas appears to correlate with high aspect ratio and complex 3D structure of carbon nanotubes, not with their iron content or surface area. This model

  5. Surface characterization of nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Important needs and challenging opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia; Lai, Jinfeng; Mueller, Karl; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Hongfei; Washton, Nancy; Elder, Alison; Baisch, Brittany L.; Karakoti, Ajay; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V. N. T.; Moon, DaeWon

    2013-01-01

    This review examines characterization challenges inherently associated with understanding nanomaterials and the roles surface and interface characterization methods can play in meeting some of the challenges. In parts of the research community, there is growing recognition that studies and published reports on the properties and behaviors of nanomaterials often have reported inadequate or incomplete characterization. As a consequence, the true value of the data in these reports is, at best, uncertain. With the increasing importance of nanomaterials in fundamental research and technological applications, it is desirable that researchers from the wide variety of disciplines involved recognize the nature of these often unexpected challenges associated with reproducible synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials, including the difficulties of maintaining desired materials properties during handling and processing due to their dynamic nature. It is equally valuable for researchers to understand how characterization approaches (surface and otherwise) can help to minimize synthesis surprises and to determine how (and how quickly) materials and properties change in different environments. Appropriate application of traditional surface sensitive analysis methods (including x-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, scanning probe microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy) can provide information that helps address several of the analysis needs. In many circumstances, extensions of traditional data analysis can provide considerably more information than normally obtained from the data collected. Less common or evolving methods with surface selectivity (e.g., some variations of nuclear magnetic resonance, sum frequency generation, and low and medium energy ion scattering) can provide information about surfaces or interfaces in working environments (operando or in situ) or information not provided by more traditional methods. Although these methods may

  6. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, their metabolites/transformation products and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Česen, Marjeta; Eleršek, Tina; Novak, Matjaž; Žegura, Bojana; Kosjek, Tina; Filipič, Metka; Heath, Ester

    2016-01-01

    monitoring of drug metabolites as they may be for certain aquatic species more hazardous than parent compounds. - Highlights: • CP and IF were not toxic (<320 mgL −1 ) for P. subcapitata and S. leopoliensis. • The EC 50 value for CPCOOH, a CP human metabolite/TP, was 17.1 mg L −1 . • CPCOOH was genotoxic regardless of the metabolic activation in SOS/umuC assay. • The mixture of studied compounds was genotoxic with metabolic activation. • UV treatment of CP and IF had no influence on growth of S. leopoliensis. - Carboxy-cyclophosphamide, a CP metabolite, is more toxic than its parent compound, which indicates that also metabolites/TPs should be included in human and environment risk assessment.

  7. Dynamic peptide libraries for the discovery of supramolecular nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Charalampos G.; Shafi, Ramim; Sasselli, Ivan R.; Siccardi, Henry; Wang, Tong; Narang, Vishal; Abzalimov, Rinat; Wijerathne, Nadeesha; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2016-11-01

    Sequence-specific polymers, such as oligonucleotides and peptides, can be used as building blocks for functional supramolecular nanomaterials. The design and selection of suitable self-assembling sequences is, however, challenging because of the vast combinatorial space available. Here we report a methodology that allows the peptide sequence space to be searched for self-assembling structures. In this approach, unprotected homo- and heterodipeptides (including aromatic, aliphatic, polar and charged amino acids) are subjected to continuous enzymatic condensation, hydrolysis and sequence exchange to create a dynamic combinatorial peptide library. The free-energy change associated with the assembly process itself gives rise to selective amplification of self-assembling candidates. By changing the environmental conditions during the selection process, different sequences and consequent nanoscale morphologies are selected.

  8. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Sun, Wujin; Gu, Zhen

    2014-11-28

    Protein therapeutics have emerged as a significant role in treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancer, metabolic disorders and autoimmune diseases. The efficacy of protein therapeutics, however, is limited by their instability, immunogenicity and short half-life. In order to overcome these barriers, tremendous efforts have recently been made in developing controlled protein delivery systems. Stimuli-triggered release is an appealing and promising approach for protein delivery and has made protein delivery with both spatiotemporal- and dosage-controlled manners possible. This review surveys recent advances in controlled protein delivery of proteins or peptides using stimuli-responsive nanomaterials. Strategies utilizing both physiological and external stimuli are introduced and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Ying

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As knowledge of the structure and function of nucleic acid molecules has increased, sequence-specific DNA detection has gained increased importance. DNA biosensors based on nucleic acid hybridization have been actively developed because of their specificity, speed, portability, and low cost. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using nano-materials for DNA biosensors. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratios and excellent biological compatibilities, nano-materials could be used to increase the amount of DNA immobilization; moreover, DNA bound to nano-materials can maintain its biological activity. Alternatively, signal amplification by labeling a targeted analyte with nano-materials has also been reported for DNA biosensors in many papers. This review summarizes the applications of various nano-materials for DNA biosensors during past five years. We found that nano-materials of small sizes were advantageous as substrates for DNA attachment or as labels for signal amplification; and use of two or more types of nano-materials in the biosensors could improve their overall quality and to overcome the deficiencies of the individual nano-components. Most current DNA biosensors require the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in their protocols. However, further development of nano-materials with smaller size and/or with improved biological and chemical properties would substantially enhance the accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity of DNA biosensors. Thus, DNA biosensors without PCR amplification may become a reality in the foreseeable future.

  10. 78 FR 36784 - Survey of Nanomaterial Risk Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ...-0010, Docket Number NIOSH-265] Survey of Nanomaterial Risk Management Practices AGENCY: National...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Proposed NIOSH Survey of Nanomaterial Risk Management... questions addressing risk management practices for ENMs? (5) What should be the maximum amount of time...

  11. Genotoxic, Cytotoxic, Antigenotoxic, and Anticytotoxic Effects of Sulfonamide Chalcone Using the Ames Test and the Mouse Bone Marrow Micronucleus Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ribeiro E Silva

    Full Text Available Chalcones present several biological activities and sulfonamide chalcone derivatives have shown important biological applications, including antitumor activity. In this study, genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activities of the sulfonamide chalcone N-{4-[3-(4-nitrophenylprop-2-enoyl]phenyl} benzenesulfonamide (CPN were assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test (Ames test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The results showed that CPN caused a small increase in the number of histidine revertant colonies in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The antimutagenicity test showed that CPN significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants in strain TA98 at all doses tested (p 0.05. Additionally, CPN co-administered with MMC significantly increased PCE/NCE ratio at all doses tested, demonstrating its anticytotoxic effect. In summary, CPN presented genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic properties.

  12. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may be general to most carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including the retronecine-, heliotridine-, and otonecinetype pyrrolizidine alkaloids. It is hypothesized that these DHP-derived DNA adducts are potential biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumorigenicity. The mechanisms that involve the formation of DNA cross-linking and endogenous DNA adducts are also discussed.

  13. Subtle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity differences in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seong Cheol Hong1,*, Jong Ho Lee1,*, Jaewook Lee1, Hyeon Yong Kim1, Jung Youn Park2, Johann Cho3, Jaebeom Lee1, Dong-Wook Han11Department of Nanomedical Engineering, BK21 Nano Fusion Technology Division, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, 2Department of Biotechnology Research, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan, 3Electronic Materials Lab, Samsung Corning Precision Materials Co, Ltd, Gumi City, Gyeongsangbukdo, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been widely utilized for the diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and drug-delivery carriers, due to their easy transportation to targeted areas by an external magnetic field. For such biomedical applications, SPIONs must have multifunctional characteristics, including optimized size and modified surface. However, the biofunctionality and biocompatibility of SPIONs with various surface functional groups of different sizes have yet to be elucidated clearly. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SPIONs that are surfaced-modified with various functional groups of different sizes. In this study, we evaluated SPIONs with diameters of approximately 10 nm and 100~150 nm, containing different surface functional groups. SPIONs were covered with –O-groups, so-called bare SPIONs. Following this, they were modified with three different functional groups – hydroxyl (–OH, carboxylic (–COOH, and amine (–NH2 groups – by coating their surfaces with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS, TEOS-APTMS, or citrate, which imparted different surface charges and sizes to the particles. The effects of SPIONs coated with these functional groups on mitochondrial activity, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, membrane integrity

  14. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of different types of dental cement on normal cultured human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, A; Mourelatos, D; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Giassin, N P; Mioglou, E; Garefis, P

    2009-01-31

    In this study we have investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of eluates derived from different types of commercially available dental cements, including glass ionomer cements (GICs) (Ketac Cem/3M ESPE and GC Fuji I/GC Corp), resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) (RelyX Luting/3M ESPE and Vitrebond/3M ESPE) and dual-cure resin cements (RCs) (Variolink II/ Ivoclar-Vivadent and Panavia F 2.0/Kuraray) on normal cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocyte primary cultures obtained from blood samples of three healthy donors were exposed to serial dilutions of eluates derived from specimens of each material tested. Metaphases were induced with phytohaemagglutinin, collected after 72h treatment by use of colchicine and stained according to the fluorescence plus giemsa (FPG) procedure. Preparations were scored for sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs), while the proliferation rate index (PRI) was also calculated. Our results show that eluates derived from the RM-GICs and RCs caused severe genotoxic effects by significantly increasing the frequencies of SCEs and CAs in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes and by decreasing the relevant PRI values in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the two GICs caused only minor cytogenetic effects. Eluates of the two RM-GICs (Vitrebond and RelyX) were also very cytotoxic, as the first serial dilutions of both materials caused a complete mitotic arrest in lymphocyte cultures. Overall, the degree of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by dental cements decreased as follows: Viterbond>Rely X>Panavia F 2.0>Variolink II>Ketac Cem=GC Fuji I. These results indicate that different types of dental cement differ extensively in their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical situation, the potential occurrence of adverse effects caused by the

  15. Recent advances in applications of nanomaterials for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linnan; Qi, Xiaoyue; Li, Xianjiang; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-01-01

    Sample preparation is a key step for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace analytes in complicated matrix. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology in material science, numerous nanomaterials have been developed with particularly useful applications in analytical chemistry. Benefitting from their high specific areas, increased surface activities, and unprecedented physical/chemical properties, the potentials of nanomaterials for rapid and efficient sample preparation have been exploited extensively. In this review, recent progress of novel nanomaterials applied in sample preparation has been summarized and discussed. Both nanoparticles and nanoporous materials are evaluated for their unusual performance in sample preparation. Various compositions and functionalizations extended the applications of nanomaterials in sample preparations, and distinct size and shape selectivity was generated from the diversified pore structures of nanoporous materials. Such great variety make nanomaterials a kind of versatile tools in sample preparation for almost all categories of analytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The challenges of ecotox testing of nanomaterials and the BPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2015-01-01

    The European Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR) requires dedicated risk assessment of nanomaterials. When it comes to ecotoxicological testing of nanomaterials, meeting these requirements is especially challenging. Overall, these challenges fall into four overall categories: 1) materials character......The European Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR) requires dedicated risk assessment of nanomaterials. When it comes to ecotoxicological testing of nanomaterials, meeting these requirements is especially challenging. Overall, these challenges fall into four overall categories: 1) materials...... characterization, 2) exposure preparation, 3) monitoring stability and 4) monitoring time. In this paper, the challenges are presented and discussed. There is no easy manner in which to deal with the challenges related to ecotoxicological testing of nanomaterials in the light of the BPR requirements. It short...

  17. Toxicity, Uptake, and Translocation of Engineered Nanomaterials in Vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Pola; Church, Tamara L; Harris, Andrew T

    2012-09-04

    To exploit the promised benefits of engineered nanomaterials, it is necessary to improve our knowledge of their bioavailability and toxicity. The interactions between engineered nanomaterials and vascular plants are of particular concern, as plants closely interact with soil, water, and the atmosphere, and constitute one of the main routes of exposure for higher species, i.e. accumulation through the food chain. A review of the current literature shows contradictory evidence on the phytotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. The mechanisms by which engineered nanomaterials penetrate plants are not well understood, and further research on their interactions with vascular plants is required to enable the field of phytotoxicology to keep pace with that of nanotechnology, the rapid evolution of which constantly produces new materials and applications that accelerate the environmental release of nanomaterials.

  18. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case......, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials both as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. This article is protected...... for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging and critical elements...

  19. 2D nanomaterials assembled from sequence-defined molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Peng; State University of New York; Zhou, Guangwen; Chen, Chun-Long

    2017-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have attracted broad interest owing to their unique physical and chemical properties with potential applications in electronics, chemistry, biology, medicine and pharmaceutics. Due to the current limitations of traditional 2D nanomaterials (e.g., graphene and graphene oxide) in tuning surface chemistry and compositions, 2D nanomaterials assembled from sequence-defined molecules (e.g., DNAs, proteins, peptides and peptoids) have recently been developed. They represent an emerging class of 2D nanomaterials with attractive physical and chemical properties. Here, we summarize the recent progress in the synthesis and applications of this type of sequence-defined 2D nanomaterials. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities in this new field.

  20. Integration of data: the Nanomaterial Registry project and data curation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzan, K A; Mills, K C; Gupta, V; Murry, D; Ostraat, M L; Scheier, C N; Willis, D A

    2013-01-01

    Due to the use of nanomaterials in multiple fields of applied science and technology, there is a need for accelerated understanding of any potential implications of using these unique and promising materials. There is a multitude of research data that, if integrated, can be leveraged to drive toward a better understanding. Integration can be achieved by applying nanoinformatics concepts. The Nanomaterial Registry is using applied minimal information about nanomaterials to support a robust data curation process in order to promote integration across a diverse data set. This paper describes the evolution of the curation methodology used in the Nanomaterial Registry project as well as the current procedure that is used. Some of the lessons learned about curation of nanomaterial data are also discussed. (paper)