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Sample records for nanocrystalline diamond ncd

  1. CVD of alternated microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films on WC-TIC-CO substrates

    Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel

    2010-01-01

    CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)

  2. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...

  3. Functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films with phthalocyanines

    Petkov, Christo [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Reintanz, Philipp M. [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Kulisch, Wilhelm [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Degenhardt, Anna Katharina [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Weidner, Tobias [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Baio, Joe E. [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Merz, Rolf; Kopnarski, Michael [Institut für Oberflächen- und Schichtanalytik (IFOS), Kaiserslautern (Germany); Siemeling, Ulrich [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Reithmaier, Johann Peter [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Popov, Cyril, E-mail: popov@ina.uni-kassel.de [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Grafting of phthalocyanines on nanocrystalline diamond films with different terminations. • Pc with different central atoms and side chains synthesized and characterized. • Attachment of Pc on H- and O-terminated NCD studied by XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy. • Orientation order of phthalocyanine molecules on NCD surface. - Abstract: Phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives containing different central metal atoms (Mn, Cu, Ti) and different peripheral chains were synthesized and comprehensively characterized. Their interaction with nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films, as-grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition or after their modification with oxygen plasma to exchange the hydrogen termination with oxygen-containing groups, was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The elemental composition as determined by XPS showed that the Pc were grafted on both as-grown and O-terminated NCD. Mn, Cu and Ti were detected together with N stemming from the Pc ring and S in case of the Ti-Pc from the peripheral ligands. The results for the elemental surface composition and the detailed study of the N 1s, S 2p and O 1s core spectra revealed that Ti-Pc grafted better on as-grown NCD but Cu-Pc and Mn-Pc on O-terminated films. Samples of Mn-Pc on as-grown and O-terminated NCD were further investigated by NEXAFS spectroscopy. The results showed ordering of the grafted molecules, laying flat on the H-terminated NCD surface while only the macrocycles were oriented parallel to the O-terminated surface with the peripheral chains perpendicular to it.

  4. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) surface is functionalized with F or O. • The cell adhesion and growth are evaluated on the functionalized NCD surface. • The cell adhesion and growth depend on the wettability of the surface. • Cell patterning was achieved by using of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. • Neuroblastoma cells were arrayed on the micro-patterned NCD surface. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O_2 or C_3F_8 gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  5. New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Varshney, Deepak; Morell, Gerardo; Palomino, Javier; Resto, Oscar; Gil, Jennifer; Weiner, Brad R.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production

  6. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining

    Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This history of CVD diamond synthesis goes back to the fifties of the last century. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties, intensive worldwide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications was launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. This article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)

  7. Nanocrystalline diamond film as cathode for gas discharge sensors

    Jou, Shyankay, E-mail: sjou@mail.ntust.edu.t [Graduate Institute of Materials Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Bohr-Ran [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meng-Chang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu 640, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-31

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film was deposited on a silicon substrate utilizing microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in a mixed flow of methane, hydrogen and argon. The deposited film had a cauliflower-like morphology, and was composed of NCD, carbon clusters and mixed sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-bonded carbon. Electron field emission (EFE) in vacuum and electrical discharges in Ar, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using the NCD film as the cathode were characterized. The turn-on field for EFE and the geometric enhancement factor for the NCD film were 8.5 V/{mu}m and 668, respectively. The breakdown voltages for Ar, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} increased with pressures from 1.33 x 10{sup 4} Pa to 1.01 x 10{sup 5} Pa, following the right side of the normal Paschen curve.

  8. Tribological properties of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; McCauley, T.; Csencsits, R.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, we present the friction and wear properties of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films grown in Ar-fullerene (C{sub 60}) and Ar-CH{sub 4} microwave plasmas. Specifically, we will address the fundamental tribological issues posed by these films during sliding against Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} counterfaces in ambient air and inert gases. Grain sizes of the films grown by the new method are very small (10-30 nm) and are much smoother (20-40 nm, root mean square) than those of films grown by the conventional H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the grain boundaries of these films are very sharp and free of nondiamond phases. The microcrystalline diamond films grown by most conventional methods consist of large grains and a rough surface finish, which can cause severe abrasion during sliding against other materials. The friction coefficients of films grown by the new method (i.e. in Ar-C{sub 60} and Ar-CH{sub 4} plasmas) are comparable with those of natural diamond, and wear damage on counterface materials is minimal. Fundamental tribological studies indicate that these films may undergo phase transformation during long-duration, high-speed and/or high-load sliding tests and that the transformation products trapped at the sliding interfaces can intermittently dominate friction and wear performance. Using results from a combination of TEM, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, we describe the structural chemistry of the debris particles trapped at the sliding interfaces and elucidate their possible effects on friction and wear of NCD films in dry N{sub 2}. Finally, we suggest a few potential applications in which NCD films can improve performance and service lives. (orig.)

  9. Electrochemically grafted polypyrrole changes photoluminescence of electronic states inside nanocrystalline diamond

    Galář, P., E-mail: pavel.galar@mff.cuni.cz; Malý, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague 121 16 (Czech Republic); Čermák, J.; Kromka, A.; Rezek, B. [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Cukrovarnická 10, Prague 160 00 (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-14

    Hybrid diamond-organic interfaces are considered attractive for diverse applications ranging from electronics and energy conversion to medicine. Here we use time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy in visible spectral range (380–700 nm) to study electronic processes in H-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) with 150 nm thin, electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) layer. We observe changes in dynamics of NCD photoluminescence as well as in its time-integrated spectra after polymer deposition. The effect is reversible. We propose a model where the PPy layer on the NCD surface promotes spatial separation of photo-generated charge carriers both in non-diamond carbon phase and in bulk diamond. By comparing different NCD thicknesses we show that the effect goes as much as 200 nm deep inside the NCD film.

  10. Nanocrystalline diamond--an excellent platform for life science applications.

    Kloss, Frank R; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammed; Rainer, Matthias; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther; Klauser, Frederik; Liu, Xianjie; Memmel, Norbert; Bertel, Erminald; Garrido, Jose A; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris

    2007-12-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) has recently been successfully utilized in a variety of life science applications. NCD films are favorable and salubrious substrates for cells during cultivation. Therefore NCD has also been employed in tissue engineering strategies. NCD as reported in this contribution was grown by means of a modified hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique, which results in less than 3% sp2-hybridization and yields grain sizes of 5-20 nm. After production the NCD surface was rather hydrophobic, however it could be efficiently refined to exhibit more hydrophilic properties. Changing of the surface structure was found to be an efficient means to influence growth and differentiation capacity of a variety of cells. The particular needs for any given cell type has to be proven empirically. Yet flexible features of NCD appear to be superior to plastic surfaces which can be hardly changed in quality. Besides its molecular properties, crystal structural peculiarities of NCD appear to influence cell growth as well. In our attempt to facilitate, highly specialized applications in biomedicine, we recently discovered that growth factors can be tightly bound to NCD by mere physisorption. Hence, combination of surface functionalization together with further options to coat NCD with any kind of three-dimensional structure opens up new avenues for many more applications. In fact, high through-put protein profiling of early disease stages may become possible from serum samples, because proteins bound to NCD can now be efficiently analyzed by MALDI/TOF-MS. Given these results, it is to be presumed that the physical properties and effective electrochemical characteristics of NCD will allow tailoring devices suitable for many more diagnostic as well as therapeutic applications.

  11. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  12. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup, E-mail: kssong10@kumoh.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) surface is functionalized with F or O. • The cell adhesion and growth are evaluated on the functionalized NCD surface. • The cell adhesion and growth depend on the wettability of the surface. • Cell patterning was achieved by using of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. • Neuroblastoma cells were arrayed on the micro-patterned NCD surface. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O{sub 2} or C{sub 3}F{sub 8} gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  13. Optically transparent boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films for spectroelectrochemical measurements on different substrates

    Sobaszek, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Pluciński, J.; Siuzdak, K.; Skowroński, Ł.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication process of optically transparent boron nanocrystalline diamond (B- NCD) electrode on silicon and quartz substrate was shown. The B-NCD films were deposited on the substrates using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWPACVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 °C. A homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with high sp 3 content in B-NCD films and film thickness depending from substrate in the range of 60-300 nm was obtained. The high refraction index and transparency in visible (VIS) wavelength range was achieved. Moreover, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine reaction reversibility at the B-NCD electrode. CV measurements in aqueous media consisting of 1 mM K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 demonstrated relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 503 mV for B-NCD/silicon and 110 mv for B-NCD/quartz

  14. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O2 or C3F8 gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  15. Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Films for Biosensing Applications

    V. Petrák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria there is an increased demand for monitoring the functionality of bacteria membranes, the disruption of which can be induced by peptide-lipid interactions. In this work we attempt to construct and disrupt supported lipid membranes (SLB on boron doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS was used to study in situ changes related to lipid membrane formation and disruption by peptide-induced interactions. The observed impedance changes were minimal for oxidized B-NCD samples, but were still detectable in the low frequency part of the spectra. The sensitivity for the detection of membrane formation and disruption was significantly higher for hydrogenated B-NCD surfaces. Data modeling indicates large changes in the electrical charge when an electrical double layer is formed at the B-NCD/SLB interface, governed by ion absorption. By contrast, for oxidized B-NCD surfaces, these changes are negligible indicating little or no change in the surface band bending profile.

  16. Growth, structural and plasma illumination properties of nanocrystalline diamond-decorated graphene nanoflakes

    Kamatchi Jothiramalingam, Sankaran; Chang, Ting Hsun; Bikkarolla, Santosh Kumar; Roy, Susanta Sinha; Papakonstantinou, Pagona; Drijkoningen, Sien; Pobedinskas, Paulius; Van Bael, Marlies K.; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lin, I. -Nan; Haenen, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The improvement of the plasma illumination (PI) properties of a microplasma device due to the application of nanocrystalline diamond-decorated graphene nanoflakes (NCD-GNFs) as a cathode is investigated. The improved plasma illumination (PI) behavior is closely related to the enhanced field electron emission (FEE) properties of the NCD-GNFs. The NCD-GNFs possess better FEE characteristics with a low turn-on field of 9.36 V mu m(-1) to induce the field emission, a high FEE current density of 2...

  17. Effect of sputtered titanium interlayers on the properties of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Li, Cuiping, E-mail: licp226@126.com, E-mail: limingji@163.com; Li, Mingji, E-mail: licp226@126.com, E-mail: limingji@163.com; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Dai, Wei; Xu, Sheng [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Hongji [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2016-04-07

    Ti interlayers with different thicknesses were sputtered on Si substrates and then ultrasonically seeded in a diamond powder suspension. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films were deposited using a dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition system on the seeded Ti/Si substrates. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy tests showed that the roughness of the prepared Ti interlayer increased with increasing thickness. The effects of Ti interlayers with various thicknesses on the properties of NCD films were investigated. The results show nucleation, growth, and microstructure of the NCD films are strongly influenced by the Ti interlayers. The addition of a Ti interlayer between the Si substrate and the NCD films can significantly enhance the nucleation rate and reduce the surface roughness of the NCD. The NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer possesses the fastest nucleation rate and the smoothest surface. Raman spectra of the NCD films show trans-polyacetylene relevant peaks reduce with increasing Ti interlayer thickness, which can owe to the improvement of crystalline at grain boundaries. Furthermore, nanoindentation measurement results show that the NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer displays a higher hardness and elastic modulus. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images of a cross-section show that C atoms diffuse into the Ti layer and Si substrate and form TiC and SiC hard phases, which can explain the enhancement of mechanical properties of NCD.

  18. Benzene oxidation at diamond electrodes: comparison of microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds.

    Pleskov, Yu V; Krotova, M D; Elkin, V V; Varnin, V P; Teremetskaya, I G; Saveliev, A V; Ralchenko, V G

    2012-08-27

    A comparative study of benzene oxidation at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and nitrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) anodes in 0.5 M K(2)SO(4) aqueous solution is conducted by using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown by measurements of differential capacitance and anodic current that during the benzene oxidation at the BDD electrode, adsorption of a reaction intermediate occurs, which partially blocks the electrode surface and lowers the anodic current. At the NCD electrode, benzene is oxidized concurrently with oxygen evolution, a (quinoid) intermediate being adsorbed at the electrode. The adsorption and the electrode surface blocking are reflected in the impedance-frequency and impedance-potential complex-plane plots. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation

    Silviya Mikhailovna Ojovan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a variety of proliferating cell types, it was shown that the surface of nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and development without the need of complex chemical functionalization prior to cell seeding. In an extensive series of experiments we found that, unlike proliferating cells, post-mitotic primary neurons do not adhere to bare NCD surfaces when cultured in defined medium. These observations raise questions on the potential use of bare NCD as an interfacing layer for neuronal devices. Nevertheless, we also found that classical chemical functionalization methods render the hostile bare NCD surfaces with adhesive properties that match those of classically functionalized substrates used extensively in biomedical research and applications. Based on the results, we propose a mechanism that accounts for the conflicting results; which on one hand claim that un-functionalized NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and growth, while other reports demonstrate the opposite.

  20. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond-coated MEMS probes

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Sobaszek, Michał; Ficek, Mateusz; Kopiec, Daniel; Moczała, Magdalena; Orłowska, Karolina; Sawczak, Mirosław; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication processes of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) films on silicon-based micro- and nano-electromechanical structures have been investigated. B-NCD films were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method. The variation in B-NCD morphology, structure and optical parameters was particularly investigated. The use of truncated cone-shaped substrate holder enabled to grow thin fully encapsulated nanocrystalline diamond film with a thickness of approx. 60 nm and RMS roughness of 17 nm. Raman spectra present the typical boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond line recorded at 1148 cm-1. Moreover, the change in mechanical parameters of silicon cantilevers over-coated with boron-doped diamond films was investigated with laser vibrometer. The increase of resonance to frequency of over-coated cantilever is attributed to the change in spring constant caused by B-NCD coating. Topography and electrical parameters of boron-doped diamond films were investigated by tapping mode AFM and electrical mode of AFM-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The crystallite-grain size was recorded at 153 and 238 nm for boron-doped film and undoped, respectively. Based on the contact potential difference data from the KPFM measurements, the work function of diamond layers was estimated. For the undoped diamond films, average CPD of 650 mV and for boron-doped layer 155 mV were achieved. Based on CPD values, the values of work functions were calculated as 4.65 and 5.15 eV for doped and undoped diamond film, respectively. Boron doping increases the carrier density and the conductivity of the material and, consequently, the Fermi level.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.

  3. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  4. Nanocrystalline diamond: In vitro biocompatibility assessment by MG63 and human bone marrow cells cultures.

    Amaral, M; Dias, A G; Gomes, P S; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) has a great potential for prosthetic implants coating. Nevertheless, its biocompatibility still has to be better understood. To do so, we employed several materials characterization techniques (SEM, AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy) and cell culture assays using MG63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. Biochemical routines (MTT assays, Lowry's method, ALP activity) supported by SEM and confocal microscopy characterization were carried out. We used silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates for NCD coatings based on a previous demonstration of the superior adhesion and tribological performance of these NCD coated ceramics. Results demonstrate an improved human osteoblast proliferation and the stimulation of differentiated markers, like ALP activity and matrix mineralization, compared with standard polystyrene tissue culture plates. The nanometric featuring of NCD, associated to its chemical affinity are key points for bone regeneration purposes.

  5. Processing of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for thermal management of wide-bandgap semiconductor power electronics

    Govindaraju, N.; Singh, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Studied effect of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) deposition on device metallization. → Deposited NCD on to top of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) and Si devices. → Temperatures below 290 deg. C for Si devices and 320 deg. C for HEMTs prevent metal damage. → Development of novel NCD-based thermal management for power electronics feasible. - Abstract: High current densities in wide-bandgap semiconductor electronics operating at high power levels results in significant self-heating of devices, which necessitates the development thermal management technologies to effectively dissipate the generated heat. This paper lays the foundation for the development of such technology by ascertaining process conditions for depositing nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) on AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) with no visible damage to device metallization. NCD deposition is carried out on Si and GaN HEMTs with Au/Ni metallization. Raman spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy are used to evaluate the quality of the deposited NCD films. Si device metallization is used as a test bed for developing process conditions for NCD deposition on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Results indicate that no visible damage occurs to the device metallization for deposition conditions below 290 deg. C for Si devices and below 320 deg. C for the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Possible mechanisms for metallization damage above the deposition temperature are enumerated. Electrical testing of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs indicates that it is indeed possible to deposit NCD on GaN-based devices with no significant degradation in device performance.

  6. A multilayer innovative solution to improve the adhesion of nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    Poulon-Quintin, A., E-mail: poulon@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Faure, C.; Teulé-Gay, L.; Manaud, J.P. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of the NCD adhesion on WC-12%Co substrates for tooling applications using a multi-interlayer additional system. • Reduction of the graphite layer thickness and continuity at the interface with the diamond. • Transmission electron microscopy study for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films grown under negative biased substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are widely used as surface overlay coating onto cermet WC-Co cutting tools to get better performances. To improve the diamond adhesion to the cermet substrate, suitable multi-layer systems have been added. They are composed of a cobalt diffusion barrier close to the substrate (single and sequenced nitrides layers) coated with a nucleation extra layer to improve the nucleus density of diamond during CVD processing. For all systems, before and after diamond deposition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been performed for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces and to evaluate the presence of graphitic species at the interface with the diamond. Innovative multilayer system dedicated to the regulation of cobalt diffusion coated with a bilayer system optimized for the carbon diffusion control, is shown as an efficient solution to significantly reduce the graphite layer formation at the interface with the diamond down to 10 nm thick and to increase the adhesion of NCD diamond layer as scratch-tests confirm.

  7. Sputtered tungsten-based ternary and quaternary layers for nanocrystalline diamond deposition.

    Walock, Michael J; Rahil, Issam; Zou, Yujiao; Imhoff, Luc; Catledge, Shane A; Nouveau, Corinne; Stanishevsky, Andrei V

    2012-06-01

    Many of today's demanding applications require thin-film coatings with high hardness, toughness, and thermal stability. In many cases, coating thickness in the range 2-20 microm and low surface roughness are required. Diamond films meet many of the stated requirements, but their crystalline nature leads to a high surface roughness. Nanocrystalline diamond offers a smoother surface, but significant surface modification of the substrate is necessary for successful nanocrystalline diamond deposition and adhesion. A hybrid hard and tough material may be required for either the desired applications, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond film growth. One possibility is a composite system based on carbides or nitrides. Many binary carbides and nitrides offer one or more mentioned properties. By combining these binary compounds in a ternary or quaternary nanocrystalline system, we can tailor the material for a desired combination of properties. Here, we describe the results on the structural and mechanical properties of the coating systems composed of tungsten-chromium-carbide and/or nitride. These WC-Cr-(N) coatings are deposited using magnetron sputtering. The growth of adherent nanocrystalline diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated on these coatings. The WC-Cr-(N) and WC-Cr-(N)-NCD coatings are characterized with atomic force microscopy and SEM, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation.

  8. XPS and ToF-SIMS investigation of nanocrystalline diamond oxidized surfaces

    Torrengo, S.; Canteri, R.; Dell’Anna, R.; Minati, L. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Pasquarelli, A. [Institute of Electron Devices and Circuits, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Speranza, G., E-mail: speranza@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims at studying the different chemical bonds formed on hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films after oxidation. Three different oxidation treatments applied to NCD, namely oxygen plasma, ozone oxidation and piranha solution were investigated using three different analysis techniques namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV photoelectron spectroscopy and TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry. The combination of these techniques allowed us to better discriminate the nature of the carbon oxygen bonds produced by the different oxidation treatments. We demonstrate that the carbon-oxygen bonds induced by UV irradiation possess a different nature with respect to those generated by plasma or piranha solution. In particular the prevalent electrostatic nature of the carbon-oxygen bonds induced by UV irradiation can explain a negative electron affinity recovery upon NCD annealing, not possible in the case of the other two oxidation processes.

  9. XPS and ToF-SIMS investigation of nanocrystalline diamond oxidized surfaces

    Torrengo, S.; Canteri, R.; Dell’Anna, R.; Minati, L.; Pasquarelli, A.; Speranza, G.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at studying the different chemical bonds formed on hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films after oxidation. Three different oxidation treatments applied to NCD, namely oxygen plasma, ozone oxidation and piranha solution were investigated using three different analysis techniques namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV photoelectron spectroscopy and TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry. The combination of these techniques allowed us to better discriminate the nature of the carbon oxygen bonds produced by the different oxidation treatments. We demonstrate that the carbon-oxygen bonds induced by UV irradiation possess a different nature with respect to those generated by plasma or piranha solution. In particular the prevalent electrostatic nature of the carbon-oxygen bonds induced by UV irradiation can explain a negative electron affinity recovery upon NCD annealing, not possible in the case of the other two oxidation processes.

  10. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Liskova J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Liskova,1 Oleg Babchenko,2 Marian Varga,2 Alexander Kromka,2 Daniel Hadraba,1 Zdenek Svindrych,1 Zuzana Burdikova,1 Lucie Bacakova1 1Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are promising materials for bone implant coatings because of their biocompatibility, chemical resistance, and mechanical hardness. Moreover, NCD wettability can be tailored by grafting specific atoms. The NCD films used in this study were grown on silicon substrates by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and grafted by hydrogen atoms (H-termination or oxygen atoms (O-termination. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were used for biological studies on H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films. The adhesion, growth, and subsequent differentiation of the osteoblasts on NCD films were examined, and the extracellular matrix production and composition were quantified. The osteoblasts that had been cultivated on the O-terminated NCD films exhibited a higher growth rate than those grown on the H-terminated NCD films. The mature collagen fibers were detected in Saos-2 cells on both the H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films; however, the quantity of total collagen in the extracellular matrix was higher on the O-terminated NCD films, as were the amounts of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. Nevertheless, the expression of genes for osteogenic markers – type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin – was either comparable on the H-terminated and O-terminated films or even lower on the O-terminated films. In conclusion, the higher wettability of the O-terminated NCD films is promising for adhesion and growth of osteoblasts. In addition, the O-terminated surface also seems to support the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and extracellular matrix

  11. Guided assembly of nanoparticles on electrostatically charged nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Verveniotis Elisseos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We apply atomic force microscope for local electrostatic charging of oxygen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD thin films deposited on silicon, to induce electrostatically driven self-assembly of colloidal alumina nanoparticles into micro-patterns. Considering possible capacitive, sp2 phase and spatial uniformity factors to charging, we employ films with sub-100 nm thickness and about 60% relative sp2 phase content, probe the spatial material uniformity by Raman and electron microscopy, and repeat experiments at various positions. We demonstrate that electrostatic potential contrast on the NCD films varies between 0.1 and 1.2 V and that the contrast of more than ±1 V (as detected by Kelvin force microscopy is able to induce self-assembly of the nanoparticles via coulombic and polarization forces. This opens prospects for applications of diamond and its unique set of properties in self-assembly of nano-devices and nano-systems.

  12. Ultrathin Nanocrystalline Diamond Films with Silicon Vacancy Color Centers via Seeding by 2 nm Detonation Nanodiamonds.

    Stehlik, Stepan; Varga, Marian; Stenclova, Pavla; Ondic, Lukas; Ledinsky, Martin; Pangrac, Jiri; Vanek, Ondrej; Lipov, Jan; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2017-11-08

    Color centers in diamonds have shown excellent potential for applications in quantum information processing, photonics, and biology. Here we report chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films as thin as 5-6 nm with photoluminescence (PL) from silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers at 739 nm. Instead of conventional 4-6 nm detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs), we prepared and employed hydrogenated 2 nm DNDs (zeta potential = +36 mV) to form extremely dense (∼1.3 × 10 13 cm -2 ), thin (2 ± 1 nm), and smooth (RMS roughness < 0.8 nm) nucleation layers on an Si/SiO x substrate, which enabled the CVD growth of such ultrathin NCD films in two different and complementary microwave (MW) CVD systems: (i) focused MW plasma with an ellipsoidal cavity resonator and (ii) pulsed MW plasma with a linear antenna arrangement. Analytical ultracentrifuge, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy are used for detailed characterization of the 2 nm H-DNDs and the nucleation layer as well as the ultrathin NCD films. We also demonstrate on/off switching of the SiV center PL in the NCD films thinner than 10 nm, which is achieved by changing their surface chemistry.

  13. Polydopamine-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films as a platform for bio-sensing applications

    Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Neykova, Neda; Proks, Vladimír; Houdková, Jana; Ukraintsev, Egor; Zemek, Josef; Kromka, Alexander; Rypáček, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 543, 30 September (2013), s. 180-186 ISSN 0040-6090. [International Conference on NANO-structures self-assembly - NANOSEA 2012 /4./. S. Margherita di Pula - Sardinie, 25.06.2012-29.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/1857; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Grant - others:ČVUT(CZ) SGS10/297/OHK4/3T/14 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond films * NCD * polydopamine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013

  14. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  15. Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides.

    Prajzler, Vaclav; Varga, Marian; Nekvindova, Pavla; Remes, Zdenek; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-04-08

    Diamond thin films have remarkable properties comparable with natural diamond. Because of these properties it is a very promising material for many various applications (sensors, heat sink, optical mirrors, chemical and radiation wear, cold cathodes, tissue engineering, etc.) In this paper we report about design, deposition and measurement of properties of optical planar waveguides fabricated from nanocrystalline diamond thin films. The nanocrystalline diamond planar waveguide was deposited by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the structure of the deposited film was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The design of the presented planar waveguides was realized on the bases of modified dispersion equation and was schemed for 632.8 nm, 964 nm, 1 310 nm and 1 550 nm wavelengths. Waveguiding properties were examined by prism coupling technique and it was found that the diamond based planar optical element guided one fundamental mode for all measured wavelengths. Values of the refractive indices of our NCD thin film measured at various wavelengths were almost the same as those of natural diamond.

  16. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for mechanical seals applications.

    Santos, J A; Neto, V F; Ruch, D; Grácio, J

    2012-08-01

    A mechanical seal is a type of seal used in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors. It consists of a mechanism that assists the connection of the rotating shaft to the housings of the equipments, preventing leakage or avoiding contamination. A common cause of failure of these devices is end face wear out, thus the use of a hard, smooth and wear resistant coating such as nanocrystalline diamond would be of great importance to improve their working performance and increase their lifetime. In this paper, different diamond coatings were deposited by the HFCVD process, using different deposition conditions. Additionally, the as-grown films were characterized for, quality, morphology and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The topography and the roughness of the films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  17. Rectification properties of n-type nanocrystalline diamond heterojunctions to p-type silicon carbide at high temperatures

    Goto, Masaki; Amano, Ryo; Shimoda, Naotaka [Graduate School of Automotive Science, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kato, Yoshimine, E-mail: yoshimine.kato@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Teii, Kungen [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-04-14

    Highly rectifying heterojunctions of n-type nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films to p-type 4H-SiC substrates are fabricated to develop p-n junction diodes operable at high temperatures. In reverse bias condition, a potential barrier for holes at the interface prevents the injection of reverse leakage current from the NCD into the SiC and achieves the high rectification ratios of the order of 10{sup 7} at room temperature and 10{sup 4} even at 570 K. The mechanism of the forward current injection is described with the upward shift of the defect energy levels in the NCD to the conduction band of the SiC by forward biasing. The forward current shows different behavior from typical SiC Schottky diodes at high temperatures.

  18. Role of high microwave power on growth and microstructure of thick nanocrystalline diamond films: A comparison with large grain polycrystalline diamond films

    Tang, C. J.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Girão, A. V.; Pereira, S.; Shi, Fa-Nian; Soares, M. R.; Costa, F.; Neves, A. J.; Pinto, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we study the growth habit of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films by exploring the very high power regime, up to 4 kW, in a 5 kW microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) reactor, through addition of a small amount of nitrogen and oxygen (0.24%) into 4% CH4 in H2 plasma. The coupled effect of high microwave power and substrate temperature on NCD growth behaviour is systematically investigated by varying only power, while fixing the remaining operating parameters. When the power increases from 2 kW to 4 kW, resulting also in rise of the Si substrate temperature higher than 150 °C, the diamond films obtained maintain the NCD habit, while the growth rate increases significantly. The highest growth rate of 4.6 μm/h is achieved for the film grown at 4 kW, which represents a growth rate enhancement of about 15 times compared with that obtained when using 2 kW power. Possible factors responsible for such remarkable growth rate enhancement of the NCD films are discussed. The evolution of NCD growth characteristics such as morphology, microstructure and texture is studied by growing thick films and comparing it with that of large grain polycrystalline (PCD) films. One important characteristic of the NCD films obtained, in contrast to PCD films, is that irrespective of deposition time (i.e. film thickness), their grain size and surface roughness remain in the nanometer range throughout the growth. Finally, based on our present and previous experimental results, a potential parameter window is established for fast growth of NCD films under high power conditions.

  19. Nanocrystalline-diamond thin films with high pH and penicillin sensitivity prepared on a capacitive Si-SiO{sub 2} structure

    Poghossian, A. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de; Abouzar, M.H.; Razavi, A.; Baecker, M. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Bijnens, N. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Williams, O.A.; Haenen, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Division IMOMEC, IMEC vzw., Diepenbeek (Belgium); Moritz, W. [Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, P. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    A capacitive field-effect EDIS (electrolyte-diamond-insulator-semiconductor) sensor with improved pH and penicillin sensitivity has been realised using a nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD) film as sensitive gate material. The NCD growth process on SiO{sub 2} as well as an additional surface treatment in oxidising medium have been optimised to provide high pH-sensitive, non-porous O-terminated films without damage of the underlying SiO{sub 2} layer. The surface morphology of O-terminated NCD thin films and the layer structure of EDIS sensors have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. To establish the relative coverage of the surface functional groups generated by the oxidation of NCD surfaces, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity of NCD thin films has been studied by water contact-angle measurements. A nearly Nernstian pH sensitivity of 54-57 mV/pH has been observed for O-terminated NCD films treated in an oxidising boiling mixture for 80 min and in oxygen plasma. The high pH-sensitive properties of O-terminated NCD have been used to develop an EDIS-based penicillin biosensor. A freshly prepared penicillin biosensor possesses a high sensitivity of 85 mV/decade in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM penicillin G. The lower detection limit is 5 {mu}M.

  20. Nanocrystalline-diamond thin films with high pH and penicillin sensitivity prepared on a capacitive Si-SiO2 structure

    Poghossian, A.; Abouzar, M.H.; Razavi, A.; Baecker, M.; Bijnens, N.; Williams, O.A.; Haenen, K.; Moritz, W.; Wagner, P.; Schoening, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    A capacitive field-effect EDIS (electrolyte-diamond-insulator-semiconductor) sensor with improved pH and penicillin sensitivity has been realised using a nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD) film as sensitive gate material. The NCD growth process on SiO 2 as well as an additional surface treatment in oxidising medium have been optimised to provide high pH-sensitive, non-porous O-terminated films without damage of the underlying SiO 2 layer. The surface morphology of O-terminated NCD thin films and the layer structure of EDIS sensors have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. To establish the relative coverage of the surface functional groups generated by the oxidation of NCD surfaces, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity of NCD thin films has been studied by water contact-angle measurements. A nearly Nernstian pH sensitivity of 54-57 mV/pH has been observed for O-terminated NCD films treated in an oxidising boiling mixture for 80 min and in oxygen plasma. The high pH-sensitive properties of O-terminated NCD have been used to develop an EDIS-based penicillin biosensor. A freshly prepared penicillin biosensor possesses a high sensitivity of 85 mV/decade in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM penicillin G. The lower detection limit is 5 μM.

  1. Review: Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond

    Katsuyuki Okada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline diamond films have attracted considerable attention because they have a low coefficient of friction and a low electron emission threshold voltage. In this paper, the author reviews the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD of nanocrystalline diamond and mainly focuses on the growth of nanocrystalline diamond by low-pressure PE-CVD. Nanocrystalline diamond particles of 200–700 nm diameter have been prepared in a 13.56 MHz low-pressure inductively coupled CH4/CO/H2 plasma. The bonding state of carbon atoms was investigated by ultraviolet-excited Raman spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy identified sp2-bonded carbons around the 20–50 nm subgrains of nanocrystalline diamond particles. Plasma diagnostics using a Langmuir probe and the comparison with plasma simulation are also reviewed. The electron energy distribution functions are discussed by considering different inelastic interaction channels between electrons and heavy particles in a molecular CH4/H2 plasma.

  2. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  3. Ferromagnetism appears in nitrogen implanted nanocrystalline diamond films

    Remes, Zdenek [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sun, Shih-Jye, E-mail: sjs@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Varga, Marian [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hsiung [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hua-Shu [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung 900, Taiwan (China); Kromka, Alexander [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Horak, Pavel [Nuclear Physics Institute, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-15

    The nanocrystalline diamond films turn to be ferromagnetic after implanting various nitrogen doses on them. Through this research, we confirm that the room-temperature ferromagnetism of the implanted samples is derived from the measurements of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Samples with larger crystalline grains as well as higher implanted doses present more robust ferromagnetic signals at room temperature. Raman spectra indicate that the small grain-sized samples are much more disordered than the large grain-sized ones. We propose that a slightly large saturated ferromagnetism could be observed at low temperature, because the increased localization effects have a significant impact on more disordered structure. - Highlights: • Nitrogen implanted nanocrystalline diamond films exhibit ferromagnetism at room temperature. • Nitrogen implants made a Raman deviation from the typical nanocrystalline diamond films. • The ferromagnetism induced from the structure distortion is dominant at low temperature.

  4. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Quartz crystal microbalance gas sensor with nanocrystalline diamond sensitive layer

    Varga, Marián; Laposa, A.; Kulha, Pavel; Kroutil, J.; Husák, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2591-2597 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : gas sensor * nanocrystalline diamond * quartz resonator * thickness shear mode Subject RIV: JB - Sensor s, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  6. Adhesion of osteoblasts on chemically patterned nanocrystalline diamonds

    Kalbáčová, M.; Michalíková, Lenka; Barešová, V.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kmoch, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 245, č. 10 (2008), s. 2124-2127 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : cell growth * nanocrystalline diamond * surface termination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.166, year: 2008

  7. Osteoblastic cells trigger gate currents on nanocrystalline diamond transistor

    Ižák, Tibor; Krátká, Marie; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 129, May (2015), 95-99 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101209 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : field-effect transistors * nanocrystalline diamond * osteoblastic cells * leakage currents Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2015

  8. UV-laser treatment of nanodiamond seeds - a valuable tool for modification of nanocrystalline diamond films properties

    Vlček, J; Fitl, P; Vrňata, M; Fekete, L; Taylor, A; Fendrych, F

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to study the UV-laser treatment of precursor (i.e. nanodiamond (ND) seeds on silicon substrates) and its influence on the properties of grown nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at the fourth harmonic frequency (laser fluence E L = 250 mJ cm -2 , pulse duration 5 ns) was used as a source, equipped with an optical system for focusing laser beam onto the sample, allowing exposure of a local spot and horizontal patterning. The variable parameters were: number of pulses (from 5 to 400) and the working atmosphere (He, Ar and O 2 ). Ablation and/or graphitization of seeded nanodiamond particles were observed. Further the microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition was employed to grow NCD films on exposed and non-exposed areas of silicon substrates. The size, shape and density distribution of laser-treated nanodiamond seeds were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and their chemical composition by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The resulting NCD films (uniform thickness of 400 nm) were characterized by: Raman spectroscopy to analyse occurrence of graphitic phase, and AFM to observe morphology and surface roughness. The highest RMS roughness (∼85 nm) was achieved when treating the precursor in He atmosphere. Horizontal microstructures of diamond films were fabricated.

  9. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond coated on titanium for osteoblast adhesion.

    Pareta, Rajesh; Yang, Lei; Kothari, Abhishek; Sirinrath, Sirivisoot; Xiao, Xingcheng; Sheldon, Brian W; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    Diamond coatings with superior chemical stability, antiwear, and cytocompatibility properties have been considered for lengthening the lifetime of metallic orthopedic implants for over a decade. In this study, an attempt to tailor the surface properties of diamond films on titanium to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) adhesion was reported. The surface properties investigated here included the size of diamond surface features, topography, wettability, and surface chemistry, all of which were controlled during microwave plasma enhanced chemical-vapor-deposition (MPCVD) processes using CH4-Ar-H2 gas mixtures. The hardness and elastic modulus of the diamond films were also determined. H2 concentration in the plasma was altered to control the crystallinity, grain size, and topography of the diamond coatings, and specific plasma gases (O2 and NH3) were introduced to change the surface chemistry of the diamond coatings. To understand the impact of the altered surface properties on osteoblast responses, cell adhesion tests were performed on the various diamond-coated titanium. The results revealed that nanocrystalline diamond (grain sizes diamond and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic applications. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  10. Functionalization of gold and nanocrystalline diamond atomic force microscope tips for single molecule force spectroscopy

    Drew, Michael E.

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has fueled interest in nanotechnology because of its ability to image surfaces at the nanometer level and act as a molecular force sensor. Functionalization of the surface of an AFM tip surface in a stable, controlled manner expands the capabilities of the AFM and enables additional applications in the fields of single molecule force spectroscopy and nanolithography. Two AFM tip functionalizations are described: the assembly of tripodal molecular tips onto gold AFM tips and the photochemical attachment of terminal alkenes to nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) AFM tips. Two separate tripodal molecules with different linker lengths and a monopodal molecule terminated with biotin were synthesized to attach to a gold AFM tip for single molecule force spectroscopy. The immobilization of these molecules was examined by contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. All three molecules displayed rupture forces that agreed with previously reported values for the biotin--avidin rupture. The tripodal molecular tip displayed narrower distribution in their force histograms than the monopodal molecular tip. The performance of the tripodal molecular tip was compared to the monopodal molecular tip in single molecule force spectroscopy studies. Over repeated measurements, the distribution of forces for the monopodal molecular tip shifted to lower forces, whereas the distribution for the tripodal molecular tip remained constant throughout. Loading rate dependence and control experiments further indicated that the rupture forces of the tripod molecular tips were specific to the biotin--NeutrAvidin interaction. The second functionalization method used the photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to NCD AFM tips. The photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to hydrogen-terminated NCD wafer surfaces was investigated by contact angle measurements, x

  11. Microwave PECVD of nanocrystalline diamond with rf induced bias nucleation

    Frgala, Z.; Jašek, O.; Karásková, M.; Zajíčková, L.; Buršíková, V.; Franta, D.; Matějková, Jiřina; Rek, Antonín; Klapetek, P.; Buršík, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. B (2006), s. 1218-1223 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition * self-bias Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  12. Quantum transport in boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef; Kindl, Dobroslav; Nesládek, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 7-8 (2008), s. 161-172 ISSN 0948-1907 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0525; GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond film * ballistic transport * superconductivity * Josephson’s effects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2008

  13. Ferromagnetism appears in nitrogen implanted nanocrystalline diamond films

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Sun, S. J.; Varga, M.; Chou, H.; Hsu, H.S.; Kromka, A.; Horák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 394, Nov (2015), s. 477-480 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : diamond * nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials * fine-particle systems * nanocrystalline materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  14. Elastic properties of ultrathin diamond/AlN membranes

    Zuerbig, V.; Hees, J.; Pletschen, W.; Sah, R.E.; Wolfer, M.; Kirste, L.; Heidrich, N.; Nebel, C.E.; Ambacher, O.; Lebedev, V.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond- (NCD) and AlN-based ultrathin single layer and bilayer membranes are investigated towards their mechanical properties. It is shown that chemo-mechanical polishing and heavy boron doping of NCD thin films do not impact the elastic properties of NCD layers as revealed by negligible variations of the NCD Young's modulus (E). In addition, it is demonstrated that the combination of NCD elastic layer and AlN piezo-actuator is highly suitable for the fabrication of mechanically stable ultrathin membranes in comparison to AlN single layer membranes. The elastic parameters of NCD/AlN heterostructures are mainly determined by the outstanding high Young's modulus of NCD (E = 1019 ± 19 GPa). Such ultrathin unimorph membranes allow for fabrication of piezo-actuated AlN/NCD microlenses with tunable focus length. - Highlights: • Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and AlN circular membranes • No influence of polishing of NCD thin films on the mechanical properties of NCD • No influence of heavy boron-doping on the mechanical properties of NCD • Demonstration of mechanically stable piezo-actuated NCD/AlN membranes • Reported performance of AlN/NCD microlenses with adjustable focus length

  15. Grain boundary effects in nanocrystalline diamond

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef; Nesládek, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 9 (2008), 2163-2168 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond film * grain boundary * superconductivity * noise * ballistic transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2008

  16. Grain boundaries and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films.

    Busmann, H.-G.; Pageler, A.; Gruen, D. M.

    1999-08-06

    Phase-pure nanocrystalline diamond thin films grown from plasmas of a hydrogen-poor carbon argon gas mixture have been analyzed regarding their hardness and elastic moduli by means of a microindentor and a scanning acoustic microscope.The films are superhard and the moduli rival single crystal diamond. In addition, Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm shows a peak at 1438 l/cm and no peak above 1500 l/cm, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy a shake-up loss at 4.2 eV. This gives strong evidence for the existence of solitary double bonds in the films. The hardness and elasticity of the films then are explained by the assumption, that the solitary double bonds interconnect the nanocrystals in the films, leading to an intergrain boundary adhesion of similar strength as the intragrain diamond cohesion. The results are in good agreement with recent simulations of high-energy grain boundaries.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a nanocrystalline diamond aerogel

    Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Laurence, Ted A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Wang, Yinmin; Willey, Trevor M.; Visbeck, Kenneth S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Evans, William J.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2011-07-06

    Aerogel materials have myriad scientific and technological applications due to their large intrinsic surface areas and ultralow densities. However, creating a nanodiamond aerogel matrix has remained an outstanding and intriguing challenge. Here we report the high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis of a diamond aerogel from an amorphous carbon aerogel precursor using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Neon is used as a chemically inert, near-hydrostatic pressure medium that prevents collapse of the aerogel under pressure by conformally filling the aerogel's void volume. Electron and X-ray spectromicroscopy confirm the aerogel morphology and composition of the nanodiamond matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of recovered material reveal the formation of both nitrogen- and silicon- vacancy point-defects, suggesting a broad range of applications for this nanocrystalline diamond aerogel.

  18. Substitutional Boron in Nanodiamond, Bucky-Diamond, and Nanocrystalline Diamond Grain Boundaries

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Sternberg, Michael G.

    2006-10-05

    Although boron has been known for many years to be a successful dopant in bulk diamond, efficient doping of nanocrystalline diamond with boron is still being developed. In general, the location, configuration, and bonding structure of boron in nanodiamond is still unknown, including the fundamental question of whether it is located within grains or grain boundaries of thin films and whether it is within the core or at the surface of nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration, potential energy surface, and electronic charge of substitutional boron in various types of nanocrystalline diamond. The results predict that boron is likely to be positioned at the surface of isolated particles and at the grain boundary of thin-film samples.

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Properties of Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings Grown Using CVD with E/H Field Glow Discharge Stabilization

    Iu. Nasieka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline diamond films (coatings were prepared using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technique. In this method, direct current (DC glow discharge in the crossed E/H fields was used to activate the gas phase. The diamond coatings were deposited from the working gas mixture CH4/H2 with addition of nitrogen in various concentrations. It was ascertained that addition of N2 to the working gas mixture leads to reduction in the sizes of diamond grains as well as to the substantial decrease in the resistivity of the studied films. The electrophysical data are in good agreement with the changes induced by varying the N2 content in the Raman scattering spectra. The increase in the N2 concentration causes significant lowering of the crystalline diamond related peak and increase in the intensity of the peaks related to the sp2-bonded carbon. These changes in the spectra indicate significant disordering of the structure of prepared films and its uniformity in the nanodiamond film volume. With the great possibility, it is associated with a decrease in the sizes of diamond crystalline grains and tendency of NCD film to amorphization.

  20. Characterization of boron doped nanocrystalline diamonds

    Peterlevitz, A C; Manne, G M; Sampaio, M A; Quispe, J C R; Pasquetto, M P; Iannini, R F; Ceragioli, H J; Baranauskas, V

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured diamond doped with boron was prepared using a hot-filament assisted chemical vapour deposition system fed with an ethyl alcohol, hydrogen and argon mixture. The reduction of the diamond grains to the nanoscale was produced by secondary nucleation and defects induced by argon and boron atoms via surface reactions during chemical vapour deposition. Raman measurements show that the samples are nanodiamonds embedded in a matrix of graphite and disordered carbon grains, while morphological investigations using field electron scanning microscopy show that the size of the grains ranges from 20 to 100 nm. The lowest threshold fields achieved were in the 1.6 to 2.4 V/μm range

  1. Infrared absorption study of hydrogen incorporation in thick nanocrystalline diamond films

    Tang, C.J.; Neves, A.J.; Carmo, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    We present an infrared (IR) optical absorbance study of hydrogen incorporation in nanocrystalline diamond films. The thick nanocrystalline diamond films were synthesized by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and a high growth rate about 3.0 μm/h was achieved. The morphology, phase quality, and hydrogen incorporation were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Large amount of hydrogen bonded to nanocrystalline diamond is clearly evidenced by the huge CH stretching band in the FTIR spectrum. The mechanism of hydrogen incorporation is discussed in light of the growth mechanism of nanocrystalline diamond. This suggests the potential of nanocrystalline diamond for IR electro-optical device applications

  2. Application of printed nanocrystalline diamond film for electron emission cathode

    Zhang Xiuxia; Wei Shuyi; Lei Chongmin; Wei Jie; Lu Bingheng; Ding Yucheng; Zhu Changchun

    2011-01-01

    The low-cost and large area screen-printed nano-diamond film (NDF) for electronic emission was fabricated. The edges and corners of nanocrystalline diamond are natural field-emitters. The nano-diamond paste for screen-printing was fabricated of mixing nano-graphite and other inorganic or organic vehicles. Through enough disperse in isopropyl alcohol by ultrasonic nano-diamond paste was screen-printed on the substrates to form NDF. SEM images showed that the surface morphology of NDF was improved, and the nano-diamond emitters were exposed from NDF through the special thermal-sintering technique and post-treatment process. The field emission characteristics of NDF were measured under all conditions with 10 -6 Pa pressure. The results indicated that the field emission stability and emission uniformity of NDF were improved through hydrogen plasma post-treatment process. The turn-on field decreased from 1.60 V/μm to 1.25 V/μm. The screen-printed NDF can be applied to the displays electronic emission cathode for low-cost outdoor in large area.

  3. Nanocrystalline diamond in carbon implanted SiO{sub 2}.

    Tsoi, K.A.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Walker, R. J.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Recently, it was reported that nanocrystalline diamond can be produced via laser annealing of a high dose C implanted fused quartz (SiO{sub 2}) substrate. The aim of this investigation is to reproduce this result on higher C{sup +} dose samples and the non-implanted silicon sample, as well as optimise the power range and annealing time for the production of these nanocrystals of diamond. In order to provide a wide range of laser powers the samples were annealed using an Ar ion Raman laser. The resulting annealed spots were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman analysis. These techniques are employed to determine the type of bonding produced after laser annealing has occurred. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Spectroellipsometric and ion beam analytical investigation of nanocrystalline diamond layers

    Lohner, T., E-mail: lohner@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary); Csikvari, P. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Budafoki ut 8 (Hungary); Khanh, N.Q. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary); David, S. [Department of Electronics Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Goldmann Gy. ter 3 (Hungary); Horvath, Z.E.; Petrik, P. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary); Hars, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Budafoki ut 8 (Hungary)

    2011-02-28

    Optical properties of nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline diamond films were studied by ex situ variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The films were prepared by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition method. In the experiments Ar, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} gases were used as source gases. Elastic recoil detection analysis was applied to measure the hydrogen content of the deposited layers. Three-layer optical models were constructed for the evaluation of the measured ellipsometric spectra. Besides the Cauchy relation, the effective medium approximation and the Tauc-Lorentz dispersion relation were also used for the modeling of the optical properties of the diamond films. Atomic force microscopy was applied to investigate the surface roughness in function of the deposition conditions.

  5. Nanocrystalline diamond in carbon implanted SiO{sub 2}.

    Tsoi, K A; Prawer, S; Nugent, K W; Walker, R J; Weiser, P S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Recently, it was reported that nanocrystalline diamond can be produced via laser annealing of a high dose C implanted fused quartz (SiO{sub 2}) substrate. The aim of this investigation is to reproduce this result on higher C{sup +} dose samples and the non-implanted silicon sample, as well as optimise the power range and annealing time for the production of these nanocrystals of diamond. In order to provide a wide range of laser powers the samples were annealed using an Ar ion Raman laser. The resulting annealed spots were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman analysis. These techniques are employed to determine the type of bonding produced after laser annealing has occurred. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Spectroellipsometric and ion beam analytical investigation of nanocrystalline diamond layers

    Lohner, T.; Csikvari, P.; Khanh, N.Q.; David, S.; Horvath, Z.E.; Petrik, P.; Hars, G.

    2011-01-01

    Optical properties of nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline diamond films were studied by ex situ variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The films were prepared by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition method. In the experiments Ar, CH 4 , and H 2 gases were used as source gases. Elastic recoil detection analysis was applied to measure the hydrogen content of the deposited layers. Three-layer optical models were constructed for the evaluation of the measured ellipsometric spectra. Besides the Cauchy relation, the effective medium approximation and the Tauc-Lorentz dispersion relation were also used for the modeling of the optical properties of the diamond films. Atomic force microscopy was applied to investigate the surface roughness in function of the deposition conditions.

  7. Voltammetric and impedance behaviours of surface-treated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes

    Liu, F. B.; Jing, B.; Cui, Y.; Di, J. J.; Qu, M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performances of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies, phase structures, and chemical states of the two diamond films were analysed by scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the potential window is narrower for the hydrogen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film than for the oxygen-terminated one. The diamond film resistance and capacitance of oxygen-terminated diamond film are much larger than those of the hydrogen-terminated diamond film, and the polarization resistances and double-layer capacitance corresponding to oxygen-terminated diamond film are both one order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to the hydrogen-terminated diamond film. The electrochemical behaviours of the two diamond film electrodes are discussed

  8. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond nanowires with enhanced electrochemical properties

    Shalini, Jayakumar; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Ting-Hsun; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I.-Nan; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    The effects of N 2 incorporation in Ar/CH 4 plasma on the electrochemical properties and microstructure of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are reported. While the electrical conductivity of the films increased monotonously with increasing N 2 content (up to 25%) in the plasma, the electrochemical behavior was optimized for UNCD films grown in (Ar–10% N 2 )/CH 4 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the main factor resulting in high conductivity in the films was the formation of needle-like nanodiamond grains and the induction graphite layer encapsulating these grains. The electrochemical process for N 2 -incorporated UNCD films can readily be activated due to the presence of nanographite along the grain boundaries of the films. The formation of needle-like diamond grains was presumably due to the presence of CN species that adhered to the existing nanodiamond clusters, which suppressed radial growth of the nanodiamond crystals, promoting anisotropic growth and the formation of needle-like nanodiamond. The N 2 -incorporated UNCD films outperformed other electrochemical electrode materials, such as boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon, in that the UNCD electrodes could sense dopamine, urea, and ascorbic acid simultaneously in the same mixture with clear resolution

  9. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond electrodes: optimization towards neural stimulation applications.

    Garrett, David J; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Fox, Kate; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Diamond is well known to possess many favourable qualities for implantation into living tissue including biocompatibility, biostability, and for some applications hardness. However, conducting diamond has not, to date, been exploited in neural stimulation electrodes due to very low electrochemical double layer capacitance values that have been previously reported. Here we present electrochemical characterization of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond electrodes grown in the presence of nitrogen (N-UNCD) that exhibit charge injection capacity values as high as 163 µC cm(-2) indicating that N-UNCD is a viable material for microelectrode fabrication. Furthermore, we show that the maximum charge injection of N-UNCD can be increased by tailoring growth conditions and by subsequent electrochemical activation. For applications requiring yet higher charge injection, we show that N-UNCD electrodes can be readily metalized with platinum or iridium, further increasing charge injection capacity. Using such materials an implantable neural stimulation device fabricated from a single piece of bio-permanent material becomes feasible. This has significant advantages in terms of the physical stability and hermeticity of a long-term bionic implant.

  10. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for cutting operations; Nanokristalline Diamantschichten fuer die Zerspanung

    Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany). Technology

    2006-06-15

    The history of the CVD diamond synthesis goes back into the fifties. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties intensive world-wide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications were launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. The article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)

  11. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond electrodes for neural interfaces: in vivo biocompatibility evaluation

    Alcaide, M.; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, M.; Zachar, V.; Pennisi, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, Mar (2016), 1-9, č. článku 87. ISSN 1662-453X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * neuroprosthetic interfaces * neural electrodes * boron-doped diamond * titanium nitride * foreign body reaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.566, year: 2016

  12. Influence of grain boundaries on elasticity and thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Mohr, Markus; Daccache, Layal; Horvat, Sebastian; Brühne, Kai; Jacob, Timo; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Diamond combines several outstanding material properties such as the highest thermal conductivity and highest elastic moduli of all materials. This makes diamond an interesting candidate for a multitude of applications. Nonetheless, nanocrystalline diamond films, layers and coatings, usually show properties different to those of single crystalline diamond. This is usually attributed to the larger volume fraction of the grain boundaries with atomic structure different from the single crystal. In this work we measured Young's modulus and thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond films with average grain sizes ranging from 6 to 15 nm. The measured thermal conductivities are modeled considering the thermal boundary conductance between grains as well as a grain size effect on the phonon mean free path. We make a comparison between elastic modulus and thermal boundary conductance of the grain boundaries G_k for different nanocrystalline diamond films. We conclude that the grain boundaries thermal boundary conductance G_k is a measure of the cohesive energy of the grain boundaries and therefore also of the elastic modulus of the nanocrystalline diamond films.

  13. Separation of intra- and intergranular magnetotransport properties in nanocrystalline diamond films on the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition

    Janssens, S D; Pobedinskas, P; Ruttens, B; D'Haen, J; Nesladek, M; Haenen, K; Wagner, P; Vacik, J; Petrakova, V

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study on the morphology and electronic properties of thin heavily boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films is presented. The films have nominally the same thickness (∼150 nm) and are grown with a fixed B/C ratio (5000 ppm) but with different C/H ratios (0.5-5%) in the gas phase. The morphology of the films is investigated by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy measurements, which confirm that lower C/H ratios lead to a larger average grain size. Magnetotransport measurements reveal a decrease in resistivity and a large increase in mobility, approaching the values obtained for single-crystal diamond as the average grain size of the films increases. In all films, the temperature dependence of resistivity decreases with larger grains and the charge carrier density and mobility are thermally activated. It is possible to separate the intra- and intergrain contributions for resistivity and mobility, which indicates that in these complex systems Matthiessen's rule is followed. The concentration of active charge carriers is reduced when the boron-doped NCD is grown with a lower C/H ratio. This is due to lower boron incorporation, which is confirmed by neutron depth profiling.

  14. Simplified procedure for patterned growth of nanocrystalline diamond micro-structures

    Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Ledinský, Martin; Hruška, Karel; Potměšil, Jiří; Vaněček, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 518, č. 1 (2009), s. 343-347 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * Raman spectroscopy * nanocrystalline diamond * selective diamond growth * seed layer * patterning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.727, year: 2009

  15. Patterned hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline diamond layers

    Mertens, M., E-mail: michael.mertens@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Mohr, M.; Brühne, K.; Fecht, H.J. [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Łojkowski, M.; Święszkowski, W. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Łojkowski, W. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties on fluorine-, hydrogen- and oxygen- terminated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films. • Micropatterned - multi-terminated layers with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas on one sample. • Visualization of multi-terminated surfaces by e.g. SEM and LFM. • Roughness and friction investigations on different terminated surfaces. • Smooth and biocompatible surfaces with same roughness regardless of hydrophobicity for microbiological investigations. - Abstract: In this work, we show that ultra nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces have been modified to add them hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. The nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. This allows growing diamond on different substrates which can be even 3D or structured. Silicon and, for optical applications, transparent quartz glass are the preferred substrates for UNCD layers growth. Fluorine termination leads to strong hydrophobic properties as indicated by a high contact angle for water of more than 100°. Hydrogen termination shows lesser hydrophobic behavior. Hydrophilic characteristics has been realised with oxygen termination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements confirm the oxygen and fluorine- termination on the nanocrystalline diamond surface. Further, by micropatterning using photolithography, multi-terminated layers have been created with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas. In addition, we have shown that retermination is achieved, and the properties of the surface have been changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and vice versa. Micro- roughness and stress in the grown film influences slightly the wetting angle as well. The opportunity to realize local differences in hydrophobicity on nanocrystalline diamond layers, in any size or geometry, offers interesting applications for example in

  16. Nanocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon films for applications in tribology, optics and biomedicine

    Popov, C.; Kulisch, W.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Bock, A.; Strnad, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 494, - (2006), s. 92-97 ISSN 0040-6090 Grant - others:NATO(XE) CBP.EAP.CLG 981519; Marie-Curie EIF(XE) MEIF-CT-2004-500038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond films * application properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  17. Visible-light sensitization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond through non-covalent surface modification

    Krýsová, Hana; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Bartoň, Jan; Petrák, Václav; Nesladek, M.; Cígler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2015), s. 1165-1172 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystallines * visible-light sensitization * boron-doped diamond Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  18. Influence of nanocrystalline diamond on resonant properties of gold plasmonic antennas

    Kvapil, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kalousek, R.; Křápek, V.; Dub, P.; Šikola, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 6 (2016), 1564-1571 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antenna resonance wavelength * electric field enhancement * FDTD * nanocrystalline diamond * plasmonic antenna Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  19. Supported lipid bilayer on nanocrystalline diamond: dual optical and field-effect sensor for membrane disruption

    Ang, P.K.; Loh, K.P.; Wohland, T.; Nesládek, Miloš; Van Hove, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2009), s. 109-116 ISSN 1616-301X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * biocompatibility * supported lipid bilayers * biosensors * solution gate field effect transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.990, year: 2009

  20. Superconductive B-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films: Electrical transport and Raman spectra

    Nesládek, M.; Tromson, D.; Mer, Ch.; Bergonzo, P.; Hubík, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 23 (2006), 232111/1-232111/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * superconductivity * magnetoresistance * Raman spectroscopy * Fano resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.977, year: 2006

  1. Role of grain size in superconducting boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films grown by CVD

    Zhang, G.; Janssens, S.D.; Vanacken, J.; Timmermans, M.; Vacík, Jiří; Ataklti, G.W.; Decelle, W.; Gillijns, W.; Goderis, B.; Haenen, K.; Wagner, P.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 21 (2011), 214517/1-214517/10 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Nanocrystalline diamond * Superconducting transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  2. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 10 9 sec -1 mV -1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ∼10 -5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials' photosensitivity

  3. Controlling Directional Liquid Motion on Micro- and Nanocrystalline Diamond/β-SiC Composite Gradient Films.

    Wang, Tao; Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Xin; Kong, Tiantian; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhou, Xuechang; Tang, Yongbing

    2018-01-30

    In this Article, we report the synthesis of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond/β-SiC composite gradient films, using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique and its application as a robust and chemically inert means to actuate water and hazardous liquids. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy, the composition of the surface changed gradually from pure nanocrystalline diamond (hydrophobic) to a nanocrystalline β-SiC surface (hydrophilic). Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the presence of diamond, graphite, and β-SiC phases. The as-prepared gradient films were evaluated for their ability to actuate water. Indeed, water was transported via the gradient from the hydrophobic (hydrogen-terminated diamond) to the hydrophilic side (hydroxyl-terminated β-SiC) of the gradient surface. The driving distance and velocity of water is pivotally influenced by the surface roughness. The nanogradient surface showed significant promise as the lower roughness combined with the longer gradient yields in transport distances of up to 3.7 mm, with a maximum droplet velocity of nearly 250 mm/s measured by a high-speed camera. As diamond and β-SiC are chemically inert, the gradient surfaces can be used to drive hazardous liquids and reactive mixtures, which was signified by the actuation of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. We envision that the diamond/β-SiC gradient surface has high potential as an actuator for water transport in microfluidic devices, DNA sensors, and implants, which induce guided cell growth.

  4. Hydrogen content and density in nanocrystalline carbon films of a predominant diamond character

    Hoffman, A.; Heiman, A.; Akhvlediani, R.; Lakin, E.; Zolotoyabko, E.; Cyterman, C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon films possessing a prevailing diamond or graphite character, depending on substrate temperature, can be deposited from a methane hydrogen mixture by the direct current glow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition method. While at a temperature of ∼880 deg. C, following the formation of a thin precursor graphitic film, diamond nucleation occurs and a nanodiamond film grows, at higher and lower deposition temperatures the films maintain their graphitic character. In this study the hydrogen content, density and nanocrystalline phase composition of films deposited at various temperatures are investigated. We aim to elucidate the role of hydrogen in nanocrystalline films with a predominant diamond character. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a considerable increase of the hydrogen concentration in the films that accompanies the growth of nanodiamond. It correlates with near edge x-ray adsorption spectroscopy measurements, that showed an appearance of spectroscopic features associated with the diamond structure, and with a substantial increase of the film density detected by x-ray reflectivity. Electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that nanocrystalline diamond films can be deposited from a CH 4 /H 2 mixture with hydrogen concentration in the 80%-95% range. For a deposition temperature of 880 deg. C, the highest diamond character of the films was found for a hydrogen concentration of 91% of H 2 . The deposition temperature plays an important role in diamond formation, strongly influencing the content of adsorbed hydrogen with an optimum at 880 deg. C. It is suggested that diamond nucleation and growth of the nanodiamond phase is driven by densification of the deposited graphitic films which results in high local compressive stresses. Nanodiamond formation is accompanied by an increase of hydrogen concentration in the films. It is suggested that hydrogen retention is critical for stabilization of nanodiamond crystallites. At lower

  5. Mask-free surface structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond films by reactive ion plasma etching

    Domonkos, Mária; Ižák, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Hruška, Karel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7 (2014), s. 780-784 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA MPO FR-TI2/736 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : micro- and nanocrystalline diamond * capacitively coupled plasma * reactive ion etching * nanostructuring * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  6. Preparation and optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond coatings for infrared planar waveguides

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Stuchlík, Jiří; Jirásek, Vít; Prajzler, Václav; Nekvindová, P.; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 618, Nov (2016), s. 130-133 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) MOST-15-04 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogenated amorphous silicon * nanocrystalline diamond * planar waveguides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  7. Charged micro-patterns on nanocrystalline diamond are well defined by electrical current application

    Verveniotis, Elisseos; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2012), s. 61-67 ISSN 0001-7140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * thin films * electrostatic charging * AFM * KFM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Ultrathin nanocrystalline diamond films with silicon vacancy color centers via seeding by 2 nm detonation nanodiamonds

    Stehlík, Štěpán; Varga, Marián; Štenclová, Pavla; Ondič, Lukáš; Ledinský, Martin; Pangrác, Jiří; Vaňek, O.; Lipov, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 44 (2017), s. 38842-38853 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15003; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : detonation nanodiamond * surface chemistry * hydrogenation * zeta potential * nucleation density * nanocrystalline diamond * SiV center Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  9. Electrochemically grafted polypyrrole changes photoluminescence of electronic states inside nanocrystalline diamond

    Galář, P.; Čermák, Jan; Malý, P.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 22 (2014), "223103-1"-"223103-6" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : polypyrrole * nanocrystalline diamond * photoluminescence spectroscopy * opto-electronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  10. Influence of the gas phase composition on nanocrystalline diamond films prepared by MWCVD

    Popov, C.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Boycheva, S.; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Kulisch, W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2005), s. 31-34 ISSN 1422-6375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010110 Grant - others:European Community Marie Curie Fellowship(XE) HPMF-CT-2002-01713 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : microwave plasma CVD * nanocrystalline diamond films * characterization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  11. Sensing of phosgene by a porous-like nanocrystalline diamond layer with buried metallic electrodes

    Davydova, Marina; Stuchlík, M.; Rezek, Bohuslav; Larsson, K.; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 188, NOV (2013), s. 675-680 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI2/736; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * phosgene * surface conductivity * gas sensor * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2013.07.079

  12. Ion-implantation of erbium into the nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Nekvindová, P.; Babchenko, Oleg; Cajzl, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Prajzler, Václav; Remeš, Zdeněk; Varga, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7-8 (2016), s. 679-684 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * optical waveguides * erbium * luminescence * ion implantation * CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2016

  13. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Lišková, Jana; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Hadraba, Daniel; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Burdíková, Zuzana; Bačáková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2015 (2015), s. 869-884 E-ISSN 1178-2013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond film * osteoblast * Saos-2 Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 4.320, year: 2015

  14. Tribosystems based on multilayered micro/nanocrystalline CVD diamond coatings =

    Shabani, Mohammadmehdi

    A combinacao das caracteristicas do diamante microcristalino (MCD) e nanocristalino (NCD), tais como elevada adesao do MCD e a baixa rugosidade superficial e baixo coeficiente de atrito do NCD, e ideal para aplicacoes tribologicas exigentes. Deste modo, o presente trabalho centrou-se no desenvolvimento de revestimentos em multicamada MCD/NCD. Filmes com dez camadas foram depositados em amostras de cerâmicos de Si3N4 pela tecnica de deposicao quimica em fase vapor assistida por filamento quente (HFCVD). A microestrutura, qualidade do diamante e adesao foram investigadas usando tecnicas como SEM, AFM, espectroscopia Raman, DRX, indentacao Brale e perfilometria otica 3D. Diversas geometrias para aplicacoes distintas foram revestidas: discos e esferas para testes tribologicos a escala laboratorial, e para testes em servico, aneis de empanques mecânicos e pastilhas de corte para torneamento. Nos ensaios tribologicos esfera-sobre-plano em movimento reciproco, sob 10-90% de humidade relativa (RH), os valores medios dos coeficientes de atrito maximo e em estado estacionario sao de 0,32 e 0,09, respetivamente. Em relacao aos coeficientes de desgaste, observou-se um valor minimo de cerca de 5,2x10-8 mm3N-1m-1 para valores intermedios de 20-25% de RH. A humidade relativa tem um forte efeito sobre o valor da carga critica que triplica a partir de 40 N a 10% RH para 120 N a 90% de RH. No intervalo de temperaturas 50-100 °C, as cargas criticas sao semelhantes as obtidas em condicoes de baixa RH ( 10-25%). A vida util das ferramentas com revestimento de dez camadas alternadas MCD/NCD e 24 mum de espessura total no torneamento de um composito de matriz metalica Al- 15 vol% Al2O3 (Al-MMC) e melhor do que a maioria das ferramentas de diamante CVD encontradas na literatura, e semelhante a maioria das ferramentas de diamante policristalino (PCD). A formacao de cratera ocorre por desgaste sucessivo das varias camadas, atrasando a delaminacao total do revestimento de diamante do

  15. Thick Nano-Crystalline Diamond films for fusion applications

    Dawedeit, Christoph [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-30

    This Diplomarbeit deals with the characterization of 9 differently grown diamond samples. Several techniques were used to determine the quality of these specimens for inertial confinement fusion targets. The quality of chemical vapor deposition diamond is usually considered in terms of the proportion of sp3-bonded carbon to sp2-bonded carbon in the sample. For fusion targets smoothness, Hydrogen content and density of the diamonds are further important characteristics. These characteristics are analyzed in this thesis. The research for thesis was done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institut für angewandte Festkörperphysik Freiburg, Germany. Additionally the Lehrstuhl fuer Nukleartechnik at Technical University of Germany supported the work.

  16. Si-related color centers in nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Potocký, Štěpán; Holovský, Jakub; Remeš, Zdeněk; Müller, Martin; Kočka, Jan; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 12 (2014), s. 2603-2606 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011740; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapor deposition * color center * diamond * photoluminescence * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  17. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  18. Magnetic and cytotoxic properties of hot-filament chemical vapour deposited diamond

    Zanin, Hudson, E-mail: hudsonzanin@gmail.com [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Peterlevitz, Alfredo Carlos; Ceragioli, Helder Jose [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ana Amelia; Belangero, William Dias [Laboratorio de Biomateriais em Ortopedia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Cinco de Junho 350 CEP 13083970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) magnetic diamond samples were produced by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) on AISI 316 substrates. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) measurements indicated the presence of Fe, Cr and Ni in the MCD and NCD samples, and all samples showed similar magnetisation properties. Cell viability tests were realised using Vero cells, a type of fibroblastic cell line. Polystyrene was used as a negative control for toxicity (NCT). The cells were cultured under standard cell culture conditions. The proliferation indicated that these magnetic diamond samples were not cytotoxic. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycrystalline diamonds doped with Fe, Cr and Ni acquire ferromagnetic properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CVD diamonds have been prepared with magnetic and semiconductor properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro/nanocrystalline diamonds show good cell viability with fibroblast proliferation.

  19. Nanocrystalline diamond protects Zr cladding surface against oxygen and hydrogen uptake: nuclear fuel durability enhancement

    Škarohlíd, J.; Ashcheulov, Petr; Škoda, R.; Taylor, Andrew; Čtvrtlík, R.; Tomaštík, J.; Fendrych, František; Kopeček, Jaromír; Cháb, Vladimír; Cichoň, Stanislav; Sajdl, P.; Macák, J.; Xu, P.; Partezana, J.M.; Lorinčík, J.; Prehradná, J.; Steinbrück, M.; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Jul (2017), 1-14, č. článku 6469. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03085S; GA TA ČR TA04020156 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * zirconium alloys * corrosion Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. Formation of continuous nanocrystalline diamond layer on glass and silicon at low temperatures

    Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Remeš, Zdeněk; Michalka, M.; Ledinský, Martin; Zemek, Josef; Potměšil, Jiří; Vaněček, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, 7-8 (2008), s. 181-186 ISSN 0948-1907 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Grant - others:Marie Curie RTN DRIVE(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : AFM * low temperature growth * nanocrystalline diamond * SEM * XPS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2008

  1. Radiation-Induced Damage and Recovery of Ultra-Nanocrystalline Diamond: Toward Applications in Harsh Environments.

    Martin, Aiden A; Filevich, Jorge; Straw, Marcus; Randolph, Steven; Botman, Aurélien; Aharonovich, Igor; Toth, Milos

    2017-11-15

    Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) is increasingly being used in the fabrication of devices and coatings due to its excellent tribological properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Here, we study its response to irradiation with kiloelectronvolt electrons as a controlled model for extreme ionizing environments. Real time Raman spectroscopy reveals that the radiation-damage mechanism entails dehydrogenation of UNCD grain boundaries, and we show that the damage can be recovered by annealing at 883 K. Our results have significant practical implications for the implementation of UNCD in extreme environment applications, and indicate that the films can be used as radiation sensors.

  2. Function of thin film nanocrystalline diamond-protein SGFET independent of grain size

    Krátká, Marie; Kromka, Alexander; Ukraintsev, Egor; Ledinský, Martin; Brož, A.; Kalbáčová, M.; Rezek, Bohuslav

    166-167, May (2012), s. 239-245 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA AV ČR KAN400100701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs) * fetal bovine serum * osteoblastic cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  3. Evidence for phase separation of ethanol-water mixtures at the hydrogen terminated nanocrystalline diamond surface.

    Janssens, Stoffel D; Drijkoningen, Sien; Saitner, Marc; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Wagner, Patrick; Larsson, Karin; Haenen, Ken

    2012-07-28

    Interactions between ethanol-water mixtures and a hydrophobic hydrogen terminated nanocrystalline diamond surface, are investigated by sessile drop contact angle measurements. The surface free energy of the hydrophobic surface, obtained with pure liquids, differs strongly from values obtained by ethanol-water mixtures. Here, a model which explains this difference is presented. The model suggests that, due to a higher affinity of ethanol for the hydrophobic surface, when compared to water, a phase separation occurs when a mixture of both liquids is in contact with the H-terminated diamond surface. These results are supported by a computational study giving insight in the affinity and related interaction at the liquid-solid interface.

  4. Pressure effects on the dissipative behavior of nanocrystalline diamond microelectromechanical resonators

    Santos, J T; Chu, V; Conde, J P; Holz, T; Fernandes, A J S; Costa, F M

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-based microelectromechanical resonators have the potential of enhanced performance due to the chemical inertness of the diamond structural layer and its high Young’s modulus, high wear resistance, low thermal expansion coefficient, and very high thermal conductivity. In this work, the resonance frequency and quality factor of MEMS resonators based on nanocrystalline diamond films are characterized under different air pressures. The dynamic behavior of 50–300 μm long linear bridges and double ended tuning forks, with resonance frequencies between 0.5 and 15 MHz and quality factors as high as 50 000 are described as a function of measurement pressure from high vacuum(∼10 mTorr) up to atmospheric conditions. The resonance frequencies and quality factors in vacuum show good agreement with the theoretical models including anchor and thermoelastic dissipation (TED). The Young’s moduli for nanocrystalline diamond films extrapolated from experimental data are between 840–920 GPa. The critical pressure values, at which the quality factor starts decreasing due to dissipation in air, are dependent on the resonator length. Longer structures, with quality factors limited by TED and lower resonance frequencies, have low critical pressures, of the order of 1–10 Torr and go from an intrinsic dissipation, to a molecular dissipation regime and finally to a region of viscous dissipation. Shorter resonators, with higher resonance frequencies and quality factors limited by anchor losses, have higher critical pressures, some higher than atmospheric pressure, and enter directly into the viscous dissipation regime from the intrinsic region. (paper)

  5. Adhesive bonding and brazing of nanocrystalline diamond foil onto different substrate materials

    Lodes, Matthias A.; Sailer, Stefan; Rosiwal, Stefan M.; Singer, Robert F.

    2013-10-01

    Diamond coatings are used in heavily stressed industrial applications to reduce friction and wear. Hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) is the favourable coating method, as it allows a coating of large surface areas with high homogeneity. Due to the high temperatures occurring in this CVD-process, the selection of substrate materials is limited. With the desire to coat light materials, steels and polymers a new approach has been developed. First, by using temperature-stable templates in the HFCVD and stripping off the diamond layer afterwards, a flexible, up to 150 μm thick and free standing nanocrystalline diamond foil (NCDF) can be produced. Afterwards, these NCDF can be applied on technical components through bonding and brazing, allowing any material as substrate. This two-step process offers the possibility to join a diamond layer on any desired surface. With a modified scratch test and Rockwell indentation testing the adhesion strength of NCDF on aluminium and steel is analysed. The results show that sufficient adhesion strength is reached both on steel and aluminium. The thermal stress in the substrates is very low and if failure occurs, cracks grow undercritically. Adhesion strength is even higher for the brazed samples, but here crack growth is critical, delaminating the diamond layer to some extent. In comparison to a sample directly coated with diamond, using a high-temperature CVD interlayer, the brazed as well as the adhesively bonded samples show very good performance, proving their competitiveness. A high support of the bonding layer could be identified as crucial, though in some cases a lower stiffness of the latter might be acceptable considering the possibility to completely avoid thermal stresses which occur during joining at higher temperatures.

  6. Sensitivity of diamond-capped impedance transducer to Tröger's base derivative.

    Stehlik, Stepan; Izak, Tibor; Kromka, Alexander; Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2012-08-01

    Sensitivity of an intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer to naphthalene Tröger's base derivative decorated with pyrrole groups (TBPyr) was characterized by impedance spectroscopy. The transducer was made of Au interdigitated electrodes (IDE) with 50 μm spacing on alumina substrate which were capped with the NCD layer. The NCD-capped transducer with H-termination was able to electrically distinguish TBPyr molecules (the change of surface resistance within 30-60 kΩ) adsorbed from methanol in concentrations of 0.04 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. An exponential decay of the surface resistance with time was observed and attributed to the readsorption of air moisture after methanol evaporation. After surface oxidation the NCD cap layer did not show any leakage due to NCD grain boundaries. We analyzed electronic transport in the transducer and propose a model for the sensing mechanism based on surface ion replacement.

  7. Superconductivity and low temperature electrical transport in B-doped CVD nanocrystalline diamond

    Milos Nesladek, Jiri J. Mares, Dominique Tromson, Christine Mer, Philippe Bergonzo, Pavel Hubik and Jozef Kristofik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on superconductivity (SC found in thin B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films, prepared by the PE-CVD technique. The thickness of the films varies from about 100 to 400 nm, the films are grown on low-alkaline glass at substrate temperatures of about 500–700 °C. The SIMS measurements show that films can be heavily doped with boron in concentrations in the range of 3×1021 cm−3. The Raman spectra show Fano resonances, confirming the substitutional B-incorporation. The low temperature magnetotransport measurements reveal a positive magnetoresistance. The SC transition is observed at about Tc=1.66 K. A simple theory exploiting the concept of weak localization accounting for this transition is proposed.

  8. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Jung, E-mail: dslim@korea.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Device Materials, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-17

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a {zeta}-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and {approx} 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  9. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon; Song, Min-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a ζ-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and ∼ 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 ± 0.4 x 10 11 cm -2 ) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  10. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Liu Xuezhang; Wei Qiuping; Yu Zhiming; Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. ► The nucleation density was increased to 10 11 cm −2 . ► Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. ► Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp 3 -bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10 11 cm −2 , and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  11. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Liu Xuezhang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wei Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yu Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nucleation density was increased to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  12. Investigations on diamond nanostructuring of different morphologies by the reactive-ion etching process and their potential applications.

    Kunuku, Srinivasu; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Chang, Wen-Hao; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan

    2013-08-14

    We report the systematic studies on the fabrication of aligned, uniform, and highly dense diamond nanostructures from diamond films of various granular structures. Self-assembled Au nanodots are used as a mask in the self-biased reactive-ion etching (RIE) process, using an O2/CF4 process plasma. The morphology of diamond nanostructures is a close function of the initial phase composition of diamond. Cone-shaped and tip-shaped diamond nanostructures result for microcrystalline diamond (MCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films, whereas pillarlike and grasslike diamond nanostructures are obtained for Ar-plasma-based and N2-plasma-based ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films, respectively. While the nitrogen-incorporated UNCD (N-UNCD) nanograss shows the most-superior electron-field-emission properties, the NCD nanotips exhibit the best photoluminescence properties, viz, different applications need different morphology of diamond nanostructures to optimize the respective characteristics. The optimum diamond nanostructure can be achieved by proper choice of granular structure of the initial diamond film. The etching mechanism is explained by in situ observation of optical emission spectrum of RIE plasma. The preferential etching of sp(2)-bonded carbon contained in the diamond films is the prime factor, which forms the unique diamond nanostructures from each type of diamond films. However, the excited oxygen atoms (O*) are the main etching species of diamond film.

  13. Ultra-high wear resistance of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond film: Correlation with microstructure and morphology

    Rani, R.; Kumar, N.; Lin, I.-Nan

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured diamond films are having numerous unique properties including superior tribological behavior which is promising for enhancing energy efficiency and life time of the sliding devices. High wear resistance is the principal criterion for the smooth functioning of any sliding device. Such properties are achievable by tailoring the grain size and grain boundary volume fraction in nanodiamond film. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film was attainable using optimized gas plasma condition in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. Crystalline phase of ultra-nanodiamond grains with matrix phase of amorphous carbon and short range ordered graphite are encapsulated in nanowire shaped morphology. Film showed ultra-high wear resistance and frictional stability in micro-tribological contact conditions. The negligible wear of film at the beginning of the tribological contact was later transformed into the wearless regime for prolonged sliding cycles. Both surface roughness and high contact stress were the main reasons of wear at the beginning of sliding cycles. However, the interface gets smoothened due to continuous sliding, finally leaded to the wearless regime.

  14. Metal ion analysis in contaminated water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrode

    Sonthalia, Prerna; McGaw, Elizabeth; Show, Yoshiyuki; Swain, Greg M.

    2004-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrodes were employed for the detection and quantification of Ag (I), Cu (II), Pb (II), Cd (II), and Zn (II) in several contaminated water samples using anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV). Diamond is an alternate electrode that possesses many of the same attributes as Hg and, therefore, appears to be a viable material for this electroanalytical measurement. The nanocrystalline form has been found to perform slightly better than the more conventional microcrystalline form of diamond in this application. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPASV) was used to detect these metal ions in lake water, well water, tap water, wastewater treatment sludge, and soil. The electrochemical results were compared with data from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) and or atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) measurements of the same samples. Diamond is shown to function well in this electroanalytical application, providing a wide linear dynamic range, a low limit of quantitation, excellent response precision, and good response accuracy. For the analysis of Pb (II), bare diamond provided a response nearly identical to that obtained with a Hg-coated glassy carbon electrode

  15. Resistance to protein adsorption and adhesion of fibroblasts on nanocrystalline diamond films: the role of topography and boron doping

    Alcaide, M.; Papaioannou, S.; Taylor, Andrew; Fekete, Ladislav; Gurevich, L.; Zachar, V.; Pennisi, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2016), s. 90-1-12 ISSN 0957-4530 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : protein adsorption * fibroblasts adhesion * nanocrystalline diamond * boron doping * topography Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.325, year: 2016

  16. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Remes, Z.; Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A.; Girard, H. A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000-1500 cm-1 spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  17. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  18. Fabrication of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond nanoflowers based on 3D Cu(OH){sub 2} dendritic architectures

    Sim, Huijun; Hong, Sukin; Lee, Seungkoo; Lim, Daesoon; Jin, Juneon; Hwang, Sungwoo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used to prepare boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDND) nanoflowers on a Cu substrate with a Cu(OH){sub 2} dendritic architecture that had been formed by using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) method with nanodiamond particles. The formation of diamond nanoflowers is controlled by the reaction time between the Cu(OH){sub 2} nanoflowers and the polymeric linker for the electrostatic attachment of nanodiamonds and by the deposition time for CVD diamond growth with a high nucleation density. Through analysis by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of BDND nanoflowers are determined, and a possible explanation is provided.

  19. Fabrication of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond nanoflowers based on 3D Cu(OH)2 dendritic architectures

    Sim, Huijun; Hong, Sukin; Lee, Seungkoo; Lim, Daesoon; Jin, Juneon; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2012-01-01

    Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used to prepare boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDND) nanoflowers on a Cu substrate with a Cu(OH) 2 dendritic architecture that had been formed by using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) method with nanodiamond particles. The formation of diamond nanoflowers is controlled by the reaction time between the Cu(OH) 2 nanoflowers and the polymeric linker for the electrostatic attachment of nanodiamonds and by the deposition time for CVD diamond growth with a high nucleation density. Through analysis by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of BDND nanoflowers are determined, and a possible explanation is provided.

  20. The potential application of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films for heavy ion irradiation detection

    Chen, Huang-Chin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei, Taiwan 251 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Chen, Shih-Show [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei, Taiwan 251 (China); Department of Information Technology and Mobile Communication, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Tamsui, New-Taipei, Taiwan 251 (China); Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, I-Nan; Chang, Ching-Lin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New-Taipei, Taiwan 251 (China); Lee, Chi-Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Guo, Jinghua [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    The potential of utilizing the ultra-nanocrystalline (UNCD) films for detecting the Au-ion irradiation was investigated. When the fluence for Au-ion irradiation is lower than the critical value (f{sub c}= 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) the turn-on field for electron field emission (EFE) process of the UNCD films decreased systematically with the increase in fluence that is correlated with the increase in sp{sup 2}-bonded phase ({pi}{sup *}-band in EELS) due to the Au-ion irradiation. The EFE properties changed irregularly, when the fluence for Au-ion irradiation exceeds this critical value. The transmission electron microscopic microstructural examinations, in conjunction with EELS spectroscopic studies, reveal that the structural change preferentially occurred in the diamond-to-Si interface for the samples experienced over critical fluence of Au-ion irradiation, viz. the crystalline SiC phase was induced in the interfacial region and the thickness of the interface decreased. These observations implied that the UNCD films could be used as irradiation detectors when the fluence for Au-ion irradiation does not exceed such a critical value.

  1. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films - Coating characterization and first cell biological results.

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD>HAp/B-NCD>uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  2. Nano-Crystalline Diamond Films with Pineapple-Like Morphology Grown by the DC Arcjet vapor Deposition Method

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Qin-Jian; Shi, Yan-Chao; Li, Jia-Jun; Li, Hong; Lu, Fan-Xiu; Chen, Guang-Chao

    2014-08-01

    A nano-crystlline diamond film is grown by the dc arcjet chemical vapor deposition method. The film is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra, respectively. The nanocrystalline grains are averagely with 80 nm in the size measured by XRD, and further proven by Raman and HRTEM. The observed novel morphology of the growth surface, pineapple-like morphology, is constructed by cubo-octahedral growth zones with a smooth faceted top surface and coarse side surfaces. The as-grown film possesses (100) dominant surface containing a little amorphous sp2 component, which is far different from the nano-crystalline film with the usual cauliflower-like morphology.

  3. Monitoring of peptide induced disruption of artificial lipid membrane constructed on boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Petrák, V.; Grieten, L.; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Ledvina, Miroslav; Janssens, S. D.; Nesládek, M.; Haenen, K.; Wagner, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 9 (2011), s. 2099-2103 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects : GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11076 Grant - others:European RD projects (XE) 238201-MATCON Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : biosensor * boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond * electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2011

  4. Epithelial cells morphology and adhesion on diamonds films deposited and chemically modified by plasma processes

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Krátká, Marie; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Mandys, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2014), "031012-1"-"031012-8" ISSN 1934-8630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA AV ČR KAN400100701 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) * AFM * surface s * DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.374, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/avs/journal/bip/9/3/10.1116/1.4890471

  5. Piezoelectric actuated micro-resonators based on the growth of diamond on aluminum nitride thin films

    Hees, J; Heidrich, N; Pletschen, W; Sah, R E; Wolfer, M; Lebedev, V; Nebel, C E; Ambacher, O; Williams, O A

    2013-01-01

    Unimorph heterostructures based on piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) and diamond thin films are highly desirable for applications in micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. In this paper, we present a new approach to combine thin conductive boron-doped as well as insulating nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) with sputtered AlN films without the need for any buffer layers between AlN and NCD or polishing steps. The zeta potentials of differently treated nanodiamond (ND) particles in aqueous colloids are adjusted to the zeta potential of AlN in water. Thereby, the nucleation density for the initial growth of diamond on AlN can be varied from very low (10 8 cm −2 ), in the case of hydrogen-treated ND seeding particles, to very high values of 10 11 cm −2 for oxidized ND particles. Our approach yielding high nucleation densities allows the growth of very thin NCD films on AlN with thicknesses as low as 40 nm for applications such as microelectromechanical beam resonators. Fabricated piezo-actuated micro-resonators exhibit enhanced mechanical properties due to the incorporation of boron-doped NCD films. Highly boron-doped NCD thin films which replace the metal top electrode offer Young’s moduli of more than 1000 GPa. (paper)

  6. A micro-scale hot wire anemometer based on low stress (Ni/W) multi-layers deposited on nano-crystalline diamond for air flow sensing

    Talbi, A.; Gimeno, L.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Viard, R.; Soltani, A.; Mortet, Vincent; Preobrazhensky, V.; Merlen, A.; Pernod, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2015), s. 1-8, č. článku 125029. ISSN 0960-1317 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hot wire * nano-crystalline diamond * active flow control * anemometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.768, year: 2015

  7. Separation of intra- and intergranular magnetotransport properties in nanocrystalline diamond films on the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition

    Janssens, S.D.; Pobeidinskas, P.; Vacík, Jiří; Petráková, Vladimíra; Ruttens, B.; D´Haen, J.; Nesládek, M.; Haenen, K.; Wagner, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2011), 083008/1-083008/17 ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Nanocrystalline diamond * Boron * Magnetotransport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.177, year: 2011

  8. Morphology of Diamond Layers Grown on Different Facets of Single Crystal Diamond Substrates by a Microwave Plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures

    Evgeny E. Ashkinazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial growth of diamond films on different facets of synthetic IIa-type single crystal (SC high-pressure high temperature (HPHT diamond substrate by a microwave plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 gas mixture with the high concentration (4% of nitrogen is studied. A beveled SC diamond embraced with low-index {100}, {110}, {111}, {211}, and {311} faces was used as the substrate. Only the {100} face is found to sustain homoepitaxial growth at the present experimental parameters, while nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are produced on other planes. This observation is important for the choice of appropriate growth parameters, in particular, for the production of bi-layer or multilayer NCD-on-microcrystalline diamond (MCD superhard coatings on tools when the deposition of continuous conformal NCD film on all facet is required. The development of the film morphology with growth time is examined with SEM. The structure of hillocks, with or without polycrystalline aggregates, that appear on {100} face is analyzed, and the stress field (up to 0.4 GPa within the hillocks is evaluated based on high-resolution mapping of photoluminescence spectra of nitrogen-vacancy NV optical centers in the film.

  9. Structural and electrical characterization of diamond films deposited in nitrogen/oxygen containing gas mixture by linear antenna microwave CVD process

    Vojs, Marian; Varga, Marián; Babchenko, Oleg; Ižák, Tibor; Mikolášek, M.; Marton, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 312, SEP (2014), s. 226-230 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pulsed linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition * nanocrystalline diamond * Raman spectroscopy * admittance spectroscopy * n-type conductive NCD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  10. Gas-sensing behaviour of ZnO/diamond nanostructures.

    Davydova, Marina; Laposa, Alexandr; Smarhak, Jiri; Kromka, Alexander; Neykova, Neda; Nahlik, Josef; Kroutil, Jiri; Drahokoupil, Jan; Voves, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Microstructured single- and double-layered sensor devices based on p-type hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films and/or n-type ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been obtained via a facile microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition process or a hydrothermal growth procedure. The morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized materials was analysed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements and Raman spectroscopy. The gas sensing properties of the sensors based on i) NCD films, ii) ZnO nanorods, and iii) hybrid ZnO NRs/NCD structures were evaluated with respect to oxidizing (i.e., NO 2 , CO 2 ) and reducing (i.e., NH 3 ) gases at 150 °C. The hybrid ZnO NRs/NCD sensor showed a remarkably enhanced NO 2 response compared to the ZnO NRs sensor. Further, inspired by this special hybrid structure, the simulation of interaction between the gas molecules (NO 2 and CO 2 ) and hybrid ZnO NRs/NCD sensor was studied using DFT calculations.

  11. Spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling of Ar/H2/CH4 microwave discharges used for nanocrystalline diamond deposition

    Lombardi, G.; Hassouni, K.; Benedic, F.; Mohasseb, F.; Roepcke, J.; Gicquel, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper Ar/H 2 /CH 4 microwave discharges used for nanocrystalline diamond chemical vapor deposition in a bell-jar cavity reactor were characterized by both experimental and modeling investigations. Discharges containing 1% CH 4 and H 2 percentages ranging between 2% and 7% were analyzed as a function of the input microwave power under a pressure of 200 mbar. Emission spectroscopy and broadband absorption spectroscopy were carried out in the UV-visible spectral range in order to estimate the gas temperature and the C 2 density within the plasma. Infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was achieved in order to measure the mole fractions of carbon-containing species such as CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , and C 2 H 6 . A thermochemical model was developed and used in order to estimate the discharge composition, the gas temperature, and the average electron energy in the frame of a quasihomogeneous plasma assumption. Experiments and calculations yielded consistent results with respect to plasma temperature and composition. A relatively high gas temperature ranging between 3000 and 4000 K is found for the investigated discharge conditions. The C 2 density estimated from both experiments and modeling are quite high compared with what is generally reported in the literature for the same kind of plasma system. It ranges between 10 13 and 10 14 cm -3 in the investigated power range. Infrared absorption measurements and model predictions indicate quite low densities of methane and acetylene, while the atomic carbon density calculated by the model ranges between 10 13 and 10 15 cm -3 . The methane and hydrogen introduced in the feed gas are subject to a strong dissociation, which results in a surprisingly high H-atom population with mole fraction ranging between 0.04 and 0.16. Result analysis shows that the power coupling efficiency would range between 70% and 90%, which may at least explain the relatively high values obtained, as compared with those reported in the

  12. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films — Coating characterization and first cell biological results

    Strąkowska, Paulina [Gdańsk University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty (Poland); Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Informatics (Poland); Beutner, René [Max Bergmann Center, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany); Gnyba, Marcin [Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and Informatics (Poland); Zielinski, Andrzej [Gdańsk University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty (Poland); Scharnweber, Dieter, E-mail: Dieter.Scharnweber@tu-dresden.de [Max Bergmann Center, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD > HAp/B-NCD > uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  13. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films — Coating characterization and first cell biological results

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD > HAp/B-NCD > uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  14. Novel nanocrystalline diamond coating of coronary stents reduces neointimal hyperplasia in pig model

    Kočka, V.; Jirásek, T.; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Rezek, Bohuslav; Šimůnková, Z.; Mrázová, I.; Toušek, P.; Mistrík, J.; Mandys, V.; Nesládek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2014), s. 65-76 ISSN 1205-6626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : stents * nanotechnology * restenosis * optical coherence tomography * diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2013

  15. Superconductivity and low temperature electrical transport in B-doped CVD nanocrystalline diamond

    Nesládek, M.; Mareš, Jiří J.; Tromson, D.; Mer, Ch.; Bergonzo, P.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, Suppl. 1 (2006), S41-S44 ISSN 1468-6996 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * electrical transport * doping * CVD diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2006

  16. Gamma radiation effects on hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond bio-transistors

    Krátká, Marie; Babchenko, Oleg; Ukraintsev, Egor; Vachelová, Jana; Davídková, Marie; Vandrovcová, Marta; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, Mar (2016), 186-191 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : diamond thin films * field effect transistors * proteins * cells * gamma irradiation * atomic force microscope * biosensors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2016

  17. Ultrafast photoluminescence spectroscopy of H- and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Dzurňák, B.; Trojánek, F.; Preclíková, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Malý, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 8 (2011), 1155-1159 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond * femtosecond photoluminescence spectroscopy * CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.913, year: 2011

  18. Spectroscopic study of defects and inclusions in bulk poly- and nanocrystalline diamond aggregates

    Shiryaev, A A; Iakoubovskii, K; Grambole, D; Dubrovinskaia, N

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a novel form of nanodiamond exhibiting unusual mechanical properties has been synthesized by high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) treatment of C 60 fullerene, amorphous carbon and diamond powder. In this study, we have characterized the dominant defects in this nanodiamond by a combination of optical absorption, luminescence, Raman, electron spin resonance and elastic recoil detection techniques. Unusually high concentrations (∼0.4 at.%) of hydrogen and very low concentrations of nitrogen (∼10 -5 at.%) have been detected in diamond grown from C 60 . Although most of hydrogen is shown to originate from inclusions of foreign phases, such as water, significant concentrations (∼0.01 at.%) of hydrogen were also detected as a point defect in the nanodiamond grains. Observed structural differences between the samples made from various carbonaceous materials are attributed to different behaviour of the starting compounds during HPHT treatment. (letter to the editor)

  19. Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides

    Prajzler, V.; Varga, Marián; Nekvindová, P.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2013), s. 8417-8425 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794; GA MŠk LH12186; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : waveguides, planar * diamond machining * optical design and fabrication Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.525, year: 2013

  20. n-Type phosphorus-doped nanocrystalline diamond: electrochemical and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical study

    Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Frank, Otakar; Drijkoningen, S.; Haenen, K.; Mortet, Vincent; Kavan, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 56 (2016), s. 51387-51393 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) G.0456.1 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Amorphous films * Cyclic voltammetry * Diamond films Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  1. Nanomolar hydrogen peroxide detection using horseradish peroxidase covalently linked to undoped nanocrystalline diamond surfaces

    Wang, Q.; Kromka, Alexander; Houdková, Jana; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Li, M.; Boukherroub, R.; Szunerits, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2012), s. 587-592 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : intrinsic diamond * large area growth * optical biosensor * covalent * XPS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.187, year: 2012

  2. Nanocarbon allotropes — graphene and nanocrystalline diamond — promote cell proliferation

    Verdanová, M.; Rezek, Bohuslav; Brož, A.; Ukraintsev, Egor; Babchenko, Oleg; Artemenko, Anna; Ižák, Tibor; Kromka, Alexander; Kalbáč, Martin; Hubálek Kalbáčová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 18 (2016), s. 2499-2509 ISSN 1613-6810 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * diamond * cell * cell proliferation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 8.643, year: 2016

  3. Nanocrystalline diamond on Si solar cells for direct photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Kusko, M.; Fendrych, František; Poruba, A.; Taylor, Andrew; Jäger, Aleš; Fekete, Ladislav; Kraus, I.; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 10 (2014), s. 2347-2352 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238201 - MATCON Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : boron-doped diamond * solar cell * heterostructure * water splitting Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.616, year: 2014

  4. 42 CFR 426.525 - NCD review.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCD review. 426.525 Section 426.525 Public Health... PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.525 NCD review. (a) Opportunity for the aggrieved party after his or her review of the NCD record...

  5. Low-temperature magnetoresistance study of electrical transport in N- and B-doped ultrananocrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond films

    Nesládek, M.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Hubík, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.; Krištofik, Jozef; Kindl, Dobroslav; Williams, O.A.; Gruen, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2006), s. 607-613 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010404; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : U-NCD * NCD * doping * low-temperature doping * weak localisation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.935, year: 2006

  6. N-type doped nano-diamond in a first MEMS application

    Dipalo, M.; Kusterer, J.; Janischowsky, K.; Kohn, E. [Dept. of Electron Devices and Circuits, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Nanocrystalline diamond is an interesting material for MEMS applications especially due to its outstanding mechanical, electrical and electrochemical properties. The current choice for doping is boron, resulting in p-type conduction. It has two difficulties: firstly, at high concentration (as needed for full activation) the lattice becomes highly stressed and may degrade the material's quality. Secondly, it contaminates the growth chamber, resulting in a memory effect. A recent alternative is n-type nitrogen doping, avoiding these disadvantages. However, nitrogen is mainly incorporated in the grain boundaries and thus inhomogeneously distributed. In turn this may limit the material's stability. Here we present a first trial to use nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), grown by hot filament CVD, in a water microjet as heater element. No stability problems were encountered even at high overdrive power. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Effect of plasma composition on nanocrystalline diamond layers deposited by a microwave linear antenna plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    Taylor, Andrew; Ashcheulov, Petr; Čada, Martin; Fekete, Ladislav; Hubík, Pavel; Klimša, Ladislav; Olejníček, Jiří; Remeš, Zdeněk; Jirka, Ivan; Janíček, P.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Mistrík, J.; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 11 (2015), s. 2418-2423 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : diamond * electrical conductivity * nanocrystalline materials * optical emission spectroscopy * plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition * SiC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  8. Enhanced field emission characteristics of boron doped diamond films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Koinkar, Pankaj M. [Center for International Cooperation in Engineering Education (CICEE), University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Patil, Sandip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Kim, Tae-Gyu [Department of Nano System and Process Engineering, Pusan National University, 50 Cheonghak-ri, Samrangjin-eup, Miryang, Gyeongnam, Pusan 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Yonekura, Daisuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.in [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Joag, Dilip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Murakami, Ri-ichi, E-mail: murakami@me.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration varied from 1000 to 5000 ppm on the field emission characteristics was examined. The surface morphology and quality of films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology obtained by SEM showed variation from facetted microcrystal covered with nanometric grains to cauliflower of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) particles with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of NCD films. The field emission properties of NCD films were observed to improve upon increasing boron concentration. The values of the onset field and threshold field are observed to be as low as 0.36 and 0.08 V/{mu}m, respectively. The field emission current stability investigated at the preset value of {approx}1 {mu}A is observed to be good, in each case. The enhanced field emission properties are attributed to the better electrical conductivity coupled with the nanometric features of the diamond films.

  9. Effect of boron doping on the wear behavior of the growth and nucleation surfaces of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond films

    Buijnsters, J.G.; Tsigkourakos, M.C.; Hantschel, T.; Gomes, F.O.V.; Nuytten, T.; Favia, P.; Bender, H; Arstila, K.; Celis, JP; Vandervorst, W

    2016-01-01

    B-doped diamond has become the ultimate material for applications in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which require both highly wear resistant and electrically conductive diamond films and microstructures. Despite the extensive research of the tribological properties of undoped

  10. Enhanced Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells on Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films

    Grausová, Ľubica; Kromka, Alexander; Burdíková, Zuzana; Eckhardt, Adam; Rezek, Bohuslav; Vacík, Jiří; Haenen, K.; Lisá, Věra; Bačáková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2011), e20943 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00100902; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400100701 Program:KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : osteoblast-like cells * boron * NCD films Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  11. Analysis of the application of poly-nanocrystalline diamond tools for ultra precision machining of steel with ultrasonic assistance

    Doetz, M.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.; Bulla, B.; Schottka, K.; Robertson, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-precision diamond turning enables the manufacturing of parts with mirror-like surfaces and highest form accuracies out of non-ferrous, a few crystalline and plastic materials. Furthermore, an ultrasonic assistance has the ability to push these boundaries and enables the machining of materials like steel, which is not possible in a conventional way due to the excessive tool wear caused by the affinity of carbon to iron. Usually monocrystalline diamonds tools are applied due to their unsurpassed cutting edge properties. New cutting tool material developments have shown that it is possible to produce tools made of nano-polycrystalline diamonds with cutting edges equivalent to monocrystalline diamonds. In nano-polycrystalline diamonds ultra-fine grains of a few tens of nanometers are firmly and directly bonded together creating an unisotropic structure. The properties of this material are described to be isotropic, harder and tougher than those of the monocrystalline diamonds, which are unisotropic. This publication will present machining results from the newest investigations of the process potential of this new polycrystalline cutting material. In order to provide a baseline with which to characterize the cutting material cutting experiments on different conventional machinable materials like Cooper or Aluminum are performed. The results provide information on the roughness and the topography of the surface focusing on the comparison to the results while machining with monocrystalline diamond. Furthermore, the cutting material is tested in machining steel with ultrasonic assistance with a focus on tool life time and surface roughness. An outlook on the machinability of other materials will be given.

  12. Effect of CH4 concentration on the growth behavior, structure, and transparent properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films synthesized by focused microwave Ar/CH4/H2 plasma jets

    Liao, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Chii-Ruey; Wei, Da-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The effects of CH 4 concentration (0.5–5%) on the growth mechanisms, nanostructures, and optically transparent properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films grown from focused microwave Ar/CH 4 /H 2 (argon-rich) plasma jets were systematically studied. The research results indicated that the grain size and surface roughness of the diamond films increased with increasing CH 4 concentration in the plasma jet, however, the nondiamond contents in films would not be correspondingly decreased resulting from the dispersed diamond nanocrystallites in the films synthesized at higher CH 4 concentration. The reason is due to that the relative emission intensity ratios of the C 2 /H α and the CH/C 2 in the plasma jets were increased and decreased with increasing CH 4 concentration, respectively, to lower the etching of nondiamond phase and the renucleation of diamond during synthesis. The studies of transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that, while the CH 4 introduction of 1% into the plasma jet produced the UNCD films with a spherical geometry (4–8 nm) and the CH 4 introduction of 5% into the plasma jet led to the elongated (∼90 nm in length and ∼35 nm in width) grains in the nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films with a dendrite-like geometry. The transmittance of diamond films was decreased gradually by films transition from UNCD to NCD, resulting from the enhanced surface roughness and nondiamond contents in films to concurrently increase the light scattering and absorption during photon transmission.

  13. Multilayer CVD Diamond Coatings in the Machining of an Al6061-15 Vol % Al2O3 Composite

    Mohammadmehdi Shabani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic cutting inserts coated with ten-fold alternating micro- and nanocrystalline diamond (MCD/NCD layers grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD were tested in the machining of an Al based metallic matrix composite (MMC containing 15 vol % Al2O3 particles. Inserts with total coating thicknesses of approximately 12 µm and 24 µm were produced and used in turning: cutting speed (v of 250 to 1000 m·min−1; depth of cut (DOC from 0.5 to 3 mm and feed (f between 0.1 and 0.4 mm·rev−1. The main cutting force increases linearly with DOC (ca. 294 N per mm and with feed (ca. 640 N per mm·rev−1. The thicker coatings work within the following limits: DOC up to 1.5 mm and maximum speeds of 750 m·min−1 for feeds up to 0.4 mm·rev−1. Flank wear is predominant but crater wear is also observed due to the negative tool normal rake. Layer-by-layer wear of the tool rake, and not total delamination from the substrate, evidenced one of the advantages of using a multilayer design. The MCD/NCD multilayer diamond coated indexable inserts have longer tool life than most CVD diamond systems and behave as well as most polycrystalline diamond (PCD tools.

  14. The infrared optical properties of heavily B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films on low alkaline glass substrates

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Nesladek, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 12 (2006), s. 3016-3020 ISSN 0031-8965 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100100623 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond * boron * dielectric function * glass Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.221, year: 2006

  15. Application of Powder Diffraction Methods to the Analysis of Short- and Long-Range Atomic Order in Nanocrystalline Diamond and SiC: The Concept of the Apparent Lattice Parameter (alp)

    Palosz, B.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Stelmakh, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Weber, H.-P.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods of the analysis of powder diffraction patterns of diamond and SiC nanocrystals are presented: (a) examination of changes of the lattice parameters with diffraction vector Q ('apparent lattice parameter', alp) which refers to Bragg scattering, and (b), examination of changes of inter-atomic distances based on the analysis of the atomic Pair Distribution Function, PDF. Application of these methods was studied based on the theoretical diffraction patterns computed for models of nanocrystals having (i) a perfect crystal lattice, and (ii), a core-shell structure, i.e. constituting a two-phase system. The models are defined by the lattice parameter of the grain core, thickness of the surface shell, and the magnitude and distribution of the strain field in the shell. X-ray and neutron experimental diffraction data of nanocrystalline SiC and diamond powders of the grain diameter from 4 nm up to micrometers were used. The effects of the internal pressure and strain at the grain surface on the structure are discussed based on the experimentally determined dependence of the alp values on the Q-vector, and changes of the interatomic distances with the grain size determined experimentally by the atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis. The experimental results lend a strong support to the concept of a two-phase, core and the surface shell structure of nanocrystalline diamond and SiC.

  16. Electronic and optical properties of diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures

    Gajewski, Wojciech; Garrido, Jose; Niedermeier, Martin; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institute, TU Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Williams, Oliver; Haenen, Ken [Institute for Materials Research, University of Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Different diamond substrates (single crystalline: SCD, poly-crystalline: PCD and nano-crystalline: NCD) were used to investigate the electronic and optical properties of the diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures. Layers of a poly[ethynyl-(2-decyloxy-5methoxy)benzene] - PEB, pentacene and 4-nitro-biphenyl-4-diazonium cations - Ph-Ph-NO{sub 2} were prepared by spin coating, thermal evaporation and grafting, respectively. The measurements of the electronic transport along the organic layer were performed using a Hg probe as well as Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 70-400 K. The I-V characteristics of the B-doped diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures were measured at room temperature by means of the Hg probe. Undoped IIa and undoped PCD films were used for a study of the optical and optoelectronic properties of prepared heterostructures. The influence of the organic layer homogeneity and layer thickness on the optical properties will be discussed. Furthermore, preliminary data on perpendicular and parallel transport in the heterostructures layer will be reported.

  17. Does published research on non-communicable disease (NCD in Arab countries reflect NCD disease burden?

    Abla M Sibai

    Full Text Available To review trends in non-communicable (NCD research output in the Arab region, in terms of quantity and quality, study design, setting and focus. We also examined differences by time and place, and assessed gaps between research output and NCD burden.A scoping review of a total of 3,776 NCD-related reports published between 2000 and 2013 was conducted for seven Arab countries. Countries were selected to represent diverse socio-economic development levels in the region: Regression analyses were used to assess trends in publications over time and by country. Research gaps were assessed by examining the degree of match between proportionate literature coverage of the four main NCDs (CVD, cancer, DM, and COPD and cause-specific proportional mortality rates (PMR.The annual number of NCD publications rose nearly 5-fold during the study period, with higher income countries having the higher publication rates (per million populations and the most rapid increases. The increase in the publication rate was particularly prominent for descriptive observational studies, while interventional studies and systematic reviews remained infrequent (slope coefficients = 13.484 and 0.883, respectively. Gap analysis showed a mismatch between cause-specific PMR burden and NCD research output, with a relative surplus of reports on cancer (pooled estimate +38.3% and a relative deficit of reports on CVDs (pooled estimate -30.3%.The widening disparity between higher and lower-income countries and the discordance between research output and disease burden call for the need for ongoing collaboration among Arab academic institutions, funding agencies and researchers to guide country-specific and regional research agendas, support and conduct.

  18. Thermal Transport in Diamond Films for Electronics Thermal Management

    2018-03-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0219 THERMAL TRANSPORT IN DIAMOND FILMS FOR ELECTRONICS THERMAL MANAGEMENT Samuel Graham Georgia Institute of Technology MARCH... ELECTRONICS THERMAL MANAGEMENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-C-7517 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61101E 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel...seeded sample (NRL 010516, Die A5). The NCD membrane and Al layer thicknesses, tNCD, were measured via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The

  19. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications

    Narayan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel applications of this versatile material. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications. Functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces is discussed, followed by biotribology and biological behaviour of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two then goes on to review biomedical applications of diamond based materials, beginning with nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. Topics explored include ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmologi...

  20. Nanocrystalline solids

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of Cvd Diamond Coating Type on Micro Drills in Pcb Machining

    Lei, X. L.; He, Y.; Sun, F. H.

    2016-12-01

    The demand for better tools for machining printed circuit boards (PCBs) is increasing due to the extensive usage of these boards in digital electronic products. This paper is aimed at optimizing coating type on micro drills in order to extend their lifetime in PCB machining. First, the tribotests involving micro crystalline diamond (MCD), nano crystalline diamond (NCD) and bare tungsten carbide (WC-Co) against PCBs show that NCD-PCB tribopair exhibits the lowest friction coefficient (0.35) due to the unique nano structure and low surface roughness of NCD films. Thereafter, the dry machining performance of the MCD- and NCD-coated micro drills on PCBs is systematically studied, using diamond-like coating (DLC) and TiAlN-coated micro drills as comparison. The experiments show that the working lives of these micro drills can be ranked as: NCD>TiAlN>DLC>MCD>bare WC-Co. The superior cutting performance of NCD-coated micro drills in terms of the lowest flank wear growth rate, no tool degradation (e.g. chipping, tool tipping) appearance, the best hole quality as well as the lowest feed force may come from the excellent wear resistance, lower friction coefficient against PCB as well as the high adhesive strength on the underneath substrate of NCD films.

  2. Biofunctionalization of diamond microelectrodes

    Reitinger, Andreas Adam; Lud, Simon Quartus; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Hutter, Naima Aurelia; Richter, Gerhard; Jordan, Rainer [WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present two main routes for the biofunctionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films, aiming at the application of diamond microelectrodes as amperometric biosensors. We report on direct covalent grafting of biomolecules on nanocrystalline diamond films via diazonium monophenyls and biphenyls as well as other linker molecules, forming self-assembled monolayers on the diamond surface. Monolayers with different functional head groups have been characterized. Patterning of the available functional groups using electron beam-induced chemical lithography allows the selective preparation of well-localized docking sites for the immobilization of biomolecules. Furthermore, polymer brushes are expected to enable novel paths for designing more advanced biosensing schemes, incorporating multifunctional groups and a higher loading capacity for biomolecules. Here, we focus on the preparation of polymer grafts by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization. Further chemical modification of the grafted polymer brushes results in the introduction of additional functional molecules, paving the way for the incorporation of more complex molecular structures such as proteins. In a comparative study we investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.

  3. High quality factor gigahertz frequencies in nanomechanical diamond resonators

    Gaidarzhy, Alexei; Imboden, Matthias; Mohanty, Pritiraj; Rankin, Janet; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    We report actuation and detection of gigahertz-range resonance frequencies in nano-crystalline diamond mechanical resonators. High order transverse vibration modes are measured in coupled-beam resonators exhibiting frequencies up to 1.441 GHz. The cantilever-array design of the resonators translates the gigahertz-range resonant motion of micron-long cantilever elements to the displacement of the central supporting structure. Use of nano-crystalline diamond further increases the frequency comp...

  4. 42 CFR 426.515 - CMS' role in making the NCD record available.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS' role in making the NCD record available. 426.515 Section 426.515 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.515 CMS' role in making the NCD record available. CMS will...

  5. Determination of gas temperature and C2 absolute density in Ar/H2/CH4 microwave discharges used for nanocrystalline diamond deposition from the C2 Mulliken system

    Lombardi, G; Benedic, F; Mohasseb, F; Hassouni, K; Gicquel, A

    2004-01-01

    The spectroscopic characterization of Ar/H 2 /CH 4 discharges suitable for the synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond using the microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition process is reported. The experiments are realized in a moderate-pressure bell jar reactor, where discharges are ignited using a microwave cavity coupling system. The concentration of CH 4 is maintained at 1% and the coupled set of hydrogen concentration/microwave power (MWP) ranges from 2%/500 W to 7%/800 W at a pressure of 200 mbar. Emission spectroscopy and broadband absorption spectroscopy studies are carried out on the C 2 (D I SIGMA + u -CHI I SIGMA + g ) Mulliken system and the C 2 (d 3 Π g -a 3 Π u ) Swan system in order to determine the gas temperature and the C 2 absolute density within the plasma. For this purpose, and since the Swan system is quite well-known, much importance is devoted to the achievement of a detailed simulation of the Mulliken system, which allows the determination of both the rotational temperature and the density of the CHI I SIGMA + g ground state, as well as the rotational temperature of the D I SIGMA + u state, from experimental data. All the experimental values are compared to those predicted by a thermochemical model developed to describe Ar/H 2 /CH 4 microwave discharges under quasi-homogeneous plasma assumption. This comparison shows a reasonable agreement between the values measured from the C 2 Mulliken system, those measured from the C 2 Swan system and that calculated from plasma modelling, especially at low hydrogen concentration/MWP. These consistent results show that the use of the Mulliken system leads to fairly good estimates of the gas temperature and of the C 2 absolute density. The relatively high gas temperatures found for the conditions investigated, typically between 3000 K and 4000 K, are attributed to the low thermal conductivity of argon that may limit thermal losses to the substrate surface and reactor wall. The measured C 2

  6. Engaging the private sector to strengthen NCD prevention and control

    Allen, Luke; Bloomfield, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    All around the world private enterprises influence health through the sale of both harmful and health-promoting commodities, as well as lobbying and marketing activities. As globalisation further strengthens the role of the private sector as a major driver of the non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, engaging with the private sector to prevent and control these conditions has become increasingly important. In recognition of this fact, the 2011 UN High-Level Political Declaration on NCDs2 c...

  7. Characterization of amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films

    Chu, Paul K.; Li Liuhe

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films possess special chemical and physical properties such as high chemical inertness, diamond-like properties, and favorable tribological proprieties. The materials usually consist of graphite and diamond microstructures and thus possess properties that lie between the two. Amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films can exist in different kinds of matrices and are usually doped with a large amount of hydrogen. Thus, carbon films can be classified as polymer-like, diamond-like, or graphite-like based on the main binding framework. In order to characterize the structure, either direct bonding characterization methods or the indirect bonding characterization methods are employed. Examples of techniques utilized to identify the chemical bonds and microstructure of amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films include optical characterization methods such as Raman spectroscopy, Ultra-violet (UV) Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy, electron spectroscopic and microscopic methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, surface morphology characterization techniques such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM) as well as other characterization methods such as X-ray reflectivity and nuclear magnetic resonance. In this review, the structures of various types of amorphous carbon films and common characterization techniques are described

  8. Diamond structures grown from polymer composite nanofibers

    Potocký, Štěpán; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Martinová, L.; Pokorný, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 519-521 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapour deposition * composite polymer * nanocrystalline diamond * nanofiber sheet * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Tackling the global NCD crisis: innovations in law and governance.

    Thomas, Bryan; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2013-01-01

    35 million people die annually of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 80% of them in low- and middle-income countries - representing a marked epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases and from richer to poorer countries. The total number of NCDs is projected to rise by 17% over the coming decade, absent significant interventions. The NCD epidemic poses unique governance challenges: the causes are multifactorial, the affected populations diffuse, and effective responses require sustained multi-sectorial cooperation. The authors propose a range of regulatory options available at the domestic level, including stricter food labeling laws, regulation of food advertisements, tax incentives for healthy lifestyle choices, changes to the built environment, and direct regulation of food and drink producers. Given the realities of globalization, such interventions require global cooperation. In 2011, the UN General Assembly held a High-level meeting on NCDs, setting a global target of a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025. Yet concrete plans and resource commitments for reaching this goal are not yet in the offing, and the window is rapidly closing for achieving these targets through prevention - as opposed to treatment, which is more costly. Innovative global governance for health is urgently needed to engage private industry and civil society in the global response to the NCD crisis. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Strategic investments in non-communicable diseases (NCD) research in Africa: the GSK Africa NCD Open Lab.

    Hall, Matthew D; Dufton, Ann M; Katso, Roy M; Gatsi, Sally A; Williams, Pauline M; Strange, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, GSK announced a number of new strategic investments in Africa. One of these included investment of up to 25 million Pounds Sterling (£25 million) to create the world's first R&D Open Lab to increase understanding of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Africa. The vision is to create a new global R&D effort with GSK working in partnership with major funders, academic centres and governments to share expertise and resources to conduct high-quality research. The Africa NCD Open Lab will see GSK scientists collaborate with scientific research centres across Africa. An independent advisory board of leading scientists and clinicians will provide input to develop the strategy and selection of NCD research projects within a dynamic and networked open-innovation environment. It is hoped that these research projects will inform prevention and treatment strategies in the future and will enable researchers across academia and industry to discover and develop new medicines to address the specific needs of African patients.

  11. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  12. Diamond identifaction

    1976-01-01

    X-ray topography on diamonds allows for unique identification of diamonds. The method described consists of the registration of crystal defects, inclusions etc. of a diamond, resulting in a 'finger print' of the individual jewel which can only be changed by its complete destruction

  13. Amination of NCD films for possible application in biosensing

    Artemenko, Anna; Kozak, Halyna; Biederman, H.; Choukourov, A.; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2015), s. 336-346 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA MŠk 7AMB14SK024; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma polymer * diamond film * XPS * I-V Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2015

  14. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  15. Diamond identification

    Lang, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of producing sets of records of the internal defects of diamonds as a means of identification of the gems by x-ray topography are described. To obtain the records one can either use (a) monochromatic x-radiation reflected at the Bragg angle from crystallographically equivalent planes of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections from each such plane being recorded from a number of directions of view, or (b) white x-radiation incident upon the diamond in directions having a constant angular relationship to each equivalent axis of symmetry of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections being recorded for each direction of the incident x-radiation. By either method an overall point-to-point three dimensional representation of the diamond is produced. (U.K.)

  16. STRUCTURING OF DIAMOND FILMS USING MICROSPHERE LITHOGRAPHY

    Mária Domonkos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  17. Low-temperature phenomena in highly doped grained diamond

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef; Nesládek, Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2009), s. 3689-3694 ISSN 1533-4880 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond films * granular structure * superconductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2009

  18. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  19. Diamond nanophotonics

    Katja Beha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.

  20. Novel morphology of chemical vapor deposited diamond films

    Tang, C.J. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, A.J.S.; Abe, I.; Pinto, J.L. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Gracio, J. [TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Buijnsters, J.G. [Institute for Molecules and Materials (IMM), Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    We have obtained simultaneously nanocrystalline and {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted large-grained polycrystalline diamond films not only on different substrates but also on the same substrate in only one deposition run using a novel approach for substrate arrangement. Furthermore, interesting unusual morphologies and microstructures composed by non-faceted nanostructures and terminated with large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt are found near the edges of the top square sample. The morphology variation is likely caused by the so called edge effect, where a strong variation in temperature is also present. We have modelled the temperature distribution on the substrates by computer simulations using the finite element method. The novel feature, namely the coexistence of oval non-faceted nanocrystalline diamond grains and large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt in one diamond grain, is in the transition from {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted polycrystalline diamond to cauliflower-like nanocrystalline diamond. The formation mechanism is discussed based on the temperature analysis and other simulation results described in the literature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Modeling of thermal stress induced during the diamond-coating of ALGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Jirásek, Vít; Ižák, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Kromka, Alexander; Vanko, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 522-526 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nano-crystalline diamond * gallium nitride * HEMT * selective diamond growth Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Kozak, Halyna; Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Babchenko, Oleg; Kromka, Alexander; Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 270, APR (2013), s. 411-417 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GPP205/12/P331; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ATR FTIR * CVD * hydrogenation * microwave * nanocrystalline diamond * nanopowder Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  3. Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission from nitrogen doped and undoped polycrystalline diamond films

    Elfimchev, S., E-mail: sergeyel@tx.technion.ac.il; Chandran, M.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen related centers in diamond film are mainly responsible for visible sub-band-gap photoelectron emission. • The influence of film thickness and substrate on the measured photoelectron emission yields was not found. • Nanocrystalline diamonds have low electron emission yields most likely because of high amount of defects. • Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission may increase with temperature due to electron trapping/detrapping processes. - Abstract: In this study the origin of visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission (PEE) from polycrystalline diamond films is investigated. The PEE yields as a function of temperature were studied in the wavelengths range of 360–520 nm. Based on the comparison of electron emission yields from diamond films deposited on silicon and molybdenum substrates, with different thicknesses and nitrogen doping levels, we suggested that photoelectrons are generated from nitrogen related centers in diamond. Our results show that diamond film thickness and substrate material have no significant influence on the PEE yield. We found that nanocrystalline diamond films have low electron emission yields, compared to microcrystalline diamond, due to the presence of high amount of defects in the former, which trap excited electrons before escaping into the vacuum. However, the low PEE yield of nanocrystalline diamond films was found to increase with temperature. The phenomenon was explained by the trap assisted photon enhanced thermionic emission (ta-PETE) model. According to the ta-PETE model, photoelectrons are trapped by shallow traps, followed by thermal excitation at elevated temperatures and escape into the vacuum. Activation energies of trap levels were estimated for undoped nanocrystalline, undoped microcrystalline and N-doped diamond films using the Richardson-Dushman equation, which gives 0.13, 0.39 and 0.04 eV, respectively. Such low activation energy of trap levels makes the ta-PETE process very

  4. Study of carbide-forming element interlayers for diamond nucleation and growth on silicon and WC-Co substrates

    Tang, Y.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond nucleation and growth on several typical carbide-forming elements (CFE) (Ti, Cr and W) coated Si and WC-Co substrates were studied. The ion beam sputtered CFE interlayers show an amorphous/nanocrystalline microstructure. The diamond formed on the CFE coated substrates shows higher nucleation density and rate and finer grain structure than on uncoated substrates. Consequently, nanocrystalline diamond thin films can be formed on the CFE coated substrates under conventional microcrystalline diamond growth conditions. Among the three tested CFE interlayers, diamond has the highest nucleation density and rate on W layer and the lowest on Ti layer. The diamond nucleation density and rate on CFE coated WC-Co are much higher than those on widely used metal nitride coated WC-Co.

  5. Size-induced enhancement of bulk modulus and transition pressure of nanocrystalline Ge

    Wang, Hua; Liu, J.F.; He, Yongqi

    2007-01-01

    In situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation source have been performed on nanocrystalline Ge with particle sizes 13, 49 and 100 nm by using diamond anvil cell. Whereas the percentage volume collapse at the transition is almost constant, the values of the bu...

  6. Structural Transformation upon Nitrogen Doping of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films by Microwave Plasma CVD

    Chien-Chung Teng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular properties and surface morphology of undoped and N-doped ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD films deposited by microwave plasma CVD with addition of nitrogen are investigated with various spectroscopic techniques. The results of spatially resolved Raman scattering, ATR/FT-IR and XPS spectra show more amorphous and sp2/sp3 ratio characteristics in N-doped UNCD films. The surface morphology in AFM scans shows larger nanocrystalline diamond clusters in N-doped UNCD films. Incorporation of nitrogen into UNCD films has promoted an increase of amorphous sp2-bonded carbons in the grain boundaries and the size of nanocrystalline diamond grains that are well correlated to the reported enhancement of conductivity and structural changes of UNCD films.

  7. Diamond network: template-free fabrication and properties.

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Nianjun; Fu, Haiyuan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chun; Huang, Nan; Jiang, Xin

    2015-03-11

    A porous diamond network with three-dimensionally interconnected pores is of technical importance but difficult to be produced. In this contribution, we demonstrate a simple, controllable, and "template-free" approach to fabricate diamond networks. It combines the deposition of diamond/β-SiC nanocomposite film with a wet-chemical selective etching of the β-SiC phase. The porosity of these networks was tuned from 15 to 68%, determined by the ratio of the β-SiC phase in the composite films. The electrochemical working potential and the reactivity of redox probes on the diamond networks are similar to those of a flat nanocrystalline diamond film, while their surface areas are hundreds of times larger than that of a flat diamond film (e.g., 490-fold enhancement for a 3 μm thick diamond network). The marriage of the unprecedented physical/chemical features of diamond with inherent advantages of the porous structure makes the diamond network a potential candidate for various applications such as water treatment, energy conversion (batteries or fuel cells), and storage (capacitors), as well as electrochemical and biochemical sensing.

  8. Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management - LOKMOL and L3NCD

    Memmel, Martin; Ras, Eric; Weibelzahl, Stephan; Burgos, Daniel; Olmedilla, Daniel; Wolpers, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Memmel, M., Ras, E., Weibelzahl, S., Burgos, D., Olmedilla, D., & Wolpers, M. (2006). Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management - LOKMOL and L3NCD. Proceedings of ECTEL 2006. October 2nd-4th, Crete, Greece. Retrieved October 2nd, 2006,

  9. Modeling of thermal stress induced during the diamond-coating of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Jirásek, V.; Ižák, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Kromka, Alexander; Vanko, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 522-526 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : gallium nitride * HEMT * nano-crystalline diamond * selective diamond growth Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/asem.2013.1324.

  10. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  11. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    Mengui, U.A.; Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F.; Hamanaka, M.H.M.O.; Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films

  12. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    Mengui, U.A., E-mail: ursulamengui@gmail.com [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Hamanaka, M.H.M.O. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Divisão de Superfícies de Interação e Displays, Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP 65) km 143.6, CP 6162, CEP 13089-500, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films.

  13. Development of a templated approach to fabricate diamond patterns on various substrates.

    Shimoni, Olga; Cervenka, Jiri; Karle, Timothy J; Fox, Kate; Gibson, Brant C; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Greentree, Andrew D; Prawer, Steven

    2014-06-11

    We demonstrate a robust templated approach to pattern thin films of chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline diamond grown from monodispersed nanodiamond (mdND) seeds. The method works on a range of substrates, and we herein demonstrate the method using silicon, aluminum nitride (AlN), and sapphire substrates. Patterns are defined using photo- and e-beam lithography, which are seeded with mdND colloids and subsequently introduced into microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor to grow patterned nanocrystalline diamond films. In this study, we investigate various factors that affect the selective seeding of different substrates to create high quality diamond thin films, including mdND surface termination, zeta potential, surface treatment, and plasma cleaning. Although the electrostatic interaction between mdND colloids and substrates is the main process driving adherence, we found that chemical reaction (esterification) or hydrogen bonding can potentially dominate the seeding process. Leveraging the knowledge on these different interactions, we optimize fabrication protocols to eliminate unwanted diamond nucleation outside the patterned areas. Furthermore, we have achieved the deposition of patterned diamond films and arrays over a range of feature sizes. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mdND-substrate interaction that will enable the fabrication of integrated nanocrystalline diamond thin films for microelectronics, sensors, and tissue culturing applications.

  14. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is associated with raft membrane microdomains in monocytes

    Navarrete Santos, A; Roentsch, J; Danielsen, E M

    2000-01-01

    as in adhesion and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report for the first time that aminopeptidase N/CD13 in monocytes is partially localized in detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, glycolipids, and glycosylphosphoinositol-anchored proteins, referred to as "rafts." Raft fractions...... of monocytes were characterized by the presence of GM1 ganglioside as raft marker molecule and by the high level of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, similar to polarized cells, rafts in monocytic cells lack Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Cholesterol depletion of monocytes by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin greatly...... reduces raft localization of aminopeptidase N/CD13 without affecting ala-p-nitroanilide cleaving activity of cells....

  15. The Digital Health Scorecard: A New Health Literacy Metric for NCD Prevention and Care.

    Ratzan, Scott C; Weinberger, Michael B; Apfel, Franklin; Kocharian, Gary

    2013-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 3 out of 5 deaths worldwide are due to common, chronic conditions, such as heart and respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes. These noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are linked to multiple lifestyle risk factors, including smoking, the harmful use of alcohol, and physical inactivity. They are associated with other "intermediate" risk factors, such as elevated body mass index (BMI), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Taking action to reduce these 7 risk factors can help people protect themselves against leading causes of death. All of these risk factors are measurable and modifiable, but globally available, cost-effective, and easy-to-use outcome metrics that can drive action on all levels do not yet exist. The Digital Health Scorecard is being proposed as a dynamic, globally available digital tool to raise public, professional, and policy maker NCD health literacy (the motivation and ability to access, understand, communicate, and use information to improve health and reduce the incidence of NCD). Its aim is to motivate and empower individuals to make the behavioral and choice changes needed to improve their health and reduce NCD risk factors by giving unprecedented access to global data intelligence, creating awareness, making links to professional and community-based support services and policies, and providing a simple way to measure and track risk changes. Moreover, it provides health care professionals, communities, institutions, workplaces, and nations with a simple metric to monitor progress toward agreed local, national, and global NCD targets. Copyright © 2013 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The enhanced nucleation factors and field electron emission property of diamond synthesized by RF-PECVD

    Yang Guangmin [College of Physics, Changchun Normal University, Jilin Province, Changchun 130032 (China); Xu Qiang [Changchun Institute of Technology, Changchun 130021 (China); Wang Xin [Department of Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Mobile Materials, MOE, and State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zheng Weitao, E-mail: wtzheng@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Mobile Materials, MOE, and State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Submicron-diamond, microcrystalline diamond, and nanocrystalline diamond were synthesized using different substrates and pretreatment methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three techniques have been developed to create some density of diamond on substrate surfaces by PECVD deposition procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field electron emission property was also investigated. - Abstract: In this work, submicron-diamond (SD), microcrystalline diamond (MD), and nanocrystalline diamond (ND) were synthesized using different substrates and pretreatment methods. In order to investigate influencing factors on nucleation, three techniques have been developed to create some density of diamond on substrate surfaces: (a) with chemical-etching technique (NaOH water solution at 80 Degree-Sign C for 3, 8, 15 min, respectively), (b) (Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}/Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O or Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O/Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O alcohol solution) dripping on silicon substrate, and (c) NaCl substrate directly by following a same PECVD deposition procedure. Furthermore, the field electron emission property was also investigated.

  17. Gas-sensing behaviour of ZnO/diamond nanostructures

    Davydova, Marina; Laposa, A.; Smarhak, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Neykova, Neda; Náhlík, J.; Kroutil, J.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Voves, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Jan (2018), s. 22-29 ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-06054P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : density functional theory (DFT) * gas sensor * interdigital electrodes * nanocrystalline diamond * sensitivity * zinc oxide (ZnO) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2016

  18. Nanostructured diamond layers enhance the infrared spectroscopy of biomolecules

    Kozak, Halyna; Babchenko, Oleg; Artemenko, Anna; Ukraintsev, Egor; Remeš, Zdeněk; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 8 (2014), s. 2054-2060 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI2/736; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA ČR GPP205/12/P331; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * optical elements * nanostructured * FBS * GAR-FTIR * XPS Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.457, year: 2014

  19. Involving private healthcare practitioners in an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system: lessons learned from Pune, India.

    Kroll, Mareike; Phalkey, Revati; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India. We mapped all private healthcare providers in three selected areas of the city, conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey with regard to surveillance among 258 consenting practitioners, and assessed their willingness to participate in a routine NCD surveillance system. In total, 127 practitioners agreed and were included in a 6-month surveillance study. Data on first-time diagnoses of 10 selected NCDs alongside basic demographic and socioeconomic patient information were collected onsite on a monthly basis using a paper-based register. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. In total, 1,532 incident cases were recorded that mainly included hypertension ( n =622, 41%) and diabetes ( n =460, 30%). Dropout rate was 10% ( n =13). The monthly reporting consistency was quite constant, with the majority ( n =63, 50%) submitting 1-10 cases in 6 months. Average number of submitted cases was highest among allopathic practitioners (17.4). A majority of the participants ( n =104, 91%) agreed that the surveillance design could be scaled up to cover the entire city. The study indicates that private primary healthcare providers (allopathic and alternate medicine practitioners) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of NCDs and can be involved in NCD surveillance, if certain barriers are addressed. Main barriers observed were lack of regulation of the private sector, cross

  20. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S

    2014-04-07

    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

  1. THIN DIAMOND FILMS FOR SNS H INJECTIONS STRIPPING

    SHAW, R.W.; HERR, A.D.; FEIGERLE, C.S.; CUTLER, R.J.; LIAW, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the preparation and testing of thin diamond foils for use in stripping the SNS H - Linac beam. A long useful lifetime for these foils is desirable to improve operational efficiency. Preliminary data presented at PAC 2001 indicated that diamond foils were superior to conventional evaporated carbon foils, exhibiting lifetimes approximately five-fold longer [1]. That work employed a fully supported diamond foil, a format that is not acceptable for the SNS application; at least two edges of the approximately 1 x 1 cm foils must be free standing to allow for beam rastering. Residual stress in a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond foil results in film distortion (scrolling) when the film is released from its silicon growth substrate. We have attacked this problem by initially patterning the surface of CVD growth substrates with a 50 or 100 line/inch trapezoidal grating, followed by conformal diamond film growth on the patterned substrate. Then removal of the substrate by chemical etching produced a foil that possessed improved mechanical integrity due to its corrugation. The high nucleation density required to grow continuous, pinhole free diamond foils of the desired thickness (1 (micro)m, 350 (micro)g/cm 2 ) was achieved by a combination of substrate surface scratching and seeding. A variety of diamond foils have been tested using the BNL 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole H - beam to simulate energy loss in the SNS. Those include flat, corrugated, microcrystalline, and nanocrystalline foils. Foil lifetimes are reported

  2. HFCVD Diamond-Coated Mechanical Seals

    Raul Simões

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical seal promotes the connection between systems or mechanisms, preventing the escape of fluids to the exterior. Nonetheless, due to extreme working conditions, premature failure can occur. Diamond, due to its excellent properties, is heralded as an excellent choice to cover the surface of these devices and extend their lifetime. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to deposit diamond films over mechanical seals and test the coated seals on a water pump, under real working conditions. The coatings were created by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD and two consecutive layers of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond were deposited. One of the main difficulties is the attainment of a good adhesion between the diamond films and the mechanical seal material (WC-Co. Nucleation, deposition conditions, and pre-treatments were studied to enhance the coating. Superficial wear or delamination of the film was investigated using SEM and Raman characterization techniques, in order to draw conclusions about the feasibility of these coatings in the WC-Co mechanical seals with the purpose of increasing their performance and life time. The results obtained gave a good indication about the feasibility of this process and the deposition conditions used, with the mechanical seals showing no wear and no film delamination after a real work environment test.

  3. Diamond-coated probe head for measurements in the deep SOL and beyond

    Schrittwieser, R.; Xu, G. S.; Yan, Ning

    We have tested two cylindrical graphite probe heads coated by a layer of electrically isolating UNCD (Ultra Nano-Crystalline Diamond) using a CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) method. The probe heads were mounted on the reciprocating probe manipulator of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting T...

  4. Selected topics related to the transport and superconductivity in boron-doped diamond

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef; Nesládek, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2008), 044101/1-044101/6 ISSN 1468-6996 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.267, year: 2008

  5. Optimizing atomic force microscopy for characterization of diamond-protein interfaces

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, Apr. (2011), 337/1-337/10 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : atomic force microscopy (AFM) * nanocrystalline diamond * oxygen-terminated diamond * hydrogen-terminated diamond * proteins * fetal bovine serum (FBS) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2011

  6. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing

    Hébert, Clément, E-mail: clement.hebert@cea.fr [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine [INSERM, U836, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Garçon, Laurie Amandine [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CEA/INAC/SPrAM/CREAB, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mermoux, Michel [Université Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Eon, David [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mailley, Pascal [CEA-LETI-DTBS Minatec, 17 rue des Martyres, 38054 Grenoble (France); Omnès, Franck [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of all-diamond microelectrode array • Evaluation of as-grown nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond for electrical neural interfacing • MRI compatibility of nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond.

  7. Boron-doped diamond electrode: synthesis, characterization, functionalization and analytical applications.

    Luong, John H T; Male, Keith B; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, conductive diamond electrodes for electrochemical applications have been a major focus of research and development. The impetus behind such endeavors could be attributed to their wide potential window, low background current, chemical inertness, and mechanical durability. Several analytes can be oxidized by conducting diamond compared to other carbon-based materials before the breakdown of water in aqueous electrolytes. This is important for detecting and/or identifying species in solution since oxygen and hydrogen evolution do not interfere with the analysis. Thus, conductive diamond electrodes take electrochemical detection into new areas and extend their usefulness to analytes which are not feasible with conventional electrode materials. Different types of diamond electrodes, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline, have been synthesized and characterized. Of particular interest is the synthesis of boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by chemical vapor deposition on various substrates. In the tetrahedral diamond lattice, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to its neighbors forming an extremely robust crystalline structure. Some carbon atoms in the lattice are substituted with boron to provide electrical conductivity. Modification strategies of doped diamond electrodes with metallic nanoparticles and/or electropolymerized films are of importance to impart novel characteristics or to improve the performance of diamond electrodes. Biofunctionalization of diamond films is also feasible to foster several useful bioanalytical applications. A plethora of opportunities for nanoscale analytical devices based on conducting diamond is anticipated in the very near future.

  8. Synthetic diamond in electrochemistry

    Pleskov, Yurii V

    1999-01-01

    The results of studies on the electrochemistry of diamond carried out during the last decade are reviewed. Methods for the preparation, the crystalline structure and the main electrophysical properties of diamond thin films are considered. Depending on the doping conditions, the diamond behaves as a superwide-gap semiconductor or as a semimetal. It is shown that the 'metal-like' diamond is corrosion-resistant and can be used advantageously as an electrode in the electrosynthesis (in particular, for the electroreduction of compounds that are difficult to reduce) and electroanalysis. Kinetic characteristics of some redox reactions and the impedance parameters for diamond electrodes are presented. The results of comparative studies of the electrodes made of diamond single crystals, polycrystalline diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon, which reveal the effect of the crystalline structure (e.g., the influence of intercrystallite boundaries) on the electrochemical properties of diamond, are presented. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  9. Carbon nanotubes overgrown and ingrown with nanocrystalline diamonddeposited by different CVD plasma systems

    Varga, Marián; Vretenár, V.; Ižák, Tibor; Skákalová, V.; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 12 (2014), s. 2413-2419 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK037 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chemical vapour deposition * composites * gas composition * nanocrystalline diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  10. Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Rawal, Lal B; Biswas, Tuhin; Khandker, Nusrat Nausheen; Saha, Shekhar Ranjan; Bidat Chowdhury, Mohammed Mahiul; Khan, Abdullah Nurus Salam; Chowdhury, Enamul Hasib; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Despite one-third of the urban population in Bangladesh living in urban slums and at increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), little is known about the NCD risk profile of this at-risk population. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of the NCD risk factors and the association of NCD risk factors with socio-demographic factors among the adults of urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult slum dwellers (aged 25 and above) residing in three purposively selected urban slums of Dhaka for at least six months preceding the survey. The risk factors assessed were- currently smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, hypertension and body mass index (BMI). Information on self-reported diabetes was also taken. A total of 507 participants (252 females; 49.7%) were interviewed and their physical measures were taken using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument. The overall prevalence of NCD risk factors was: 36.0% (95% CI: 31.82-40.41) for smoking; 95.60% (95% CI: 93.60-97.40) for insufficient fruit and vegetable intake; 15.30% (95% CI:12.12-18.71) for low physical activity;13.70% (95% CI: 10.71-16.92) for hypertension; 22.70% (95% CI: 19.31-26.02) for overweight or obesity; and 5.00% (95%: 3.20-7.00) for self-reported diabetes. In the logistic regression model, the clustering of three or more NCD risk factors was positively associated with younger age groups (p = 0.02), no formal education (p slum adults. These findings are important to support the formulation and implementation of NCD-related polices and plan of actions that recognize urban slum populations in Bangladesh as a priority sub-population.

  11. China's Efforts on Management, Surveillance, and Research of Noncommunicable Diseases: NCD Scorecard Project.

    Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Luo, Jie-Si; Zhang, Xiao-Chang; Zhai, Yi; Wu, Jing

    The incidence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is rising dramatically throughout the world. Aspects of researches concerned with the improvement and development of prevention and control of NCDs have been conducted. Furthermore, the influence of most determinants of the major NCDs has showed that a broad and deep response involving stakeholders in different sectors is required in the prevention and control of NCDs. China has experienced an increase in NCDs in a short period compared with many countries. To address the burden of NCDs in China, it is important to learn about the progress that has been made in prevention and control of NCDs in China and worldwide, informed by opinions of stakeholders in different areas. In 2014, GRAND South developed the NCD Scorecard instrument to evaluate progress of NCD prevention and control in 23 countries through a 2-round Delphi process. The scorecard included 51 indicators in 4 domains: governance, surveillance and research, prevention and risk factors, and health system response. Stakeholders were then selected in the areas of government, nongovernmental organizations, private sectors, and academia to join the NCD Scorecard survey. Indicators of progress were scored by stakeholders from 0 (no activity), 1 (present but not adequate), and 2 (adequate) to 3 (highly adequate) and then the percentage of progress in each domain was calculated, representing the current situation in each country. There were 14 indicators in the domains of governance and surveillance and research. Of 429 stakeholders worldwide, 41 in China participated in the survey. China scored in the top 5 out of all participating countries in those 2 domains, scoring 67% in governance and 64% in surveillance and research. Indicators on which China scored particularly well included having a well-resourced unit or department responsible for NCDs, having a strong national system for recording the cause of all deaths, and having a system of NCD surveillance. Areas

  12. Controlling electrostatic charging of nanocrystalline diamond at nanoscale

    Verveniotis, Elisseos; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 23 (2013), s. 7111-7117 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic force microscope * nanoparticles * films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.384, year: 2013

  13. Coherent phonon dynamics in micro- and nanocrystalline diamond

    Kozák, M.; Trojánek, F.; Galář, P.; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Malý, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 25 (2013), s. 31521-31529 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794; GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optical nonlinearities of condensed matter * spectroscopy * coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering * ultrafast spectroscopy * nanomaterials Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.525, year: 2013 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-25-31521

  14. Microwave plasma chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline carbon film structures and study their properties

    Bushuev, N.; Yafarov, R.; Timoshenkov, V.; Orlov, S.; Starykh, D.

    2015-08-01

    The self-organization effect of diamond nanocrystals in polymer-graphite and carbon films is detected. The carbon materials deposition was carried from ethanol vapors out at low pressure using a highly non-equilibrium microwave plasma. Deposition processes of carbon film structures (diamond, graphite, graphene) is defined. Deposition processes of nanocrystalline structures containing diamond and graphite phases in different volume ratios is identified. The solid film was obtained under different conditions of microwave plasma chemical synthesis. We investigated the electrical properties of the nanocrystalline carbon films and identified it's from various factors. Influence of diamond-graphite film deposition mode in non-equilibrium microwave plasma at low pressure on emission characteristics was established. This effect is justified using the cluster model of the structure of amorphous carbon. It was shown that the reduction of bound hydrogen in carbon structures leads to a decrease in the threshold electric field of emission from 20-30 V/m to 5 V/m. Reducing the operating voltage field emission can improve mechanical stability of the synthesized film diamond-graphite emitters. Current density emission at least 20 A/cm2 was obtained. Nanocrystalline carbon film materials can be used to create a variety of functional elements in micro- and nanoelectronics and photonics such as cold electron source for emission in vacuum devices, photonic devices, cathodoluminescent flat display, highly efficient white light sources. The obtained graphene carbon net structure (with a net size about 6 μm) may be used for the manufacture of large-area transparent electrode for solar cells and cathodoluminescent light sources

  15. Synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorinated hydroxyapatite

    Fluorinated hydroxyapatite; nanocrystalline; microwave synthesis; dissolution. ... HA by the presence of other ions such as carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, etc. ... Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and laser Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Study on effect of plasma surface treatments for diamond deposition by DC arc plasmatron.

    Kang, In-Je; Joa, Sang-Beom; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2013-11-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity and wear resistance of ceramic materials in the field of renewable energy technologies, diamond coating by plasma processing has been carried out in recent years. This study's goal is to improve diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates by plasma surface treatments. Before diamond deposition was carried out in a vacuum, plasma surface treatments using Ar gas were conducted to improve conditions for deposition. We also conducted plasma processing for diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates using a DC arc Plasmatron. The Al2O3 ceramic substrates with diamond film (5 x 15 mm2), were investigated by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). Then, the C-H stretching of synthetic diamond films by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was studied. We identified nanocrystalline diamond films on the Al2O3 ceramic substrates. The results showed us that the deposition rate of diamond films was 2.3 microm/h after plasma surface treatments. Comparing the above result with untreated ceramic substrates, the deposition rate improved with the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films.

  17. Diamond bio electronics.

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  18. NCD Prevention and Control in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Regional Approach to Policy and Program Development.

    Hospedales, C James; Barcelo, Alberto; Luciani, Silvana; Legetic, Branka; Ordunez, Pedro; Blanco, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    This article describes efforts from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that have supported progress in country-driven planning and implementing of actions to address noncommunicable diseases (NCD), as well as mechanisms that PAHO has supported for countries in the Americas to share and build on each other's experiences. The Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for NCD, approved by all member states in 2006, is the major frame for this work. The strategy has 4 lines of action: policy and advocacy; surveillance; health promotion and disease prevention; and integrated management of NCD and risk factors. Cross-cutting strategies include resource mobilization, communication, training, and networks and partnerships. The strategy is operationalized through biannual work plans for which countries link and commit to achieving specific objectives. PAHO then provides technical support toward achieving these plans, and countries report progress annually. The CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention and Effective Management of NCD [Conjunto de Acciones para la Reducción y el Manejo de las Enfermedades No transmisibles]) Network provides a major platform for sharing, and the multisector Pan American Forum for Action on NCD has been launched to extend the network to include business and civil society. PAHO also supported civil society capacity building. Almost all member states have made substantial progress in implementing their national chronic disease programs, in most instances reporting exceeding the indicators of the strategic plan related to chronic diseases. From the Caribbean countries, leadership has been provided to achieve the historic UN High-Level Meeting on NCD in September 2011. The region is on track to meet the mortality reduction target set for 2013, though much remains to be done to further increase awareness of and resources for scaling up NCD prevention and control programs, given the huge health and economic burden, increasing costs

  19. Diamond semiconducting devices

    Polowczyk, M.; Klugmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Many efforts to apply the semiconducting diamond for construction of electronic elements: resistors, thermistors, photoresistors, piezoresistors, hallotrons, pn diodes, Schottky diodes, IMPATT diodes, npn transistor, MESFETs and MISFETs are reviewed. Considering the possibilities of acceptor and donor doping, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of diamond as well as high electric-field breakdown points, that diamond devices could be used at about 30-times higher frequency and more then 8200 times power than silicon devices. Except that, due to high heat resistant of diamond, it is concluded that diamond devices can be used in environment at high temperature, range of 600 o C. (author)

  20. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  1. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  2. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    Procházka, Václav; Cifra, Michal; Kulha, Pavel; Ižák, Tibor; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 395, Feb (2017), s. 214-219 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * yeast cells * field-effect transistor * transfer characteristics pH sensitivity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  3. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  4. Radiation hard 3D diamond sensors for vertex detectors at HL-LHC

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00336619; Quadt, Arnulf; Grosse-Knetter, Jörn; Weingarten, Jens

    Diamond is a good candidate to replace silicon as sensor material in the innermost layer of a tracking detector at HL-LHC, due to its high radiation tolerance. After particle fluences of $10^{16}\\,{\\rm protons/cm^2}$, diamond sensors are expected to achieve a higher signal to noise ratio than silicon. In order to use low grade polycrystalline diamonds as sensors, electrodes inside the diamond bulk, so called 3D electrodes, are produced. Typically, this kind of diamond material has a lower charge collection distance (CCD) than higher grade diamond, which results in a decreased signal amplitude. With 3D electrodes it is possible to achieve full charge collection even in samples with low CCDs by decoupling the spacing of the electrodes from the thickness of the diamond bulk. The electrodes are produced using a femtosecond laser, which changes the phase of the diamond material. The phase changed material is conductive and identified as nanocrystalline graphite using Raman spectroscopy. Due to a crater like struct...

  5. Detection of diamonds

    Hansen, J.O.; Blondeel, E.J.G.; Taylor, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond particles are distinguished from non-diamond, associated particles on the basis of their higher refractive index. The particles are brought to a specific location, typically in a stream of water flowing full in a vertical duct, and a beam of collimated electromagnetic radiation is directed at them. An array of radiation detectors is provided to detect refracted and/or reflected radiation. The array is so configured that the responses of the detectors, considered collectively, will be indicative of the presence of a diamond when a diamond is in fact present. However, when a particle having a substantially lower refractive index is present, the responses of the detectors will not be so indicative. The diamond and non-diamond particles can subsequently be sorted from one another

  6. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  7. Optical engineering of diamond

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  8. Nanostructured diamond film deposition on curved surfaces of metallic temporomandibular joint implant

    Fries, Marc D; Vohra, Yogesh K [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2002-10-21

    Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition of nanostructured diamond films was carried out on curved surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V alloy machined to simulate the shape of a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dental implant. Raman spectroscopy shows that the deposited films are uniform in chemical composition along the radius of curvature of the TMJ condyle. Thin film x-ray diffraction reveals an interfacial carbide layer and nanocrystalline diamond grains in this coating. Nanoindentation hardness measurements show an ultra-hard coating with a hardness value of 60{+-}5 GPa averaged over three samples. (rapid communication)

  9. Possible observation of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in boron-doped diamond films

    Coleman, Christopher; Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition is investigated in heavily boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films through a combination of current-voltage and resistance measurements. We observe transport features suggesting a robust BKT transition along with transport features related to vortex pinning in nanocrystalline diamond films with smaller grain size. The vortex core energy determined through analysis of the resistance temperature curves was found to be anti-correlated to the BKT transition temperatures. It is also observed that the higher BKT temperature is related to an increased vortex-antivortex binding energy derived from the activated transport regions. Further, the magnetic field induced superconductor insulator transition shows the possibility of the charge glass state. The consequences of granularity such as localization and vortex pinning can lead to tuneable BKT temperatures and strongly affects the field induced insulating state.

  10. Deposition and microstructure of Ti-containing diamond-like carbon nanocomposite films

    Yang, Won Jae; Sekino, Tohru; Shim, Kwang Bo; Niihara, Koichi; Auh, Keun Ho

    2005-01-01

    Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by plasma decomposition of CH 4 /Ar gas mixtures with an introduction of tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium (TDMAT, Ti[(CH 3 ) 2 N] 4 ), which was used as a precursor of titanium. The films deposited were found to be nanocomposite coatings consisting of TiN nanocrystalline clusters and amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H), indicating that the nanocrystalline clusters were embedded in the DLC matrix. The crystallinity of TiN clusters, as well as the Ti atomic concentrations in the films, increased with an increase of substrate temperature. The substrate temperature applied to form a crystalline phase in the DLC matrix induced a graphitization of amorphous hydrocarbon matrix. The increase of volume fraction of TiN nanocrystalline clusters in the DLC matrix enhanced the mechanical properties of nanostructured coatings, although the graphite-like structural transition of DLC matrix happened due to the applied heating

  11. Simulations, fabrication and characterization of diamond coated Love wave-type SAW sensors

    Talbi, A.; Soltani, A.; Rumeau, A.; Taylor, Andrew; Drbohlavová, L.; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Fekete, Ladislav; Krečmarová, Marie; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 11 (2015), 2606-2610 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acoustic sensors * chemical vapor deposition * diamond * nanocrystalline materials * quartz * surface acoustic waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  12. Effective extraction of photoluminescence from a diamond layer with a photonic crystal

    Ondič, Lukáš; Dohnalová, Kateřina; Ledinský, Martin; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 346-350 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KJB100100903 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : photonic crystals * spontaneous emission * light extraction * diffraction * nanocrystalline diamond films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 10.774, year: 2011

  13. Sensitivity of diamond-capped impedance transducer to Tröger’s base derivatives

    Stehlík, Štěpán; Ižák, Tibor; Kromka, Alexander; Dolenský, B.; Havlík, M.; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 8 (2012), s. 3860-3865 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Tröger’s base derivative * nanocrystalline diamond * chemical sensor * impedance spectroscopy * surface conductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.008, year: 2012

  14. Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene

    Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  15. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  16. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  17. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  18. Investing in Diamonds

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  19. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey.

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Boylan, Sinead; Morrice, Emily

    2015-10-16

    Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i) convened a workshop of academics (n = 25) from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii) conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii) convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation) were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities) was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  20. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey

    Ruth Colagiuri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i convened a workshop of academics (n = 25 from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  1. Natural occurrence of pure nano-polycrystalline diamond from impact crater

    Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Irifune, Tetsuo; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Yamashita, Tomoharu; Isobe, Futoshi; Afanasiev, Valentin P.; Pokhilenko, Nikolai P.

    2015-10-01

    Consolidated bodies of polycrystalline diamond with grain sizes less than 100 nm, nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD), has been experimentally produced by direct conversion of graphite at high pressure and high temperature. NPD has superior hardness, toughness and wear resistance to single-crystalline diamonds because of its peculiar nano-textures, and has been successfully used for industrial and scientific applications. Such sintered nanodiamonds have, however, not been found in natural mantle diamonds. Here we identified natural pure NPD, which was produced by a large meteoritic impact about 35 Ma ago in Russia. The impact diamonds consist of well-sintered equigranular nanocrystals (5-50 nm), similar to synthetic NPD, but with distinct [111] preferred orientation. They formed through the martensitic transformation from single-crystal graphite. Stress-induced local fragmentation of the source graphite and subsequent rapid transformation to diamond in the limited time scale result in multiple diamond nucleation and suppression of the overall grain growth, producing the unique nanocrystalline texture of natural NPD. A huge amount of natural NPD is expected to be present in the Popigai crater, which is potentially important for applications as novel ultra-hard material.

  2. Beta Radiation Enhanced Thermionic Emission from Diamond Thin Films

    Alex Croot

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-based thermionic emission devices could provide a means to produce clean and renewable energy through direct heat-to-electrical energy conversion. Hindering progress of the technology are the thermionic output current and threshold temperature of the emitter cathode. In this report, we study the effects on thermionic emission caused by in situ exposure of the diamond cathode to beta radiation. Nitrogen-doped diamond thin films were grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on molybdenum substrates. The hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond was studied using a vacuum diode setup with a 63Ni beta radiation source-embedded anode, which produced a 2.7-fold increase in emission current compared to a 59Ni-embedded control. The emission threshold temperature was also examined to further assess the enhancement of thermionic emission, with 63Ni lowering the threshold temperature by an average of 58 ± 11 °C compared to the 59Ni control. Various mechanisms for the enhancement are discussed, with a satisfactory explanation remaining elusive. Nevertheless, one possibility is discussed involving excitation of preexisting conduction band electrons that may skew their energy distribution toward higher energies.

  3. Strength and structure of nanocrystalline titanium

    Noskova, N.I.; Pereturina, I.A.; Elkina, O.A.; Stolyarov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results on strength and plasticity of nanocrystalline titanium VT-1 are presented. Specific features of plastic deformation on tension of this material specimens in an electron microscope column are studied in situ. It is shown that nanocrystalline titanium strength and plasticity at room temperature are dependent on the structure and nanograin size. It is revealed that deformation processes in nanocrystalline titanium are characterized by activation of deformation rotational modes and microtwinning [ru

  4. A community based study of NCD risk factors among adult population in Dehradun, India

    Himanshu Agarwal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Non-Communicable disease (NCD is one which is non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. NCDs account for leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. To decrease the burden of NCDs experts stress on the importance of prevention and control with respect to modifiable risk factors. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs.(1  Aims & Objectives: 1. To know the prevalence of risk factors leading to NCDs in the study population. 2. To know the socio-demographic correlates associated with risk factors of NCDs. 3. To suggest appropriate recommendations regarding modifiable risk factors of NCDs in study population. Material & Methods: A Cross-sectional study, Community-based study among 18+ population in field practice areas of Community Medicine Department, SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun. Sample Size: 300 each in urban and rural, total 60. Results: The prevalence of Smoking was 11.3%, Smokeless tobacco use 10.5%, Alcohol use 13.2%, Unhealthy diet 99.5%, Low physical activity 0.8%, High BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2 51.2%, above normal waist-hip ratio 57.0%, Raised blood pressure 58.5% and raised blood sugar 25.2%. Conclusion: Smoking is significantly associated with age, sex and occupation. Raised blood pressure is significantly associated with age, sex and social class.

  5. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Otsuki, Takahiko; Nakashima, Taku; Hamada, Hironobu; Takayama, Yusuke; Akita, Shin; Masuda, Takeshi; Horimasu, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Masayuki; Kohno, Nobuoki; Okada, Morihito; Hattori, Noboru

    2018-03-08

    Angiogenesis is a crucial factor in the progression of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), and antiangiogenic strategies might be effective against MPM. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 (APN/CD13) promotes tumour angiogenesis and is associated with poor prognosis; however, its clinical significance in MPM remains unclear.In 37 consecutive patients with surgically resected MPM, we evaluated the association between immunohistochemical APN/CD13 expression in resected tumours and survival. Additionally, the antitumour and antiangiogenic effects of MT95-4, a fully humanized anti-APN/CD13 monoclonal antibody, were evaluated in mice orthotopically implanted with EHMES-10 (abundantly expressing APN/CD13) and MSTO-211H (scarcely expressing APN/CD13) MPM cells.High tumour APN/CD13 expression was associated with poor prognosis in MPM patients ( P =0.04), and MT95-4 treatment reduced tumour growth and angiogenesis in mice harbouring EHMES-10, but not MSTO-211H, cells. Furthermore, in mice harbouring EHMES-10 cells, MT95-4 combined with cisplatin more effectively suppressed tumour progression than cisplatin alone.Taken together these results suggested that APN/CD13 is implicated in the aggressiveness of MPM. Here, MT95-4 treatment reduced tumour progression likely by inhibiting angiogenesis, suggesting APN/CD13 as a potential molecular target for MPM treatment. Additionally, combination treatment with MT95-4 and cisplatin could represent a promising approach to treating MPM exhibiting high APN/CD13 expression. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  6. Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings

    Hayward, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)

  7. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.

    2014-01-01

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  8. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.

    2014-10-21

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  9. Diamond Jubilee Meeting

    1994-10-01

    Oct 1, 1994 ... Science, Bangalore, the Diamond Jubilee Annual. Meeting will be held in ... "The fascination of statistics" .... on post Hartree-Fock methods, highly correlated systems ..... Gold Medal of the National Institute of Social. Sciences ...

  10. Quantum Computing in Diamond

    Prawer, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is to demonstrate the key elements needed to construct a logical qubit in diamond by exploiting the remarkable quantum properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) optical centre...

  11. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    Procházka, Václav, E-mail: prochazkav@fzu.cz [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Cifra, Michal [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Chaberská 57, 182 51 Prague (Czech Republic); Kulha, Pavel [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Ižák, Tibor [Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Rezek, Bohuslav [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Kromka, Alexander [Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 16629 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Interaction of non-adherent yeast cells with H-terminated diamond described. • Effect of cell culture solutions on H-diamond SGFET (positive potential shifts). • H-diamond sensitive to metabolic activity of yeast cells (negative potential shift). - Abstract: Diamond thin films provide unique features as substrates for cell cultures and as bio-electronic sensors. Here we employ solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFET) based on nanocrystalline diamond thin films with H-terminated surface which exhibits the sub-surface p-type conductive channel. We study an influence of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on electrical characteristics of the diamond SGFETs. Two different cell culture solutions (sucrose and yeast peptone dextrose–YPD) are used, with and without the cells. We have found that transfer characteristics of the SGFETs exhibit a negative shift of the gate voltage by −26 mV and −42 mV for sucrose and YPD with cells in comparison to blank solutions without the cells. This effect is attributed to a local pH change in close vicinity of the H-terminated diamond surface due to metabolic processes of the yeast cells. The pH sensitivity of the diamond-based SGFETs, the role of cell and protein adhesion on the gate surface and the role of negative surface charge of yeast cells on the SGFETs electrical characteristics are discussed as well.

  12. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    Procházka, Václav; Cifra, Michal; Kulha, Pavel; Ižák, Tibor; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Interaction of non-adherent yeast cells with H-terminated diamond described. • Effect of cell culture solutions on H-diamond SGFET (positive potential shifts). • H-diamond sensitive to metabolic activity of yeast cells (negative potential shift). - Abstract: Diamond thin films provide unique features as substrates for cell cultures and as bio-electronic sensors. Here we employ solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFET) based on nanocrystalline diamond thin films with H-terminated surface which exhibits the sub-surface p-type conductive channel. We study an influence of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on electrical characteristics of the diamond SGFETs. Two different cell culture solutions (sucrose and yeast peptone dextrose–YPD) are used, with and without the cells. We have found that transfer characteristics of the SGFETs exhibit a negative shift of the gate voltage by −26 mV and −42 mV for sucrose and YPD with cells in comparison to blank solutions without the cells. This effect is attributed to a local pH change in close vicinity of the H-terminated diamond surface due to metabolic processes of the yeast cells. The pH sensitivity of the diamond-based SGFETs, the role of cell and protein adhesion on the gate surface and the role of negative surface charge of yeast cells on the SGFETs electrical characteristics are discussed as well.

  13. India's NCD strategy in the SDG era: are there early signs of a paradigm shift?

    Mondal, Shinjini; Van Belle, Sara

    2018-04-25

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are seen in most corners as the embodiment of a more inclusive and holistic development approach, key to addressing the numerous and urgent challenges the world faces. In the health realm, a true SDG approach will require a five-fold paradigm shift according to Buse and Hawkes. This article explores whether early traces of this paradigm shift can already be witnessed in the Indian context, focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) more in particular. By now, NCDs make up a large health burden in India, both individually and on the health system. Inspired by an SDG vision, tackling NCDs will require a comprehensive approach rooted in preventive, curative and rehabilitative services. In India, some early momentum in this respect can already be witnessed, certainly in addressing the first two challenges identified by Buse and Hawkes, leadership and intersectoral coherence, and a shift from treatment to prevention. A central plan addressing health through an inter-sectoral approach has shaped the trajectory so far, moving away from silos to engagement with sectors beyond health. New guidelines addressing comprehensive primary healthcare propose a community outreach and preventive approach for NCDs. At a broader level, NCD prevention is also closely linked to tackling the so called "commercial determinants of health" and will require among others strong (central and state level) regulation, teaming up with global advocacy networks and capitalizing on global frameworks, where they exist. Strong political leadership will be indispensable for this, and is according to Buse and Hawkes closely linked to seeing health as a right and the government as accountable when it comes to providing for the right to health through its policies and actions. National stewardship will thus be key, via a more adaptive network governance structure with the central level coordinating with the state level to ensure implementation, while also engaging

  14. Structure and thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials

    In addition, study of the thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials against significant grain growth is both scientific and technological interest. A sharp increase in grain size (to micron levels) during consolidation of nanocrystalline powders to obtain fully dense materials may consequently result in the loss of some unique ...

  15. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao, E-mail: h.ye@aston.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin [Miba Coating Group: Teer Coatings Ltd, West-Stone-House, West-Stone, Berry-Hill-Industrial-Estate, WR9 9AS, Droitwich (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) – tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  16. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao

    2015-04-01

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) - tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  17. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Vojtěch Kundrát

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42 substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo – tungsten (W interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  18. The Consortium for NCD Prevention and Control in Sub-Saharan Africa (CNCD-Africa): from concept to practice.

    Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Owuor, Jared O; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    CNCD-Africa was established in July 2009 in response to and in recognition of the continuously increasing burden of diseases such as injuries, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health in low- and middle-income countries, and specifically in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. CNCD-Africa aims to comprehensively address specific and common objectives while building capacity in the region to prevent and control NCDs. With support from key partners and funders, and a keen interest in opportunities to address NCDs from health promotion and equity perspectives, the Consortium has excelled in four key areas: convening; knowledge generation and sharing; advocacy; and networking. However, the path to successful and sustainable efforts remains laden with challenges and barriers. Retaining interest of network partners through flagship efforts and continued efforts to ascertain support from local and international partners with interest in NCDs across the region remain essential to CNCD-Africa core activities. A key lesson learnt from the early years of CNCD-Africa is that existing regional platforms can and should be used to showcase what is being done locally, and to share best practices and best-buys. In addition, partnerships and stakeholder involvement have been key for CNCD-Africa and are essential to NCD action. Sustaining such partnerships requires incentives for the various partners to keep actively involved in NCD action. This can be achieved through joint inception, project planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Another ingredient for success seems to be innovative financing for NCD efforts, which is possible through the establishment and sustaining of regional and global partnerships that are robust, locally relevant and respond to country needs.

  19. Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layer

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.

  20. Diamond pixel modules

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  1. Diamond pixel modules

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  2. Ion implantation into diamond

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  4. Traditional local medicines in the republic of Palau and non-communicable diseases (NCD), signs of effectiveness.

    Graz, Bertrand; Kitalong, Christopher; Yano, Victor

    2015-02-23

    The aim of this survey was to describe which traditional medicines (TM) are most commonly used for non-communicable diseases (NCD - diabetes, hypertension related to excess weight and obesity) in Pacific islands and with what perceived effectiveness. NCD, especially prevalent in the Pacific, have been subject to many public health interventions, often with rather disappointing results. Innovative interventions are required; one hypothesis is that some local, traditional approaches may have been overlooked. The method used was a retrospective treatment-outcome study in a nation-wide representative sample of the adult population (about 15,000 individuals) of the Republic of Palau, an archipelago of Micronesia. From 188 respondents (61% female, age 16-87, median 48,), 30 different plants were used, mostly self-prepared (69%), or from a traditional healer (18%). For excess weight, when comparing the two most frequent plants, Morinda citrifolia L. was associated with more adequate outcome than Phaleria nishidae Kaneh. (P=0.05). In case of diabetes, when comparing Phaleria nishidae (=Phaleria nisidai) and Morinda citrifolia, the former was statistically more often associated with the reported outcome "lower blood sugar" (P=0.01). Statistical association between a plant used and reported outcome is not a proof of effectiveness or safety, but it can help select plants of interest for further studies, e.g. through a reverse pharmacology process, in search of local products which may have a positive impact on population health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SiC interlayer by laser-cladding on WC-Co substrates for CVD diamond deposition

    Contin, Andre; Fraga, Mariana Amorim; Vieira, Jose; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Corat, Evaldo Jose, E-mail: andrecontin@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, Raonei Alves [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UNIFESSPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Getulio [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Despite their huge industrial potential and commercial interest, the direct diamond coating on cemented carbide (WC-Co) is limited, mainly because of the catalytic effect of Cobalt (Co) and the high difference in thermal expansion coefficient [1]. This results in poor adherence between diamond and WC-Co. In addition, the low diamond film adhesion to the cemented carbide useless for machining applications. Removal of Co binder from the substrate surface by superficial etching is one of the techniques used to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC-Co. For the present study, diamond films were deposited on WC-Co substrates with an intermediate barrier to block the Co diffusion to the surface substrate. The laser cladding process produced the SiC barrier, in which a powder layer is melted by a laser irradiation to create the coating on the substrate. The use of laser cladding is the novel method for an intermediate barrier for cemented carbides. The advantages of laser cladding include a faster processing speed, precision, versatility. We reported the application of pretreatment method called ESND (Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond). The nucleation density was around 10{sup 11}part/cm{sup 2}. Diamond films were grown by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. Characterization of samples included Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Scattering Spectroscopy. Results showed that laser irradiation formed stable Co compounds in the interfacial barrier. It is because nucleation and good quality of diamond film since the cobalt are no longer free to migrate to the surface during the CVD diamond deposition. Reference: [1] Y. X. Cui, B. Shen, F. H. Sun. Diamond deposition on WC–Co substrate with amorphous SiC interlayer, Surface Engineering, 30, (2014) 237-243. (author)

  6. Diamond film deposition on WC–Co and steel substrates with a CrN interlayer for tribological applications

    Chandran, Maneesh; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The most renowned property of diamond is its exceptional hardness. By depositing diamond films on tungsten carbide (WC–Co) and steel substrates, the hardness of diamond can be combined with the toughness of these materials, resulting in an excellent wear resistance material for tribological applications. However, poor adhesion of diamond coating on these substrates leads to a lesser lifetime for the diamond coated tools than expected. The prime reasons for the lack of proper adhesion are the preferential formation of graphitic layer at the interface due to the catalytic activities of cobalt/iron and the interfacial residual stresses due to the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of diamond (1.5  ×  10 −6 K −1 ) and WC–Co (5.2  ×  10 −6 K −1 ) or steel (12  ×  10 −6 K −1 ). In this review, we discuss the possibility of using a Cr–N interlayer as a diffusion barrier to prevent the catalytic activities of cobalt/iron and also to relax the interfacial residual stresses to some extent to enhance the adhesion of diamond coatings on these substrates. An overview of the most pertinent results of the last two decades, including the recent progress is introduced. We describe in detail how the Cr–N interlayer with the desired properties is fabricated. We give a concise overview of diamond deposition process, including the methods to vary the grain size from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline, which are suitable for some tribological applications. We describe in detail on surface and interface analysis, residual stress measurements, assessment adhesion strength and tribological performance of diamond coated WC–Co and steel substrates using various characterization techniques. We conclude by highlighting the current progress and future perspectives of diamond coatings on these substrates for tribological applications. (topical review)

  7. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  8. Prevention and control of mental illnesses and mental health: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile

    2004-12-01

    As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues.

  9. Bilirubin adsorption on nanocrystalline titania films

    Yang Zhengpeng; Si Shihui; Fung Yingsing

    2007-01-01

    Bilirubin produced from hemoglobin metabolism and normally conjugated with albumin is a kind of lipophilic endotoxin, and can cause various diseases when its concentration is high. Bilirubin adsorption on the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance, UV-vis and IR techniques, and factors affecting its adsorption such as pH, bilirubin concentration, solution ionic strength, temperature and thickness of TiO 2 films were discussed. The amount of adsorption and parameters for the adsorption kinetics were estimated from the frequency measurements of quartz crystal microbalance. A fresh surface of the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films could be photochemically regenerated because holes and hydroxyl radicals were generated by irradiating the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films with UV light, which could oxidize and decompose organic materials, and the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films can be easily regenerated when it is used as adsorbent for the removal of bilirubin

  10. Raman spectroscopy study of the influence of processing conditions on the structure of polycrystalline diamond films

    Ramamurti, R.; Shanov, V.; Singh, R.N.; Mamedov, S.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond films are prepared by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on Si (100) substrates using the H 2 -Ar-CH 4 gases. Raman scattering data, including the peak position, intensity, area, and width, are analyzed in depth and used to obtain the sp 3 - and sp 2 -bonded carbon contents and the nature of internal stresses in the films. Polarization behavior of the Raman peaks is analyzed to assess its role on the quantitative analysis of the diamond films, which suggested that the 1150 cm -1 Raman peak in nanocrystalline diamond films could be attributed to sp 2 -bonded carbon. The role of the H 2 /Ar content in the gas mixture and substrate temperature on the characteristics of the diamond film is studied. Thickness and grain size of diamond films are also determined by scanning electron microscopy and related to the deposition conditions and Raman results. Deposition conditions, which led to highest sp 3 -bonded carbon content and growth rate, are identified

  11. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  13. Diamond turning of glass

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  14. Fast diamond photoconductors

    Pochet, T.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results on the response of type Ib and IIa diamond photodetectors to fast laser pulse exposures at 265 and 530 nm are presented. The influence of the applied bias, the laser wavelengths and the light intensity on the detector sensitivity is studied. Also, recent measurements with 1.25 MeV gamma ray pulses are reported. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Sensitivity of encapsulated diamond-protein transistor renewed by low temperature hydrogen plasma

    Krátká, Marie; Neykova, Neda; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 1598-1608 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * solution-gated field-effect transistor * low temperature hydrogen termination * proteins * encapsulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013 http://www.electrochemsci.org/list13.htm#current

  16. Ion channelling in diamond

    Derry, T.E.

    1978-06-01

    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  17. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    Venturi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  18. Structural elucidation of nanocrystalline biomaterials

    Maltsev, S.

    2008-10-23

    Bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, are the second most prevalent health problem worldwide. In Germany approximately 5 millions people are affected by arthritis. Investigating biomineralization processes and bone molecular structure is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was the primary technique used due to its advantages in characterising poorly ordered and disordered materials. Compared to all the diffraction techniques that widely applied in structural investigations, the usefulness of NMR is independent of long range molecular order. This makes NMR an outstanding technique for studies of complex/amorphous materials. Conventional NMR experiments (single pulse, spin-echo, cross polarization (CP), etc.) as well as their modifications and high-end techniques (2D HETCOR, REDOR, etc.) were used in this work. Combining the contributions from different techniques enhances the information content of the investigations and can increase the precision of the overall conclusions. Also XRD, TEM and FTIR were applied to different extent in order to get a general idea of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite crystallite structure. Results: - A new approach named 'Solid-state NMR spectroscopy using the lost I spin magnetization in polarization transfer experiments' has been developed for measuring the transferred I spin magnetization from abundant nuclei, which is normally lost when detecting the S spin magnetization. - A detailed investigation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite core was made to prove that proton environment of the phosphates units and phosphorus environment of hydroxyl units are the same as in highly crystalline hydroxyapatite sample. - Using XRD it was found that the surface of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals is not completely disordered, as it was suggested before, but resembles the hydroxyapatite structure with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (and some CO{sub 3}{sup

  19. Structural elucidation of nanocrystalline biomaterials

    Maltsev, S

    2008-10-23

    Bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, are the second most prevalent health problem worldwide. In Germany approximately 5 millions people are affected by arthritis. Investigating biomineralization processes and bone molecular structure is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was the primary technique used due to its advantages in characterising poorly ordered and disordered materials. Compared to all the diffraction techniques that widely applied in structural investigations, the usefulness of NMR is independent of long range molecular order. This makes NMR an outstanding technique for studies of complex/amorphous materials. Conventional NMR experiments (single pulse, spin-echo, cross polarization (CP), etc.) as well as their modifications and high-end techniques (2D HETCOR, REDOR, etc.) were used in this work. Combining the contributions from different techniques enhances the information content of the investigations and can increase the precision of the overall conclusions. Also XRD, TEM and FTIR were applied to different extent in order to get a general idea of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite crystallite structure. Results: - A new approach named 'Solid-state NMR spectroscopy using the lost I spin magnetization in polarization transfer experiments' has been developed for measuring the transferred I spin magnetization from abundant nuclei, which is normally lost when detecting the S spin magnetization. - A detailed investigation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite core was made to prove that proton environment of the phosphates units and phosphorus environment of hydroxyl units are the same as in highly crystalline hydroxyapatite sample. - Using XRD it was found that the surface of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals is not completely disordered, as it was suggested before, but resembles the hydroxyapatite structure with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (and some CO{sub 3}{sup 2

  20. Method and article of manufacture corresponding to a composite comprised of ultra nonacrystalline diamond, metal, and other nanocarbons useful for thermoelectric and other applications

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2010-05-18

    One provides (101) disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered crystallites that are each sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then reacts (102) these crystallites with a metallic component. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also substantially preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material. The reaction process can comprise combining (201) the crystallites with one or more metal salts in an aqueous solution and then heating (203) that aqueous solution to remove the water. This heating can occur in a reducing atmosphere (comprising, for example, hydrogen and/or methane) to also reduce the salt to metal.

  1. Surface plasmon effect in electrodeposited diamond-like carbon films for photovoltaic application

    Ghosh, B.; Ray, Sekhar C.; Espinoza-González, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Roberto; Hevia, Samuel A.; Alvarez-Vega, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and nanocrystalline silver particles containing diamond-like carbon (DLC:Ag) films were electrodeposited on n-type silicon substrate (n-Si) to prepare n-Si/DLC and n-Si/DLC:Ag heterostructures for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in this cell structure and its overall performance have been studied in terms of morphology, optical absorption, current-voltage characteristics, capacitance-voltage characteristics, band diagram and external quantum efficiency measurements. Localized surface plasmon resonance effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in n-Si/DLC:Ag PV structure exhibited an enhancement of ∼28% in short circuit current density (JSC), which improved the overall efficiency of the heterostructures.

  2. Linear antenna microwave plasma CVD diamond deposition at the edge of no-growth region of C-H-O ternary diagram

    Potocký, Štěpán; Babchenko, Oleg; Hruška, Karel; Kromka, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 249, č. 12 (2012), s. 2612-2615 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : C-H-O phase diagram * nanocrystalline diamond * plasma enhanced CVD * Raman spectroscopy * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2012

  3. Surface temperature measurements of diamond

    Masina, BN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity among known materials, and as such finds uses as an industrial tool in areas where dissipation of excess heat is a requirement. In this investigation we set up a laser system to heat a diamond sample...

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond films on titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy

    Catledge, Shane Aaron

    The primary focus of this dissertation is the investigation of the processing-structure-property relationships of diamond films deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). By depositing a well-adhered protective layer of diamond on an alloy component, its hardness, wear-resistance, performance, and overall lifetime could be significantly increased. However, due to the large thermal expansion mismatch between the diamond film and metal (and the corresponding residual stress induced in the film), film adhesion is typically unsatisfactory and often results in immediate delamination after processing. Therefore, it is a major goal of this research to improve adhesion of the diamond film to the alloy substrate. Through the use of innovative processing techniques involving MPCVD deposition conditions and methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) chemistry, we have achieved diamond films which consistently adhere to the alloy substrate. In addition, we have discovered that, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well-faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond with extremely low surface roughness (as low as 27 nm). The relationship between processing and structure was studied using in-situ optical emission spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, surface profilometry, glancing-angle x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. We observe that when nitrogen is added to the H2/CH4 feedgas mixture, a carbon-nitrogen (CN) emission band arises and its relative abundance to the carbon dimer (C2) gas species is shown to have a pronounced influence on the diamond film structure. By appropriate choice of deposition chemistry and conditions, we can tailor the diamond film structure and its corresponding properties. The mechanical properties of interest in this thesis are those relating to the integrity of the film/substrate interface, as well as the

  5. Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond

    Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Diamond technology has claimed an important role in industry since non-expensive methods of synthesis such as chemical vapour deposition allow to elaborate cheap polycrystalline diamond. This fact has increased the interest in the scientific community due to the outstanding properties of diamond. Since Pleskov published in 1987 the first paper in electrochemistry, many researchers around the world have studied different aspects of diamond electrochemistry such as reactivity, electrical structure, etc. As part of this worldwide interest these studies reveal new information about diamond electrodes. These studies report investigation of diamond electrodes characterized using structural techniques like scanning electrode microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A new electrochemical theory based on surface states is presented that explains the metal and the semiconductor behaviour in terms of the doping level of the diamond electrode. In an effort to characterise the properties of diamond electrodes the band edges for hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface are located in organic solvent, hence avoiding possible interference that are present in aqueous solution. The determination of the band edges is performed by Mott-Schottky studies. These allow the calculation of the flat band potential and therefore the band edges. Additional cyclic voltammetric studies are presented for both types of surface termination. Mott-Schottky data and cyclic voltammograms are compared and explained in terms of the band edge localisation. Non-degenerately p-type semiconductor behaviour is presented for hydrogen terminated boron doped diamond. Graphitic surface states on oxidised surface boron doped diamond are responsible for the electrochemistry of redox couples that posses similar energy. Using the simple redox couple 1,4-benzoquinone effect of surface termination on the chemical behaviour of diamond is presented. Hydrogen sublayers in diamond electrodes seem to play an important role for the

  6. Diamond lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Oitmaa, J.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate ground-state and high-temperature properties of the nearest-neighbour Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the three-dimensional diamond lattice, using series expansion methods. The ground-state energy and magnetization, as well as the magnon spectrum, are calculated and found to be in good agreement with first-order spin-wave theory, with a quantum renormalization factor of about 1.13. High-temperature series are derived for the free energy, and physical and staggered susceptibilities for spin S  =  1/2, 1 and 3/2, and analysed to obtain the corresponding Curie and Néel temperatures.

  7. Presolar Diamond in Meteorites

    Amari, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    Presolar diamond, the carrier of the isotopically anomalous Xe component Xe-HL, was the first mineral type of presolar dust that was isolated from meteorites. The excesses in the light, p-process only isotopes 124Xe and 126Xe, and in the heavy, r-process only isotopes 134Xe and 136Xe relative to the solar ratios indicate that Xe-HL was produced in supernovae: they are the only stellar source where these two processes are believed to take place. Although these processes occur in supernovae, th...

  8. Nanocrystalline permanent magnets with enhanced properties

    Leonowicz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Parameters of permanent magnets result from the combination of intrinsic properties such as saturation magnetization, magnetic exchange, and magnetocrystalline energy, as well as microstructural parameters such as phase structure, grain size, and orientation. Reduction of grain size into nanocrystalline regime (∼ 50 nm) leads to the enhanced remanence which derives from ferromagnetic exchange coupling between highly refined grains. In this study the fundamental phenomena, quantities, and structure parameters, which define nanophase permanent magnets are presented and discussed. The theoretical considerations are confronted with experimental data for nanocrystalline Sm-Fe-N type permanent magnets. (author)

  9. IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL COUNSELLING ON BODY MASS INDEX (BMI AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF THE NON - COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PATIENTS (NCD

    Manisha Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Good health is an important discussion of the quality of life. Health problem is a major concern in all over the world but especially in developing countries. Non-communicable diseases ( NCDs contribute the ill health. Diabetes, coronary heart disease, various forms of cancer, gastro intestinal disorder and various diseases of bones and joints are diet related NCDs. Nutritional counselling is one of the effective tools of changing the food habits of people. The data for this study is taken from the out patients services of Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism and Cardiology of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-5. Total 250 samples were included in the study. Age group 40 – 60 years were considered as study samples who attended the Endocrinology and Cardiology departments. Purposive sampling method was used in the study. Questionnaire cum interview method was adopted in the study. Anthropametric measurements were taken by using standard techniques. 24 hours diet recall method was also used in this study. Evaluation of councelling was done on basis of changes in BMI and nutrient intake. Result shows the positive impact of nutritional counselling in BMI and nutrient intake of NCD patients.

  10. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  11. Diamonds in the Sky

    Brotherton, M.

    2004-12-01

    My first science fiction novel, Star Dragon, just recently available in paperback from Tor, features a voyage to the cataclysmic variable star system SS Cygni. My second novel, Spider Star, to appear early in 2006, takes place in and around a dark matter ``planet'' orbiting a neutron star. Both novels are ``hard'' science fiction, relying on accurate physics to inform the tales. It's possible to bring to life abstract concepts like special relativity, and alien environments like accretion disks, by using science fiction. Novels are difficult to use in a science class, but short stories offer intriguing possibilities. I'm planning to edit an anthology of hard science fiction stories that contain accurate science and emphasize fundamental ideas in modern astronomy. The working title is Diamonds in the Sky. The collection will be a mix of original stories and reprints, highlighting challenging concepts covered in a typical introductory astronomy course. Larry Niven's classic story, ``Neutron Star," is an excellent demonstration of extreme tidal forces in an astronomical context. Diamonds in the Sky will include forewards and afterwards to the stories, including discussion questions and mathematical formulas/examples as appropriate. I envision this project will be published electronically or through a print-on-demand publisher, providing long-term availabilty and keeping low cost. I encourage interested parties to suggest previously published stories, or to suggest which topics must be included.

  12. Thermal applications of low-pressure diamond

    Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the last decade several applications of low-pressure diamond were developed. Main products are diamond heat-spreaders using its high thermal conductivity, diamond windows with their high transparency over a wide range of wavelengths and wear resistant tool coatings because of diamonds superhardness. A short description of the most efficient diamond deposition methods (microwave, DC-glow discharge, plasma-jet and arc discharge) is given. The production and applications of diamond layers with high thermal conductivity will be described. Problems of reproducibility of diamond deposition, the influence of impurities, the heat conductivity in electronic packages, reliability and economical mass production will be discussed. (author)

  13. Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography

    Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  14. Diamond: a material for acoustic devices

    MORTET, Vincent; WILLIAMS, Oliver; HAENEN, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Diamond has been foreseen to replace silicon for high power, high frequency electronic applications or for devices that operates in harsh environments. However, diamond electronic devices are still in the laboratory stage due to the lack of large substrates and the complexity of diamond doping. On another hand, surface acoustic wave filters based on diamond are commercially available. Diamond is especially suited for acoustic applications because of its exceptional mechanical properties. The ...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite

    Jiang, J.S.; Yang, X.L.; Gao, L.

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powders with a partially inverted spinel structure were synthesized by high-energy ball milling in a closed container at ambient temperature from a mixture of alpha-Fe2O3 and ZnO crystalline powders in equimolar ratio. From low-temperature and in-field Mossbauer...

  16. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    Mecartnery, Martha [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Graeve, Olivia [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Patel, Maulik [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-25

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  17. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    Mecartnery, Martha; Graeve, Olivia; Patel, Maulik

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  18. Characterization of nanocrystalline silicon germanium film and ...

    The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium films (Si/Ge) and Si/Ge nanotubes have low band gaps and high carrier mobility, thus offering appealing potential for absorbing gas molecules. Interaction between hydrogen molecules and bare as well as functionalized Si/Ge nanofilm and nanotube was investigated using Monte ...

  19. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    Fraimovitch, D., E-mail: dimitryf@mail.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Lefeuvre, G. [Micron Semiconductor Ltd. Royal Buildings, Marlborough Road, Lancing Business Park, BN15 8SJ (United Kingdom); Ruzin, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  20. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  1. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films

  2. Microstructure and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films machined by femtosecond laser

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Chunhui [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: yongshengliu@nwpu.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Cheng, Laifei [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Weinan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 10068 (China); Zhang, Qing [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Yang, Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 10068 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. • The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. And the number of nanoparticles increased with the processing power as well. • It revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. • It showed that a great decrease of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} after laser treatment. - Abstract: Femtosecond laser is of great interest for machining high melting point and hardness materials such as diamond-like carbon, SiC ceramic, et al. In present work, the microstructural and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films were investigated using electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques after machined by diverse femtosecond laser power in air. The results showed the machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. Considering the D and G Raman band parameters on the laser irradiation, it revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a great decrease of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} after laser treatment.

  3. Monitoring the evolution of boron doped porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant by OCT and in vivo impedance spectroscopy

    Hébert, Clément; Cottance, Myline; Degardin, Julie; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaelle; Bergonzo, Philippe; Picaud, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Boron doped Diamond proved to be a very attractive material for neural interfacing, especially with the retina, where reduce glia growth is observed with respect to other materials, thus facilitating neuro-stimulation over long terms. In the present study, we integrated diamond microelectrodes on a polyimide substrate and investigated their performances for the development of neural prosthesis. A full description of the microfabrication of the implants is provided and their functionalities are assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A porous structure of the electrode surface was thus revealed and showed promising properties for neural recording or stimulation. Using the flexible implant, we showed that is possible to follow in vivo the evolution of the electric contact between the diamond electrodes and the retina over 4 months by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The position of the implant was also monitored by optical coherence tomography to corroborate the information given by the impedance measurements. The results suggest that diamond microelectrodes are very good candidates for retinal prosthesis. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant • Electrochemical characterization of microelectrode for neural interfacing • In vivo impedance spectroscopy of retinal tissue

  4. Monitoring the evolution of boron doped porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant by OCT and in vivo impedance spectroscopy

    Hébert, Clément, E-mail: clement.hebert@icn2.cat [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Cottance, Myline [Université Paris-Est, ESYCOM-ESIEE Paris, Noisy le Grand (France); Degardin, Julie [INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, Paris (France); Scorsone, Emmanuel [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaelle [Université Paris-Est, ESYCOM-ESIEE Paris, Noisy le Grand (France); Bergonzo, Philippe [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Picaud, Serge [INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, Paris (France)

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Boron doped Diamond proved to be a very attractive material for neural interfacing, especially with the retina, where reduce glia growth is observed with respect to other materials, thus facilitating neuro-stimulation over long terms. In the present study, we integrated diamond microelectrodes on a polyimide substrate and investigated their performances for the development of neural prosthesis. A full description of the microfabrication of the implants is provided and their functionalities are assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A porous structure of the electrode surface was thus revealed and showed promising properties for neural recording or stimulation. Using the flexible implant, we showed that is possible to follow in vivo the evolution of the electric contact between the diamond electrodes and the retina over 4 months by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The position of the implant was also monitored by optical coherence tomography to corroborate the information given by the impedance measurements. The results suggest that diamond microelectrodes are very good candidates for retinal prosthesis. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant • Electrochemical characterization of microelectrode for neural interfacing • In vivo impedance spectroscopy of retinal tissue.

  5. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  6. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    Lončar, Marko; Faraon, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has

  7. CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters

    Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors

  8. DIAMONDS: Engineering Distributed Object Systems

    Cheng, Evan

    1997-01-01

    This report describes DIAMONDS, a research project at Syracuse University, that is dedicated to producing both a methodology and corresponding tools to assist in the development of heterogeneous distributed software...

  9. Mapping research activity on mental health disorders in Europe: study protocol for the Mapping_NCD project.

    Berg Brigham, Karen; Darlington, Meryl; Wright, John S F; Lewison, Grant; Kanavos, Panos; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2016-05-26

    Mental health disorders (MHDs) constitute a large and growing disease burden in Europe, although they typically receive less attention and research funding than other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study protocol describes a methodology for the mapping of MHD research in Europe as part of Mapping_NCD, a 2-year project funded by the European Commission which seeks to map European research funding and impact for five NCDs in order to identify potential gaps, overlaps, synergies and opportunities, and to develop evidence-based policies for future research. The project aims to develop a multi-focal view of the MHD research landscape across the 28 European Union Member States, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, through a survey of European funding entities, analysis of research initiatives undertaken in the public, voluntary/not-for-profit and commercial sectors, and expert interviews to contextualize the gathered data. The impact of MHD research will be explored using bibliometric analyses of scientific publications, clinical guidelines and newspaper stories reporting on research initiatives. Finally, these research inputs and outputs will be considered in light of various metrics that have been proposed to inform priorities for the allocation of research funds, including burden of disease, treatment gaps and cost of illness. Given the growing burden of MHDs, a clear and broad view of the current state of MHD research is needed to ensure that limited resources are directed to evidence-based priority areas. MHDs pose a particular challenge in mapping the research landscape due to their complex nature, high co-morbidity and varying diagnostic criteria. Undertaking such an effort across 31 countries is further challenged by differences in data collection, healthcare systems, reimbursement rates and clinical practices, as well as cultural and socioeconomic diversity. Using multiple methods to explore the spectrum of MHD research funding activity across Europe

  10. "They just come, pick and go." The Acceptability of Integrated Medication Adherence Clubs for HIV and Non Communicable Disease (NCD) Patients in Kibera, Kenya.

    Venables, Emilie; Edwards, Jeffrey K; Baert, Saar; Etienne, William; Khabala, Kelly; Bygrave, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care. Stable NCD and HIV patients can now collect their chronic medication every three months through a club, rather than through individual clinic appointments. We conducted a qualitative research study to assess patient and health-care worker perceptions and experiences of MACs in the urban informal settlement of Kibera, Kenya. A total of 106 patients (with HIV and/or other NCDs) and health-care workers were purposively sampled and included in the study. Ten focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews were conducted and 15 sessions of participant observation were carried out at the clinic where the MACs took place. Thematic data analysis was conducted using NVivo software, and coding focussed on people's experiences of MACs, the challenges they faced and their perceptions about models of care for chronic conditions. MACs were considered acceptable to patients and health-care workers because they saved time, prevented unnecessary queues in the clinic and provided people with health education and group support whilst they collected their medication. Some patients and health-care workers felt that MACs reduced stigma for HIV positive patients by treating HIV as any other chronic condition. Staff and patients reported challenges recruiting patients into MACs, including patients not fully understanding the eligibility criteria for the clubs. There were also some practical challenges during the implementation of the clubs, but MACs

  11. Modeling of diamond radiation detectors

    Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries

  12. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    Lončar, Marko

    2013-02-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.

  13. The modeling and synthesis of nanodiamonds by laser ablation of graphite and diamond-like carbon in liquid-confined ambient

    Basso, L.; Gorrini, F.; Bazzanella, N.; Cazzanelli, M.; Dorigoni, C.; Bifone, A.; Miotello, A.

    2018-01-01

    Nanodiamonds have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in quantum computation, sensing, and bioimaging. However, synthesis of nanodiamonds typically requires high pressures and temperatures, and is still a challenge. Here, we demonstrate production of nanodiamonds by pulsed laser ablation of graphite and diamond-like carbon in water. Importantly, this technique enables production of nanocrystalline diamonds at room temperature and standard pressure conditions. Moreover, we propose a method for the purification of nanodiamonds from graphitic and amorphous carbon phases that do not require strong acids and harsh chemical conditions. Finally, we present a thermodynamic model that describes the formation of nanodiamonds during pulsed laser ablation. We show that synthesis of the crystalline phase is driven by a graphite-liquid-diamond transition process that occurs at the extreme thermodynamic conditions reached inside the ablation plume.

  14. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly

  15. On the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tool for the effective machining of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Rao, Balkrishna C; Ramachandra Rao, M S

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tungsten carbide tool for machining titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique was used to synthesize diamond films on tungsten carbide tools. A boron-doped diamond interlayer was added to a microcrystalline diamond layer in an attempt to improve the interface adhesion strength. The dual-layered diamond-coated tool was employed in machining at cutting speeds in the range of 70 to 150 m min −1 with a lower feed and a lower depth of cut of 0.5 mm rev −1 and 0.5 mm, respectively, to operate in the transition from adhesion- to diffusion-tool-wear and thereby arrive at suitable conditions for enhancing tool life. The proposed tool was then compared, on the basis of performance under real-time cutting conditions, with commercially available microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond, titanium nitride and uncoated tungsten carbide tools. The life and surface finish of the proposed dual-layered tool and uncoated tungsten carbide were also investigated in interrupted cutting such as milling. The results of this study show a significant improvement in tool life and finish of Ti-6Al-4V parts machined with the dual-layered diamond-coated tool when compared with its uncoated counterpart. These results pave the way for the use of a low-cost tool, with respect to, polycrystalline diamond for enhancing both tool life and machining productivity in critical sectors fabricating parts out of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The application of this coating technology can also be extended to the machining of non-ferrous alloys owing to its better adhesion strength. (paper)

  16. Radiation influence on properties of nanocrystalline alloy

    Holkova, D.; Sitek, J.; Novak, P.; Dekan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Our work is focused on the studied of structural changes amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys after irradiation with electrons. For the analysis of these alloy we use two spectroscopic methods: Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD. Measurements of nanocrystalline (Fe 3 Ni 1 ) 81 Nb 7 B 12 samples before and after electrons irradiation by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD showed that the electrons causes changes in magnetic structure which is reflected changes of direction of net magnetic moment. Structural changes occurs in the frame of error indicated by both spectroscopic methods. We can confirm that this kind alloys a resistive again electrons irradiation up to doses of 4 MGy. We observed in this frame only beginning of the radiation damage. (authors)

  17. Ultrafast Terahertz Conductivity of Photoexcited Nanocrystalline Silicon

    Cooke, David; MacDonald, A. Nicole; Hryciw, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described by a class...... in the silicon nanocrystal films is dominated by trapping at the Si/SiO2 interface states, occurring on a 1–100 ps time scale depending on particle size and hydrogen passivation......The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described...

  18. Solubility of Carbon in Nanocrystalline -Iron

    Alexander Kirchner; Bernd Kieback

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for nanocrystalline interstitial alloys is presented. The equilibrium solid solubility of carbon in -iron is calculated for given grain size. Inside the strained nanograins local variation of the carbon content is predicted. Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with decreasing grain size. The majority of the global solubility enhancement is due to grain boundary enrichment however. Therefor...

  19. Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?

    Schrand, Amanda M; Huang, Houjin; Carlson, Cataleya; Schlager, John J; Omacr Sawa, Eiji; Hussain, Saber M; Dai, Liming

    2007-01-11

    Finely divided carbon particles, including charcoal, lampblack, and diamond particles, have been used for ornamental and official tattoos since ancient times. With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, nanotubes, nanodiamonds) attract a great deal of interest. Owing to their low chemical reactivity and unique physical properties, nanodiamonds could be useful in a variety of biological applications such as carriers for drugs, genes, or proteins; novel imaging techniques; coatings for implantable materials; and biosensors and biomedical nanorobots. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the possible hazards of nanodiamonds to humans and other biological systems. We have, for the first time, assessed the cytotoxicity of nanodiamonds ranging in size from 2 to 10 nm. Assays of cell viability such as mitochondrial function (MTT) and luminescent ATP production showed that nanodiamonds were not toxic to a variety of cell types. Furthermore, nanodiamonds did not produce significant reactive oxygen species. Cells can grow on nanodiamond-coated substrates without morphological changes compared to controls. These results suggest that nanodiamonds could be ideal for many biological applications in a diverse range of cell types.

  20. A new route to process diamond wires

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  1. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  2. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  3. Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes.

    Caterino, R; Csiki, R; Wiesinger, M; Sachsenhauser, M; Stutzmann, M; Garrido, J A; Cattani-Scholz, A; Speranza, Giorgio; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K

    2014-08-27

    The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.

  4. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    Roger J Narayan; Ryan D. Boehm; Anirudha V. Sumant

    2011-01-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and...

  5. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  6. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  7. Catalyst-free site-specific surface modifications of nanocrystalline diamond films via microchannel cantilever spotting

    Davydova, Marina; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Bruns, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Ukraintsev, Egor; Hirtz, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 63 (2016), s. 57820-57827 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-06054P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : catalysts * nanocrystals * photonic devices * catalyst-free * functionalizations * high reproducibility * micropatterned * multicomponents Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  8. Optimization of actinides trace precipitation on diamond/Si PIN sensor for alpha-spectrometry in aqueous solution

    Tran, Q.T.; Pomorski, M.; Sanoit, J. de; Mer-Calfati, C.; Scorsone, E.; Bergonzo, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report here on a new approach for the detection and identification of actinides (Pu, Am, Cm, etc). This approach is based on the use of a novel device consisting of a boron doped nanocrystalline diamond film deposited onto a silicon PIN diode alpha particle sensor. The actinides concentration is probed in situ in the measuring solution using a method based on electro-precipitation that can be carried out via the use of a doped diamond electrode. The device allows probing directly both alpha-particles activity and energy in liquid solutions. In this work, we address the optimization of the actinides electro-precipitation step onto the sensor. The approach is based on fine tuning the pH of the electrolyte, the nature of the supporting electrolytes (Na_2SO_4 or NaNO_3), the electrochemical cell geometry, the current density value, the precipitation duration as well as the sensor surface area. The deposition efficiency was significantly improved with values reaching for instance up to 81.5% in the case of electro-precipitation of 5.96 Bq "2"4"1Am on the sensor. The diamond/silicon sensor can be reused after measurement by performing a fast decontamination step at high yields 99%, where the "2"4"1Am electro-precipitated layer is quickly removed by applying an anodic current (+2 mA.cm"-"2 for 10 minutes) to the boron doped nanocrystalline diamond electrode in aqueous solution. This study demonstrated that alpha-particle spectroscopic measurements could be made feasible for the first time in aqueous solutions after an electrochemical deposition process, with theoretical detections thresholds as low as 0.24 Bq.L"-"1. We believe that this approach can be of very high interest for alpha-particle spectroscopy in liquids for actinides trace detection. (authors)

  9. Diamonds at the golden point

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Alongside the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) – installed last month (see here) – lie diamond detectors. No ordinary gems, these lab-grown diamonds will be playing a vital role in Run 2: differentiating signals from collision products with those from the beam background.   The BCM detector's green "c-shaped" printed circuit board is mounted on the PLT/BCM carbon-fibre carriage ready for installation. Earlier this year, the CMS BRIL project installed beam condition monitors (BCM) at the heart of the CMS detector. Designed to measure the online luminosity and beam background as close as possible to the LHC beam pipe, the BCMs use radiation-hard diamonds to differentiate between background and collision signals. The BCM also protects the CMS silicon trackers from damaging beam losses, by aborting the beam if the signal currents measured are above an acceptable threshold. These new BCMs are designed with Run 2 bunches in mind. &ldq...

  10. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; LeNormand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Re, V.; Riester, G. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1998-11-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  12. Photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline silicon produced by mechanical grinding

    Poffo, C.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Lima, J.C. de, E-mail: fsc1jcd@fisica.ufsc.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Souza, S.M.; Triches, D.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grandi, T.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Biasi, R.S. de [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical grinding (MG) was used to produce nanocrystalline silicon and its thermal and transport properties were investigated by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental results suggest that in as-milled nanocrystalline silicon for 10 h the heat transfer through the crystalline and interfacial components is similar, and after annealed at 470 {sup o}C the heat transfer is controlled by crystalline component.

  13. Photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline silicon produced by mechanical grinding

    Poffo, C.M.; Lima, J.C. de; Souza, S.M.; Triches, D.M.; Grandi, T.A.; Biasi, R.S. de

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical grinding (MG) was used to produce nanocrystalline silicon and its thermal and transport properties were investigated by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental results suggest that in as-milled nanocrystalline silicon for 10 h the heat transfer through the crystalline and interfacial components is similar, and after annealed at 470 o C the heat transfer is controlled by crystalline component.

  14. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    Hall, Aaron Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarobol, Pylin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Argibay, Nicolas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Blythe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diantonio, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  15. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Graphene grown out of diamond

    Gu, Changzhi; Li, Wuxia; Xu, Jing; Xu, Shicong; Lu, Chao; Xu, Lifang; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-10-01

    Most applications of graphene need a suitable support substrate to present its excellent properties. But transferring graphene onto insulators or growing graphene on foreign substrates could cause properties diminishing. This paper reports the graphene growth directly out of diamond (111) by B doping, guided by first-principles calculations. The spontaneous graphene formation occurred due to the reconstruction of the diamond surface when the B doping density and profile are adequate. The resulting materials are defect free with high phase purity/carrier mobility, controllable layer number, and good uniformity, which can be potentially used directly for device fabrication, e.g., high-performance devices requiring good thermal conductivity.

  17. Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material

  18. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  19. Diamond Sensors for Energy Frontier Experiments

    Schnetzer, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of diamond sensors in high-energy, high-i ntensity collider experiments. Re- sults from diamond sensor based beam conditions monitors in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and pla ns for diamond based luminosity monitors for the upcoming LHC run are described. We describe recent measurements on single crystal diamond sensors that indicate a polarization effec t that causes a reduction of charge col- lection efficiency as a function of particle flux. We conclude by describing new developments on the promising technology of 3D diamond sensors.

  20. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  1. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  2. The Many Facets of Diamond Crystals

    Yuri N. Palyanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is intended to serve as a multidisciplinary forum covering broad aspects of the science, technology, and application of synthetic and natural diamonds. This special issue contains 12 papers, which highlight recent investigations and developments in diamond research related to the diverse problems of natural diamond genesis, diamond synthesis and growth using CVD and HPHT techniques, and the use of diamond in both traditional applications, such as mechanical machining of materials, and the new recently emerged areas, such as quantum technologies. The results presented in the contributions collected in this special issue clearly demonstrate that diamond occupies a very special place in modern science and technology. After decades of research, this structurally very simple material still poses many intriguing scientific questions and technological challenges. It seems undoubted that diamond will remain the center of attraction for many researchers for many years to come.

  3. Nanodiamond infiltration into porous silicon through etching of solid carbon produced at different graphitization temperatures

    Miranda, C. R. B., E-mail: claudia_rbm@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Centro de Ciencias do Sistema Terrestre-CCST, Centro de Ciencias do Sistema Terrestre-CCST (Brazil); Baldan, M. R.; Beloto, A. F.; Ferreira, N. G. [CTE/INPE, Centro de Tecnologias Espaciais (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) was grown on the porous silicon (PS) substrate using Reticulated Vitreous Carbon (RVC) as an additional solid carbon source. RVC was produced at different heat treatment temperatures of 1300, 1500, and 2000 Degree-Sign C, resulting in samples with different turbostratic carbon organizations. The PS substrate was produced by an electrochemical method. NCD film was obtained by the chemical vapor infiltration/deposition process where a RVC piece was positioned just below the PS substrate. The PS and NCD samples were characterized by Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM). NCD films presented faceted nanograins with uniform surface texture covering all the pores resulting in an apparent micro honeycomb structure. Raman's spectra showed the D and G bands, as well as, the typical two shoulders at 1,150 and 1,490 cm{sup -1} attributed to NCD. X-ray diffraction analyses showed the predominant (111) diamond orientation as well as the (220) and (311) peaks. The structural organization and the heteroatom presence on the RVC surface, analyzed from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, showed their significant influence on the NCD growth process. The hydrogen etching released, from RVC surface, associated to carbon and/or oxygen/nitrogen amounts led to different contributions for NCD growth.

  4. Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors

    Trischuk, W.

    2008-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one t...

  5. Magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline nickel ferrite

    Nathani, H.; Gubbala, S.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2005-01-01

    In the previous papers [R.D.K. Misra, A. Kale, R.S. Srivatsava, O. Senkov, Mater. Sci. Technol. 19 (2003) 826; R.D.K. Misra, A. Kale, B. Hooi, J.Th. DeHosson, Mater. Sci. Technol. 19 (2003) 1617; A. Kale, S. Gubbala, R.D.K. Misra, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 277 (2004) 350; S. Gubbala, H. Nathani, K. Koizol, R.D.K. Misra, Phys. B 348 (2004) 317; R.D.K. Misra, S. Gubbala, A. Kale, W.F. Egelhoff, Mater. Sci. Eng. B. 111 (2004) 164], we reported the synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline ferrites of inverse and mixed spinel structure made by reverse micelle technique that enabled a narrow particle size distribution to be obtained. In the present paper, the reverse micelle approach has been extended to synthesize nanocrystalline ferrites with varying surface roughness of 8-18 A (the surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy) and the magnetic behavior studied by SQUID magnetometer. Two different kinds of measurement were performed: (a) zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) magnetization versus temperature measurements and (b) magnetization as a function of applied field. The analysis of magnetic measurement suggests significant influence of surface roughness of particles on the magnetic behavior. While the superparamagnetic behavior is retained by the nanocrystalline ferrites of different surface roughness at 300 K, the hysteresis loop at 2 K becomes non-squared and the coercivity increases with increase in surface roughness. This behavior is discussed in terms of broken bonds and degree of surface spin disorder

  6. Diamond for Actinide Traces Detection and Spectrometry in Liquids

    Pomorski, Michal; Mer, Christine; Sanoit, Jacques-de; Tran, Thuan-Quang; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    We describe here a new approach for the detection and identification of actinides (Am, Pu, Cm etc) at very low activity levels in aqueous solution. The measurement consists at first in the electro-precipitation of the actinides ions as insoluble hydroxides directly onto a boron doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrode deposited on an α-particle detector (Si or Si-PIN diode), followed by α-particles detection using front-end nuclear electronics. After α-particles counting, spectrometry, the detector can be easily decontaminated using anodization in aqueous solution to be able to be reused at once. The detection limit of the described prototype system can be estimated as low as a few mBq=L (for one day counting) to several mBq=L for 5 h counting and currently achieved energy resolution amounts to ΔE FW HM /E α = 2.3% for pulse height spectra of 5.486 MeV α-particles emitted by 241 Am, measured directly in water. (authors)

  7. Structural transformation of implanted diamond layers during high temperature annealing

    Rubanov, S.; Fairchild, B.A.; Suvorova, A.; Olivero, P.; Prawer, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years graphitization of ion-beam induced amorphous layers became the basic tool for device fabrication in diamond. The etchable graphitic layers can be removed to form free-standing membranes into which the desired structures can be sculpted using FIB milling. The optical properties of the devices fabricated using this method are assumed on the model of sharp diamond–air interface. The real quality of this interface could depend on degree of graphitization of the amorphous damage layers after annealing. In the present work the graphitization process was studied using conventional and analytical TEM. It was found that annealing at 550 °C results in a partial graphitization of the implanted volume with formation of the nano-crystalline graphitic phase sandwiched between layers of tetrahedral amorphous carbon. Annealing at 1400 °C resulted in complete graphitization of the amorphous layers. The average size of graphite nano-crystals did not exceed 5 nm with predominant orientation of c-planes normal to the sample surface.

  8. Simulations of intergranular fracture in nanocrystalline molybdenum

    Frederiksen, Søren Lund; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the plastic deformation of nanocrystalline molybdenum with a grain size of 12 nm at high strain rates. The simulations are performed with an interatomic potential which is obtained through matching of atomic forces to a database generated...... with density-functional calculations. The simulations show the plastic deformation to involve both grain boundary processes and dislocation migration which in some cases lead to twin boundary formation. A large component of the strain is accommodated through the formation of cracks in the grain boundaries...

  9. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    Burek, Michael John

    inventory of luminescent defect centers (many with direct optical access to highly coherent electron and nuclear spins). Diamond has many potential applications ranging from radio frequency nanoelectromechanical systems (RF-NEMS), to all-optical signal processing and quantum optics. Despite the commercial availability of wafer-scale nanocrystalline diamond thin films on foreign substrates (namely SiO2), this diamond-on-insulator (DOI) platform typically exhibits inferior material properties due to friction, scattering, and absorption losses at grain boundaries, significant surface roughness, and large interfacial stresses. In the absence of suitable heteroepitaxial diamond growth, substantial research and development efforts have focused on novel processing techniques to yield nanoscale single-crystal diamond mechanical and optical elements. In this thesis, we demonstrate a scalable 'angled-etching' nanofabrication method for realizing nanomechanical systems and nanophotonic networks starting from bulk single-crystal diamond substrates. Angled-etching employs anisotropic oxygen-based plasma etching at an oblique angle to the substrate surface, resulting in suspended optical structures with triangular cross-sections. Using this approach, we first realize single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonant structures. These nanoscale diamond resonators exhibit high mechanical quality-factors (approaching Q ~ 105) with mechanical resonances up to 10 MHz. Next, we demonstrate engineered nanophotonic structures, specifically racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities, in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical Q-factors, in excess of 10 5, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics. Beyond isolated nanophotonic

  10. Microhardness studies of nanocrystalline lead molybdate

    Anandakumar, V.M.; Abdul Khadar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline lead molybdate (PbMoO 4 ) of four different grain sizes were synthesized through chemical precipitation technique and the grain sizes and crystal structure are determined using the broadening of X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy. The microhardness of nanocrystalline lead molybdate (PbMoO 4 ) with different grain sizes were measured using a Vicker's microhardness tester for various applied loads ranging from 0.049 to 1.96 N. The microhardness values showed significant indentation size effect at low indentation loads. The proportional specimen resistance model put forward by Li and Bradt and energy balance model put forward by Gong and Li were used to analyze the behaviour of measured microhardness values under different indentation loads. The microhardness data obtained for samples of different grain sizes showed grain size dependent strengthening obeying normal Hall-Petch relation. The dependence of compacting pressure and annealing temperature on microhardness of the nanostructured sample with grain size of ∼18 nm were also studied. The samples showed significant increase in microhardness values as the compacting pressure and annealing time were increased. The variation of microhardness of the material with pressure of pelletization and annealing time are discussed in the light of change of pore size distribution of the samples.

  11. Grain growth studies on nanocrystalline Ni powder

    Rane, G.K.; Welzel, U.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure of nanocrystalline Ni powder produced by ball-milling and its thermal stability were investigated by applying different methods of X-ray diffraction line-profile analysis: single-line analysis, whole powder-pattern modelling and the (modified) Warren–Averbach method were employed. The kinetics of grain growth were investigated by both ex-situ and in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements. With increasing milling time, the grain-size reduction is accompanied by a considerable narrowing of the size distribution and an increase in the microstrain. Upon annealing, initial, rapid grain growth occurs, accompanied by the (almost complete) annihilation of microstrain. For longer annealing times, the grain-growth kinetics depend on the initial microstructure: a smaller microstrain with a broad grain-size distribution leads to linear grain growth, followed by parabolic grain growth, whereas a larger microstrain with a narrow grain-size distribution leads to incessant linear grain growth. These effects have been shown to be incompatible with grain-boundary curvature driven growth. The observed kinetics are ascribed to the role of excess free volume at the grain boundaries of nanocrystalline material and the prevalence of an “abnormal grain-growth” mechanism.

  12. Method to fabricate portable electron source based on nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Divan, Ralu; Posada, Chrystian M.; Castano, Carlos H.; Grant, Edwin J.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2016-03-29

    A source cold cathode field emission array (FEA) source based on ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) field emitters. This system was constructed as an alternative for detection of obscured objects and material. Depending on the geometry of the given situation a flat-panel source can be used in tomography, radiography, or tomosynthesis. Furthermore, the unit can be used as a portable electron or X-ray scanner or an integral part of an existing detection system. UNCD field emitters show great field emission output and can be deposited over large areas as the case with carbon nanotube "forest" (CNT) cathodes. Furthermore, UNCDs have better mechanical and thermal properties as compared to CNT tips which further extend the lifetime of UNCD based FEA.

  13. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    Nunes, D; Livramento, V; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Carvalho, P A; Shohoji, N; Correia, J B

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamondDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  14. Diamond nanowires: fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2014-12-22

    C(sp(3) )C-bonded diamond nanowires are wide band gap semiconductors that exhibit a combination of superior properties such as negative electron affinity, chemical inertness, high Young's modulus, the highest hardness, and room-temperature thermal conductivity. The creation of 1D diamond nanowires with their giant surface-to-volume ratio enhancements makes it possible to control and enhance the fundamental properties of diamond. Although theoretical comparisons with carbon nanotubes have shown that diamond nanowires are energetically and mechanically viable structures, reproducibly synthesizing the crystalline diamond nanowires has remained challenging. We present a comprehensive, up-to-date review of diamond nanowires, including a discussion of their synthesis along with their structures, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Toucan's Diamond

    2006-06-01

    The Southern constellation Tucana (the Toucan) is probably best known as the home of the Small Magellanic Cloud, one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. But Tucana also hosts another famous object that shines thousands of lights, like a magnificent, oversized diamond in the sky: the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. More popularly known as 47 Tuc, it is surpassed in size and brightness by only one other globular cluster, Omega Centauri. Globular clusters are gigantic families of stars, comprising several tens of thousands of stars, all thought to be born at the same time from the same cloud of gas [1]. As such, they constitute unique laboratories for the study of how stars evolve and interact. This is even more so because they are located at the same distance, so the brightness of different types of stars, at different stages in their evolution can be directly compared. The stars in globular clusters are held together by their mutual gravity which gives them their spherical shape, hence their name. Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in our Milky Way galaxy, and contain therefore mostly old, low-mass stars. ESO PR Photo 20/06 ESO PR Photo 20/06 Globular Cluster 47 Tuc 47 Tucanae is an impressive globular cluster that is visible with the unaided eye from the southern hemisphere. It was discovered in 1751 by the French astronomer Nicholas Louis de Lacaille who cataloged it in his list of southern nebulous objects. Located about 16 000 light years away, it has a total mass of about 1 million times the mass of the Sun and is 120 light years across, making it appear on the sky as big as the full moon. The colour image of 47 Tucanae presented here was taken with FORS1 on ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2001. The image covers only the densest, very central part of the cluster. The globular cluster extends in reality four times further away! As can be seen however, the density of stars rapidly drops off when moving away from the centre. The red

  16. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  17. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  18. Characterization of diamond amorphized by ion implantation

    Allen, W.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal diamond has been implanted at 1 MeV with 2 x 10 20 Ar/m 2 . Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeled geometry revealed a broad amorphized region underlying a thin, partially crystalline layer. Raman spectroscopy disclosed modifications in the bonding characteristic of the appearance of non-diamond carbon. The complementary nature of the two analysis techniques is demonstrated. The Knoop hardness of the implanted diamond was reduced by implantation

  19. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  20. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    2014-10-27

    Diamond. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 84, 5160−5163. (31) Ownby, P. D.; Yang, X.; Liu, J. Calculated X-Ray-Diffraction Data for Diamond Polytypes. J. Am. Ceram...Surfaces from Ab-Initio Calculations . Phys. Rev. B 1995, 51, 14669−14685. (39) Ferrari, A. C.; Robertson, J. Raman Spectroscopy of Amorphous, Nanostructured...Y.; Takami, S.; Kubo , M.; Belosludov, R. V.; Miyamoto, A.; Imamura, A.; Gamo, M. N.; Ando, T. First-Principle Study on Reactions of Diamond (100

  1. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  2. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2016-08-29

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  3. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    Fedor M. Shakhov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K and 400 W/(m·K, respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon; one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K. Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  4. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  5. Diamond coating in accelerator structure

    Lin, X.E.

    1998-08-01

    The future accelerators with 1 GeV/m gradient will give rise to hundreds of degrees instantaneous temperature rise on the copper surface. Due to its extraordinary thermal and electric properties, diamond coating on the surface is suggested to remedy this problem. Multi-layer structure, with the promise of even more temperature reduction, is also discussed, and a proof of principle experiment is being carried out

  6. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  7. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  8. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    2011-06-28

    ... Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft Service... GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems: Docket No...

  9. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  10. Electrochemical passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline Fe80Si20 ...

    Abstract. Passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline coating (Fe80Si20) obtained by in situ mechanical alloying route .... is controlled by the iron oxide film in case of alloys with ..... the surface is covered, thus, producing effective protection of.

  11. Optimization of nanocrystalline γ-alumina coating for direct spray ...

    Modifications of the partial gas percentage influences the optical properties and composition ... O2 flow in the Ar ambient and substrate temperature on struc- ture and properties of ..... nism to explain mechanical behaviour of nanocrystalline.

  12. Tailoring and patterning the grain size of nanocrystalline alloys

    Detor, Andrew J.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys that exhibit grain boundary segregation can access thermodynamically stable or metastable states with the average grain size dictated by the alloying addition. Here we consider nanocrystalline Ni-W alloys and demonstrate that the W content controls the grain size over a very broad range: ∼2-140 nm as compared with ∼2-20 nm in previous work on strongly segregating systems. This trend is attributed to a relatively weak tendency for W segregation to the grain boundaries. Based upon this observation, we introduce a new synthesis technique allowing for precise composition control during the electrodeposition of Ni-W alloys, which, in turn, leads to precise control of the nanocrystalline grain size. This technique offers new possibilities for understanding the structure-property relationships of nanocrystalline solids, such as the breakdown of Hall-Petch strength scaling, and also opens the door to a new class of customizable materials incorporating patterned nanostructures

  13. Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials preparation, properties, and applications

    Inoue, A

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials are a class of their own. Their properties are quite different to those of the corresponding crystalline materials. This book gives systematic insight into their physical properties, structure, behaviour, and design for special advanced applications.

  14. Effect of nanocrystalline surface of substrate on microstructure and ...

    surface layers or bulk nanocrystalline metals and alloys more effectively. ... severe plastic deformation on surface layers of bulk met- als at high strains and strain rates. .... scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Zeiss, model: Sigma. VP), energy ...

  15. Wetting of the diamond surface

    Hansen, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The surface conditions which lead to a wide variation in the wettability of diamond surfaces have been investigated using macroscopic surfaces to allow for the crystal anisotropy. A wetting balance method of calculating adhesion tension and hence contact angle has been used for diamonds having major faces near the [111] and [110] lattice planes. Three classes of behaviour have been identified. Surface analyses by Rutherford Backscattering of helium ions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to define the role of the oxygen coverage of the surface in the transition I → O → H. Ferric ion has a hydrophilizing effect on the diamond surface, thought to be the consequence of attachment to the hydroxyl groups at the surface by a ligand mechanism. Other transition metal ions did not show this effect. The phenomenon of hydration of the surface, i.e. progressively more hydrophilic behaviour on prolonged exposure to liquid water, has been quantified. Imbibition or water penetration at microcracks are thought unlikely, and a water cluster build-up at hydrophilic sites is thought to be the best explanation. Dynamic studies indicate little dependence of the advancing contact angle on velocity for velocities up to 10 -4 m/s, and slight dependence of the receding contact angle. Hence advancing angles by this technique are similar to equilibrated contact angles found by optical techniques, but the receding angles are lower than found by other non-dynamic measurements

  16. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    Gorisek, A. [CERN (Switzerland)]. E-mail: andrej.gorisek@cern.ch; Cindro, V. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fotec (Austria); Griesmayer, E. [Fotec (Austria); Kagan, H. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Korpar, S. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Kramberger, G. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Mandic, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Meyer, M. [CERN (Switzerland); Mikuz, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Pernegger, H. [CERN (Switzerland); Smith, S. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto (Canada); Weilhammer, P. [CERN (Switzerland); Zavrtanik, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2007-03-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm{sup 2} area and 500{mu}m thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented.

  17. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    Gorisek, A.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Kagan, H.; Korpar, S.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Meyer, M.; Mikuz, M.; Pernegger, H.; Smith, S.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm 2 area and 500μm thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented

  18. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterr. Akademie d. Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorferg. 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bauer, C. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R. [LEPSI, CRN Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E. [LEPES, Grenoble (France); Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Foulon, F. [Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Hall-Wilton, R. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Han, S.; Ziock, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Research Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kania, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mishina, M. [FNAL, Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, L.S. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-11-21

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R.; Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M.; Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E.; Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Ziock, H.; Kania, D.; Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Mishina, M.; Pan, L.S.; Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J.; Trischuk, W.

    1998-01-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...

  1. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-05-25

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  2. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  3. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  4. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition

    Idris, Jamaliah; Christian, Chukwuekezie; Gaius, Eyu

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC) and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis par...

  5. Electrochemistry of Inorganic Nanocrystalline Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    C. W. Kwon

    2003-01-01

    much different from that of traditional crystalline ones because of their significant ‘surface effects’. In connection with that, the nanocrystalline cathode materials are reported to have an enhanced electrochemical activity when the first significative electrochemical step is insertion of Li ions (discharge process. The “electrochemical grafting” concept will be given as a plausible explanation. As illustrative examples, electrochemical behaviors of nanocrystalline manganese oxydes are presented.

  6. Reversal of exchange bias in nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers

    Prados, C; Pina, E; Hernando, A; Montone, A

    2002-01-01

    The sign of the exchange bias in field cooled nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers (Co-O and Ni-O/permalloy) is reversed at temperatures approaching the antiferromagnetic (AFM) blocking temperature. A similar phenomenon is observed after magnetic training processes at similar temperatures. These effects can be explained assuming that the boundaries of nanocrystalline grains in AFM layers exhibit lower transition temperatures than grain cores

  7. Size dependence of elastic mechanical properties of nanocrystalline aluminum

    Xu, Wenwu; Dávila, Lilian P., E-mail: ldavila@ucmerced.edu

    2017-04-24

    The effect of grain size on the elastic mechanical properties of nanocrystalline pure metal Al is quantified by molecular dynamics simulation method. In this work, the largest nanocrystalline Al sample has a mean grain size of 29.6 nm and contains over 100 millions atoms in the modeling system. The simulation results show that the elastic properties including elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength of nanocrystalline Al are relatively insensitive to the variation of mean grain size above 13 nm yet they become distinctly grain size dependent below 13 nm. Moreover, at a grain size <13 nm, the elastic modulus decreases monotonically with decreasing grain size while the ultimate tensile strength of nanocrystalline Al initially decreases with the decrease of the grain size down to 9 nm and then increases with further reduction of grain size. The increase of ultimate tensile strength below 9 nm is believed to be a result of an extended elasticity in the ultrafine grain size nanocrystalline Al. This study can facilitate the prediction of varied mechanical properties for similar nanocrystalline materials and even guide testing and fabrication schemes of such materials.

  8. Adhesion analysis of polycrystalline diamond films on molybdenum by means of scratch, indentation and sand abrasion testing

    Buijnsters, J.G. [Applied Physics, IMM, Department of Applied Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Shankar, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Enckevort, W.J.P. van [Solid State Chemistry, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schermer, J.J. [Experimental Solid State Physics III, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meulen, J.J. ter [Applied Physics, IMM, Department of Applied Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: htmeulen@sci.kun.nl

    2005-03-01

    Diamond films have been grown by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on molybdenum substrates under different growth conditions. The films grown with increasing substrate temperatures show a higher interconnection of diamond grains, whereas increasing methane concentrations in the 0.5-4.0% range lead to a transition from micro- towards nanocrystalline films. X-ray diffraction analysis shows Mo{sub 2}C interlayer formation. Indentation, scratch and sand erosion tests are used to evaluate the adhesion strength of the diamond films. Using steel ball indenters (diameter 750 {mu}m), indentation and scratch adhesion tests are performed up to final loads of 200 N. Upon indentation, the load values at which diamond film failure such as flaking and detachment is first observed, increase for increasing temperatures in the deposition temperature range of 450-850 deg C. The scratch adhesion tests show critical load values in the range of 16-40 N normal load for films grown for 4 h. In contrast, diamond films grown for 24 h at a methane concentration of 0.5% do not show any failure at all upon scratching up to 75 N. Film failure upon indenting and scratching is also found to decrease for increasing methane concentration in the CVD gas mixture. The sand abrasion tests show significant differences in coating failure for films grown at varying CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} ratios. In contrast to the other tests, here best coating performance is observed for the films deposited with a methane concentration of 4%.

  9. Nanocrystalline Steels’ Resistance to Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement in X37CrMoV5-1 steel with two different microstructures: a nanocrystalline carbide-free bainite and tempered martensite. The nanobainitic structure was obtained by austempering at the bainitic transformation zone. It was found, that after hydrogen charging, both kinds of microstructure exhibit increased yield strength and strong decrease in ductility. It has been however shown that the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of X37CrMoV5-1 steel with nanobainitic structure is higher as compared to the tempered martensite. After hydrogen charging the ductility of austempered steel is slightly higher than in case of quenched and tempered (Q&T steel. This effect was interpreted as a result of phase composition formed after different heat treatments.

  10. Limitation of biocompatibility of hydrated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Minaychev, V. V.; Teleshev, A. T.; Gorshenev, V. N.; Yakovleva, M. A.; Fomichev, V. A.; Pankratov, A. S.; Menshikh, K. A.; Fadeev, R. S.; Fadeeva, I. S.; Senotov, A. S.; Kobyakova, M. I.; Yurasova, Yu B.; Akatov, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of hydrated paste is considered to be a promising material for a minor-invasive surgical curing of bone tissue injure. However questions about adhesion of cells on this material and its biocompatibility still remain. In this study biocompatibility of paste-formed nanosized HA (nano-HA) by in vitro methods is investigated. Nano-HA (particles sized about 20 nm) was synthesized under conditions of mechano-acoustic activation of an aqueous reaction mixture of ammonium hydrophosphate and calcium nitrate. It was ascertained that nanocrystalline paste was not cytotoxic although limitation of adhesion, spreading and growth of the cells on its surface was revealed. The results obtained point on the need of modification of hydrated nano-HA in the aims of increasing its biocompatibility and osteoplastic potential.

  11. Stability of nanocrystalline electrochemically deposited layers

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    have different microstructure and properties compared to bulk materials and the thermodynamic non-equilibrium state of as-deposited layers frequently results in changes of the microstructure as a function of time and/or temperature. The evolving microstructure affects the functionality and reliability......The technological demand for manufacturing components with complex geometries of micrometer or sub-micrometer dimensions and ambitions for ongoing miniaturization have attracted particular attention to electrochemical deposition methods. Thin layers of electrochemically deposited metals and alloys...... of electrodeposited components, which can be beneficial, as for the electrical conductivity of copper interconnect lines, or detrimental, as for reduced strength of nickel in MEMS applications. The present work reports on in-situ studies of the microstructure stability of as-deposited nanocrystalline Cu-, Ag- and Ni...

  12. Application Potential of Nanocrystalline Ribbons Still Pending

    Butvin, Pavol; Butvinová, Beata; Švec, Peter; Sitek, Jozef

    2010-09-01

    Nanocrystalline soft-magnetic ribbons promised a wide-spread practical use when introduced at the beginning of nineties. After 20 years of extensive research there are still unclear material problems which are thought to be the principal reason why these materials show but marginal use. Poorly controllable magnetic anisotropy due to spontaneous intrinsic macroscopic stress that comes from an inevitable heterogeneity of the ribbon materials is pointed to in this work. Certain stress-based mechanisms are shown to induce the unintended anisotropy in the already familiar Finemets as well as in the newer Hitperms. Hysteresis loops, domain structure and power loss is used to reveal the anisotropy consequences and particular connected but still unanswered questions are pinpointed.

  13. Reinforced plastics and aerogels by nanocrystalline cellulose

    Leung, Alfred C. W.; Lam, Edmond; Chong, Jonathan; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T., E-mail: john.luong@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), a rigid rod-like nanoscale material, can be produced from cellulosic biomass in powder, liquid, or gel forms by acid and chemical hydrolysis. Owing to its unique and exceptional physicochemical properties, the incorporation of a small amount of NCC into plastic enhances the mechanical strength of the latter by several orders of magnitudes. Carbohydrate-based NCC poses no serious environmental concerns, providing further impetus for the development and applications of this green and renewable biomaterial to fabricate lightweight and biodegradable composites and aerogels. Surface functionalization of NCC remains the main focus of NCC research to tailor its properties for dispersion in hydrophilic or hydrophobic media. It is of uttermost importance to develop tools and protocols for imaging of NCC in a complex matrix and quantify its reinforcement effect.

  14. Arsenic removal by magnetic nanocrystalline barium hexaferrite

    Patel, Hasmukh A.; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) ( 12 O 19 , BHF) is a well-known permanent magnet (i.e., fridge magnets) and attractive due to its low cost in making large quantities. BHF offers a viable alternative to magnetite nanocrystals for arsenic removal since it features surfaces similar to iron oxides but with much enhanced magnetism. Herein, we employ BHF nanocrystalline materials for the first time in arsenic removal from wastewater. Our results show better (75 %) arsenic removal than magnetite of the similar sizes. The BHF nanoparticles, 6.06 ± 0.52 nm synthesized by thermolysis method at 320 °C do not show hexagonal phase, however, subsequent annealing at 750 °C produced pure hexagonal BHF in >200 nm assemblies. By using BHF, we demonstrate that nanoparticle removal is more efficient and fixed bed type cartridge applications are more possible.

  15. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  16. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of nano-crystalline diamondfilms prepared at various substrate temperatures and pulsed plasma frequencies using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery

    Mistrík, J.; Janíček, P.; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Fekete, Ladislav; Jäger, Aleš; Nesládek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 571, č. 1 (2014), s. 230-237 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant - others: COST Nano TP(XE) MP0901; OP VK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0306 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * thin films * microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition * pulsed plasma * low deposition temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.759, year: 2014

  17. Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film

    Setasuwon P.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.

  18. Robust diamond meshes with unique wettability properties.

    Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong; Cheng, Shaoheng; Zou, Guangtian; Wang, Chuanxi; Lin, Quan

    2014-03-18

    Robust diamond meshes with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties have been fabricated. Superhydrophobicity is observed for water with varying pH from 1 to 14 with good recyclability. Reversible superhydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be easily controlled. The diamond meshes show highly efficient water-oil separation and water pH droplet transference.

  19. Conflict diamonds — unfinished business | IDRC - International ...

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... ... diamonds reached this year will not be effective if it is not monitored, and if the countries ... What we do know is that 75 percent of the world's gem diamonds are mined in ... It makes the Kimberley accord weaker than any other international ... a British NGO, have been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.

  20. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  1. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  2. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  3. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  4. Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation

    Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...

  5. A phenomenological variational multiscale constitutive model for intergranular failure in nanocrystalline materials

    Siddiq, A.; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a variational multiscale constitutive model that accounts for intergranular failure in nanocrystalline fcc metals due to void growth and coalescence in the grain boundary region. Following previous work by the authors, a nanocrystalline

  6. Diamond sensors for future high energy experiments

    Bachmair, Felix, E-mail: bachmair@phys.ethz.ch

    2016-09-21

    With the planned upgrade of the LHC to High-Luminosity-LHC [1], the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation tolerant technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond sensors are an established technology as beam condition monitors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. The RD42-collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to use CVD diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in extreme radiation environments. An overview of the latest developments from RD42 is presented including the present status of diamond sensor production, a study of pulse height dependencies on incident particle flux and the development of 3D diamond sensors.

  7. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Karczemska, Anna T.; Witkowski, Dariusz; Ralchenko, Victor; Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry; Lysko, Jan M.; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Hassard, John

    2011-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare TM was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  8. Engineering NV centres in Synthetic Diamond

    Matthew Markham

    2014-01-01

    The quantum properties of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond has prompted rapid growth in diamond research. This initial growth was driven by the fact the NV centre provides an 'easy' to manipulate quantum system along with opening up the possibility of a new material to deliver a solid state quantum computer. The NV defect is now moving from a quantum curiosity to a commercial development platform for a range of application such as as gyroscopes, timing and magnetometry as well as the more traditional quantum technologies such as quantum encryption and quantum simulation. These technologies are pushing the development needs of the material, and the processing of that material. The paper will describes the advances in CVD diamond synthesis with special attention to getting NV defects close to the surface of the diamond and how to process the material for diamond quantum optical applications. (author)

  9. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2017-01-01

    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  10. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  11. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: anna.karczemska@p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: ralchenko@nsc.gpi.ru [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: jmlysko@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: petr.louda@vslib.cz [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.bodzenta@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: j.hassard@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  12. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  13. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  14. Cold cathodes on ultra-dispersed diamond base

    Alimova, A.N.; Zhirnov, V.V.; Chubun, N.N.; Belobrov, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    Prospects of application of nano diamond powders for fabrication of cold cathodes are discussed.Cold cathodes based on silicon pointed structures with nano diamond coatings were prepared.The deposition technique of diamond coating was dielectrophoresis from suspension of nano diamond powder in organic liquids.The cathodes were tested in sealed prototypes of vacuum electronic devices

  15. Thermodynamic and experimental study on phase stability in nanocrystalline alloys

    Xu Wenwu; Song Xiaoyan; Lu Nianduan; Huang Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys exhibit apparently different phase transformation characteristics in comparison to the conventional polycrystalline alloys. The special phase stability and phase transformation behavior, as well as the essential mechanisms of the nanocrystalline alloys, were described quantitatively in a nanothermodynamic point of view. By introducing the relationship between the excess volume at the grain boundary and the nanograin size, the Gibbs free energy was determined distinctly as a function of temperature and the nanograin size. Accordingly, the grain-size-dependence of the phase stability and phase transformation characteristics of the nanocrystalline alloy were calculated systematically, and the correlations between the phase constitution, the phase transformation temperature and the critical nanograin size were predicted. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the phase transformations at room temperature and high temperatures using the nanocrystalline Sm 2 Co 17 alloy as an example. The phase constitution and phase transformation sequence found in nanocrystalline Sm 2 Co 17 alloys with various grain-size levels agree well with the calculations by the nanothermodynamic model.

  16. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km

  17. Thin diamond films for tribological applications

    Wong, M.S.; Meilunas, R.; Ong, T.P.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diamond films have been deposited on Si, Mo and many other substrates by microwave and radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Although the adhesion between the diamond film and most of the metal substrates is poor due to residual thermal stress from the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients, the authors have developed processes to promote the growth of uniform and continuous diamond films with enhanced adhesion to metal substrates for tribological applications. The tribological properties of these films are measured using a ring-on-block tribotester. The coefficients of friction of diamond films sliding against a 52100 steel ring under the same experimental conditions are found to be significantly different depending on the morphology, grain size and roughness of the diamond films. However, under all cases tested, it is found that for uniform and continuous diamond films with small grain size of 1-3 micrometers, the coefficient of friction of the diamond film sliding against a steel ring under lubrication of a jet of mineral oil is about 0.04

  18. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  19. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased

  20. Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-10-26

    In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.

  1. Characterisation of Suspension Precipitated Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powders

    Mallik, P K; Swain, P.K.; Patnaik, S.C

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-known biomaterial for coating on femoral implants, filling of dental cavity and scaffold for tissue replacement. Hydroxyapatite possess limited load bearing capacity due to their brittleness. In this paper, the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders was prepared by dissolving calcium oxide in phosphoric acid, followed by addition of ammonia liquor in a beaker. The prepared solution was stirred by using magnetic stirrer operated at temperature of 80°C for an hour. This leads to the formation of hydroxyapatite precipitate. The precipitate was dried in oven for overnight at 100°C. The dried agglomerated precipitate was calcined at 800°C in conventional furnace for an hour. The influence of calcium oxide concentration and pH on the resulting precipitates was studied using BET, XRD and SEM. As result, a well-defined sub-rounded morphology of powders size of ∼41 nm was obtained with a salt concentration of 0.02 M. Finally, it can be concluded that small changes in the reaction conditions led to large changes in final size, shape and degree of aggregation of the hydroxyapatite particles. (paper)

  2. Thermally Stimulated Currents in Nanocrystalline Titania

    Mara Bruzzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough study on the distribution of defect-related active energy levels has been performed on nanocrystalline TiO2. Films have been deposited on thick-alumina printed circuit boards equipped with electrical contacts, heater and temperature sensors, to carry out a detailed thermally stimulated currents analysis on a wide temperature range (5–630 K, in view to evidence contributions from shallow to deep energy levels within the gap. Data have been processed by numerically modelling electrical transport. The model considers both free and hopping contribution to conduction, a density of states characterized by an exponential tail of localized states below the conduction band and the convolution of standard Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC emissions with gaussian distributions to take into account the variability in energy due to local perturbations in the highly disordered network. Results show that in the low temperature range, up to 200 K, hopping within the exponential band tail represents the main contribution to electrical conduction. Above room temperature, electrical conduction is dominated by free carriers contribution and by emissions from deep energy levels, with a defect density ranging within 1014–1018 cm−3, associated with physio- and chemi-sorbed water vapour, OH groups and to oxygen vacancies.

  3. Arsenic removal by magnetic nanocrystalline barium hexaferrite

    Patel, Hasmukh A.; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T., E-mail: yavuz@kaist.ac.kr [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) (<15 nm) is known to remove arsenic efficiently but is very difficult to separate or require high magnetic fields to separate out from the waste water after treatment. Anisotropic hexagonal ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, BHF) is a well-known permanent magnet (i.e., fridge magnets) and attractive due to its low cost in making large quantities. BHF offers a viable alternative to magnetite nanocrystals for arsenic removal since it features surfaces similar to iron oxides but with much enhanced magnetism. Herein, we employ BHF nanocrystalline materials for the first time in arsenic removal from wastewater. Our results show better (75 %) arsenic removal than magnetite of the similar sizes. The BHF nanoparticles, 6.06 {+-} 0.52 nm synthesized by thermolysis method at 320 Degree-Sign C do not show hexagonal phase, however, subsequent annealing at 750 Degree-Sign C produced pure hexagonal BHF in >200 nm assemblies. By using BHF, we demonstrate that nanoparticle removal is more efficient and fixed bed type cartridge applications are more possible.

  4. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Physics and applications of CVD diamond

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nesladek, Milos

    2008-01-01

    Here, leading scientists report on why and how diamond can be optimized for applications in bioelectronic and electronics. They cover such topics as growth techniques, new and conventional doping mechanisms, superconductivity in diamond, and excitonic properties, while application aspects include quantum electronics at room temperature, biosensors as well as diamond nanocantilevers and SAWs.Written in a review style to make the topic accessible for a wider community of scientists working in interdisciplinary fields with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, this is e

  6. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain copper obtained by mechanical attrition

    Rodolfo Rodríguez Baracaldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method for the sample preparation and characterisation of bulk copper having grain size lower than 1 μm (ultra-fine grain and lower than 100 nm grain size (nanocrystalline. Copper is initially manufactured by a milling/alloying me- chanical method thereby obtaining a powder having a nanocrystalline structure which is then consolidated through a process of warm compaction at high pressure. Microstructural characterisation of bulk copper samples showed the evolution of grain size during all stages involved in obtaining it. The results led to determining the necessary conditions for achieving a wide range of grain sizes. Mechanical characterisation indicated an increase in microhardness to values of around 3.40 GPa for unconsolida- ted nanocrystalline powder. Compressivee strength was increased by reducing the grain size, thereby obtaining an elastic limit of 650 MPa for consolidated copper having a ~ 62 nm grain size.

  8. Creep behavior of a nanocrystalline Fe-B-Si alloy

    Xiao, M.; Kong, Q.P.

    1997-01-01

    The research of nanocrystalline materials has attracted much attention in the world. In recent years, there have been several studies on their creep behavior. Among these, the authors have studied the tensile creep of a nanocrystalline Ni-P alloy (28 nm) at temperatures around 0.5 Tm (Tm is the melting point). The samples were prepared by the method of crystallization of amorphous ribbon. Based on the data of stress exponent and activation energy, they suggested that the creep was controlled by boundary diffusion; while the creep of the same alloy with a larger grain size (257 nm) was controlled by a different mechanism. In the present paper, the authors extend the research to the creep of a nanocrystalline Fe-B-Si alloy. The samples are also prepared by crystallization of amorphous ribbon. The samples such prepared have an advantage that the interfaces are naturally formed without artificial compaction and porosity

  9. Microstructure characterization and cation distribution of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Abbas, Y.M., E-mail: ymabbas@live.com [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Mansour, S.A.; Ibrahim, M.H. [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Ali, Shehab E., E-mail: shehab_physics@yahoo.com [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    Nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite has been synthesized using two different methods: ceramic and co-precipitation techniques. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase has been formed after 3 h of sintering at 1000 deg. C. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: > The refinement result showed that the cationic distribution over the sites in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. > The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. > The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  10. Microstructure characterization and cation distribution of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Abbas, Y.M.; Mansour, S.A.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Ali, Shehab E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite has been synthesized using two different methods: ceramic and co-precipitation techniques. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase has been formed after 3 h of sintering at 1000 deg. C. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: → The refinement result showed that the cationic distribution over the sites in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. → The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. → The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  11. Correlation of thermodynamics and grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline metals

    Song Xiaoyan; Zhang Jiuxing; Li Lingmei; Yang Keyong; Liu Guoquan

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the correlation of thermodynamics and grain growth kinetics of nanocrystalline metals both theoretically and experimentally. A model was developed to describe the thermodynamic properties of nanograin boundaries, which could give reliable predictions in the destabilization characteristics of nanograin structures and the slowing down of grain growth kinetics at a constant temperature. Both the temperature-varying and isothermal nanograin growth behaviors in pure nanocrystalline Co were studied to verify the thermodynamic predictions. The experimental results showing that discontinuous nanograin growth takes place at a certain temperature and grain growth rate decreases monotonically with time confirm our thermodynamics-based description of nanograin growth characteristics. Therefore, we propose a thermodynamic viewpoint to explain the deviation of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline metals from those of polycrystalline materials

  12. Nanocrystalline Aluminum Truss Cores for Lightweight Sandwich Structures

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Chan, Lisa J.; Clough, Eric C.; Stilke, Morgan A.; Hundley, Jacob M.; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2017-12-01

    Substitution of conventional honeycomb composite sandwich structures with lighter alternatives has the potential to reduce the mass of future vehicles. Here we demonstrate nanocrystalline aluminum-manganese truss cores that achieve 2-4 times higher strength than aluminum alloy 5056 honeycombs of the same density. The scalable fabrication approach starts with additive manufacturing of polymer templates, followed by electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy, removal of the polymer, and facesheet integration. This facilitates curved and net-shaped sandwich structures, as well as co-curing of the facesheets, which eliminates the need for extra adhesive. The nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy thin-film material exhibits high strength and ductility and can be converted into a three-dimensional hollow truss structure with this approach. Ultra-lightweight sandwich structures are of interest for a range of applications in aerospace, such as fairings, wings, and flaps, as well as for the automotive and sports industries.

  13. Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors

    SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.

    2002-06-01

    This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater

  14. Bimodal microstructure and deformation of cryomilled bulk nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloy

    Lee, Z.; Witkin, D.B.; Radmilovic, V.; Lavernia, E.J.; Nutt, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties and deformation response of bimodal structured nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloy were investigated. Grain refinement was achieved by cryomilling of atomized Al-7.5Mg powders, and then cryomilled nanocrystalline powders blended with 15 and 30% unmilled coarse-grained powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing followed by extrusion to produce bulk nanocrystalline alloys. Bimodal bulk nanocrystalline Al-7.5Mg alloys, which were comprised of nanocrystalline grains separated by coarse-grain regions, show balanced mechanical properties of enhanced yield and ultimate strength and reasonable ductility and toughness compared to comparable conventional alloys and nanocrystalline metals. The investigation of tensile and hardness test suggests unusual deformation mechanisms and interactions between ductile coarse-grain bands and nanocrystalline regions

  15. Texture-dependent twin formation in nanocrystalline thin Pd films

    Wang, B.; Idrissi, H.; Shi, H.; Colla, M.S.; Michotte, S.; Raskin, J.P.; Pardoen, T.; Schryvers, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Pd films were produced by electron-beam evaporation and sputter deposition. The electron-beam-evaporated films reveal randomly oriented nanograins with a relatively high density of growth twins, unexpected in view of the high stacking fault energy of Pd. In contrast, sputter-deposited films show a clear 〈1 1 1〉 crystallographic textured nanostructure without twins. These results provide insightful information to guide the generation of microstructures with enhanced strength/ductility balance in high stacking fault energy nanocrystalline metallic thin films.

  16. Engineering of giant magnetoimpedance effect of amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires

    V. Zhukova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present our studies of the factors affecting soft magnetic properties and giant magnetoimpedance effect in thin amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires. We showed that the magnetoelastic anisotropy is one of the most important parameters that determine magnetic softness and GMI effect of glass-coated microwires  and annealing can be very effective for manipulation the magnetic properties of amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires. Considerable magnetic softening and increasing of the GMI effect is observed in Fe-rich nanocrystalline FINEMET-type glass-coated microwires after the nanocrystallization.

  17. Inter- and intra-agglomerate fracture in nanocrystalline nickel.

    Shan, Zhiwei; Knapp, J A; Follstaedt, D M; Stach, E A; Wiezorek, J M K; Mao, S X

    2008-03-14

    In situ tensile straining transmission electron microscopy tests have been carried out on nanocrystalline Ni. Grain agglomerates (GAs) were found to form very frequently and rapidly ahead of an advancing crack with sizes much larger than the initial average grain size. High-resolution electron microscopy indicated that the GAs most probably consist of nanograins separated by low-angle grain boundaries. Furthermore, both inter- and intra-GA fractures were observed. The observations suggest that these newly formed GAs may play an important role in the formation of the dimpled fracture surfaces of nanocrystalline materials.

  18. High-pressure structural behaviour of nanocrystalline Ge

    Wang, H; Liu, J F; He, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, W; Jiang, J Z; Olsen, J Staun; Gerward, L

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state and the pressure of the I-II transition have been studied for nanocrystalline Ge using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The bulk modulus and the transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size for both Ge-I and Ge-II, but the percentage volume collapse at the transition remains constant. Simplified models for the high-pressure structural behaviour are presented, based on the assumption that a large fraction of the atoms reside in grain boundary regions of the nanocrystalline material. The interface structure plays a significant role in affecting the transition pressure and the bulk modulus

  19. Production of nanocrystalline metal powders via combustion reaction synthesis

    Frye, John G.; Weil, Kenneth Scott; Lavender, Curt A.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2017-10-31

    Nanocrystalline metal powders comprising tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium and/or niobium can be synthesized using a combustion reaction. Methods for synthesizing the nanocrystalline metal powders are characterized by forming a combustion synthesis solution by dissolving in water an oxidizer, a fuel, and a base-soluble, ammonium precursor of tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, or niobium in amounts that yield a stoichiometric burn when combusted. The combustion synthesis solution is then heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove water and to initiate a self-sustaining combustion reaction. The resulting powder can be subsequently reduced to metal form by heating in a reducing gas environment.

  20. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  1. Study of Phase Transformations on Nano-Crystalline (La,Sr)(Mn,Fe)O3 Systems by High-Pressure Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    Chandra, Usha; Mudgal, Prerana; Kumar, Manoj

    2006-01-01

    We report pressure-dependent 57Fe Moessbauer studies on a nano-crystalline perovskite La0.8Sr0.2(Mn0.8Fe0.2) O3 system up to 10 GPa using diamond anvil cell. At ambient pressure, iron is present as Fe3+ and Fe4+ in two different environments. Pressure seems to affect the higher symmetry site of Fe4+, while the octahedral site containing Fe3+ remains almost unaffected. Phase transformations are observed at pressures 0.52 GPa and 3.7 GPa respectively. A sudden increase in the isomer shift at 0.52 GPa is related to the reduction of Fe4+ ions while at 3.7 GPa, a structural transition is observed with sudden drop in isomer shift indicating Fe3+ ions in identical environment. Quadrupole splittings increase continuously with pressures up to 10 GPa

  2. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  3. Ultra-fast calculations using diamond

    Van Dijk, T.

    2011-01-01

    TU Delft researchers have managed to use a piece of diamond to hold four quantum bits that can be spun, flipped and entangled with each other. This is an important step towards a working quantum computer

  4. Short-range order in irradiated diamonds

    Agafonov, S.S.; Glazkov, V.P.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Somenkov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes in irradiated diamond with a change in its density were studied. Natural diamond powders with average particle size from 14-20 μm to 0.5 mm, irradiated in beryllium block of the MR reactor up to a fluence of 1.51 x 10 21 were used as samples. Using the neutron-diffraction method, it has been established that, when density in irradiated diamonds varies, a transition from a diamond-like amorphous structure to a graphite-like structure occurs. The transition occurs at a density ρ ∼ 2.7-2.9 g/cm 3 and is accompanied by a sharp change in resistivity [ru

  5. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Lake, David P.; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm . The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7 ×105 and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm /√{Hz } sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  6. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Behzad Khanaliloo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200  nm. The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7×10^{5} and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5  fm/sqrt[Hz] sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  7. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  8. Diamond detectors for high energy physics experiments

    Bäni, L.; Alexopoulos, A.; Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Beck, H.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dauvergne, D.; de Boer, W.; Dorfer, C.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Giroletti, C.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grummer, A.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hiti, B.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Hutton, C.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Konovalov, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Lukosi, E.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Muškinja, M.; Oh, A.; Oliviero, P.; Passeri, D.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Reichmann, M.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sanz, D.; Scaringella, M.; Schaefer, D.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Smith, S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Tannenwald, B.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2018-01-01

    Beam test results of the radiation tolerance study of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond against different particle species and energies is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition functionality of poly-crystalline CVD diamond 3D devices was demonstrated in beam tests and 3D diamond detectors are shown to be a promising technology for applications in future high luminosity experiments.

  9. Diamond Detector Technology: Status and Perspectives

    Reichmann, M; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H; Bellini, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; Dauvergne, D; de Boer, W; Dorfer, C; Dünser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kagan, H; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Konovalov, V; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz-Becerra, D A; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Tannenwald, B; Taylor, A; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, S; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2018-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity-LHC will push the luminosity limits above the original design values. Since the current detectors will not be able to cope with this environment ATLAS and CMS are doing research to find more radiation tolerant technologies for their innermost tracking layers. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond is an excellent candidate for this purpose. Detectors out of this material are already established in the highest irradiation regimes for the beam condition monitors at LHC. The RD42 collaboration is leading an effort to use CVD diamonds also as sensor material for the future tracking detectors. The signal behaviour of highly irradiated diamonds is presented as well as the recent study of the signal dependence on incident particle flux. There is also a recent development towards 3D detectors and especially 3D detectors with a pixel readout based on diamond sensors.

  10. Modified diamond dies for laser applications

    McWilliams, R.A.

    1978-06-21

    A modified wire drawing die for spatial filtering techniques is described. It was designed for use in high power laser systems. The diamond aperture is capable of enduring high intensity laser frequency without damaging the laser beam profile. The diamond is mounted at the beam focus in a vacuum of 1 x 10/sup -5/ Torr. The vacuum prevents plasma forming at the diamond aperture, thus enabling the beam to pass through without damaging the holder or aperture. The spatial filters are fitted with a manipulator that has three electronic stepping motors, can position the aperture in three orthogonal directions, and is capable of 3.2 ..mu..m resolution. Shiva laser system is using 105 diamond apertures for shaping the High Energy Laser Beam.

  11. The DIAMOND Model of Peace Support Operations

    Bailey, Peter

    2005-01-01

    DIAMOND (Diplomatic And Military Operations in a Non-warfighting Domain) is a high-level stochastic simulation developed at Dstl as a key centerpiece within the Peace Support Operations (PSO) 'modelling jigsaw...

  12. Dosimetry in radiotherapy with natural diamond detectors

    De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Bucciolini, M.; Mazzocchi, S.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide interest in the use of diamond detectors for dosimetry in radiotherapy mainly because of the small dimensions, radiation hardness, nearly tissue equivalence of sensitive material and capability to deliver the dosimetric response 'on line'. In order to assess the dosimetric properties of PTW Riga diamond detectors type 60003, experiments were performed in conventional (high energy photon and electron) therapy beams as well as in proton therapy beams. The main detector features investigated were reproducibility of response, dose-signal relationship, temperature dependence, dose-rate dependence, energy dependence and angular dependence. High energy photons (6-25 MV) and electrons (6-22 MeV), available at the Radiotherapy Department of the Florence University, were used for investigating the general properties. Two different PTW diamond detectors of the same type were used to evidence inter-sample differences. The beam quality dependence of the detector response is probably the most critical point and this statement is of particular relevance for proton dosimetry since the proton LET changes with depth in the medium. Mainly because of the little information available on detector sensitivity variations with beam energy, the use of diamonds for clinical proton dosimetry is not widespread. In two recent papers a sensitivity dependence on proton energy of a natural PTW diamond detector has been reported. Due to the necessity to characterise each diamond detector individually the PTW Riga natural diamond detector in operation at the LNS-INFN, Catania, Italy was tested with the local proton beam line. This experiment is of main concern because this proton beam, produced by a superconducting cyclotron and used for ocular melanoma treatment, is available only since 2001 (CATANA beam). The first patient has been treated in February 2002. Proton irradiations were performed with non modulated and modulated 62 MeV beams. Attention was focused on diamond sensitivity

  13. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  14. Growth and optical spectroscopy of synthetic diamonds

    Mudryj, A.V.; Larionova, T.P.; Shakin, I.A.; Gysakov, G.A.; Dubrov, G.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It is studied the growth and optical properties of synthetic diamonds, which may be used for detection of ionizing radiation, optical windows, heat removal, ultraviolet and thermo sensors, optoelectronic devices. Optical properties of diamonds (grown in different technological conditions) were studied in temperature range 78 - 300 K by means of measuring transmission in spectral band 0.2 - 25 μm, photoluminescence and registration of luminescence excitation spectra in spectral band 0.2 - 2 μm

  15. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  16. Diamond nanostructured devices for chemical sensing applications

    Ahmad, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the area of CVD single crystal diamond plates of which only recently has been made commercially available saw significant advancements during the last decade. In parallel to that, detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles also now widely made accessible for requisition are provoking a lot of scientific investigations. The remarkable properties of diamond including its extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, high thermal c...

  17. Diamond carbon sources: a comparison of carbon isotope models

    Kirkley, M.B.; Otter, M.L.; Gurney, J.J.; Hill, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of approximately 500 inclusion-bearing diamonds have been determined in the past decade. 98 percent of these diamonds readily fall into two broad categories on the basis of their inclusion mineralogies and compositions. These categories are peridotitic diamonds and eclogitic diamonds. Most peridotitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -10 and -1 permil, whereas eclogitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -28 and +2 permil. Peridotitic diamonds may represent primordial carbon, however, it is proposed that initially inhomogeneous δ 13 C values were subsequently homogenized, e.g. during melting and convection that is postulated to have occurred during the first billion years of the earth's existence. If this is the case, then the wider range of δ 13 C values exhibited by eclogitic diamonds requires a different explanation. Both the fractionation model and the subduction model can account for the range of observed δ 13 C values in eclogitic diamonds. 16 refs., 2 figs

  18. Graphitization of diamond with a metallic coating on ferritic matrix

    Cabral, Stenio Cavalier; Oliveira, Hellen Cristine Prata de; Filgueira, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a strong catalyst of graphitization of diamonds. This graphitization occurs mainly during the processing of composites - conventional sintering or hot pressing, and during cutting operations. Aiming to avoid or minimize this deleterious effect, there is increasing use of diamond coated with metallic materials in the production of diamond tools processed via powder metallurgy. This work studies the influence of Fe on diamond graphitization diamond-coated Ti after mixing of Fe-diamonds, hot pressing parameters were performed with 3 minutes/35MPa/900 deg C - this is the condition of pressing hot used in industry for production of diamond tools. Microstructural features were observed by SEM, diffusion of Fe in diamond was studied by EDS. Graphitization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe not activate graphitization on the diamond under the conditions of hot pressing. (author)

  19. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: tshgl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  20. Copper removal using electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose.

    Sheikhi, Amir; Safari, Salman; Yang, Han; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2015-06-03

    Removal of heavy metal ions such as copper using an efficient and low-cost method with low ecological footprint is a critical process in wastewater treatment, which can be achieved in a liquid phase using nanoadsorbents such as inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, attention has turned toward developing sustainable and environmentally friendly nanoadsorbents to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media. Electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC), which can be prepared from wood fibers through periodate/chlorite oxidation, has been shown to have a high charge content and colloidal stability. Here, we show that ENCC scavenges copper ions by different mechanisms depending on the ion concentration. When the Cu(II) concentration is low (C0≲200 ppm), agglomerates of starlike ENCC particles appear, which are broken into individual starlike entities by shear and Brownian motion, as evidenced by photometric dispersion analysis, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. On the other hand, at higher copper concentrations, the aggregate morphology changes from starlike to raftlike, which is probably due to the collapse of protruding dicarboxylic cellulose (DCC) chains and ENCC charge neutralization by copper adsorption. Such raftlike structures result from head-to-head and lateral aggregation of neutralized ENCCs as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. As opposed to starlike aggregates, the raftlike structures grow gradually and are prone to sedimentation at copper concentrations C0≳500 ppm, which eliminates a costly separation step in wastewater treatment processes. Moreover, a copper removal capacity of ∼185 mg g(-1) was achieved thanks to the highly charged DCC polyanions protruding from ENCC. These properties along with the biorenewability make ENCC a promising candidate for wastewater treatment, in which fast, facile, and low-cost removal of heavy metal ions is desired most.

  1. Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame

    Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    1995-01-01

    What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)

  2. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  3. Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fisch, D; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zoeller, M M

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are presented in terms of collection distance, $d=\\mu E \\tau$, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart under the influence of an electric field, where $\\mu$ is the sum of carrier mo bilities, $E$ is the applied electric field, and $\\tau$ is the mobility weighted carrier lifetime. Over the last two years the collection distance increased from $\\sim$ 75 $\\mu$m to over 200 $\\mu$ m. With this high quality CVD diamond a series of micro-strip and pixel particle detectors have been constructed. These devices were tested to determine their position resolution and signal to n oise performance. Diamond detectors w...

  4. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    Quiroz Alfaro, Marco Antonio; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Vong, Yunny Meas

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes. (author)

  5. Optimizing biosensing properties on undecylenic Acid-functionalized diamond.

    Zhong, Yu Lin; Chong, Kwok Feng; May, Paul W; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2007-05-08

    The optimization of biosensing efficiency on a diamond platform depends on the successful coupling of biomolecules on the surface, and also on effective signal transduction in the biorecognition events. In terms of biofunctionalization of diamond surfaces, surface electrochemical studies of diamond modified with undecylenic acid (UA), with and without headgroup protection, were performed. The direct photochemical coupling method employing UA was found to impart a higher density of carboxylic acid groups on the diamond surface compared to that using trifluoroethyl undecenoate (TFEU) as the protecting group during the coupling process. Non-faradic impedimetric DNA sensing revealed that lightly doped diamond gives better signal transduction sensitivity compared to highly doped diamond.

  6. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    Alfaro Marco Antonio Quiroz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes.

  7. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  8. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.

  9. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F-doped SnO2 films derived via sol–gel method. Sarbani Basu Yeong-Her Wang C Ghanshyam Pawan Kapur. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 521-533 ...

  10. High-pressure structural behavior of nanocrystalline Ge

    Wang, H.; Liu, J. F.; Yan, H.

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state and the pressure of the I-II transition have been studied for nanocrystalline Ge using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The bulk modulus and the transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size for both Ge-I and Ge-II, but the percentage volume collapse at the transi...

  11. Induced anisotropy effect in nanocrystalline cores for GFCBs

    Waeckerle, T. E-mail: thierry.waeckerle@imphy.usinor.com; Verin, Ph.; Cremer, P.; Gautard, D

    2000-06-02

    Nanocrystalline materials are very efficient for GFCB cores with flat hysteresis loop, especially if permeability may be raised in keeping low the remanent induction. This can be achieved with peculiar field annealing . A thermodynamic model is proposed to explain the experimental evidence.

  12. Bioactive nanocrystalline wollastonite synthesized by sol–gel ...

    The sol–gel combustion method was employed to synthesize the nanocrystalline wollastonite by taking the raw eggshell powder as a calcium source and TEOS as a source of silicate. Glycine was .... 94·37% CaCO3, hence in order to prepare 1 M Ca2+ ion solu- ... requires an acid or base catalyst hence the pH of the solu-.

  13. High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Nanocrystalline Materials

    Palosz, B.; Stelmakh, S.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Werner, S.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Application of in situ high pressure powder diffraction technique for examination of specific structural properties of nanocrystals based on the experimental data of SiC nanocrystalline powders of 2 to 30 nrn diameter in diameter is presented. Limitations and capabilities of the experimental techniques themselves and methods of diffraction data elaboration applied to nanocrystals with very small dimensions (nanoparticles of different grain size.

  14. Bioactive nanocrystalline wollastonite synthesized by sol–gel ...

    The sol–gel combustion method was employed to synthesize the nanocrystalline wollastonite by taking the raw eggshell powder as a calcium source and TEOS as a source of silicate. Glycine was used as a reductant or fuel and nitrate ions present in metal nitrate acts as an oxidizer. The phase purity of the wollastonite was ...

  15. Transparent nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by spin coating

    Berber, M. [SusTech GmbH and Co. KG, Petersenstr. 20, 64287 Darmstadt, Hessen (Germany)]. E-mail: mete.berber@sustech.de; Bulto, V. [SusTech GmbH and Co. KG, Petersenstr. 20, 64287 Darmstadt, Hessen (Germany); Kliss, R. [SusTech GmbH and Co. KG, Petersenstr. 20, 64287 Darmstadt, Hessen (Germany); Hahn, H. [SusTech GmbH and Co. KG, Petersenstr. 20, 64287 Darmstadt, Hessen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nanotechnology, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, TU Darmstadt, Institute of Materials Science, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-09-15

    Dispersions of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by the electrochemical deposition under oxidizing conditions process with organic surfactants, were spin coated on glass substrates. After sintering, the microstructure, surface morphology, and electro-optical properties of the transparent nanocrystalline zinc oxide films have been investigated for different coating thicknesses and organic solvents.

  16. Transparent nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by spin coating

    Berber, M.; Bulto, V.; Kliss, R.; Hahn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersions of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by the electrochemical deposition under oxidizing conditions process with organic surfactants, were spin coated on glass substrates. After sintering, the microstructure, surface morphology, and electro-optical properties of the transparent nanocrystalline zinc oxide films have been investigated for different coating thicknesses and organic solvents

  17. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  18. Electrodeposited nanocrystalline bronze alloys as replacement for Ni

    Hovestad, A.; Tacken, R.A.; Mannetje, H.H.'t

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline white-bronze, CuSn, electroplating was investigated as alternative to Ni plating as undercoat for noble metals in jewellery applications. A strongly acidic plating bath was developed with an organic additive to suppress hydrogen evolution and obtain bright coatings. Polarization

  19. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  20. Oxygen reduction on nanocrystalline ruthenia-local structure effects

    Abbott, Daniel F.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Petrykin, Valery

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ruthenium dioxide and doped ruthenia of the composition Ru1-xMxO2 (M = Co, Ni, Zn) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 were prepared by the spray-freezing freeze-drying technique. The oxygen reduction activity and selectivity of the prepared materials were evaluated in alkaline media using the RRDE ...

  1. Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn2+

    Suyver, J.F.; Wuister, S.F.; Kelly, J.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2000-01-01

    The luminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn^(2+) prepared via an inorganic chemical synthesis are described. Photoluminescence spectra show distinct ZnSe and Mn^(2+) related emissions, both of which are excited via the ZnSe host lattice. The Mn^(2+) emission wavelength and the

  2. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  3. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.

  4. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry

  5. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  6. Strain rate sensitivity studies on bulk nanocrystalline aluminium by nanoindentation

    Varam, Sreedevi; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V., E-mail: kvrse@uohyd.ernet.in; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2014-02-05

    Nanocrystalline aluminium powder synthesized using high energy ball milling process was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The studies indicated the powder having an average grain size of ∼42 nm. The consolidation of the powder was carried out by high-pressure compaction using a uni-axial press at room temperature by applying a pressure of 1.5 GPa. The cold compacted bulk sample having a density of ∼98% was subjected to nanoindentation which showed an average hardness and elastic modulus values of 1.67 ± 0.09 GPa and 83 ± 8 GPa respectively at a peak force of 8000 μN and a strain rate of 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Achieving good strength along with good ductility is challenging in nanocrystalline metals. When enough sample sizes are not available to measure ductility and other mechanical properties as per ASTM standards, as is the case with nanocrystalline materials, nanoindentation is a very promising technique to evaluate strain rate sensitivity. Strain rate sensitivity is a good measure of ductility and in the present work it is measured by performing indentation at various loads with varying loading rates. Strain rate sensitivity values of 0.024–0.054 are obtained for nanocrystalline Al which are high over conventional coarse grained Al. In addition, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) image of the indent shows that there is some plastically flown region around the indent suggesting that this nanocrystalline aluminium is ductile.

  7. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  8. The Diamond machine protection system

    Heron, M.T.; Lay, S.; Chernousko, Y.; Hamadyk, P.; Rotolo, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source Machine Protection System (MPS) manages the hazards from high power photon beams and other hazards to ensure equipment protection on the booster synchrotron and storage ring. The system has a shutdown requirement, on a beam mis-steer of under 1 msec and has to manage in excess of a thousand interlocks. This is realised using a combination of bespoke hardware and programmable logic controllers. The MPS monitors a large number of interlock signals from diagnostics instrumentation, vacuum instrumentation, photon front ends and plant monitoring subsystems. Based on logic it can then remove the source of the energy to ensure protection of equipment. Depending on requirements, interlocks are managed on a Local or a Global basis. The Global system is structured as two layers, and supports fast- and slow-response-time interlock requirements. A Global MPS module takes the interlock permits for a given interlock circuit from each of the cells of the accelerator, and, subject to all interlocks being good, produces a permit to operate the source of energy: the RF amplifier for vessel protection and the PSU for magnet protection. The Local MPS module takes fast Interlock inputs from one cell of the Storage Ring or one quadrant of the Booster. Fast interlocks are those that must drop the beam in under 400 μsec (the maximum speed of the interlock) in the event of failure. EPIC provides the user interface to the MPS system

  9. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  10. Critical components for diamond-based quantum coherent devices

    Greentree, Andrew D; Olivero, Paolo; Draganski, Martin; Trajkov, Elizabeth; Rabeau, James R; Reichart, Patrick; Gibson, Brant C; Rubanov, Sergey; Huntington, Shane T; Jamieson, David N; Prawer, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The necessary elements for practical devices exploiting quantum coherence in diamond materials are summarized, and progress towards their realization documented. A brief review of future prospects for diamond-based devices is also provided

  11. Prospects for the synthesis of large single-crystal diamonds

    Khmelnitskiy, R A

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of diamond have stimulated the study of and search for its applications in many fields, including optics, optoelectronics, electronics, biology, and electrochemistry. Whereas chemical vapor deposition allows the growth of polycrystalline diamond plates more than 200 mm in diameter, most current diamond application technologies require large-size (25 mm and more) single-crystal diamond substrates or films suitable for the photolithography process. This is quite a challenge, because the largest diamond crystals currently available are 10 mm or less in size. This review examines three promising approaches to fabricating large-size diamond single crystals: growing large-size single crystals, the deposition of heteroepitaxial diamond films on single-crystal substrates, and the preparation of composite diamond substrates. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Architecting boron nanostructure on the diamond particle surface

    Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Yu, J.H.; Nishimura, K.; Sasaoka, S.; Jiang, N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides an efficient approach for nano-functionalization of diamond powders. Boron nanostructure can be grown on diamond particle entire surface by a simple heat-treatment process. After treatment, various boron nanoforms were grown on the diamond particle surface at different processing temperature. High-density boron nanowires (BNWs) grow on the diamond particle entire surface at 1333 K, while nanopillars cover diamond powders when the heat treatment process is performed at 1393 K. The influence of the pretreatment temperature on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites were investigated. Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of 670 W (m K) −1 was obtained, which was achieved by the formation of large number of nanowires and nanopillars on the diamond particle surface.

  13. Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in ...

    Unknown

    Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ... chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any .... CVD diamond coated carbide tools, Ph D Thesis, Indian.

  14. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  15. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Properties and Applications of Nanocrystalline Alloys from Amorphous Precursors

    Idzikowski, Bogdan; Miglierini, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Metallic (magnetic and non-magnetic) nanocrystalline materials have been known for over ten years but only recent developments in the research into those complex alloys and their metastable amorphous precursors have created a need to summarize the most important accomplishments in the field. This book is a collection of articles on various aspects of metallic nanocrystalline materials, and an attempt to address this above need. The main focus of the papers is put on the new issues that emerge in the studies of nanocrystalline materials, and, in particular, on (i) new compositions of the alloys, (ii) properties of conventional nanocrystalline materials, (iii) modeling and simulations, (iv) preparation methods, (v) experimental techniques of measurements, and (vi) different modern applications. Interesting phenomena of the physics of nanocrystalline materials are a consequence of the effects induced by the nanocrystalline structure. They include interface physics, the influence of the grain boundaries, the aver...

  16. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    Kagan, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  17. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  18. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  19. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University)

    2008-06-24

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  20. Improvements in or relating to artefacts incorporating industrial diamonds

    Hartley, N.E.W.; Poole, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A process for improving the wear characteristics of industrial diamonds is described which consists of implanting into the surface regions of the diamonds, ions of a material having an atomic weight greater than one and such as to affect the surface properties of the diamonds. Examples of the invention, in which N + and C + ions have been used, are cited. (U.K.)