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Sample records for nanocrystal conducting polymer

  1. Conducting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent a very interesting group of polymer materials Investigation of the synthesis, structure and properties of these materials has been the subject of considerable research efforts in the last twenty years. A short presentating of newer results obtained by investigating of the synthesis, structure and properties of two basic groups of conducting polymers: a conducting polymers the conductivity of which is the result of their molecular structure, and b conducting polymer composites (EPC, is given in this paper. The applications and future development of this group of polymer materials is also discussed.

  2. Voltammetry of conducting polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Gulaboski, Rubin

    2014-01-01

    The search for new materials for enhancing electrical conductivity of various materials is one of the most active research areas today. Conducting polymers represent a unique class of organic materials that have been used in many applications such as bioelectronics, sensors, corrosion protection, electrocatalysis, and energy storage devices. Application of the conductive polymers in electrochemistry is almost inevitable in order to get better features of the voltammetric systems ...

  3. Thermally conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  4. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanocrystals and polystyrene nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagja Juangsa, Firman; Muroya, Yoshiki; Ryu, Meguya; Morikawa, Junko; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are well known for their size-dependent optical and electronic properties; they also have the potential for low yet controllable thermal properties. As a silicon-based low-thermal conductivity material is required in microdevice applications, SiNCs can be utilized for thermal insulation. In this paper, SiNCs and polymer nanocomposites were produced, and their thermal conductivity, including the density and specific heat, was measured. Measurement results were compared with thermal conductivity models for composite materials, and the comparison shows a decreasing value of the thermal conductivity, indicating the effect of the size and presence of the nanostructure on the thermal conductivity. Moreover, employing silicon inks at room temperature during the fabrication process enables a low cost of fabrication and preserves the unique properties of SiNCs.

  5. Electrically Conducting Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-07

    polypyrrole, the oxidized polythiophene is also unstable in air. A rather different class of conducting polymers lies outside the scope of this review but...AD-A129 488 ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYNERS(U) IBM RESEARCH LAB / SAN JOSE CA W D GILL ET RL. 97 APR 83 TR-B UNCLASSIFIED F/G 7/3 N I Ihhhhhhhhhhhhl...00 Contract N00014-80-C-0779 Technical Report No. 8 *Electrically Conducting Polymers by W. D. Gill, T. C. Clarke, and G. B. Street Prepared for

  6. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Conducting Thermoset Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    polymers conducting. The acetylene-terminated Schiff base and acetylene-terminated polythiophene monomers were first cured, then doped with iodine... Schiff base thermoset was implanted with high energy argon ions using a commercial ion implanter. Electron spin resonance, photoluminescence, and...photoabsorption data suggest that polarons can form in the doped and undoped forms of the acetylene-terminated Schiff base and polythiophene thermoset

  8. Chiral conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane-Maguire, Leon A P; Wallace, Gordon G

    2010-07-01

    This critical review describes the preparation and properties of a relatively new class of chiral macromolecules, namely chiral conducting polymers. It focuses in particular on examples based on polypyrrole, polythiophene and polyaniline. They possess remarkable properties, combining not only chirality with electrical conductivity but also the ability to undergo facile redox and pH switching. These unique properties have opened up a range of exciting new potential applications, including as chiral sensors, as novel stationary phases for chiral separations, and as chiral electrodes for electrochemical asymmetric synthesis (153 references).

  9. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-01

    Monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li3V2(PO4)3 particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g-1 for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...

  11. Conductive polymer-based material

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.; Dourado, Sunil K.; Dulebohn, Joel I.; Hanchar, Robert J.

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  12. Multifunctional Composites Obtained by Incorporating Nanocrystals into Decorated PVK Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizhu Sun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylcarbazole (PVK was decorated with surfactant group to achieve amphiphilic polymer with luminescent property. The composition and properties of the polymers were systematically investigated using FTIR, EA, TGA, UV-Vis, and PL characterizations. Different CdTe nanocrystals (NCs prepared in aqueous medium were directly transferred to organic phase using the PVK-based polymers. The quantum yield of NCs in the composites had been improved by 50% compared with their parent aqueous solution due to the short distance from carbazole moieties to NCs, which facilitated the Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET between them. Moreover, efficient electron transfer at the interface of NCs and polymers had been confirmed which also indicated the application in photovoltaic cell for such composites.

  13. Conjugated polymer/nanocrystal nanocomposites for renewable energy applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Wei; Lin, Wei-Hao; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Wei, Kung-Hwa

    2014-11-01

    Conjugated polymer/nanocrystal composites have attracted much attention for use in renewable energy applications because of their versatile and synergistic optical and electronic properties. Upon absorbing photons, charge separation occurs in the nanocrystals, generating electrons and holes for photocurrent flow or reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions under proper conditions. Incorporating these nanocrystals into conjugated polymers can complement the visible light absorption range of the polymers for photovoltaics applications or allow the polymers to sensitize or immobilize the nanocrystals for photocatalysis. Here, the current developments of conjugated polymer/nanocrystal nanocomposites for bulk heterojunction-type photovoltaics incorporating Cd- and Pb-based nanocrystals or quantum dots are reviewed. The effects of manipulating the organic ligands and the concentration of the nanocrystal precursor, critical factors that affect the shape and aggregation of the nanocrystals, are also discussed. In the conclusion, the mechanisms through which conjugated polymers can sensitize semiconductor nanocrystals (TiO2 , ZnO) to ensure efficient charge separation, as well as how they can support immobilized nanocrystals for use in photocatalysis, are addressed.

  14. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  15. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of Si nanocrystal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Meldrum, A.; Jepsen, P. Uhd

    2012-01-01

    The terahertz conductivity of silicon nanoparticles embedded in glass with varying density is studied with ultra-broadband terahertz spectroscopy on picosecond time scales following fs optical excitation. The transition from relatively isolated charge carriers to densities which allow inter...... the applicability of this simple model to the conductivity of nanoparticle ensembles over the entire THz spectral window....

  16. Preparation of CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composite microspheres in aqueous solution by dispersing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Minjie; WANG Chunlei; HAN Kun; YANG Bai

    2005-01-01

    Highly fluorescent CdTe nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous solution, and then processible CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites were fabricated by coating the aqueous nanocrystals with copolymers of styrene and octadecyl-p-vinyl-benzyldimethylammonium chloride (SOV- DAC) directly. A dichloromethane solution of CdTe nano- crystal-polymer composites was dispersed in the aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) generating highly fluorescent microspheres. Experimental parameters such as the concentration of nanocrystal-polymer composites, the concentration of PVA, and stirring speed which had important effect on the preparation of the microspheres were investigated in detail with fluorescent microscope characterization.

  17. INFRARED EMISSIVITY OF CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Meixiang; LI Suzhen; LI Junchao; DONG Haiou

    1991-01-01

    The infrared emissivity of conducting polymers in 8-20μm and at 50-150℃ in the direction of normal line has been measured as a function of wavelength, conductivity at room temperature,counterion, doping levels, measuring temperature and thickness of sample.

  18. Characterization of the valence and conduction bands in Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, T.; Terminello, L.; Chase, L.; Callcott, T.; Grush, M.

    1998-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals with a mean diameter between 1 and 4 nm were produced by thermal evaporation of Si in Ar buffer gas and deposited on a substrate. The size-distribution and diameter of the clusters were characterized by atomic force microscopy. The valence and conduction band edges of the Si nanocrystals were measured in-situ using soft x-ray emission (SXE) and absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The valence band of the smallest Si nanocrystals is shifted by much as 0.7 eV relative to bulk Si. Significant changes in the shape of the spectra are also observed between the Si nanocrytals and bulk Si. We interpret the shift and changes in the spectra of the valence band as resulting from an altered electronic band structure in the confined Si structures. A smaller but proportional shift of the conduction band to higher energy is also observed in the XAS spectra of the silicon nanostructures. We compare the experimentally measured bandgap to recent electronic structure calculations and find, that the experimentally measured bandgap is smaller than that predicted by theory. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Sciences, under Contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  19. Nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposite electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Runnerstrom, Evan; Helms, Brett; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2015-12-08

    Described is an electrochromic nanocomposite film comprising a solid matrix of an oxide based material, the solid matrix comprising a plurality of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures dispersed in the solid matrix and a lithium salt dispersed in the solid matrix. Also described is a near infrared nanostructured electrochromic device having a functional layer comprising the electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  20. Unified Hamiltonian for conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão Botelho, André; Shin, Yongwoo; Li, Minghai; Jiang, Lili; Lin, Xi

    2011-11-01

    Two transferable physical parameters are incorporated into the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian to model conducting polymers beyond polyacetylene: the parameter γ scales the electron-phonon coupling strength in aromatic rings and the other parameter ɛ specifies the heterogeneous core charges. This generic Hamiltonian predicts the fundamental band gaps of polythiophene, polypyrrole, polyfuran, poly-(p-phenylene), poly-(p-phenylene vinylene), and polyacenes, and their oligomers of all lengths, with an accuracy exceeding time-dependent density functional theory. Its computational costs for moderate-length polymer chains are more than eight orders of magnitude lower than first-principles approaches.

  1. The Workshop on Conductive Polymers: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Reports are made by groups on: polyacetylene, polyphenylene, polyaniline, and related systems; molecular, crystallographic, and defect structures in conducting polymers; heterocyclic polymers; synthesis of new and improved conducting polymers; future applications possibilities for conducting polymers; and challenges for improved understanding of properties. (DLC)

  2. Composites incorporated a conductive polymer nanofiber network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzo, Lilo Danielle; Newbloom, Gregory

    2017-04-11

    Methods of forming composites that incorporate networks of conductive polymer nanofibers are provided. Networks of less-than conductive polymers are first formed and then doped with a chemical dopant to provide networks of conductive polymers. The networks of conductive polymers are then incorporated into a matrix in order to improve the conductivity of the matrix. The formed composites are useful as conductive coatings for applications including electromagnetic energy management on exterior surfaces of vehicles.

  3. Conductivity behaviour of polymer gel electrolytes: Role of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Sekhon

    2003-04-01

    Polymer is an important constituent of polymer gel electrolytes along with salt and solvent. The salt provides ions for conduction and the solvent helps in the dissolution of the salt and also provides the medium for ion conduction. Although the polymer added provides mechanical stability to the electrolytes yet its effect on the conductivity behaviour of gel electrolytes as well as the interaction of polymer with salt and solvent has not been conclusively established. The conductivity of lithium ion conducting polymer gel electrolytes decreases with the addition of polymer whereas in the case of proton conducting polymer gel electrolytes an increase in conductivity has been observed with polymer addition. This has been explained to be due to the role of polymer in increasing viscosity and carrier concentration in these gel electrolytes.

  4. Comparing proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes by percent conducting volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pivovar, Bryan [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of sulfonated polymers plays a key role in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Mass based water uptake and ion exchange capacity of sulfonated polymers have been failed to correlating their proton conductivity. In this paper, we report a length scale parameter, percent conductivity volume, which is rather simply obtained from the chemical structure of polymer to compare proton conductivity of wholly aromatic sulfonated polymer perflurosulfonic acid. Morphology effect on proton conductivity at lower RH conditions is discussed using the percent conductivity volume parameter.

  5. Constructing Post-Permeation Method to Fabricate Polymer/Nanocrystals Hybrid Solar Cells with PCE Exceeding 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaohang; Zeng, Qingsen; Jin, Gan; Liu, Fangyuan; Ji, Tianjiao; Yue, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2017-01-11

    A post-permeation method is constructed for fabricating bulk-heterojunction hybrid solar cells. Porous CdTe film is prepared by annealing the mixture solution of aqueous CdTe nanocrystals and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, after which the post-permeation of polymer is employed. By this method, kinds of polymers can be applied regardless of the intermiscibility with the nanoparticles. The inorganic nanocrystals and the polymer can be treated under respective optimized annealing temperatures, which can facilitate the growth of nanocrystals without damaging the polymers. A high power conversion efficiency of 6.36% in the polymer/nanocrystals hybrid solar cells is obtained via systematical optimization.

  6. Comparison of the operation of polymer/fullerene, polymer/polymer, and polymer/nanocrystal solar cells: a transient photocurrent and photovoltage study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhe; Gao, Feng; Greenham, Neil C.; McNeill, Christopher R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Ave, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-22

    We utilize transient techniques to directly compare the operation of polymer/fullerene, polymer/nanocrystal, and polymer/polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. For all devices, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is used as the electron donating polymer, in combination with either the fullerene derivative phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in polymer/fullerene cells, CdSe nanoparticles in polymer/nanocrystal cells, or the polyfluorene copolymer poly((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(3-hexylthien-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2,2-diyl) (F8TBT) in polymer/polymer cells. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements are used to probe the dynamics of charge-separated carriers, with vastly different dynamic behavior observed for polymer/fullerene, polymer/polymer, and polymer/nanocrystal devices on the microsecond to millisecond timescale. Furthermore, by employing transient photocurrent analysis with different applied voltages we are also able to probe the dynamics behavior of these cells from short circuit to open circuit. P3HT/F8TBT and P3HT/CdSe devices are characterized by poor charge extraction of the long-lived carriers attributed to charge trapping. P3HT/PCBM devices, in contrast, show relatively trap-free operation with the variation in the photocurrent decay kinetics with applied bias at low intensity, consistent with the drift of free charges under a uniform electric field. Under solar conditions at the maximum power point, we see direct evidence of bimolecular recombination in the P3HT/PCBM device competing with charge extraction. Transient photovoltage measurements reveal that, at open circuit, photogenerated charges have similar lifetimes in all device types, and hence, the extraction of these long-lived charges is a limiting process in polymer/nanocrystal and polymer/polymer devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Electrically conducting polymers for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Gaier, James R.; Good, Brian S.; Sharp, G. R.; Meador, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Current research on electrically conducting polymers from 1974 to the present is reviewed focusing on the development of materials for aeronautic and space applications. Problems discussed include extended pi-systems, pyrolytic polymers, charge-transfer systems, conductive matrix resins for composite materials, and prospects for the use of conducting polymers in space photovoltaics.

  8. STUDIES ON ENHANCED CONDUCTIVITY OF STRETCHED CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Meixiang

    1995-01-01

    A physical model of series of the conductivity on chain and the interchain conductivity between chains is proposed to explain enhanced conductivity of stretched conducting polymers.This model suggests that the enhanced conductivity for stretched conducting polymers might be due to increasing of the interchain conductivity between chains along the elongation direction after drawing processes if the conductivity on chain is assumed much larger than that of the interchain conductivity between chains. According to this model, it is expected that the temperature dependence of conductivity measured by four-probe method for stretched conducting polymers is controlled by a variation of the interchain conductivity between chains with temperature, which can be used to explain that a metallic temperature dependence of conductivity for stretched conducting polymers is not observed although the conductivity along the elongation direction is enhanced by two or three orders of magnitude.

  9. Electrochemical Study of Conductive Gel Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaohui Li; Jing Jiang; Gangtie Lei

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Conventional ion-conducting polymer consists of electrolyte salt and polymer matrix, so-called salt-inpolymer. It possesses lower conductivity because the migration of ions depends on the motion of polymer segmental. To increase the ionic conductivity, a kind of gel polymer film (GPF) was prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer in room-temperature ionic liquid(RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIPF6). Due to immeasurably low vapor pressure, high ionic conductivity, and greater thermal and electrochemical stability, BMIPF6 is suitable electrolyte salts for ion-conducting polymer.

  10. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2016-09-09

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top of the organic bulk heterojunction layer in the inverted architecture is most commonly an ultrathin (<10 nm) metal oxide layer prepared by vacuum-deposition. Here, we show that an alcohol-based nanocrystalline MoOx suspension with carefully controlled nanocrystal (NC) size can yield state of the art reflective and semitransparent solar cells. Using NCs smaller than the target HTL thickness (∼10 nm) can yield compact, pinhole-free films which result in highly efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with PCE=9.5%. The solution processed HTL is shown to achieve performance parity with vacuum-evaporated HTLs for several polymer:fullerene combinations and is even shown to work as hole injection layer in polymer light emitting diodes (PLED). We also demonstrate that larger MoOx NCs (30–50 nm) successfully composite MoOx with Ag nanowires (NW) to form a highly conducting, transparent top anode with exceptional contact properties. This yields state-of-the-art semitransparent polymer: fullerene solar cells with PCE of 6.5% and overall transmission >30%. The remarkable performance of reflective and semitransparent OPVs is due to the uncommonly high fill factors achieved using a carefully designed strategy for implementation of MoOx nanocrystals as HTL materials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Preparation of plasmonic vesicles from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals grafted with polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jibin; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanovesicles contain multiple nanocrystals within a polymeric coating. The strong plasmonic coupling between adjacent nanoparticles in their vesicular shell makes ultrasensitive biosensing and bioimaging possible. In our laboratory, multifunctional plasmonic vesicles are assembled from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals (such as gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods) coated with mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer brushes or amphiphilic diblock co-polymer brushes. To fulfill the different requirements of biomedical applications, different polymers that are either pH=responsive, photoactive or biodegradable can be used to form the hydrophobic brush, while the hydrophilicity is maintained by polyethylene glycol (PEG). This protocol covers the preparation, surface functionalization and self-assembly of amphiphilic gold nanocrystals grafted covalently with polymer brushes. The protocol can be completed within 2 d. The preparation of amphiphilic gold nanocrystals, coated with amphiphilic diblock polymer brushes using a ‘grafting to’ method or mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer brushes using tandem ‘grafting to’ and ‘grafting from’ methods, is described. We also provide detailed procedures for the preparation and characterization of pH-responsive plasmonic gold nanovesicles from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals using a film-rehydration method that can be completed within ~3 d. PMID:27763624

  12. Study on silicon nanocrystals and polymer bulk heterojunction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Michihiro; Ding, Yi; Zhou, Shu; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2015-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) and semiconductor-polymer (P3HT) nanostructured thin film is investigated for better understanding of bulk heterojunction structure of hybrid solar cell and improving its photon-to-electron conversion performance. SiNCs are synthesized by VHF plasma CVD using silicon tetrachloride. SiNC thin film transistor (TFT) was fabricated to investigate carrier transport properties of SiNC network. As a result, hydrogen-terminated SiNCs behave as n-type semiconductor materials, and electron mobility of SiNC network is improved dramatically. In contrast, chlorine-terminated SiNCs behave as metallic materials and show poor electron transport property because of surface doping effect: electrons are not flow over the SiNC network due to a large electronegativity of chlorine. Additionally, when the chlorine-terminated SiNCs are blended with P3HT, new peaks appear in FTIR absorption spectrum. The result implies that the thiophene structure, which forms the hole transporting pathway, may be damaged by highly reactive surface chlorine and therefore the hole transport property of Cl:SiNCs/P3HT blended film would be deteriorated dramatically. These results are well correlated with Cl- and H-terminated/P3HT hybrid solar cell performance.

  13. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  14. Colloidal transparent conducting oxide nanocrystals: A new infrared plasmonic material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat Tandon; Aswathi Ashok; Angshuman Nag

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) are technologically important for applications as a visible light transparent electrode in a wide variety of optoelectronic devices. In the last few years, researchers started to explore novel size- and shape-dependent properties of TCO, where the crystallite size is ∼10 nm. So far, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of TCO nanocrystals (NCs) have been found to be the most interesting. TCOs like Sn-doped In2O3, Al-doped ZnO and In-doped CdO NCs, exhibit LSPR band in near- to mid-infrared region. LSPR from a TCO NC exhibits many intrinsic differences with that of a metal NC. Carrier density in a TCO NC can easily be tuned by controlling the dopant concentration, which allows the LSPR band to be tuned over a range of ∼2000 nm (∼0.62 eV) in the near- to mid-infrared region. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of plasmonic properties of various TCO NCs and highlights the potential applications of such unique plasmonic properties.

  15. Conducting polymers in electronic chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Jiri; Josowicz, Mira

    2003-01-01

    Conducting organic polymers have found two main kinds of application in electronics so far: as materials for construction of various devices and as selective layers in chemical sensors. In either case, interaction with ambient gases is critical. It may compromise the performance of a device based on conducting polymers, whereas it is beneficial in a sensor. Conductivity has been the primary property of interest. Work function--related to conductivity, but in principle a different property--has received only scant attention. Our aim here is to discuss the usability of conducting polymers in both types of electronic applications in light of these two parameters.

  16. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  17. Nanostructured conductive polymers for advanced energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Peng, Lele; Ding, Yu; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2015-10-07

    Conductive polymers combine the attractive properties associated with conventional polymers and unique electronic properties of metals or semiconductors. Recently, nanostructured conductive polymers have aroused considerable research interest owing to their unique properties over their bulk counterparts, such as large surface areas and shortened pathways for charge/mass transport, which make them promising candidates for broad applications in energy conversion and storage, sensors, actuators, and biomedical devices. Numerous synthetic strategies have been developed to obtain various conductive polymer nanostructures, and high-performance devices based on these nanostructured conductive polymers have been realized. This Tutorial review describes the synthesis and characteristics of different conductive polymer nanostructures; presents the representative applications of nanostructured conductive polymers as active electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors and lithium-ion batteries and new perspectives of functional materials for next-generation high-energy batteries, meanwhile discusses the general design rules, advantages, and limitations of nanostructured conductive polymers in the energy storage field; and provides new insights into future directions.

  18. Charge-transport model for conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmin Kang, Stephen; Jeffrey Snyder, G.

    2016-11-01

    The growing technological importance of conducting polymers makes the fundamental understanding of their charge transport extremely important for materials and process design. Various hopping and mobility edge transport mechanisms have been proposed, but their experimental verification is limited to poor conductors. Now that advanced organic and polymer semiconductors have shown high conductivity approaching that of metals, the transport mechanism should be discernible by modelling the transport like a semiconductor with a transport edge and a transport parameter s. Here we analyse the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient together and determine that most polymers (except possibly PEDOT:tosylate) have s = 3 and thermally activated conductivity, whereas s = 1 and itinerant conductivity is typically found in crystalline semiconductors and metals. The different transport in polymers may result from the percolation of charge carriers from conducting ordered regions through poorly conducting disordered regions, consistent with what has been expected from structural studies.

  19. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Israel; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Sabatani, Eyal

    1992-01-01

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventioonally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol.

  20. Integration of conducting polymer network in non-conductive polymer substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Anew method for integration ofconjugated, inherently conducting polymers into non-conductive polymer substrates has been developed. Alayer of the conducting polymer is polymerised by chemical oxidation, e.g. using Fe(ID) p-toluene sulfonate (ferri tosylate) followed by washing with a solvent which...... simultaneously removes residual and spent oxidant and at the same time dissolves the top layer of the polymer substrate. This results in an integration of the conducting polymer into the surface layers of the polymer substrate. Several combinations of conducting polymers and substrates have been tested...... absorption during sequential reactive ion etching has allowed for analysis of the PEDOT distribution within the surface layer of thePMMA substrate. The surface resistance ofthe conducting polymer layer remains low while the surface layer at the same time adapts some of the mechanical properties...

  1. How Fast Should Polymer/Drug Nanocrystal Dispersions Be Frozen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwi; Park, Chul Ho

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances in nanoparticle technologies have significantly enhanced the oral and parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, reports have been limited on the various drying procedures to convert a liquid nanocrystal dispersions into solid dosage forms. The solid dosage form should consist of nanocrystals that can readily reconstitute into their original size upon dissolution in water. Herein, the freeze drying process of nanocrystal dispersions was examined at varying freezing rates (speed of freezing interface). As freezing rate decreases, more particle-particle aggregation developed. A critical freezing rate, below which the dried nanocrystals cannot be re-dispersed, was identified based on the plot of the particle size of reconstituted nanocrystals versus freezing rate. Freeze drying at a freezing rate near the critical value produces dry powders of bimodal particle size distribution after re-dispersion. In addition, API concentration was found to significantly affect the critical freezing rate and therefore the re-dispersibility of dry powders. The concept of critical freezing rate is critical for the development of solid dosage forms of liquid nanocrystal dispersions. [1] J. Lee, Drug nano- and microparticles processed into solid dosage forms: physical properties, J. Pharm. Sci., 92(10) (2003) 2057-2068.

  2. Electronically conducting polymers with silver grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Hodko, Dolibor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides electronically conducting polymer films formed from photosensitive formulations of pyrrole and an electron acceptor that have been selectively exposed to UV light, laser light, or electron beams. The formulations may include photoinitiators, flexibilizers, solvents and the like. These solutions can be used in applications including printed circuit boards and through-hole plating and enable direct metallization processes on non-conducting substrates. After forming the conductive polymer patterns, a printed wiring board can be formed by sensitizing the polymer with palladium and electrolytically depositing copper.

  3. Interpenetrating networks of two conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings, and beca......Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings......, and because its reaction products can be removed efficiently after the formation of the composite. Several combinations of polymers are demonstrated, and the versatility of the proposed method allows extensions to a wide range of conjugated polymers. The IPNs show optical and electrochemical characteristics......, which are sums of the characteristics from the participating conducting polymers....

  4. Conjugated polymers/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid materials--preparation, electrical transport properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Peter; Couderc, Elsa; De Girolamo, Julia; Pron, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This critical review discusses specific preparation and characterization methods applied to hybrid materials consisting of π-conjugated polymers (or oligomers) and semiconductor nanocrystals. These materials are of great importance in the quickly growing field of hybrid organic/inorganic electronics since they can serve as active components of photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors and other devices. The electronic energy levels of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrid can be tuned individually and thin hybrid films can be processed using low cost solution based techniques. However, the interface between the hybrid components and the morphology of the hybrid directly influences the generation, separation and transport of charge carriers and those parameters are not easy to control. Therefore a large variety of different approaches for assembling the building blocks--conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanocrystals--has been developed. They range from their simple blending through various grafting procedures to methods exploiting specific non-covalent interactions between both components, induced by their tailor-made functionalization. In the first part of this review, we discuss the preparation of the building blocks (nanocrystals and polymers) and the strategies for their assembly into hybrid materials' thin films. In the second part, we focus on the charge carriers' generation and their transport within the hybrids. Finally, we summarize the performances of solar cells using conjugated polymer/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrids and give perspectives for future developments.

  5. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B D Malhotra; Rahul Singhal

    2003-08-01

    Biomolecular electronics is rapidly evolving from physics, chemistry, biology, electronics and information technology. Organic materials such as proteins, pigments and conducting polymers have been considered as alternatives for carrying out the functions that are presently being performed by semiconductor silicon. Conducting polymers such as polypyrroles, polythiophenes and polyanilines have been projected for applications for a wide range of biomolecular electronic devices such as optical, electronic, drug-delivery, memory and biosensing devices. Our group has been actively working towards the application of conducting polymers to Schottky diodes, metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) devices and biosensors for the past 10 years. This paper is a review of some of the results obtained at our laboratory in the area of conducting polymer biomolecular electronics.

  6. Conducting polymers for electrochemical DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Zhang, Lijuan; Soeller, Christian; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2009-04-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a class of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable interest because of their unique electronic, chemical and biochemical properties, making them suitable for numerous applications such as energy storage, memory devices, chemical sensors, and in electrocatalysis. Conducting polymer-based electrochemical DNA sensors have shown applicability in a number of areas related to human health such as diagnosis of infectious diseases, genetic mutations, drug discovery, forensics and food technology due to their simplicity and high sensitivity. This review paper summarizes the advances in electrochemical DNA sensing based on conducting polymers as active substrates. The various conducting polymers used for DNA detection, along with different DNA immobilization and detection methodologies are presented. Current trends in this field and newly developed applications due to advances in nanotechnology are also discussed.

  7. Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polysaccharide Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dufresne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium. A new and interesting way for the processing of polysaccharide nanocrystals-based nanocomposites is their transformation into a co-continuous material through long chain surface chemical modification. It involves the surface chemical modification of the nanoparticles based on the use of grafting agents bearing a reactive end group and a long compatibilizing tail.

  8. Engineering thermal conductivity in polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Vahid; Coyle, Eleanor; Kieffer, John; Pipe, Kevin

    Weak inter-chain bonding in polymers is believed to be a bottleneck for both thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. Most polymers have low thermal conductivity (~0.1 W/mK), hindering their performance in applications for which thermal management is critical (e.g., electronics packaging). In this work, we use computational methods to study how hydrogen bonding between polymer chains as well as water content can be used to engineer thermal transport in bulk polymers. We examine how changes in the number of hydrogen bonds, chain elongation, density, and vibrational density of states correlate with changes in thermal conductivity for polymer blends composed of different relative constituent fractions. We also consider the effects of bond strength, tacticity, and polymer chain mass. For certain blend fractions, we observe large increases in thermal conductivity, and we analyze these increases in terms of modifications to chain chemistry (e.g., inter-chain bonding) and chain morphology (e.g., chain alignment and radius of gyration). We observe that increasing the number of hydrogen bonds in the system results in better packing as well as better chain alignment and elongation that contribute to enhanced thermal conductivity. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0010.

  9. Extrusion of polysaccharide nanocrystal reinforced polymer nanocomposites through compatibilization with poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Mariana; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2014-06-25

    Polysaccharide nanocrystals with a rodlike shape but with different dimensions and specific surface area were prepared from cotton and capim dourado cellulose, and with a plateletlike morphology from waxy maize starch granules. The rheological behavior of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with different molecular weights when adding these nanoparticles was investigated evidencing specific interactions between PEO chains and nanocrystals. Because PEO also bears hydrophobic moieties, it was employed as a compatibilizing agent for the melt processing of polymer nanocomposites. The freeze-dried mixtures were used to prepare nanocomposite materials with a low density polyethylene matrix by extrusion. The thermal and mechanical behavior of ensuing nanocomposites was studied.

  10. Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolytes and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Selvasekarapandian; G. Hirankumar; R. Baskaran; M.S. Bhuvaneswari

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Proton conducting solid polymer electrolytes have been extensively studied due to their potential applications in electrochemical devices such as batteries, super capacitors, electrochromic windows, sensors etc[1,2]Many researchers have studied the behaviour of inorganic based polymer electrolytes as proton conductors and their applications in solid state devices at room temperature[3]. But, inorganic acid doped electrolytes have some serious disadvantages like corrosion towards the electrode and hazardous. Hence, there is need for searching new electrolyte which is stable towards the electrode. It has been reported that the ammonium salts which behaves like alkali metal salt are good dopant to the polymer matrix[4, 5] for the development of proton conducting polymer electrolyte. The proton conductors based on poly (ethylene oxide)[6], poly (ethylene succinate)[7], poly (ethylene glycol)[8], as host matrix doped with ammonium salt have already been reported.

  11. Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Materials Program is developing new methods for the synthesis of electronically conducting polymers and is evaluating new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1994 are electrochemical capacitors and membranes for gas separation. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electrical energy in low cost materials. Such devices are needed in electronics for power failure back-up and peak power, in power supplies for filtering, and in electric vehicles for peak power and load leveling. As a gas electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US. for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr.

  12. Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Program has developed new methods for the synthesis of conducting polymers and evaluated new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1996 included two ongoing efforts on membranes for gas separation and on electrochemical capacitors and a third new application: electrochemical reactors (ECRs) based on polymeric electrolytes. As a gas separation membrane, conducting polymers offer high selectivity and the potential to chemically or electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, electronically conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electric energy in low cost materials. Potential energy savings estimated at 1 quad/yr would result from introduction of electrochemical capacitors as energy storage devices in power trains of electric and hybrid vehicles, once such vehicles reach 20% of the total transportation market in the US. In the chlor-alkali industry, electrochemical reactors based on polymer electrolyte membranes consume around 1 % of the total electric power in the US. A new activity, started in FY 1996, is devoted to energy efficient ECRs. In the case of the chlor-alkali industry, energy savings as high as 50% seem possible with the novel ECR technology demonstrated by the author in 1996.

  13. Influence of nanoparticle shape on charge transport and recombination in polymer/nanocrystal solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Weiyuan; Greenham, Neil C; McNeill, Christopher R

    2014-12-21

    A key consideration for the efficient operation of hybrid solar cells based upon conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals is charge transport in the nanocrystal phase. Here we report the results of a study into the charge transport kinetics of polymer/nanocrystal solar cells based on blends poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with either CdSe nano-dots or CdSe nano-tetrapods. Transient photocurrent measurements reveal significant differences in the charge transport kinetics of nano-dot and nano-tetrapod hybrid cells, with the charge collection of the P3HT/CdSe nano-dot device severely limited by charge trapping. In comparison the nano-tetrapod cell exhibits significantly reduced charge trapping compared to the nano-dot cell accounting for the improved fill-factor and overall device efficiency. Transient photovoltage measurements have also been employed that demonstrate slower recombination rates in the P3HT/CdSe tetrapod device compared to the P3HT/CdSe dot device. These observations directly identify nanoparticle shape as a critical factor influencing the charge transport and hence recombination in this benchmark hybrid system, confirming the hypothesis that the use of tetrapods improves device performance through an improvement in electron transport in the nanocrystal phase.

  14. Ultrafast charge- and energy-transfer dynamics in conjugated polymer: cadmium selenide nanocrystal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Frederik S F; Rao, Akshay; Böhm, Marcus L; Kist, René J P; Vaynzof, Yana; Greenham, Neil C

    2014-02-25

    Hybrid nanocrystal-polymer systems are promising candidates for photovoltaic applications, but the processes controlling charge generation are poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the energy- and charge-transfer processes occurring in a model system based on blends of cadmium selenide nanocrystals (CdSe-NC) with poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) using a combination of time-resolved absorption and luminescence measurements. The use of different capping ligands (n-butylamine, oleic acid) as well as thermal annealing allows tuning of the polymer-nanocrystal interaction. We demonstrate that energy transfer from MDMO-PPV to CdSe-NCs is the dominant exciton quenching mechanism in nonannealed blends and occurs on ultrafast time scales (<1 ps). Upon thermal annealing electron transfer becomes competitive with energy transfer, with a transfer rate of 800 fs independent of the choice of the ligand. Interestingly, we find hole transfer to be much less efficient than electron transfer and to extend over several nanoseconds. Our results emphasize the importance of tuning the organic-nanocrystal interaction to achieve efficient charge separation and highlight the unfavorable hole-transfer dynamics in these blends.

  15. Structural and Electrical Study of Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaktawat, Vinodini; Dixit, Manasvi; Saxena, N. S.; Sharma, Kananbala

    2010-06-01

    Pure and oxalic acid doped conducting polymers (polyaniline and polypyrrole) were chemically synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant. These samples were characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which provides information about the surface topography of polymers. I-V characteristics have been recorded at room temperature as well as in the temperature range from 313 K to 463 K. So obtained characteristic curves were found to be linear. Temperature dependence of conductivity suggests a semiconducting nature in polyaniline samples with increase in temperature, whereas oxalic acid doped polypyrrole sample suggests a transition from semiconducting to metallic nature with the increase of temperature.

  16. Conductive Polymer Functionalization by Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren; Hansen, Thomas Steen;

    2008-01-01

    , with reaction times of '"'-'20 h. The applicability of the method is illustrated by coupling of two other alkynes: a short chain fluorocarbon and a MPEG 5000 to the conductive polymer; this alters the advancing water contact angle of the surface by +20° and -20°/-25°, respectively. The targeted chemical surface......Click chemistry is used to obtain new conductive polymer films based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) from a new azide functional monomer. Postpolymerization, 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions in DMF, using a catalyst system of CUS04 and sodium ascorbate, and different alkynes are performed...... to functionalize films of PEDOT-N3 and copolymers prepared from EDOT-N3 and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT). This approach enables new functionalities on PEDOT that could otherwise not withstand the polymerization conditions. Reactions on the thin polymer films have been optimized using an alkynated fluorophore...

  17. Impregnation of porous silicon with conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harraz, Farid A. [Advanced Materials Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box: 87, Hewan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Fabrication of porous silicon layers using the electrochemical technique followed by filling the nanopores with a group of conducting polymers is investigated. Our findings revealed that the deposition of polymer proceeds homogeneously inside the nanopores strating from the pore bottom and propagates into the outer surface. The polymerization process was conducted and controlled by the potentiostatic and galvanostatic modes with characteristic, defined polymerization stages. As-formed hybrid nanocomposites were characterized using different analytical techniques. Polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiophene were tested in this study. By selective dissolution of porous silicon template, polymeric nanowires were obtained. The fabrication process, the electrochemical measurements and the porous silicon filling mechanism with polymer are thoroughly addressed and discussed (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Precipitation of lamellar gold nanocrystals in molten polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, M.; Carotenuto, G.

    2016-05-01

    Non-aggregated lamellar gold crystals with regular shape (triangles, squares, pentagons, etc.) have been produced by thermal decomposition of gold chloride (AuCl) molecules in molten amorphous polymers (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Such covalent inorganic gold salt is high soluble into non-polar polymers and it thermally decomposes at temperatures compatible with the polymer thermal stability, producing gold atoms and chlorine radicals. At the end of the gold precipitation process, the polymer matrix resulted chemically modified because of the partial cross-linking process due to the gold atom formation reaction.

  19. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  20. Unconventional High Density Vertically Aligned Conducting Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-21

    CNTs also provide a porous scaffold to deposit PEDOT via CVD. To fabricate PEDOT/ A-CNT electrodes, the conducting polymer was conformally deposited on...250μm long A-CNTs using oCVD, varying thickness from few to ten nm by controlling deoposition and polymerization times. Electron microscopy

  1. Gyroid nanoporous scaffold for conductive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Schulte, Lars; Zhang, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Conductive nanoporous polymers with interconnected large surface area have been prepared by depositing polypyrrole onto nanocavity walls of nanoporous 1,2-polybutadiene films with gyroid morphology. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole was used to generate ultrathin films and prevent pore blocking...

  2. Strategies for interfacing inorganic nanocrystals with biological systems based on polymer-coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palui, Goutam; Aldeek, Fadi; Wang, Wentao; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2015-01-01

    Interfacing inorganic nanoparticles and biological systems with the aim of developing novel imaging and sensing platforms has generated great interest and much activity. However, the effectiveness of this approach hinges on the ability of the surface ligands to promote water-dispersion of the nanoparticles with long term colloidal stability in buffer media. These surface ligands protect the nanostructures from the harsh biological environment, while allowing coupling to target molecules, which can be biological in nature (e.g., proteins and peptides) or exhibit specific photo-physical characteristics (e.g., a dye or a redox-active molecule). Amphiphilic block polymers have provided researchers with versatile molecular platforms with tunable size, composition and chemical properties. Hence, several groups have developed a wide range of polymers as ligands or micelle capsules to promote the transfer of a variety of inorganic nanomaterials to buffer media (including magnetic nanoparticles and semiconductor nanocrystals) and render them biocompatible. In this review, we first summarize the established synthetic routes to grow high quality nanocrystals of semiconductors, metals and metal oxides. We then provide a critical evaluation of the recent developments in the design, optimization and use of various amphiphilic copolymers to surface functionalize the above nanocrystals, along with the strategies used to conjugate them to target biomolecules. We finally conclude by providing a summary of the most promising applications of these polymer-coated inorganic platforms in sensor design, and imaging of cells and tissues.

  3. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  4. Preparation of nanocrystals and nanocomposites of nanocrystal-conjugated polymer, and their photophysical properties in confined geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductors nanocrystals (NCs), also called quantum dots (QDs), have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade in the fields of physics, chemistry, and engineering. Due to the quantum-confined nature of QDs, the variation of particle size provides continuous and predictable changes in fluorescence emission. On the other hand, conjugated polymers (CPs) have been extensively studied for two decades due to their semiconductor-like optical and electronic properties. The electron and energy transfer between NCs and CPs occur in solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs), respectively. Placing CPs in direct contact with a NC (i.e., preparing NC-CP nanocomposites) carries advantage over cases where NC aggregation dominates. Such NC-CP nanocomposites possess a well-defined interface that significantly promotes the charge or energy transfer between these two components. However, very few studies have centered on such direct integration. We prepared NCs and NC-CP nanocomposites based on heck coupling and investigated the energy and charge transfer between semiconductor NCs (i.e., CdSe QDs), CPs (i.e., poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT)) in the nanocomposites in confined geometries. Two novel strategies were used to confine NC and/or NC-CP nanocomposites: (a) directly immobilizing nanohybrids, QDs and nanorods in nanoscopic porous alumina membrane (PAM) , and (b) confining the QDs and CPs in sphere-on-flat geometry to induce self-assembly. While investigating the confinement effect, gradient concentric ring patterns of high regularity form spontaneously simply by allowing a droplet of solution containing either conjugated polymer or semiconductor nanocrystal in a consecutive stick-slip mothion in a confined geometry. Such constrained evaporation can be utilized as a simple, cheap, and robust strategy for self-assembling various materials with easily tailored optical and electronic properties into spatially ordered, two-dimensional patterns. These self

  5. 纳米晶/聚合物太阳能电池%Nanocrystal/Polymer Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付红红; 栾伟玲; 袁斌霞; 涂善东

    2012-01-01

    纳米晶/聚合物太阳能电池作为一种新型光伏器件成为近年来的研究热点。通过改变纳米晶的形貌及尺寸来调节材料本身的带隙从而改善光吸收特性,并且无机半导体材料本身具有高的电子迁移率和良好的热稳定性,以上特性使该类电池具有巨大的发展潜力。本文从纳米晶的种类、形状和尺寸、表面配体及纳米晶与聚合物界面性能等方面综述了纳米晶/聚合物太阳能电池的研究现状。纳米晶形貌、太阳光利用率和载流子传输效率是影响电池效率的主要因素。文中指出开展窄带隙纳米晶的合成、优化纳米晶/聚合物电池结构、解析纳米晶与聚合物界面激子传输机理等改善该类电池性能的途径,旨在为提高纳米晶/聚合物太阳能电池的效率提供借鉴经验。%Hybrid solar cells based on nanocrystals and conjugated polymer are emerging as a suitable alternative to classical solar cells. This kind of solar cell has attracted great attentions, because of the absorption spectra tunable by the size, shape and composition of nanocrystals, and their higher electron transfer velocity than that of polymer. This article reviews the status of the nanocrystal/ polymer hybrid solar cells. The factors affecting the solar cell performance are critically examined including the size and morphology of nanocrystals, the capping ligand, and the interfacial charge transportations between nanocrystals and polymer. Several strategies for increasing the overall efficiency of this hybrid solar cell are discussed. Narrow band gap nanocrystals, structure optimizations and analysis of the mechanism of charge transportations are expected as the routes for future development of this solar cell.

  6. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  7. Structure and Conductivity of Semiconducting Polymer Hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Rachel C.; Ferreira, Amy S.; Aguirre, Jordan C.; Kilbride, Daniel; Toso, Daniel B.; Mayoral, Kenny; Zhou, Z. Hong; Kopidakis, Nikos; Rubin, Yves; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Mason, Thomas G.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2016-07-07

    Poly(fluorene-alt-thiophene) (PFT) is a conjugated polyelectrolyte that self-assembles into rod-like micelles in water, with the conjugated polymer backbone running along the length of the micelle. At modest concentrations (-10 mg/mL in aqueous solutions), PFT forms hydrogels, and this work focuses on understanding the structure and intermolecular interactions in those gel networks. The network structure can be directly visualized using cryo electron microscopy. Oscillatory rheology studies further tell us about connectivity within the gel network, and the data are consistent with a picture where polymer chains bridge between micelles to hold the network together. Addition of tetrahydrofuran (THF) to the gels breaks those connections, but once the THF is removed, the gel becomes stronger than it was before, presumably due to the creation of a more interconnected nanoscale architecture. Small polymer oligomers can also passivate the bridging polymer chains, breaking connections between micelles and dramatically weakening the hydrogel network. Fits to solution-phase small-angle X-ray scattering data using a Dammin bead model support the hypothesis of a bridging connection between PFT micelles, even in dilute aqueous solutions. Finally, time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements on dried samples show an increase in carrier mobility after THF annealing of the PFT gel, likely due to increased connectivity within the polymer network.

  8. Thermal conductivity and multiferroics of electroactive polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiezhu

    Electronically conducting polymers and electromechanical polymers are the two important branches of the cutting-edge electroactive polymers. They have shown significant impact on many modern technologies such as flat panel display, energy transport, energy conversion, sensors and actuators. To utilize conducting polymers in microelectronics, optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, it is necessary to have a comprehensive study of their thermal conductivity since thermal conductivity is a fundamental materials property that is particularly important and sometimes a determining factor of the device performance. For electromechanical polymers, larger piezoelectric effect will contribute to the improvement of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling efficiency in their multiferroic composites. This dissertation is devoted to characterizing electronically conducting polymers for their electrical and thermal conductivity, and developing new classes of electromechanical polymers and strain-mediated electromechanical polymer-based multiferroic ME composites. Conducting polymers opened up new possibilities for devices combining novel electrical and thermal properties, but there has been limited understanding of the length-scale effect of the electrical and thermal conductivity, and the mechanism underlying the electricity and heat transport behavior. In this dissertation, the analytical model and experimental technique are presented to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of polyaniline thin films. For camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline patterned on silicon oxide/silicon substrate using photolithography and reactive ion etching, the thermal conductivity of the film with thickness of 20 nm is measured to be 0.0406 W/m˙K, which significantly deviates from their bulk (> 0.26 W/m˙K). The size effect on thermal conductivity at this scale is attributed to the significant phonon boundary scattering. When the film goes up to 130 nm thick, the thermal conductivity increases to 0.166 W

  9. Smart Surface Chemistries of Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik

    In this thesis we investigate post-polymerization covalent modifications of poly(3,4-dioxythiophene (PEDOT)-type conducting polymers. The aim of the modifications is to gain specific control of the interaction between the material and living mammalian cells. The use of “click-chemistry” to modify...... film substrates. Complementing these findings, we introduce a novel technique for fabricating surface chemical gradients on PEDOT-N3 substrates. The technique is based on applying “electro-click chemistry” to locally induce covalent modifications. Further supplementing these results, we develop......-ethylene-glycol-coatings of the conducting polymer substrates. These coatings render the substrates resistant to protein adsorption. Hence, the choice of solvent is found to be a key parameter for achieving functional post-polymerization modifications of PEDOT-N3. The methods developed in this thesis are highly generic, and can therefore...

  10. Insulator to semimetallic transition in conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, W. A.; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Franco-Gonzalez, J. F.; Linares, M.; Crispin, X.; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    We report a multiscale modeling of electronic structure of a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopehene) (PEDOT) based on a realistic model of its morphology. We show that when the charge carrier concentration increases, the character of the density of states (DOS) gradually evolves from the insulating to the semimetallic, exhibiting a collapse of the gap between the bipolaron and valence bands with the drastic increase of the DOS between the bands. The origin of the observed behavior is attributed to the effect of randomly located counterions giving rise to the states in the gap. These results are discussed in light of recent experiments. The method developed in this work is general and can be applied to study the electronic structure of other conducting polymers.

  11. Ion conducting organic/inorganic hybrid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Maryann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to a series of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers that are easy to fabricate into dimensionally stable films with good ion-conductivity over a wide range of temperatures for use in a variety of applications. The polymers are prepared by the reaction of amines, preferably diamines and mixtures thereof with monoamines with epoxy-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The products of the reaction are polymerized by hydrolysis of the alkoxysilane groups to produce an organic-containing silica network. Suitable functionality introduced into the amine and alkoxysilane groups produce solid polymeric membranes which conduct ions for use in fuel cells, high-performance solid state batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electro-chromic windows or displays, analog memory devices and the like.

  12. Photoexcitation of Bipolarons in Conducting Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛; 龙德顺; 孙鑫

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically study the photoexcitation process in a conducting polymer with a non-degenerate ground state,where the carrier without spin is a bipolaron. The dynamical simulation reveals a photoinduced phenomenon in which a positive bipolaron is split into two polarons by absorbing one photon. The relaxation time of this photoinduced bipolaron split is about 40 fs. It is predicted that this photoinduced phenomenon can be detected experimentally by observing the change of magnetic susceptibility.

  13. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  14. Patterned structures of in situ size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragouli, D; Pompa, P P; Caputo, G; Cingolani, R; Athanassiou, A [NNL-National Nanotechnology Laboratory, INFM, CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Resta, V; Laera, A M; Tapfer, L [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: despina.fragouli@unile.it

    2009-04-15

    A method of in situ formation of patterns of size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix by pulsed UV irradiation is presented. The films consist of Cd thiolate precursors with different carbon chain lengths embedded in TOPAS polymer matrices. Under UV irradiation the precursors are photolyzed, driving to the formation of CdS nanocrystals in the quantum size regime, with size and concentration defined by the number of incident UV pulses, while the host polymer remains macroscopically/microscopically unaffected. The emission of the formed nanocomposite materials strongly depends on the dimensions of the CdS nanocrystals, thus, their growth at the different phases of the irradiation is monitored using spatially resolved photoluminescence by means of a confocal microscope. X-ray diffraction measurements verified the existence of the CdS nanocrystals, and defined their crystal structure for all the studied cases. The results are reinforced by transmission electron microscopy. It is proved that the selection of the precursor determines the efficiency of the procedure, and the quality of the formed nanocrystals. Moreover it is demonstrated that there is the possibility of laser induced formation of well-defined patterns of CdS nanocrystals, opening up new perspectives in the development of nanodevices.

  15. Tailoring percolating conductive networks of natural rubber composites for flexible strain sensors via a cellulose nanocrystal templated assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuman; Zhang, Xinxing; Wu, Xiaodong; Lu, Canhui

    2016-01-21

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) just above the percolation threshold exhibit a unique strain-reversible electric response upon application of tensile strain, which can be used to prepare strain sensors. However, it is difficult to balance the electric conductivity which is fundamental to a stable output signal and the strain sensing sensitivity due to the relatively dense conductive pathways of the traditional CPCs. Constructing a "brittle" but effective conductive network structure in CPCs is the essential foundation of a desirable sensing material. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that highly flexible, stretchable, sensitive, and reversible strain sensors can be fabricated by a facile latex assembly approach, in which nontoxic, sustainable and biodegradable cellulose nanocrystals played a key role in tailoring the percolating network of conductive natural rubber (NR)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites. The resulting nanocomposites with a continuous 3D conductive structure exhibited a very low electrical conductivity percolation threshold (4-fold lower than that of the conventional NR/CNT composites), high resistivity and sensitivity (gauge factor ≈ 43.5) and meanwhile good reproducibility of up to 100% strain. The proposed materials and principles in this study open up a novel practical approach to design high performance flexible sensors for a broad range of multifunctional applications.

  16. Enhanced ethylene separation and plasticization resistance in polymer membranes incorporating metal-organic framework nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jonathan E; Smith, Zachary P; Li, Tao; Xu, Ting; Long, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    The implementation of membrane-based separations in the petrochemical industry has the potential to reduce energy consumption significantly relative to conventional separation processes. Achieving this goal, however, requires the development of new membrane materials with greater selectivity, permeability and stability than available at present. Here, we report composite materials consisting of nanocrystals of metal-organic frameworks dispersed within a high-performance polyimide, which can exhibit enhanced selectivity for ethylene over ethane, greater ethylene permeability and improved membrane stability. Our results suggest that framework-polymer interactions reduce chain mobility of the polymer while simultaneously boosting membrane separation performance. The increased stability, or plasticization resistance, is expected to improve membrane utility under real process conditions for petrochemical separations and natural gas purification. Furthermore, this approach can be broadly applied to numerous polymers that encounter aggressive environments, potentially making gas separations possible that were previously inaccessible to membranes.

  17. Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, M. R.; zarandi, M. B.

    2008-08-01

    In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.

  18. Electrochemical relaxation at electrically conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nateghi, M R [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Yazd-Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarandi, M B [Department of physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, slow relaxation (SR) associated with the electroreduction of polyaniline (PAn) films during polarization to high cathodic potentials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Anodic voltammetric currents were used as experimental variable to indicate the relaxation occurring in PAn films deposited electrochemically on the Pt electrode surface. The dependence of SR on polymer film thickness, waiting potential, and mobility of the doped anion was investigated. Percolation threshold potential for heteropolyanion doped PAn was estimated to be between 150 and 200 mV depending on polymer thickness on the electrode surface. A new model of the conducting to insulating conversion is described by the percolation theory and mobility gap changes during the process.

  19. Spatially Selective Functionalization of Conducting Polymers by "Electroclick" Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymer microelectrodes can electrochemically generate the catalyst required for their own functionalization by "click chemistry" with high spatial resolution. Interdigitated microelectrodes prepared from an azide-containing conducting polymer are selectively functionalized in sequence...

  20. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  1. Tunable surface plasmon resonance and enhanced electrical conductivity of In doped ZnO colloidal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; de, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    We report a new synthesis process of colloidal indium (In) doped zinc oxide (ZIO) nanocrystals by a hot injection technique. By fine tuning the synthesis we reached the same nucleation temperature for indium oxide and zinc oxide which helped us to study a dopant precursor dependent In incorporation into the ZnO matrix by using different In sources. The dopant induced shape evolution changes the hexagonal pyramid structured ZnO to a platelet like structure upon 8% In doping. The introduction of trivalent In3+ into the ZnO lattice and consequent substitution of divalent Zn2+ generates free electrons in the conduction band which produces a plasmonic resonance in the infrared region. The electron concentration controls plasmon frequency as well as the band gap of host ZnO. The variation of the band gap and the modification of the conduction band have been explained by the Burstein-Moss effect and Mie's theory respectively. The In dopant changes the defect chemistry of pure ZnO nanocrystals which has been studied by photoluminescence and other spectroscopic measurements. The nanocrystals are highly stable in the organic medium and can be deposited as a crack free thin film on different substrates. Careful ligand exchange and thermal annealing of the spin cast film lead to a good conductive film (720 Ω per square to 120 Ω per square) with stable inherent plasmonic absorption in the infrared and 90% transmittance in the visible region. A temperature induced metal-semiconductor transition was found for doped ZnO nanocrystals. The transition temperature shifts to a lower temperature with increase of the doping concentration.We report a new synthesis process of colloidal indium (In) doped zinc oxide (ZIO) nanocrystals by a hot injection technique. By fine tuning the synthesis we reached the same nucleation temperature for indium oxide and zinc oxide which helped us to study a dopant precursor dependent In incorporation into the ZnO matrix by using different In sources. The

  2. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    and complicate measurements on free-standing films. A model of the potential profile in a free-standing strip is derived. It is found that the active length (the length with a given potential change) of the polymer will scale as square root (d sigma /i/sub d/). (d is the thickness, sigma the conductivity...... of the film, and i/sub d/ the diffusion limited current density for oxygen reduction). The active length is typically of the order of millimeters. The model is compared with measurements on a strip of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonate...

  3. Conducting polymer-hydrogels for medical electrode applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylie A Green, Sungchul Baek, Laura A Poole-Warren and Penny J Martens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers hold significant promise as electrode coatings; however, they are characterized by inherently poor mechanical properties. Blending or producing layered conducting polymers with other polymer forms, such as hydrogels, has been proposed as an approach to improving these properties. There are many challenges to producing hybrid polymers incorporating conducting polymers and hydrogels, including the fabrication of structures based on two such dissimilar materials and evaluation of the properties of the resulting structures. Although both fabrication and evaluation of structure–property relationships remain challenges, materials comprised of conducting polymers and hydrogels are promising for the next generation of bioactive electrode coatings.

  4. Extreme Activity of Drug Nanocrystals Coated with A Layer of Non-Covalent Polymers from Self-Assembled Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Liang, Jun F.

    2016-12-01

    Non-covalent polymers have remarkable advantages over synthetic polymers for wide biomedical applications. In this study, non-covalent polymers from self-assembled boric acid were used as the capping reagent to replace synthetic polymers in drug crystallization. Under acidic pH, boric acid self-assembled on the surface of drug nanocrystals to form polymers with network-like structures held together by hydrogen bonds. Coating driven by boric acid self-assembly had negligible effects on drug crystallinity and structure but resulted in drug nanocrystals with excellent dispersion properties that aided in the formation of a more stable suspension. Boric acid coating improved drug stability dramatically by preventing drug molecules from undergoing water hydrolysis in a neutral environment. More importantly, the specific reactivity of orthoboric groups to diols in cell glycocalyx facilitated a rapid cross-membrane translocation of drug nanocrystals, leading to efficient intracellular drug delivery, especially on cancer cells with highly expressed sialic acids. Boric acid coated nanocrystals of camptothecin, an anticancer drug with poor aqueous solubility and stability, demonstrated extreme cytotoxic activity (IC50 drug delivery field.

  5. Silica nanocapsules of fluorescent conjugated polymers and superparamagnetic nanocrystals for dual-mode cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Happy; Wang, Miao; Yang, Chang-Tong; Pant, Shilpa; Bhakoo, Kishore Kumar; Wong, Siew Yee; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2011-06-01

    We describe here a facile and benign synthetic strategy to integrate the fluorescent behavior of conjugated polymers and superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals into silica nanocapsules, forming a new type of bifunctional magnetic fluorescent silica nanocapsule (BMFSN). The resultant BMFSNs are uniform, colloidally stable in aqueous medium, and exhibit the desired dual functionality of fluorescence and superparamagnetism in a single entity. Four conjugated polymers with different emissions were used to demonstrate the versatility of employing this class of fluorescent materials for the preparation of BMFSNs. The applicability of BMFSNs in cellular imaging was studied by incubating them with human liver cancer cells, the result of which demonstrated that the cells could be visualized by dual-mode fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the superparamagnetic behavior of the BMFSNs was exploited for in vitro magnetic-guided delivery of the nanocapsules into the cancer cells, thereby highlighting their potential for targeting biomedical applications.

  6. The relationship between nanoscale architecture and charge transport in conjugated nanocrystals bridged by multichromophoric Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabirian, Reza; Palermo, Vincenzo; Liscio, Andrea; Schwartz, Erik; Otten, Matthijs B J; Finlayson, Chris E; Treossi, Emanuele; Friend, Richard H; Calestani, Gianluca; Müllen, Klaus; Nolte, Roeland J M; Rowan, Alan E; Samorì, Paolo

    2009-05-27

    We report on the self-assembly and the electrical characterization of bicomponent films consisting of an organic semiconducting small molecule blended with a rigid polymeric scaffold functionalized in the side chains with monomeric units of the same molecule. The molecule and polymer are a perylene-bis(dicarboximide) monomer (M-PDI) and a perylene-bis(dicarboximide)-functionalized poly(isocyanopeptide) (P-PDI), which have been codeposited on SiO(x) and mica substrates from solution. These bicomponent films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), revealing the relationship between architecture and function for various supramolecular nanocrystalline arrangements at a nanometer spatial resolution. Monomer-polymer interactions can be controlled by varying solvent and/or substrate polarity, so that either the monomer packing dictates the polymer morphology or vice versa, leading to a morphology exhibiting M-PDI nanocrystals connected with each other by P-PDI polymer wires. Compared to pure M-PDI or P-PDI films, those bicomponent films that possess polymer interconnections between crystallites of the monomer display a significant improvement in electrical connectivity and a 2 orders of magnitude increase in charge carrier mobility within the film, as measured in thin film transistor (TFT) devices. Of a more fundamental interest, our technique allows the bridging of semiconducting crystals, without the formation of injection barriers at the connection points.

  7. Catalytic synthesis of metal crystals using conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Li, Wenguang

    2008-01-15

    A method of forming metal nanoparticles using a polymer colloid that includes at least one conductive polymer and at least one polyelectrolyte. Metal ions are reduced in water by the conductive polymer to produce the nanoparticles, which may be then incorporated in the colloidal structure to form a colloid composite. The method can also be used to separate selected metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  8. Photogeneration of polaron pairs in conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, E. M.; Mizes, H. A.

    1995-03-01

    It is usually assumed that when photogeneration in a conducting polymer results in an electron and hole on separate chains they form negative and positive polarons that can move independently of each other. We show, on the basis of the small carrier yield per photon seen in picosecond photoconductivity, the different behavior of photoinduced absorption (PA) in dilute solution and thin films, and the spectral distribution of the PA in thin films, that photogenerated positive and negative polarons in poly(p-phenylene vinylene), polythiophene, and polyacetylene are, for the most part, bound in pairs by their Coulomb attraction. We also show that PA data give evidence for a gap of 2.8 eV, and thus an exciton binding energy of 0.4 eV, in poly(p-phenylene vinylene).

  9. Nanostructured conducting polymers for energy applications: towards a sustainable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srabanti; Maiyalagan, Thandavarayan; Basu, Rajendra N.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, there has been tremendous progress in the field of nanodimensional conducting polymers with the objective of tuning the intrinsic properties of the polymer and the potential to be efficient, biocompatible, inexpensive, and solution processable. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures possess a high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path length for ion transport and superior electrochemical activity which make them suitable for energy storage and conversion applications. The current status of polymer nanostructure fabrication and characterization is reviewed in detail. The present review includes syntheses, a deeper understanding of the principles underlying the electronic behavior of size and shape tunable polymer nanostructures, characterization tools and analysis of composites. Finally, a detailed discussion of their effectiveness and perspectives in energy storage and solar light harvesting is presented. In brief, a broad overview on the synthesis and possible applications of conducting polymer nanostructures in energy domains such as fuel cells, photocatalysis, supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries is described.

  10. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  11. Conducting polymer nanostructures: template synthesis and applications in energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-07-02

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  12. Well-Dispersed Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystals Synthesized from Alcohols and Their Applications for Polymer Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiang; Dai, Zhongjun; Chen, Bing; Ji, Ran; Yang, Xin; Hu, Rong; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Lu

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report on a simple non-injection synthesis routine for the preparation of well-dispersed monocrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles (NPs). The nanocrystal morphology was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and its phase composition was studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles prepared using ethanolamine and diethanolamine as chemical stabilizers showed a high purity and a suitable size for polymer solar cell applications. The fabricated CZTS NPs are shown to be easily dispersed in a polymer/fullerene aromatic solution as well as the hybrid photovoltaic active layer. Thanks to the increment in the light absorption and electrical conductivity of the active layer, solar cells with a small amount of CZTS nanoparticles resulted in a clear enhancement of the photovoltaic performance. The short-circuit current density is increased from 9.90 up to 10.67 mA/cm2, corresponding to an improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.30 to 3.65%.

  13. Pedot and PPy Conducting Polymer Bilayer and Trilayer Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer Lebbe; Careem, Mohamed Abdul; Skaarup, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Actuators based on conducting polymers are attracting increasing interest due to their desirable features such as large mechanical stress generated, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility, good safety properties and the possibility of precise control using small voltages. Many...... attempts have been made to improve the actuator performance. We report electromechanical measurements on actuators of bilayer and trilayer free standing films prepared with polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymers. Both types of conducting polymer are pre...

  14. β-Cyclodextrin polymer brushes decorated magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters for the release of hydrophobic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaonan; Zhao, Meiqin; Cheng, Changjing; Zhao, Zhigang

    2014-05-01

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymer brushes decorated magnetic Fe3O4 colloidal nanocrystal clusters (Fe3O4@PG-CD) were fabricated by a combination of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization on the surface of Br-anchored Fe3O4 colloidal nanocrystal clusters (Fe3O4-Br) and ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups. The resulted Fe3O4@PG-CD hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by several methods including Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering instrument, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Moreover, the potential of as-synthesized Fe3O4@PG-CD as a carrier of hydrophobic anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was also investigated. The results showed that the prepared Fe3O4@PG-CD have core/shell structure and high saturated magnetism. 5-FU could be loaded into the Fe3O4@PG-CD via the formation of β-CD/5-FU inclusion complex. Furthermore, the Fe3O4@PG-CD displayed a high loading capacity and pH-dependent release behavior for 5-FU. The release behavior demonstrated a simple Fickian diffusion in the acidic environment (pH 2.0 and 4.0) but neither non-Fickian nor anomalous when neutral. The results reveal that this nanosystem seems to be a very promising vehicle for the hydrophobic drugs for pH-dependent controlled release.

  15. Enhancing the efficiency of solution-processed polymer:colloidal nanocrystal hybrid photovoltaic cells using ethanedithiol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Cao, Weiran; Zheng, Ying; Yang, Yixing; Plaisant, Marc; Holloway, Paul H; Schanze, Kirk S; Reynolds, John R; Xue, Jiangeng

    2013-06-25

    Advances in colloidal inorganic nanocrystal synthesis and processing have led to the demonstration of organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells using low-cost solution processes from blends of conjugated polymer and colloidal nanocrystals. However, the performance of such hybrid PV cells has been limited due to the lack of control at the complex interfaces between the organic and inorganic hybrid active materials. Here we show that the efficiency of hybrid PV devices can be significantly enhanced by engineering the polymer-nanocrystal interface with proper chemical treatment. Using two different conjugated polymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT), we show that treating the polymer:nanocrystal hybrid film in an ethanedithiol-containing acetonitrile solution can increase the efficiency of the hybrid PV devices by 30-90%, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.2 ± 0.3% was obtained in the PCPDTBT:CdSe devices at 0.2 sun (AM 1.5G), which was slightly reduced to 4.7 ± 0.3% at 1 sun. The ethanedithiol treatment did not result in significant changes in the morphology and UV-vis optical absorption of the hybrid thin films; however, infrared absorption, NMR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies revealed the effective removal of organic ligands, especially the charged phosphonic acid ligands, from the CdSe nanorod surface after the treatment, accompanied by the possible monolayer passivation of nanorod surfaces with Cd-thiolates. We attribute the hybrid PV cell efficiency increase upon the ethanedithiol treatment to the reduction in charge and exciton recombination sites on the nanocrystal surface and the simultaneous increase in electron transport through the hybrid film.

  16. Role of Cellulose Nanocrystals on the Microstructure of Maleic Anhydride Plasma Polymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioude, Michel M; Roucoules, Vincent; Haidara, Hamidou; Vonna, Laurent; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Recently, it was shown that the microstructure of a maleic anhydride plasma polymer (MAPP) could be tailored ab initio by adjusting the plasma process parameters. In this work, we aim to investigate the ability of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to induce topographical structuration. Thus, a new approach was designed based on the deposition of MAPP on CNCs model surfaces. The nanocellulosic surfaces were produced by spin-coating the CNC suspension on a silicon wafer substrate and on a hydrophobic silicon wafer substrate patterned with circular hydrophilic microsized domains (diameter of 86.9 ± 4.9 μm), resulting in different degrees of CNC aggregation. By depositing the MAPP over these surfaces, it was possible to observe that the surface fraction of nanostructures increased from 20% to 35%. This observation suggests that CNCs can act as nucleation points resulting in more structures, although a critical density of the CNCs is required.

  17. Exciton Dynamics in Alternative Solar Cell Materials: Polymers, Nanocrystals, and Small Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundsack, Thomas J.

    To keep fossil fuel usage in 2040 even with 2010 usage, 50% of global energy will need to come from alternative sources such as solar cells. While the photovoltaic market is currently dominated by crystalline silicon, there are many low-cost solar cell materials such as conjugated polymers, semiconductor nanocrystals, and organic small molecules which could compete with fossil fuels. To create cost-competitive devices, understanding the excited state dynamics of these materials is necessary. The first section of this thesis looks at aggregation in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) which is commonly used in organic photovoltaics. The amount of aggregation in P3HT thin films was controlled by using a mixture of regioregular and regiorandom P3HT. Even with few aggregates present, excited states were found to transfer from amorphous to aggregate domains in fits and the most reasonable fitting parameters.

  18. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Conductive Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion protection performance of twenty nine proprietary conductive polymer coatings for cold rolled steel under immersion in 3.55 percent NaCl. Corrosion potential as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained for each coating after one hour immersion, All coatings, with the exception of one, have a corrosion potential that is higher in the positive direction than the corrosion potential of bare steel under the same conditions. Group A consisted of twenty one coatings with Bode plots indicative of the capacitive behavior characteristic of barrier coatings. An equivalent circuit consisting of a capacitor in series with a resistor simulated the experimental EIS data for these coatings very well. Group B consisted of eight coatings that exhibited EIS spectra showing an inflection point which indicates that two time constants are present. This may be caused by an electrochemical process taking place which could be indicitive of coating failing. These coatings have a lower impedance that those in Group A.

  19. Photovoltaic devices from CdSe nanocrystals and conjugated polymer composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanshan; WANG Li; CAO Yong

    2007-01-01

    The preparation of CdSe nanospheres (ns-CdSe) and their application as electron acceptor in conjugated polymer photovoltaic devices are reported, ns-CdSe with diameters of 5 nm were prepared through an organometallic method. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM),ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and photolumines-cence (PL) spectra indicate that the CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) are monodispersed nanospheres with the first exciton absorption peak at around 625 nm and the emission peakat around 652 nm. The PL spectra of the ns-CdSe/polymer composite films show that the PL of the conjugated polymers is effectively quenched upon the addition of ns-CdSe.Photovoltaic devices were fabricated from the compositesof ns-CdSe and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) or poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT). Under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2), the short circuit current (ISC), open circuit voltage (V), fill factor (FF)and energy conversion efficiency (η) reached 1.56 mA/cm2,0.75 V, 34.5% and 0.40%, respectively for device from the ns-CdSe/MEH-PPV (15:1 by weight) and 1.93 mA/cm2,0.65 V, 38.4% and 0.48%, respectively for device from the ns-CdSe/P3HT (10 : 1 by weight).

  20. Electrically Conductive Metal Nanowire Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoxiong

    This thesis investigates electrically conductive polymer nanocomposites formulated with metal nanowires for electrostatic discharge and electromagnetic interference shielding. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) of an average length of 1.98 mum and diameter of 25 +/- 4 nm were synthesized. The oxidation reaction of the CuNWs in air can be divided into two stages at weight of 111.2% on TGA curves. The isoconversional activation energies determined by Starink method were used to fit the different master plots. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation gave the best fit. The surface atoms of the CuNWs are the sites for the random nucleation and the crystallite strain in the CuNWs is the driving force for the growth of nuclei mechanism during the oxidation process. To improve the anti-oxidation properties of the CuNWs, silver was coated onto the surface of the CuNWs in Ag-amine solution. The prepared silver coated CuNWs (AgCuNWs) with silver content of 66.52 wt. %, diameter of 28--33 nm exhibited improved anti-oxidation behavior. The electrical resistivity of the AgCuNW/low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites is lower than that of the CuNW/LDPE nanocomposites with the same volume percentage of fillers. The nanocomposites formulated with CuNWs and polyethylenes (PEs) were compared to study the different interaction between the CuNWs and the different types of PE matrices. The electrical conductivity of the different PE matrices filled with the same concentrations of CuNWs correlated well with the level of the CuNW dispersion. The intermolecular force and entanglement resulting from the different macromolecular structures such as molecular weight and branching played an important role in the dispersion, electrical properties and rheological behaviour of the CuNW/PE nanocomposites. Ferromagnetic polycrystalline nickel nanowires (NiNWs) were synthesized with uniform diameter of ca. 38 nm and an average length of 2.68 mum. The NiNW linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE

  1. Applications of conducting polymers: robotic fins and other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangorra, James L.; Anquetil, Patrick A.; Weideman, Nathan S.; Fofonoff, Timothy; Hunter, Ian W.

    2007-04-01

    Conducting polymers are becoming viable engineering materials and are gradually being integrated into a wide range of devices. Parallel efforts conducted to characterize their electromechanical behavior, understand the factors that affect actuation performance, mechanically process films, and address the engineering obstacles that must be overcome to generate the forces and displacements required in real-world applications have made it possible to begin using conducting polymers in devices that cannot be made optimal using traditional actuators and materials. The use of conducting polymers has allowed us to take better advantage of biological architectures for robotic applications and has enabled us to pursue the development of novel sensors, motors, and medical diagnostic technologies. This paper uses the application of conducting polymer actuators to a biorobotic fin for unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) as a vehicle for discussing the efforts in our laboratory to develop conducting polymers into a suite of useful actuators and engineering components.

  2. Design of a multi-coordinating polymer as a platform for functionalizing metal, metal oxide and semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Ji, Xin; Kapur, Anshika; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a new set of amphiphilic polymers as multifunctional, metal-coordinating ligands adapted to surfacefunctionalize quantum dots (QDs), iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and gold nanoparticles/nanorods (AuNPs/AuNRs). The ligand design relies on the introduction of several anchoring groups, hydrophilic moieties and reactive functionalities into a polymer chain, via one-step nucleophilic addition reaction. Such synthetic scheme also allows the insertion of target biomolecules during the ligand synthesis. This functionalization strategy yields nanocrystals that exhibit long-term colloidal stability over a broad range of biological conditions, such as pH changes and when mixed with growth media. When zwitterion groups are used as hydrophilic motifs, this provides compact nanocrystals that are compatible with conjugation to proteins via metal-polyhistidine self-assembly. In addition, we show that QDs ligated with these polymers can engage in energy or charge transfer interactions. Furthermore, nanocrystals coated with folic acid-modified polymers could promote the delivery of nanoparticle-conjugates into cancer cells via folate receptormediated endocytosis.

  3. “Electro-Click” on Conducting Polymer Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    for their own functionalization with high spatial resolution. Interdigitated microelectrodes prepared from the azide-containing conducting polymer were selectively functionalized in sequence by two alkyne-modified fluorophores by control of the applied potentials. “Electro-click” on conducting polymer films...

  4. Direct measurement of the microscale conductivity of conjugated polymer monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Grey, Francois; Hassenkam, T.;

    2000-01-01

    The in-plane conductivity of conjugated polymer monolayers is mapped here for the first time on the microscale using a novel scanning micro four-point probe (see Figure). The probe allows the source, drain, and voltage electrodes to be positioned within the same domain and the mapping results...... demonstrate how microscopic ordering in the polymer domains controls the conductivity....

  5. TiO2 nanocrystals shell layer on highly conducting indium tin oxide nanowire for photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Soo; Kim, Ju Seong; Kim, Dong Hoe; Han, Gil Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Noh, Jun Hong; Hong, Kug Sun

    2013-04-21

    We demonstrated a highly efficient conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) core-TiO2 nanocrystals shell nanowire array for a photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells with regard to light harvest and charge collection. The TiO2 shell layer, consisting of anatase nanocrystals of ~2 nm, were successfully formed on a single crystalline ITO nanowire prepared via a vapor transport method using repetitive TiCl4 aqueous solution treatments at 50 °C. We found that the nanocrystal size and number of Cl(-) ions remaining on the formed shell layer critically influence the dye loading properties. Moreover, these factors can be controlled by means of a post-annealing process. We also found that the dye loading and the back electron transport from the conductive ITO nanowire to the electrolyte mainly determine the final cell performance. The proposed double-shell layer structure consisting of dense and porous layers showed significantly improved cell performance.

  6. Supramolecular Engineering of Hierarchically Self-Assembled, Bioinspired, Cholesteric Nanocomposites Formed by Cellulose Nanocrystals and Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baolei; Merindol, Remi; Benitez, Alejandro J; Wang, Baochun; Walther, Andreas

    2016-05-04

    Natural composites are hierarchically structured by combination of ordered colloidal and molecular length scales. They inspire future, biomimetic, and lightweight nanocomposites, in which extraordinary mechanical properties are in reach by understanding and mastering hierarchical structure formation as tools to engineer multiscale deformation mechanisms. Here we describe a hierarchically self-assembled, cholesteric nanocomposite with well-defined colloid-based helical structure and supramolecular hydrogen bonds engineered on the molecular level in the polymer matrix. We use reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization to synthesize well-defined hydrophilic, nonionic polymers with a varying functionalization density of 4-fold hydrogen-bonding ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) motifs. We show that these copolymers can be coassembled with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), a sustainable, stiff, rod-like reinforcement, to give ordered cholesteric phases with characteristic photonic stop bands. The dimensions of the helical pitch are controlled by the ratio of polymer/CNC, confirming a smooth integration into the colloidal structure. With respect to the effect of the supramolecular motifs, we demonstrate that those regulate the swelling when exposing the biomimetic hybrids to water, and they allow engineering the photonic response. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen bonds and the polymer fraction are decisive in defining the mechanical properties. An Ashby plot comparing previous ordered CNC-based nanocomposites with our new hierarchical ones reveals that molecular engineering allows us to span an unprecedented mechanical property range from highest inelastic deformation (strain up to ∼13%) to highest stiffness (E ∼ 15 GPa) and combinations of both. We envisage that further rational design of the molecular interactions will provide efficient tools for enhancing the multifunctional property profiles of such bioinspired nanocomposites.

  7. Nanostructured conducting polymer hydrogels for energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Peng, Lele; Yu, Guihua

    2015-08-14

    Conducting polymer hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of polymeric materials for various technological applications, especially for energy storage devices due to their unique combination of advantageous features of conventional polymers and organic conductors. To overcome the drawbacks of conventional synthesis, new synthetic routes in which acid molecules are adopted as both crosslinkers and dopants have been developed for conducting polymer hydrogels with unique 3D hierarchical porous nanostructures, resulting in high electrical conductivity, large surface area, structural tunability and hierarchical porosity for rapid mass/charge transport. The newly developed conducting polymer hydrogels exhibit high performance when applied as active electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors or as functional binder materials for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. This feature article summarizes the synthesis of conducting polymer hydrogels, presents their applications in energy storage, and discusses further opportunities and challenges.

  8. Conjugate polymers and electronic conductive polymers; Polymeres conjugues et polymeres conducteurs electroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attias, A.J. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Chimie Macromoleculaire, UMR 7610 - CNRS, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-05-01

    In some certain conditions a plastic material can become conductive (synthetic metal). To become conductive, a polymer must be conjugate (alternance of simple and multiple bonds) and doped (electron removal or addition). This article presents the recent advances and trends of the research on conductive polymers. The role of {pi} electrons in the conjugate systems is recalled in a first part. The description of energy states of conjugate polymers in terms of bands structure allow to consider them as organic semiconductors. Thus, it is possible to generate charged species by doping, charge injection or photo-excitation. These charge carriers, the conduction mechanisms and the related applications are presented. The chemistry and synthesis of these polymers are presented in a second part: 1 - evolution of research; 2 - physics of conductive polymers (role of {pi} electrons in conjugate polymers, {pi}-electrons conjugate compounds, influence of conjugation length and notion of bands structure, charges-doping generation, conductive polymers, chemical doping and electrical conduction, charge injection at the conjugate semiconductor metal-polymer interface: electro-luminescent polymers, charge creation by photo-excitation: polymers for photovoltaic cells); 3 - chemistry of conductive polymers (role of synthesis, monomers choice, other trends). (J.S.)

  9. Measurement of thermal conductivity of PbTe nanocrystal coated glass fibers by the 3ω method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finefrock, Scott W; Wang, Yan; Ferguson, John B; Ward, James V; Fang, Haiyu; Pfluger, Jonathan E; Dudis, Douglas S; Ruan, Xiulin; Wu, Yue

    2013-11-13

    Fiber-based thermoelectric materials can conform to curved surfaces to form energy harvesting devices for waste heat recovery. Here we investigate the thermal conductivity in the axial direction of glass fibers coated with lead telluride (PbTe) nanocrystals using the self-heated 3ω method particularly at low frequency. While prior 3ω measurements on wire-like structures have only been demonstrated for high thermal conductivity materials, the present work demonstrates the suitability of the 3ω method for PbTe nanocrystal coated glass fibers where the low thermal conductivity and high aspect ratio result in a significant thermal radiation effect. We simulate the experiment using a finite-difference method that corrects the thermal radiation effect and extract the thermal conductivity of glass fibers coated by PbTe nanocrystals. The simulation method for radiation correction is shown to be generally much more accurate than analytical methods. We explore the effect of nanocrystal volume fraction on thermal conductivity and obtain results in the range of 0.50-0.93 W/mK near room temperature.

  10. Nuclear alkylated pyridine aldehyde polymers and conductive compositions thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.; Singer, S. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A thermally stable, relatively conductive polymer was disclosed. The polymer was synthesized by condensing in the presence of catalyst a 2, 4, or 6 nuclear alklylated 2, 3, or 4 pyridine aldehyde or quaternary derivatives thereof to form a polymer. The pyridine groups were liked by olefinic groups between 2-4, 2-6, 2-3, 3-4, 3-6 or 4-6 positions. Conductive compositions were prepared by dissolving the quaternary polymer and an organic charge transfer complexing agent such as TCNQ in a mutual solvent such as methanol.

  11. Conductive polymers: towards a smart biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Richard; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2014-06-01

    Developing stimulus-responsive biomaterials with easy-to-tailor properties is a highly desired goal of the tissue engineering community. A novel type of electroactive biomaterial, the conductive polymer, promises to become one such material. Conductive polymers are already used in fuel cells, computer displays and microsurgical tools, and are now finding applications in the field of biomaterials. These versatile polymers can be synthesised alone, as hydrogels, combined into composites or electrospun into microfibres. They can be created to be biocompatible and biodegradable. Their physical properties can easily be optimized for a specific application through binding biologically important molecules into the polymer using one of the many available methods for their functionalization. Their conductive nature allows cells or tissue cultured upon them to be stimulated, the polymers' own physical properties to be influenced post-synthesis and the drugs bound in them released, through the application of an electrical signal. It is thus little wonder that these polymers are becoming very important materials for biosensors, neural implants, drug delivery devices and tissue engineering scaffolds. Focusing mainly on polypyrrole, polyaniline and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), we review conductive polymers from the perspective of tissue engineering. The basic properties of conductive polymers, their chemical and electrochemical synthesis, the phenomena underlying their conductivity and the ways to tailor their properties (functionalization, composites, etc.) are discussed.

  12. Conducting-polymer-based supercapacitor devices and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Graeme A.; Kao, Pon; Best, Adam S.

    Supercapacitor electrodes and devices that utilise conducting polymers are envisaged to bridge the gap between existing carbon-based supercapacitors and batteries to form units of intermediate specific energy. This review looks at the major conducting polymer materials, namely, polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and derivatives of polythiophene, as well as composites of these materials with carbon nanotubes and inorganic battery materials. Various treatments of the conducting polymer materials to improve their properties are considered and comparisons are made with other supercapacitor materials such as carbon and with inorganic battery materials. Conducting polymers are pseudo-capacitive materials, which means that the bulk of the material undergoes a fast redox reaction to provide the capacitive response and they exhibit superior specific energies to the carbon-based supercapacitors (double-layer capacitors). In general conducting polymers are more conductive than the inorganic battery materials and consequently have greater power capability. On the downside, conducting polymers swell and contract substantially on charge and discharge, respectively. Consequently, cycle-life is poor compared with carbon-based supercapacitors which generally only charge via adsorption and desorption of ions (giving typically a few thousand cycles for conducting polymers compared with >500 000 cycles for carbon-based devices).

  13. Enhanced encapsulation and bioavailability of breviscapine in PLGA microparticles by nanocrystal and water-soluble polymer template techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Guangxing; Ma, Xueqin; Liu, Yanhua; Feng, Jun; Park, Kinam; Wang, Wenping

    2017-03-02

    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles are widely used for controlled drug delivery. Emulsion methods have been commonly used for preparation of PLGA microparticles, but they usually result in low loading capacity, especially for drugs with poor solubility in organic solvents. In the present study, the nanocrystal technology and a water-soluble polymer template method were used to fabricate nanocrystal-loaded microparticles with improved drug loading and encapsulation efficiency for prolonged delivery of breviscapine. Breviscapine nanocrystals were prepared using a precipitation-ultrasonication method and further loaded into PLGA microparticles by casting in a mold from a water-soluble polymer. The obtained disc-like particles were then characterized and compared with the spherical particles prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis confirmed a highly-dispersed state of breviscapine inside the microparticles. The drug form, loading percentage and fabrication techniques significantly affected the loading capacity and efficiency of breviscapine in PLGA microparticles, and their release performance as well. Drug loading was increased from 2.4 % up to 15.3 % when both nanocrystal and template methods were applied, and encapsulation efficiency increased from 48.5 % to 91.9 %. But loading efficiency was reduced as the drug loading was increased. All microparticles showed an initial burst release, and then a slow release period of 28 days followed by an erosion-accelerated release phase, which provides a sustained delivery of breviscapine over a month. A relatively stable serum drug level for more than 30 days was observed after intramuscular injection of microparticles in rats. Therefore, PLGA microparticles loaded with nanocrystals of poorly soluble drugs provided a promising approach for long-term therapeutic products characterized with preferable in vitro and in

  14. Recent developments in polyurethane-based conducting polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    Njuguna, James A. K.; Pielichowski, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    Polyurethane-based conducting composites with polyaniline, polythiophene or polypyrrole are in the class of modern macromolecular materials that combine the toughness and elasticity of polyurethane matrix with conductivity of intrinsically conducting polymers. Since the methods of preparation strongly influence the structure and properties of resulting composite/blend, this works aim at systematic description of polyurethane based conducting composites. This review has been ...

  15. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  16. Polyaniline Conducting Electroactive Polymers Thermal and Environmental Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ansari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current studies, polyaniline (PANi was prepared both chemical and electrochemically in the presence of different bronsted acids from aqueous solutions. The effect of thermal treatment on electrical conductivity, and thermal stability of the PANi conducting polymers were investigated using 4-point probe and TGA techniques respectively. It was found that polymer prepared by CV method is more thermally stable than those prepared by the other electrochemical techniques. In this paper we have also reviewed some fundamental information about synthesis, general properties, diverse applications, thermal and environmental stability of polyaniline conducting polymers.

  17. High ion conducting polymer nanocomposite electrolytes using hybrid nanofillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Changyu; Hackenberg, Ken; Fu, Qiang; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ardebili, Haleh

    2012-03-14

    There is a growing shift from liquid electrolytes toward solid polymer electrolytes, in energy storage devices, due to the many advantages of the latter such as enhanced safety, flexibility, and manufacturability. The main issue with polymer electrolytes is their lower ionic conductivity compared to that of liquid electrolytes. Nanoscale fillers such as silica and alumina nanoparticles are known to enhance the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes. Although carbon nanotubes have been used as fillers for polymers in various applications, they have not yet been used in polymer electrolytes as they are conductive and can pose the risk of electrical shorting. In this study, we show that nanotubes can be packaged within insulating clay layers to form effective 3D nanofillers. We show that such hybrid nanofillers increase the lithium ion conductivity of PEO electrolyte by almost 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, significant improvement in mechanical properties were observed where only 5 wt % addition of the filler led to 160% increase in the tensile strength of the polymer. This new approach of embedding conducting-insulating hybrid nanofillers could lead to the development of a new generation of polymer nanocomposite electrolytes with high ion conductivity and improved mechanical properties.

  18. Enhanced Conductivity in CZTS/Cu(2-x)Se Nanocrystal Thin Films: Growth of a Conductive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korala, Lasantha; McGoffin, J Tyler; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Poor charge transport in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystal (NC) thin films presents a great challenge in the fabrication of solar cells without postannealing treatments. We introduce a novel approach to facilitate the charge carrier hopping between CZTS NCs by growing a stoichiometric Cu2Se shell that can be oxidized to form a conductive Cu2-xSe phase when exposed to air. The CZTS/Cu2Se core/shell NCs with varying numbers of shell monolayers were synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and the variation in structural and optical properties of the CZTS NCs with varying shell thicknesses was investigated. Solid-phase sulfide ligand exchange was employed to fabricate NC thin films by layer-by-layer dip coating and a 2 orders of magnitude rise in dark conductivity (∼10(-3) S cm(-1) at 0 monolayer and ∼10(-1) S cm(-1) at 1.5 monolayers) was observed with an increase in the number of shell monolayers. The approach described herein is the first key step in achieving a significant increase in the photoconductivity of as-deposited CZTS NC thin films.

  19. Transparent and conductive polymer layers by gas plasma techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, Lucas Marinus Hendrikus

    2000-01-01

    Polymers are widely used in a great number of applications because of their general properties such as low density, low cost, and processability. If these properties could be combined with electrical conductivity, this would open up the way to desirable applications such as flexible LCD’s and polyme

  20. Conducting Polymer Actuators: Prospects and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    Actuators constructed with a conjugated polymer as the active part have been predicted to have a number of highly desirable properties: Large mechanical strength, high power density, i.e. high actuation speeds possible, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility and safe, low voltages (1......-5 V), . Taking status after about 15 years of research efforts, most of these predictions have come true, the main exception being the much lower speeds actually realized in actuators....

  1. Ionic motion in PEDOT and PPy conducting polymer bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Conducting polymer bilayers with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polypyrrole (PPy), each containing dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) as immobile dopant species, were synthesized galvanostatically. The electrochemical behaviour of the bilayers was investigated using cyclic voltammetry...

  2. Current Trends in Sensors Based on Conducting Polymer Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonseok Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent an important class of functional organic materials for next-generation electronic and optical devices. Advances in nanotechnology allow for the fabrication of various conducting polymer nanomaterials through synthesis methods such as solid-phase template synthesis, molecular template synthesis, and template-free synthesis. Nanostructured conducting polymers featuring high surface area, small dimensions, and unique physical properties have been widely used to build various sensor devices. Many remarkable examples have been reported over the past decade. The enhanced sensitivity of conducting polymer nanomaterials toward various chemical/biological species and external stimuli has made them ideal candidates for incorporation into the design of sensors. However, the selectivity and stability still leave room for improvement.

  3. Conducting Polymers Functionalized with Phthalocyanine as Nitrogen Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Deshpande

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene were functionalized with copper phthalocyanine using chemical oxidation method. The obtained polymers viz. PANI-CuPc, PPy-CuPc and PT-CuPc were studied as chemical sensors by their response characteristics after exposure to various chemical vapors such as methanol, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The results obtained showed that these polymers have moderate sensitivity towards the methanol as well as ammonia vapors whereas they show tremendous sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide vapors. The sensitivity factor of as high as 50,000 was obtained for PT-CuPc polymers in nitrogen dioxide. In comparison to this, the sensitivity factors of about 100 and 40 were obtained, when these polymers were exposed to ammonia and methanol vapors. The very high selectivity towards the nitrogen dioxide was explained on the basis of charge transfer complex formed between, the phthalocyanine donor and nitrogen dioxide acceptor molecules. On the other hand, ammonia becomes a competing electron donor in CuPc containing conducting polymers. The very low response towards the methanol may be explained on the basis very little charge transfer / interaction between CuPc containing polymers and methanol. Thus, CuPc incorporated conducting polymers have much higher selectivity than their original homopolymer.

  4. Conducting polymer electrodes for gel electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Bengtsson

    Full Text Available In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that π-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

  5. Modification of Fluoropolymer Surfaces with Electronically Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    CI0 4)3. Polyaniline was synthesized by mixing equal volumes of a solution that was 0.25 M in ammonium persulfate and a solution that was 0.5 M in...31 Conductive polymers, polypyrrole , lithography 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...surface. Fortunately, conductive polymers such as polypyrrole adhere quite well to many substrates, including nylon, polycarbonate, cellulosics

  6. Enhanced Photoresponse of Conductive Polymer Nanowires Embedded with Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junchang; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Yinghui; Li, Anran; Huang, Jing; Meng, Fanben; Chandran, Bevita K; Li, Shuzhou; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    A conductive polymer nanowire embedded with a 1D Au nanoparticle chain with defined size, shape, and interparticle distance is fabricated which demonstrates enhanced photoresponse behavior. The precise and controllable positioning of 1D Au nanoparticle chain in the conductive polymer nanowire plays a critical role in modulating the photoresponse behavior by excitation light wavelength or power due to the coupled-plasmon effect of 1D Au nanoparticle chain.

  7. Applications of scanning probe microscopy in intrinsically conducting polymer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tao; NIU Li; LI Zhuang; DONG Shaojun

    2007-01-01

    The applications of scanning probe microscopy(SPM)in intrinsically conducting polymer research is briefly reviewed,including morphology observation,nanofabrication,microcosmic electrical property measurements,electrochemistry researches,in-situ measurements of film thickness change,and so on.At the same time,some important variations of SPM and the related techniques are briefly introduced.Finally,the future development of SPM in the study of intrinsically conducting polymers is prospected.

  8. Novel synthetic methods to produce functionalized conducting polymers. 1. Polyanilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, C.; Salavagione, H.J.; Acevedo, D.F.; Garay, F.; Planes, G.A.; Miras, M.C. [Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Dpto. de Quimica; Grumelli, D.E. [INQUIMAE, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica; Morales, G.M. [University of Chicago (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Recent results, part of an ongoing research programme aimed to develop synthetic methods which could be used to functionalise conducting polymers, are described. Among those methods are the copolymerization of aniline with substituted anilines and post-modification reactions of polyaniline, such as: electrophilic substitution, nucleophilic addition and coupling with diazonium salts. Some of those methods could be chemically or electrochemically controlled allowing a quantitative tailoring of the modification. The effect of the added functionalities on the electrochemical properties of the polymers is investigated using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The extension of the synthetic methods to combinatorial modification of conductive polymers is also discussed. (author)

  9. Microwave assisted click chemistry on a conductive polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hansen, Thomas S.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation has been used to accelerate the functionalization of an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film by click chemistry. The absorption of MW energy by the conductive polymer has been exploited for localized activation of the reaction on the polymer surface....... The method has been applied for anchoring of the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) on the conductive polymer. The chelating linkage ability of NTA on the surface was investigated through a sandwich ELISA study confirming the selective bonding of a histidine tagged protein....

  10. Hopping conductivity and insulator-metal transition in films of touching semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Han; Reich, K. V.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is focused on the variable-range hopping of electrons in semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) films below the critical doping concentration nc at which it becomes metallic. The hopping conductivity is described by the Efros-Shklovskii law, which depends on the localization length of electrons. We study how the localization length grows with the doping concentration n in the film of touching NCs. For that we calculate the electron transfer matrix element t (n ) between neighboring NCs for two models when NCs touch by small facets or just one point. We study two sources of disorder: variations of NC diameters and random Coulomb potentials originating from random numbers of donors in NCs. We use the ratio of t (n ) to the disorder-induced NC level dispersion to find the localization length of electrons due to the multistep elastic co-tunneling process. We found three different phases at n conductivity) oscillates with n from the insulator base, and (3) "blinking metal" where the localization length periodically diverges. The first two phases were seen experimentally and we discuss how one can see the more exotic third one. In all three, the localization length diverges at n =nc . This allows us to find nc.

  11. Enhanced thermal conductance of polymer composites through embeddingaligned carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale K. Hensley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this work is to find a more efficient method of enhancing the thermal conductance of polymer thin films. This work compares polymer thin films embedded with randomly oriented carbon nanotubes to those with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers. Thin films embedded with carbon nanofibers demonstrated a similar thermal conductance between 40–60 μm and a higher thermal conductance between 25–40 μm than films embedded with carbon nanotubes with similar volume fractions even though carbon nanotubes have a higher thermal conductivity than carbon nanofibers.

  12. Conducting Polymers and Their Applications in Diabetes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in conducting polymers (CPs have promoted the development of diabetic monitoring and treatment, which is of great significance in human healthcare and modern medicine. CPs are special polymers with physical and electrochemical features resembling metals, inorganic semiconductors and non-conducting polymers. To improve and extend their properties, the fabrication of CPs and CP composites has attracted intensive attention in recent decades. Some CPs are biocompatible and suitable for biomedical use. Thus, the intriguing properties of CPs make wearable, noninvasive, continuous diabetes managing devices and other potential applications in diabetes possible in the near future. To highlight the recent advances of CPs and their derived materials (especially in conducting polymer hydrogels, here we discuss their fabrication and characterization, review the current state-of-the-art research in diabetes management based on these materials and describe current challenges as well as future potential research directions.

  13. Versatile solution for growing thin films of conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Julio M; Tran, Henry D; Tung, Vincent C; Tucker-Schwartz, Alexander K; Wong, Rain P; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B

    2010-11-16

    The method employed for depositing nanostructures of conducting polymers dictates potential uses in a variety of applications such as organic solar cells, light-emitting diodes, electrochromics, and sensors. A simple and scalable film fabrication technique that allows reproducible control of thickness, and morphological homogeneity at the nanoscale, is an attractive option for industrial applications. Here we demonstrate that under the proper conditions of volume, doping, and polymer concentration, films consisting of monolayers of conducting polymer nanofibers such as polyaniline, polythiophene, and poly(3-hexylthiophene) can be produced in a matter of seconds. A thermodynamically driven solution-based process leads to the growth of transparent thin films of interfacially adsorbed nanofibers. High quality transparent thin films are deposited at ambient conditions on virtually any substrate. This inexpensive process uses solutions that are recyclable and affords a new technique in the field of conducting polymers for coating large substrate areas.

  14. FTIR AND IONIC CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES ON BLEND POLYMER ELECTROLYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on structural and conductivity properties of solid polymer complexes have attracted a high degree of attention. The main applications of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs are found in varioussecondary batteries and energy conversion units. In view of the abundant resources, low costs and relatively low reactivity of magnesium, solid-state batteries using magnesium metal are worthy of investigations. The polymer electrolytes were prepared using poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA, poly vinyl chloride (PVC and magnesium chloride (MgCl2 by solvent casting technique. The complex formation and ionic conductivity were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR and impedance spectroscopy respectively.The FTIR studies provide the evidence of interaction of cation Mg2+ with the polymers. The maximum conductivity found for PMMA-MgCl2 is 0.57 x 10-7 Scm-1 at room temperature.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and femtosecond nonlinear saturable absorption behavior of copper phthalocyanine nanocrystals doped-PMMA polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, S.; Dhlamini, M. S.; Neethling, P. H.; Yao, A.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report the femtosecond nonlinear saturable absorption response of synthesized copper phthalocyanine nanocrystals (CPc-NCs)-doped PMMA polymer thin films. The samples were initially characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-Vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The crystalline phase and morphological analysis revealed nanocrystals of monoclinic structure with an average crystallite size between 31.38 nm and 42.5 nm. The femtosecond Z-scan study at 800 nm central wavelength indicated a saturable absorption behavior of which the mechanism is closely related to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the particles. This nonlinear effect could potentially make the CPc-NCs useful in nonlinear optical devices.

  16. Measurement of in-plane thermal conductivity in polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Uehara, Chinatsu; Mukaida, Masakazu; Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Measuring the in-plane thermal conductivity of organic thermoelectric materials is challenging but is critically important. Here, a method to study the in-plane thermal conductivity of free-standing films (via the use of commercial equipment) based on temperature wave analysis is explored in depth. This subject method required a free-standing thin film with a thickness larger than 10 μm and an area larger than 1 cm2, which are not difficult to obtain for most solution-processable organic thermoelectric materials. We evaluated thermal conductivities and anisotropic ratios for various types of samples including insulating polymers, undoped semiconducting polymers, doped conducting polymers, and one-dimensional carbon fiber bulky papers. This approach facilitated a rapid screening of in-plane thermal conductivities for various organic thermoelectric materials.

  17. Light harvesting by dye linked conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troensegaard Nielsen, K.

    2006-06-15

    The fact that the fossil fuel is finite and that the detrimental long-term effects of letting CO2 into our atmosphere exist, have created an enormous interest in developing new, cheap, renewable and less polluting energy resources. One of the most obvious abundant sources of energy in the solar system is the sun. Unfortunately the well developed silicon solar cells are very costly to produce. In an attempt to produce cheap and flexible solar cells, plastic solar cells have received a lot of attention in the last decades. There are still a lot of parameters to optimize if the plastic solar cell shall be able to compete with the silicon solar cells. One of the parameters is to ensure a high degree of charge carrier separation. Charge carrier separation can only happen at heterojunctions, which cover for example the interfaces between the polymers and the electrodes or the interface between an n-conductor and a p-conductor. The facts that the charge carrier separation only happens at the heterojunctions limits the thickness of the active layer in solar cells and thereby the effectiveness of the solar cells. In this project the charge carrier separation is attempted optimized by making plastic solar cells with a molecular heterojunction. The molecular heterojunction has been obtained by synthesizing a three domain super molecular assembly termed NPN. NPN consists of two poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl)ethynylene] chains (N-domains) coupled to the [10,20-bis(3,5-bistert-butylphenyl]-5,15-dibromoporphinato]zinc(II) (P-domain). It is shown that the N domains in NPN work as effective light harvesting antennas for the P domain and effectively transfer electrically generated excitons in the N domain to the P domain. Unfortunately the P domain does not separate the charge carriers but instead works as a charge carrier trap. This results in a performance of solar cells made of NPN that is much lower than the performance of solar cells made of pure poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl

  18. Assessment of conducting polymer applications in power equipment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, K.F. Jr.; Bennett, A.I.; Burghardt, R.R.; Cookson, A.H.; Kennedy, W.N.; Oommen, T.V.; Saunders, H.E.; Smith, J.D.B.; Voshall, R.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Fort, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (USA)); Robbins, B. (Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    This report describes for the first time the state-of-the-art in conducting polymer technology specifically relating to electric power apparatus for transmission, distribution and generation. Thirty-two new applications in power equipment are proposed and assessed. The areas of the proposed applications include solid dielectric cable, oil-filled cable, capacitors, transformers, rotating machines, bushings, surge supressors, vacuum interrupters, gas-insulated equipment, and miscellaneous applications. The best applications will result in improved reliability and efficiency, design innovations, and simpler manufacturing procedures by taking advantage of the particular characteristics of conducting polymers. These characteristics include good control of conductivity over a range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup 3} S/cm, compatibility with organic compounds, simple preparation and development of anisotropic conductivity by polymer orientation. The proposed applications were evaluated according to technical impact, probability of success, economic impact, and time frame for implementation. The state-of-the-art of conducting polymers is also reviewed and areas requiring further research for these applications are discussed. Because of substantial recent progress is developing more practical conducting polymer materials, now is an excellent time to pursue the additional research needed. 37 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Hot pressed K+ ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes: synthesis, ion conduction and polymeric battery fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Angesh

    2016-07-01

    Synthesis and ion transport studies of hot pressed K+ ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs): (1 - x) PEO: x KBr, where 0 polymer-salt complexation in SPE composition: (70:30) with conductivity ( σ) 5.01 × 10-7 S cm-1 from the room temperature conductivity measurements. Materials characterization and polymer-salt complexations of present SPEs have been explained with the help of various techniques viz. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy technique. To explain the ion conduction in the present SPEs, temperature dependent ionic conductivity ( σ), ionic mobility ( μ), mobile ion concentration ( n), ionic transference number ( t ion ) and ionic drift velocity ( v d ) have been calculated with the help of various experimental techniques. A solid state polymer battery is also fabricated by using the present SPE as an electrolyte and have been calculated their important cell parameters at room temperature.

  20. Mediating conducting polymer growth within hydrogels by controlling nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Patton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the efficacy of primary and secondary nucleation for electrochemical polymerisation of conductive polymers within poly(vinyl alcohol methacrylate hydrogels. The two methods of nucleation investigated were a primary heterogeneous mechanism via introduction of conductive bulk metallic glass (Mg64Zn30Ca5Na1 particles and a secondary mechanism via introduction of “pre-polymerised” conducting polymer within the hydrogel (PEDOT:PSS. Evidence of nucleation was not seen in the bulk metallic glass loaded gels, however, the PEDOT:PSS loaded gels produced charge storage capacities over 15 mC/cm2 when sufficient polymer was loaded. These studies support the hypothesis that secondary nucleation is an efficient approach to producing stand-alone conducting hydrogels.

  1. Phase diagram of hopping conduction mechanisms in polymer nanofiber network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jeng-Ting; Lu, Yu-Cheng; Jiang, Shiau-Bin; Zhong, Yuan-Liang, E-mail: ylzhong@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Jui-Ming [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-07

    Network formation by nanofiber crosslinking is usually in polymer materials as application in organic semiconductor devices. Electron hopping transport mechanisms depend on polymer morphology in network. Conducting polymers morphology in a random network structure is modeled by a quasi-one-dimensional system coupled of chains or fibers. We observe the varying hopping conduction mechanisms in the polyaniline nanofibers of the random network structure. The average diameter d of the nanofibers is varied from approximately 10 to 100 nm. The different dominant hopping mechanisms including Efros-Shklovskii variable-range hopping (VRH), Mott VRH, and nearest-neighbor hopping are dependent on temperature range and d in crossover changes. The result of this study is first presented in a phase diagram of hopping conduction mechanisms based on the theories of the random network model. The hopping conduction mechanism is unlike in normal semiconductor materials.

  2. Mechanism of actuation in conducting polymers: Osmotic expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Jacobsen, Torben; West, Keld;

    2001-01-01

    Conducting polymers expand or contract when their redox state is changed. This expansion/contraction effect can be separated in an intrinsic part because of changes of the polymer backbone on reduction/oxidation and a part depending on the surrounding electrolyte phase, because of osmotic expansi...... and designing actuator experiments and when comparing experimental results from different sources.......Conducting polymers expand or contract when their redox state is changed. This expansion/contraction effect can be separated in an intrinsic part because of changes of the polymer backbone on reduction/oxidation and a part depending on the surrounding electrolyte phase, because of osmotic expansion...... is compared with measurements on PPy(DBS) films. The experiments show that the expansion decreases as the electrolyte concentration is increased. This means that a considerable part of the total expansion is due to the osmotic effect. The osmotic effect should be taken into account when interpreting...

  3. Nanostructured intrinsically conducting polymers formed by electrochemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović, Milica; Jugović, Branimir; id_orcid 0000-0002-5331-6354; Grgur, Branimir; id_orcid 0000-0003-4684-9053

    2016-01-01

    Due to unique properties of intrinsically conducting polymers (ICP) such as: electrical conductivity, reversible electrochemistry, optical activity, biocompatibility, environmental and corrosion stability, they still represent a base for both theoretical and practical studies. The mentioned properties open up possibilities for practical application in the field of electrochemical systems for energy storage and conversion, sensors, biosensors, antistatic coatings, magnetic shielding, active co...

  4. Electronic structure calculations on helical conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Juan D; Serna, Andrei; Guerra, Doris; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2010-10-21

    We present a study of the electronic structure and derived properties of polyfurane (PFu), polypyrrol (PPy), and polythiophene (PTh). Two spatial arrangements are considered: trans chain (tc-PFu, tc-PPy, tc-PTh) and cis α-helical (α-PFu, α-PPy, α-PTh). Even at the small sizes considered here, helical conformations appear to be stable. Band gaps of pure, undoped oligomers fall into the semiconductor range. Density of states (DOS) analysis suggest dense valence and conduction bands. Bond length alternation analysis predicts almost complete delocalization of the π clouds in all spatial arrangements. Doping with electron donors or electron-withdrawing impurities reduces all band gaps close to the metallic regime in addition to increasing the DOS for the valence and conduction bands.

  5. Lithium ion conducting solid polymer blend electrolyte based on bio-degradable polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natarajan Rajeswari; Subramanian Selvasekarapandian; Moni Prabu; Shunmugavel Karthikeyan; C Sanjeeviraja

    2013-04-01

    Lithium ion conducting polymer blend electrolyte films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) with different Mwt% of lithium nitrate (LiNO3) salt, using a solution cast technique, have been prepared. The polymer blend electrolyte has been characterized by XRD, FTIR, DSC and impedance analyses. The XRD study reveals the amorphous nature of the polymer electrolyte. The FTIR study confirms the complex formation between the polymer and salt. The shifts in g values of 70 PVA–30 PVP blend and 70 PVA–30 PVP with different Mwt% of LiNO3 electrolytes shown by DSC thermograms indicate an interaction between the polymer and the salt. The dependence of g and conductivity upon salt concentration has been discussed. The ion conductivity of the prepared polymer electrolyte has been found by a.c. impedance spectroscopic analysis. The PVA–PVP blend system with a composition of 70 wt% PVA: 30 wt% PVP exhibits the highest conductivity of 1.58 × 10-6 Scm-1 at room temperature. Polymer samples of 70 wt% PVA–30 wt% PVP blend with different molecular weight percentage of lithium nitrate with DMSO as solvent have been prepared and studied. High conductivity of 6.828 × 10-4 Scm-1 has been observed for the composition of 70 PVA:30 PVP:25 Mwt% of LiNO3 with low activation energy 0.2673 eV. The conductivity is found to increase with increase in temperature. The temperature dependent conductivity of the polymer electrolyte follows the Arrhenius relationship which shows hopping of ions in the polymer matrix. The relaxation parameters () and () of the complexes have been calculated by using loss tangent spectra. The mechanical properties of polymer blend electrolyte such as tensile strength, elongation and degree of swelling have been measured and the results are presented.

  6. Pave Thermal Highway with Self-Organized Nanocrystals in Transparent Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liwen; Ji, Tuo; Chen, Long; Mehra, Nitin; Shi, Yijun; Zhu, Jiahua

    2016-10-03

    Phonon transfer is greatly scattered in traditional polymer composites due to the unpaired phonon frequency at polymer/filler interface. A key innovation of this work is to build continuous crystal network by self-organization and utilize it as "thermal highway" that circumvents the long-existing interfacial thermal barrier issue in traditional composites. By tuning the molecular diffusion rate of dicarboxylic acids (oxalic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid), different crystal structures including skeletal, dendrite, diffusion limited aggregates and spherulite were synthesized in PVA film. These continuous crystal structures benefit the efficient phonon transfer in the composites with minimized interfacial scattering and lead to a significant thermal conductivity enhancement by up to 180% compared to pure polymer. Moreover, the transparent feature of these composite films provides additional benefits in display applications. Post heat treatment effect on the thermal conductivity of the composite films shows a time dependent behavior. These uniquely structured polymer/crystal composites are expected to generate significant impacts in thermal management applications.

  7. A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G; Jin, S; Xue, G; Li, C

    1995-02-17

    Polythiophene (Pth) was electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel substrate from freshly distilled boron fluoride-ethyl ether containing 10 millimoles of thiophene per liter. The free-standing Pth film obtained at an applied potential of 1.3 volts (versus Ag/AgCl) had a conductivity of 48.7 siemens per centimeter. Its tensile strength (1200 to 1300 kilograms per square centimeter) was greater than that of aluminium (1000 to 1100 kilograms per square centimeter). This Pth film behaves like a metal sheet and can be easily cut into various structures with a knife or a pair of scissors.

  8. Spontaneous Emission Enhancement from polymer-embedded colloidal PbS Nanocrystals into Si-based photonics at telecom wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Humer, Markus; Jantsch, Wolfgang; Fromherz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the coupling of optically excited PbS nanocrystal (NC) photoluminescence (PL) into Si-based ring resonators and waveguides at 300K. The PbS NCs are dissolved into Novolak polymer at various concentrations and applied by drop-casting. The coupling mechanism and the spontaneous emission enhancement are experimentally investigated and compared to theoretical predictions. Quality (Q) factors of 2500 were obtained in emission and transmission for wavelengths centered around 1.45{\\mu}m. PL intensity shows a linear dependence on the excitation power and no degradation of the Q factors. Devices with stable optical properties are obtained by this versatile technique.

  9. Electric conductivity of polymer films filled with magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, B. M.; Bibikov, S. B.; Bychkova, A. V.; Leontiev, V. G.; Berendyaev, V. I.; Sorokina, O. N.; Kovarskii, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The conductivity of polymer composites with magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) containing magnetite and other MNP (Ni, Cu-Ni) in the layers and planar cells with Al electrodes is studied. For soluble polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl alcohol) containing 1-10 wt % of magnetite MNP, a substantial effect of MNP on surface conductivity is detected over a wide range (from 10-10 to 10-3 Ω-1). It is shown that the addition of magnetite MNP not only results in a considerable change in cell conductivity, but also leads to its partially irreversible variation (by an order of magnitude or more) via minor modifications of the experimental conditions (temperature, electric field). For high-resistance samples with low probabilities of conducting chain formation, temperature current peaks are observed upon moderate heating (up to 350 K). These peaks are similar to the maxima observed upon polymer electret thermodischarges when the charges are captured by the deep centers associated with separate MNP or MNP aggregates. The type and position of the maxima are determined by the characteristics of the polymer matrix. For polyvinylpyrrolidone composites, the maxima are observed some time after heating (the echo effect). With composites based on solventborne polymers (polyalkanesterimides, soluble polyimide) and Ni, Cu-Ni MNP, no change in film conductivity measured electrophotographically is observed, due to the formation of a dielectric coating formed by polymer macromolecules adsorbed on the MNP surface. An explanation based on the possible formation of magnetic aggregates of magnetite MNP and conducting chains is proposed. Magnetic aggregation IPM is proposed as one way of controlling cell conductivity.

  10. Studies on conducting polymer and conducting polymerinorganic composite electrodes prepared via a new cathodic polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhilendra

    A novel approach for the electrodeposition of conducting polymers and conducting polymer-inorganic composite materials is presented. The approach shows that conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be electrodeposited by the application of a cathodic bias that generates an oxidizing agent, NO+, via the in-situ reduction of nitrate anions. This new cathodic polymerization method allows for the deposition of PPy and PEDOT as three dimensional, porous films composed of spherical polymer particles. The method is also suitable for the co-deposition of inorganic species producing conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. Such composites are used as high surface area electrodes in Li-ion batteries, electrochemical hydrogen evolution and in the development of various other conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. New Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes where Sn and Sb nanoparticles are well dispersed among the PPy framework are reported. These structures allow for decreased stress during expansion and contraction of the active material (Sn, Sb) during the alloying and de-alloying processes of a Li-ion battery anode, significantly alleviating the loss of active material due to pulverization processes. The new electrochemical synthesis mechanism allows for the fabrication of Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes directly from a conducting substrate and eliminates the use of binding materials and conducting carbon used in modern battery anodes, which significantly simplifies their fabrication procedures. Platinum (Pt) has long been identified as the most efficient catalyst for electrochemical water splitting, while nickel (Ni) is a cheaper, though less efficient alternative to Pt. A new morphology of PPy attained via the aforementioned cathodic deposition method allows for the use of minimal quantities of Pt and Ni dispersed over a very high surface area PPy substrate. These composite electrodes

  11. Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level. These demonstrations promote student interest in the electrochemical preparation of conducting polymers, where…

  12. Corrosion Protection of Steels by Conducting Polymer Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohtsuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection of steels by conducting polymer coating is reviewed. The conducting polymer such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophen works as a strong oxidant to the steel, inducing the potential shift to the noble direction. The strongly oxidative conducting polymer facilitates the steel to be passivated. A bilayered PPy film was designed for the effective corrosion protection. It consisted of the inner layer in which phosphomolybdate ion, PMo12O3−40 (PMo, was doped and the outer layer in which dodecylsulfate ion (DoS was doped. The inner layer stabilized the passive oxide and the outer possessed anionic perm-selectivity to inhibit the aggressive anions such as chloride from penetrating through the PPy film to the substrate steel. By the bilayered PPy film, the steel was kept passive for about 200 h in 3.5% sodium chloride solution without formation of corrosion products.

  13. Highly conductive self-assembled nanoribbons of coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Lorena; Calzolari, Arrigo; Di Felice, Rosa; Zamora, Felix; Gómez-Herrero, Julio

    2010-02-01

    Organic molecules can self-assemble into well-ordered structures, but the conductance of these structures is limited, which is a disadvantage for applications in molecular electronics. Conductivity can be improved by using coordination polymers-in which metal centres are incorporated into a molecular backbone-and such structures have been used as molecular wires by self-assembling them into ordered films on metal surfaces. Here, we report electrically conductive nanoribbons of the coordination polymer [Pt(2)I(S(2)CCH(3))(4)](n) self-assembled on an insulating substrate by direct sublimation of polymer crystals. Conductance atomic force microscopy is used to probe the electrical characteristics of a few polymer chains ( approximately 10) within the nanoribbons. The observed currents exceed those previously sustained in organic and metal-organic molecules assembled on surfaces by several orders of magnitude and over much longer distances. These results, and the results of theoretical calculations based on density functional theory, confirm coordination polymers as candidate materials for applications in molecular electronics.

  14. Characterization and Analysis of Conductance: From Polymers to Single Electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Tallarida, Nicholas Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies on the conductive properties of molecular systems led to the discovery and characterization of two essential elements of molecular electronics: a molecularwire and a single electron switch. The synthesis and cyclic current versus voltage (I/V) measurements of intrinsically conductive linear chain [-Ag-S-BP-S-]n polymers determined their relatively large conductivity and suggested that mobile Ag adatoms on the roughened Ag surface catalyzed the polymerization. On the other...

  15. Tunable Nanopatterning of Conductive Polymers via Electrohydrodynamic Lithography

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard, Jonathan James Stanley; Farrer, Ian; Goldberg Oppenheimer, Pola

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of technologies require the fabrication of conductive structures on a broad range of scales and over large areas. Here, we introduce advanced yet simple electrohydrodynamic lithography (EHL) for patterning conductive polymers directly on a substrate with high fidelity. We illustrate the generality of this robust, low-cost method by structuring thin polypyrrole films via electric-field-induced instabilities, yielding well-defined conductive structures with feature sizes ra...

  16. Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edberg, Jesper; Iandolo, Donata; Brooke, Robert;

    2016-01-01

    A novel patterning technique of conductive polymers produced by vapor phase polymerization is demonstrated. The method involves exposing an oxidant film to UV light which changes the local chemical environment of the oxidant and subsequently the polymerization kinetics. This procedure is used...... to control the conductivity in the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate by more than six orders of magnitude in addition to producing high-resolution patterns and optical gradients. The mechanism behind the modulation in the polymerization kinetics by UV light irradiation as well...... as the properties of the resulting polymer are investigated....

  17. Ionic conductivity enhancement of polymer electrolytes with ceramic nanowire fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Nian; Sun, Jie; Hsu, Po-Chun; Li, Yuzhang; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-08

    Solid-state electrolytes provide substantial improvements to safety and electrochemical stability in lithium-ion batteries when compared with conventional liquid electrolytes, which makes them a promising alternative technology for next-generation high-energy batteries. Currently, the low mobility of lithium ions in solid electrolytes limits their practical application. The ongoing research over the past few decades on dispersing of ceramic nanoparticles into polymer matrix has been proved effective to enhance ionic conductivity although it is challenging to form the efficiency networks of ionic conduction with nanoparticles. In this work, we first report that ceramic nanowire fillers can facilitate formation of such ionic conduction networks in polymer-based solid electrolyte to enhance its ionic conductivity by three orders of magnitude. Polyacrylonitrile-LiClO4 incorporated with 15 wt % Li0.33La0.557TiO3 nanowire composite electrolyte exhibits an unprecedented ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at room temperature, which is attributed to the fast ion transport on the surfaces of ceramic nanowires acting as conductive network in the polymer matrix. In addition, the ceramic-nanowire filled composite polymer electrolyte shows an enlarged electrochemical stability window in comparison to the one without fillers. The discovery in the present work paves the way for the design of solid ion electrolytes with superior performance.

  18. Orienting semi-conducting π-conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Martin; Hartmann, Lucia; Biniek, Laure; Tremel, Kim; Kayunkid, Navaphun

    2014-01-01

    The present review focuses on the recent progress made in thin film orientation of semi-conducting polymers with particular emphasis on methods using epitaxy and shear forces. The main results reported in this review deal with regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s and poly(dialkylfluorenes). Correlations existing between processing conditions, macromolecular parameters and the resulting structures formed in thin films are underlined. It is shown that epitaxial orientation of semi-conducting polymers can generate a large palette of semi-crystalline and nanostructured morphologies by a subtle choice of the orienting substrates and growth conditions.

  19. Corrosion-protective coatings from electrically conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen Gebert; Bryan, Coleman J.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Wrobleski, Debra A.

    1991-01-01

    In a joint effort between NASA Kennedy and LANL, electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed as corrosion protective coatings for metal surfaces. At NASA Kennedy, the launch environment consist of marine, severe solar, and intermittent high acid and/or elevated temperature conditions. Electrically conductive polymer coatings were developed which impart corrosion resistance to mild steel when exposed to saline and acidic environments. Such coatings also seem to promote corrosion resistance in areas of mild steel where scratches exist in the protective coating. Such coatings appear promising for many commercial applications.

  20. Thin film conductive polymer for microactuator and micromuscle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.P.; Hong, K.; Trevino, J.; Northrup, M.A.

    1994-04-14

    Conductive polymer/polyimide bimorphic microcantilevers have been actuated vertically (out-of-plane) upon the volumetric changes induced by electrochemical doping of the polymer. The microcantilevers that are 200-500 {mu}m in length and 50-100 {mu}m in width can be fully extended from a circularly-curled geometry, and thus generate more than 100 {mu}m displacement. Dynamically the microcantilevers have been driven as fast as 1.2 Hz and the polymer was stable for over a week stored in air and light. Residual stresses in the polymer film is estimated to be as high as 254 MPa, and actuation stresses are as high as 50 MPa.

  1. Electronic conduction in polymers, carbon nanotubes and graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Alan B; Skákalová, Viera

    2011-07-01

    In the years since the discovery of organic polymers that exhibited electrical conductivities comparable to some metals, other novel carbon-based conductors have been developed, including carbon nanotubes and graphene (monolayers of carbon atoms). In this critical review, we discuss the common features and the differences in the conduction mechanisms observed in these carbon-based materials, which range from near ballistic and conventional metallic conduction to fluctuation-assisted tunnelling, variable-range hopping and more exotic mechanisms. For each category of material, we discuss the dependence of conduction on the morphology of the sample. The presence of heterogeneous disorder is often particularly important in determining the overall behaviour, and can lead to surprisingly similar conduction behaviour in polymers, carbon nanotube networks and chemically-derived graphene (122 references).

  2. Tunable Nanopatterning of Conductive Polymers via Electrohydrodynamic Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Jonathan James Stanley; Farrer, Ian; Oppenheimer, Pola Goldberg

    2016-03-22

    An increasing number of technologies require the fabrication of conductive structures on a broad range of scales and over large areas. Here, we introduce advanced yet simple electrohydrodynamic lithography (EHL) for patterning conductive polymers directly on a substrate with high fidelity. We illustrate the generality of this robust, low-cost method by structuring thin polypyrrole films via electric-field-induced instabilities, yielding well-defined conductive structures with feature sizes ranging from tens of micrometers to hundreds of nanometers. Exploitation of a conductive polymer induces free charge suppression of the field in the polymer film, paving the way for accessing scale sizes in the low submicron range. We show the feasibility of the polypyrrole-based structures for field-effect transistor devices. Controlled EHL pattering of conductive polymer structures at the micro and nano scale demonstrated in this study combined with the possibility of effectively tuning the dimensions of the tailor-made architectures might herald a route toward various submicron device applications in supercapacitors, photovoltaics, sensors, and electronic displays.

  3. Effects of preparation temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuar Kassim; Zarina Bte Basar; H N M Ekramul Mahmud

    2002-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effect of temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole conducting polymer films prepared by an electrochemical method in an aqueous medium using camphor sulfonate as the dopant. The polymer was grown from aqueous solutions employing a range of temperatures (1-60°C). It was found that with increase in temperature the conductivity decreased and the optimum temperature was found to be between 10 and 30°C. The results show that the polymer formed at low temperature has higher conductivity and is stronger than that formed at higher temperatures. Characterization by X-ray scattering shows that interlayer distance, Bragg (Å), increases with increasing temperature. The morphology of the films formed was studied by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The changes in conductivity and physical appearance were interpreted as being due to compactness in the molecular packing and formation of linkages in the film.

  4. Carbon nanotube and conducting polymer composites for supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang Peng; Shengwen Zhang; Daniel Jewell; George Z. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Composites of carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers can be prepared via chemical synthesis, electrochemical deposition on pre-formed carbon nanotube electrodes, or by electrochemical co-deposition. The composites combine the large pseudocapacitance of the conducting polymers with the fast charging/discharging double-layer capacitance and excellent mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubes. The electrochemically co-deposited composites are the most homogeneous and show an unusual interaction between thepolymer and nanotubes, giving rise to a strengthened electron delocalisation and conjugation along the polymer chains. As a result they exhibit excellent electrochemical charge storage properties and fast charge/discharge switching, making them promising electrode mate-rials for high power supercapacitors.

  5. Electrochemical Formation of Polypyrrole-carboxymethylcellulose Conducting Polymer Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.N.M. Ekramul Mahmud; Anuar Kassim; Zulkarnain Zainal; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical preparation of polypyrrole-carboxymethylcellulose (PPY-CMC) conducting polymer composite films on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode from an aqueous solution containing pyrrole monomer, ptoluenesulfonate electrolyte and carboxymethylcellulose insulating polymer is reported. The characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) shows that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been successfully incorporated into polypyrrole structure forming PPY-CMC polymer composite films. The conductivity of the prepared composite films was found to increase with increaseing CMC concentration in pyrrole solution. The optical microscopic results show the influence of CMC concentration in the pyrrole solution over the morphological changes of the prepared films. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) on the prepared PPY-CMC film reveals the higher plastic property of the PPY-CMC composite film.

  6. Ionic conductivity through thermoresponsive polymer gel: ordering matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Saurabh S; Fadadu, Kishan B; Gibaud, Alain

    2012-01-10

    Thermoreversible polymer gel has been prepared using PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer (Pluronic F77) which self-assembles into different microcrystalline phases like cubic, 2D-hexagonal, and lamellar. Addition of electrolyte (LiI/I(2)) converts the gel into a polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) which exhibits microphase-dependent ionic conductivity. The crystalline phases have been identified by SAXS as a function of the polymer concentration. It is found that the optimum value for the ionic conductivity (≈1 × 10(-3) S x cm(-1)) is achieved in the Im3m phase due to faster diffusion of ions through the 3D-interconnected micellar nanochannels. This fact is further supported by FTIR study, ionic transference number, and diffusion coefficient measurements.

  7. Transport studies of conducting, semiconducting and photoconducting star polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, John Baker

    Star polymers are studied for their transport properties in the highly conducting state doped with NOPF6 and iodine, the undoped semiconducting state and the photoconducting state. Doped star polymers exhibit variable range hopping of charge carriers. Transport dimensionality and conductivity depend intricately on the processing conditions for doping and casting films. The highest conducting diffusion doped film (room temperature conductivity 50 S/cm) exhibits 2-dimensional variable range for all doping levels. Polymers doped in solution, then cast to form films have 1.4 dimensional variable range hopping for the highest conducting samples with 10 S/cm at room temperature. The hopping dimensionality varies as the conductivity decreases. The doped star polymers remain on the insulator side of the insulator metal transition with localized carriers as revealed with Kramer-Kronig analysis. Optical and near infrared absorbance and photoluminescence reveal the core of the star polymers exist in a solid state solution of the arms with similar absorbance and luminescence for both solution and films. The arms retain the optical properties of their linear analogs indicating the core and arms do not interact quantum mechanically to produce a new state. Excitons created by absorption in the wider band gap cores rapidly migrate to the arms. Photoconductive time of flight mobility measurements reveal an almost field independent mobility at room temperature. This is due to a unique cancellation of on diagonal and off diagonal disorder in the Bassler disorder formalism. The cores introduce heterogeneous regions with a net lower mobility predicted by correlated disorder models. Space charge limited current reveals trap densities several orders of magnitude higher than the carrier density. Photovoltaic performance of star polymer and fullerene blend devices with both 20 nm and 100 nm thick layers are investigated. The thin devices have low open circuit voltages due to space charge

  8. Wearable Keyboard Using Conducting Polymer Electrodes on Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Lonjaret, Thomas; Ismailova, Esma; Masuda, Atsuji; Itoh, Toshihiro; Malliaras, George G

    2016-06-01

    A wearable keyboard is demonstrated in which conducting polymer electrodes on a knitted textile sense tactile input as changes in capacitance. The use of a knitted textile as a substrate endows stretchability and compatibility to large-area formats, paving the way for a new type of wearable human-machine interface.

  9. Assessment of applications of conducting polymers in power equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, K.F.; Bennett, A.I.; Burghardt, R.R.; Cookson, A.H.; Saunders, H.E.; Smith, J.D.B (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Kennedy, W.N. (ABB Power Transmission and Distribution Co., Muncie, IN (United States)); Oommen, T.V. (ABB Power Transmission and Distribution Co., Raleigh, NC (United States)); Voshall, R.E. (Gannon Coll., Erie, PA (United States)); Fort, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States))

    1992-10-01

    A feasibility study has been completed to assess potential applications of conducting polymers in the manufacture of power equipment. Ten areas were studied: solid and liquid dielectric cables, capacitors, rotating machinery, transformers, bushings, surge suppressors, vacuum interrupters, gas-insulated equipment, and other miscellaneous applications. Each application was rated according to technical impact, probability of success, economic impact and time frame for implementation. of the 32 potential applications proposed, the top ranking areas were: coating of dielectric films for capacitors, conducting compounds to cover conductors in rotating machines, surface coatings to dissipate charges in bushing, coatings for controlled surface conductivity in gas insulated equipment and thermal history monitors. Finally, the issues that have to be resolved before conducting polymers can find use in the identified applications are discussed in this paper.

  10. A New Ultra Fast Conduction Mechanism in Insulating Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brand new phenomenon, namely, electrical conduction via soliton-like ultra fast space charge pulses, recently identified in unfilled cross-linked polyethylene, is shown for the first time to occur in insulating polymer nanocomposites and its characteristics correlated with the electromechanical properties of nanostructured materials. These charge pulses are observed to cross the insulation under low electrical field in epoxy-based nanocomposites containing nanosilica particles with relative weights of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% at speeds orders of magnitude higher than those expected for carriers in insulating polymers. The characteristics of mobility, magnitude and repetition rate for both positive and negative charge pulses are studied in relation to nanofiller concentration. The results show that the ultra fast charge pulses (packets are affected significantly by the concentration of nanoparticles. An explanation is presented in terms of a new conduction mechanism where the mechanical properties of the polymer and movement of polymer chains play an important role in the injection and transport of charge in the form of pulses. Here, the charge transport is not controlled by traps. Instead, it is driven by the contribution of polarization and the resultant electromechanical compression, which is substantially affected by the introduction of nanoparticles into the base polymer.

  11. Functionalised hybrid materials of conducting polymers with individual wool fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fern M; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas; Richardson, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Composites of natural protein materials, such as merino wool, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) have been successfully synthesised. In doing so, hybrid materials have been produced in which the mechanical strength and flexibility of the fibers is retained whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and electrical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows PPy coatings to comprise individual polymer spheres, approximately 100 to 150 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of PAn was observed to be approximately 50 to 100 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the fibers in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to silver metal nanoparticles onto the redox active polymer surface has also been successful and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterisation of such products has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  12. Ultrarobust Transparent Cellulose Nanocrystal-Graphene Membranes with High Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Hu, Kesong; Grant, Anise M; Ma, Ruilong; Xu, Weinan; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-02-17

    Ultra-robust nanomembranes possessing high mechanical strength combined with excellent stiffness and toughness rarely achieved in nanocomposite materials are presented. These are fabricated by alternately depositing 1D cellulose nanocrystals and 2D graphene oxide nanosheets by using a spin assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique. Such a unique combination of 1D and 2D reinforcing nanostructures results in layered nanomaterials.

  13. MEASUREMENT METHOD AND PHYSICAL MODEL OF VSC CONDUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Meixiang

    1989-01-01

    Method of VSC (Voltage Shorted Compaction ) can be used to determine the intrinsic temperature dependence of conductivity of polycrystalline compaction .The experimental conditions and technical key for preparation of VSC device and its physical model as well as its applications in conducting polymers are discussed in detail.

  14. New secondary batteries utilizing electronically conductive polymer cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to characterize the transport properties in electronically conductive polymers and to assess the utility of these films as cathodes in lithium/polymer secondary batteries. During this research period, progress has been made in a literature survey of the historical background, methods of preparation, the physical and chemical properties, and potential technological applications of polythiophene. Progress has also been made in the characterization of polypyrrole flat films and fibrillar films. Cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronocoulometry were used to gain information on peak currents and potentials switching reaction rates, charge capacity, and charge retention. Battery charge/discharge studies were also performed.

  15. Mechanisms of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikerling, M.; Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    We provide a phenomenological description of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes, based on contemporary views of proton transfer processes in condensed media and a model for heterogeneous polymer electrolyte membrane structure. The description combines the proton transfer events...... in a single pore with the total pore-network performance and, thereby, relates structural and kinetic characteristics of the membrane. The theory addresses specific experimentally studied issues such as the effect of the density of proton localization sites (equivalent weight) of the membrane material...

  16. Conductive polymer-based sensors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Shruti; Yeow, John T W

    2011-01-15

    A class of organic polymers, known as conducting polymers (CPs), has become increasingly popular due to its unique electrical and optical properties. Material characteristics of CPs are similar to those of some metals and inorganic semiconductors, while retaining polymer properties such as flexibility, and ease of processing and synthesis, generally associated with conventional polymers. Owing to these characteristics, research efforts in CPs have gained significant traction to produce several types of CPs since its discovery four decades ago. CPs are often categorised into different types based on the type of electric charges (e.g., delocalized pi electrons, ions, or conductive nanomaterials) responsible for conduction. Several CPs are known to interact with biological samples while maintaining good biocompatibility and hence, they qualify as interesting candidates for use in a numerous biological and medical applications. In this paper, we focus on CP-based sensor elements and the state-of-art of CP-based sensing devices that have potential applications as tools in clinical diagnosis and surgical interventions. Representative applications of CP-based sensors (electrochemical biosensor, tactile sensing 'skins', and thermal sensors) are briefly discussed. Finally, some of the key issues related to CP-based sensors are highlighted.

  17. COMMUNICATION: Electrochemical polymerization of conducting polymers in living neural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson-Burns, Sarah M.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Martin, David C.

    2007-06-01

    A number of biomedical devices require extended electrical communication with surrounding tissue. Significant improvements in device performance would be achieved if it were possible to maintain communication with target cells despite the reactive, insulating scar tissue that forms at the device-tissue interface. Here, we report that the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be polymerized directly within living neural tissue resulting in an electrically conductive network that is integrated within the tissue. Nano and microscale PEDOT filaments extend out from electrode sites, presumably forming within extracellular spaces. The cloud of PEDOT filaments penetrates out into the tissue far enough that it should be possible to bypass fibrous scar tissue and contact surrounding healthy neurons. These electrically functional, diffuse conducting polymer networks grown directly within tissue signify a new paradigm for creating soft, low impedance implantable electrodes.

  18. Hybrid proton-conducting membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)]. E-mail: pedro.gomez@icmab.es; Asensio, Juan Antonio [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain); Borros, Salvador [Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-30

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel hybrid organic-inorganic material formed by phosphomolybdic acid H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PMo{sub 12}) and poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ABPBI) is reported. This material, composed of two proton-conducting components, can be cast in the form of membranes from methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solutions. Upon impregnation with phosphoric acid, the hybrid membranes present higher conductivity than the best ABPBI polymer membranes impregnated in the same conditions. These electrolyte membranes are stable up to 200 deg. C, and have a proton conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 185 deg. C without humidification. These properties make them very good candidates as membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at temperatures of 100-200 deg. C.

  19. Photovoltaic Cells with TiO2 Nanocrystals and Conjugated Polymer Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huang-Zhong; LIU Jin-Cheng; PENG Jun-Biao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Various compositional photovoltaic cells based on the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as donors and TiO2 nanoerystals as acceptors are fabricated and investigated. It is demonstrated that the blend ratio of P3HT and TiO2 nanocrystals could greatly influence the performance of the photovoltaic cells. The maximum of 0.411% in power conversion efficiency under AM 1.5, 100mW//cm2, and 44.4% of fill factor are obtained in the solar cell with the blend weight ratio 1:1 of P3HT and TiO2 nanocrystals. The function of nanocrystal composition is discussed in terms of the results of photoluminescence spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and charge transport Ⅰ-Ⅴ curve.

  20. Electrically conductive, optically transparent polymer/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the effective dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into polymer matrices. The nanocomposites are prepared using polymer matrices and exhibit a unique combination of properties, most notably, high retention of optical transparency in the visible range (i.e., 400-800 nm), electrical conductivity, and high thermal stability. By appropriate selection of the matrix resin, additional properties such as vacuum ultraviolet radiation resistance, atomic oxygen resistance, high glass transition (T.sub.g) temperatures, and excellent toughness can be attained. The resulting nanocomposites can be used to fabricate or formulate a variety of articles such as coatings on a variety of substrates, films, foams, fibers, threads, adhesives and fiber coated prepreg. The properties of the nanocomposites can be adjusted by selection of the polymer matrix and CNT to fabricate articles that possess high optical transparency and antistatic behavior.

  1. Synthesis of polymer nanostructures with conductance switching properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Kai; Nuraje, Nurxat; Zhang, Lingzhi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yang, Nan Loh

    2015-03-03

    The present invention is directed to crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles comprising a conductive organic polymer; wherein the crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles have a size of from 10 nm to 200 nm and exhibits two current-voltage states: (1) a high resistance current-voltage state, and (2) a low resistance current-voltage state, wherein when a first positive threshold voltage (V.sub.th1) or higher positive voltage, or a second negative threshold voltage (V.sub.th2) or higher negative voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the low-resistance current-voltage state, and when a voltage less positive than the first positive threshold voltage or a voltage less negative than the second negative threshold voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the high-resistance current-voltage state. The present invention is also directed methods of manufacturing the nanoparticles using novel interfacial oxidative polymerization techniques.

  2. Thiophene in Conducting Polymers: Synthesis of Poly(thiophene)s and Other Conjugated Polymers Containing Thiophenes, for Application in Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Bundgaard, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers based on thiophene are described. The polymers include poly(thiophene) with and without side-chains and other conjugated polymers in general, based on thiophene. The synthesis and characteristics of the polymers are described along with the application of these as light-absorbing...... materials in polymer solar cells....

  3. Simultaneously Tailoring Surface Energies and Thermal Stabilities of Cellulose Nanocrystals Using Ion Exchange: Effects on Polymer Composite Properties for Transportation, Infrastructure, and Renewable Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Douglas M; Rodriguez, Rebeca S; Devilbiss, Mackenzie N; Woodcock, Jeremiah; Davis, Chelsea S; Sinko, Robert; Keten, Sinan; Gilman, Jeffrey W

    2016-10-12

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have great potential as sustainable reinforcing materials for polymers, but there are a number of obstacles to commercialization that must first be overcome. High levels of water absorption, low thermal stabilities, poor miscibility with nonpolar polymers, and irreversible aggregation of the dried CNCs are among the greatest challenges to producing cellulose nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposites. A simple, scalable technique to modify sulfated cellulose nanocrystals (Na-CNCs) has been developed to address all of these issues. By using an ion exchange process to replace Na(+) with imidazolium or phosphonium cations, the surface energy is altered, the thermal stability is increased, and the miscibility of dried CNCs with a nonpolar polymer (epoxy and polystyrene) is enhanced. Characterization of the resulting ion exchanged CNCs (IE-CNCs) using potentiometry, inverse gas chromatography, dynamic vapor sorption, and laser scanning confocal microscopy reveals that the IE-CNCs have lower surface energies, adsorb less water, and have thermal stabilities of up to 100 °C higher than those of prepared protonated cellulose nanocrystals (H-CNCs) and 40 °C higher than that of neutralized Na-CNC. Methyl(triphenyl)phosphonium exchanged cellulose nanocrystals (MePh3P-CNC) adsorbed 30% less water than Na-CNC, retained less water during desorption, and were used to prepare well-dispersed epoxy composites without the aid of a solvent and well-dispersed polystyrene nanocomposites using a melt blending technique at 195 °C. Predictions of dispersion quality and glass transition temperatures from molecular modeling experiments match experimental observations. These fiber-reinforced polymers can be used as lightweight composites in transportation, infrastructure, and renewable energy applications.

  4. Development of the conductive polymer matrix composite with low concentration of the conductive filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Xiangyang [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: haoxy@tsinghua.edu.cn; Gai Guosheng; Yang Yufen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Yihe [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Nan Cewen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-05-15

    Composite particles with ultra-high molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE) core and carbon black (CB) or carbon nanotube (CNT) shell were produced by particle composite system, then molded into conductive polymer composites. Morphology of these composite particles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Matrix particles are coated with CB or CNTs very well. And CNTs are not being cut short. The results of electrical behavior study show that these polymer composites have low percolation threshold. Conductive networks of CB and CNT were seen by optical microscopy. Related mechanism is discussed.

  5. Interdiffusion and Spinodal Decomposition in Electrically Conducting Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Takala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of phase morphology in electrically conducting polymer composites has become essential for the efficiency of the various functional applications, in which the continuity of the electroactive paths in multicomponent systems is essential. For instance in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, where the light-induced electron transfer through photon absorption creating excitons (electron-hole pairs, the control of diffusion of the spatially localized excitons and their dissociation at the interface and the effective collection of holes and electrons, all depend on the surface area, domain sizes, and connectivity in these organic semiconductor blends. We have used a model semiconductor polymer blend with defined miscibility to investigate the phase separation kinetics and the formation of connected pathways. Temperature jump experiments were applied from a miscible region of semiconducting poly(alkylthiophene (PAT blends with ethylenevinylacetate-elastomers (EVA and the kinetics at the early stages of phase separation were evaluated in order to establish bicontinuous phase morphology via spinodal decomposition. The diffusion in the blend was followed by two methods: first during a miscible phase separating into two phases: from the measurement of the spinodal decomposition. Secondly the diffusion was measured by monitoring the interdiffusion of PAT film into the EVA film at elected temperatures and eventually compared the temperature dependent diffusion characteristics. With this first quantitative evaluation of the spinodal decomposition as well as the interdiffusion in conducting polymer blends, we show that a systematic control of the phase separation kinetics in a polymer blend with one of the components being electrically conducting polymer can be used to optimize the morphology.

  6. Stably Doped Conducting Polymer Nanoshells by Surface Initiated Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Yoon, Soon Joon; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Tai, Wanyi; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

    2015-12-01

    Despite broad applications ranging from electronics to biomedical sensing and imaging, a long-standing problem of conducting polymers is the poor resistance to dedoping, which directly affects their signature electrical and optical properties. This problem is particularly significant for biomedical uses because of fast leaching of dopant ions in physiological environments. Here, we describe a new approach to engineer multimodal core-shell nanoparticles with a stably doped conductive polymer shell in biological environments. It was achieved by making a densely packed polymer brush rather than changing its molecular structure. Polyaniline (PANI) was used as a model compound due to its concentrated near-infrared (NIR) absorption. It was grafted onto a magnetic nanoparticle via a polydopamine intermediate layer. Remarkably, at pH 7 its conductivity is ca. 2000× higher than conventional PANI nanoshells. Similarly, its NIR absorption is enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude, ideal for photothermal imaging and therapy. Another surprising finding is its nonfouling property, even outperforming polyethylene glycol. This platform technology is also expected to open exciting opportunities in engineering stable conductive materials for electronics, imaging, and sensing.

  7. Conducting polymer/carbon nanocoil composite electrodes for efficient supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report for the first time, conducting polymer (polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY)) coated carbon nanocoils (CNCs) as efficient binder-free electrode materials for supercapacitors. CNCs act as a perfect backbone for the uniform distribution of the conducting polymers in the composites. In two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with the values reaching up to 360 and 202 F g -1 for PANI/CNCs and PPY/CNCs respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be comparable to one of the best reported values for polymer coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the fabricated PANI/CNC based supercapacitors exhibited a high value of 44.61 Wh kg -1 for maximum storage energy per unit mass. Although the devices exhibit an initial capacitance loss due to the instability of the polymer, the specific capacitance stabilizes at a fixed value after 500 charge-discharge cycles. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Electrical conductivity, ionic conductivity, optical absorption, and gas separation properties of ionically conductive polymer membranes embedded with Si microwire arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Walter, Michael G.; Zhou, Junfeng; Kohl, Paul A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The optical absorption, ionic conductivity, electronic conductivity, and gas separation properties have been evaluated for flexible composite films of ionically conductive polymers that contain partially embedded arrays of ordered, crystalline, p-type Si microwires. The cation exchange ionomer Nafion, and a recently developed anion exchange ionomer, poly(arylene ether sulfone) that contains quaternary ammonium groups (QAPSF), produced composite microwire array/ionomer membrane films that were...

  9. Sub-Micrometer Size Structure Fabrication Using a Conductive Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Sone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stereolithography that uses a femtosecond laser was employed as a method for multiphoton-sensitized polymerization. We studied the stereolithography method, which produces duplicate solid shapes corresponding to the trajectory of the laser focus point and can be used to build a three-dimensional (3D structure using a conductive polymer. To achieve this, we first considered a suitable polymerization condition for line stereolithography. However, this introduced a problem of irregular polymerization. To overcome this, we constructed a support in the polymerized part using a protein material. This method can stabilize polymerization, but it is not suited for building 3D shapes. Therefore, we considered whether heat accumulation causes the irregular polymerization; consequently, the reduction method of the repetition rate of the femtosecond laser was used to reduce the heating process. This method enabled stabilization and building of a 3D shape using photo-polymerization of a conductive polymer.

  10. Microscopic mechanism of reinforcement and conductivity in polymer nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae-Eun

    Modification of polymers by adding various nano-particles is an important method to obtain effective enhancement of materials properties. Within this class of materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are among the most studied materials for polymer reinforcement due to their extraordinary mechanical properties, superior thermal and electronic properties, and high aspect ratio. However, to unlock the potential of CNTs for applications, CNTs must be well dispersed in a polymer matrix and the microscopic mechanism of polymer reinforcement by CNTs must be understood. In this study, single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) composites with polypropylene (PP)-SWNT and polystyrene (PS)-SWNT were prepared and analyzed. Microscopic study of the mechanism of reinforcement and conductivity by SWNT included Raman spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and dielectric measurement. For PP-SWNT composites, tensile tests show a three times increase in the Young's modulus with addition of only 1 wt% SWNT, and much diminished increase of modulus with further increase in SWNT concentration. For PS-SWNT composites, well-dispersed SWNT/PS composite has been produced, using initial annealing of SWNT and optimum sonication conditions. The studies on the tangential mode in the Raman spectra and TEM indicated well-dispersed SWNTs in a PS matrix. We show that conductivity appears in composites already at very low concentrations, hinting at the formation of a 'percolative' network even below 0.5% of SWNT. The Raman studies for both composites show good transfer of the applied stress from the polymer matrices to SWNTs. However, no significant improvement of mechanical property is observed for PS-SWNT composites. The reason for only a slight increase of mechanical property remains unknown.

  11. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation

  12. Conductivity Studies of the Plasticized-Poly(methylmethacrylate) Polymer Electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Ahmad; Z.Osman

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In this work,five systems of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based polymer electrolytes films have been prepared by the solution casting technique.The five systems are the (PMMA-EC) system,the (PMMA + PC) system,the (PMMA+LiCF3SO3) system,the ([PMMA+EC]+LiCF3SO3) system and the ([PMMA+PC]+LiCF3SO3) system.The conductivity for each system is characterized using impedance spectroscopy.The conductivity of the pure PMMA,the (PMMA+EC) system and the (PMMA+PC) system at room temperature is 2.37×10-9,3...

  13. Biomimetic sensing layer based on electrospun conductive polymer webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, E; Pantalei, S; Scalese, S; Bearzotti, A; De Cesare, F; Spinella, C; Macagnano, A

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the present study is to combine a bio-inspired nanofibrous artificial epithelium to the electronic nose (e-nose) principles. The sensing device set up was an electronic nose consisting of an array of 9 micro-chemoresistors (Cr-Au, 3×3) coated with electrospun nanofibrous structures. These were comprised of doped polyemeraldine base blended with 3 different polymers: polyethylene oxide, polyvinilpyrrolidone and polystyrene, which acted as carriers for the conducting polymer and were the major responsible of the features of each fibrous overlay (electrical parameters, selectivity and sensitivity ranges). The two sensing strategies here adopted and compared consisted in the use of 2 different textural coatings: a single- and a double-overlay, where the double-overlay resulting from overdeposition of 2 different polymer blends. Such e-nose included a plurality of nanofibres whose electrical parameters were at the same time depending on each polymer exposure to analytes (NO(2), NH(3)) and on the spatial distribution of the interlacing fibres. The morphology of the coating arrangements of this novel e-nose was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and its sensor responses were processed by multicomponent data analyses (PCA and PLS) reporting encouraging results for detection and recognition of analytes at ppb levels.

  14. Toward an understanding of the formation of conducting polymer nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry D; Wang, Yue; D'Arcy, Julio M; Kaner, Richard B

    2008-09-23

    Introducing small amounts of additives into polymerization reactions to produce conducting polymers can have a profound impact on the resulting polymer morphology. When an oligomer such as aniline dimer is added to the polymerization of aniline, the nanofibers produced are longer and less entangled than those typically observed. The addition of aniline dimer can even induce nanofiber formation under synthetic conditions that generally do not favor a nanofibrillar morphology. This finding can be extended to both the synthesis of polythiophene and polypyrrole nanofibers. The traditional oxidative polymerization of thiophene or pyrrole only produces agglomerated particles. However, when minute amounts of thiophene or pyrrole oligomers are added to the reaction, the resulting polymers possess a nanofibrillar morphology. These results reveal important insights into a semirigid rod nucleation phenomenon that has hitherto been little explored. When polyaniline nucleates homogeneously, surface energy requirements necessitate the formation of ordered nuclei which leads to the directional polymerization of aniline. This ultimately leads to the one-dimensional nanofibrillar morphology observed in the final product. The synthetic procedures developed here are simple, scalable, and do not require any templates or other additives that are not inherent to the polymer.

  15. Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in converting electric energy to thermal energy for the decon applications. Other conductive materials, such as polythiophenes , polypyrroles, carbon...Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers...Joule)-heating with conducting polymers. The basic concept is that electrically conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, can be used as coatings or

  16. Conducting polymer coatings in electrochemical technology: part 2 – application areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce De Leon, Carlos; Campbell, Sheelagh; Smith, James; Walsh, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Conducting polymers can combine the electronic characteristics of metals with the engineering properties of polymers. Polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyaniline (PAni) are common examples of conducting polymers which can be electrodeposited from their respective heterocyclic monomers. The applications of these and other electrodeposited polymer materials are considered in this review. Application areas include electronic and optical materials, sensors, bioimplants, actuators and c...

  17. Better Proton-Conducting Polymers for Fuel-Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri; Reddy, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid has been proposed as a basis for development of improved proton-conducting polymeric materials for solid-electrolyte membranes in hydrogen/air fuel cells. Heretofore, the proton-conducting membrane materials of choice have been exemplified by a family of perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymers (Nafion7 or equivalent). These materials are suitable for operation in the temperature of 75 to 85 C, but in order to reduce the sizes and/or increase the energy-conversion efficiencies of fuel-cell systems, it would be desirable to increase temperatures to as high as 120 C for transportation applications, and to as high as 180 C for stationary applications. However, at 120 C and at relative humidity values below 50 percent, the loss of water from perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymer membranes results in fuel-cell power densities too low to be of practical value. Therefore, membrane electrolyte materials that have usefully high proton conductivity in the temperature range of 180 C at low relative humidity and that do not rely on water for proton conduction at 180 C would be desirable. The proposed polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid-based materials have been conjectured to have these desirable properties. These materials would be free of volatile or mobile acid constituents. The generic molecular structure of these materials is intended to exploit the fact, demonstrated in previous research, that materials that contain ionizable acid and base groups covalently attached to thermally stable polymer backbones exhibit proton conduction even in the anhydrous state.

  18. New transparent conductive metal based on polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Jamali, Mohammad [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Strunkus, Thomas; Zaporochentko, Vladimir; Faupel, Franz [Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute of Polymer Research, Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Currently great efforts are made to develop new kind of transparent conductors (TCs) to replace ITO. In this regard different materials and composites have been proposed and studied including conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal grids, and random networks of metallic nanowires. But so far none of them could be used as a replacing material, since either they are either fragile and brittle or their electrical conductivity is below the typical ITO. Thin metallic films due to their high electrical conductivity could be one of the best replacing materials for ITO, however their poor transparency makes their application as TCs limited. Here we design and fabricate a new polymeric composite coating which enhances the transparency of the thin metal film up to 100% relative to the initial value while having a high electrical conductivity of typical metals. Therefore our proposed device has a great potential to be used as new transparent conductor.

  19. Conductivity of oriented bis-azo polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apitz, D.; Bertram, R.P.; Benter, N.;

    2006-01-01

    The conductivity properties of electro-optic photoaddressable, dense bis-ozo chromophore polymer films are investigated by using samples corona poled at various temperatures. A dielectric spectrometer is applied to measure the frequency dependence of the conductivity at different temperatures...... before and after heating the material to above the glass transition temperature. The results show that the orientation of the chromophores changes the charge-carrier mobility. Ionic conductivity dominates in a more disordered configuration of the material, while the competing process of hole hopping...... takes over as a transition to a liquid-crystalline phase occurs when the material is heated to much higher than the gloss transition temperature. Such micro-crystallization strongly enhances the conductivity....

  20. Conducting polymer nanofibers for high sensitivity detection of chemical analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Nagarajan, Subhalakshmi; Nagarajan, Ramaswamy; Kumar, Jayant

    2008-03-01

    Possessing large surface area materials is vital for high sensitivity detection of analyte. We report a novel, inexpensive and simple technique to make high surface area sensing interfaces using electrospinning. Conducting polymers (CP) nanotubes were made by electrospinning a solution of a catalyst (ferric tosylate) along with poly (lactic acid), which is an environment friendly biodegradable polymer. Further vapor deposition polymerization of the monomer ethylenedioxy thiophene (EDOT) on the nanofiber surface yielded poly (EDOT) covered fibers. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) study reveals the presence of PEDOT predominantly on the surface of nanofibers. Conducting nanotubes had been received by dissolving the polymer in the fiber core. By a similar technique we had covalently incorporated fluorescent dyes on the nanofiber surface. The materials obtained show promise as efficient sensing elements. UV-Vis characterization confirms the formation of PEDOT nanotubes and incorporation of chromophores on the fiber surface. The morphological characterization was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  1. Thermal conductivity of polymer composites with oriented boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hong Jun; Eoh, Young Jun [Department of Materials Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Dae [Electronic Materials and Device Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: eskim@kyonggi.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity depended on the orientation of BN in the polymer matrices. • Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) particles were treated by C{sub 27}H{sub 27}N{sub 3}O{sub 2} and C{sub 14}H{sub 6}O{sub 8}. • Amphiphilic-agent-treated BN particles are more easily oriented in the composite. • BN/PVA composites with C{sub 14}H{sub 6}O{sub 8}-treated BN showed the highest thermal conductivity. • Thermal conductivity of the composites was compared with several theoretical models. - Abstract: Thermal conductivity of boron nitride (BN) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or polyvinyl butyral (PVB) was investigated as a function of the degree of BN orientation, the numbers of hydroxyl groups in the polymer matrices and the amphiphilic agents used. The composites with in-plane orientation of BN showed a higher thermal conductivity than the composites with out-of-plane orientation of BN due to the increase of thermal pathway. For a given BN content, the composites with in-plane orientation of BN/PVA showed higher thermal conductivity than the composites with in-plane orientation of BN/PVB. This result could be attributed to the improved degree of orientation of BN, caused by a larger number of hydroxyl groups being present. Those treated with C{sub 14}H{sub 6}O{sub 8} amphiphilic agent demonstrated a higher thermal conductivity than those treated by C{sub 27}H{sub 27}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}. The measured thermal conductivity of the composites was compared with that predicted by the several theoretical models.

  2. Synthesis of Nano Conducting Polymer Based Polyaniline and it's Composite: Mechanical Properties, Conductivity and Thermal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banimahd Keivani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PAn was prepared chemically in the presence of bronsted acid from aqueous solutions. Polyaniline- nylon 6 composite (termed as PAn/Ny6 prepared via solvent casting method. The preparation conditions were optimized with regard to the mechanical properties of the polymer composite. It was found that the molar ratio of PAn to nylon have the greatest effect in determining the mechanical properties of polymer composite. Electrical conductivity was measured using standard method of four point probe. Spectrophotometric analysis (UV-Vis was used for investigation of the effect of thermal treatment on polyaniline and it’s composite.

  3. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals by grafting polymers containing phosphonic acid groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Woo; Lee, Hong Jae; Kim, Kyung Ja; Kim, Hyun-Min; Lee, Sang Cheon

    2006-12-01

    A novel approach for the surface modification of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals is described by grafting polymerization of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) using a redox initiating system in an aqueous media. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and XRD analyses confirmed the modification reaction on HAp surfaces. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP MS) showed that the Ca/P molar ratio decreased from 1.67 to 1.36 with increasing the feed VPA amount. Zeta potentials of unmodified HAp and modified HAp in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions (pH 7.4, ionic strength = 10 mM) were negative and decreased with increasing the amount of grafted PVPA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements and time-dependent phase monitoring indicated that the colloidal stability of modified HAp over unmodified HAp in water dramatically increased and tended to exist as single nanocrystals without aggregation.

  4. Interaction of polymer-coated silicon nanocrystals with lipid bilayers and surfactant interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaradei, Ahmed; Brown, Samuel L.; Miller, Joseph B.; May, Sylvio; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2016-10-01

    We use photoluminescence (PL) microscopy to measure the interaction between polyethylene-glycol-coated (PEGylated) silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) and two model surfaces: lipid bilayers and surfactant interfaces. By characterizing the photostability, transport, and size-dependent emission of the PEGylated nanocrystal clusters, we demonstrate the retention of red PL suitable for detection and tracking with minimal blueshift after a year in an aqueous environment. The predominant interaction measured for both interfaces is short-range repulsion, consistent with the ideal behavior anticipated for PEGylated phospholipid coatings. However, we also observe unanticipated attractive behavior in a small number of scenarios for both interfaces. We attribute this anomaly to defective PEG coverage on a subset of the clusters, suggesting a possible strategy for enhancing cellular uptake by controlling the homogeneity of the PEG corona. In both scenarios, the shape of the apparent potential is modeled through the free or bound diffusion of the clusters near the confining interface.

  5. Applications of conducting polymers and their issues in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2010-10-06

    Conducting polymers (CPs) have attracted much interest as suitable matrices of biomolecules and have been used to enhance the stability, speed and sensitivity of various biomedical devices. Moreover, CPs are inexpensive, easy to synthesize and versatile because their properties can be readily modulated by (i) surface functionalization techniques and (ii) the use of a wide range of molecules that can be entrapped or used as dopants. This paper discusses the various surface modifications of the CP that can be employed in order to impart physico-chemical and biological guidance cues that promote cell adhesion/proliferation at the polymer-tissue interface. This ability of the CP to induce various cellular mechanisms widens its applications in medical fields and bioengineering.

  6. Ion conductivity and transport by porous coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horike, Satoshi; Umeyama, Daiki; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2013-11-19

    (+)) and other ions can also be transported. If we can optimize the crystal structures, this could offer further improvements in terms of both conductivity and the working temperature range. Another useful characteristic of PCP/MOFs is their wide application to materials fabrication. We can easily prepare heterodomain crystal systems, such as core-shell or solid solution. Other anisotropic morphologies (thin film, nanocrystal, nanorod, etc.,) are also possible, with retention of the ion conductivity. The flexible nature also lets us design morphology-dependent ion-conduction behaviors that we cannot observe in the bulk state. We propose (1) multivalent ion and anion conductions with the aid of redox activity and defects in structures, (2) control of ion transport behavior by applying external stimuli, (3) anomalous conductivity at the hetero-solid-solid interface, and (4) unidirectional ion transport as in the ion channels in membrane proteins. In the future, scientists may use coordination polymers not only to achieve higher conductivity but also to control ion behavior, which will open new avenues in solid-state ionics.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Lithium Ion Conducting Solid Polymer Electrolytes from Biodegradable Polymers Starch And PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chatterjee,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid Polymer electrolyte films have been prepared from Starch-Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA blend a well acknowledged biodegradable material. Solution cast technique was employed for the preparation of solid polymer electrolyte films added with Lithium Bromide (LiBr salt. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies of the prepared films portrayed the evolution of an amorphous structure with increasing content of salt which is an important factor that leads to the augmentation of conductivity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis revealed noticeable ionic conductivity ~ 5x 10-3 S/cm for 20 wt% of salt at ambient conditions. Ionic conductivity showed an increasing trend with salt content at ambient conditions. Transference number measurements confirmed the ionic nature of the prepared solid polymer electrolyte films. Dielectric studies revealed a sharp increase in the number of charge carriers which contributed to enhancement in conductivity. Low values of activation energy extracted from temperature dependent conductivity measurements could be favorable for device applications. For the composition with highest conductivity a temperature independent relaxation mechanism was confirmed by electric modulus scaling.

  8. Conducting polymer actuators: From basic concepts to proprioceptive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades of motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. Here bilayer full polymeric artificial muscles were checked up to very high cathodic potential limits (-2.5 V) in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical driven exchange of ions from the conducting polymer film, and the concomitant Faradaic bending movement of the muscle, takes place in the full studied potential range. The presence of trapped counterion after deep reduction was corroborated by EDX determinations giving quite high electronic conductivity to the device. The large bending movement was used as a tool to quantify the amount of water exchanged per reaction unit (exchanged electron or ion). The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers, during its oxidation/reduction senses working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables. The evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials such as intrinsically conducting polymers and driven by constant currents senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of conducting polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süzer, S; Toppare, L; Hallam, K R; Allen, G C

    1996-06-01

    Electrochemically prepared films of conducting polymers of polypyrrole and polythiophene and their blends with polyamide have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the N1s region of the spectra of films containing polypyrrole the peak corresponding to N(+) at 402.0 eV is separated from that of neutral N. The intensity of the N(+) peak can be correlated with the electrical conductivity of the films and the spectroscopically derived ratio of F/N(+) is close to 4 indicating that one BF(-)(4) dopant ion is incorporated for every oxidized nitrogen center. In the spectra of films of polythiophene and its blends peaks corresponding to S and S(+) can not be resolved but again the F/C ratio correlates with the electrical conductivity.

  10. Enhancement in ionic conductivity on solid polymer electrolytes containing large conducting species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, D.; Damle, Ramakrishna

    2016-05-01

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) lack better conducting properties at ambient temperatures. Various methods to enhance their ionic conductivity like irradiation with swift heavy ions, γ-rays, swift electrons and quenching at low temperature etc., have been explored in the literature. Among these, one of the oldest methods is incorporation of different conducting species into the polymer matrix and/or addition of nano-sized inert particles into SPEs. Various new salts like LiBr, Mg(ClO4)2, NH4I etc., have already been tried in the past with some success. Also various nanoparticles like Al2O3, TiO2 etc., have been tried in the past. In this article, we have investigated an SPE containing Rubidium as a conducting species. Rubidium has a larger ionic size compared to lithium and sodium ions which have been investigated in the recent past. In the present article, we have investigated the conductivity of large sized conducting species and shown the enhancement in the ionic conductivity by addition of nano-sized inert particles.

  11. Coating of zinc ferrite particles with a conducting polymer, polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Brodinová, Jitka; Kalenda, Petr; Fedorova, Svetlana V; Prokes, Jan; Zemek, Josef

    2006-06-01

    Particles of zinc ferrite, ZnOFe2O3, were coated with polyaniline (PANI) phosphate during the in situ polymerization of aniline in an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid. The PANI-ferrite composites were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the degree of coating with a conducting polymer. Even a low content of PANI, 1.4 wt%, resulted in the 45% coating of the particles' surface. On the other hand, even at high PANI content, the coating of ferrite surface did not exceeded 90%. This is explained by the clustering of hydrophobic aniline oligomers at the hydrophilic ferrite surface and the consequent irregular PANI coating. The conductivity increased from 2 x 10(-9) to 6.5 S cm(-1) with increasing fraction of PANI phosphate in the composite. The percolation threshold was located at 3-4 vol% of the conducting component. In the absence of any acid, a conducting product, 1.4 x 10(-2) Scm(-1), was also obtained. As the concentration of phosphoric acid increased to 3 M, the conductivity of the composites reached 1.8 S cm(-1) at 10-14 wt% of PANI. The ferrite alone can act as an oxidant for aniline; a product having a conductivity 0.11 S cm(-1) was obtained after a one-month immersion of ferrite in an acidic solution of aniline.

  12. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm-3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm-3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  13. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  14. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was used to estimate the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between nanoparticles and amorphous and crystalline polymer matrices. Bulk thermal conductivities of the nanocomposites were then estimated using an established effective medium approach. To study functionalization, oligomeric ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers were chemically bonded to a single wall carbon nanotube. The results, in a poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) matrix, are similar to those obtained previously for grafted linear hydrocarbon chains. To study the effect of noncovalent functionalization, two types of polyethylene matrices. -- aligned (extended-chain crystalline) vs. amorphous (random coils) were modeled. Both matrices produced the same interfacial thermal resistance values. Finally, functionalization of edges and faces of plate-like graphite nanoparticles was found to be only modestly effective in reducing the interfacial thermal resistance and improving the composite thermal conductivity

  16. Lithium ion conductivity and dielectric relaxation in dendritic nanostructured LiTaO3 glass-nanocrystal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschin, P. W.; Varma, K. B. R.

    2017-03-01

    Lithium tantalate in single-crystalline and coarse-grained configurations is a poor ionic conductor and does not qualify as a solid electrolyte for lithium-based batteries. In this work, ionic conductivity was sought to be enhanced by the use of nanocrystals of LiTaO3 embedded in a borate-based glass matrix. Glasses of composition 3Li2O-4B2O3-Ta2O5 were formed by melt-quenching. The crystallization process was described by using isothermal crystallization kinetics, invoking the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation, which indicated a three-dimensional growth with an Avrami exponent of 3.5 and an effective activation energy for crystallization of 735 ± 65 kJ mol-1. Heat treatment of the as-quenched glasses was performed between 530 and 560 °C, and the evolution of LiTaO3 phase was studied by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The heat treatment yielded coalesced LiTaO3 nanocrystals of 18-32 nm size, forming dendritic structures in the glass matrix. Impedance analyses of the as-quenched and heat-treated glasses showed a dramatic improvement in dc conductivity (σdc), with a maximum around 3 × 10-3 S m-1 at 200 °C (σdcT = 1.5 S m-1 K) and activation energy of 0.54 eV for 530 °C/3 h heat-treated glasses. The values of σdc of the as-quenched glasses and of the 530 °C/3 h and 540 °C/3 h heat-treated glasses were about seven orders of magnitude higher than those of the single crystalline LiTaO3. Furthermore, the effect of heat treatment on lithium ion dynamics in the 40-200 °C temperature range was investigated by modulus formalism invoking the stretched exponential Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function. The 7Li magic angle spinning NMR was used to investigate lithium self-diffusion in the nanostructured glass nanocrystal composites as a function of temperature between -10 °C and 60 °C.

  17. Conductivity Changes Of Conducting Polymers With Electro-statically Bonded Counter-ions For Organic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, R.; Chan, M. Y.; ASW, Wong; Lee, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, polyaniline: polystyrene sulfonated (PANI: PSS) spin-coated on ITO glass topped by gold electrodes results in a highly conductive junction which can be open circuited by application of a high current density. The conduction mechanism changes from an ohmic contact to a non-ohmic contact after electrical bias application, and is believed to be due to phase segregation of the electro-statically bonded PANI and PSS at the polymer interface. We believe this phase segregation behavior is applicable for organic resistive memory function.

  18. Comment on "Electrical Conductivity and Current-Voltage Characteristics of Individual Conducting Polymer PEDOT Nanowires"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Ohlckers; P. Pipinys

    2009-01-01

    @@ In "Electrical Conductivity and Current-Voltage Characteristics of Individual Conducting Polymer PEDOT Nanowires", Long et al.[1] reported the currentvoltage ( Ⅰ - Ⅴ) characteristics of individual poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires in the temperature range from 20 to 50K (Fig. 2(a)). The authors stated that at temperatures equal to 50 K and higher, the Ⅰ - Ⅴ curves were linear. With decreasing temperature the Ⅰ - Ⅴ curves gradually became nonlinear. The temperature behavior of Ⅰ - Ⅴ characteristics is not suitably explained.

  19. Formation of conductive polymers using nitrosyl ion as an oxidizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Jung, Yongju; Singh, Nikhilendra

    2016-06-07

    A method of forming a conductive polymer deposit on a substrate is disclosed. The method may include the steps of preparing a composition comprising monomers of the conductive polymer and a nitrosyl precursor, contacting the substrate with the composition so as to allow formation of nitrosyl ion on the exterior surface of the substrate, and allowing the monomer to polymerize into the conductive polymer, wherein the polymerization is initiated by the nitrosyl ion and the conductive polymer is deposited on the exterior surface of the substrate. The conductive polymer may be polypyrrole.

  20. Drastic modification of the piezoresistive behavior of polymer nanocomposites by using conductive polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2015-07-21

    We obtained highly conductive nanocomposites by adding conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to pristine insulating Polycarbonate. Because the PEDOT/PSS ensures efficient charge transfer both along and between the CNTs, we could attribute the improvement in electrical conductivity to coating. In addition to improving the electrical conductivity, the coating also modified the piezoresistive behavior of the nanocomposites compared to the material with pristine uncoated CNTs: whereas CNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited a very strong piezoresistive effect, PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited very little piezoresistivity. We studied this change in piezoresistive behavior in detail by investigating various configurations of filler content. We investigated how this observation could be explained by changes in the microstructure and in the conduction mechanism in the interfacial regions between the nanofillers. Our study suggests that tailoring the piezoresistive response to specific application requirements is possible.

  1. Decohesion Kinetics of PEDOT:PSS Conducting Polymer Films

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2013-10-17

    The highly conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is a widely used hole transport layer and transparent electrode in organic electronic devices. To date, the mechanical and fracture properties of this conductive polymer layer are not well understood. Notably, the decohesion rate of the PEDOT:PSS layer and its sensitivity to moist environments has not been reported, which is central in determining the lifetimes of organic electronic devices. Here, it is demonstrated that the decohesion rate is highly sensitive to the ambient moisture content, temperature, and mechanical stress. The kinetic mechanisms are elucidated using atomistic bond rupture models and the decohesion process is shown to be facilitated by a chemical reaction between water molecules from the environment and strained hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are the predominant bonding mechanism between individual PEDOT:PSS grains within the layer and cause a significant loss in cohesion when they are broken. Understanding the decohesion kinetics and mechanisms in these films is essential for the mechanical integrity of devices containing PEDOT:PSS layers and yields general guidelines for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices. Decohesion rate in PEDOT:PSS conducting films is studied under varied environmental conditions. The moisture content in the environment is the most important factor accelerating the decohesion in the PEDOT:PSS layer, which is detrimental for device reliability. The findings on the decohesion rate and mechanisms, elucidated by atomic kinetic models, are essential for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices containting PEDOT:PSS layers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Conductive polymer combined silk fiber bundle for bioelectrical signal recording.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Tsukada

    Full Text Available Electrode materials for recording biomedical signals, such as electrocardiography (ECG, electroencephalography (EEG and evoked potentials data, are expected to be soft, hydrophilic and electroconductive to minimize the stress imposed on living tissue, especially during long-term monitoring. We have developed and characterized string-shaped electrodes made from conductive polymer with silk fiber bundles (thread, which offer a new biocompatible stress free interface with living tissue in both wet and dry conditions.An electroconductive polyelectrolyte, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT-PSS was electrochemically combined with silk thread made from natural Bombyx mori. The polymer composite 280 µm thread exhibited a conductivity of 0.00117 S/cm (which corresponds to a DC resistance of 2.62 Mohm/cm. The addition of glycerol to the PEDOT-PSS silk thread improved the conductivity to 0.102 S/cm (20.6 kohm/cm. The wettability of PEDOT-PSS was controlled with glycerol, which improved its durability in water and washing cycles. The glycerol treated PEDOT-PSS silk thread showed a tensile strength of 1000 cN in both wet and dry states. Without using any electrolytes, pastes or solutions, the thread directly collects electrical signals from living tissue and transmits them through metal cables. ECG, EEG, and sensory evoked potential (SEP signals were recorded from experimental animals by using this thread placed on the skin. PEDOT-PSS silk glycerol composite thread offers a new class of biocompatible electrodes in the field of biomedical and health promotion that does not induce stress in the subjects.

  3. Submicron magnetic core conducting polypyrrole polymer shell: Preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório-Neto, Ernandes Taveira; Baraket, Abdoullatif; Kabbaj, Dounia; Zine, Nadia; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Fessi, Hatem; Kunita, Marcos Hiroiuqui; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic particles are of great interest in various biomedical applications, such as, sample preparation, in vitro biomedical diagnosis, and both in vivo diagnosis and therapy. For in vitro applications and especially in labs-on-a-chip, microfluidics, microsystems, or biosensors, the needed magnetic dispersion should answer various criteria, for instance, submicron size in order to avoid a rapid sedimentation rate, fast separations under an applied magnetic field, and appreciable colloidal stability (stable dispersion under shearing process). Then, the aim of this work was to prepare highly magnetic particles with a magnetic core and conducting polymer shell particles in order to be used not only as a carrier, but also for the in vitro detection step. The prepared magnetic seed dispersions were functionalized using pyrrole and pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. The obtained core-shell particles were characterized in terms of particle size, size distribution, magnetization properties, FTIR analysis, surface morphology, chemical composition, and finally, the conducting property of those particles were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The obtained functional submicron highly magnetic particles are found to be conducting material bearing function carboxylic group on the surface. These promising conducting magnetic particles can be used for both transport and lab-on-a-chip detection.

  4. Controlling the electrical conductive network formation of polymer nanocomposites via polymer functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangyang; Wu, Youping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Liqun

    2016-12-06

    By adopting coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, the effect of polymer functionalization on the relationship between the microstructure and the electric percolation probability of nanorod filled polymer nanocomposites has been investigated. At a low chain functionalization degree, the nanorods in the polymer matrix form isolated aggregates with a local order structure. At a moderate chain functionalization degree, the local order structure of the nanorod aggregate is gradually broken up. Meanwhile, excessive functionalization chain beads can connect the isolated aggregates together, which leads to the maximum size of nanorod aggregation. At a high chain functionalization degree, it forms a single nanorod structure in the matrix. As a result, the highest percolation probability of the materials appears at the moderate chain functionalization degree, which is attributed to the formation of the tightly connected nanorod network by analyzing the main cluster. In addition, this optimum chain functionalization degree exists at two chain functionalization modes (random and diblock). Lastly, under the tensile field, even though the contact distance between nanorods nearly remains unchanged, the topological structure of the percolation network is broken down. While under the shear field, the contact distance between nanorods increases and the topological structure of the percolation network is broken down, which leads to a decrease in the percolation probability. In total, the topological structure of the percolation network dominates the percolation probability, which is not a necessary connection with the contact distance between nanorods. In summary, this work presents further understanding of the electric conductive properties of nanorod-filled nanocomposites with functionalized polymers.

  5. Inkjet printed organic electrochemical transistors with highly conducting polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Mónica; Morgado, Jorge; Alcácer, Luís

    2016-10-01

    Organic Electrochemical Transistors (OECTs) were fabricated with two kinds of highly conducting polymer electrolytes, one with cations of small dimensions (Li+) and the other with cations of large dimensions (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, EMI+). All OECTs exhibit transconductance values in the millisiemens range. Those with the larger EMI+ cations reach higher transconductance values and the saturated region of their I(V) characteristics extends to drain negative voltages of the order of -2 V without breakdown. These OECTs aim at potential applications for which it is relevant to use a solid polymer electrolyte instead of an aqueous electrolyte, namely, for integration in complex devices or in sensors and transducers where the electrolyte film may act as a membrane to prevent direct contact of the active material (PEDOT:PSS) with the biological media. The choice of electrolytes with cations of disparate sizes aims at assessing the nature (Faradaic or capacitive) of the processes occurring at the electrolyte/channel interface. The results obtained are consistent with a Faradaic-based operation mechanism.

  6. Reactive conducting polymers as actuating sensors and tactile muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, T F

    2008-09-01

    Films of conducting polymers when used as electrodes in an electrolytic solution oxidize and reduce under the flow of anodic and cathodic currents, respectively. The electrochemical reactions induce conformational movements of the chains, generation or destruction of free volume and interchange of ions and solvent with the electrolyte giving a gel that reacts, swells or shrinks. Electric pulses acting on reactive gels constituted by polymers, solvent and ions are the closest artificial materials to those that constitute actuating biological organs. The electrochemical reaction under the flow of a constant current promotes a progressive change of color, volume, porosity, stored charge and storage or release of ions. The reaction is kinetically controlled by the conformational movements or by the diffusion of counterions through the gel; it works under electrochemical equilibrium and defines, at any intermediate oxidation state, equilibrium potentials. Any variable (mechanical, chemical, optical, magnetic, etc) acting on the equilibrium will induce a change in the working potential of any device, driven by a constant current, based on this reaction; actuating-sensing devices based on the electrochemical properties are expected. Artificial muscles able to sense pushed weights, electrolyte concentration or ambient temperature during actuation are described. The activation energy of the reaction includes structural information and allows the obtention of the conformational energy, the heart of both actuating and sensing properties.

  7. High rechargeable sodium metal-conducting polymer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfi, A.; Trottier, J.; Gagnon, C.; Barray, F.; Zaghib, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries accelerated the wireless revolution over the last two decades, and they are now a mature technology for transportation applications in electric vehicles (EV). However, numerous studies have concluded that the proven lithium reserves can hardly absorb the growth in demand. Therefore, sustainable sodium batteries are being considered to overcome the lithium resource shortages that may arise from large-scale application in EVs and stationary energy storage. It is difficult to find a suitable host material for reversible Na-ion storage due to the size of the Na+ ion (0.102 nm) compared to the Li+ ion (0.076 nm). Here we report a low cost and simple sodium technology that is based on a metal-free cathode material. Sodium metal was used as the anode with a conducting polymer cathode and electrochemically tested in a liquid electrolyte. With this technology, a host material for Na intercalation is not required, and because a polymer conductor is used, the size of the Na ion is not an issue.

  8. Two-Dimensional Electronic Excitations in Self-Assembled Conjugated Polymer Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österbacka, R.; An, C. P.; Jiang, X. M.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2000-02-01

    Several spectroscopic methods were applied to study the characteristic properties of the electronic excitations in thin films of regioregular and regiorandom polythiophene polymers. In the regioregular polymers, which form two-dimensional lamellar structures, increased interchain coupling strongly influences the traditional one-dimensional electronic properties of the polymer chains. The photogenerated charge excitations (polarons) show two-dimensional delocalization that results in a relatively small polaronic energy, multiple absorption bands in the gap where the lowest energy band becomes dominant, and associated infrared active vibrations with reverse absorption bands caused by electron-vibration interferences. The relatively weak absorption bands of the delocalized polaron in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges may help to achieve laser action in nanocrystalline polymer devices using current injection.

  9. Encapsulation of novel fluorescent nanocrystals (quantum dots) with a nanocomposite polymer and their assessment by in-vitro and in-vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Arthur M.

    Advance in nanotechnology has led to the development of novel fluorescent probes called quantum dots which are being exploited for potential new methods of early cancer detection spread and therapeutic management. Concerns regarding the release of potentially toxic inorganic core atoms into their surrounding environment and possession of hydrophobic surfaces are hindering the development of quantum dots. In order to abrogate their toxicity and solubilise the nanocrystals in aqueous solution a novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (PCU), a silica nanocomposite (NC) polymer has been used to coat them. Physical and chemical analysis of the coated quantum dots with UV-Visible spectrometry, Photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and diffraction. Atomic force microscope and FTIR Spectrophotometry has enabled us ascertain the characteristics of these unique nanocrystals. The biocompatibility of the nanocomposite coated quantum dots (NCCQD) was assessed by using Alamar blue metabolic assay, Pico green assay and by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release on endothelial cell damage. Potential interference of NCCQD with a rat's normal physiology and systemic tissue distribution were assessed in an in-vivo animal model. Results demonstrated that the nanocrystals retained their unique optical properties, had a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 10.5 nm, excellent monodispersivity, large absorption spectrum with a narrow emission band at 790 nm and were highly photostable after polymer coating. NCCQD were compatible with endothelial cells as viable cells were demonstrated to be present after 14 days of growing cells in cell culture medium exposed to NCCQD at concentrations of 2.25 X 10"2 nM. There was no significant disturbance in the physiological parameters on injecting the NCCQD in an in-vivo rat model over a 2 hour period. NCCQD were seen to be deposited in the spleen and thymus as they are

  10. Moving beyond mass-based parameters for conductivity analysis of sulfonated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pivovar, Bryan [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes is critical for fuel cells and has therefore been studied in significant detail. The conductivity of sulfonated polymers has been linked to material characteristics in order to elucidate trends. Mass based measurements based on water uptake and ion exchange capacity are two of the most common material characteristics used to make comparisons between polymer electrolytes, but have significant limitations when correlated to proton conductivity. These limitations arise in part because different polymers can have significantly different densities and conduction happens over length scales more appropriately represented by volume measurements rather than mass. Herein, we establish and review volume related parameters that can be used to compare proton conductivity of different polymer electrolytes. Morphological effects on proton conductivity are also considered. Finally, the impact of these phenomena on designing next generation sulfonated polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed.

  11. Controlled synthesis of transition metal/conducting polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Poyraz, Selcuk; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon; Smith, James; Wang, Xiaolong; Yu, Yajiao; Zhang, Xinyu

    2012-08-01

    A novel displacement reaction has been observed to occur between conducting polymers (CP) and metal salts which can be used to fabricate nanostructured CP-metal composites in a one-pot manner. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2O5) nanofiber is used during the synthesis as the reactive seeds to induce the nanofibril CP-metal network formation. The CP-metal nanocomposites exhibit excellent sensory properties for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection, where both high sensitivity and a low detection limit can be obtained. The sensory performance of the CP-metal composite can be further enhanced by a facile microwave treatment. It is believed that the CP-metal nanofibril network can be converted to a carbon-metal network by a microwave-induced carbonization process and result in the sensory enhancement.

  12. Applications of conducting polymers and their issues in biomedical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) have attracted much interest as suitable matrices of biomolecules and have been used to enhance the stability, speed and sensitivity of various biomedical devices. Moreover, CPs are inexpensive, easy to synthesize and versatile because their properties can be readily modulated by (i) surface functionalization techniques and (ii) the use of a wide range of molecules that can be entrapped or used as dopants. This paper discusses the various surface modifications of the CP that can be employed in order to impart physico-chemical and biological guidance cues that promote cell adhesion/proliferation at the polymer–tissue interface. This ability of the CP to induce various cellular mechanisms widens its applications in medical fields and bioengineering. PMID:20610422

  13. Fabrication and characterization of solid state conducting polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Gao, Junbo; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2004-07-01

    We report here the fabrication and characterization of solid-state conducting polymer actuators. The electrochemical activity of polyaniline (PANI) thin film coated with solid-state polyelectrolyte is very similar to the polyaniline thin film in an aqueous solution. The solid-state actuator is adhered to a lever arm of a force transducer and the force generation is measured in real time. The force generated by the actuator is found to be length dependent. However, the overall torque generated by the actuators with different lengths remains essentially the same. The effect of stimulation signals such as voltage, and current, on the bending angle and displacement is also studied using square wave potential.

  14. Conductive polymer-based microextraction methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Habib; Ayazi, Zahra; Naderi, Mehrnoush

    2013-03-12

    Conductive polymers (CPs) are classified as materials which exhibit highly reversible redox behavior and the unusual combined properties of metal and plastics. CPs, due to their multifunctionality, ease of synthesis and their stability, have attracted more attentions in different fields of research, including sample preparation. CPs along with several commercial hydrophilic sorbents, are alternative to the commercially available hydrophobic sorbents which despite their high specific surface areas, have poor interactions and retentions in the extraction of polar compounds. This review covers a general overview regarding the recent progress and new applications of CPs toward their synthesis and use in novel extraction and microextraction techniques including solid phase microextraction (SPME), electrochemically controlled solid-phase microextraction (EC-SPME) and other relevant techniques. Furthermore the contribution of nano-structured CPs in these methodologies is also reviewed.

  15. Conductive Polymer Porous Film with Tunable Wettability and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Teng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A conductive polymer porous film with tunable wettability and adhesion was fabricated by the chloroform solution of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid-methyl-ester (PCBM via the freeze drying method. The porous film could be obtained from the solution of 0.8 wt%, whose pore diameters ranged from 50 nm to 500 nm. The hydrophobic porous surface with a water contact angle (CA of 144.7° could be transferred into a hydrophilic surface with CA of 25° by applying a voltage. The water adhesive force on the porous film increased with the increase of the external voltage. The electro-controllable wettability and adhesion of the porous film have potential application in manipulating liquid collection and transportation.

  16. Intrinsically Conductive Polymer Fibers from Thermoplastic trans-1,4-Polyisoprene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Qiao, Jinliang

    2016-05-17

    Herein, we report a new strategy to prepare conductive polymer fibers to overcome the insurmountable weakness of current conductive polymer fibers. First, special thermoplastic polymers are processed into polymer fibers using a conventional melt-spinning process, and then the nonconductive polymer fibers are converted into intrinsically conductive polymer fibers. Using this new strategy, intrinsically conductive polymer fibers have been prepared by melt spinning low-cost thermoplastic trans-1,4-polyisoprene and doping with iodine, which can be as fine as 0.01 mm, and the resistivity can be as low as 10(-2) Ω m. Moreover, it has been found that drawing can improve the orientation of trans-1,4-polyisoprene crystals in the fibers and, thus, the conductivity of the conductive polymer fibers. Therefore, conductive fibers with excellent conductivities can be prepared by large drawing ratios before doping. Such conductive polymer fibers with low cost could be used in textile, clothing, packing, and other fields, which would benefit both industry and daily life. The newly developed method also allows one to produce conductive polymers of any shape besides fibers for antistatic or conductive applications.

  17. Fast prototyping of conducting polymer microelectrodes using resistance-controlled high precision drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Geschke, Oliver; Skaarup, Steen

    2011-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for fast prototyping of microelectrode arrays in the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Microelectrode arrays were produced by electrical resistance-controlled microdrilling through an insulating polymer layer (TOPAS® 5013) cove...

  18. A conducting polymer artificial muscle with 12% linear strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Sommer-Larsen, P.;

    2003-01-01

    in a freely suspended polymer foil in response to a potential change and it includes attention to the composition of the polymer, to the synthesis conditions, and involves microstructuring of the polymer. As such, an analysis of the influence of the alkyl chain length on the properties of PPy doped with ABSs...

  19. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Qiu, Feng; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-06-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) and inorganic nanocrystal (NC) semiconductors have garnered considerable attention as a potential alternative to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high-efficiency solar energy in a cost-effective manner. The combination of advantageous characteristics of CPs and NCs enables the construction of nanostructured high-performance, lightweight, flexible, large-area, and low-cost hybrid solar cells. However, it remains a grand challenge to control the film morphology and interfacial structure of such organic/inorganic semiconductor blends on the nanoscale. In this Perspective, we highlight the strategies of implementing close contact between CPs and NCs by tailoring the colloidal synthesis, the coordination reaction, and the chemical modification of CPs. As such, they offer promising opportunities for rationally controlling the phase separation between electron-donating CPs and electron-accepting NCs, increasing the interfacial areas between them, enhancing their electronic interaction, and thus substantially promoting the photovoltaic performance of the resulting organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  20. A New Conducting Polymer Electrode for Organic Electroluminescence Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Shu; PENG Jing-Cui

    2008-01-01

    @@ Conducting polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is studied for the high performance electrode of organic electroluminescence devices. A method to prepare the electrode consisting of a SiC thin film and PDMS is investigated. By using ultra thin SiC films with different thicknesses, the organic electroluminescenee devices are obtained in an ultra vacuum system with the model device PDMS/SiC/PPV/Alq3, where PPV is poly para-phenylene vinylene and Alq3 is tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium. The capacitance-voltage (C-V), capacitance-frequency (C-F), current-voltage (I- V), radiation intensity-voltage (R- V) and luminance efficiency-voltage (E-V) measurements are systematically studied to investigate the conductivity, Fermi align-ment and devices properties in organic semiconductors. Scanning Kelvin probe measurement shows that the work function of PDMS/SiC anode with a 2.5-nm SiC over layer can be increased by as much as 0.28eV, compared to the conventional ITO anode. The result is attributed to the charge transfer effect and ohmic contacts at the interface.

  1. Designer coordination polymers: dimensional crossover architectures and proton conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Teppei; Otsubo, Kazuya; Makiura, Rie; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-08-21

    Coordination polymers (CPs) have large degrees of freedom in framework compositions and in the structures and environment of the inner pores. This review focuses on the recent significant progress achieved by controlling these degrees of freedom. Two breakthroughs are reviewed for constructing sophisticated structures of CP frameworks, especially in dimensional crossover regions. The first is the synthesis of quasi one-dimensional halogen-bridged coordinative tubes by applying state-of-the-art techniques of coordination chemistry. The electronic state of the coordinative tube was studied by structural, spectroscopic and theoretical methods and found to be distinct from conventional one-dimensional systems. The second breakthrough is the achievement of a quasi-two-dimensional architecture by combining Langmuir-Blodgett and layer-by-layer methods. Two-dimensional LB CP films were prepared on liquid; the films were stacked layer by layer, and a crystalline quasi-two-dimensional structure was constructed. This review also covers the design of the environment of the inner pore, where hydrogen bond networks with various acidic sites were modified. By appropriate design of the hydrogen bond network, proton-conductive CPs are invented, which are summarized in this review. Types of proton donor sites are discussed and classified, and superprotonic conductive CPs were achieved in these investigations. These results will provide new strategies for constructing functional materials for smart devices.

  2. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Jian Feng; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its crossection the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometres of fibers can be obtained from a single preform with fiber diameters ranging between 500um -1000um. A typical measured capacitance of our fibers is 60-100 nF/m and it is independent of the fiber diameter. For comparison, a coaxial cable of the comparable dimensions would have only ~0.06nF/m capacitance. Analysis of the fiber frequency response shows that in its simplest interrogation mode the capacitor fiber has a transverse resistance of 5 kOhm/L, which is inversely proportional to the fiber length L and is independent of the fiber diameter. Softness of the fiber materials...

  3. Soft capacitor fibers using conductive polymers for electronic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-11-01

    A novel, highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. In its cross section the fiber features a periodic sequence of hundreds of conductive and isolating plastic layers positioned around metallic electrodes. The fiber is fabricated using the fiber drawing method, where a multi-material macroscopic preform is drawn into a sub-millimeter capacitor fiber in a single fabrication step. Several kilometers of fibers can be obtained from a single preform with fiber diameters ranging between 500 and 1000 µm. A typical measured capacitance of our fibers is 60-100 nF m-1 and it is independent of the fiber diameter. Analysis of the fiber frequency response shows that in its simplest interrogation mode the capacitor fiber has a transverse resistance of 5 kΩ m L-1, which is inversely proportional to the fiber length L and is independent of the fiber diameter. Softness of the fiber materials, the absence of liquid electrolyte in the fiber structure, ease of scalability to large production volumes and high capacitance of our fibers make them interesting for various smart textile applications ranging from distributed sensing to energy storage.

  4. The Transmission Modes and Losses of the Poled Nano-crystal and Polymer Composite PbTiO3/PEK-c Thin-film Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Quan; Yuk Tak Chow; YANG Xudong; LV Zenghai; YANG Hongliang; CHAN Hau Ping; CHU Pak Lim

    2007-01-01

    Composite thin films of PbTiO3 nano-crystals and high transparency polymer polyetherketone(PEK-c) for application of non-linear optical devices were prepared by spin coating. The size of PbTiO3 nano-crystals was estimated to be 30-40 nm using a transmission electron microscope. The refractive index and the mode propagation losses at 633 nm were measured using the prism coupling technique and improved photographic technique respectively. They were found to be 1.6545 and 2.00 dB cm-1 (fundamental mode),respectively. Moreover, it is observed that this loss is increased at higher mode indices.

  5. Synthesis of Conductive Nanofillers/Nanofibers and Electrical Properties of their Conductive Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvi, Ali

    Thanks to their corrosion resistance, light weight, low cost, and ease of processing, electrically conducting polymer composites (CPCs) have received significant attention for the replacement of metals and inorganic materials for sensors, actuators, supercapacitors, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shields. In this PhD thesis, high aspect ratio conductive nanofillers namely copper nanowires (CuNWs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were coated with polyaniline (PANi) using solution mixing and in-situ polymerization method, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a smooth polyaniline nano-coating between 5--18 nm in thickness on the nanofillers' surface. The coating thickness and; consequently, electrical conductivity was controlled and tuned by polyaniline/aniline concentration in solution. Composites with tunable conductivity may be used as chemisensors, electronic pressure sensors and switches. Coated nanofillers demonstrated better dispersion in polystyrene (PS) and provided lower electrical percolation threshold. Dispersion of nanofillers in PS was investigated using rheological measurements and confirmed with electron micrographs and nano-scale images of CPCs. Polyaniline (PANi), when used as a coating layer, was able to attenuate electromagnetic (EM) waves via absorption and store electrical charges though pseudocapacitance mechanism. The dielectric measurements of MWCNT-PANi/PS composites showed one order of magnitude increase in real electrical permittivity compared to that of MWCNT/PS composites making them suitable for charge storage purposes. Incorporation of PANi also brought a new insight into conductive network formation mechanism in electrospun mats where the orientation of conductive high aspect ratio nanofillers is a major problem. Conductive nanofibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) filled with coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated using electrospinning. These highly oriented PVDF

  6. Rational design and synthesis of semi-conducting polymers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bryan Matthew; Reeder, Craig; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    A rational approach was used to design polymeric materials for thin-film electronics applications, whereby theoretical modeling was used to determine synthetic targets. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations were used as a tool to predict the electrical properties of conjugated polymer systems. From these results, polymers with desirable energy levels and band-gaps were designed and synthesized. Measurements of optoelectronic properties were performed on the synthesized polymers and the results were compared to those of the theoretical model. From this work, the efficacy of the model was evaluated and new target polymers were identified.

  7. Carbon Nanotube-Conducting Polymer Composites Based Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; R.Somani; M.Umeno

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Combination of carbon nanotubes (CN) with polymers is important for application towards value added composites,solar cells,fuel cells etc.Especially interesting is the combination of CN with π-conjugated polymers because of the potential interaction between the highly delocalized π-electrons of the CN and the π-electrons correlated with the lattice of polymer skeleton.Efficient exciton dissociation due to electron transfer from the photoexcited polymer to CN is of interest for photovoltaic app...

  8. Electroanalytical measurements without electrolytes: conducting polymers as probes for redox titration in non-conductive organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Ulrich; Mirsky, Vladimir M

    2012-09-26

    Electroanalytical methods have been applied only in conducting media. An application of conducting polymers allows to overcome this limitation. If such material is in electrochemical equilibrium with dissolved redox active species, its electrical conductivity depends on the redox potential of these species. Therefore, conductometric measurements with conducting polymers can provide about the same information as classical redox electrodes. The approach was applied for redox titration. Equivalent points obtained by this titration in aqueous and organic electrolytes were identical. Then the approach was applied for determination of bromine number by redox titration in non-conducting organic phase.

  9. Conductivity study and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) characterization of methyl cellulose solid polymer electrolyte with sodium iodide conducting ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiddin, Jamal Farghali Bin Zainal [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Ahmad, Azizah Hanom [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Sodium ion (Na{sup +}) based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has been prepared using solution cast technique with distilled water as solvent and Methylcellulose (MC) as a polymer host. Methylcellulose polymer was chosen as the polymer host due to the abundance of lone pair electrons in the carbonyl and C-O-C constituents, which in turn provide multiple hopping sites for the Na{sup +} conducting ions. Variable compositions of sodium iodide (NaI) salt were prepared to investigate the optimum MC-NaI weight ratio. Results from Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique show that pure methylcellulose has a low conductivity of 3.61 × 10{sup −11} S/cm.The conductivity increases as NaI content increases up to optimum NaIcomposition of 40 wt%, which yields an average conductivity of 2.70 × 10{sup −5} S/cm.

  10. Using artificial intelligence methods to design new conducting polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Giro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the possibility of creating new conducting polymers exploring the concept of copolymerization (different structural monomeric units has attracted much attention from experimental and theoretical points of view. Due to the rich carbon reactivity an almost infinite number of new structures is possible and the procedure of trial and error has been the rule. In this work we have used a methodology able of generating new structures with pre-specified properties. It combines the use of negative factor counting (NFC technique with artificial intelligence methods (genetic algorithms - GAs. We present the results for a case study for poly(phenylenesulfide phenyleneamine (PPSA, a copolymer formed by combination of homopolymers: polyaniline (PANI and polyphenylenesulfide (PPS. The methodology was successfully applied to the problem of obtaining binary up to quinternary disordered polymeric alloys with a pre-specific gap value or exhibiting metallic properties. It is completely general and can be in principle adapted to the design of new classes of materials with pre-specified properties.

  11. Functionalised inherently conducting polymers as low biofouling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Nagle, Alex R; Wallace, Gordon G; Hanks, Timothy W; Molino, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms are a major component of microbial biofouling layers that develop on man-made surfaces placed in aquatic environments, resulting in significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper describes surface functionalisation of the inherently conducting polymers (ICPs) polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and their efficacy as fouling resistant materials. Their ability to resist interactions with the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The capacity of the ICP-PEG materials to prevent settlement and colonisation of the fouling diatom Amphora coffeaeformis (Cleve) was also assayed. Variations were demonstrated in the dopants used during ICP polymerisation, along with the PEG molecular weight, and the ICP-PEG reaction conditions, all playing a role in guiding the eventual fouling resistant properties of the materials. Optimised ICP-PEG materials resulted in a significant reduction in BSA adsorption, and > 98% reduction in diatom adhesion.

  12. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  13. Synthesis and characterization thin films of conductive polymer (PANI) for optoelectronic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, Amer N.; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi; Ahmed, Nasser M.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report preparation and investigation of structural and optical properties of polyaniline conducting polymer. By using sol-gel in spin coating technique to synthesize thin films of conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI). Conducting polymer polyaniline was synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers. The thin films were characterized by technique: Hall effect, High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyaniline conductive polymer exhibit amorphous nature as confirmed by HR-XRD. The presence of characteristic bonds of polyaniline was observed from FTIR spectroscopy technique. Electrical and optical properties revealed that (p-type) conductivity PANI with room temperature, the conductivity was 6.289×10-5 (Ω.cm)-1, with tow of absorption peak at 426,805 nm has been attributed due to quantized size of polyaniline conducting polymer.

  14. New Secondary Batteries Using Electronically Conductive Polymer Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A Li/Polypyrrole secondary battery was designed and built, and the effect of controlling the morphology of the polymer on enhancement of counterion diffusion in the polymer phase was explored. The experimental work was done at Colorado State University, while the mathematical modeling of the battery was done at Texas A and M University. Manuscripts and publications resulting from the project are listed.

  15. Review on Optical and Electrical Properties of Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymers. The charge transport models to describe the hole and electron transport mechanism are also included in the electrical properties of conjugated polymers. The effect of optical and electrical properties after doping is also indexed in this paper.

  16. Morphology tailoring of nano/micro-structured conductive polymers, composites and their applications in chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingfa; Gao, Mingjun; He, Xiaochun; Li, Guang

    2010-11-01

    Conductive polymer is one of the important multi-functional materials. It has many applications in light-emitting diodes, chemical sensors, biosensors, et al. This paper provides a relatively comprehensive review on the progress of conductive polymer and composite as sensitive film for sensors to chemical vapors including patents, papers and our preliminary research results. Especially, the feature of conjugated polymers, the processing technology, doping characteristics and some factors affecting gas responses are discussed. Otherwise, the developments of nanostructured conductive polymer and organic-inorganic hybrid film sensor with high sensitivity and rapid response to vapors are also described, and some suggestions are proposed.

  17. Screen printable flexible conductive nanocomposite polymer with applications to wearable sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, D.; Khosla, A.; Gray, B. L.

    2014-04-01

    We have developed a conductive nanocomposite polymer that possesses both good conductivity and flexibility, and screen printed it onto fabric to realize wearable flexible electrodes and electronic routing. The conductive polymer consists of dispersed silver nanoparticles (90~210nm) in a screen printable plastisol polymer. The conductive polymer is conductive for weight-percentages above approximately 61 wt-% of Ag nanoparticles, and has a resistivity of 2.12×10-6 ohm·m at 70 wt-% of Ag nanoparticles. To test the screen printed conductive polymer's flexibility and its effect on conductivity, we measured the resistivity of the Ag-doped composite polymer at different bending angles (-90˚ ~ 90˚) with a 10° step angle at different wt-% of silver particles, and compared the results. We also tested washability of the screen printed conductive polymer as applied to fabric for long-term use in wearable sensors systems. We also used the screen printed Ag composite polymer to realize an example wearable system. Flexible wearable dry electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes were developed and ECG signal was measured via the electrodes. The sensing ECG electrodes (3mm diameter circle) were chloridized to form Ag/AgCl electrodes. We measured an ECG signal using a simple right-leg driven ECG circuit and observed normal ECG signals even without application of electrolyte gel.

  18. Directly patternable, highly conducting polymers for broad applications in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Kwang Seok; Garcia, Andres; Tarver, Jacob; Gomez, Enrique D; Baldwin, Kimberly; Sun, Yangming; Meng, Hong; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2010-03-30

    Postdeposition solvent annealing of water-dispersible conducting polymers induces dramatic structural rearrangement and improves electrical conductivities by more than two orders of magnitude. We attain electrical conductivities in excess of 50 S/cm when polyaniline films are exposed to dichloroacetic acid. Subjecting commercially available poly(ethylene dioxythiophene) to the same treatment yields a conductivity as high as 250 S/cm. This process has enabled the wide incorporation of conducting polymers in organic electronics; conducting polymers that are not typically processable can now be deposited from solution and their conductivities subsequently enhanced to practical levels via a simple and straightforward solvent annealing process. The treated conducting polymers are thus promising alternatives for metals as source and drain electrodes in organic thin-film transistors as well as for transparent metal oxide conductors as anodes in organic solar cells and light-emitting diodes.

  19. Property of individual conducting-polymer nanowires: conductance and FET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Tomihiro

    2006-03-01

    Electronic devices using organic molecules and nanowires have been intensively studied in dream of a smart life utilizing charming functions of organic materials, that are thin, light, flexible and yet inexpensive and safe for environment. A key step for measuring the property of organic nanowires and evaluating the performance of the nanowire devices is how to access them by appropriate nanoscopic methods. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based nanofabrication (SP nanofabrication) has been used to fabricate two- or four-probe fine electrodes and several kinds of nanowires made of conducting polymers have been evaluated by SPM and the fine electrodes made with Pt thin film fabricated on SiO2/doped Si or sapphire substrates [1,2]. We have tested conductivity of single poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) / poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) nanowires. After cutting each nanowires placed on the fine electrodes, the current was checked and we were able to confirm that the conductivity was derived from the PEDOT nanowires themselves. The temperature dependence of the conductivity was explained by the quasi one-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) model. We also will discuss on the field-effect-transistor (FET) made of a single nanowire. In collaboration with: S. Heike, M. Fujimori, Y. Suwa (ARL), H. Ichihara, S. Samitsu, A. Inomata, T. Shimomura, K. Ito (Univ. Tokyo), K. Miki, T. Ohno (NIMS), H. Mizuseki (IMR), Y. Terada, H. Shigekawa (Univ. Tsukuba). [1] J. P. Hill, W. Jin, A. Kosaka, T. Fukushima, H. Ichihara, T. Shimomura, K. Ito, T. Hashizume, N. Ishii, and T. Aida, Science 304, 1481 (2004). [2] S. Samitsu, T. Shimomura, K. Ito, S. Heike, M. Fujimori, S. Heike, and T. Hashizume, Appl. Phys. Lett., 86, 233103 (2005).

  20. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymer Vesicles as Robust Scaffolds for the Directed Assembly of Highly Crystalline Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingfeng

    2009-12-15

    We report the incorporation of various inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) (PbS, LaOF, LaF3, and TiO2, each capped by oleic acid, and CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs capped by trioctylphosphine oxide) into vesicles (d = 70-150 nm) formed by a sample of poly(styrene-b-acrylic acid) (PS4o4-b-PAA 62, where the subscripts refer to the degree of polymerization) in mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF), dioxane, and water. The block copolymer formed mixtures of crew-cut micelles and vesicles with some enhancement of the vesicle population when the NPs were present. The vesicle fraction could be isolated by selective sedimentation via centrifugation, followed by redispersion in water. The NPs appeared to be incorporated into the PAA layers on the internal and external walls of the vesicles (strongly favoring the former). NPs on the exterior surface of the vesicles could be removed completely by treating the samples with a solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) in water. The triangular nanoplatelets of LaF3 behaved differently. Stacks of these platelets were incorporated into solid colloidal entities, similar in size to the empty vesicles that accompanied them, during the coassembly as water was added to the polymer/LaF3/THF/ dioxane mixture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2007-01-01

    A highly conducting stretchable polymer material has been patterned using additive inkjet printing and by subtractive agarose stamping of a deactivation agent (hypochlorite). The material consisted of elastomeric polyurethane combined in an interpenetrating network with a conductive polymer, poly(3......,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The agarose stamping produced 50 μm wide conducting lines with high spatial fidelity. The deactivation agent was found to cause some degradation of the remaining conducting lines, as revealed by a stronger increase in resistance upon straining compared to the pristine polymer material...

  3. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  4. Epitaxy-assisted creation of PCBM nanocrystals and its application in constructing optimized morphology for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ligui; Lu, Guanghao; Li, Sijun; Tang, Haowei; Yang, Xiaoniu

    2008-12-11

    PCBM (a C60 derivative) is so far the most successful electron acceptor for bulk-heterojunction polymer photovoltaic (PV) cells. Here we present a novel method epitaxy-assisted creation of PCBM nanocrystals and their homogeneous distribution in the matrix using freshly cleaved mica sheet as the substrate. The highly matched epitaxy relationship between the unit cell of PCBM crystal and crystallographic (001) surface of mica induces abundant PCBM nuclei, which subsequently develop into nanoscale crystals with homogeneous dispersion in the composite film. Both the shape and size of these nanocrystals could be tuned via choosing the type of matrix polymer, film thickness, ratio of PCBM in the composite film, and annealing temperature. Thus, the obtained thin composite film is removed from the original mica substrate via the flotation technique and transferred to a real substrate for device completion. The success of this method has been verified by the substantially improved device performance, in particular the increased short-circuit current, which is heavily dependent on the morphology of the photoactive layer. Therefore, we have actually demonstrated a novel approach to construct preferred morphology for high-performance optoelectronic devices via resorting to other specific substrates which could induce the formation of this type morphology.

  5. Effect of complexing salt on conductivity of PVC/PEO polymer blend electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rajendran; Ravi Shanker Babu; M Usha Rani

    2011-12-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte membrane comprising poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(ehylene oxide) (PEO) and different lithium salts (LiClO4, LiBF4 and LiCF3SO3) were prepared by the solution casting technique. The effect of complexing salt on the ionic conductivity of the PVC/PEO host polymer is discussed. Solid polymer electrolyte films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, TG/DTA and ac impedance spectroscopic studies. The conductivity studies of these solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films are carried out as a function of frequency at various temperatures ranging from 302 K to 353 K. The maximum room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 0.079 × 10-4 S cm-1 for the film containing LiBF4 as the complexing salt. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of polymer electrolyte films seems to obey the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) relation.

  6. Spray-coated carbon nanotube carpets for creeping reduction of conducting polymer based artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaite, Aiva; Delagarde, Aude; Tondu, Bertrand; Souères, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Bergaud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    During cyclic actuation, conducting polymer based artificial muscles are often creeping from the initial movement range. One of the likely reasons of such behaviour is unbalanced charging during conducting polymer oxidation and reduction. To improve the actuation reversibility and subsequently the long time performance of ionic actuators, we suggest using spray-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets on the surface of the conducting polymer electrodes. We show that carbon nanotubes facilitate a conducting polymer redox reaction and improve its reversibility. Consequently, in the long term, charge accumulation in the polymer film is avoided leading to a significantly improved lifetime performance during cycling actuation. To our knowledge, it is the first time a simple solution to an actuator creeping problem has been suggested.

  7. Hybrid solar cells of conjugated polymers metal-oxide nanocrystals blends; state of the art and future research challenges in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiar, Ayi

    2013-09-01

    Ever-increasing world energy demand, depleting non-renewable energy resources and disruptive climate change due to greenhouse gases has aroused much interest in alternative renewable energy sources. Solar energy is one of the best available alternatives, for it is both abundant and clean. Solar cell is an effective device for converting solar energy into electricity. Indonesia is located on the equator where the sunlight is always available in abundance throughout the year; therefore solar cell would become the main source of electrical energy in Indonesia. However, the high cost of inorganic solar cells in spite of their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been a major constrain for their mass utilization in Indonesia. The only way to reduce the cost of production and installation is to find other materials which offer low-cost and easy processing into solar cells. Polymer solar cells have been intensively investigated for high performance and low-cost solar cells. Today, 9-11% power conversion efficiency (PCE) of small area polymer solar cells and 2-4% PCE of large area or module solar cells are already achieved. However, for practical application and mass production, 10% or higher PCE of module solar cells is highly required. The main strategic issue for improving the PCE is to use blend of conjugated polymer-metal oxide nanocrystals as active materials for hybrid solar cells, due to the good combination of the versatile solution processability of conjugated polymers and high charge carrier mobility of metal-oxide nanocrystals. In this paper, current development of hybrid solar cells worldwide and future research challenges in Indonesia will be discussed.

  8. High Seebeck effects from conducting polymer: Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) based thin-film device with hybrid metal/polymer/metal architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, Michael G [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Hu, Bin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Conductive polymers are of particular interest for thermoelectric applications due to their low thermal conductivity and relatively high electrical conductivity. In this study, commercially available conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) was used in a hybrid metal/polymer/metal thin film design in order to achieve a high Seebeck coefficient with the value of 252lV/k on a relatively low temperature scale. Polymer film thickness was varied in order to investigate its influence on the Seebeck effect. The high Seebeck coefficient indicates that the metal/polymer/metal design can develop a large entropy difference in internal energy of charge carriers between high and low-temperature metal electrodes to develop electrical potential due to charge transport in conducting polymer film through metal/polymer interface. Therefore, the metal/polymer/metal structure presents a new design to combine inorganic metals and organic polymers in thin-film form to develop Seebeck devices

  9. Proton Conductive Nanosheets Formed by Alignment of Metallo-Supramolecular Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rakesh K; Rana, Utpal; Chakraborty, Chanchal; Moriyama, Satoshi; Higuchi, Masayoshi

    2016-06-01

    Linear Fe(II)-based metallo-supramolecular polymer chains were precisely aligned by the simple replacement of the counteranion with an N,N'-bis(4-benzosulfonic acid)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylbisimide (PSA) dianion, which linked the polymer chains strongly. A parallel alignment of the polymer chains promoted by the PSA dianions yielded nanosheets formation. The nanosheets' structure was analyzed with FESEM, HRTEM, UV-vis, and XRD in detail. The nanosheets showed more than 5 times higher proton conductivity than the original polymer due to the smooth ionic conduction through the aligned polymer chains. The complex impedance plot with two semicircles also suggested the presence of grain boundaries in the polymer nanosheets.

  10. Electrochemical Switching of Conductance with Diarylethene-Based Redox-Active Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logtenberg, Hella; van der Velde, Jasper H. M.; de Mendoza, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    Reversible switching of conductance using redox triggered switching of a polymer-modified electrode is demonstrated. A bifunctional monomer comprising a central electroswitchable core and two bithiophene units enables formation of a film through anodic electropolymerization. The conductivity...... of the polymer can be switched electrochemically in a reversible manner by redox triggered opening and closing of the diarylethene unit. In the closed state, the conductivity of the modified electrode is higher than in the open state....

  11. Molecular motion in polymer electrolytes. An investigation of methods for improving the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, M I

    2002-01-01

    Three methods were explored with a view to enhancing the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes; namely the addition of an inert, inorganic filler, the addition of a plasticizer and the incorporation of the electrolyte in the pores of silica matrices. There have been a number of reports, which suggest the addition of nanocrystalline oxides to polymer electrolytes increases the ionic conductivities by about a factor of two. In this thesis studies of the polymer electrolyte NaSCN.P(EO) sub 8 with added nanocrystalline alumina powder are reported which show no evidence of enhanced conductivity. The addition of a plasticizer to polymer electrolytes will increase the ionic conductivity. A detailed study was made of the polymer electrolytes LiT.P(EO) sub 1 sub 0 and LiClO sub 4.P(EO) sub 1 sub 0 with added ethylene carbonate plasticizer. The conductivities showed an enhancement, however this disappeared on heating under vacuum. The present work suggests that the plasticised system is not thermodynamically stabl...

  12. Review paper: progress in the field of conducting polymers for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendrea, Anca-Dana; Cianga, Luminita; Cianga, Ioan

    2011-07-01

    This review focuses on one of the most exciting applications area of conjugated conducting polymers, which is tissue engineering. Strategies used for the biocompatibility improvement of this class of polymers (including biomolecules' entrapment or covalent grafting) and also the integrated novel technologies for smart scaffolds generation such as micropatterning, electrospinning, self-assembling are emphasized. These processing alternatives afford the electroconducting polymers nanostructures, the most appropriate forms of the materials that closely mimic the critical features of the natural extracellular matrix. Due to their capability to electronically control a range of physical and chemical properties, conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene and/or their derivatives and composites provide compatible substrates which promote cell growth, adhesion, and proliferation at the polymer-tissue interface through electrical stimulation. The activities of different types of cells on these materials are also presented in detail. Specific cell responses depend on polymers surface characteristics like roughness, surface free energy, topography, chemistry, charge, and other properties as electrical conductivity or mechanical actuation, which depend on the employed synthesis conditions. The biological functions of cells can be dramatically enhanced by biomaterials with controlled organizations at the nanometer scale and in the case of conducting polymers, by the electrical stimulation. The advantages of using biocompatible nanostructures of conducting polymers (nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, and nanofilaments) in tissue engineering are also highlighted.

  13. Study of advanced ion conducting polymers by relaxation, diffusion and spectroscopy NMR methods

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Jardón Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Advances on secondary lithium ion batteries imply the use of solid polymer electrolytes, which represent a promising solution to improve safety issues in high energy density batteries. Through dissolution of lithium salts into a polymeric host, such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), ion conducting polymers are obtained. The Li+ ions will be localized in the proximity of the oxygen atoms in the PEO chains and thus, their motion strongly correlated with the segmental reorientation of the polymer. ...

  14. A General Formula for Ion Concentration-Dependent Electrical Conductivities in Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahardika P. Aji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to develop a model for describing the effect of ion concentration on the electrical conductivity of polymer electrolytes by considering two mechanisms simultaneously: Enhancements of ion concentration and amorphous phase. Approach: The problems based on new observations in polymer electrolyte when ion concentration in the polymer electrolytes was increased, both the fraction of amorphous phase and the charge carriers increase simultaneously. The model was based on the assumption when ions were inserted into the polymer host, there was an optimum distance between ions at which the ions move easily throughout the polymer. The average distance between ions in the polymer depends on the ion concentration. And we also considered the effect of ion concentration on the amorphous phase in the polymer. Results: We inspected the validity of the model by comparing the model predictions with various experimental data. The new analytical expressions for the electrical conductivity dependent of ion concentration was developed by considering two mechanisms simultaneously in polymer electrolytes, i.e., enhancement of the carries concentration and amorphous phase fraction. Interestingly, most of fitting parameters were not arbitrarily selected, but were derived from the appropriate experimental data. Conclusion: The model can be used to explain the conductivity behavior of other polymer electrolyte systems by selecting appropriately less number of parameters. This model result is fully supported by available experimental data.

  15. Thermoelectric Properties of Solution-Processed n-Doped Ladder-Type Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Suhao; Sun, Hengda; Ail, Ujwala;

    2016-01-01

    Ladder-type "torsion-free" conducting polymers (e.g., polybenzimidazobenzophenanthroline (BBL)) can outperform "structurally distorted" donor-acceptor polymers (e.g., P(NDI2OD-T2)), in terms of conductivity and thermoelectric power factor. The polaron delocalization length is larger in BBL than...... in P(NDI2OD-T2), resulting in a higher measured polaron mobility. Structure-function relationships are drawn, setting material-design guidelines for the next generation of conducting thermoelectric polymers....

  16. Understanding the role of different conductive polymers in improving the nanostructured sulfur cathode performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiyang; Zhang, Qianfan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Yao, Hongbin; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Lithium sulfur batteries have brought significant advancement to the current state-of-art battery technologies because of their high theoretical specific energy, but their wide-scale implementation has been impeded by a series of challenges, especially the dissolution of intermediate polysulfides species into the electrolyte. Conductive polymers in combination with nanostructured sulfur have attracted great interest as promising matrices for the confinement of lithium polysulfides. However, the roles of different conductive polymers on the electrochemical performances of sulfur electrode remain elusive and poorly understood due to the vastly different structural configurations of conductive polymer-sulfur composites employed in previous studies. In this work, we systematically investigate the influence of different conductive polymers on the sulfur cathode based on conductive polymer-coated hollow sulfur nanospheres with high uniformity. Three of the most well-known conductive polymers, polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPY), and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), were coated, respectively, onto monodisperse hollow sulfur nanopsheres through a facile, versatile, and scalable polymerization process. The sulfur cathodes made from these well-defined sulfur nanoparticles act as ideal platforms to study and compare how coating thickness, chemical bonding, and the conductivity of the polymers affected the sulfur cathode performances from both experimental observations and theoretical simulations. We found that the capability of these three polymers in improving long-term cycling stability and high-rate performance of the sulfur cathode decreased in the order of PEDOT > PPY > PANI. High specific capacities and excellent cycle life were demonstrated for sulfur cathodes made from these conductive polymer-coated hollow sulfur nanospheres.

  17. An Integrated Laboratory Approach toward the Preparation of Conductive Poly(phenylene vinylene) Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoerzer, Timm A.; Balaich, Gary J.; Miller, Hannah A.; Iacono, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) represents an important class of conjugated, conducting polymers that have been readily exploited in the preparation of organic electronic materials. In this experiment, students prepare a PPV polymer via a facile multistep synthetic sequence with robust spectroscopic evaluation of synthetic intermediates and the…

  18. Regiochemistry of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene): Synthesis and Investigation of a Conducting Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenfus, Ted M.; Hermanson, David L.; Kohl, Stuart G.; Melby, Jacob H.; Thoma, Laura M.; Carpenter, Nancy E.; Filho, Demetrio A. da Silva; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments for undergraduate laboratory courses (e.g., organic, polymer, inorganic) have been developed. These experiments focus on understanding the regiochemistry of the conducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The substitution patterns in P3HTs control their conformational features, which, in turn, dictates the [pi]…

  19. Poly[di(2-thiophenyl)carborane]s: conducting polymers with high electrochemical and thermal resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The synthesis, X-ray structure and electropolymerization of three new carbon-carbon linked di(2-thiophenyl)carboranes (, and ) are reported; the resulting polymers bearing icosahedral ortho-, meta- or para-carborane clusters show high thermal and electrochemical stabilities in comparison with unsubstituted polythiophene; the ortho-carborane-containing polymer has the highest conductivity of the new materials.

  20. Injection molded chips with integrated conducting polymer electrodes for electroporation of cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristian; Hansen, Morten; Matschuk, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    We present the design-concept for an all polymer injection molded single use microfluidic device. The fabricated devices comprise integrated conducting polymer electrodes and Luer fitting ports to allow for liquid and electrical access. A case study of low voltage electroporation of biological...

  1. Poly[di(2-thiophenyl)carborane]s: conducting polymers with high electrochemical and thermal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Erhong; Fabre, Bruno; Fronczek, Frank R; Vicente, M Graça H

    2007-11-14

    The synthesis, X-ray structure and electropolymerization of three new carbon-carbon linked di(2-thiophenyl)carboranes (, and ) are reported; the resulting polymers bearing icosahedral ortho-, meta- or para-carborane clusters show high thermal and electrochemical stabilities in comparison with unsubstituted polythiophene; the ortho-carborane-containing polymer has the highest conductivity of the new materials.

  2. The dependence of polymer conductivity on the work function of metallic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaevskii, M.S. [A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nikolaeva, M.N. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Bolshoi Pr. 31, 199004 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rentzsch, R. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Ionov, A.N.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that the occurrence of metallic conductivity in polymers is due to their electrification. In particular, the current density depends on the electron work function of metallic electrodes which are in contact with the polymer. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Novel, Solvent-Free, Single Ion-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-31

    the selected polymer electrolyte membrane and a LiFePO4 -based composite cathode film. The latter was prepared by blending the LiFePO4 active...following: charge Li+ + FePO4 + e LiFePO4 [1] discharge to which is associate a maximum...as separator in a Li/ LiFePO4 battery. . 1.Experimental. Calixpyrrole (CP, provided by the University of Warsaw), LiBOB (Libby) and PEO

  4. Palladium–tin catalysts on conducting polymers for nitrate removal

    OpenAIRE

    Dodouche, Ibrahim; Barbosa, Danns Pereira; Varela, Maria do Carmo Rangel Santos; Epron, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Trabalho completo: acesso restrito, p. 50–55 Palladium–tin catalysts were prepared by successive impregnation or co-impregnation onto polyaniline and polypyrrole. The catalytic tests showed that this type of catalyst is active for nitrate reduction. The use of polymer support improves the selectivity of the catalyst toward nitrogen formation compared to a classical support, and avoids the apparition of intermediate nitrite. These better performances of the catalysts supported on electroact...

  5. Effect of plasticizer and fumed silica on ionic conductivity behaviour of proton conducting polymer electrolytes containing HPF6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jitender Paul Sharma; S S Sekhon

    2013-08-01

    The effect of addition of propylene carbonate (PC) and nano-sized fumed silica on the ionic conductivity behaviour of proton conducting polymer electrolytes containing different concentrations of hexafluorophosphoric acid (HPF6) in polyethylene oxide (PEO) has been studied. The addition of PC results in an increase in ionic conductivity, whereas the addition of nano-sized fumed silica improves mechanical strength of electrolytes along with a small increase in ionic conductivity. It was observed that the simultaneous addition of PC and fumed silica results in electrolytes with optimum value of ionic conductivity and other properties.

  6. Investigation of ITO free transparent conducting polymer based electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Sapna, Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2016-05-01

    The last few decades have seen a significant improvement in organic semiconductor technology related to solar cell, light emitting diode and display panels. The material and structure of the transparent electrode is one of the major concerns for superior performance of devices such as OPV, OLED, touch screen and LCD display. Commonly used ITO is now restricted due to scarcity of indium, its poor mechanical properties and rigidity, and mismatch of energy levels with the active layer. Nowadays DMD (dielectric-metal-dielectric) structure is one of the prominent candidates as alternatives to ITO based electrode. We have used solution based spin coated polymer layer as the dielectric layer with silver thin film embedded in between to make a polymer-metal-polymer (PMP) structure for TCE applications. The PMP structure shows low resistivity (2.3 x 10-4Ω-cm), high carrier concentration (2.9 x 1021 cm-3) and moderate transparency. The multilayer PMP structure is characterized with XRD, AFM and Hall measurement to prove its suitability for opto-electronic device applications.

  7. Protocol and cell responses in three-dimensional conductive collagen gel scaffolds with conductive polymer nanofibres for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Pareta, Rajesh; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2014-02-06

    It has been established that nerves and skeletal muscles respond and communicate via electrical signals. In regenerative medicine, there is current emphasis on using conductive nanomaterials to enhance electrical conduction through tissue-engineered scaffolds to increase cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. We investigated the role of chemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conductive polymer nanofibres for conductive gels. To mimic a naturally derived extracellular matrix for cell growth, type I collagen gels were reconstituted with conductive polymer nanofibres and cells. Cell viability and proliferation of PC-12 cells and human skeletal muscle cells on these three-dimensional conductive collagen gels were evaluated in vitro. PANI and PEDOT nanofibres were found to be cytocompatible with both cell types and the best results (i.e. cell growth and gel electrical conductivity) were obtained with a low concentration (0.5 wt%) of PANI. After 7 days of culture in the conductive gels, the densities of both cell types were similar and comparable to collagen positive controls. Moreover, PC-12 cells were found to differentiate in the conductive hydrogels without the addition of nerve growth factor or electrical stimulation better than collagen control. Importantly, electrical conductivity of the three-dimensional gel scaffolds increased by more than 400% compared with control. The increased conductivity and injectability of the cell-laden collagen gels to injury sites in order to create an electrically conductive extracellular matrix makes these biomaterials very conducive for the regeneration of tissues.

  8. Photo-induced charge transfer and relaxation of persistent charge carriers in polymer/nanocrystal composites for applications in hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Marc Daniel; Zutz, Folker; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Borchert, Holgert; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [University of Oldenburg, Department of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Oldenburg (Germany); Maydell, Karsten von [EWE Research Center for Energy Technology, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2009-12-09

    The photo-induced charge transfer and the dynamics of persistent charge carriers in blends of semiconducting polymers and nanocrystals are investigated. Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is used as the electron donor material, while the acceptor moiety is established by CdSe nanocrystals (nc-CdSe) prepared via colloidal synthesis. As a reference system, organic blends of P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are studied as well. The light-induced charge transfer between P3HT and the acceptor materials is studied by photoluminescence (PL), photo-induced absorption (PIA) and light-induced electron spin resonance spectroscopy (LESR). Compared to neat P3HT samples, both systems show an intensified formation of polarons in the polymer upon photo-excitation, pointing out successful separation of photogenerated charge carriers. Additionally, relaxation of the persistent charge carriers is investigated, and significant differences are found between the hybrid composite and the purely organic system. While relaxation, reflected in the transient signal decay of the polaron signal, is fast in the organic system, the hybrid blends exhibit long-term persistence. The appearance of a second, slow recombination channel indicates the existence of deep trap states in the hybrid system, which leads to the capture of a large fraction of charge carriers. A change of polymer conformation due to the presence of nc-CdSe is revealed by low temperature LESR measurements and microwave saturation techniques. The impact of the different recombination behavior on the photovoltaic efficiency of both systems is discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. 3D fabrication of all-polymer conductive microstructures by two photon polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurselis, Kestutis; Kiyan, Roman; Bagratashvili, Victor N; Popov, Vladimir K; Chichkov, Boris N

    2013-12-16

    A technique to fabricate electrically conductive all-polymer 3D microstructures is reported. Superior conductivity, high spatial resolution and three-dimensionality are achieved by successive application of two-photon polymerization and in situ oxidative polymerization to a bi-component formulation, containing a photosensitive host matrix and an intrinsically conductive polymer precursor. By using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), the conductivity of 0.04 S/cm is reached, which is the highest value for the two-photon polymerized all-polymer microstructures to date. The measured electrical conductivity dependency on the EDOT concentration indicates percolation phenomenon and a three-dimensional nature of the conductive pathways. Tunable conductivity, biocompatibility, and environmental stability are the characteristics offered by PEG-DA/EDOT blends which can be employed in biomedicine, MEMS, microfluidics, and sensorics.

  10. BF3-doped polyaniline: A novel conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debangshu Chaudhuri; D D Sarma

    2006-07-01

    We review the unusual structural, transport and magnetic properties of highly conducting polyaniline, doped with boron trifluoride. Our studies establish the unique conducting state of this system, which is in distinct contrast with the conventional proton-doped polyaniline samples.

  11. Electrically conducting polymer nanostructures confined in anodized aluminum oxide templates (AAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blaszczyk-Lezak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically or extrinsically conducting polymers are considered good candidates for replacement of metals in specific applications. In order to further expand their applications, it seems necessary to examine the influence of confinement effects on the electric properties of nanostructured conducting polymers in comparison to the bulk. The present study reports a novel way to fabricate and characterize high quality and controllable one-dimensional (1D polymer nanostructures with promising electrical properties, with the aid of two examples polyaniline (PANI and poly(vinylidene fluoride with multiwall carbon nanotubes (PVDF-MWCNT as representative of intrinsically and extrinsically conducting polymers, respectively. In this work, porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO templates have been used both as a nanoreactor to synthesize 1D PANI nanostructures by polymerization of the ANI monomer and as a nanomold to prepare 1D PVDFMWCNT nanorods by melt infiltration of the precursor PVDF-MWCNT film. The obtained polymer nanostructures were morphologically and chemically characterized by SEM and Confocal Raman Spectroscopy, respectively, and the electrical properties determined by Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS in a non-destructive way. SEM study allowed to establish the final nanostructure of PANI and PVDF-MWCNT and confirmed, in both cases, the well-aligned and uniform rodlike polymer nanostructures. Confocal Raman Microscopy has been performed to study the formation of the conducting emeraldine salt of PANI through all the length of AAO nanocavities. Finally, the electrical conductivity of both types of polymer nanostructures was easily evaluated by means of Dielectric Spectroscopy.

  12. Redox-exchange induced heterogeneous RuO2-conductive polymer nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhe; Duay, Jonathon; Hu, Junkai; Lee, Sang Bok

    2014-06-28

    A redox exchange mechanism between potassium perruthenate (KRuO4) and the functional groups of selected polymers is used here to induce RuO2 into and onto conductive polymer nanowires by simply soaking the polymer nanowire arrays in KRuO4 solution. Conductive polymer nanowire arrays of polypyrrole (PPY) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were studied in this work. SEM and TEM results show that the RuO2 material was distributed differently in the PPY and PEDOT nanowire matrices. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to confirm the dispersion and formation of RuO2 materials in these polymer nanowires. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments were used to characterize their electrochemical performance. RuO2-polymer samples prepared with a 6 min soaking time in 10 mM KRuO4 solution show a high specific capacitance of 371 F g(-1) and 500 F g(-1) for PEDOT-based and PPY-based composite nanowires, respectively. This is attributed to the high exposure area of the conductive RuO2 and the good conductivity of the polymer matrix. This work demonstrates a simple method to synthesize heterogeneous polymer based-materials through the redox reaction between conductive polymers and high oxidation state transition metal oxide ions. Different heterogeneous nanocomposites were obtained depending on the polymer properties, and high energy storage performance of the metal oxides can be achieved within these heterogeneous nanostructures.

  13. Cotton Fabric Coated with Conducting Polymers and its Application in Monitoring of Carnivorous Plant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Bajgar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the electrical plant response to mechanical stimulation monitored with the help of conducting polymers deposited on cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers in aqueous medium. Thus, modified fabrics were again coated with polypyrrole or polyaniline, respectively, in order to investigate any synergetic effect between both polymers with respect to conductivity and its stability during repeated dry cleaning. The coating was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The resulting fabrics have been used as electrodes to collect the electrical response to the stimulation of a Venus flytrap plant. This is a paradigm of the use of conducting polymers in monitoring of plant neurobiology.

  14. Conductive Polymer Microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of transmitter release from living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Matteucci, Marco; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    driven cell trapping inside closed chip devices. Conductive polymer microelectrodes were used to measure transmitter release using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. By measuring the oxidation current at a cyclic voltammogram, the concentration...

  15. Synthesis and Ionic Conductivity of Network Polymer Electrolytes with Internal Plasticizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jie KANG; Shi Bi FANG

    2004-01-01

    Network polymer electrolytes with free oligo(oxyethylene) chains as internal plasticizers were prepared by cross-linking poly(ethylene glycol) acrylates. The effects of salt concentration and properties of internal plasticizers on ionic conductivity were studied.

  16. BIOAFFINITY SENSORS BASED ON CONDUCTING POLYMERS: A SHORT REVIEW. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of new electrode materials has expanded the range and classes of detectable compounds using electroanalytical methods. Conducting electroactive polymers (CEPs) have been demonstrated to have remarkable sensing applications through their ability to be reversibly ox...

  17. Tailoring Thermal Conductivity of Single-stranded Carbon-chain Polymers through Atomic Mass Modification

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Quanwen; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the thermal conductivity of polymers is central to enlarge their applications in the thermal management of flexible integrated circuits. Progress has been made over the past decade by fabricating materials with various nanostructures, but a clear relationship between various functional groups and thermal properties of polymers remains to be established. Here, we numerically study the thermal conductivity of single-stranded carbon-chain polymers with multiple substituents of hydrogen atoms through atomic mass modification. We find that their thermal conductivity can be tuned by atomic mass modifications as revealed through molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results suggest that heavy homogeneous substituents do not assist heat transport and trace amounts of heavy substituents can in fact hinder heat transport substantially. Our analysis indicates that carbon chain has the biggest contribution (over 80%) to the thermal conduction in single-stranded carbon-chain polymers. We further demonst...

  18. Ionic conductivity and battery characteristic studies of a new PAN-based Na+ ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Jyothi, N.; Vijaya Kumar, K.; Sunita Sundari, G.; Narayana Murthy, P.

    2016-03-01

    Sodium ion conducting gel polymer electrolytes based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with ethylene carbonate and dimethyl formamide as plasticizing solvents are prepared by the solution cast technique. These electrolyte films are free standing, transparent and dimensionally stable. Na+ ions are derived from NaI. The structural properties of pure and complex formations have been examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies and differential scanning calorimetric studies. The variation of the conductivity with salt concentration ranging from 10 to 40 wt% is studied. The sample containing 30 wt% of NaI exhibits the highest conductivity of 2.35 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature (303 K) and 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 373 K. The conductivity-temperature dependence of polymer electrolyte films obeys Arrhenius behavior with activation energy in the range of 0.25-0.46 eV. The transport numbers both electronic ( t e) and ionic ( t i) are evaluated using Wagner's polarization technique. It is revealed that the conducting species are predominantly due to ions. The ionic transport number of highest conducting film is found to be 0.991. Solid-state battery with configuration Na/(PAN + NaI)/(I2 + C + electrolyte) is developed using the highest conducting gel polymer electrolyte system and the discharge characteristics of the cell are evaluated over the load of 100 KΩ.

  19. Porous polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Jiang, Qingbai; Tang, Siqi; Li, Shengliang; Chen, Xu

    2016-03-01

    Porous polymer electrolytes (PPEs) are attractive for developing lithium-ion batteries because of the combined advantages of liquid and solid polymer electrolytes. In the present study, a new porous polymer membrane doped with phytic acid (PA) is prepared, which is used as a crosslinker in polymer electrolyte matrix and can also plasticize porous polymer electrolyte membranes, changing them into soft tough flexible materials. A PEO-PMMA-LiClO4-x wt.% PA (x = weight of PA/weight of polymer, PEO: poly(ethylene oxide); PMMA: poly(methyl methacrylate)) polymer membrane is prepared by a simple evaporation method. The effects of the ratio of PA to PEO-PMMA on the properties of the porous membrane, including morphology, porous structure, and mechanical property, are systematically studied. PA improves the porous structure and mechanical properties of polymer membrane. The maximum tensile strength and elongation of the porous polymer membranes are 20.71 MPa and 45.7% at 15 wt.% PA, respectively. Moreover, the PPEs with 15 wt.% PA has a conductivity of 1.59 × 10-5 S/cm at 20 °C, a good electrochemical window (>5 V), and a low interfacial resistance. The results demonstrate the compatibility of the mechanical properties and conductivity of the PPEs, indicating that PPEs have good application prospects for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Water-free Alkaline Polymer-inorganic Acid Complexes with High Conductivity at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.V.Chervakov; M.V.Andriianova; V.V.Riabenko; A.V.Markevich; E.M.Shembel; D.Meshri

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Recently increased interest is shown to proton conducting materials based on the alkaline polymer-inorganic acid complexes that is caused by a possibility of their application as the high-temperature electrolyte systems for various electrochemical devices (fuel cells,sensors,lithium power sources etc.).Complexes of inorganic acids with the alkaline polymers (polybenzimidazoles[1],polyvinylpyridines[2]) are characterized by high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures (up to 10-2 Ω-1·cm-1) a...

  1. Electrochemical evaluation of the p-Si/conducting polymer interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Distefano, S.; Moacanin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental investigation of the contact resistance and interfacial properties of a p-Si/conducting polymer interface for solar cell applications. The electronic character of the polymer/semiconductor function is determined by studying the electrochemical behavior of both poly(isothianapthene) (PITN) and polypyrrole (PP) in an acetonitrile solution on p-silicon electrodes. The results obtained indicate that while PITN is intrinsically more conductive than PP, neither passivates surface states nor forms ohmic contact.

  2. Ionic conductivity of polymer gels deriving from alkali metal ionic liquids and negatively charged polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogihara, Wataru; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Ohno Hiroyuki [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Sun, Jiazeng; Forsyth, M. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia). School of Materials Engineering; MacFarlane, D.R. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia). School of Chemistry

    2004-04-30

    We have prepared polymer gel electrolytes with alkali metal ionic liquids (AMILs) that inherently contain alkali metal ions. The AMIL consisted of sulfate anion, imidazolium cation, and alkali metal cation. AMILs were mixed directly with poly(3-sulfopropyl acrylate) lithium salt or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) lithium salt to form polymer gels. The ionic conductivity of these gels decreased with increasing polymer fraction, as in general ionic liquid/polymer mixed systems. At low polymer concentrations, these gels displayed excellent ionic conductivity of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature. Gelation was found to cause little change in the {sup 7}Li diffusion coefficient of the ionic liquid, as measured by pulse-field-gradient NMR. These data strongly suggest that the lithium cation migrates in successive pathways provided by the ionic liquids. (author)

  3. Conductive network formation of carbon nanotubes in elastic polymer microfibers and its effect on the electrical conductance: Experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Woo; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Jeongmin; Kim, Un Jeong; Im, Kyuhyun; Park, Jong-Jin; Sung, Bong June

    2016-05-21

    We investigate how the electrical conductance of microfibers (made of polymers and conductive nanofillers) decreases upon uniaxial deformation by performing both experiments and simulations. Even though various elastic conductors have been developed due to promising applications for deformable electronic devices, the mechanism at a molecular level for electrical conductance change has remained elusive. Previous studies proposed that the decrease in electrical conductance would result from changes in either distances or contact numbers between conductive fillers. In this work, we prepare microfibers of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/polyvinyl alcohol composites and investigate the electrical conductance and the orientation of SWCNTs upon uniaxial deformation. We also perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations, which reproduce experimental results for the relative decrease in conductance and the SWCNTs orientation. We investigate the electrical networks of SWCNTs in microfibers and find that the decrease in the electrical conductance upon uniaxial deformation should be attributed to a subtle change in the topological structure of the electrical network.

  4. Highly electrically conductive nanocomposites based on polymer-infused graphene sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Samad, Yarjan Abdul; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Alhassan, Saeed M; Liao, Kin

    2014-04-11

    Conductive polymer composites require a three-dimensional 3D network to impart electrical conductivity. A general method that is applicable to most polymers for achieving a desirable graphene 3D network is still a challenge. We have developed a facile technique to fabricate highly electrical conductive composite using vacuum-assisted infusion of epoxy into graphene sponge GS scaffold. Macroscopic GSs were synthesized from graphene oxide solution by a hydrothermal method combined with freeze drying. The GS/epoxy composites prepared display consistent isotropic electrical conductivity around 1 S/m, and it is found to be close to that of the pristine GS. Compared with neat epoxy, GS/epoxy has a 12-orders-of-magnitude increase in electrical conductivity, attributed to the compactly interconnected graphene network constructed in the polymer matrix. This method can be extended to other materials to fabricate highly conductive composites for practical applications such as electronic devices, sensors, actuators, and electromagnetic shielding.

  5. Making Glasses Conduct: Electrochemical Doping of Redox-Active Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudouris, Bryan

    Optoelectronically-active macromolecules have been established as promising materials in myriad organic electronic applications (e.g., organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices). To date, however, the majority of the work surrounding these materials has focused on materials with a great deal of conjugation along their macromolecular backbones and with varying degrees of crystalline structure. Here, we describe an emerging class of macromolecular charge conductors, radical polymers, that: (1) do not contain conjugation and (2) are completely amorphous glasses. Radical polymers contain non-conjugated macromolecular backbones and stable radical sites along the side chains of the electronically-active materials. In contrast to conjugated polymer systems, these materials conduct charge in the solid state through oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions along these pendant groups. Specifically, we demonstrate that controlling the chemical functionality of the pendant groups and the molecular mobility of the macromolecular backbones significantly impacts the charge transport ability of the pristine (i.e., not doped) radical polymers species. Through proper control of these crucial parameters, we show that radical polymers can have electrical conductivity and charge mobility values on par with commonly-used conjugated polymers. Importantly, we also highlight the ability to dope radical polymers with redox-active small molecule species. This doping, in turn, increases the electrical conductivity of the glassy radical polymer thin films in a manner akin to what is observed in traditional conjugated polymer systems. In this way, we establish a means by which to fabricate optically-transparent and colorless thin film glasses capable of conducting charge in a rather rapid manner. We anticipate that these fundamental insights will prove crucial in developing new transparent conducting layers for future electronic applications.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Enrico; Podsiadlo, Paul; Shevchenko, Elena; Ogletree, D. Frank; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Ashby, Paul D.

    2009-12-30

    Colloidal nanocrystals attract significant interest due to their potential applications in electronic, magnetic, and optical devices. Nanocrystal supercrystals (NCSCs) are particularly appealing for their well ordered structure and homogeneity. The interactions between organic ligands that passivate the inorganic nanocrystal cores critically influence their self-organization into supercrystals, By investigating the mechanical properties of supercrystals, we can directly characterize the particle-particle interactions in a well-defined geometry, and gain insight into both the self-assembly process and the potential applications of nanocrystal supercrystals. Here we report nanoindentation studies of well ordered lead-sulfide (Pbs) nanocrystal supercrystals. Their modulus and hardness were found to be similar to soft polymers at 1.7 GPa and 70 MPa respectively and the fractures toughness was 39 KPa/m1/2, revealing the extremely brittle nature of these materials.

  7. Characteristics and Mechanisms in Ion-Conducting Polymer Films as Chemical Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUGHES,ROBERT C.; YELTON,WILLIAM G.; PFEIFER,KENT B.; PATEL,SANJAY V.

    2000-07-12

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are widely used in batteries and fuel cells because of the high ionic conductivity that can be achieved at room temperature. The ions are usually Li or protons, although other ions can be shown to conduct in these polymer films. There has been very little published work on SPE films used as chemical sensors. The authors have found that thin films of polymers like polyethylene oxide (PEO) are very sensitive to low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as common solvents. Evidence of a new sensing mechanism involving the percolation of ions through narrow channels of amorphous polymer is presented. They present impedance spectroscopy of PEO films in the frequency range 0.0001 Hz to 1 MHz for different concentrations of VOCs and relative humidity. They find that the measurement frequency is important for distinguishing ionic conductivity from the double layer capacitance and the parasitic capacitance.

  8. A Route for Polymer Nanocomposites with Engineered Electrical Conductivity and Percolation Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence T. Drzal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape, intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within the polymer, and polymer crystallinity, on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of polypropylene based nanocomposites. The conductive reinforcements used are exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, carbon black, vapor grown carbon fibers and polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers. The composites are made using melt mixing followed by injection molding. A coating method is also employed to improve the nanofiller’s dispersion within the polymer and compression molding is used to alter the nanofiller’s alignment.

  9. Studies on AC Electrical Conductivity of CdCl2 Doped PVA Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Nanda Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-based polymer electrolytes were prepared with various concentrations of CdCl2 using solvent casting method. Prepared polymer films were investigated using line profile analysis employing X-ray diffraction (XRD data. XRD results show that the crystallite size decreases and then increases with increase in CdCl2. AC conductivity in these polymer increases films first and then decreases. These observations are in agreement with XRD results. The highest ionic conductivity of 1.68E − 08 Scm−1 was observed in 4% of CdCl2 in PVA polymer blend. Crystallite ellipsoids for different concentrations of CdCl2 are computed here using whole pattern powder fitting (WPPF indicating that crystallite area decreases with increase in the ionic conductivity.

  10. Distinctive Magneto Conductance and Universal Scaling in One Dimensional Polymer Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ajeong; Kim, Kyung Ho; Hong, Sung Ju; Goh, Munju; Akagi, Kazuo; Kaner, Richard B.; Park, Yung Woo

    2012-02-01

    The conducting polymers are one dimensional organic hydrocarbon systems where the non-linear local excitations such as solitons, polarons and bipolarons were predicted based on the electron-phonon interactions. The local excitations have different spin-charge relations in different kinds of polymers. In this work, the magneto conductance (MC) of polymer nanofibers is investigated in high magnetic field at low temperature to understand both spin (magneto) and charge (conductance) of the charge carriers simultaneously. We discovered the distinctive zero MC in polyacetylene nanofibers while the finite MC in polyaniline and polythiophene nanofibers. On the other hand, the charge transports of polymer nanofibers as a function of temperature and bias are observed to be scaled onto the universal curve. We conclude that the universal scaling and the zero MC (the finite MC) in polyacetylene (polyaniline and polythiophene) nanofibers are from the interacting spinless charged solitons (interacting polarons which have both spin and charge).

  11. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly

  12. Elucidating interactions and conductivity of newly synthesised low bandgap polymer with protic and aprotic ionic liquids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Attri

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have examined the conductivity and interaction studies of ammonium and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs with the newly synthesised low bandgap polymer (Poly(2-heptadecyl-4-vinylthieno[3,4-d]thiazole (PHVTT. Use of low bandgap polymers is the most suitable way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiations for solar cells. But, still there is lack of most efficient low bandgap polymer. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesised a new low bandgap polymer and investigated its interaction with the ILs to enhance its conductivity. ILs may undergo almost unlimited structural variations; these structural variations have attracted extensive attention in polymer studies. The aim of present work is to illustrate the state of art progress of implementing the interaction of ILs (protic and aprotic ILs with newly synthesised low bandgap polymer. In addition to this, our UV-Vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy results have revealed that all studied ILs (tributylmethylammonium methyl sulfate ([N1444][MeSO4] from ammonium family and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl from imidazolium family have potential to interact with polymer. Our semi empirical calculation with help of Hyperchem 7 shows that protic IL ([Mim]Cl interacts strongly with the low bandgap polymer through the H-bonding. Further, protic ILs shows enhanced conductivity than aprotic ILs in association with low bandgap polymer. This study provides the combined effect of low bandgap polymer and ILs that may generate many theoretical and experimental opportunities.

  13. A study on nanocomposites made of a conducting polymer and metallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed Ahmed Khalil, Rania [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Abdelaziz Mahmoud Abdelaziz, Ramzy [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Strunkus, Thomas; Faupel, Franz [Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute of Polymer Research, Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Conducting polymers offer a unique combination of properties that makes them attractive materials for many electronic applications. PEDOT:PSS is one of the most successful conductive materials which is considered to be highly stable and resisting degradation under typical ambient conditions. In this study, we have prepared two sets of conducting polymer nano-composites. The first set is composed of PEDOT:PSS doped with different aspect ratios of gold nanorod and the other one is PEDOT:PSS doped with different sizes of gold nanosphere. The chemical reduction method was used for preparing the nano-particles. Indeed, gold nanorods and nanosphere which exhibit tunable absorption as a function of their size and aspect ratio, respectively, have tuned the absorption coefficient for PEDOT: PSS. The nature of the dopant as well as the degree of doping has played a significant role in the improvement of the electrical conductivity of conducting polymer.

  14. Gain Characteristics of Polymer Waveguide Amplifiers Based on NaYF4:Ybl+, Er3+ Nanocrystals at 0.54 µm Wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Yin, Jiao; Jia, Zhixu; Song, Weiye; Wang, Xibin; Qin, Guanshi; Zhao, Dan; Qin, Weiping; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming

    2016-04-01

    Gain characteristics of polymer waveguide amplifiers based on NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanocrystals (NCs) at 0.54 µm wavelength were investigated through numerical simulations. NaYF4:18%Yb3+, 1 0%Er3+ NCs were doped into SU-8 2005 polymer matrix as the core of a polymer waveguide. The absorption spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of the NCs were recorded and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt parameters were achieved by means of Judd-Ofelt theory: Ω2 = 6.302 x 10(-20) cm2, Ω4 = 0.69 x 10(-20) cm2, Ω6 =7.572 x 10(-20) cm2. We simulated the gain characteristics of the waveguide amplifier at 0.54 µm wavelength by combining the atomic rate equations with power propaga- tion equations. The gain curves had the saturation effects. A maximum gain -4.3 dB for the 5 cm waveguide with the Er3+ concentration of ~7.5 x 1025 m-3 was obtained.

  15. Investigating the Inter-Tube Conduction Mechanism in Polycarbonate Nanocomposites Prepared with Conductive Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2015-12-16

    A well-known strategy to improve the electrical conductivity of polymers is to dope them with high-aspect-ratio and conductive nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). However, these nanocomposites also exhibit undesirable properties such as damage-sensitive and history-dependent conductivity because their macroscopic electrical conductivity is largely determined by the tunneling effect at the tube/tube interface. To reduce these issues, new nanocomposites have been developed with CNTs that have been coated with a conductive layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). It has been posited that the insulating region between the CNTs is replaced by a conductive polymer bridge; this has not been proven up to now. We propose here to investigate in-depth how the macroscopic conductivity of these materials is changing when (1) varying the frequency of the electrical loading (impedance spectroscopy), (2) varying the mechanical hydrostatic pressure, and (3) varying the voltage of the electrical loading. The response is systematically compared to the one of conventional carbon nanotube/polycarbonate (CNT/PC) nanocomposites so we can clarify how efficiently the tunneling effect is suppressed from these composites. The objective is to elucidate further the mechanism for conduction in such material formulations.

  16. Investigating the Inter-Tube Conduction Mechanism in Polycarbonate Nanocomposites Prepared with Conductive Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    A well-known strategy to improve the electrical conductivity of polymers is to dope them with high-aspect-ratio and conductive nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). However, these nanocomposites also exhibit undesirable properties such as damage-sensitive and history-dependent conductivity because their macroscopic electrical conductivity is largely determined by the tunneling effect at the tube/tube interface. To reduce these issues, new nanocomposites have been developed with CNTs that have been coated with a conductive layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). It has been posited that the insulating region between the CNTs is replaced by a conductive polymer bridge; this has not been proven up to now. We propose here to investigate in-depth how the macroscopic conductivity of these materials is changing when (1) varying the frequency of the electrical loading (impedance spectroscopy), (2) varying the mechanical hydrostatic pressure, and (3) varying the voltage of the electrical loading. The response is systematically compared to the one of conventional carbon nanotube/polycarbonate (CNT/PC) nanocomposites so we can clarify how efficiently the tunneling effect is suppressed from these composites. The objective is to elucidate further the mechanism for conduction in such material formulations.

  17. Role of Chain Morphology and Stiffness in Thermal Conductivity of Amorphous Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-02-04

    Designing thermally conductive polymer is of scientific interest and practical importance for applications like thermal interface materials, electronics packing, and plastic heat exchangers. In this work, we study the fundamental relationship between the molecular morphology and thermal conductivity in bulk amorphous polymers. We use polyethylene as a model system and performed systematic parametric study in molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the thermal conductivity is a strong function of the radius of gyration of the molecular chains, which is further correlated to persistence length, an intrinsic property of the molecule that characterizes molecular stiffness. Larger persistence length can lead to more extended chain morphology and thus higher thermal conductivity. Further thermal conductivity decomposition analysis shows that thermal transport through covalent bonds dominates the effective thermal conductivity over other contributions from nonbonded interactions (van der Waals) and translation of molecules disregarding the morphology. As a result, the more extended chains due to larger persistence length provide longer spatial paths for heat to transfer efficiently and thus lead to higher thermal conductivity. In addition, rigid rod-like polymers with very large persistence length tend to spontaneously crystallize and form orientated chains, leading to a thermal conductivity increase by more than 1 order of magnitude. Our results will provide important insights into the design of thermally conductive amorphous polymers.

  18. Varying the apparent conduction mechanism in polymer semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Emily G.; Ro, Hyun Wook; Basham, James I.; Delongchamp, Dean; Gundlach, David; Jurchescu, Oana

    The weak van der Waals inter-molecular interactions in organic semiconductors (OSCs) result in large variations in transport behavior ranging from hopping to band-like. Accurately measuring and modelling charge transport is a prerequisite to establishing robust transport-microstructure correlations and developing predictive structure-function relationships for optimized materials design and processing. Field-effect transistors have become a favored test structure for parameterizing and benchmarking the electronic properties of OSCs due to their ease of fabrication, measurement, and possible use in commercial applications. However, correctly analyzing transistor current-voltage measurements to extract material properties has proven difficult, as parasitic effects influence the device electrical properties and mask intrinsic material properties. Here, we use impedance spectroscopy to evaluate the effects of contacts on device operation and extract the properties of the channel which we compare with conventional DC measurements. We apply this approach to model systems of the widely studied polymer regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) which we engineer through different solidification kinetics to achieve distinct, well characterized degrees of molecular order. When increasing the order we find that the transport changes from field enhanced to field independent. This study addresses the origins of transport behavior seen in OSCs while discerning non-linear contact effects from field dependent transport.

  19. STRUCTURAL, THERMAL AND CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES OF PAN-LIBF4 POLYMER ELECTROLYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. NIPPANI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The polymer electrolytes with various compositions of Polyacrylonitrile/N-N Dimethylformamide (DMF/Lithiumtetrafluoroborate (LiBF4 are synthesized by solution casting technique. The free standing, clear and transparent 60-80 micron thick films are formed. The promising structural and complexation changes in polymer electrolytes have been explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR techniques. The thermal properties of all solid polymer electrolytes (SPE were studied by Thermo gravimetric Analyzer (TGA and Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA. The electrical properties, i.e., ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes has been measured as a function of temperature and composition. A Polymer membrane for 3 wt. % of salt has a conductivity of 3.06x10-4 mScm-1 at room temperature and 1.53x10-3 mScm-1 at 358K. The conductivity values increased with increase in temperature and offered an ionic conductivity of the order of 10-3 mScm-1 at temperatures 358K. Activation energy, enthalpy and entropy values are determined for all polymer complexes.

  20. Printed organic conductive polymers thermocouples in textile and smart clothing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Trine M; Røyset, Arne; Jahren, Susannah; Strisland, Frode

    2011-01-01

    This work reports on an experimental investigation of the potential of using selected commercially available organic conductive polymers as active ingredients in thermocouples printed on textiles. Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(4 styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and polyaniline (PANI) were screen printed onto woven cotton textile. The influence of multiple thermocycles between 235 K (-38 °C) and 350 K (+77 °C) on resistivity and thermoelectric properties was examined. The Seebeck coefficients of PEDOT:PSS and PANI were found to be about +18 μV/K and +15 uV/K, respectively, when "metal-polymer" thermocouples were realized by combining the polymer with copper. When "polymer-polymer" thermocouples were formed by combining PEDOT:PSS and PANI, a thermoelectric voltage of about +10 μV/K was observed. A challenge recognized in the experiments is that the generated voltage exhibited drift and fluctuations.

  1. Tailoring Thermal Conductivity of Single-stranded Carbon-chain Polymers through Atomic Mass Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Quanwen; Zeng, Lingping; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Tailoring the thermal conductivity of polymers is central to enlarge their applications in the thermal management of flexible integrated circuits. Progress has been made over the past decade by fabricating materials with various nanostructures, but a clear relationship between various functional groups and thermal properties of polymers remains to be established. Here, we numerically study the thermal conductivity of single-stranded carbon-chain polymers with multiple substituents of hydrogen atoms through atomic mass modification. We find that their thermal conductivity can be tuned by atomic mass modifications as revealed through molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results suggest that heavy homogeneous substituents do not assist heat transport and trace amounts of heavy substituents can in fact hinder heat transport substantially. Our analysis indicates that carbon chain has the biggest contribution (over 80%) to the thermal conduction in single-stranded carbon-chain polymers. We further demonstrate that atomic mass modifications influence the phonon bands of bonding carbon atoms, and the discrepancies of phonon bands between carbon atoms are responsible for the remarkable drops in thermal conductivity and large thermal resistances in carbon chains. Our study provides fundamental insight into how to tailor the thermal conductivity of polymers through variable substituents.

  2. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline doped PVC–PMMA polymer blends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S H Deshmukh; D K Burghate; V P Akhare; V S Deogaonkar; P T Deshmukh; M S Deshmukh

    2007-02-01

    The electrical conductivity of polyaniline doped polyvinylchloride (PVC) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films has been measured by studying the – characteristics at various temperatures in the range 323–363 K. The results are presented in the form of – characteristics and analysis has been made by interpretation of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, Schottky ln() vs plots, Richardson and Arrhenius plots. The analysis of these results suggests that Schottky and Richardson mechanisms are primarily responsible for the observed conduction.

  3. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity in polymer composite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Sangawar; P S Chikhalikar; R J Dhokne; A U Ubale; S D Meshram

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the results of thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of activated charcoal–polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film thermoelectrets. TSDC has been carried out in the temperature range 308–400°K and at four different polarizing fields. Results are discussed on the basis of mobility of activated charcoal and polyvinyl chloride chains.

  4. Core-shell latices based on conductive polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, FM; Reezigt, H; Vercauteren, FF; deRuiter, B; Hadziioannou, G; Sarton, LAJ; Zeedijk, HB

    1997-01-01

    A poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) latex was coated with a thin polypyrrole (PPy) layer in a chemical in situ polymerization. Ammonium persulfate and Fenton's reagent were used as the oxidants. The influence of reaction time on the conversion of pyrrole and on the conductivity of the resulting coated

  5. Structure-conductivity studies in polymer electrolytes containing multivalent cations

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, M

    1996-01-01

    force microscopy (AFM). DSC evidences helped to explain the texture of the iron samples during the drying process, and showed transitions between low melting, PEO and high melting spherulites, and VTPM is able to visualise the spherulites present in the samples. AFM has successfully imaged the as cast PEO sub 8 :FeBr sub 2 sample and the surface effect causing extra resistance in the impedance spectra could be seen. Conductivity studies were carried out using a.c. impedance spectra. Fe(ll) samples exhibit the typical semicircle-spike plot but the Fe(lll) samples displayed an extra semicircle before the spike reflecting a surface effect. This is also manifested in the Arrhenius plots of the same samples where a dip was shown at 100 deg C. From the conductivity studies on the iron systems it was found that for the dry samples the optimum conductivity was observed in PEO sub 8 :FeBr sub x irrespective of the valence state of the cation. For the air-cast samples the optimum conductivity composition depends on the...

  6. Kinetic factors determining conducting filament formation in solid polymer electrolyte based planar devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Aono, Masakazu; Tsuruoka, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    Resistive switching characteristics and conducting filament formation dynamics in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based planar-type atomic switches, with opposing active Ag and inert Pt electrodes, have been investigated by optimizing the device configuration and experimental parameters such as the gap distance between the electrodes, the salt inclusion in the polymer matrix, and the compliance current applied in current-voltage measurements. The high ionic conductivities of SPE enabled us to make scanning electron microscopy observations of the filament formation processes in the sub-micrometer to micrometer ranges. It was found that switching behaviour and filament growth morphology depend strongly on several kinetic factors, such as the redox reaction rate at the electrode-polymer interfaces, ion mobility in the polymer matrix, electric field strength, and the reduction sites for precipitation. Different filament formations, resulting from unidirectional and dendritic growth behaviours, can be controlled by tuning specified parameters, which in turn improves the stability and performance of SPE-based devices.

  7. Functionalization of conducting polymer with novel Co(II) complex: Electroanalysis of ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Swati [School of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Prakash, Rajiv, E-mail: rajivprakash12@yahoo.com [School of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2010-06-15

    We report for the first time the functionalization of a conducting polymer with a metal complex in order to develop a new type of catalytic material exhibiting better electronic communication through their delocalized {pi} electrons. The Co(II) complex having hydroxyl group as functional moiety is chemically coupled with carboxyl group of polyanthranilic acid which itself is a self doped conducting polymer. The covalent linkage between Co(II) and -OH group is confirmed using UV-vis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The Co(II) complex functionalized polymer does exhibit excellent redox behavior and stability with mixed properties of Co(II) complex and {pi}-conjugated polymer. The material possesses potential benefits in sensors/biosensor applications and it is demonstrated for the electroanalysis of ascorbic acid at a level of nano molar concentration.

  8. Jeffamine® based polymers as highly conductive polymer electrolytes and cathode binder materials for battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalur, Itziar; Zhang, Heng; Piszcz, Michał; Oteo, Uxue; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M.; Shanmukaraj, Devaraj; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2017-04-01

    We report a simple synthesis route towards a new type of comb polymer material based on polyether amines oligomer side chains (i.e., Jeffamine® compounds) and a poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) backbone. Reaction proceeds by imide ring formation through the NH2 group allowing for attachment of side chains. By taking advantage of the high configurational freedoms and flexibility of propylene oxide/ethylene oxide units (PO/EO) in Jeffamine® compounds, novel polymer matrices were obtained with good elastomeric properties. Fully amorphous solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and Jeffamine®-based polymer matrices show low glass transition temperatures around -40 °C, high ionic conductivities and good electrochemical stabilities. The ionic conductivities of Jeffamine-based SPEs (5.3 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C and 4.5 × 10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature) are higher than those of the conventional SPEs comprising of LiTFSI and linear poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), due to the amorphous nature and the high concentration of mobile end-groups of the Jeffamine-based polymer matrices rather than the semi-crystalline PEO The feasibility of Jeffamine-based compounds in lithium metal batteries is further demonstrated by the implementation of Jeffamine®-based polymer as a binder for cathode materials, and the stable cycling of Li|SPE|LiFePO4 and Li|SPE|S cells using Jeffamine-based SPEs.

  9. Enhancement of ionic conductivity of PEO based polymer electrolyte by the addition of nanosize ceramic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G X; Yang, L; Wang, J Z; Liu, H K; Dou, S X

    2005-07-01

    The ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been improved by the addition of nanosize ceramic powders (TiO2 and AL2O3). The PEO based solid polymer electrolytes were prepared by the solution-casting method. Electrochemical measurement shows that the 10 wt% TiO2 PEO-LiClO4 polymer electrolyte has the best ionic conductivity (about 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 40-60 degrees C). The lithium transference number of the 10 wt% TiO2 PEO-LiClO4 polymer electrolyte was measured to be 0.47, which is much higher than that of bare PEO polymer electrolyte. Ac impedance testing shows that the interface resistance of ceramic-added PEO polymer electrolyte is stable. Linear sweep voltammetry measurement shows that the PEO polymer electrolytes are electrochemically stable in the voltage range of 2.0-5.0 V versus a Li/Li+ reference electrode.

  10. Dispersion and Reinforcement of Nanotubes in High Temperature Polymers for Ultrahigh Strength and Thermally Conductive Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-03

    SWNT [35,36], polypropylene/nano-carbon fiber , polystyrene (PS)/MWNT [34,43] and in-situ polymerization of PI/SWNT [38]) in polymer matrices to...strength and thermal/electric conductivity based on soft macromolecules of controlled glass transition temperature. 1.4.1 The Polybenzoxazoles (PBO...around 270 GPa, greater than that of steel fibers . PBO had been developed by US Air Force researchers as a super heat resistant polymer that surpasses

  11. Conductivity and Activation Energy in Polymers Synthesized by Plasmas of Thiophene

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Guadalupe Olayo; Cruz, Guillermo J.; Salvador López; Juan Morales; Roberto Olayo

    2010-01-01

    The electric conductivity, activation energy and morphology of polythiophene synthesized by radiofrequency resistive plasmas are studied in this work. The continuous collisions of particles in the plasma induce the polymerization of thiophene but also break some of the monomer molecules producing complex polymers with thiophene rings and aliphatic hydrocarbon segments. These multidirectional chemical reactions are more marked at longer reaction times in which the morphology of the polymers ev...

  12. From non-degenerate conducting polymers to dense matter in the massive Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Using results from the theory of non-degenerate conducting polymers like cis-polyacetylene, we generalize our previous work on baryonic matter in the massless Gross-Neveu model to finite bare fermion mass. In the large N limit, the exact ground state is constructed analytically, in close analogy to the bipolaron lattice in polymers. These findings are contrasted to the standard scenario with a first order phase transition as a function of density.

  13. Tattoo conductive polymer nanosheets for skin-contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Alessandra; Cipriani, Christian; Sudha; Tarantino, Sergio; Ricci, Davide; Mattoli, Virgilio; Greco, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    Conductive tattoo nanosheets are fabricated on top of decal transfer paper and transferred on target surfaces as temporary transfer tattoos. Circuits are patterned with ink-jet printing. Tattoo nanosheets are envisioned as unperceivable human-device interfaces because of conformal adhesion to complex surfaces including skin. They are tested as dry electrodes for surface electromyography (sEMG), which permits the control of a robotic hand.

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer/Nano-filler Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donovan M.; Working, Dennis C.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Sun, Y. P.; Lin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, Elvax 260 was compounded with three carbon based nano-fillers. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNF) and expanded graphite (EG) were investigated. In an attempt to improve compatibility between the Elvax and nanofillers, MWCNTs and EGs were modified through non covalent and covalent attachment of alkyl groups. Ribbons were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned, and samples were also fabricated by compression molding in which the nano-fillers were randomly oriented. The thermal properties were evaluated by DSC and TGA, and mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing. The degree of dispersion and alignment of the nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Thermal conductivity measurements were performed using a Nanoflash technique. The thermal conductivity of the samples was measured in both the direction of alignment as well as perpendicular to that direction. The results of this study will be presented.

  15. Destruction and recovery of a nanorod conductive network in polymer nanocomposites via molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangyang; Cao, Dapeng; Wu, Youping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Liqun

    2016-03-28

    By adopting coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we investigate the effects of end-functionalization and shear flow on the destruction and recovery of a nanorod conductive network in a functionalized polymer matrix. We find that the end-functionalization of polymeric chains can enhance the electrical conductivity of nanorod filled polymer nanocomposites, indicated by the decrease of the percolation threshold. However, there exists an optimal end-functionalization extent to reach the maximum electrical conductivity. In the case of steady shear flow, both homogeneous conductive probability and directional conductive probability perpendicular to the shear direction decrease with the shear rate, while the directional conductive probability parallel to the shear direction increases. Importantly, we develop a semi-empirical equation to describe the change of the homogeneous conductive probability as a function of the shear rate. Meanwhile, we obtain an empirical formula describing the relationship between the anisotropy of the conductive probability and the orientation of the nanorods. In addition, the conductivity stability increases with increasing nanorod volume fraction. During the recovery process of the nanorod conductive network, it can be fitted well by the model combining classical percolation theory and a time-dependent nanorod aggregation kinetic equation. The fitted recovery rate is similar for different nanorod volume fractions. In summary, this work provides some rational rules for fabricating polymer nanocomposites with excellent performance of electrical conductivity.

  16. Ionic Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of the PAN-Ion Conducting Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.M.Ali; L.Othman; K.B.Md; Isa; A.Ahmad; Z.Osman

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In this work, the ion conducting films of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) containing lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) and sodium triflate (NaCF3SO3) were prepared by the solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity measurements were carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The room temperature conductivity for pure polyacrylonitrile film is 1.51×10-11 S·cm-1. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting film in the PAN-LiCF3SO3 and PAN-NaCF3SO3 systems is 1.51×10-5 and 7.99×10-6 S·...

  17. Graphene-polyethylenedioxythiophene conducting polymer nanocomposite based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, Farah [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Ram, Manoj K., E-mail: mkram@mail.usf.edu [Clean Energy Research center (CERC), University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Basnayaka, Punya A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Stefanakos, Elias [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Goswami, Yogi [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Clean Energy Research center (CERC), University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of an electrochemical double layer type capacitor showing the charged (left) and discharged (right) states. Highlights: > The Graphene-PEDOT nanocomposite based smart coating has shown the excellent redox properties in acidic, organic electrolytes, which is promising for suprecapcitor application. > The electrochemical impedance studies have also been estimated which clearly indicates the high conductivity and less charge transfer resistance in the synthesized material. > The specific capacitance of 380F/g have been calculated for G-Pedot material, also it shows the columbic efficiency of 95% for 800 cycles, which tells the remarkable stability of synthesized material. - Abstract: We present here the synthesis, characterization and application of graphene (G)-polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The G-PEDOT nanocomposite was synthesized using a chemical oxidative polymerization technique, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of G-PEDOT nanocomposites were investigated in different electrolytic media, and the specific discharge capacitance was estimated to be 374 Farad/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presents the capacitance studies on supercapacitor G-PEDOT electrode with respect to stability of material, specific capacitance, electrical conductivity and specific charge/discharge properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. Our study has revealed that the G-PEDOT nanocomposite could be a transformable and viable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  18. Conductive polymer foams with carbon nanofillers – Modeling percolation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maxian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical model considering nanofiller random distribution in a porous polymeric matrix was developed to predict electrical percolation behavior in systems incorporating 1D-carbon nanotubes (CNTs and/or 2D-graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs. The numerical model applies to porous systems with closed-cell morphology. The percolation threshold was found to decrease with increasing porosity due to filler repositioning as a result of foaming. CNTs were more efficient in forming a percolative network than GNPs. High-aspect ratio (AR and randomly oriented fillers were more prone to form a network. Reduced percolation values were determined for misaligned fillers as they connect better in a network compared to aligned ones. Hybrid CNT-GNP fillers show synergistic effects in forming electrically conductive networks by comparison with single fillers.

  19. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    George J.; Sabapathi SN

    2015-01-01

    Johnsy George, SN Sabapathi Food Engineering and Packaging Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers...

  20. Ion beam irradiation as a tool to improve the ionic conductivity in solid polymer electrolyte systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H.; Damle, R.; Kumaraswamy, G. N.

    2016-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have potential applications in solid state electronic and energy devices. The optimum conductivity of SPEs required for such applications is about 10-1 - 10-3 Scm-1, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is observed that ionic conductivity of SPEs continuously increase with increasing concentration of inorganic salt in the host polymer. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity of SPEs decreases due to the formation of ion pairs. In the present study, solid polymer thin films based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with NaBr salt with different concentrations have been prepared and the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEOxNaBr is identified. The microstructure of the SPE with highest ionic conductivity is modified by irradiating it with low energy O+1 ion (100 keV) of different fluencies. It is observed that the ionic conductivity of irradiated SPEs increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains due to radiation induced micro structural modification.

  1. Novel conducting polymer-heteropoly acid hybrid material for artificial photosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael B; Freund, Michael S

    2011-04-01

    Artificial photosynthetic (AP) approaches to convert and store solar energy will require membranes capable of conducting both ions and electrons while remaining relatively transparent and chemically stable. A new approach is applied herein involving previously described in situ chemical polymerization of electronically conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in the presence of proton conducting heteropoly acid (HPA) phosphomolybdic acid (PMA). The electrochemical behaviour of the PEDOT/PMA hybrid material was investigated and it was found that the conducting polymer (CP) is susceptible to irreversible oxidative processes at potentials where water is oxidized. This will be problematic in AP devices should the process occur in very close proximity to a conducting polymer-based membrane. It was found that PEDOT grants the system good electrical performance in terms of conductivity and stability over a large pH window; however, the presence of PMA was not found to provide sufficient proton conductivity. This was addressed in an additional study by tuning the ionic (and in turn, electronic) conductivity in creating composites with the proton-permselective polymer Nafion. It was found that a material of this nature with near-equal conductivity for optimal chemical conversion efficiency will consist of roughly three parts Nafion and one part PEDOT/PMA.

  2. Chemical mechanical polishing of transparent conductive layers using spherical cationic polymer microbeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shoji, E-mail: nagaoka@kmt-iri.go.jp [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Ryu, Naoya [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Yamanouchi, Akio [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shirosaki, Tomohiro [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Horikawa, Maki [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Sakurai, Hideo; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    Spherical cationic polymer microbeads were used to chemically mechanically polish transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers without the need for inorganic abrasives. Poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) was used as the polymer matrix. Surface cationization of the spherical PMA microbeads was achieved by aminolysis using 1,2-diaminoethane. The amino group content of the microbeads was controlled using the aminolysis reaction time. The surface roughness of the TCO polished using the cationic polymer microbeads was similar to that of TCO polished with an inorganic abrasive. The microbead-polished TCO layer was slightly thinner than the unpolished TCO layer. The sheet resistance of the TCO layer polished using the microbeads was lower than that polished using the inorganic abrasive. The TCO polishing ability of the microbeads was dependent on their cationic properties and softness. - Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) layer was planarized using cationic polymer microbeads. • Cationic polymer microbeads planarized, while retaining ITO layer thickness • Cationic polymer microbeads did not degrade the sheet resistance of ITO. • Cationic polymer microbeads could planarize the ITO surface without damaging.

  3. A review study of (bio)sensor systems based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Murat

    2013-05-01

    This review article concentrates on the electrochemical biosensor systems with conducting polymers. The area of electro-active polymers confined to different electrode surfaces has attracted great attention. Polymer modified carbon substrate electrodes can be designed through polymer screening to provide tremendous improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility of the electrode response to detect a variety of analytes. The electro-active films have been used to entrap different enzymes and/or proteins at the electrode surface, but without obvious loss of their bioactivity for the development of biosensors. Electropolymerization is a well-known technique used to immobilize biomaterials to the modified electrode surface. Polymers might be covalently bonding to enzymes or proteins; therefore, thickness, permeation and charge transport characteristics of the polymeric films can be easily and precisely controlled by modulating the electrochemical parameters for various electrochemical techniques, such as chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, and differential pulse voltammetry. This review article is divided into three main parts as given in the table of contents related to the immobilization process of some important conducting polymers, polypyrrole, polythiophene, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polycarbazole, polyaniline, polyphenol, poly(o-phenylenediamine), polyacetylene, polyfuran and their derivatives. A total of 216 references are cited in this review article. The literature reviewed covers a 7 year period beginning from 2005.

  4. Direct observation of localized conduction pathways in photocross-linkable polymer memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Wei Lek; Lei, Bao; Shao, Yue; Prikhodko, Sergey V.; Bodzin, Noah; Yang, Yang

    2009-06-01

    Resistive switching in photocross-linkable polymer memory devices was found to occur in localized areas of the device. In order to elucidate the reason behind the switching, we used focused ion-beam to prepare a cross-section of the device. It was found that after the device was switched to the high conductive state, in certain parts of the device, the electrodes were only about 5 nm apart. This was probably caused by a combination of high electric field and metal injection into the polymer film. Gold injection into the polymer film by locally enhanced electric field was confirmed by transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray analysis. This model was in agreement with both the temperature dependent and transient behavior of our device. We conclude that the non-uniformities at the nanoscale interface of the electrode dominated the device characteristics while the polymer played only a secondary role.

  5. Layered conductive polymer on nylon membrane templates for high performance, thin-film supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian Harvey; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible Thin-film Electrochemical Capacitors (ECs) are emerging technology that plays an important role as energy supply for various electronics system for both present era and the future. Intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) are promising pseudo-capacitive materials as they feature both good electrical conductivity and high specific capacitance. This study focuses on the construction and characterization of ultra-high surface area porous electrodes based on coating of nano-sized conductive polymer materials on nylon membrane templates. Herein, a novel nano-engineered electrode material based on nylon membranes was presented, which allows the creation of super-capacitor devices that is capable of delivering competitive performance, while maintaining desirable mechanical characteristics. With the formation of a highly conductive network with the polyaniline nano-layer, the electrical conductivity was also increased dramatically to facilitate the charge transfer process. Cyclic voltammetry and specific capacitance results showed promising application of this type of composite materials for future smart textile applications.

  6. Lithium ion and electronic conductivity in 3-(oligoethylene oxide)thiophene comb-like polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witker, David; Curtis, M. David [Department of Chemistry and the Macromolecular Science and Engineering Program, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Li-ion and electronic conductivities of a series of p-doped poly(thiophene)s with oligo-ethylene oxide side chains have been determined at room temperature as functions of side-chain length and concentration of LiOTf dissolved in the polymers in order to assess their utility as binders in Li-ion batteries. The lithium triflate concentration was varied from 0.23 to 2.26mmol LiOTf/g -C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O- (100 O:Li to 10 O:Li), and the concentration of dissociated Li{sup +} was determined from the IR spectra of the polymer solutions. The greatest ionic conductivity, 2x10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1}, was attained with intermediate concentrations of added salt that corresponded with the greatest degree of LiOTf dissociation. Li-ion mobilities of 5x10{sup -7}cm{sup 2}(Vs){sup -1} were measured for poly(thiophene)s (PT) with short oligo(ethylene oxide) side-chains (E{sub n}), PE{sub 2}T and PE{sub 3}T, whereas the polymers with longer side chains, PE{sub 7}T and PE{sub 15}T, had Li-ion mobilities about an order of magnitude greater, 5x10{sup -6}cm{sup 2}(Vs){sup -1}. The electronic conductivity of the polymers heavily doped with NOBF{sub 4} was near 0.1Scm{sup -1} for PE{sub 2}T and PE{sub 3}T, but was orders of magnitude smaller for the polymers with longer side-chains. Addition of LiOTf caused the electronic conductivity of PE{sub 2}T and PE{sub 3}T to drop to that of the longer chain polymers whose conductivities were insensitive to the LiOTf concentration. (author)

  7. Developments in the Field of Conducting and Non-conducting Polymer Based Potentiometric Membrane Sensors for Ions Over the Past Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Ganjali

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies have been conducted on the use of conjugated polymers in the construction of chemical sensors including potentiometric, conductometric and amperometric sensors or biosensors over the last decade. The induction of conductivity on conjugated polymers by treating them with suitable oxidizing agents won Heeger, MacDiarmid and Shirakawa the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Common conjugated polymers are poly(acetylenes, poly(pyrroles, poly(thiophenes, poly(terthiophenes, poly(anilines, poly(fluorines, poly(3-alkylthiophenes, polytetrathiafulvalenes, polynapthalenes, poly(p-phenylene sulfide, poly(p-phenylenevinylenes, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, polyparaphenylene, polyazulene, polyparaphenylene sulfide, polycarbazole and polydiaminonaphthalene. More than 60 sensors for inorganic cations and anions with different characteristics based on conducting polymers have been reported. There have also been reports on the application of non-conducting polymers (nCPs, i.e. PVC, in the construction of potentiometric membrane sensors for determination of more than 60 inorganic cations and anions. However, the leakage of ionophores from the membranes based on these polymers leads to relatively lower life times. In this article, we try to give an overview of Solid-Contact ISE (SCISE, Single-Piece ISE (SPISE, Conducting Polymer (CP-Based, and also non-conducting polymer PVC-based ISEs for various ions which their difference is in the way of the polymer used with selective membrane. In SCISEs and SPISEs, the plasticized PVC containing the ionophore and ionic additives govern the selectivity behavior of the electrode and the conducting polymer is responsible of ion-to-electron transducer. However, in CPISEs, the conducting polymer layer is doped with a suitable ionophore which enhances the ion selectivity of the CP while its redox response has to be suppressed.

  8. Morphological control of conductive polymers utilized electrolysis polymerization technique: trial of fabricating biocircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Conductive polymers are a strong contender for making electronic circuits. The growth pattern in conductive polymer synthesis by the electrolysis polymerization method was examined. The growth pattern is deeply related to the coupling reaction of the radical cation and the deprotonation reaction following it and changes suddenly depending on the kind and concentration of the supporting electrolyte and the solvent used. That is, when the electrophilic substitution coupling reaction becomes predominant, the three-dimensional growth form is observed, and when the radical coupling reaction becomes predominant, the two-dimensional growth morphology is observed. In addition, the growth pattern can be comparatively easily controlled by changing the value of the polymerization constant current, and it is considered that the indicator and development for biocircuit research with neuron-type devices made of conjugated polymers was obtained.

  9. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  10. Hierarchical patterning of multifunctional conducting polymer nanoparticles as a bionic platform for topographic contact guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dominic; Zou, Jianli; Chen, Xianjue; Munshi, Alaa; Smith, Nicole M; Agarwal, Vipul; Hodgetts, Stuart I; Plant, Giles W; Bakker, Anthony J; Harvey, Alan R; Luzinov, Igor; Iyer, K Swaminathan

    2015-02-24

    The use of programmed electrical signals to influence biological events has been a widely accepted clinical methodology for neurostimulation. An optimal biocompatible platform for neural activation efficiently transfers electrical signals across the electrode-cell interface and also incorporates large-area neural guidance conduits. Inherently conducting polymers (ICPs) have emerged as frontrunners as soft biocompatible alternatives to traditionally used metal electrodes, which are highly invasive and elicit tissue damage over long-term implantation. However, fabrication techniques for the ICPs suffer a major bottleneck, which limits their usability and medical translation. Herein, we report that these limitations can be overcome using colloidal chemistry to fabricate multimodal conducting polymer nanoparticles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these polymer nanoparticles can be precisely assembled into large-area linear conduits using surface chemistry. Finally, we validate that this platform can act as guidance conduits for neurostimulation, whereby the presence of electrical current induces remarkable dendritic axonal sprouting of cells.

  11. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Nian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm2 V−1 s−1 with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10−3 Ω cm and 75 Ω/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  12. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian, Qiong; Cheng, Gary J. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Callahan, Michael; Bailey, John [Greentech Solutions, Inc., Hanson, Massachusetts 02341 (United States); Look, David [Semiconductor Research Center, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Efstathiadis, Harry [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), University of Albany, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC) of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and 75 Ω/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T) of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  13. Semi-metallic, strong conductive polymer microfiber, method and fast response rate actuators and heating textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-06-09

    A method comprising: providing at least one first composition comprising at least one conjugated polymer and at least one solvent, wet spinning the at least one first composition to form at least one first fiber material, hot-drawing the at least one fiber to form at least one second fiber material. In lead embodiments, high-performance poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy- thiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) conjugated polymer microfibers were fabricated via wet- spinning followed by hot-drawing. In these lead embodiments, due to the combined effects of the vertical hot-drawing process and doping/de-doping the microfibers with ethylene glycol (EG), a record electrical conductivity of 2804 S · cm-1 was achieved. This is believed to be a six-fold improvement over the best previously reported value for PEDOT/PSS fibers (467 S · cm-1) and a twofold improvement over the best values for conductive polymer films treated by EG de-doping (1418 S · cm-1). Moreover, these lead, highly conductive fibers experience a semiconductor-metal transition at 313 K. They also have superior mechanical properties with a Young\\'s modulus up to 8.3 GPa, a tensile strength reaching 409.8 MPa and a large elongation before failure (21%). The most conductive fiber also demonstrates an extraordinary electrical performance during stretching/unstretching: the conductivity increased by 25% before the fiber rupture point with a maximum strain up to 21%. Simple fabrication of the semi-metallic, strong and stretchable wet-spun PEDOT/PSS microfibers can make them available for conductive smart electronics. A dramatic improvement in electrical conductivity is needed to make conductive polymer fibers viable candidates in applications such as flexible electrodes, conductive textiles, and fast-response sensors and actuators.

  14. Thermal conductivity of polymer composites with the geometrical characteristics of graphene nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Bae, Hyun Sung; Yu, Jaesang; Kim, Seong Yun

    2016-05-25

    One of the most important physical factors related to the thermal conductivity of composites filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) is the dimensions of the GNPs, that is, their lateral size and thickness. In this study, we reveal the relationship between the thermal conductivity of polymer composites and the realistic size of GNP fillers within the polymer composites (measured using three-dimensional (3D) non-destructive micro X-ray CT analysis) while minimizing the effects of the physical parameters other than size. A larger lateral size and thickness of the GNPs increased the likelihood of the matrix-bonded interface being reduced, resulting in an effective improvement in the thermal conductivity and in the heat dissipation ability of the composites. The thermal conductivity was improved by up to 121% according to the filler size; the highest bulk and in-plane thermal conductivity values of the composites filled with 20 wt% GNPs were 1.8 and 7.3 W/m·K, respectively. The bulk and in-plane thermal conductivity values increased by 650 and 2,942%, respectively, when compared to the thermal conductivity values of the polymer matrix employed (0.24 W/m·K).

  15. Hybrid solar cells with conducting polymers and vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays: The effect of silicon conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sungho, E-mail: shwoo@dgist.ac.kr [Green Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Hoon Jeong, Jae [Green Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kun Lyu, Hong; Jeong, Seonju; Hyoung Sim, Jun; Hyun Kim, Wook [Green Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Soo Han, Yoon [Department of Advanced Energy Material Science and Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngkyoo, E-mail: ykimm@knu.ac.kr [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells, based on vertically aligned n-type silicon nanowires (n-Si NWs) and p-type conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS), were investigated as a function of Si conductivity. The n-Si NWs were easily prepared from the n-Si wafer by employing a silver nanodot-mediated micro-electrochemical redox reaction. This investigation shows that the photocurrent-to-voltage characteristics of the n-Si NW/PEDOT:PSS cells clearly exhibit a stable rectifying diode behavior. The increase in current density and fill factor using high conductive silicon is attributed to an improved charge transport towards the electrodes achieved by lowering the device's series resistance. Our results also show that the surface area of the nanowire that can form heterojunction domains significantly influences the device performance.

  16. Electrical Conductivity and Current-Voltage Characteristics of Individual Conducting Polymer PEDOT Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yun-Ze; DUVAIL Jean-Luc; CHEN Zhao-Jia; JIN Ai-Zi; GU Chang-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    We report the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and electrical conductivity of individual template-synthesized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires (190 ± 6 nm in diameter and σRT : 11.2±2Ω-1cm-1)over a wide temperature range from 300 to 10K. With lowering temperature, the Ⅰ- Ⅴ characteristics become nonlinear around 50 K, and a clear Coulomb gap-like structure appears in the differential conductance (dI/dV)spectra. The temperature dependence of the resistance below 70 K follows ln R ∝ T-1/2, which can be interpreted as Efros-Shklovskii hopping conduction in the presence of a Coulomb gap. In addition, the influences of measurement methods such as the applied bias voltage magnitude, the two-probe and four-probe techniques used in the resistance measurements are also reported and discussed.

  17. Ion conduction mechanism in non-aqueous polymer electrolytes based on oxalic acid: Effect of plasticizer and polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missan, Harinder Pal Singh; Chu, P.P. [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Chungli 32001 (Taiwan); Sekhon, S.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India)

    2006-08-25

    Non-aqueous proton-conducting polymer electrolytes in the film form are synthesized through the complexation of oxalic acid (OA) and polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene (PVdF-HFP). Interestingly, the addition of a small amount of the basic component dimethylacetamide (DMA) gives rise to a three-order increase in conductivity. The value is found to depend on the concentrations of the weak acid and DMA in the electrolytes. A maximum conductivity of 0.12x10{sup -3}Scm{sup -1} has been achieved at ambient temperature for electrolytes containing 40wt.% OA with DMA. The observed increase in conductivity is considered to be due to interactions taking place between the high dielectric polymer media, the acid and the basic plasticizer. These interactions are confirmed from fourier transform infra red (FTIR) studies and supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Apart from providing acid-base interaction, the base DMA also improves the surface morphology and reduces the pore volume, both of which help to retain the acid-base complex within the membrane. (author)

  18. Performance Improvement by Layout Designs of Conductive Polymer Microelectrode Based Impedimetric Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Giulio; Daprà, Johannes; Cherré, Solène

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a theoretical, computational, and experimental evaluation of the performance of an impedimetric biosensor based on interdigitated conductive polymer (PEDOT:TsO) microelectrodes in a microfluidic system. The influence of the geometry of the electrodes and microchannels...

  19. Hydration number of alkali metal ions determined by insertion in a conducting polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    2008-01-01

    . The solvation of alkali metal ions has been discussed for many years without a clear consensus. This work presents a systematic study of the hydration numbers of the 5 alkali metal ions, using the electrochemical insertion of the ions in a conducting polymer (polypyrrole containing the large immobile anion DBS...

  20. A facile avenue to conductive polymer brushes via cyclopentadiene-maleimide Diels-Alder ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yameen, Basit; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Preuss, Corinna M; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Verveniotis, Elisseos; Trouillet, Vanessa; Rezek, Bohuslav; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2013-10-07

    Cyclopentadienyl end-capped poly(3-hexylthiophene) was employed to fabricate conductive surface tethered polymer brushes via a facile route based on cyclopentadiene-maleimide Diels-Alder ligation. The efficient nature of the Diels-Alder ligation was further combined with a biomimetic polydopamine-assisted functionalization of surfaces, making it an access route of choice for P3HT surface immobilization.

  1. Meniscus confined fabrication of multidimensional conducting polymer nanostructures with scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Kim; O'Connell, Michael A; Unwin, Patrick R

    2013-04-14

    Scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) is demonstrated as a new approach for the construction of extended multi-dimensional conducting polymer (polyaniline) nanostructures, making use of a mobile dual-channel theta pipette cell to control and monitor the location, rate and extent of electropolymerisation.

  2. Lithium ion conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes containing insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Takahiro; Ohta, Takayuki; Fujinami, Tatsuo [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    Lithium ion conducting gel polymer electrolytes composed of insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate (LiTPSB), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate mixed solvent (EC-PC) were prepared and their ionic conductivities and electrochemical stabilities were investigated. Ionic conductivity was largely dependent on the contents of EC-PC and LiTPSB. Gel polymer electrolyte containing optimized content of 50 (LiTPSB)-50 (PVDF-HFP/EC-PC (13:87wt.%)) exhibited ionic conductivity of 4x10{sup -4}Scm{sup -1} at 30{sup o}C, lithium ion transference number of 0.33 and anodic oxidation potential of 4.2V. (author)

  3. Lithium ion conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes containing insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takahiro; Ohta, Takayuki; Fujinami, Tatsuo

    Lithium ion conducting gel polymer electrolytes composed of insoluble lithium tetrakis(pentafluorobenzenethiolato) borate (LiTPSB), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate mixed solvent (EC-PC) were prepared and their ionic conductivities and electrochemical stabilities were investigated. Ionic conductivity was largely dependent on the contents of EC-PC and LiTPSB. Gel polymer electrolyte containing optimized content of 50 (LiTPSB)-50 (PVDF-HFP/EC-PC (13:87 wt.%)) exhibited ionic conductivity of 4 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at 30 °C, lithium ion transference number of 0.33 and anodic oxidation potential of 4.2 V.

  4. Carbon nanotubes with silver nanoparticle decoration and conductive polymer coating for improving the electrical conductivity of polycarbonate composites

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Archana S.

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a strategy to enhance the conductivity of polycarbonate by using three-phase hybrid metallic/non-metallic fillers. Ethylene diamine (EDA) functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-EDA) are first decorated with silver nanoparticles. These Ag/ MWCNT-EDA fillers are then coated with a conductive layer of ethylene glycol treated PEDOT: PSS (poly [3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]: poly [styrenesulfonate]) (EP). In such an approach, the MWCNT backbone is covered by a highly conductive coating made of Ag nanoparticles surrounded by EP. To understand how Ag and EP form a highly conductive coating, the effect of different wt% of Ag nanoparticles on EP was studied. Ag nanoparticles around the size of 128 ± 28 nmeffectively lowered the volume resistivity of bulk EP, resulting in a highly conducting Ag/EP blend. We found that in the final Ag/MWCNT-EDA/EP assembly, the EP coating enhances the electrical conductivity in two ways: (1) it is an efficient dispersing agent that helps in achieving a uniform dispersion of the Ag/MWCNT-EDA and (2) it acts as a conductive bridge between particles (Ag and MWCNT-EDA), reducing the particle to particle resistivity. When inserted into polycarbonate, this three-phase blend successfully reduced the volume resistivity of the polymer by two orders of magnitude compared with previous approaches.

  5. Investigation and Characterization of Conductive DEAP Polymer Materials with Nickel Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrisley, Seaver

    Dielectric ElectroActive Polymers, or DEAPs, are devices with coupled electrical and mechanical responses that resemble stretchable parallel plate capacitors, that can act as actuators, sensors, or electrical generators. Currently, the electrode layers on the top and bottom are generally conductive carbon grease, which is dirty and also causes curing issues for certain polymers. This thesis explores several polymers and conductive fillers to identify a conductive nanocomposite material, to replace the grease electrode with a solid material and eliminate issues associated with grease electrodes. It then characterizes the mechanical and electric properties and how they change during cyclic loading, while augmenting an equibiaxial tensile testing machine and advancing the knowledge of equibiaxial characterization. The most promising polymer/filler combination was found to be EcoFlex30, a platinum cure silicone rubber, containing seven volume percent of nickel nanostrands and three volume percent of 0.1 mm length nickel-coated carbon fiber. Using two conductive fillers of different sizes resulted in much higher conductivity than a single filler alone, and an enormous piezoresistive effect. This material gave weak conductivity at no load, increasing several orders of magnitude as strained and well surpassing the benchmark of 1.2 S/m set by conductive carbon grease. Elastomer materials were found to have conductivities as high as 275 S/m under peak strain, and changing the nickel-coated carbon fiber length allowed for strains over 120%. Equibiaxial stress-strain curves were also analyzed for energy lost through hysteresis, in order to compare to published results for DEAPs used as Dielectric Energy Generators. Results and recommendations are presented for using and further improving the materials for applications of DEAPs used as energy harvesters and capacitive sensors, using the material alone as a piezoresistive sensor, and improving the equibiaxial characterization

  6. Conductive polymer-mediated 2D and 3D arrays of Mn3O4 nanoblocks and mesoporous conductive polymers as their replicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitaka; Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Riho; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2015-11-28

    Orientation-controlled 2D and 3D microarrays of Mn3O4 nanocuboids that were mediated by a conductive polymer were fabricated by evaporation-induced self-assembly of the oxide nanoblocks and subsequent polymerization of pyrrole in the interparticle spaces. Free-standing mesoporous polypyrroles (PPy) having chain- and square-grid-like nanovoid arrays were obtained as replicas of the composite assemblies by dissolving the oxide nanoblocks. The PPy-mediated manganese oxide arrays exhibited stable electrochemical performance as an ultrathin anode of a lithium-ion secondary battery.

  7. Application of conductive polymers in biocathode of microbial fuel cells and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Ding, Lili; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Libin; Xu, Ke; Ren, Hongqiang

    2012-07-01

    Four kinds of conductive polymers, polyaniline (PANI) and its co-polymers poly (aniline-co-o-aminophenol) (PANOA), poly (aniline-co-2, 4-diaminophenol) (PANDAP) and poly (aniline-1, 8-diaminonaphthalene) (PANDAN) were applied to modify carbon felts as the aerobic abiotic cathodes and biocathodes in microbial fuel cells (MFC). Compare to unmodified, all the four polymers can significantly improve the power densities for both abiotic cathodes (increased by 300%) and biocathodes (increased by 180%). The co-polymers with different functional groups introduction had further special advantages in MFC performance: PANOA and PANDAP with -OH showed less sensitivity to DO and pH change in cathode; PANDAP and PANDAN with -NH(3) provided better attachment condition for biofilm which endowed them higher power output. With the help of conductive polymer coats, the cathode biofilm became thicker, and according to biodiversity analysis, the predominated phyla changed from β-Proteobacteria (unmodified) to α, γ-Proteobacteria (modified), which may be responsible for the superiority of the modified MFCs.

  8. Electrochemical Synthesis of a Microporous Conductive Polymer Based on a Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chunjing

    2014-05-22

    A new approach to preparing 3D microporous conductive polymer has been demonstrated in the electrochemical synthesis of a porous polyaniline network with the utilization of a MOF thin film supported on a conducting substrate. The prepared porous polyaniline with well-defined uniform micropores of 0.84 nm exhibits a high BET surface area of 986 m2 g−1 and a high electric conductivity of 0.125 S cm−1 when doped with I2, which is superior to existing porous conducting materials of porous MOFs, CMPs, and COFs.

  9. Characterization and dynamic charge dependent modeling of conducting polymer trilayer bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, Meisam; Sassani, Farrokh; Naserifar, Naser; Fannir, Adelyne; Plesse, Cédric; Nguyen, Giao T. M.; Vidal, Frédéric; Madden, John D. W.

    2016-11-01

    Trilayer bending actuators are charge driven devices that have the ability to function in air and provide large mechanical amplification. The electronic and mechanical properties of these actuators are known to be functions of their charge state making prediction of their responses more difficult when they operate over their full range of deformation. In this work, a combination of state space representation and a two-dimensional RC transmission line model are used to implement a nonlinear time variant model for conducting polymer-based trilayer actuators. Electrical conductivity and Young’s modulus of electromechanically active PEDOT conducting polymer containing films as a function of applied voltage were measured and incorporated into the model. A 16% drop in Young’s modulus and 24 times increase in conductivity are observed by oxidizing the PEDOT. A closed form formulation for radius of curvature of trilayer actuators considering asymmetric and location dependent Young’s modulus and conductivity in the conducting polymer layers is derived and implemented in the model. The nonlinear model shows the capability to predict the radius of curvature as a function of time and position with reasonable consistency (within 4%). The formulation is useful for general trilayer configurations to calculate the radius of curvature as a function of time. The proposed electrochemical modeling approach may also be useful for modeling energy storage devices.

  10. Self-Assembly of Octapod-Shaped Colloidal Nanocrystals into a Hexagonal Ballerina Network Embedded in a Thin Polymer Film

    OpenAIRE

    Arciniegas, Milena P.; Kim, Mee R.; de Graaf, Joost; Brescia, Rosaria; Marras, Sergio; Miszta, Karol; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Van Roij, René; Manna, Liberato

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles with unconventional shapes may exhibit different types of assembly architectures that depend critically on the environmental conditions under which they are formed. Here, we demonstrate how the presence of polymer (polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA) molecules in a solution, in which CdSe(core)/CdS(pods) octapods are initially dispersed, affects the octapod-polymer organization upon solvent evaporation. We show that a fast drop-drying process can induce a remarkable two-dimensional (...

  11. Fabrication of conductive polymer nanofibers through SWNT supramolecular functionalization and aqueous solution processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Fahim; Prestayko, Rachel; Saem, Sokunthearath; Nowicki, Lauren; Imit, Mokhtar; Adronov, Alex; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M

    2015-10-02

    Polymeric thin films and nanostructured composites with excellent electrical properties are required for the development of advanced optoelectronic devices, flexible electronics, wearable sensors, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Because most polymers available for fabrication are insulating, one of the biggest challenges remains the preparation of inexpensive polymer composites with good electrical conductivity. Among the nanomaterials used to enhance composite performance, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are ideal due to their unique physical and electrical properties. Yet, a barrier to their widespread application is that they do not readily disperse in solvents traditionally used for polymer processing. In this study, we employed supramolecular functionalization of SWNTs with a conjugated polyelectrolyte as a simple approach to produce stable aqueous nanotube suspensions, that could be effortlessly blended with the polymer poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO). The homogeneous SWNT:PEO mixtures were used to fabricate conductive thin films and nanofibers with improved conductivities through drop casting and electrospinning. The physical characterization of electrospun nanofibers through Raman spectroscopy and SEM revealed that the SWNTs were uniformly incorporated throughout the composites. The electrical characterization of SWNT:PEO thin films allowed us to assess their conductivity and establish a percolation threshold of 0.1 wt% SWNT. Similarly, measurement of the nanofiber conductivity showed that the electrospinning process improved the contact between nanotube complexes, resulting in conductivities in the S m(-1) range with much lower weight loading of SWNTs than their thin film counterparts. The methods reported for the fabrication of conductive nanofibers are simple, inexpensive, and enable SWNT processing in aqueous solutions, and offer great potential for nanofiber use in applications involving flexible electronics, sensing devices, and tissue engineering

  12. Fabrication of conductive polymer nanofibers through SWNT supramolecular functionalization and aqueous solution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Fahim; Prestayko, Rachel; Saem, Sokunthearath; Nowicki, Lauren; Imit, Mokhtar; Adronov, Alex; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric thin films and nanostructured composites with excellent electrical properties are required for the development of advanced optoelectronic devices, flexible electronics, wearable sensors, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Because most polymers available for fabrication are insulating, one of the biggest challenges remains the preparation of inexpensive polymer composites with good electrical conductivity. Among the nanomaterials used to enhance composite performance, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are ideal due to their unique physical and electrical properties. Yet, a barrier to their widespread application is that they do not readily disperse in solvents traditionally used for polymer processing. In this study, we employed supramolecular functionalization of SWNTs with a conjugated polyelectrolyte as a simple approach to produce stable aqueous nanotube suspensions, that could be effortlessly blended with the polymer poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO). The homogeneous SWNT:PEO mixtures were used to fabricate conductive thin films and nanofibers with improved conductivities through drop casting and electrospinning. The physical characterization of electrospun nanofibers through Raman spectroscopy and SEM revealed that the SWNTs were uniformly incorporated throughout the composites. The electrical characterization of SWNT:PEO thin films allowed us to assess their conductivity and establish a percolation threshold of 0.1 wt% SWNT. Similarly, measurement of the nanofiber conductivity showed that the electrospinning process improved the contact between nanotube complexes, resulting in conductivities in the S m-1 range with much lower weight loading of SWNTs than their thin film counterparts. The methods reported for the fabrication of conductive nanofibers are simple, inexpensive, and enable SWNT processing in aqueous solutions, and offer great potential for nanofiber use in applications involving flexible electronics, sensing devices, and tissue engineering

  13. The Effect of Nano-Morphology Modification Using an Amphiphilic Polymer on the Proton Conductivity of Composite Membrane for a Polymer Membrane-Based Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sung-Hee; Rho, Seon-Gyun; Kim, Sang-Chai; Kim, Ju-Young; Jung, Ho-Young

    2016-02-01

    The effect of morphology modification using an amphiphilic polymer on the proton conductivity of composite membrane for a polymer membrane-based fuel cell was investigated. The proton conductivity of each composite membrane was analyzed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphological change was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the composite membrane, the proton conductive component was sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK), while the nonconductive component was poly(vinylidenedifluoride) and the amphiphilic polymer as a compatibilizer was urethane acrylate non-ionomer (UAN). UAN as a compatibilizer improved the interfacial stability between sPEEK and PVdF polymers, even though two polymers were apparently immiscible. The homogeneous distribution of sPEEK and PVdF domains in the composite membrane was obtained with the introduction of UAN due to the amphiphilicity. Therefore, it was found that the proton conductivity of the composite membrane increased with the incorporation of UAN as a compatibilizer.

  14. Apparent Power Law Scaling of Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Carbonized Polymer Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kang, Hojin; He, Hans; Eklӧf, Johnas; Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Min; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo; Kubatkin, Sergey; Park, Yung Woo

    2016-11-01

    We induce dramatic changes in the structure of conducting polymer nanofibers by carbonization at 800 °C and compare charge transport properties between carbonized and pristine nanofibers. Despite the profound structural differences, both types of systems display power law dependence of current with voltage and temperature, and all measurements can be scaled into a single universal curve. We analyze our experimental data in the framework of variable range hopping and argue that this mechanism can explain transport properties of pristine polymer nanofibers as well.

  15. Kinetic factors determining conducting filament formation in solid polymer electrolyte based planar devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Aono, Masakazu; Tsuruoka, Tohru

    2016-07-01

    Resistive switching characteristics and conducting filament formation dynamics in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based planar-type atomic switches, with opposing active Ag and inert Pt electrodes, have been investigated by optimizing the device configuration and experimental parameters such as the gap distance between the electrodes, the salt inclusion in the polymer matrix, and the compliance current applied in current-voltage measurements. The high ionic conductivities of SPE enabled us to make scanning electron microscopy observations of the filament formation processes in the sub-micrometer to micrometer ranges. It was found that switching behaviour and filament growth morphology depend strongly on several kinetic factors, such as the redox reaction rate at the electrode-polymer interfaces, ion mobility in the polymer matrix, electric field strength, and the reduction sites for precipitation. Different filament formations, resulting from unidirectional and dendritic growth behaviours, can be controlled by tuning specified parameters, which in turn improves the stability and performance of SPE-based devices.Resistive switching characteristics and conducting filament formation dynamics in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based planar-type atomic switches, with opposing active Ag and inert Pt electrodes, have been investigated by optimizing the device configuration and experimental parameters such as the gap distance between the electrodes, the salt inclusion in the polymer matrix, and the compliance current applied in current-voltage measurements. The high ionic conductivities of SPE enabled us to make scanning electron microscopy observations of the filament formation processes in the sub-micrometer to micrometer ranges. It was found that switching behaviour and filament growth morphology depend strongly on several kinetic factors, such as the redox reaction rate at the electrode-polymer interfaces, ion mobility in the polymer matrix, electric field strength

  16. Enhancement of Li+ ion conductivity in solid polymer electrolytes using surface tailored porous silica nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Jagdeep; Singh, Udai P.; Panda, Subhendu K.; Si, Satyabrata

    2016-09-01

    The current study represents the design and synthesis of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes by solvent casting approach using surface tailored porous silica as nanofillers. The surface tailoring of porous silica nanostructure is achieved through silanization chemistry using 3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane in which silane part get anchored to the silica surface whereas epoxy group get stellated from the silica surface. Surface tailoring of silica with epoxy group increases the room temperature electrochemical performances of the resulting polymer electrolytes. Ammonical hydrolysis of organosilicate precursor is used for both silica preparation and their surface tailoring. The composite solid polymer electrolyte films are prepared by solution mixing of PEO with lithium salt in presence of silica nanofillers and cast into film by solvent drying, which are then characterized by impedance measurement for conductivity study and wide angle x-ray diffraction for change in polymer crystallinity. Room temperature impedance measurement reveals Li+ ion conductivity in the order of 10-4 S cm-1, which is correlated to the decrease in PEO crystallinity. The enhancement of conductivity is further observed to be dependent on the amount of silica as well as on their surface characteristics.

  17. Electrochromic conductive polymer fuses for hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Sven; Forrest, Stephen R.; Perlov, Craig; Jackson, Warren; Taussig, Carl

    2003-12-01

    We demonstrate a nonvolatile, write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory device employing a hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor architecture consisting of thin film p-i-n silicon diode on a stainless steel substrate integrated in series with a conductive polymer fuse. The nonlinearity of the silicon diodes enables a passive matrix memory architecture, while the conductive polyethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonic acid polymer serves as a reliable switch with fuse-like behavior for data storage. The polymer can be switched at ˜2 μs, resulting in a permanent decrease of conductivity of the memory pixel by up to a factor of 103. The switching mechanism is primarily due to a current and thermally dependent redox reaction in the polymer, limited by the double injection of both holes and electrons. The switched device performance does not degrade after many thousand read cycles in ambient at room temperature. Our results suggest that low cost, organic/inorganic WORM memories are feasible for light weight, high density, robust, and fast archival storage applications.

  18. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high-dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  19. Conducting Polymer Coated Graphene Oxide Electrode for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Yoon; Jung, Yongju; Kim, Seok

    2016-03-01

    Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/graphene oxide-sulfur composites were prepared by a chemical oxidation method. For the PDDA-GO composites, conducting polymers (PDDA) were coated on the surface of GO sheets. PDDA-GO composites could be expected to increase electrical conductivity and protect restacking of graphene sheets. And then, sulfur particles were dispersed into the PDDA-GO composites by mixing in the CS2 solvent. It is expected the PDDA-GO/S composites show the limited release of polysulfides due to the fact that it can provide high surface area, because conducting polymer can be used as spacer between graphene sheets. Electrochemical performances of prepared composites were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The PDDA-GO/S composites showed a high discharge capacity of 1102 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and a good cycle retention of 60% after 100 cycles.

  20. Ion-beam modifications of the surface morphology and conductivity in some polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramakrishna Murthy; E Venkateshwar Rao

    2002-10-01

    Studies on the surface micromorphology and surface conductivity in thin polymer films of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene oxide (PEO) in both as-grown and ion-implanted polymer films have been carried out to reveal certain specific features of the ordered state in these materials. Optical microscopic investigations revealed the existence and enhanced formation in number of spherulites and dendrites in ionimplanted films relative to the as-grown films. The number and rate of formation of spherulites indicated an increase in the degree of crystallinity in these films. Measurements of surface conductivity of as-grown and ion-implanted polymer films, employing four-point probe method, indicated a decrease in electrical conductivity on ion-implantation. Photomicrographic analysis of the PVA and PEO thin film surfaces, has enabled to propose a temperature–stress induced mechanism of crystallization in conjunction with the surface conductivity measurements. The decrease in surface conductivity on ion-implantation in both PVA and PEO thin films, is attributed to a decrease in mobility of macromolecular charged species due to an increase in degree of crystallinity as has been observed by optical microscopy.

  1. Electrically conductive biodegradable polymer composite for nerve regeneration: electricity-stimulated neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ze; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Wang, Zhaoxu; Roberge, Christophe; Shi, Guixin; Roche, Phillippe; Li, Jiangming; Dao, Lê H

    2007-01-01

    Normal and electrically stimulated PC12 cell cultures and the implantation of nerve guidance channels were performed to evaluate newly developed electrically conductive biodegradable polymer composites. Polypyrrole (PPy) doped by butane sulfonic acid showed a significantly higher number of viable cells compared with PPy doped by polystyrenesulfonate after a 6-day culture. The PC12 cells were left to proliferate for 6 days, and the PPy-coated membranes, showing less initial cell adherence, recorded the same proliferation rate as did the noncoated membranes. Direct current electricity at various intensities was applied to the PC12 cell-cultured conductive membranes. After 7 days, the greatest number of neurites appeared on the membranes with a current intensity approximating 1.7-8.4 microA/cm. Nerve guidance channels made of conductive biodegradable composite were implanted into rats to replace 8 mm of sciatic nerve. The implants were harvested after 2 months and analyzed with immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The regenerated nerve tissue displayed myelinated axons and Schwann cells that were similar to those in the native nerve. Electrical stimulation applied through the electrically conductive biodegradable polymers therefore enhanced neurite outgrowth in a current-dependent fashion. The conductive polymers also supported sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

  2. Ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolyte/salt systems: Group-contribution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Jae Ho; Bae, Young Chan [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-19

    We establish a new group-contribution model based on the Nernst-Einstein equation in which the diffusion coefficient is derived from the modified double-lattice (MDL) model and the Debye-Huckel (DH) theory. The model includes the combinatorial energy contribution that is responsible for the revised Flory-Huggins entropy of mixing, the van der Waals energy contribution from dispersion, and the polar force and the specific energy contribution from hydrogen bonding. The Nernst-Einstein equation takes into account the mobility of the salt and the motion of the polymer host. To describe the segmental motion of the polymer chain, which is the well known conduction mechanism for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) systems, the effective co-ordinated unit parameter is introduced. Our results show that good agreement is obtained upon comparison with experimental data of various PEO and salt systems in the interested ranges. (author)

  3. Electrically Conductive, Optically Transparent Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Composites and Process for Preparation Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the effective dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into polymer matrices. The nanocomposites are prepared using polymer matrices and exhibit a unique combination of properties, most notably, high retention of optical transparency in the visible range (i.e., 400-800 nm), electrical conductivity, and high thermal stability. By appropriate selection of the matrix resin, additional properties such as vacuum ultraviolet radiation resistance, atomic oxygen resistance, high glass transition (T.sub.g) temperatures, and excellent toughness can be attained. The resulting nanocomposites can be used to fabricate or formulate a variety of articles such as coatings on a variety of substrates, films, foams, fibers, threads, adhesives and fiber coated prepreg. The properties of the nanocomposites can be adjusted by selection of the polymer matrix and CNT to fabricate articles that possess high optical transparency and antistatic behavior.

  4. High yield sample preconcentration using a highly ion-conductive charge-selective polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Honggu; Chung, Taek Dong; Ramsey, J Michael

    2010-07-15

    The development and analysis of a microfluidic sample preconcentration system using a highly ion-conductive charge-selective polymer [poly-AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)] is reported. The preconcentration is based on the phenomenon of concentration polarization which develops at the boundaries of the poly-AMPS with buffer solutions. A negatively charged polymer, poly-AMPS, positioned between two microchannels efficiently extracts cations through its large cross section, resulting in efficient anion sample preconcentration. The present work includes the development of a robust polymer that is stable over a wide range of buffers with varying chemical compositions. The sample preconcentration effect remains linear to over 3 mM (0.15 pmol) and 500 microM (15 fmol) for fluorescein and TRITC-tagged albumin solutions, respectively. The system can potentially be used for concentrating proteins on microfluidic devices with subsequent analysis for proteomic applications.

  5. Increase in Electrical Conductivity of MOF to Billion-Fold upon Filling the Nanochannels with Conducting Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Barun; Nagarkar, Sanjog S; Kumar, Jitender; Kumar, Vikash; Jha, Plawan Kumar; Ghosh, Sujit K; Nair, Sunil; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2016-08-01

    Redox-active pyrrole (Py) monomers were intercalated into 1D nanochannels of [Cd(NDC)0.5(PCA)]·Gx (H2NDC = 2,6-napthalenedicarboxylic acid, HPCA = 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid, G = guest molecules) (1) - a fluorescent 3D MOF (λem = 385 nm). Subsequent activation of 1⊃Py upon immersing into iodine (I2) solution resulted in an increment of the bulk electrical conductivity by ∼9 orders of magnitude. The unusual increase in conductivity was attributed to the formation of highly oriented and conducting polypyrrole (PPy) chains inside 1D nanochannels and specific host-guest interaction in 1⊃PPy thereof. The Hall-effect measurements suggested 1⊃PPy to be an n-type semiconductor material with remarkably high-carrier density (η) of ∼1.5 × 10(17) cm(-3) and mobility (μ) of ∼8.15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The fluorescence property of 1 was almost retained in 1⊃PPy with concomitant exciplex-type emission at higher wavelength (λem = 520 nm). The here-presented results on [MOF⊃Conducting Polymer] systems in general will serve as a prototype experiment toward rational design for the development of highly conductive yet fluorescent MOF-based materials for various optoelectronic applications.

  6. Protection of Conductive and Non-conductive Advanced Polymer-based Paints from Highly Aggressive Oxidative Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimenko, Y.; Ng, R.; Iskanderova, Z.; Kleiman, J.; Grigorevsky, A.; Kiseleva, L.; Finckenor, M.; Edwards, D.

    2005-01-01

    Research has been continued to further improve the space durability of conductive and non-conductive polymer-based paints and of conductive thermal control paints for space applications. Efforts have been made to enhance the space durability and stability of functional Characteristics in ground-based space environment imitating conditions, using specially developed surface modification treatment. The results of surface modification of new conductive paints, including the ground-based testing in aggressive oxidative environments, such as atomic oxygen/UV and oxygen plasma, and performance evaluation are presented. Functional properties and performance characteristics, such as thermal optical properties (differential solar absorptance and thermal emittance representing the thermal optical performance of thermal control paints) and surface resistivity characteristics of pristine, surface modified, and tested materials were verified. Extensive surface analysis studies have been performed using complementary surface analyses including SEM/EDS and XPS. Test results revealed that the successfully treated materials exhibit reduced mass loss and no surface morphology change, thus indicating good protection from the severe oxidative environment. It was demonstrated that the developed surface modification treatment could be applied successfully to charge dissipative and conductive paints.

  7. Evaluation of interactive effects on the ionic conduction properties of polymer gel electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuria; Okano, Miki; Kubota, Keigo; Sakai, Tetsuo; Fujioka, Junji; Kawakami, Tomohiro

    2012-08-23

    Ionic mobility of electrolyte materials is essentially determined by the nanoscale interactions, the ion-ion interactions and ion-solvent interactions. We quantitatively evaluated the interactive situation of the lithium polymer gel electrolytes through the measurements of ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficients of the mobile species of the lithium polymer electrolytes. The interactive force between the cation and anion in the gel depended on the mixing ratio of the binary solvent, ethylene carbonate plus dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC). The gel with the solvent (3:7 EC:DMC) showed minimal cation-anion interaction, which is the cause of the highest ionic mobility compared with those of the other gels with different solvents. This suggests that the cation-anion interaction does not simply depend on the dielectric constant of the solvent but is associated with the solvation condition of the lithium. In the case of the gel with the 3:7 EC/DMC solvent, most of the EC species strongly coordinate to a lithium ion, forming the stable solvated lithium, Li(EC)(3)(+), and there are no residual EC species for exchange with them. As a result, the solvating EC species would be a barrier that restricts the anion attack to the lithium leading to the smallest cation-anion interaction. On the other hand, interaction between the cation and polar sites, hydroxyl and oxygen groups of ether of the polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer, respectively, in the gels was another dominant factor responsible for cation mobility. It increased with increasing polar site concentration per lithium. In case of the PVB gels, cation-anion interaction increased with an increasing polymer fraction of the gel contrary to the independent feature of PEO gels with the change of the polymer fraction. This indicates that the cation-anion interaction is associated with the polymer structure of the gel characterized by the kind and configuration of polar groups, molecular weight, and

  8. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of conducting polymers. Application to the removal of nitrates from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, M Jesús; Sancho-Querol, Sara; Pastor-Blas, M Mercedes; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2017-05-15

    Three different conducting polymers, polythiophene (PT), polypirrol (PPY) and polyaniline (PANI) have been synthesized via oxidative chemical polymerization in aqueous media, in such a way that the synthesis protocol did not involve any toxic solvents. They have been tested in the abatement of nitrates from an aqueous solution without the need of any metal catalyst. The N-containing polymers (PANI and PPy) were able to remove nitrates to a level that accomplishes the European legislation requirements; however, the nature of each polymer greatly influenced the process mechanism. Whereas ion exchange between Cl(-) and SO4(2)(-) counter-ions in the polymer and NO3(-) from water is the main responsible for the effective nitrate removal in PANI, as assessed by FTIR and XPS analyses, the nitrate removal mechanism on PPy is based in an electron transfer from the polymer to nitrate through N sites located in the pyrrolic ring. On the other hand, PT was not able to exchange nitrate unless it was synthesized with FeCl3 as oxidant/dopant and an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate -SDS-) is used. In that case, the electrostatic attraction between sulfate (OSO3(-)) groups from the surfactant and Fe(3+) ions from FeCl3 produced the anchoring of Cl(-) to the oxidized PT growing chain, this favoring ion exchange with nitrate in the aqueous solution, followed by a redox process.

  9. Nanocrystal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisdale, William; Prins, Ferry; Weidman, Mark; Beck, Megan

    2016-11-01

    A method of preparing monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals can include contacting an M-containing precursor with an X donor to form a mixture, where the molar ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor is large. Alternatively, if additional X donor is added during the reaction, a smaller ratio between the M containing precursor and the X donor can be used to prepare monodisperse MX semiconductor nanocrystals.

  10. Conductivity of microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites with CNT-loaded microfibrils or compatibilizer: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fakirov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conductive polymer composites have wide ranging applications, but when they are produced by conventional melt blending, high conductive filler loadings are normally required, hindering their processability and reducing mechanical properties. In this study, two types of polymer-polymer composites were studied: i microfibrillar composites (MFC of polypropylene (PP and 5 wt% carbon nanotube (CNT loaded poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT as reinforcement, and ii maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA compatibilizer, loaded with 5 wt% CNTs introduced into an MFC of PP and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET in concentrations of 5 and 10 wt%. For the compatibilized composite type, PP and PET were melt-blended, cold-drawn and pelletized, followed by dry-mixing with PP-g-MA/CNT, re-extrusion at 200°C, and cold-drawing. The drawn blends produced were compression moulded to produce sheets with MFC structure. Using scanning electron microscopy, CNTs coated with PP-g-MA could be observed at the interface between PP matrix and PET microfibrils in the compatibilized blends. The volume resistivities tested by four-point test method were: 2.87•108 and 9.93•107 Ω•cm for the 66.5/28.5/5 and 63/27/10 (by wt% PP/PET/(PP-g-MA/CNT blends, corresponding to total CNT loadings (in the composites of 0.07 vol% (0.24 wt% and 0.14 vol% (0.46 wt%, respectively. For the non-compatibilized MFC types based on PP/(PBT/CNT with higher and lower melt flow grades of PP, the resistivities of 70/(95/5 blends were 1.9•106 and 1.5•107 Ω•cm, respectively, corresponding to a total filler loading (in the composite of 0.44 vol% (1.5 wt% in both MFCs.

  11. Modification of Conductive Polymer for Polymeric Anodes of Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guang-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS, was modified with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO in solution state, together with sub-sequential thermal treatment of its spin-coated film. The electrical conductivity increased by more than three orders of magnitude improvement was achieved. The mechanism for the conductivity improvement was studied at nanoscale by particle size analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Smaller particle size was observed, resulting in larger contact area and better electrical conductive connections. Connection of conductive PEDOT increased on the surface of the PEDOT:PSS particles, which promoted high conductivity. Flexible anodes based on the modified PEDOT:PSS were fabricated. Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLED based the polymeric anodes have a comparable performance to those on indium–tin–oxide (ITO anodes.

  12. Conducting polymer actuator based on chemically deposited polypyrrole and polyurethane-based solid polymer electrolyte working in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwa-Jeong; Song, Young-Min; Chung, Ildoo; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Jo, Nam-Ju

    2009-02-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs), such as polypyrrole, polythiophene, and polyaniline, are unique in that they have switchable properties due to their two or more mechanically stable oxidation states. Thus, their films or coatings can be easily switched by the application of a small voltage and current to change their volume during electrochemical redox processes. In particular, polypyrrole (PPy) has been studied most extensively because of its high electrical conductivity and good environmental stability under ambient conditions. In this work, we have studied a new CP actuator, fully polymeric, assembled with two PPy film electrodes and a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE), polyurethane/Mg(ClO4)2. Polyurethanes (PUs) were synthesized from 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and three types of polyol: poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), and PPG-block-PEG-block-PPG (PPG-co-PEG). The chemical polymerization of PPy by immersion in Py monomer aqueous solution and oxidant aqueous solution is an adequate method to prepare PU/PPy composite film as an actuator. To find the proper thickness of the PPy coating layer for actuation, we measured the displacements of the actuators according to the thickness of the PPy coating layer. The displacement of all actuators is discussed in connection with the properties of the SPE and PPy. All the results obtained in this work show the feasibility of electrochemomechanical devices based on PPy and SPE film being able to work in air.

  13. TITANIUM DIOXIDE TRIADS FOR IMPROVED CHARGE-SEPARATION USING CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, T.M.; Gaylor, T.N.; de la Garza, L.; Rajh, T.

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially one of the best solutions to solar energy conversion because of the low cost of required materials and production processes. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticulate fi lms are the basis for one of these types of cells, providing large surface area for dye-sensitizer adsorption. Because TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms develop defects caused by oxygen defi ciency, deep reactive electron traps are formed. With the addition of an enediol ligand, these electron traps are deliberately removed, enhancing the conduction of electrons within the fi lm. In this project, TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms made by a layer-by-layer dip coating method were modifi ed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). DOPAC binds to the titanium atoms on the surface of the nanoparticles, restoring their octahedral geometry. This restructuring of the surface shifts the spectral properties of the TiO2 to the visible spectrum and improves the separation of charges which is observed using photoelectrochemistry. Furthermore, DOPAC enables the electronic attachment of other molecules to the surface of TiO2 fi lms, such as the conductive polymer polyaniline base. This conductive polymer provides an extended separation of charges which increases photocurrent production by forming a triad with the TiO2 semiconductor through the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid linker. The photocurrent increases due to the donor properties of the conductive polymer thereby decreasing charge pair recombination.

  14. High ionic conductivity P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO blended polymer electrolytes for solid electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chien A; Xiong, Shanxin; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong; Lee, Pooi See

    2011-08-07

    Solid polymer electrolytes with excellent ionic conductivity (above 10(-4) S cm(-1)), which result in high optical modulation for solid electrochromic (EC) devices are presented. The combination of a polar host matrix poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) and a solid plasticized of a low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (M(w)≤ 20,000) blended polymer electrolyte serves to enhance both the dissolution of lithium salt and the ionic transport. Calorimetric measurement shows a reduced crystallization due to a better intermixing of the polymers with small molecular weight PEO. Vibrational spectroscopy identifies the presence of free ions and ion pairs in the electrolytes with PEO of M(w)≤ 8000. The ionic dissolution is improved using PEO as a plasticizer when compared to liquid propylene carbonate, evidently shown in the transference number analysis. Ionic transport follows the Arrhenius equation with a low activation energy (0.16-0.2 eV), leading to high ionic conductivities. Solid electrochromic devices fabricated with the blended P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO electrolytes and polyaniline show good spectroelectrochemical performance in the visible (300-800 nm) and near-infrared (0.9-2.4 μm) regions with a modulation up to 60% and fast switching speed of below 20 seconds. The successful introduction of the solid polymer electrolytes with its best harnessed qualities helps to expedite the application of various electrochemical devices.

  15. Conductivity and optical studies of plasticized solid polymer electrolytes doped with carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Suriani, E-mail: sue_83@um.edu.my [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-01-15

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF{sub 6}), ethylene carbonate (EC) and amorphous carbon nanotube ({alpha}CNTs) were prepared by the solution cast technique. The conductivity increases from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1} upon the addition of salt. The incorporation of EC and {alpha}CNTs to the salted polymer enhances the conductivity significantly to 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The complexation of doping materials with polymer were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared studies. Optical properties like direct band gap and indirect band gap were investigated for pure and doped polymer films in the wavelength range 200-400 nm. It was found that the energy gaps and band edge values shifted to lower energies on doping. - Highlights: > Optical band gap values show the decreasing trend with an increasing dopant concentration. > It is also observed that the absorption edge shifted to longer wavelength on doping. > Results of the optical measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined {pi}{yields}{pi}* transition associated with the formation of a conjugated C=O and/or C=O electronic structure.

  16. Electrochemical sensor for catechol and dopamine based on a catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer-conducting polymer hybrid recognition element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Dhana; Bossi, Alessandra; Whitcombe, Michael J; Chianella, Iva; Fowler, Steven A; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-05-01

    One of the difficulties with using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and other electrically insulating materials as the recognition element in electrochemical sensors is the lack of a direct path for the conduction of electrons from the active sites to the electrode. We have sought to address this problem through the preparation and characterization of novel hybrid materials combining a catalytic MIP, capable of oxidizing the template, catechol, with an electrically conducting polymer. In this way a network of "molecular wires" assists in the conduction of electrons from the active sites within the MIP to the electrode surface. This was made possible by the design of a new monomer that combines orthogonal polymerizable functionality; comprising an aniline group and a methacrylamide. Conducting films were prepared on the surface of electrodes (Au on glass) by electropolymerization of the aniline moiety. A layer of MIP was photochemically grafted over the polyaniline, via N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester (iniferter) activation of the methacrylamide groups. Detection of catechol by the hybrid-MIP sensor was found to be specific, and catechol oxidation was detected by cyclic voltammetry at the optimized operating conditions: potential range -0.6 V to +0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), scan rate 50 mV/s, PBS pH 7.4. The calibration curve for catechol was found to be linear to 144 microM, with a limit of detection of 228 nM. Catechol and dopamine were detected by the sensor, whereas analogues and potentially interfering compounds, including phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, serotonin, and ascorbic acid, had minimal effect (< or = 3%) on the detection of either analyte. Non-imprinted hybrid electrodes and bare gold electrodes failed to give any response to catechol at concentrations below 0.5 mM. Finally, the catalytic properties of the sensor were characterized by chronoamperometry and were found to be consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  17. Polymer Nanofibers with Outstanding Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Stability: Fundamental Linkage between Molecular Characteristics and Macroscopic Thermal Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Teng; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanofibers with high thermal conductivities and outstanding thermal stabilities are highly desirable in heat transfer-critical applications such as thermal management, heat exchangers and energy storage. In this work, we unlock the fundamental relations between the thermal conductivity and thermal stability of polymer nanofibers and their molecular characteristics by studying the temperature-induced phase transitions and thermal transport of a series of polymer nanofibers. Ten different polymer nanofibers with systematically chosen molecular structures are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We found that high thermal conductivity and good thermal stability can be achieved in polymers with rigid backbones, exemplified by {\\pi}-conjugated polymers, due to suppressed segmental rotations and large phonon group velocities. The low probability of segmental rotation does not only prevent temperature-induced phase transition but also enables long phonon mean free paths due to reduced di...

  18. An insight into the mechanism of charge-transfer of hybrid polymer:ternary/quaternary chalcopyrite colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Chawla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have demonstrated the structural and optoelectronic properties of the surface of ternary/quaternary (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe chalcopyrite nanocrystallites passivated by tri-n-octylphosphine-oxide (TOPO and tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP and compared their charge transfer characteristics in the respective polymer: chalcopyrite nanocomposites by dispersing them in poly(3-hexylthiophene polymer. It has been found that CZTSe nanocrystallites due to their high crystallinity and well-ordered 3-dimensional network in its pristine form exhibit a higher steric- and photo-stability, resistance against coagulation and homogeneity compared to the CISe and CIGSe counterparts. Moreover, CZTSe nanocrystallites display efficient photoluminescence quenching as evident from the high value of the Stern–Volmer quenching constant (KSV and eventually higher charge transfer efficiency in their respective polymer P3HT:CZTSe composites. We modelled the dependency of the charge transfer from the donor and the charge separation mechanism across the donor–acceptor interface from the extent of crystallinity of the chalcopyrite semiconductors (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe. Quaternary CZTSe chalcopyrites with their high crystallinity and controlled morphology in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer is an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells applications.

  19. Self-assembly of octapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals into a hexagonal ballerina network embedded in a thin polymer film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arciniegas, Milena P.; Kim, Mee R.; De Graaf, Joost; Brescia, Rosaria; Marras, Sergio; Miszta, Karol; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Van Roij, René; Manna, Liberato

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles with unconventional shapes may exhibit different types of assembly architectures that depend critically on the environmental conditions under which they are formed. Here, we demonstrate how the presence of polymer (polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA) molecules in a solution, in which CdSe(c

  20. An insight into the mechanism of charge-transfer of hybrid polymer:ternary/quaternary chalcopyrite colloidal nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Parul; Singh, Son; Sharma, Shailesh Narain

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated the structural and optoelectronic properties of the surface of ternary/quaternary (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites passivated by tri-n-octylphosphine-oxide (TOPO) and tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) and compared their charge transfer characteristics in the respective polymer: chalcopyrite nanocomposites by dispersing them in poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer. It has been found that CZTSe nanocrystallites due to their high crystallinity and well-ordered 3-dimensional network in its pristine form exhibit a higher steric- and photo-stability, resistance against coagulation and homogeneity compared to the CISe and CIGSe counterparts. Moreover, CZTSe nanocrystallites display efficient photoluminescence quenching as evident from the high value of the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K SV) and eventually higher charge transfer efficiency in their respective polymer P3HT:CZTSe composites. We modelled the dependency of the charge transfer from the donor and the charge separation mechanism across the donor-acceptor interface from the extent of crystallinity of the chalcopyrite semiconductors (CISe/CIGSe/CZTSe). Quaternary CZTSe chalcopyrites with their high crystallinity and controlled morphology in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer is an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells applications.

  1. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G

    2007-09-21

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P(13)TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P(13)TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more "conventional" rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries.

  2. Elucidation of charge storage characteristics of conducting polymer film using redox reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Contractor, Asfiya Q

    2013-01-01

    A general technique to investigate charge storage characteristics of conducting polymer films has been developed. A redox reaction is conducted on a polymer film on a rotating disk electrode under potentiostatic condition so that the rate of charging of the film equals the rate of removal of the charge by the reaction. In an experiment on polyaniline film deposited on platinum substrate, using Fe2+/Fe3+ in HCl as the redox system, the voltammogram shows five distinct linear segments (bands) with discontinuity in the slope at specific transition potentials. These bands are the same as those indicated by ESR/Raman spectroscopy with comparable transition potentials. From the dependence of the slopes of the bands on concentration of ferrous and ferric ions, it was possible to estimate the energies of the charge carrier in different bands. It is shown that the charge storage in the film is capacitive.

  3. PRESSURE DRIVEN CONDUCTING POLYMER MEMBRANES DERIVED FROM LAYER BY LAYER FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZZATI IZNI YUSOFF

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The layer-by-layer method is a technique used for the fabrication of ultra-thin defect free films which involves alternating sequential adsorption of polycations and polyanions, while conducting polymer is characterized by a conjugated structure of alternating single and double bonds. The use of layer-by-layer in producing a membrane for separation has received considerable interest due to its properties. However, the introduction of conducting polymer as a base membrane is relatively new. Therefore, in this review, we discuss in detail three types of LBL techniques (dip, spin and spray layer-by-layer along with their parameters. We will also summarize current developments on the characterization of modified membrane prepared using the layer-by-layer techniques in terms of morphology, physical and chemical properties, and separation performances.

  4. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P13TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more “conventional” rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. PMID:20354587

  5. Nanofluidic Diodes with Dynamic Rectification Properties Stemming from Reversible Electrochemical Conversions in Conducting Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mitta, Gonzalo; Marmisollé, Waldemar A; Trautmann, Christina; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia; Azzaroni, Omar

    2015-12-16

    The use of solid state nanochannels as nanofluidic diodes is currently a topic of large interest in nanotechnology. Particularly, there is a focus in the development of nanochannels with surface functionalities that make them responsive to multiple environmental variables. Here, we present for the first time the construction of electrochemical potential- and pH-responsive nanofluidic diodes using a novel approach based on a controlled electrochemical polymerization of aniline on gold-coated polycarbonate asymmetric nanochannels. The polyaniline-modified nanochannels showed three different levels of reversible ionic rectification corresponding to the degrees of oxidation of the conducting polymer. Our results demonstrate that this strategy enables an accurate and reversible control of the rectification properties due to the well-defined and predictable electrochemical conversion of charged species generated on the pore walls. We envision that these results will create novel avenues to fabricate electrochemically modulated nanofluidic diodes using conducting polymers integrated into single conical nanopores.

  6. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li i...

  7. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Yubao Sun; Gai Li; Yuanchu Lai; Danli Zeng; Hansong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp 3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batterie...

  8. Structural characterization and thermally stimulated discharge conductivity (TSDC) study in polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Sangawar; R J Dhokne; A U Ubale; P S Chikhalikar; S D Meshram

    2007-04-01

    The electrical conductivity of naphthalene doped polystyrene (PS) films (≈ 61.58 m thick) was studied as a function of dopant concentration and temperature. The formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes and strong concentration dependence of carrier mobility point out that the current carriers are transported through doped polymer system via hopping among sites associated with the dopant molecules. The activation energy, a, was calculated from the graph of logvs 103/ plot within low and high temperature regions.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Conducting Elastomers Based on Interpenetrated C60-Derived Polymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    terpolymers of ethane/propene and 5-vinylnorborn-2-ene (as EPDM ).21 In the latter case, incorporation of the rigid rod-like conducting polymers...electron oxidation of C60 and its analogous, forming the cationic radical intermediates of fullerenes which were stabilized under strong acidic conditions...PTMO chain-softening transition at 14 °C (22.5 J/g) were found to stabilize following the annealing treatment during the first cooling cycle from 200

  10. Ordered zigzag stripes of polymer gel/metal nanoparticle composites for highly stretchable conductive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Dong Choon; Park, Minwoo; Park, ChooJin; Kim, Bongsoo; Jeong, Unyong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Xia, Younan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Hur, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Jong Jin [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Mt.14-1, Nongseo-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-12

    Highly stretchable conductive composite lines with an ordered zigzag structure are prepared. The high stretchability arises from the interpenetrating network between the polymer gel and Ag nanoparticles, as well as the ordered zigzag morphology. Double transfer of the structures in a perpendicular configuration allows for the fabrication of 2D stretchable electrodes. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Ionic conductivity and transport properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-based solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreha, Merhawi; Subrahmanyam, A. R.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2016-08-01

    Polymer electrolytes containing poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and various concentrations of lithium triflate were prepared to determine the optimal polymer-salt composition for maximum ionic conductivity. Complex formation was ascertained from X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The conductivity measurements reveal that the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes containing various salt concentrations increases with temperature and obeys the Arrhenius rule. It is found that the electrolyte containing 25 wt.% of lithium triflate exhibits the highest room temperature conductivity. Moreover, Ionic transference measurements show predominance of ionic motion.

  12. Fabrication of conductive polymer-based nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bon Kang; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Jong-Ll; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2014-10-01

    Natural and synthetic polymers, in particular those that are conductive, are of great interest in the field of tissue engineering and the pursuit of biomimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) structures for adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of cells. In the present study, natural chitin and conductive polyaniline (PANi) blended solutions were electrospun to produce biodegradable and conductive biomimetic nanostructured scaffolds. The chitin/PANi (Chi-PANi) nanofibrous materials were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, wettability analysis, mechanical testing, and electrical conductivity measurements using a 4-point probe method. The calculated electrical conductivities of the PANi-containing nanofiber scaffolds significantly increased as the amount of PANi increased, reaching 5.21 ± 0.28 x 10(-3) S/cm for 0.3 wt% content of the conducting polymer. In addition, the viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the Chi-PANi nanofiber scaffolds in vitro was found to be excellent. These results suggest that the Chi-PANi nanofiber scaffolds have great potential for use in tissue engineering applications that involve electrical stimulation.

  13. Ultralight Graphene Foam/Conductive Polymer Composites for Exceptional Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Xu; Shen, Xi; Zheng, Qingbin; Xue, Quan; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2017-02-22

    Ultralight, high-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding graphene foam (GF)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composites are developed by drop coating of PEDOT:PSS on cellular-structured, freestanding GFs. To enhance the wettability and the interfacial bonds with PEDOT:PSS, GFs are functionalized with 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid. The GF/PEDOT:PSS composites possess an ultralow density of 18.2×10(-3) g/cm(3) and a high porosity of 98.8%, as well as an enhanced electrical conductivity by almost four folds from 11.8 to 43.2 S/cm after the incorporation of the conductive PEDOT:PSS. Benefiting from the excellent electrical conductivity, ultralight porous structure and effective charge delocalization, the composites deliver remarkable EMI shielding performance with a shielding effectiveness (SE) of 91.9 dB and a specific SE (SSE) of 3124 dB∙cm(3)/g, both of which are the highest among those reported in the literature for carbon-based polymer composites. The excellent electrical conductivities of composites arising from both the GFs with three-dimensionally interconnected conductive networks and the conductive polymer coating, as well as the left-handed composites with absolute permittivity and/or permeability larger than one give rise to significant microwave attenuation by absorption.

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer-Based Composites with Magnetic Aligned Hexagonal Boron Nitride Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Duan, Bin; Li, Lan; Xie, Bin; Huang, Mengyu; Luo, Xiaobing

    2015-06-17

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) platelets are widely used as the reinforcing fillers for enhancing the thermal conductivity of polymer-based composites. Since hBN platelets have high aspect ratio and show a highly anisotropic thermal property, the thermal conductivity of the hBNs-filled composites should be strongly associated with the platelets' orientation. However, the orientation effect has been explored less frequently due to the technical difficulties in precontrol of the platelets' orientation in the polymer matrix. In this paper, we report the use of magnetic fields to assemble the platelets into various microstructures and to study the thermal conductivities of the designed composites. The experimental results showed that thermal conductivities are dramatically different among these composites. For instance, the thermal conductivities of the composites with platelets oriented parallel and perpendicular to the heat flux direction are respectively 44.5% higher and 37.9% lower than that of unaligned composites at the volume fraction of 9.14%. The results were also analyzed by a theoretical model. The model suggests that the orientation of the hBN platelets is the main reason for the variance in the thermal conductivity.

  15. Electrodynamics of the conducting polymer polyaniline on the insulating side of the metal-insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgren, Erik; Penney, Keith; Diefenbach, Matt; Longnickel, Maryna; Wainwright, Mark; Walker, Eldridge; Al-Azzawi, Sarah; Erhahon, Hendrix; Singley, Jason

    2017-03-01

    Conducting polymer samples of polyaniline (PANI) exhibit a dramatic change in their conductivity as a function of protonation level, analogous with the changes in the transport properties of semiconductors upon doping. In this paper, PANI samples were prepared by protonating with varying concentrations of hydrochloric acid. The complex terahertz frequency-dependent conductivity and the dc conductivity of these samples were measured and analyzed in the framework of the disorder-driven, metal-insulator quantum phase transition. The samples were determined to all fall in the insulating phase of this phase transition. The frequency dependence of both the real and imaginary terahertz conductivity are found to be consistent with theories that include electronic correlation effects.

  16. Electroanalysis of NADH Using Conducting and Redox Active Polymer/Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrodes-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Ming Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Past few decades, conducting and redox active polymers play a critical role in the development of transducers for biosensing. It has been evidenced by increasing numerous reports on conducting and redox active polymers incorporated electrodes for assay of biomolcules. This review highlights the potential uses of electrogenerated polymer modified electrodes and polymer/carbon nanotubes composite modified electrodes for electroanalysis of reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinuceltoide (NADH. In addition, carbon electrodes modified with organic and inorganic materials as modifier have been discussed in detail for the quantification of NADH based on mediator or mediator-less methods.

  17. Experimental investigations of an ionic-liquid-based, magnesium ion conducting, polymer gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G.P.; Hashmi, S.A. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Studies on a novel magnesium ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte based on a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is reported. It comprises a Mg-salt, Mg(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} [or magnesium triflate, Mg(Tf){sub 2}] solution in an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate (EMITf), immobilized with poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), which is a freestanding, semitransparent and flexible film with excellent mechanical strength. Physical and electrochemical analyses demonstrate promising characteristics of these films, suitable as electrolytes in rechargeable magnesium batteries. The material offers a maximum electrical conductivity of {proportional_to}4.8 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature (20 C) with excellent thermal and electrochemical stabilities. Possible conformational changes in the polymer host PVdF-HFP due to ionic liquid solution entrapment and ion-polymer interaction are investigated by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) methods. The Mg{sup 2+} ion transport in the gel film is confirmed from cyclic voltammetry, impedance and transport number measurements. The Mg{sup 2+} ion transport number (t{sub +}) is {proportional_to}0.26, which indicates a substantial contribution of triflate anion transport along with ionic conduction due to the component ions of the ionic liquid. (author)

  18. Zinc ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on oligomeric polyether/PVDF-HFP blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Xu, Jun John

    Here we report novel zinc ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on oligomeric polyether/PVDF-HFP blends with or without the incorporation of a small amount of organic carbonates. Their thermal properties, ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties are characterized and the effect of different Zn salts and incorporation of a small amount of organic carbonates are investigated. These polymer electrolyte membranes exhibit essentially no or very low volatility, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical stability window, acceptable interfacial resistance with zinc, and the capability for reversible Zn plating/stripping. Particularly promising are electrolyte systems based on the combination of low lattice energy zinc imide salt and a special co-solvent of oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) mixed with a small amount of ethylene carbonate (EC), dimensionally stabilized with PVDF-HFP. Such novel polymer electrolyte membranes could lead to the development of new kinds of electrochemical energy storage devices based on zinc electrochemistry, including solid-state, thin-film rechargeable zinc/air cells envisaged.

  19. Magnesium ion-conducting gel polymer electrolytes dispersed with nanosized magnesium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Agrawal, R. C.; Hashmi, S. A.

    Experimental investigations are performed on novel magnesium ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), dispersed with nanosized magnesium oxide (MgO) particles. The nanocomposite materials are in the form of free-standing films. Various physical and electrochemical analyses demonstrate promising characteristics of these films, suitable as electrolytes in rechargeable magnesium batteries. The optimized material with 3 wt.% MgO offers a maximum electrical conductivity of ∼8 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature (∼25 °C) with good thermal and electrochemical stabilities. The ion/filler-polymer interactions and possible conformational changes in host polymer PVdF-HFP due to the liquid electrolyte entrapment and dispersion of nanosized MgO are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) methods. The Mg 2+ ion conduction in the gel film is confirmed from the cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and transport number measurements. The Mg 2+ ion transport number (t +) is enhanced substantially and found to have a maximum of ∼0.44 for the addition of 10 wt.% MgO nanoparticles. The enhancement in t + is explained on the basis of the formation of space-charge regions due to the presence of MgO:Mg 2+-like species, that supports Mg 2+ ion motion.

  20. Experimental investigations of an ionic-liquid-based, magnesium ion conducting, polymer gel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    Studies on a novel magnesium ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte based on a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is reported. It comprises a Mg-salt, Mg(CF 3SO 3) 2 [or magnesium triflate, Mg(Tf) 2] solution in an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate (EMITf), immobilized with poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), which is a freestanding, semitransparent and flexible film with excellent mechanical strength. Physical and electrochemical analyses demonstrate promising characteristics of these films, suitable as electrolytes in rechargeable magnesium batteries. The material offers a maximum electrical conductivity of ∼4.8 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature (20 °C) with excellent thermal and electrochemical stabilities. Possible conformational changes in the polymer host PVdF-HFP due to ionic liquid solution entrapment and ion-polymer interaction are investigated by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) methods. The Mg 2+ ion transport in the gel film is confirmed from cyclic voltammetry, impedance and transport number measurements. The Mg 2+ ion transport number (t +) is ∼0.26, which indicates a substantial contribution of triflate anion transport along with ionic conduction due to the component ions of the ionic liquid.

  1. Zinc ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on oligomeric polyether/PVDF-HFP blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Hui; Xu, Jun John [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2007-03-20

    Here we report novel zinc ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on oligomeric polyether/PVDF-HFP blends with or without the incorporation of a small amount of organic carbonates. Their thermal properties, ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties are characterized and the effect of different Zn salts and incorporation of a small amount of organic carbonates are investigated. These polymer electrolyte membranes exhibit essentially no or very low volatility, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical stability window, acceptable interfacial resistance with zinc, and the capability for reversible Zn plating/stripping. Particularly promising are electrolyte systems based on the combination of low lattice energy zinc imide salt and a special co-solvent of oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) mixed with a small amount of ethylene carbonate (EC), dimensionally stabilized with PVDF-HFP. Such novel polymer electrolyte membranes could lead to the development of new kinds of electrochemical energy storage devices based on zinc electrochemistry, including solid-state, thin-film rechargeable zinc/air cells envisaged. (author)

  2. The selective flow of volatile organic compounds in conductive polymer-coated microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Babaei, Faramarz; Hooshyar Zare, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Many gaseous markers of critical biological, physicochemical, or industrial occurrences are masked by the cross-sensitivity of the sensors to the other active components present at higher concentrations. Here, we report the strongly selective diffusion and drift of contaminant molecules in air-filled conductive polymer-coated microfluidic channels for the first time. Monitoring the passage of different target molecules through microchannels coated with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) revealed that contaminants such as hexane, benzene, and CO pass through the channel unaffected by the coating while methanol, ethanol, and partly acetone are blocked. The observations are explained with reference to the selective interactions between the conductive polymer surface and target gas molecules amplified by the large wall/volume ratio in microchannels. The accumulated quantitative data point at the hydrogen bonding as the mechanism of wall adsorption; dipole-dipole interactions are relatively insignificant. The presented model facilitates a better understanding of how the conductive polymer-based chemical sensors operate.

  3. A pulsed electron beam synthesis of PEDOT conducting polymers by using sulfate radicals as oxidizing species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Cecilia; Cui, Zhenpeng; Dazzi, Alexandre; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Néron, Stéphane; Marignier, Jean-Louis; Remita, Samy

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an original radiolytic method, based on pulsed electron beam irradiation, is used for the synthesis of conducting PEDOT in an aqueous solution containing EDOT monomers in the presence of potassium persulfate, K2S2O8, at 0 °C. At this low temperature, EDOT monomers are not chemically oxidized by S2O82- anions, initiating PEDOT polymerization, but are rather oxidized by sulfate radicals, SO4•-, which are radiolytically generated by the reaction of solvated electrons, produced by water radiolysis, with persulfate anions. Successfully, as demonstrated by UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, irradiating the aqueous solution, by using a series of accumulated electron pulses, enables complete EDOT oxidation and quantitative in situ PEDOT polymerization through a step-by-step oxidation mechanism. The morphology of PEDOT polymers, mixed with unreacted K2S2O8 salt, is characterized by Cryo-TEM microscopy in aqueous solution and by SEM after deposition. Successfully, in the absence of any washing step, high resolution AFM microscopy, coupled with infrared nanospectroscopy, is used to discriminate between the organic polymers and the inorganic salt and to probe the local chemical composition of PEDOT nanostructures. The results demonstrate that PEDOT polymers form globular self-assembled nanostructures which preferentially adsorb onto unreacted K2S2O8 solid nanoplates. The present results first demonstrate the efficiency of sulfate radicals as oxidizing species for the preparation of nanostructured PEDOT polymers and second highlight the promising potentiality of electron accelerators in the field of conducting polymers synthesis.

  4. Tubular array, dielectric, conductivity and electrochemical properties of biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar, Y.N. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Selvakumar, M., E-mail: chemselva78@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bhat, D. Krishna [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A new finding of tubular array of 10–20 μm in length and 1–2 μm in thickness of gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) having 2.2 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} conductivity is reported. • Thermal and electrochemical characterizations of GPEs show good interaction among the polymer, plasticizer and salt. • GPE based supercapacitor demonstrates high capacitance of 186 F g{sup −1}. • Low temperature studies did not influence much on capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. • Charge–discharge exhibits high capacity with excellent cyclic stability and energy density. -- Abstract: A supercapacitor based on a biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) has been fabricated using guar gum (GG) as the polymer matrix, LiClO{sub 4} as the doping salt and glycerol as the plasticizer. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the gel polymer showed an unusual tubular array type surface morphology. FTIR, DSC and TGA results of the GPE indicated good interaction between the components used. Highest ionic conductivity and lowest activation energy values were 2.2 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} and 0.18 eV, respectively. Dielectric studies revealed ionic behavior and good capacitance with varying frequency of the GPE system. The fabricated supercapacitor showed a maximum specific capacitance value of 186 F g{sup −1} using cyclic voltammetry. Variation of temperature from 273 K to 293 K did not significantly influence the capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. Galvanostatic charge–discharge study of supercapacitor indicated that the device has good stability, high energy density and power density.

  5. Investigation on Photovoltaic Performance based on Matchstick-Like Cu2S–In2S3Heterostructure Nanocrystals and Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a novel type II cuprous sulfide (Cu2S)–indium sulfide (In2S3) heterostructure nanocrystals with matchstick-like morphology in pure dodecanethiol. The photovoltaic properties of the heterostructure nanocrystals were investigated based on the blends of the nanocrystals and poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexoxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV). In comparison with the photovoltaic properties of the blends of Cu2S or In2S3nanocrystals alone and MEH-PPV, the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid device based on blend of Cu2S–In2S3and MEH-PPV is enhanced by ~3–5 times. This improvement is consistent with the improved exciton dissociation or separation and better charge transport abilities in type II heterostructure nanocrystals. PMID:20596339

  6. Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2012-01-01

    For silicon nanowires (Si NWs) to be used as a successful high capacity lithium-ion battery anode material, improvements in cycling stability are required. Here we show that a conductive polymer surface coating on the Si NWs improves cycling stability; coating with PEDOT causes the capacity retention after 100 charge-discharge cycles to increase from 30% to 80% over bare NWs. The improvement in cycling stability is attributed to the conductive coating maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cycled Si material, along with preserving electrical connections between NWs that would otherwise have become electrically isolated during volume changes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of polymer electrolyte plasticized with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO4 solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The maximum dielectric constant is observed for 30 wt. % of PEG content. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the complex dielectric permittivity has been studied with Havriliak-Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with inverse temperature obtained from HN formalism follows VTF nature.

  8. Ion-Electron-Conducting Polymer Composites: Promising Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Amita

    2016-07-20

    Polymer nanocomposites consisting of poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) PVdF-HFP, inorganic salt (LiBF4), organic salt (EMIMBF4), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared as electromagnetic shield material. Improvement in conductivity and dielectric property due to the introduction of EMIMBF4, LiBF4, and MWCNTs was confirmed by complex impedance spectroscopy. The highest conductivity obtained is ∼1.86 mS/cm. This is attributed to the high ionic conductivity of the ionic liquids and the formation of a connecting network by the MWCNTs facilitating electron conduction. The total electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness has a major contribution to it due to absorption. Although the total shielding effectiveness in the Ku band (12.4-18 GHz) of pure ion-conducting system was found to be ∼19 dB and that for the polymer composites which are mixed (ion + electron) conductors is ∼46 dB, the contributions due to absorption are ∼16 and ∼42 dB, respectively.

  9. Absorption modulation of FSS-polymer nanocomposites through incorporation of conductive nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswar, Rajkumar; Danlée, Yann; Mesfin, Henok; Delcorte, Arnaud; Hermans, Sophie; Bailly, Christian; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Huynen, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The hybrid concept of utilizing frequency selective surface (FSS) and polymer nanocomposite (PNC) for absorption modulation is presented in 8-18 GHz frequency band. The extruded PNCs are fabricated by incorporating different weight% fraction of conductive fillers, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), in high, low and mixed nano-filler concentration in a polycarbonate matrix. The FSS metallic resonator is patterned over a dielectric substrate which lies on grounded PNCs. It was found that absorption depends on wt% fraction of conductive inclusions in polycarbonate matrix, i.e., variation in conductivity of grounded PNCs due to varying concentration of conductive fillers results in modulation of absorption. Peaks of nearly 100% magnitude of absorption and modulated absorption band are observed at 8.2 GHz, and between 12 and 18 GHz frequency bands, respectively, by varying conductivity of polymer composite. We demonstrate here that the bandwidth and magnitude of absorption can be fixed by the combination of SSRs (for limits of the band) and concentrations in nanofillers (for intensity of absorption).

  10. Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtina, Natalia A.; MacKinnon, Neil; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in micro- and nanotechnology is the direct patterning of functional structures. For example, it is highly desirable to possess the ability to create three-dimensional (3D), conductive, and optically transparent structures. Efforts in this direction have, to date, yielded less than optimal results since the polymer composites had low optical transparency over the visible range, were only slightly conductive, or incompatible with high resolution structuring. We have previously presented the novel cross-linkable, conductive, highly transparent composite material based on a photoresist (IP-L 780, OrmoComp, or SU-8) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Material patterning by conventional and two-photon photolithography has been demonstrated as proof-of-concept. Aiming to increase the resolution and to extend the spectrum of exciting applications we continued our research into identifying new ionic liquid - polymer composites. In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of optically transparent and electrically conductive ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with the highest spatial resolution (down to 150 nm) achieved to date. This was achieved via the development of novel cross-linkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.

  11. Electropolymerizable 2,2'-Carboranyldithiophenes. Structure-Property Investigations of the Corresponding Conducting Polymer Films by Electrochemistry, UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrière, Frédéric; Fabre, Bruno; Hao, Erhong; Lejeune, Zorabel M; Hwang, Euiyong; Garno, Jayne C; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Vicente, M Graça H

    2009-04-28

    Carborane-functionalized conducting polymer films have been electrogenerated in dichloromethane from the anodic oxidation of ortho- (1), meta- (3) and para-carborane (4) isomers linked to two 2-thienyl units. The corresponding electrochemical response was characterized by a broad reversible redox system corresponding to the p-doping/undoping of the polythiophene backbone, the formal potential of which increased in the order poly(1) conductive domains of the electropolymerized films were evaluated by conducting probe AFM. The three polymers exhibit fairly similar morphological characteristics and a surface roughness of ~2 nm. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of conducting AFM tip-carborane polymer-ITO junctions showed that poly(1) had the highest conductivity.

  12. Fast ultrahigh-density writing of low-conductivity patterns on semiconducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Marco; Ye, Tengling; Lanzani, Guglielmo; di Donato, Andrea; Venanzoni, Giuseppe; Mencarelli, Davide; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Morini, Antonio; Keivanidis, Panagiotis E

    2013-01-01

    The exceptional interest in improving the limitations of data storage, molecular electronics and optoelectronics has promoted the development of an ever increasing number of techniques used to pattern polymers at micro and nanoscale. Most of them rely on atomic force microscopy to thermally or electrostatically induce mass transport, thereby creating topographic features. Here we show that the mechanical interaction between the tip of the atomic force microscope and the surface of π-conjugated polymeric films produces a local increase of molecular disorder, inducing a localized lowering of the semiconductor conductivity, not associated to detectable modifications in the surface topography. This phenomenon allows for the swift production of low-conductivity patterns on the film surface at a speed exceeding 20 μm s⁻¹; paths have a resolution in the order of the tip size (20 nm) and are detected by a conducting-atomic force microscopy tip in the conductivity maps.

  13. Ionic drift velocity measurement on hot-pressed Ag+ ion conducting glass-polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angesh Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Ionic drift velocity (d) measurements of a new Ag+ ion conducting glass-polymer electrolytes (GPEs): (1−x) PEO : x[0.8(0.75AgI:0.25AgCl) : 0.2(Ag2 O:V2O5)], where 0 < x < 50 wt%, were reported. GPEs were casted using the hot-press techniques developed in recent times. The composition: 70PEO : 30[0.8(0.75AgI : 0.25AgCl) : 0.2(Ag2O : V2O5)] with conductivity ()∼ 7.7 × 10−7 S cm−1 was identified as highest conducting composition from the compositional-dependent conductivity studies. The ionic mobility (), mobile ion concentration (), ionic transference number (ion) and ionic drift velocity (d) of GPEs were determined at different temperatures with the help of the d.c. polarization technique and other well-known important relations.

  14. Improving the Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries by Conductive Polymer Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2011-11-22

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for next-generation high-performance energy storage systems because of their high theoretical specific energy, low materials cost, and environmental safety. One of the major obstacles for its commercialization is the rapid capacity fading due to polysulfide dissolution and uncontrolled redeposition. Various porous carbon structures have been used to improve the performance of Li-S batteries, as polysulfides could be trapped inside the carbon matrix. However, polysulfides still diffuse out for a prolonged time if there is no effective capping layer surrounding the carbon/sulfur particles. Here we explore the application of conducting polymer to minimize the diffusion of polysulfides out of the mesoporous carbon matrix by coating poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto mesoporous carbon/sulfur particles. After surface coating, coulomb efficiency of the sulfur electrode was improved from 93% to 97%, and capacity decay was reduced from 40%/100 cycles to 15%/100 cycles. Moreover, the discharge capacity with the polymer coating was ∼10% higher than the bare counterpart, with an initial discharge capacity of 1140 mAh/g and a stable discharge capacity of >600 mAh/g after 150 cycles at C/5 rate. We believe that this conductive polymer coating method represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of Li-S batteries and can be applicable to other electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Francesco; Coppedè, Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Villani, Marco; Calestani, Davide; Candeloro, Patrizio; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10(-7) molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution.

  16. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco

    2014-01-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10 -7 molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution. 2014 Francesco Gentile et al.

  17. Effect of ZrO2 on conductivity of PVC–PMMA–LiBF4–DBP polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rajendran; T Uma

    2000-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of composite polymer electrolytes of PVC–PMMA–LiBF4–DBP for different concentrations of ZrO2 have been investigated. FTIR studies indicate complex formation between the polymers, salt and plasticizer. The electrical conductivity values measured by a.c. impedance spectroscopy is found to depend upon the ZrO2 concentration. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the polymer films seems to obey the VTF relation. The conductivity values are presented and results discussed.

  18. Correlation between ionic conductivity and fluidity of polymer gel electrolytes containing NH4CF3SO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinder Pal Singh; Rajiv Kumar; S S Sekhon

    2005-08-01

    Nonaqueous polymer gel electrolytes containing ammonium triflate (NH4CF3SO3) and dimethylacetamide (DMA) with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as the gelling polymer have been synthesized which show high value of conductivity (∼ 10-2 S/cm) at 25°C. The conductivity of polymer gel electrolytes containing different concentrations of NH4CF3SO3 shows a small decrease with the addition of PMMA and this has been correlated with the variation of fluidity of these gel electrolytes. The small decrease in conductivity with PMMA addition shows that polymer plays the role of stiffener and this is supported by FTIR results which also indicates the absence of any active interaction between polymer and NH4CF3SO3 in these gel electrolytes.

  19. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates.

  20. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Vreeland, Richard F.; Heien, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 μm were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range......In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical...... between −200 mV and 700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and show a relatively low resistance. A wide range of transmitters is shown to oxidize readily on the electrodes. Kinetic rate constants and half wave potentials are reported. The capacitance per area was found to be high (1670 ± 130 μF cm−2) compared to other thin...

  1. Comparative Studies of the Adsorption of Direct Dye on Activated Carbon and Conducting Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raffiea Baseri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the feasibility of removing Direct Blue 71 from aqueous solution by different adsorbents such as activated carbon (TPAC and Poly pyrrole polymer composite (PPC prepared from Thevetia Peruviana. Batch mode adsorption was performed to investigate the adsorption capacities of these adsorbents by varying initial dye concentration, temperature, agitation time and pH. The performance of TPAC was compared with PPC. Among the adsorbents, PPC had more adsorption capacity (88.24% than TPAC (58.82% at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L and at 30°C. The experimental data best fitted with pseudo second order kinetic model. The adsorption data fitted well for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorbents were also evaluated. The carbon embedded in conducting polymers matrix show better adsorptive properties than activated carbon.

  2. Preparation of conductive gold nanowires in confined environment of gold-filled polymer nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschang, Fabian; Langner, Markus; Vieker, Henning; Beyer, André; Greiner, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Continuous conductive gold nanofibers are prepared via the "tubes by fiber templates" process. First, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with over 60 wt% gold are synthesized and characterized, including gel permeation chromatography coupled with a diode array detector. Subsequent electrospinning of these AuNP with template PLLA results in composite nanofibers featuring a high gold content of 57 wt%. Highly homogeneous gold nanowires are obtained after chemical vapor deposition of 345 nm of poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) onto the composite fibers followed by pyrolysis of the polymers at 1050 °C. The corresponding heat-induced transition from continuous gold-loaded polymer tubes to smooth gold nanofibers is studied by transmission electron microscopy and helium ion microscopy using both secondary electrons and Rutherford backscattered ions.

  3. Morphology and Electrical Conductivity of Carbon Nanocoatings Prepared from Pyrolysed Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Molenda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductive carbon nanocoatings (conductive carbon layers—CCL were formed on α-Al2O3 model support using three different polymer precursors and deposition methods. This was done in an effort to improve electrical conductivity of the material through creating the appropriate morphology of the carbon layers. The best electrical properties were obtained with use of a precursor that consisted of poly-N-vinylformamide modified with pyromellitic acid (PMA. We demonstrate that these properties originate from a specific morphology of this layer that showed nanopores (3-4 nm capable of assuring easy pathways for ion transport in real electrode materials. The proposed, water mediated, method of carbon coating of powdered supports combines coating from solution and solid phase and is easy to scale up process. The optimal polymer carbon precursor composition was used to prepare conductive carbon nanocoatings on LiFePO4 cathode material. Charge-discharge tests clearly show that C/LiFePO4 composites obtained using poly-N-vinylformamide modified with pyromellitic acid exhibit higher rechargeable capacity and longer working time in a battery cell than standard carbon/lithium iron phosphate composites.

  4. A first approach to foot motion monitoring using conductive polymer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, L. M.; Winkelmann, A. E.; Flatau, A. B.

    2009-03-01

    A study was conducted of socks fitted with thin flexible conductive polymer sensors for the potential use as a smart sock for monitoring foot motion. The thin flexible sensors consisted of a conductive polymer applied on an elastic textile substrate that exhibited a resistance change when strained. Quasi-static response tests of the basic sensor over a static load range of a few Newtons were conducted and showed a time varying response as observed by previous investigators. Dynamic testing through an electrodynamic shaker shows good dynamic response at a low frequency range, less than 4Hz. Strips of 12 cm x 1 cm of the sensor on fabric showed a reproducible basal resistance on the order of 10KOhms. Other geometries of the continuous sensors and correlation of strain to resistance variation were studied. Similar tests were performed on different textile substrates which vary in composition and microstructure, i.e. woven, knitted, nylon%, polyester%, etc... These sensors were integrated into socks and preliminary results indicate that distinct responses to different foot motion patterns are detected in sensors placed at different joint locations on the foot. Further processing of strain results from smart socks should provide information about the kinematics and dynamics of the human foot.

  5. Thermoelectric behavior of conducting polymers: On the possibility of off-diagonal thermoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateeva, N.; Testardi, L. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Niculescu, H. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)]|[Florida A and M Univ./Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States) Coll. of Engineering; Schlenoff, J. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)]|[Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-12-01

    Non-cubic materials, when structurally aligned, possess sufficient anisotropy to exhibit thermoelectric effects where the electrical and thermal paths can be orthogonal due to off-diagonal thermoelectricity (ODTE). The authors discuss the benefits of this form of thermoelectricity for device applications and describe a search for suitable thermoelectric properties in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole. They find, at 300K for diagonal (ordinary) thermoelectricity (DTE), the general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity varies linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping, but with a proportionality in excess of a prediction from theory. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable in its consequences for applications in DTE and ODTE. A standard model suggests that conduction by carriers of both signs occurs in these polymers, which thus leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. They also discuss polyacetylene (which is not air-stable), where this ambipolar conduction does not occur, and where properties seem more favorable for thermoelectricity.

  6. Electrochemical co-deposition of conductive polymer-silica hybrid thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Moran; Liu, Liang; Mandler, Daniel

    2013-07-14

    Conductive polymers, such as polypyrrole (ppy), have been the subject of numerous studies due to their promising applications in organic solar cells, flexible electronics, electrochromic devices, super capacitors, etc. Yet, their application is still limited as a result of poor processability. Silica has been reported to improve the mechanical strength and adhesion of conductive polymer films. In this work, we propose a controllable electrochemical approach for preparing ppy-silica hybrid thin films from a solution containing both pyrrole and silane monomers. It is known that pyrrole can be electropolymerised using anodic potentials, while silica can be electrodeposited under cathodic potentials. Thus, we studied the formation of ppy-silica hybrid thin films on a stainless steel surface by applying alternating potentials, i.e. cathodic followed by anodic pulses (denoted C + A) or anodic followed by cathodic pulses (denoted A + C). We show that by controlling the deposition potential and time for the cathodic and anodic pulses, the film thickness and composition can be manipulated well as analysed using profilometry and EDX. The element depth profile of the films was characterized using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In essence, for the C + A process, pyrrole diffuses through the cathodically electrodeposited wet silica gel layer and undergoes anodic polymerisation on the substrate, while for the A + C process, silane can be electrodeposited both on top of the anodically electrodeposited conductive ppy films as well as on the stainless steel through the pinholes in the ppy film. This offers a simple approach for tuning the structure of conductive polymer-sol-gel composite films.

  7. Conductive Circuit Containing a Polymer Composition Containing Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide and Method of Making the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A conductive circuit containing a polymer composite, which contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide having a surface area of from about 300 m(sup.2)/g to 2600 m(sup.2)/g, and a method of making the same.

  8. Electrical regulation of Schwann cells using conductive polypyrrole/chitosan polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Hu, Xueyu; Lu, Lei; Ye, Zhengxu; Zhang, Quanyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2010-04-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) can dramatically enhance neurite outgrowth through conductive polymers and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models of nerve injury. Therefore, conductive tissue engineering graft in combination with ES is a potential treatment for neural injuries. Conductive tissue engineering graft can be obtained by seeding Schwann cells on conductive scaffold. However, when ES is applied through the conductive scaffold, the impact of ES on Schwann cells has never been investigated. In this study, a biodegradable conductive composite made of conductive polypyrrole (PPy, 2.5%) and biodegradable chitosan (97.5%) was prepared in order to electrically stimulate Schwann cells. The tolerance of Schwann cells to ES was examined by a cell apoptosis assay. The growth of the cells was characterized using DAPI staining and a MTT assay. mRNA and protein levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Schwann cells were assayed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the amount of NGF and BDNF secreted was determined by an ELISA assay. The results showed that the PPy/chitosan membranes supported cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation with or without ES. Interestingly, ES applied through the PPy/chitosan composite dramatically enhanced the expression and secretion of NGF and BDNF when compared with control cells without ES. These findings highlight for the first time the possibility of enhancing nerve regeneration in conductive scaffolds through ES-increased neurotrophin secretion.

  9. Effect of Eutectic Concentration on Conductivity in PEO:LiX Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Pengfei; Ganapatibhotla, Lalitha; Maranas, Janna

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and lithium salt based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have been widely proposed as a substitution for the liquid electrolyte in Li-ion batteries. As salt concentration varies, these systems demonstrate rich phase behavior. Conductivity as a function of salt concentration has been measured for decades and various concentration dependences have been observed. A PEO:LiX mixture can have one or two conductivity maximums, while some mixtures with salt of high ionic strength will have higher conductivity as the salt concentration decrease. The factors that affect the conductivity are specific for each sample. The universal factor that affects conductivity is still not clear. In this work, we measured the conductivity of a series of PEO:LiX mixtures and statistical analysis shows conductivity is affected by the concentration difference from the eutectic concentration (Δc). The correlation with Δc is stronger than the correlation with glass transition temperature. We believe that at the eutectic concentration, during the solidification process, unique structures can form which aid conduction. Currently at Dow Chemical.

  10. Preparation and study of conductivity in lithium salt complexes of mixed MEEP : PEO polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Saibaba; D Srikanth; A Ramachandra Reddy

    2004-02-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)–LiX complexes and poly[bis(methoxy ethoxy ethoxide) phosphazene]–LiX complexes of polymer thin films were prepared. Conductivity measurements were carried out and the values were found to lie between 10-8 and 1.7 × 10-5 (S/cm). MEEP : LiX salts showed higher conductivity than PEO–LiX salts despite lower dimensional stability. For enhancing stability and conductivity, MEEP–PEO : (LiX) systems were prepared and conductivity measurements carried out. Further the MEEP/PEO : (LiX) was doped with Al2O3 and TiO2 nanocomposite ceramic fillers and the conductivity was studied. The conductivity vs temperature plots showed the enhancement of conductivity with TiO2 added nanocomposite ceramic fillers. The enhanced conductivity is explained on the basis of the effect of local structural modification-promoting localized amorphous region-for enhancement of the Li+ ion transport.

  11. Long-term cycle stability at a high current for nanocrystalline LiFePO4 coated with a conductive polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Hung-Cuong; Lim, Hanjo; Park, Ki Dong; Yeo, In-Hyeong; Kang, Yongku; Mho, Sun-il

    2013-03-01

    Highly uniform hierarchical-microstructured LiFePO4 particles with dumbbell- and donut-shape and individual LiFePO4 nanocrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal method utilizing citric acid or a triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) as a surfactant. The cathode composed of the individual nanocrystalline LiFePO4 particles exhibited higher specific capacity than the cathodes composed of the hierarchically assembled microparticles. Coating a conductive polymer, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT), on the surface of LiFePO4 particles improved the battery performances such as large specific capacities, high rate capability and an improved cycle stability. The nanocrystalline LiFePO4 particles coated with PEDOT (20 wt%) exhibited the highest discharge capacities of 175 and 136 mAh g-1 for the first battery cycle and 163 and 128 mAh g-1 after 500 battery cycles, with a degradation rate of 6-7%, at the rates of 1 and 10 C, respectively.

  12. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  13. Compliant glass-polymer hybrid single ion-conducting electrolytes for lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaluenga, Irune; Wujcik, Kevin H; Tong, Wei; Devaux, Didier; Wong, Dominica H C; DeSimone, Joseph M; Balsara, Nitash P

    2016-01-05

    Despite high ionic conductivities, current inorganic solid electrolytes cannot be used in lithium batteries because of a lack of compliance and adhesion to active particles in battery electrodes as they are discharged and charged. We have successfully developed a compliant, nonflammable, hybrid single ion-conducting electrolyte comprising inorganic sulfide glass particles covalently bonded to a perfluoropolyether polymer. The hybrid with 23 wt% perfluoropolyether exhibits low shear modulus relative to neat glass electrolytes, ionic conductivity of 10(-4) S/cm at room temperature, a cation transference number close to unity, and an electrochemical stability window up to 5 V relative to Li(+)/Li. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that the hybrid electrolyte limits lithium polysulfide dissolution and is, thus, ideally suited for Li-S cells. Our work opens a previously unidentified route for developing compliant solid electrolytes that will address the challenges of lithium batteries.

  14. IONIC CONDUCTIVITY AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE - NH4Cl SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. AHMAD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC – ammonium chloride (NH4Cl solid polymer electrolyte (SPE films were prepared by solution casting method. The ionic conductivity and electrical properties of SPE films were investigated using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. SPE film containing 16 wt. % NH4Cl exhibited the highest ionic conductivity of 1.43 x 10-3 S/cm at ambient temperature, 303K. The temperature dependence SPE films showed an Arrhenius-type relation where the regression values obtained from the log conductivity versus reciprocal temperature is close to unity (R2≈1. The electrical properties have been measured as a function of frequency of Ԑr,Ԑi, Mr, Mi shown a non-Debye type behavior

  15. Assembly of three coordination polymers based on a sulfonic-carboxylic ligand showing high proton conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Na; Song, Xue-Zhi; Zhu, Min; Meng, Xing; Wu, Lan-Lan; Song, Shu-Yan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2015-01-21

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs)/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different structures have been synthesized using 4,8-disulfonyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H4L) and metal ions, Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and Cd(2+). The Cu compound features a one-dimensional chain structure, further extending into a 2D layer network through H-bond interactions. Both the Ca and Cd compounds show 3D frameworks with (4,4)-connected PtS-type topology and (3,6)-connected bct-type topology, respectively. These CPs/MOFs all exhibit proton conduction behavior, especially for the Cu compound with a proton conductivity of 3.46 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 368 K and 95% relative humidity (RH). Additionally, the activation energy (Ea) has also been investigated to deeply understand the proton-conduction mechanism.

  16. Increasing ionic conductivity and mechanical strength of a plastic electrolyte by inclusion of a polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Monalisa; Chandrappa, Kodihalli G. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bhattacharyya, Aninda J. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)], E-mail: aninda_jb@sscu.iisc.ernet.in

    2008-12-30

    In this contribution we present a soft matter solid electrolyte which was obtained by inclusion of a polymer (polyacrylonitrile, PAN) in LiClO{sub 4}/LiTFSI-succinonitrile (SN), a semi-solid organic plastic electrolyte. Addition of the polymer resulted in considerable enhancement in ionic conductivity as well as mechanical strength of LiX-SN (X = ClO{sub 4}, TFSI) plastic electrolyte. Ionic conductivity of 92.5%-[1 M LiClO{sub 4}-SN]:7.5%-PAN (PAN amount as per SN weight) composite at 25 deg. C recorded a remarkably high value of 7 x 10{sup -3} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, higher by few tens of order in magnitude compared to 1 M LiClO{sub 4}-SN. Composite conductivity at sub-ambient temperature is also quite high. At -20 deg. C, the ionic conductivity of (100 - x)%-[1 M LiClO{sub 4}-SN]:x%-PAN composites are in the range 3 x 10{sup -5}-4.5 x 10{sup -4} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher with respect to 1 M LiClO{sub 4}-SN electrolyte conductivity. Addition of PAN resulted in an increase of the Young's modulus (Y) from Y {yields} 0 for LiClO{sub 4}-SN to a maximum of 0.4 MPa for the composites. Microstructural studies based on X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggest that enhancement in composite ionic conductivity is a combined effect of decrease in crystallinity and enhanced trans conformer concentration.

  17. A robust, highly stretchable supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogel with self-healability and thermo-processability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wei, Junjie; Xu, Bing; Liu, Xinhua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qigang; Liu, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Dual amide hydrogen bond crosslinked and strengthened high strength supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogels were fabricated by simply in situ doping poly (N-acryloyl glycinamide-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic) (PNAGA-PAMPS) hydrogels with PEDOT/PSS. The nonswellable conductive hydrogels in PBS demonstrated high mechanical performances—0.22–0.58 MPa tensile strength, 1.02–7.62 MPa compressive strength, and 817–1709% breaking strain. The doping of PEDOT/PSS could significantly improve the specific conductivities of the hydrogels. Cyclic heating and cooling could lead to reversible sol-gel transition and self-healability due to the dynamic breakup and reconstruction of hydrogen bonds. The mending hydrogels recovered not only the mechanical properties, but also conductivities very well. These supramolecular conductive hydrogels could be designed into arbitrary shapes with 3D printing technique, and further, printable electrode can be obtained by blending activated charcoal powder with PNAGA-PAMPS/PEDOT/PSS hydrogel under melting state. The fabricated supercapacitor via the conducting hydrogel electrodes possessed high capacitive performances. These cytocompatible conductive hydrogels have a great potential to be used as electro-active and electrical biomaterials.

  18. Carbon Nanotube/Conductive Additive/Space Durable Polymer Nanocomposite Films for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Connell, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Thin film membranes of space environmentally stable polymeric materials possessing low color/solar absorptivity (alpha) are of interest for potential applications on Gossamer spacecraft. In addition to these properties, sufficient electrical conductivity is required in order to dissipate electrostatic charge (ESC) build-up brought about by the charged orbital environment. One approach to achieve sufficient electrical conductivity for ESC mitigation is the incorporation of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, when the SWNTs are dispersed throughout the polymer matrix, the nanocomposite films tend to be significantly darker than the pristine material resulting in a higher alpha. The incorporation of conductive additives in combination with a decreased loading level of SWNTs is one approach for improving alpha while retaining conductivity. Taken individually, the low loading level of conductive additives and SWNTs is insufficient in achieving the percolation level necessary for electrical conductivity. When added simultaneously to the film, conductivity is achieved through a synergistic effect. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films will be presented.

  19. Effect of interface on surface morphology and proton conduction of polymer electrolyte thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Akihiro; Kuroda, Seiichi; Mohamed, Hamdy F M; Tavernier, Bruno

    2013-07-21

    To understand the relationship between surface morphology and proton conduction of polymer electrolyte thin films, perfluorinated ionomer Nafion® thin films were prepared on different substrates such as glassy carbon (GC), hydrophilic-GC (H-GC), and platinum (Pt) as models for the ionomer film within a catalyst layer. Atomic force microscopy coupled with an electrochemical (e-AFM) technique revealed that proton conduction decreased with film thickness; an abrupt decrease in proton conductance was observed when the film thickness was less than ca. 10 nm on GC substrates in addition to a significant change in surface morphology. Furthermore, thin films prepared on H-GC substrates with UV-ozone treatment exhibited higher proton conduction than those on untreated GC substrates. However, Pt substrates exhibited proton conduction comparable to that of GCs for films thicker than 20 nm; a decrease in proton conduction was observed at ∼5 nm thick film but was still much higher than for carbon substrates. These results indicate that the number of active proton-conductive pathways and/or the connectivity of the proton path network changed with film thickness. The surface morphology of thinner films was significantly affected by the film/substrate interface and was fundamentally different from that of the bulk thick membrane.

  20. A robust, highly stretchable supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogel with self-healability and thermo-processability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wei, Junjie; Xu, Bing; Liu, Xinhua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qigang; Liu, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Dual amide hydrogen bond crosslinked and strengthened high strength supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogels were fabricated by simply in situ doping poly (N-acryloyl glycinamide-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic) (PNAGA-PAMPS) hydrogels with PEDOT/PSS. The nonswellable conductive hydrogels in PBS demonstrated high mechanical performances—0.22–0.58 MPa tensile strength, 1.02–7.62 MPa compressive strength, and 817–1709% breaking strain. The doping of PEDOT/PSS could significantly improve the specific conductivities of the hydrogels. Cyclic heating and cooling could lead to reversible sol-gel transition and self-healability due to the dynamic breakup and reconstruction of hydrogen bonds. The mending hydrogels recovered not only the mechanical properties, but also conductivities very well. These supramolecular conductive hydrogels could be designed into arbitrary shapes with 3D printing technique, and further, printable electrode can be obtained by blending activated charcoal powder with PNAGA-PAMPS/PEDOT/PSS hydrogel under melting state. The fabricated supercapacitor via the conducting hydrogel electrodes possessed high capacitive performances. These cytocompatible conductive hydrogels have a great potential to be used as electro-active and electrical biomaterials. PMID:28134283

  1. Metal-conductive polymer hybrid nanostructures: preparation and electrical properties of palladium-polyimidazole nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinai, Mariam; Hassanien, Reda; Watson, Scott M D; Wright, Nicholas G; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R

    2016-03-04

    A simple, convenient method for the formation of hybrid metal/conductive polymer nanostructures is described. Polyimidazole (PIm) has been templated on λ-DNA via oxidative polymerisation of imidazole using FeCl3 to produce conductive PIm/DNA nanowires. The PIm/DNA nanowires were decorated with Pd (Pd/PIm/DNA) by electroless reduction of PdCl4(-2) with NaBH4 in the presence of PIm/DNA; the choice of imidazole was motivated by the potential Pd(II) binding site at the pyridinic N atom. The formation of PIm/DNA and the presence of metallic Pd on Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires were verified by FTIR, UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy techniques. AFM studies show that the nanowires have diameters in the range 5-45 nm with a slightly greater mean diameter (17.1 ± 0.75 nm) for the Pd-decorated nanowires than the PIm/DNA nanowires (14.5 ± 0.89 nm). After incubation for 24 h in the polymerisation solution, the PIm/DNA nanowires show a smooth, uniform morphology, which is retained after decoration with Pd. Using a combination of scanned conductance microscopy, conductive AFM and two-terminal measurements we show that both types of nanowire are conductive and that it is possible to discriminate different possible mechanisms of transport. The conductivity of the Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires, (0.1-1.4 S cm(-1)), is comparable to the PIm/DNA nanowires (0.37 ± 0.029 S cm(-1)). In addition, the conductance of Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires exhibits Arrhenius behaviour (E(a )= 0.43 ± 0.02 eV) as a function of temperature in contrast to simple Pd/DNA nanowires. These results indicate that although the Pd crystallites on Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires decorate the PIm polymer, the major current pathway is through the polymer rather than the Pd.

  2. Magnesium ion-conducting gel polymer electrolytes dispersed with nanosized magnesium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G.P. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Solid State Ionics Research Laboratory, School of Studies in Physics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, C.G. (India); Agrawal, R.C. [Solid State Ionics Research Laboratory, School of Studies in Physics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, C.G. (India); Hashmi, S.A. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2009-05-15

    Experimental investigations are performed on novel magnesium ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), dispersed with nanosized magnesium oxide (MgO) particles. The nanocomposite materials are in the form of free-standing films. Various physical and electrochemical analyses demonstrate promising characteristics of these films, suitable as electrolytes in rechargeable magnesium batteries. The optimized material with 3 wt.% MgO offers a maximum electrical conductivity of {proportional_to}8 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature ({proportional_to}25 C) with good thermal and electrochemical stabilities. The ion/filler-polymer interactions and possible conformational changes in host polymer PVdF-HFP due to the liquid electrolyte entrapment and dispersion of nanosized MgO are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) methods. The Mg{sup 2+} ion conduction in the gel film is confirmed from the cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and transport number measurements. The Mg{sup 2+} ion transport number (t{sub +}) is enhanced substantially and found to have a maximum of {proportional_to}0.44 for the addition of 10 wt.% MgO nanoparticles. The enhancement in t{sub +} is explained on the basis of the formation of space-charge regions due to the presence of MgO:Mg{sup 2+}-like species, that supports Mg{sup 2+} ion motion. (author)

  3. Application of conductive polymers, scaffolds and electrical stimulation for nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Morshed, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Baharvand, Hossein; Kiani, Sahar; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-04-01

    Among the numerous attempts to integrate tissue engineering concepts into strategies to repair nearly all parts of the body, neuronal repair stands out. This is partially due to the complexity of the nervous anatomical system, its functioning and the inefficiency of conventional repair approaches, which are based on single components of either biomaterials or cells alone. Electrical stimulation has been shown to enhance the nerve regeneration process and this consequently makes the use of electrically conductive polymers very attractive for the construction of scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. In this review, by taking into consideration the electrical properties of nerve cells and the effect of electrical stimulation on nerve cells, we discuss the most commonly utilized conductive polymers, polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI), along with their design and modifications, thus making them suitable scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. Other electrospun, composite, conductive scaffolds, such as PANI/gelatin and PPy/poly(ε-caprolactone), with or without electrical stimulation, are also discussed. Different procedures of electrical stimulation which have been used in tissue engineering, with examples on their specific applications in tissue engineering, are also discussed.

  4. Conductive polymer foam surface improves the performance of a capacitive EEG electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Lee, Hong Ji; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a new conductive polymer foam-surfaced electrode was proposed for use as a capacitive EEG electrode for nonintrusive EEG measurements in out-of-hospital environments. The current capacitive electrode has a rigid surface that produces an undefined contact area due to its stiffness, which renders it unable to conform to head curvature and locally isolates hairs between the electrode surface and scalp skin, making EEG measurement through hair difficult. In order to overcome this issue, a conductive polymer foam was applied to the capacitive electrode surface to provide a cushioning effect. This enabled EEG measurement through hair without any conductive contact with bare scalp skin. Experimental results showed that the new electrode provided lower electrode-skin impedance and higher voltage gains, signal-to-noise ratios, signal-to-error ratios, and correlation coefficients between EEGs measured by capacitive and conventional resistive methods compared to a conventional capacitive electrode. In addition, the new electrode could measure EEG signals, while the conventional capacitive electrode could not. We expect that the new electrode presented here can be easily installed in a hat or helmet to create a nonintrusive wearable EEG apparatus that does not make users look strange for real-world EEG applications.

  5. Quantitative Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bârsan, Oana A; Hoffmann, Günter G; van der Ven, Leendert G J; de With, Gijsbertus

    2016-08-03

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) is a valuable technique for correlating the electrical properties of a material with its topographic features and for identifying and characterizing conductive pathways in polymer composites. However, aspects such as compatibility between tip material and sample, contact force and area between the tip and the sample, tip degradation and environmental conditions render quantifying the results quite challenging. This study aims at finding the suitable conditions for C-AFM to generate reliable, reproducible, and quantitative current maps that can be used to calculate the resistance in each point of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network, nonimpregnated as well as impregnated with a polymer. The results obtained emphasize the technique's limitation at the macroscale as the resistance of these highly conductive samples cannot be distinguished from the tip-sample contact resistance. Quantitative C-AFM measurements on thin composite sections of 150-350 nm enable the separation of sample and tip-sample contact resistance, but also indicate that these sections are not representative for the overall SWCNT network. Nevertheless, the technique was successfully used to characterize the local electrical properties of the composite material, such as sample homogeneity and resistance range of individual SWCNT clusters, at the nano- and microscale.

  6. Controlled synthesis and energy applications of one-dimensional conducting polymer nanostructures: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhigang; Zheng, Qingdong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2012-02-15

    The past decade has witnessed increasing attention in the synthesis, properties, and applications of one-dimensional (1D) conducting polymer nanostructures. This overview first summarizes the synthetic strategies for various 1D nanostructures of conjugated polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline (PANI), polythiophene (PTh), poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and derivatives thereof. By using template-directed or template-free methods, nanoscale rods, wires/fibers, belts/ribbons, tubes, arrays, or composites have been successfully synthesized. With their unique structures and advantageous characteristics (e.g., high conductivity, high carrier mobility, good electrochemical activity, large specific surface area, short and direct path for charge/ion transportation, good mechanical properties), 1D conducting polymer nanostructures are demonstrated to be very useful for energy applications. Next, their applications in solar cells, fuel cells, rechargeable lithium batteries, and electrochemical supercapacitors are highlighted, with a strong emphasis on recent literature examples. Finally, this review ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Proton conducting, high modulus polymer electrolyte membranes by polymerization-induced microphase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Sujay; Hillmyer, Marc; Lodge, Timothy

    Robust solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are vital for designing next-generation lithium-ion batteries and high-temperature fuel cells. However, the performance of diblock polymer electrolytes is generally limited by poor mechanical stability and network defects in the conducting pathways. We present the in-situ preparation of robust cross-linked PEMs via polymerization-induced microphase separation, and incorporation of protic ionic liquid (IL) into one of the microphase separated domains. The facile design strategy involves a delicate balance between the controlled growth of polystyrene from a poly(ethylene oxide) macro-chain transfer agent (PEO-CTA) and simultaneous chemical cross-linking by divinylbenzene in the presence of IL. Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of a disordered structure with bicontinuous morphology and a characteristic domain size of order 20 nm. The long-range continuity of the PEO/protic IL conducting nanochannels and cross-linked polystyrene domains imparts high thermal and mechanical stability to the PEMs, with elastic modulus approaching 10 MPa and a high ionic conductivity of 15 mS/cm at 180 °C.

  8. Lattice thermal conductivity diminution and high thermoelectric power factor retention in nanoporous macroassemblies of sulfur-doped bismuth telluride nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Mehta, Rutvik J.; Belley, Matthew; Han, Liang; Ramanath, Ganpati; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian

    2012-01-01

    We report ultralow lattice thermal conductivity in the 0.3 ≤ κL ≤ 0.6 W m⁻¹ K⁻¹ range in nanoporous bulk bismuth telluride pellets obtained by sintering chemically synthesized nanostructures, together with single-crystal-like electron mobilities and Seebeck coefficients at comparable charge carrier concentrations. The observed κL is up to 35% lower than classical effective medium predictions, and can be quantitatively explained by increased phonon scattering at nanopores and nanograins. Our findings are germane to tailoring nanoporous thermoelectric materials for efficient solid-state refrigeration, thermal energy harvesting, and thermal management applications.

  9. Enhanced Flexible Tubular Microelectrode with Conducting Polymer for Multi-Functional Implantable Tissue-Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Chang; Liu, Jing-Quan; Kang, Xiao-Yang; Tang, Long-Jun; Wang, Ming-Hao; Ji, Bo-Wen; Yang, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chun-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Implantable biomedical microdevices enable the restoration of body function and improvement of health condition. As the interface between artificial machines and natural tissue, various kinds of microelectrodes with high density and tiny size were developed to undertake precise and complex medical tasks through electrical stimulation and electrophysiological recording. However, if only the electrical interaction existed between electrodes and muscle or nerve tissue without nutrition factor delivery, it would eventually lead to a significant symptom of denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. In this paper, we developed a novel flexible tubular microelectrode integrated with fluidic drug delivery channel for dynamic tissue implant. First, the whole microelectrode was made of biocompatible polymers, which could avoid the drawbacks of the stiff microelectrodes that are easy to be broken and damage tissue. Moreover, the microelectrode sites were circumferentially distributed on the surface of polymer microtube in three dimensions, which would be beneficial to the spatial selectivity. Finally, the in vivo results confirmed that our implantable tubular microelectrodes were suitable for dynamic electrophysiological recording and simultaneous fluidic drug delivery, and the electrode performance was further enhanced by the conducting polymer modification.

  10. Superhydrophobic SAM Modified Electrodes for Enhanced Current Limiting Properties in Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Surge Protection Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabarullah, Noor H; Verrelli, Emanuele; Mauldin, Clayton; Navarro, Luis A; Golden, Josh H; Madianos, Leonidas M; Kemp, Neil T

    2015-06-09

    Surface interface engineering using superhydrophobic gold electrodes made with 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has been used to enhance the current limiting properties of novel surge protection devices based on the intrinsic conducting polymer, polyaniline doped with methanesulfonic acid. The resulting devices show significantly enhanced current limiting characteristics, including current saturation, foldback, and negative differential effects. We show how SAM modification changes the morphology of the polymer film directly adjacent to the electrodes, leading to the formation of an interfacial compact thin film that lowers the contact resistance at the Au-polymer interface. We attribute the enhanced current limiting properties of the devices to a combination of lower contact resistance and increased Joule heating within this interface region which during a current surge produces a current blocking resistive barrier due to a thermally induced dedoping effect caused by the rapid diffusion of moisture away from this region. The effect is exacerbated at higher applied voltages as the higher temperature leads to stronger depletion of charge carriers in this region, resulting in a negative differential resistance effect.

  11. Electrical Conductivity Studies on Individual Conjugated Polymer Nanowires: Two-Probe and Four-Probe Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvail JeanLuc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two- and four-probe electrical measurements on individual conjugated polymer nanowires with different diameters ranging from 20 to 190 nm have been performed to study their conductivity and nanocontact resistance. The two-probe results reveal that all the measured polymer nanowires with different diameters are semiconducting. However, the four-probe results show that the measured polymer nanowires with diameters of 190, 95–100, 35–40 and 20–25 nm are lying in the insulating, critical, metallic and insulting regimes of metal–insulator transition, respectively. The 35–40 nm nanowire displays a metal–insulator transition at around 35 K. In addition, it was found that the nanocontact resistance is in the magnitude of 104Ω at room temperature, which is comparable to the intrinsic resistance of the nanowires. These results demonstrate that four-probe electrical measurement is necessary to explore the intrinsic electronic transport properties of isolated nanowires, especially in the case of metallic nanowires, because the metallic nature of the measured nanowires may be coved by the nanocontact resistance that cannot be excluded by a two-probe technique.

  12. Development of ammonia sensors by using conductive polymer/hydroxyapatite composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huixia, Li; Yong, Liu; Lanlan, Luo; Yanni, Tan; Qing, Zhang; Kun, Li

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the gas sensing properties, hydroxyapatite (HAp)-based composites were prepared by mixing with different contents of conductive polymers: polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAni). The compositions, microstructures and phase constitutions of polymer/HAp composites were characterized, and the sensing properties were studied using a chemical gas sensing (CGS-8) system. The results showed that, compared to pure HAp, the sensitivities of the composites to ammonia were improved significantly. 5%PPy/HAp and 20%PAni/HAp composites exhibited the best sensitivities to ammonia, and the sensitivities at 500ppm were 86.72% and 86.18%, respectively. Besides, the sensitivity of 5%PPy/HAp at 1000ppm was up to 90.7%. Compared to pure PPy and PAni, the response and the recovery time of 5%PPy/HAp and 20%PAni/HAp at 200ppm were shortened several times, and they were 24s/245s and 15s/54s, respectively. In addition, the composites showed a very high selectivity to ammonia. The mechanism for the enhancement of the sensitivity to ammonia was also discussed. The polymer/HAp composites are very promising in applications of ammonia sensors.

  13. Photoelectrochemical reaction in conducting polymers for solar energy harvesting and charge storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Tevi, Tete; Takshi, Arash

    2016-09-01

    Energy storage is an essential ground for solar energy systems, particularly for the off-grid applications. Concurrent energy harvesting and charge storage in a photoactive supercapacitor has already been demonstrated. The key element in such a device is a conducting polymer which stores the charge via change in its redox states. In this work, we have studied the photoelectrochemical reactions in composites of polyaniline (PANI). We used the electrochemical deposition method for the polymer growth. The results of the current study indicate that the photo-reactivity of the materials largely depends on the electrolyte and the type of the dye molecule. Among different synthetic dyes, methylene blue has shown the strongest photoelectrochemical reaction in an HCl electrolyte. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results showed that the amplitude of the redox peaks changes significantly upon illumination. The amount of stored charges in the polymer was estimated from the CV results. The results encourage the application of PANI for charge storage in a photoactive supercapacitor.

  14. 2D coherent charge transport in highly ordered conducting polymers doped by solid state diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keehoon; Watanabe, Shun; Broch, Katharina; Sepe, Alessandro; Brown, Adam; Nasrallah, Iyad; Nikolka, Mark; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Doping is one of the most important methods to control charge carrier concentration in semiconductors. Ideally, the introduction of dopants should not perturb the ordered microstructure of the semiconducting host. In some systems, such as modulation-doped inorganic semiconductors or molecular charge transfer crystals, this can be achieved by spatially separating the dopants from the charge transport pathways. However, in conducting polymers, dopants tend to be randomly distributed within the conjugated polymer, and as a result the transport properties are strongly affected by the resulting structural and electronic disorder. Here, we show that in the highly ordered lamellar microstructure of a regioregular thiophene-based conjugated polymer, a small-molecule p-type dopant can be incorporated by solid state diffusion into the layers of solubilizing side chains without disrupting the conjugated layers. In contrast to more disordered systems, this allows us to observe coherent, free-electron-like charge transport properties, including a nearly ideal Hall effect in a wide temperature range, a positive magnetoconductance due to weak localization and the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility.

  15. Analysis of the Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Nanocomposites Filled with Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Dinzhos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results and theoretical studies of thermophysical characteristics crystalline polyethylene nanocomposites containing from 0.3 to 2.5 wt. % carbon black and nanocomposites containing from 0.2 to 1.5 wt. % carbon nanotubes is done in the article. The fundamentals of the effective medium theory and percolation theory and how they correlate with the experimental data is shown. The features of the structure’s influence of polymer composites on their thermal properties is studied. A comparative analysis of the thermal conductivity of the compositions according to the geometry of the filler is done.

  16. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerender, P.; Saxena, Vibha; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  17. Field Emission Characteristics of Conducting Polymer Films Conditioned by Electric Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohong LAI; Zhenglin LI; Lan CHENG; Junbiao PENG

    2006-01-01

    A pure conducting polymer(PANI-CSA)film conditioned by an electric discharge was tentatively utilized as an cathode for emitting electrons under electric fields. The emission of electrons was observed using a phosphor(ZnO:Zn)screen excited by electrons from the conditioned film. The film morphology was investigated using a scanning electron microscope and it was found that undulate whisker-like sites formed on the surface. The emission was presumably due to the undulate whisker-like sites. The field enhancement factor was estimated to be as high as 1150. The electron emitting process of the PANI-CSA film conditioned by electric discharge was also discussed.

  18. A summary report on the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, R.; Moacanin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings and technical discussions of a workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers (TCP) for solar cell applications are reported. This is in support of the Device Research Task of the Flat-Flate Solar Array Project. The workshop took place on January 11 and 12, 1985, in Santa Barbara, California. Participants included university and industry researchers. The discussions focused on the electronic and optical properties of TCP, and on experimental issues and problems that should be addressed for high-efficiency solar cell application.

  19. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  20. Carbon nanotubes filled polymer composites: A comprehensive study on improving dispersion, network formation and electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Divya Kannan

    overcome viscosity within the dispersed nanotube polymer system, and produce conductive MDPE-SWNT thin films. Polarized Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis on the samples showed an improvement in SWNT --- SWNT contacts and alignment in the polymer matrix. The resistivity of the samples processed by this new method was two order magnitudes lower than the samples processed by hot coagulation method subjected to electric field.

  1. Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Polymer Melts with the Short-Hot-Wire Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wicaksono, Hendro; Zhang, Xing; Fujii, Motoo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of four kinds of polymer melts were measured by using the transient short-hot-wire method. This method was developed from the hot-wire technique and is based on two-dimensional numerical solutions of unsteady heat conduction from a wire with the same length-to-diameter ratio and boundary conditions as those in the actual experiments. The present method is particularly suitable for measurements of molten polymers where natural con...

  2. Structural and ionic conductivity behavior in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films complexed with sodium iodide (NaI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, N. Sandhya; Sannappa, J.; Demappa, T.; Mahadevaiah

    2013-02-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) complexed with Sodium Iodide (NaI) were prepared using solution cast method. The dissolution of the salt into the polymer host and the micro structural properties of pure and NaI complexed HPMC polymer electrolyte films were confirmed by X - Ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The XRD results revealed that the amorphous domains of HPMC polymer matrix was increased with increase in the NaI salt concentration. The degree of crystallanity and crystallite size is high for pure HPMC samples. Direct current (dc) conductivity was measured in the temperature range of 313-383k. Temperature dependence of dc electrical conductivity and activation energy regions data indicated the dominance of ion type charge transport in these polymer electrolyte films.

  3. Morphology and conductivity of in-situ PEO-LiClO4-TiO2 composite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chun-yue; FENG Qing; WANG Li-jun; ZHANG Qian; CHAO Meng

    2007-01-01

    PEO-LiClO4-TiO2 composite polymer electrolyte films were prepared. TiO2 was formed directly in matrix by hydrolysis and condensation reaction of tetrabutyl titanate. The crystallinity, morphology and ionic conductivity of composite polymer electrolyte films were examined by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, atom force microscopy and alternating current impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The glass transition temperature and the crystallinity of composite polymer electrolytes are decreased compared with those of PEO-LiClO4 polymer electrolyte film. The results show that TiO2 particles are uniformly dispersed in PEO-LiClO4-5%TiO2 composite polymer electrolyte film. The maximal conductivity of 5.5×10-5 S/cm at 20 ℃ of PEO-LiClO4-TiO2 film is obtained at 5% mass fraction of TiO2.

  4. Using in-situ polymerization of conductive polymers to enhance the electrical properties of solution-processed carbon nanotube films and fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ranulfo; Pan, Lijia; Fuller, Gerald G; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-07-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites typically have limited conductivity due to a low concentration of nanotubes and the insulating nature of the polymers used. Here we combined a method to align carbon nanotubes with in-situ polymerization of conductive polymer to form composite films and fibers. Use of the conducting polymer raised the conductivity of the films by 2 orders of magnitude. On the other hand, CNT fiber formation was made possible with in-situ polymerization to provide more mechanical support to the CNTs from the formed conducting polymer. The carbon nanotube/conductive polymer composite films and fibers had conductivities of 3300 and 170 S/cm, respectively. The relatively high conductivities were attributed to the polymerization process, which doped both the SWNTs and the polymer. In-situ polymerization can be a promising solution-processable method to enhance the conductivity of carbon nanotube films and fibers.

  5. Hybrid nanocomposites based on conducting polymer and silicon nanowires for photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehata, Nadia, E-mail: nadiachehata2@gmail.com [Equipe Dispositifs Electroniques Organiques et Photovoltaïque Moléculaire, Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Ltaief, Adnen [Equipe Dispositifs Electroniques Organiques et Photovoltaïque Moléculaire, Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Ilahi, Bouraoui [Laboratoire de Micro-optoélectronique et Nanostructures, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Salem, Bassem [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique (LTM), UMR 5129 CNRS - UJF, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bouazizi, Abdelaziz [Equipe Dispositifs Electroniques Organiques et Photovoltaïque Moléculaire, Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Maaref, Hassen [Laboratoire de Micro-optoélectronique et Nanostructures, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Baron, Thierry [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique (LTM), UMR 5129 CNRS - UJF, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); and others

    2014-12-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites based on a nanoscale combination of organic and inorganic semiconductors are a promising way to enhance the performance of solar cells through a higher aspect ratio of the interface and the good processability of polymers. Nanocomposites are based on a heterojunction network between poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyhexyl-oxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an organic electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as an inorganic electron acceptor. Nanowires (NWs) seem to be a promising material for this purpose, as they provide a large surface area for contact with the polymer and a designated conducting pathway whilst their volume is low. In this paper, silicon nanowires are introduced by mixing them into the polymer matrix. Hybrid nanocomposites films were deposited onto ITO substrate by spin coating method. Optical properties and photocurrent response were investigated. Charge transfer between the polymer and SiNWs has been demonstrated through photoluminescence measurements. The photocurrent density of ITO/MEH-PPV:SiNWs/Al structures have been obtained by J–V characteristics. The J{sub sc} value is about 0.39 µA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • SiNWs synthesis by Vapor–Liquid–Solid (VLS) mechanism. • SiNWs contribution to absorption spectra enhancement of MEH-PPV:SiNWs nanocomposites. • Decrease of PL intensity of MEH-PPV by addition of SiNWs. • Charge transfer process was taken place. • ITO/MEH-PPV:SiNWs/Al structure shows a photovoltaic effect, with a FF of 0.32.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Conductive Conjugated Polymer-Coated Antheraea mylitta Silk Fibroin Fibers for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gh, Darshan; Kong, Dexu; Gautrot, Julien; Vootla, Shyam Kumar

    2017-02-27

    Conductive polymers are interesting materials for a number of biological and medical applications requiring electrical stimulation of cells or tissues. Highly conductive polymers (polypyrrole and polyaniline)/Antheraea mylitta silk fibroin coated fibers are fabricated successfully by in situ polymerization without any modification of the native silk fibroin. Coated fibers characterized by scanning electron microscopy confirm the silk fiber surface is covered by conductive polymers. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals preserved thermal stability of silk fiber after coating process. X-ray diffraction of degummed fiber diffraction peaks at around 2θ = 20.4 and 16.5 confirms the preservation of the β-sheet structure typical of degummed silk II fibers. This phenomenon implies that both polypyrrole and polyaniline chains form interactions with peptide linkages in degummed fiber macromolecules, without significantly disrupting protein assembly. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of coated fibers indicates hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions exist between silk fibroin macromolecules and conductive polymers. Resulting fibers display good conductive properties compared to corresponding conjugated polymers. In vitro analysis (live/dead assay) of the behavior of human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaTs) on coated fibers demonstrates improved cell-adhesive properties and viability after polymers coating. Hence, polypyrrole- and polyaniline-coated A. mylitta silk fibers are suitable for application in cell culture and for tissue engineering, where electrical conduction properties are required.

  7. A conducting polymer with enhanced electronic stability applied in cardiac models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawad, Damia; Mansfield, Catherine; Lauto, Antonio; Perbellini, Filippo; Nelson, Geoffrey W.; Tonkin, Joanne; Bello, Sean O.; Carrad, Damon J.; Micolich, Adam P.; Mahat, Mohd M.; Furman, Jennifer; Payne, David; Lyon, Alexander R.; Gooding, J. Justin; Harding, Sian E.; Terracciano, Cesare M.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-01-01

    Electrically active constructs can have a beneficial effect on electroresponsive tissues, such as the brain, heart, and nervous system. Conducting polymers (CPs) are being considered as components of these constructs because of their intrinsic electroactive and flexible nature. However, their clinical application has been largely hampered by their short operational time due to a decrease in their electronic properties. We show that, by immobilizing the dopant in the conductive scaffold, we can prevent its electric deterioration. We grew polyaniline (PANI) doped with phytic acid on the surface of a chitosan film. The strong chelation between phytic acid and chitosan led to a conductive patch with retained electroactivity, low surface resistivity (35.85 ± 9.40 kilohms per square), and oxidized form after 2 weeks of incubation in physiological medium. Ex vivo experiments revealed that the conductive nature of the patch has an immediate effect on the electrophysiology of the heart. Preliminary in vivo experiments showed that the conductive patch does not induce proarrhythmogenic activities in the heart. Our findings set the foundation for the design of electronically stable CP-based scaffolds. This provides a robust conductive system that could be used at the interface with electroresponsive tissue to better understand the interaction and effect of these materials on the electrophysiology of these tissues. PMID:28138526

  8. Glycosylated Conductive Polymer: A Multimodal Biointerface for Studying Carbohydrate-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangqun; Qu, Ke; Rehman, Abdul

    2016-09-20

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions occur through glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides displayed on the cell surface with lectins. However, studying these interactions is challenging because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the cell surface, the inherent structural complexity of carbohydrates, and the typically weak affinities of the binding reactions between the lectins and monovalent carbohydrates. The lack of chromophores and fluorophores in carbohydrate structures often drives such investigations toward fluorescence labeling techniques, which usually require tedious and complex synthetic work to conjugate fluorescent tags with additional risk of altering the reaction dynamics. Probing these interactions directly on the cell surface is even more difficult since cells could be too fragile for labeling or labile dynamics could be affected by the labeled molecules that may interfere with the cellular activities, resulting in unwanted cell responses. In contrast, label-free biosensors allow real-time monitoring of carbohydrate-protein interactions in their natural states. A prerequisite, though, for this strategy to work is to mimic the coding information on potential interactions of cell surfaces onto different biosensing platforms, while the complementary binding process can be transduced into a useful signal noninvasively. Through carbohydrate self-assembled monolayers and glycopolymer scaffolds, the multivalency of the naturally existing simple and complex carbohydrates can be mimicked and exploited with label-free readouts (e.g., optical, acoustic, mechanical, electrochemical, and electrical sensors), yet such inquiries reflect only limited aspects of complicated biointeraction processes due to the unimodal transduction. In this Account, we illustrate that functionalized glycosylated conductive polymer scaffolds are the ideal multimodal biointerfaces that not only simplify the immobilization process for surface fabrication via electrochemical

  9. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells; Architectures hybrides auto-assemblees a base de systemes polyconjugues et de nanocristaux de semi-conducteurs pour le photovoltaique plastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolamo, J. de

    2007-11-15

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  10. Illustration of Electrical and Optical Properties of Some Conducting Polymers Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Jolly

    Conductive polymers (CP) are gaining interest day by day due to their growing fields of sophisticated uses. Conventional polymers are generally known to be insulators with their limited use as electrical insulators in any device making purpose. But these have high degree of mechanical strength and mold procesability to facilitate them constructing desirable materials. CPs on the other hand can attain near metallic electrical conductivity at their highest doped state. So they can be thought as good replacement for metals in many aspects. But the problem is not so simple, as the CPs at highest doped state are not at all processable, have very low mechanical strength and mostly not stable also. CPs have characteristic feature of tunable electrical and optical properties, which make them suitable for various device applications. In fact, retaining the electrical and optical properties, If some strength and processability property can be incorporated, CPs can play havoc. That is no wonder why CPs demand in US is rising by 5.8 percent annually. Polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) are particularly attractive materials amongst CPs due to their excellent environmental stability along with other features such as, low cost, high conductivity upon doping, and ease of synthesis. In spite of all these advantages, their device applications are limited due to their unprocessable nature. These can neither be solution processable (as they are not soluble in any solvent) nor melt processable (as they decompose before reaching a softening or melting temperature). There are various methods to overcome these problems, one of them, which has been adopted by us is to blend the CPs with some conventional polymers, like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) etc. The resulting blend will obviously have improved mechanical property of the latter and electrical conductivity of the former. However it is seen that in this process one has to

  11. OPTIMIZED DESIGN OF BIO-SENSOR USING CONDUCTING POLYMERS AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha.A,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research work is focused on the design, development and technological evolution of emerging fields of Nanotechnology and Conducting Polymer Electronics, Bio-Tech based Embedded Sensors and Smart Systems employing System-0n- Chip (SOC Core, as applied to Health Monitoring of Human and Complex Systems in Engineering and Medicine. With the Invention of Thin-Film Technology, it is now possible to fabricate Novel Conducting-Polymer based sensors and devices with built-in-flexible electronics resulting in high throughput devices and systems that are flexible, lighter, bio-compatible and economical also. The flexible and EmbeddedElectronics is a key enabler for a number of platform methodologies such as Designed Thin-Films, Smart Electronics and Sensor Devices. The integration of the Bio-Sensor with embedded electronics data conditioning and processing SOC and Wireless –Communication System may provide vast opportunities for Biological – Sensor Applications, especially for physiological monitoring of Leukocyte-Counts in blood sample or analyte for Leukemia Patients in the Society.

  12. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-01-14

    Conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni) show a great potential as pseudocapacitor materials for electrochemical energy storage applications. Yet, the cycling instability of PAni resulting from structural alteration is a major hurdle to its commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on PAni nanofibers plays a crucial role in stabilizing the PAni pseudocapacitors and improving their energy density. The pseudocapacitors, which are based on optimized PAni-RuO2 core-shell nanostructured electrodes, exhibit very high specific capacitance (710 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and power density (42.2 kW kg-1) at an energy density of 10 Wh kg-1. Furthermore, they exhibit remarkable capacitance retention of ≈88% after 10 000 cycles at very high current density of 20 A g-1, superior to that of pristine PAni-based pseudocapacitors. This prominently enhanced electrochemical stability successfully demonstrates the buffering effect of ALD coating on PAni, which provides a new approach for the preparation of metal-oxide/conducting polymer hybrid electrodes with excellent electrochemical performance.

  13. Pulse Responses of the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate)-Based Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fei; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Sizhao; Chang, Chiating; Hu, Yuandong

    2017-03-01

    Pulse responses were studied for the heterojunctions within the structure of Ti/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/Ti. The pulse response was found to resemble that of the action potential after the pulse width was modulated to a time scale of nanoseconds. Using the pulse as a stimulation protocol to simulate synaptic plasticity produced spike rate-dependent plasticity-like phenomena. Thus, the application scope of this conducting polymer-based memristor can be extended from a time scale of milliseconds to one of nanoseconds, depending on the requirement of neuromorphic circuits. Current oscillations were observed with a period within 100 ns. The mechanisms of the behavior response were analyzed according to memristor protocol. An interface barrier is thought to primarily account for the origin of the capacitive feature and the charge q, i.e., one of the basic characteristic of the memristor. The chain structure of this conducting polymer should primarily account for the origin of its inductive feature and the flux φ, i.e., another basic characteristic of the memristor.

  14. Interfacial polymerization of conductive polymers: Generation of polymeric nanostructures in a 2-D space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Panagiotis; Georgakilas, Vasilios

    2015-10-01

    In the recent advances in the field of conductive polymers, the fibrillar or needle shaped nanostructures of polyaniline and polypyrrole have attracted significant attention due to the potential advantages of organic conductors that exhibit low-dimensionality, uniform size distribution, high crystallinity and improved physical properties compared to their bulk or spherically shaped counterparts. Carrying the polymerization reaction in a restricted two dimensional space, instead of the three dimensional space of the one phase solution is an efficient method for the synthesis of polymeric nanostructures with narrow size distribution and small diameter. Ultra-thin nanowires and nanofibers, single crystal nanoneedles, nanocomposites with noble metals or carbon nanotubes and layered materials can be efficiently synthesized with high yield and display superior performance in sensors and energy storage applications. In this critical review we will focus not only on the interfacial polymerization methods that leads to polymeric nanostructures and composites and their properties, but also on the mechanism and the physico-chemical processes that govern the diffusion and reactivity of molecules and nanomaterials at an interface. Recent advances for the synthesis of conductive polymer composites with an interfacial method for energy storage applications and future perspectives are presented.

  15. Amphiphilic comb-like polymer for harvest of conductive nano-cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaeyoo; Park, Subeom; Cheng, Jie; Park, Minsung; Hyun, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, electrically conductive bacterial cellulose (BC) was prepared by culturing Gluconacetobacter xylinus in a carbon nanotube (CNT)-dispersed medium. The CNTs were dispersed by adopting a non-covalent approach in the presence of non-ionic amphiphilic comb-like polymer (CLP). Specifically, the hydrophobic backbone of CLP was chemophysically attached to the surface of the CNTs and the hydrophilic side chains were released freely toward the medium in an aqueous environment. CLP-modified CNTs were stable and did not show any noticeable sediment, even after centrifugation at 15,000 rpm for 30 min. Notably, the dispersion solution of CLP-modified CNTs was stable at room temperature for several months because the long-range entropic repulsion among polymer-decorated tubes acted as a barrier to aggregation. The morphology of the BC membrane was studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The presence of CLP bound to the CNT surface was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the conductivity of the CNT-incorporated BC membrane was measured by four-probe measurements.

  16. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  17. Freeze Drying Improves the Shelf-Life of Conductive Polymer Modified Neural Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri S. Mandal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Coating microelectrodes with conductive polymer is widely recognized to decrease impedance and improve performance of implantable neural devices during recording and stimulation. A concern for wide-spread use of this approach is shelf-life, i.e., the electrochemical stability of the coated microelectrodes prior to use. In this work, we investigated the possibility of using the freeze-drying process in order to retain the native low impedance state and, thereby, improve the shelf-life of conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT-PSS modified neural electrodes. Control PEDOT-PSS coated microelectrodes demonstrated a significant increase in impedance at 1 kHz after 41–50 days of room temperature storage. Based on equivalent circuit modeling derived from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, this increase in impedance could be largely attributed to a decrease in the interfacial capacitance consistent with a collapse and closing of the porous structure of the polymeric coating. Time-dependent electrochemical impedance measurements revealed higher stability of the freeze-dried coated microelectrodes compared to the controls, such that impedance values after 41–50 days appeared to be indistinguishable from the initial levels. This suggests that freeze drying PEDOT-PSS coated microelectrodes correlates with enhanced electrochemical stability during shelf storage.

  18. Synthesis and Ionic Conductivity of Siloxane Based Polymer Electrolytes with Propyl Butyrate Pendant Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalagonia, Natia; Tatrishvili, Tamara; Markarashvili, Eliza; Aneli, Jimsher; Mukbaniani, Omar [Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Grazulevicius, Jouzas Vidas [Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2016-02-15

    Hydrosilylation reactions of 2.4.6.8-tetrahydro-2.4.6.8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane with allyl butyrate catalyzed by Karstedt's, H2PtCl6 and Pt/C catalyst were studied and 2.4.6.8-tetra (propyl butyrate)-2.4.6.8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane was obtained. The reaction order, activation energies and rate constants were determined. Ringopening polymerization of 2.4.6.8-tetra (propyl butyrate)-2.4.6.8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane in the presence of CaF2, LiF, KF and anhydrous potassium hydroxide in 60-70 .deg. C temperature range was carried out and methylsiloxane oligomers with regular arrangement of propyl butyrate pendant groups were obtained. The synthesized products were studied by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The polysiloxanes were characterized by wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of oligomers doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate or lithium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, solid polymer electrolyte membranes were obtained. The dependences of ionic conductivity of obtained polyelectrolytes on temperature and salt concentration were investigated, and it was shown that electric conductivity of the polymer electrolyte membranes at room temperature changed in the range 3.5x10{sup -4} - 6.4xa0{sup -7} S/cm.

  19. Micropatterning of Functional Conductive Polymers with Multiple Surface Chemistries in Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Acikgöz, Canet; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2012-01-01

    A versatile procedure is presented for fast and efficient micropatterning of multiple types of covalently bound surface chemistry in perfect register on and between conductive polymer microcircuits. The micropatterning principle is applied to several types of native and functionalized PEDOT (poly(3......,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) thin films. The method is based on contacting PEDOT-type thin films with a micropatterned agarose stamp containing an oxidant (aqueous hypochlorite) and applying a nonionic detergent. Where contacted, PEDOT not only loses its conductance but is entirely removed, thereby locally revealing...... the underlying substrate. Surface analysis showed that the substrate surface chemistry was fully exposed and not affected by the treatment. Click chemistry could thus be applied to selectively modify re-exposed alkyne and azide functional groups of functionalized polystyrene substrates. The versatility...

  20. Ionic conductivity in the polymer electrolytes PEO/CF{sub 3}COONa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, I.; Chacon, M.; Vargas, R.A. [Valle Univ., Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Fisica; Castillo, J. [Ingenieria Electronica, Univ. del Quindio, Armenia (Colombia)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work, the electrical and thermal characterization of polymer electrolytes based on PEO/CF{sub 3}COONa are reported, which turn out to be good ionic conductors near room temperature (of the order 10{sup -4} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} for high salt concentrations). The variation of conductivity with temperature (plotted as ln {sigma} versus 1/T) and salt concentration suggests a complex formation. This is confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which also indicates that the blends are thermally stable up to approximately 480 K. The high conductivity and the single-phase behavior of the blends are explained in terms of the plastification effect of the organic salt on the PEO. (orig.)