WorldWideScience

Sample records for nano-sized fuel additives

  1. Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of Cu-Cr-Zr Alloys with Different Nano-Sized TiCp Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Bai, Fang; Wang, Yong; Wang, Jinguo; Wang, Wenquan

    2017-08-08

    The TiC p /Cu master alloy was prepared via thermal explosion reaction. Afterwards, the nano-sized TiC p /Cu master alloy was dispersed by electromagnetic stirring casting into the melting Cu-Cr-Zr alloys to fabricate the nano-sized TiC p -reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites. Results show that nano-sized TiC p can effectively refine the grain size of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys. The morphologies of grain in Cu-Cr-Zr composites changed from dendritic grain to equiaxed crystal because of the addition and dispersion of nano-sized TiC p . The grain size decreased from 82 to 28 μm with the nano-sized TiC p content. Compared with Cu-Cr-Zr alloys, the ultimate compressive strength (σ UCS ) and yield strength (σ 0.2 ) of 4 wt% TiC p -reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites increased by 6.7% and 9.4%, respectively. The wear resistance of the nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites increased with the increasing nano-sized TiCp content. The wear loss of the nano-sized TiC p -reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites decreased with the increasing TiC p content under abrasive particles. The eletrical conductivity of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys, 2% and 4% nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites are 64.71% IACS, 56.77% IACS and 52.93% IACS, respectively.

  2. Thermal conductivity enhancement and sedimentation reduction of magnetorheological fluids with nano-sized Cu and Al additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M. S. A.; Ismail, I.; Choi, S. B.; Azmi, W. H.; Aqida, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents enhanced material characteristics of smart magnetorheological (MR) fluids by utilizing nano-sized metal particles. Especially, enhancement of thermal conductivity and reduction of sedimentation rate of MR fluids those are crucial properties for applications of MR fluids are focussed. In order to achieve this goal, a series of MR fluid samples are prepared using carbonyl iron particles (CIP) and hydraulic oil, and adding nano-sized particles of copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), and fumed silica (SiO2). Subsequently, the thermal conductivity is measured by the thermal property analyser and the sedimentation of MR fluids is measured using glass tubes without any excitation for a long time. The measured thermal conductivity is then compared with theoretical models such as Maxwell model at various CIP concentrations. In addition, in order to show the effectiveness of MR fluids synthesized in this work, the thermal conductivity of MRF-132DG which is commercially available is measured and compared with those of the prepared samples. It is observed that the thermal conductivity of the samples is much better than MRF-132DG showing the 148% increment with 40 vol% of the magnetic particles. It is also observed that the sedimentation rate of the prepared MR fluid samples is less than that of MRF-132DG showing 9% reduction with 40 vol% of the magnetic particles. The mixture optimized sample with high conductivity and low sedimentation was also obtained. The magnetization of the sample recorded an enhancement of 70.5% when compared to MRF-132DG. Furthermore, the shear yield stress of the sample were also increased with and without the influence of magnetic field.

  3. Thermal conductivity and stability of nano size carbon black filled PDMS: Fuel cell perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was considered as a prospective bipolar plate material candidate for a Fuel Cell. In this perspective, thermal conductivity and stability of the composites were investigated. Samples with filler weight...

  4. Presence of nano-sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; Kramer, E.; Oomen, A.G.; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Oegema, G.; Tromp, P.C.; Fokkink, R.; Rietveld, A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2012-01-01

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products

  5. Effect of a nano-sized TiC particle addition on the flow-assisted corrosion resistance of SA 106B carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Ju; Park, Eun-Kwang; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-09-01

    Carbon steel with dispersed nano-sized TiC ceramic particles was fabricated by the ex-situ introduction of the particles into the melt, with the flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) resistance then investigated in the presence and absence of TiC nanoparticles using a once-through type of FAC loop test. From the potentiodynamic polarization curves, the current density at any given anodic potential was decreased and the open-circuit potential was increased by the addition of TiC nanoparticles. In addition, when the nano-sized TiC particles were added, the FAC rate was 1.38 times lower than that of carbon steel without TiC nanoparticles, indicating an improvement of the FAC resistance due to the homogeneous distribution of the TiC reinforcing nanoparticles.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of nano-sized Pd-based catalysts as cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Han, C; Kim, I T; An, J C; Lee, J J; Lee, H K; Shim, J

    2011-01-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of palladium (Pd) as a cathode catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), we prepared palladium-titanium oxide (Pd-TiO2) catalysts which the Pd and TiO2 nanoparticles were simultaneously impregnated on carbon. We selected Pd and TiO2 as catalytic materials because of their electrochemical stability in acid solution. The crystal structure and the loading amount of Pd and TiO2 on carbon were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The electrochemical characterization of Pd-TiO2/C catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction was carried out in half and single cell systems. The catalytic activities of the Pd-TiO2 catalysts were strongly influenced by the TiO2 content. In the single cell test, the Pd-TiO2 catalysts showed very comparable performance to the Pt catalyst.

  7. Deposition of nano-size particles on reticulated vitreous carbon using colloidal precursors : three-dimensional anodes for borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In addition to their inherently larger specific surface area, mesoscopic materials also possess a higher density of surface constrained sites, which could serve as active sites in catalysis as well as facilitate the surface diffusion of small molecules and ions relevant to various catalytic steps. This study investigated the organosol method for the deposition of platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir), gold (Au) and nickel (Ni) nano-particles on reticulated vitreous carbon to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity for BH{sub 4} oxidation by both fundamental electrochemical studies and fuel cell experiments. The application of the organosol nanometal preparation technique was based on the quaternary ammonium compound N(C{sub 8}H{sub 17}){sub 4}B(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}H acting as both reductant and colloid stabilizer. A current assisted variant was also studied where the reticulated vitreous carbon substrate served as the cathode operating at superficial current densities between 1.0 and 2.5 mA per cm{sup 2}. The organosol method produced a low catalyst load on reticulated vitreous carbons between 0.01 and 0.12 mg per cm{sup 2}. The electrodes were evaluated for catalytic activity toward the electro-oxidation of BH{sub 4} by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. Borohydride fuel cells with liquid electrolyte (2 M NaOH) were assembled using a 3-dimensional anode, a cation exchange membrane and a commercial oxygen cathode. Results showed that the anode catalyst mass activity was higher for the 3-D design compared to the case when a gas diffusion electrode served as the anode. It was concluded that the extended reaction zone of the three-dimensional anode with liquid electrolyte improved the catalyst utilization efficiency by allowing the reduction of the catalyst load. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Structure and electromagnetic properties of NiZn spinel ferrite with nano-sized ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zongliang, E-mail: zzlma@163.com; Zhang, Huaiwu; Yang, Qinghui; Jia, Lijun

    2015-11-05

    In this study, nanocrystalline ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (ZA) (x = 0–20 wt%) were introduced into Ni{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite (NZ) by a solid-state reaction method combining a sol–gel auto-combustion method. The effects of ZA addition on the crystalline phase formation, microstructures, magnetic and dielectric properties were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope results reveal that the added ZA can fully solve into the NZ to form a ceramic with single-phase cubic spinel structure, and the grain size decreases obviously as x > 5 wt%. Meanwhile, the magnetic and dielectric properties exhibit significantly dependent on the ZA addition content. With the increasing addition level of ZA from 0 to 20 wt%, the initial permeability μ{sub i} is found increased initially and then decreased with the maximum 679 at x = 0.5 wt%. For the samples with x ≤ 5 wt%, permittivity ε′ is relatively higher at low frequencies (ε′ = 91–138 at 1 MHz) and dielectric loss tan δ{sub ε} shows distinct peak behavior. When x reaches 10 wt%, however, the ε′ and tan δ{sub ε} show very stable spectra from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. - Highlights: • Various amount of nanocrystalline ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (ZA) were introduced into NiZn ferrite. • NiZn ferrite can form single-phase spinel ceramic materials with ZA additives. • ZA has significant effects on magnetic and dielectric properties of the ceramics. • It provides a new method for fabricating NiZn ferrite with tunable properties.

  9. The effect of nano-size ZrO2 powder addition on the microstructure and superconducting properties of single-domain Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K; Babu, N H; Reddy, E S; Shi, Y-H; Cardwell, D A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nano-size ZrO 2 powder addition on the microstructure and superconducting properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O single grain bulk superconductors has been investigated. Significant pushing phenomena of Y 2 BaCuO 5 (Y-211) particles, particularly in the c growth sector, were observed even with a small amount of ZrO 2 added to the precursor powder. An increase in Y-211 particle pushing was observed with increasing ZrO 2 content, leading to an inhomogeneous bulk microstructure. In addition, a growth cycle consisting of a Y-211 free layer-porous narrow layer-Y-211 high concentration layer was observed for samples prepared with 0.25 wt% ZrO 2 in both the a and c growth sectors. The extent of the growth of single grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) decreased with increasing ZrO 2 content due to increased pushing of Y-211 particles towards molten liquid. The superconducting transition temperature, T c , of the ZrO 2 containing YBCO samples was sharp but depressed slightly (by up to 1 K) compared with an undoped YBCO grain, indicating a relative insensitivity of T c to ZrO 2 content. Finally, the sensitivity of critical current density, J c , to applied magnetic field in large grain bulk YBCO containing ZrO 2 was observed to depend critically on position due to the inhomogeneous sample microstructure

  10. Effective improvement of interface modified strontium titanate based solid oxide fuel cell anodes by infiltration with nano-sized palladium and gadolinium-doped cerium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The development of low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes by infiltration of Pd/Gd-doped cerium oxide (CGO) electrocatalysts in Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STN) backbones has been investigated. Modification of the electrode/electrolyte interface by thin layer of spin-coated CGO (400-500 nm) con...

  11. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal... Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received adverse comment, we are withdrawing the...

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  13. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  14. 76 FR 37703 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing AGENCY: Environmental... hearing to be held for the proposed rule ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel... be proposing amendments to the renewable fuel standard program regulations to establish annual...

  15. Antiknock additives for engine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Nambered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Obtaining gasoline with necessary quality and quantity is an actual problem. To increase fuel resources in the development are involved heavy oil, shale gas with further obtaining synthetic oil. Here is presented an analysis of processing technologies of natural and synthetic oil obtained in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, wherein focus is on octane number of gasoline fraction. Due to the low octane number, resolution of questions related to improving the detonation resistance, does not lose its relevance to the present day. Represented a quantum-chemical studies of some antiknock agents in the purpose by quantum chemistry methods to identify trends to increase the octane number of compounds and gasoline when they are added. (orig.)

  16. Fabrication and physical properties of permalloy nano-size wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Lee, S.F.; Yao, Y.D.; Wong, M.S.; Huang, E.W.; Ma, Y.-R.; Tsai, J.L.; Chang, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nano-size NiFe wires with patterned shapes in half-ring-in-series, octagon-in-series, and zigzag-in-series configurations were fabricated. Their magnetoresistance was studied below room temperature and their magnetic domain images were investigated at room temperature by a magnetic force microscope. In general, we have experimentally demonstrated that the variation of the magnetoresistance of our patterned nano-size wires can be related to different domain configurations and explained by the domain switching effect. The number of magnetic domain walls in our patterned wires can be controlled by the shape anisotropy and the size of each section of patterns that form the wires

  17. 78 FR 12005 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing AGENCY: Environmental... EPA is announcing a public hearing to be held for the proposed rule ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards,'' which was published separately in the Federal Register on...

  18. Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core-shell particles. MO Munyati, PA Lovell. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Science and Technology Special Edition 2004: 24-31. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Nano sized clay detected on chalk particle surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Lone; Hassenkam, Tue; Makovicky, Emil

    2012-01-01

    that in calcite saturated water, both the polar and the nonpolar functional groups adhere to the nano sized clay particles but not to calcite. This is fundamentally important information for the development of conceptual and chemical models to explain wettability alterations in chalk reservoirs...

  20. Study on preparation and properties of molybdenum alloys reinforced by nano-sized ZrO{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Chaopeng; Gao, Yimin; Zhou, Yucheng [Xi' an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province (China); Wei, Shizhong [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang (China); Henan University of Science and Technology, Engineering Research Center of Tribology and Materials Protection, Ministry of Education, Luoyang (China); Zhang, Guoshang; Zhu, Xiangwei; Guo, Songliang [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang (China)

    2016-03-15

    The nano-sized ZrO{sub 2}-reinforced Mo alloy was prepared by a hydrothermal method and a subsequent powder metallurgy process. During the hydrothermal process, the nano-sized ZrO{sub 2} particles were added into the Mo powder via the hydrothermal synthesis. The grain size of Mo powder decreases obviously with the addition of ZrO{sub 2} particles, and the fine-grain sintered structure is obtained correspondingly due to hereditation. In addition to a few of nano-sized ZrO{sub 2} particles in grain boundaries or sub-boundaries, most are dispersed in grains. The tensile strength and yield strength have been increased by 32.33 and 53.76 %. (orig.)

  1. Study on preparation and properties of molybdenum alloys reinforced by nano-sized ZrO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Chaopeng; Gao, Yimin; Zhou, Yucheng; Wei, Shizhong; Zhang, Guoshang; Zhu, Xiangwei; Guo, Songliang

    2016-01-01

    The nano-sized ZrO 2 -reinforced Mo alloy was prepared by a hydrothermal method and a subsequent powder metallurgy process. During the hydrothermal process, the nano-sized ZrO 2 particles were added into the Mo powder via the hydrothermal synthesis. The grain size of Mo powder decreases obviously with the addition of ZrO 2 particles, and the fine-grain sintered structure is obtained correspondingly due to hereditation. In addition to a few of nano-sized ZrO 2 particles in grain boundaries or sub-boundaries, most are dispersed in grains. The tensile strength and yield strength have been increased by 32.33 and 53.76 %. (orig.)

  2. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included

  3. The Nano-Sized In2O3 Powder Synthesis by Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘庆谊; 程知萱; 等

    2002-01-01

    Wiwh InCl3·4H2O being used as raw materials,the precursor of nano-sized In2O3 powder was prepared by hydrolysis,peptization and gelation of InCl3·4H2O.After calcination,nano-sized In2O3 powder was obtained.The powder was characterized by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis(TG-DTA).X-ray diffractometry(XRD)and transmission electron microscopy(TEM),respectively,Calculation revealed that the mean crystablline size increased with increasing the calcination temperature,but crystal lattice distortion rate decreased with the increasing in the average crystalline size.This indicated that the smaller the particle size,the bigger the crystal lattice distortion,the worse the crystal growing.The activation energies for growth of nano-sized In2O3 were calculated to be 4.75kJ·mol-1 at the calcination temperature up tp 500℃ and 66.40kJ· mol-1 at the calcination temperature over 600℃.TEM photos revealed that the addition of the chemical additive(OP-10)greatly influenced the morphology and size of In2O3 particles.

  4. 77 FR 72746 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel Sulfur Programs AGENCY... Fuel Standard (``RFS'') program under section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act. The direct final rule also... marine diesel fuel produced by transmix processors, and the fuel marker requirements for 500 ppm sulfur...

  5. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nano-sized Adsorbate Structure Formation in Anisotropic Multilayer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Yanovsky, Vladimir V.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we study dynamics of adsorbate island formation in a model plasma-condensate system numerically. We derive the generalized reaction-diffusion model for adsorptive multilayer system by taking into account anisotropy in transfer of adatoms between neighbor layers induced by electric field. It will be found that with an increase in the electric field strength, a structural transformation from nano-holes inside adsorbate matrix toward separated nano-sized adsorbate islands on a substrate is realized. Dynamics of adsorbate island sizes and corresponding distributions are analyzed in detail. This study provides an insight into details of self-organization of adatoms into nano-sized adsorbate islands in anisotropic multilayer plasma-condensate systems.

  7. 78 FR 62462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... renewable fuel is defined as fuel produced from renewable biomass that is used to replace or reduce the quantity of fossil fuel present in home heating oil or jet fuel.\\3\\ In essence, additional renewable fuel... of ``home heating oil.'' EPA determined that this term was ambiguous, and defined it by incorporating...

  8. 75 FR 37733 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY... direct final rule to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program requirements on May 10, 2010. Because EPA... Fuel Standard program requirements, published on May 10, 2010. We stated in that direct final rule that...

  9. Metal-deactivating additives for liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boneva, M.I. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, S.K.; Kalitchin, Z.D. [SciBulCom, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Tanielyan, S.K. [Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ (United States); Terebenina, A.; Todorova, O.I. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-05-01

    The metal-deactivating and the antioxidant properties of 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5 derivatives have been investigated both in the model reaction of low temperature oxidation of ethylbenzene and in gasoline oxidation. The study of the ability of these derivatives to reduce the catalytic effect of copper naphthenate demonstrates that they are promising as metal deactivating additives for light fuels. Some of the pyrazolone compounds appear to be of special interest for the long-term storage of liquid fuels due to their action as multifunctional inhibitors.

  10. Combustion Enhancement of Liquid Fuels via Nanoparticle Additions: Screening, Dispersion, and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-04

    burning rates of nitromethane (a monopropellant) solutions with both n-Al and fumed silica 8 and functionalized graphene 9 in a liquid propellant...These include but are not limited to aluminum, boron, boron carbide (B4C), carbon ( graphene ), titanium, and tungsten nano-sized particles. When... paint at one corner. To dilute the particle number density to an appropriate level for imaging, the particle/fuel mixes were agitated using a

  11. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  12. 75 FR 14669 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... RINs from producers of the renewable fuel. The obligated parties do not need lead time for construction... fuels and new limits on renewable biomass feedstocks. This rulemaking marks the first time that... advanced biofuel and multiple cellulosic-based fuels with their 60% threshold. Additional fuel pathways...

  13. 76 FR 18066 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 72 to...-generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by the...

  14. Characterization of Nano Sized Microstructures in Fe and Ni Base ODS Alloys Using Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Jang, Jin-Sung; Mao, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Ferritic ODS(Oxide-dispersion-strengthened) alloy is known as a primary candidate material of the cladding tubes of a sodium fast reactor (SFR) in the Generation IV research program. In ODS alloy, the major contribution to the enhanced high-temperature mechanical property comes from the existence of nano-sized oxide precipitates, which act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations. In addition for the extremely high temperature application(>950 .deg. C) of future nuclear system, Ni base ODS alloys are considered as candidate materials. Therefore the characterization of nano-sized microstructures is important for determining the mechanical properties of the material. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique non-destructively probes structures in materials at the nano-meter length of scale (1 - 1000 nm) and has been a very powerful tool in a variety of scientific/engineering research areas. In this study, nano-sized microstructures were quantitatively analyzed by small angle neutron scattering. Quantitative microstructural information on nanosized oxide in ODS alloys was obtained from SANS data. The effects of the thermo mechanical treatment on the size and volume fraction of nano-sized oxides were analyzed. For 12Cr ODS alloy, the experimental A-ratio is two-times larger than the theoretical A-ratio., and this result is considered to be due to the imperfections included in YTaO 4 . For Ni base ODS alloy, the volume fraction of the mid-sized particles (- 30 nm) increases rapidly as hot extrusion temperature decreases

  15. Laser induced morphology change of silver colloids: formation of nano-size wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Watanabe, Norihisa; Tsuji, Masaharu

    2003-01-01

    We have performed laser irradiation at 355 nm onto spherical silver colloids in pure water, which were prepared by laser ablation of silver plate in pure water. In addition to size-reduced particles due to fragmentation, we have found that nano-size wire structures were formed in solution for the first time. The width of the wires was in the 10-100 nm range, and the length of long wires was more than 1 μm. Electron diffraction patterns revealed that these wires were composed of pure silver. It was suggested that the wires were formed via fusion of particles photo-thermally melted by laser irradiation

  16. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D. Z., E-mail: dzchen@caltech.edu [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Gu, X. W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); An, Q.; Goddard, W. A. [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Greer, J. R. [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); The Kavli Nanoscience Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  17. Microwave sintering of nano size powder β-TCP bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhadi B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nano sized beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP powder was conventional sintered (CS and microwave sintered (MW, in order to obtain dense β-TCP ceramics. In this work the effect of microwave sintering conditions on the microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties of materials based on tricalcium phosphate (TCP was investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopyand XRD(X-ray diffraction and then compared with conventional sintered samples. Nano-size β-TCP powders with average grain size of 80 nm were prepared by the wet chemical precipitation method with calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. The precipitation process employed was also found to be suitable for the production of submicrometre β-TCP powder in situ. The β-TCP samples microwave (MW sintered for 15 min at 1100°C, with average grain size of 3μm, showed better densification, higher density and certainly higher hardness than samples conventionally sintered for 2 h at the same temperature. By comparing sintered and MW sintered β-TCP samples, it was concluded that MW sintered β-TCP samples have superior mechanical properties.

  18. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Najeeb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties.

  19. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards... collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards--Petition... whose disclosure is restricted by statute. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Geanetta Heard, Fuels...

  20. An engineered polypeptide around nano-sized manganese-calcium oxide: copying plants for water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Sarvi, Bahram; Haghighi, Behzad

    2015-09-14

    Synthesis of new efficient catalysts inspired by Nature is a key goal in the production of clean fuel. Different compounds based on manganese oxide have been investigated in order to find their water-oxidation activity. Herein, we introduce a novel engineered polypeptide containing tyrosine around nano-sized manganese-calcium oxide, which was shown to be a highly active catalyst toward water oxidation at low overpotential (240 mV), with high turnover frequency of 1.5 × 10(-2) s(-1) at pH = 6.3 in the Mn(III)/Mn(IV) oxidation range. The compound is a novel structural and efficient functional model for the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II. A new proposed clever strategy used by Nature in water oxidation is also discussed. The new model of the water-oxidizing complex opens a new perspective for synthesis of efficient water-oxidation catalysts.

  1. Core-shell architectures as nano-size transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeli, M.; Zarnegar, Z.; Kabiri, R.; Salimi, F.; Dadkah, A.

    2006-01-01

    Core-shell architectures containing poly (ethylene imine) (PEI) as a core and poly (lactide) (PLA) as arms were prepared. PEI was used as macro initiator for ring opening polymerization of lactide. PEI-PLA core-shell architectures were able to encapsulate guest molecules. Size of the core-shell architectures was between 10- 100 nm, hence they can be considered as nano carriers to transport the guest molecules. Transport capacity of nano carriers depends on their nano-environments and type of self-assembly in solvent. In solid state nano carriers self-assemble as long structures with nano-size diameter or they form network structures. Aggregations type depends on the concentration of nano carriers in solution. Effect of the shell thickness and aggregation type on the release rate are also investigated

  2. Electrodeposition of nano-sized bismuth on copper foil as electrocatalyst for reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Weixin; Zhou, Jing; Bei, Jingjing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng, 224051 (China); Zhang, Rui, E-mail: zhangrui@ycit.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng, 224051 (China); Wang, Lei [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, 150080 (China); Xu, Qi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng, 224051 (China); Wang, Wei, E-mail: wangw@ycit.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng, 224051 (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Bi/Cu electrode was prepared by depositing nano-sized Bi catalyst on Cu foil. • The Bi/Cu electrode can reduce CO{sub 2} to formate with a low overpotential. • The energy efficiency for reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate can reach to 50%. • A Tafel slope of 128 mV decade{sup −1} was observed for producing formate. - Abstract: Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to formate is energetically inefficient because high overpotential is required for reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate on most traditional catalysts. In this paper, a novel nano-sized Bi-based electrocatalyst deposited on a Cu foil has been synthesized, which can be used as a cathode for electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate with a low overpotential (0.69 V) and a high selectivity (91.3%). The electrocatalyst can show excellent catalytic performance toward reduction of CO{sub 2} which can probably be attributed to the nano-sized structure and the surface oxide layer. The energy efficiency for reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate can reach to 50% when an Ir{sub x}Sn{sub y}Ru{sub z}O{sub 2}/Ti electrode is used as anode, it is one of the highest values found in the literatures and very practicable for sustainable fuel synthesis.

  3. Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Al–Cu Matrix Composites Reinforced with Nano-Sized SiCp Fabricated by Semisolid Stirring Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The nano-sized SiCp/Al–Cu composites were successfully fabricated by combining semisolid stirring with ball milling technology. Microstructures were examined by an olympus optical microscope (OM, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Tensile properties were studied at room temperature. The results show that the α-Al dendrites of the composites were strongly refined, especially in the composite with 3 wt. % nano-sized SiCp, of which the morphology of the α-Al changes from 200 μm dendritic crystal to 90 μm much finer equiaxial grain. The strength and ductility of the composites are improved synchronously with the addition of nano-sized SiCp particles. The as-cast 3 wt. % nano-sized SiCp/Al–Cu composite displays the best tensile properties, i.e., the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS and fracture strain increase from 175 MPa, 310 MPa and 4.1% of the as-cast Al–Cu alloy to 220 MPa, 410 MPa and 6.3%, respectively. The significant improvement in the tensile properties of the composites is mainly due to the refinement of the α-Al dendrites, nano-sized SiCp strengthening, and good interface combination between the SiCp and Al–Cu alloys.

  4. Characteristics of Sodium Polyacrylate/Nano-Sized Carbon Hydrogel for Biomedical Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Seo, Sun-Kyo; Cho, Seungkwan; Kim, Han-Sung; Lee, Chi-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    Conductive hydrogels were prepared for biomedical patch in order to improve the electrical conductivity. Sodium polyacrylate and nano-sized carbon were mixed and fabricated by aqueous solution gelation process in various contents of nano-sized carbon with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt%. Sodium polyacrylate/nano-sized carbon conductive hydrogels were investigated by molecular structure, surface morphology and electrical conductivity. The conductivity of the hydrogel/nano-sized carbon conductive hydrogel proved to be 10% higher than conductive hydrogel without nano-sized carbon. However, it was founded that conductive hydrogels with nano-sized carbon content from 0.5 up to 2.0 wt% were remarkably decreased. This may be due to the non-uniform distribution of nano-sized carbon, resulting from agglomerates of nano-sized carbon. The developed hydrogel is intended for use in the medical and cosmetic fields that is applicable to supply micro-current from device to human body.

  5. Luminescence properties of YAG:Nd nano-sized ceramic powders ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nano-sized ceramic powders with weaker aggregation of Nd3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet. (YAG:Nd3+) were synthesized via co-microemulsion and microwave heating. This method provides a limited small space in a micelle for the formation of nano-sized precursors. It also requires a very short heating time, ...

  6. 75 FR 42237 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Based on a Thermochemical Platform 3. Hybrid Thermochemical/Biochemical Processes 4. Pyrolysis and Depolymerization a. Pyrolysis Diesel Fuel and Gasoline b. Catalytic Depolymerization 5. Catalytic Reforming of... result would be that additional volumes of conventional renewable fuel, such as corn-starch ethanol...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to a motor... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 2902.13 Section 2902.13...

  8. Photogenerated cathode protection properties of nano-sized TiO2/WO3 coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Minjie; Zeng Zhenou; Zhong Li

    2009-01-01

    Nano-sized TiO 2 /WO 3 bilayer coatings were prepared on type 304 stainless steel substrate by sol-gel method. The performance of photo-electrochemical and photogenerated cathode protection of the coating was investigated by the electrochemical method. The results show that the bilayer coating with four TiO 2 layers and three WO 3 layers exhibits the highest photo-electrochemical efficiency and the best corrosion resistance property. Type 304 stainless steel with the coating can maintain cathode protection for 6 h in the dark after irradiation by UV illumination for 1 h. In addition, the mechanism of the photogenerated cathode protection for the bilayer coating was also explored.

  9. Preparation of nano-sized α-Al2O3 from oil shale ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Baichao; Wang, Wenying; Ji, Guijuan; Gan, Shucai; Gao, Guimei; Xu, Jijing; Li, Guanghuan

    2010-01-01

    Oil shale ash (OSA), the residue of oil shale semi-coke roasting, was used as a raw material to synthesize nano-sized α-Al 2 O 3 . Ultrasonic oscillation pretreatment followed by azeotropic distillation was employed for reducing the particle size of α-Al 2 O 3 . The structural characterization at molecular and nanometer scales was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The interaction between alumina and n-butanol was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results revealed that the crystalline phase of alumina nanoparticles was regular and the well dispersed alumina nanoparticles had a diameter of 50-80 nm. In addition, the significant factors including injection rate of carbon oxide (CO 2 ), ultrasonic oscillations, azeotropic distillation and surfactant were investigated with respect to their effects on the size of the alumina particles.

  10. Synthesis of nano-sized hydroxyapatite powders through solution combustion route under different reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samir Kumar; Roy, Sujit Kumar; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 (HAp) was synthesized by combustion in the aqueous system containing calcium nitrate-diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate with urea and glycine as fuels. These ceramics are important materials for biomedical applications. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis were employed to understand the nature of synthesis process during combustion. Effects of different process parameters namely, nature of fuel (urea and glycine), fuel to oxidizer ratio (0.6-4.0) and initial furnace temperature (300-700 o C) on the combustion behavior as well as physical properties of as-formed powders were investigated. A series of combustion reactions were carried out to optimize the reaction parameters for synthesis of nano-sized HAp powders. The combustion temperature (T f ) for the oxidant and fuels were calculated to be 896 deg. C and 1035 deg. C for the stoichiometric system of urea and glycine respectively. The stoichiometric glycine-calcium nitrate produced higher flame temperature (both calculated and measured) and powder with lower specific surface area (8.75 m 2 /g) compared to the stoichiometric urea-calcium nitrate system (10.50 m 2 /g). Fuel excess combustion in both glycine and urea produced powders with higher surface area. Nanocrystalline HAp powder could be synthesized in situ with a large span of fuel to oxidizer ratio (φ) in case of urea system (0.8 < φ < 4) and (0.6 < φ < 1.5) for the glycine system. Calcium hydroxyapatite particles having diameters ranging between 20 nm and 120 nm could be successfully synthesized through optimized process variable.

  11. Nano-sized calcium phosphate particles for periodontal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Jain, Shardool; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Margolis, Henry C; Amiji, Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) have significantly enhanced periodontal therapy outcomes with a high degree of variability, mostly due to the lack of continual supply for a required period of time. One method to overcome this barrier is gene therapy. The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate PDGF-B gene delivery in fibroblasts using nano-sized calcium phosphate particles (NCaPP) as vectors. NCaPP incorporating green fluorescent protein (NCaPP-GFP) and PDGF-B (NCaPP-PDGF-B) plasmids were synthesized using an established precipitation system and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and 1.2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Biocompatibility and transfection of the nanoplexes in fibroblasts were evaluated using cytotoxicity assay and florescence microscopy, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to evaluate PDGF-B transfection after different time points of treatments, and the functionality of PDGF-B transfection was evaluated using the cell proliferation assay. Synthesized NCaPP nanoplexes incorporating the genes of GFP and PDGF-B were spherical in shape and measured about 30 to 50 nm in diameter. Gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA incorporation and stability within the nanoplexes, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium reagent assay demonstrated their biocompatibility in fibroblasts. In vitro transfection studies revealed a higher and longer lasting transfection after NCaPP-PDGF-B treatment, which lasted up to 96 hours. Significantly enhanced fibroblast proliferation observed in NCaPP-PDGF-B-treated cells confirmed the functionality of these nanoplexes. NCaPP demonstrated higher levels of biocompatibility and efficiently transfected PDGF plasmids into fibroblasts under described in vitro conditions.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor DarulTa’zim (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  13. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO 4 2− ) into hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6−x (SO 4 ) x (OH) 2−x ) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO 4 2− ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O), ((NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ) and (Na 2 SO 4 ) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO 4 2− ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure

  14. In vitro study of nano-sized zinc doped bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-Fan; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Akram, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM skudai, Johor Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTMJohor Bahru (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [IbnuSina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor DarulTa' zim (Malaysia)

    2013-01-15

    Surface reactivity in physiological fluid has been linked to bioactivity of a material. Past research has shown that bioactive glass containing zinc has the potential in bone regeneration field due to its enhanced bioactivity. However, results from literature are always contradictory. Therefore, in this study, surface reactivity of bioactive glass containing zinc was evaluated through the study of morphology and composition of apatite layer formed after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Nano-sized bioactive glass with 5 and 10 mol% zinc were synthesized through quick alkali sol-gel method. The synthesized Zn-bioglass was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Samples after SBF immersion were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDX. Morphological study through SEM showed the formation of spherical apatite particles with Ca/P ratio closer to 1.67 on the surface of 5 mol% Zn-bioglass. Whereas, the 10 mol% Zn-bioglass samples induced the formation of flake-like structure of calcite in addition to the spherical apatite particles with much higher Ca/P ratio. Our results suggest that the higher Zn content increases the bioactivity through the formation of bone-bonding calcite as well as the spherical apatite particles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-sized bioactive glasses were synthesized through quick alkali sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5 and 10 mol% Zn-bioglass induced the formation of spherical particles in SBF test. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 10 mol% Zn-bioglass also induced the formation of flake-like structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The flake-like structure is calcium carbonate; spherical particles are apatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High Zn contents negatively influence the chemical composition of the apatite layer.

  15. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog: FY16 Improvements and Additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2016 fiscal year.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  17. Development of oxygen scavenger additives for jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, B.D.; Demunshi, R.; Sharief, V.; Tian, D.; Teng, Y. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Our current research program is in response to the US Air Force`s FY93 New Initiative entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Fuel Composition and Use.{close_quotes} The critical goal of this initiative is to develop aircraft fuels which can operate at supercritical conditions. This is a vital objective since future aircraft designs will transfer much higher heat loads into the fuel as compared with current heat loads. In this paper it is argued that the thermal stability of most jet fuels would be dramatically improved by the efficient in flight-removal of a fuel`s dissolved oxygen. It is proposed herein to stabilize the bulk fuel by the addition of an additive which will be judiciously designed and programmed to react with oxygen and produce an innocuous product. It is envisioned that a thermally activated reaction will occur, between the oxygen scavenging additive and dissolved oxygen, in a controlled and directed manner. Consequently formation of insoluble thermal degradation products will be limited. It is believed that successful completion of this project will result in the development of a new type of jet fuel additive which will enable current conventional jet fuels to obtain sufficient thermal stability to function in significantly higher temperature regimes. In addition, it is postulated that the successful development of thermally activated oxygen scavengers will also provide the sub-critical thermal stability necessary for future development of endothermic fuels.

  18. Improvement of the tool life of a micro-end mill using nano-sized SiC/Ni electroplating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shinyoung; Kim, Kwang-Su; Roh, Ji Young; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2012-04-01

    High mechanical properties of a tungsten carbide micro-end-mill tool was achieved by extending its tool life by electroplating nano-sized SiC particles (electroplating method on the surface of the micro-end-mill tool was applied using SiC particles and Ni particles. Organic additives (saccharin and ammonium chloride) were added in a Watts bath to improve the nickel matrix density in the electroplating bath and to smooth the surface of the co-electroplating. The morphology of the coated nano-sized SiC particles and the composition were measured using Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. As the Ni/SiC co-electroplating layer was applied, the hardness and friction coefficient improved by 50%. Nano-sized SiC particles with 7 wt% were deposited on the surface of the micro-end mill while the Ni matrix was smoothed by adding organic additives. The tool life of the Ni/SiC co-electroplating coating on the micro-end mill was at least 25% longer than that of the existing micro-end mills without Ni/SiC co-electroplating. Thus, nano-sized SiC/Ni coating by electroplating significantly improves the mechanical properties of tungsten carbide micro-end mills.

  19. 75 FR 26165 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra-Low Sulfur... refiners, importers, distributors, and retailers of highway diesel fuel the option to use an alternative affirmative defense if the Agency finds highway diesel fuel samples above the specified sulfur standard at...

  20. Quantum-chemical study of antioxidant additives for jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O.Yu. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Karimova, R.I. [Bashkir State Agrarian Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E.M. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    To obtain the necessary quality of jet fuels it can be used technological methods (hydrocracking, deep hydration, hydrogenation) that increases the cost of the finished product. The second way is to use less purified raw materials with the introduction of effective additives. Fuels obtained by direct distillation, in ambient air are oxidized with great difficulty and oxidation products accumulate in them is very slow. Fuels derived by hydrogenation processes, have high susceptibility to oxidation, as a result in 1-2 years of storage considerably reduced their quality. Antioxidant additives play an important role in improving the quality of jet fuel. (orig.)

  1. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  2. Nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material with excellent performance prepared by solid state reaction: The effect of precursor size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiangru; Hu, Hao; Huang, Sheng; Yu, Gaige; Gao, Lin; Liu, Haowen; Yu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 has been prepared through solid state reaction by using axiolitic TiO 2 as precursor. • The prepared nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode material shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The utilization of precursor with special morphology and size is one of the useful ways to prepare more active electrode materials. - Abstract: Spinel nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode material of secondary lithium-ion battery has been successfully prepared by solid state reaction using axiolitic TiO 2 assembled by 10–20 nm nanoparticles and Li 2 CO 3 as precursors. The synthesis condition, grain size effect and corresponding electrochemical performance of the special Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 have been studied in comparison with those of the normal Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 originated from commercial TiO 2 . We also propose the mechanism that using the nano-scaled TiO 2 with special structure and unexcess Li 2 CO 3 as precursors can synthesize pure phase nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 at 800 °C through solid state reaction. The prepared nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode material for Li-ion batteries shows excellent capacity performance with rate capacity of 174.2, 164.0, 157.4, 146.4 and 129.6 mA h g −1 at 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 C, respectively, and capacity retention of 95.1% after 100 cycles at 1 C. In addition, the specific capacity fade for the cell with the different Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 active materials resulted from the increase of internal resistance after 100 cycles is compared

  3. 77 FR 61313 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel, or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, as... that which arose under RFS1 for certain renewable fuels (in particular biodiesel) that were produced...

  4. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in soil using nano-size metallic calcium dispersing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Fukuoka, Takezo; Matsue, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Hidemasa; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Kajitani, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, the major concern on radioactive cesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) deposition and soil contamination due to the emission form the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant showed up after a massive quake on March 11, 2011. Soil contamination with radioactive cesium has a long-term radiological impact due to its long half-life (30 years for 137 Cs) and its high biological hazard. Therefore, much attention has been paid to decontaminate Cs-contaminated soil with washing and/or extraction by adopting solvents. However, such wet methods have some disadvantages, i.e. forming of secondary effluents and additional cost for their treatment. We have recently shown that the nano-size metallic calcium/calcium oxide/iron dispersing mixture (Fe-nCa) is most effective for heavy metals immobilization and volume reduction method under dry condition. Thus, we applied this method to treat real radioactive cesium contaminated soils in dry condition. Simple stirring of the contaminated soil with Fe-nCa achieved about above 90% of radioactive Cs decontamination rate and the volume reduction level also reached around 50-60%. In this paper, we showed the effectiveness of a Fe-nCa method for the rapid remediation and volume reduction method of real radioactive cesium contaminated soils under dry conditions and our challenges for sophistication applying machine and reagents. (author)

  5. Influence of Nano sized Silicon Oxide on the Luminescent Properties of Zn O Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvalagin, V.; Grodziuk, G.; Kurmach, M.; Granchak, V.; Sarapulova, O.; Sherstiuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    For practical use of nano sized zinc oxide as the phosphor its luminescence quantum yields should be maximized. The aim of this work was to enhance luminescent properties of Zn O nanoparticles and obtain high-luminescent Zn O/SiO 2 composites using simpler approaches to colloidal synthesis. The luminescence intensity of zinc oxide nanoparticles was increased about 3 times by addition of silica nano crystals to the source solutions during the synthesis of Zn O nanoparticles. Then the quantum yield of luminescence of the obtained Zn O/SiO 2 composites is more than 30%. Such an impact of silica is suggested to be caused by the distribution of Zn O nano crystals on the surface of silica, which reduces the probability of separation of photo generated charges between the zinc oxide nanoparticles of different sizes, and as a consequence, there is a significant increase of the luminescence intensity of Zn O nanoparticles. This way of increasing nano-Zn O luminescence intensity facilitates its use in a variety of devices, including optical ultraviolet and visible screens, luminescent markers, antibacterial coatings, luminescent solar concentrators, luminescent inks for security printing, and food packaging with abilities of informing consumers about the quality and safety of the packaged product.

  6. Nano-sized copper tungstate thin films as positive electrodes for rechargeable Li batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chilin; Fu Zhengwen

    2008-01-01

    Nano-sized CuWO 4 thin films have been fabricated by radio-frequency (R.F.) sputtering deposition, and are used as positive electrode with both LiClO 4 liquid electrolyte and LiPON solid electrolyte in rechargeable lithium batteries. An initial discharge capacity of 192 and 210 mAh/g is obtainable for CuWO 4 film electrode with and without coated LiPON in liquid electrolyte, respectively. An all-solid-state cell with Li/LiPON/CuWO 4 layers shows a high-volume rate capacity of 145 μAh/cm 2 μm in first discharge, and overcomes the unfavorable electrochemical degradation observed in liquid electrolyte system. A two-step reactive mechanism is investigated by both transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. Apart from the extrusion and injection of Cu 2+ /Cu 0 , additional capacity can be achieved by the reversible reactivity of (WO 4 ) 2- framework. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Li intercalation/deintercalation are estimated by cyclic voltammetry. Nano-CuWO 4 thin film is expected to be a promising positive electrode material for high-performance rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

  7. Shale-oil-derived additives for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raidma, E.; Leetsman, L.; Muoni, R.; Soone, Y.; Zhiryakov, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidation, wearing, and anticorrosive properties of shale oil as an additive to liquid fuels and oils enable to improve the conditions of their use. Studies conducted by Institute of Oil Shale have shown that it is possible, on the basis of shale oil produced by Viru Keemia Grupp AS (Viru Chemistry Group Ltd.) and, particularly, on the basis of its fractions 230-320 and 320-360 deg C to produce efficient and stable additives for liquid fuels to improve their combustion and storage properties. In the production of additives from shale oil the prerequisite taken into account is its complexity of composition and high concentration of neutral and phenolic oxygen compounds. Additives produced from shale oil have multifunctional properties which enable to improve operational data of liquid fuels and to increase the power of diesel engines and boilers. (author)

  8. Casting of metallic fuel containing minor actinide additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Henslee, S.P.; Sanecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A significant attribute of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is the transmutation of long-lived minor actinide fission products. These isotopes require isolation for thousands of years, and if they could be removed from the waste, disposal problems would be reduced. The IFR utilizes pyroprocessing of metallic fuel to separate auranium, plutonium, and the minor actinides from nonfissionable constituents. These materials are reintroduced into the fuel and reirradiated. Spent IFR fuel is expected to contain low levels of americium, neptunium, and curium because the hard neutron spectrum should transmute these isotopes as they are produced. This opens the possibility of using an IFR to trnasmute minor actinide waste from conventional light water reactors (LWRs). A standard IFR fuel is based on the alloy U-20% Pu-10% Zr (in weight percent). A metallic fuel system eases the requirements for reprocessing methods and enables the minor actinide metals to be incorporated into the fuel with simple modifications to the basic fuel casting process. In this paper, the authors report the initial casting experience with minor actinide element addition to an IFR U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel

  9. Chemoselective Oxidation of Bio-Glycerol with Nano-Sized Metal Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Kotni, Ramakrishna; Zhang, Qiuyun

    2015-01-01

    to selectively oxidize glycerol and yield products with good selectivity is the use of nano-sized metal particles as heterogeneous catalysts. In this short review, recent developments in chemoselective oxidation of glycerol to specific products over nano-sized metal catalysts are described. Attention is drawn...... to various reaction parameters such as the type of the support, the size of the metal particles, and the acid/base properties of the reaction medium which were illustrated to largely influence the activity of the nanocatalyst and selectivity to the target product. - See more at: http...

  10. THERMOOXIDATIVE STABILITY OF JET FUEL WITH FULLERENES AS AN ADDITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.В. Іванов

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Heating of fuels in presence of oxygen reduces their thermal-oxidative stability, leads to a solid phase in the form of sludge and tar, which, sedimented at the details of the fuel system, change its characteristics and cause contamination of fuel filters and injectors, spool control sticking, reduce efficiency of heat exchangers. Nanomaterials, performance of which is considerably superior to the natural materials, are the basis for the movement of humanity's progress. Therefore, with a develpoment of technologies it has become necessary to carry out a research of modified additives – fullerens, to improve an oxidative stability of fuels. We have carried out an investigation of thermal-oxidative stability of fuel RT as a function of additive C60 concentration. The results has shown that even 0,043 g/l fullerene addition as an antioxidant, reduces the amount of sediment in the fuel almost by half. Usage of fullerenes for improvement of petroleum products performance properties is a promising area of research.

  11. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A...

  12. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nano-sized CaCO3 in purified diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyaningsih, N. N.; Tresnasari, D. R.; Ramahwati, M. R.; Juwono, A. L.; Soejoko, D. S.; Astuti, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    The growth and development of animals depend strongly on the balanced nutrition in the diet. This research aims is to characterize the weight variations of nano-sized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in purified diet that to be fed to animal model of rat. The nano-sized CaCO3 was prepared by milling the calcium carbonate particles for 20 hours at a rotation speed of 1000 rpm and resulting particle size in a range of 2-50 nm. Nano-sized CaCO3 added to purified diet to the four formulas that were identified as normal diet (N), deficiency calcium (DC), rich in calcium (RC), and poor calcium (PC) with containing in nano-sized CaCO3 much as 0.50 %, 0.00 %, 0.75 % and 0.25 % respectively. The nutritional content of the purified diet was proximate analyzed, it resulted as followed moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber. The quantities of chemical element were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), it resulted iron, magnesium, potassium and calcium. The results showed that N diet (Ca: 16,914.29 ppm) were suggested for healthy rats and RC diet (Ca: 33,696.13 ppm) for conditioned osteoporosis rats. The crystalline phases of the samples that were examined by X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline phase increased with the increasing concentration of CaCO3.

  14. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on

  15. Elaboration and Characterization of Nano-Sized AlxMoyOz/Al Thermites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comet, M; Spitzer, D

    2006-01-01

    ...) has been developed at the Institut franco-allemand de recherches de Saint Louis (ISL). This process consists of a new sol-gel method nano-sized mixed AlxMoyOz phases whose structure is correlated to the chemical composition...

  16. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  17. Thermal Stress Behavior of Micro- and Nano-Size Aluminum Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanabusa, T.; Kusaka, K.; Nishida, M.

    2008-01-01

    In-situ observation of thermal stresses in thin films deposited on silicon substrate was made by X-ray and synchrotron radiation. Specimens prepared in this experiment were micro- and nano-size thin aluminum films with and without passivation film. The thickness of the film was 1 micrometer for micro-size films and 10, 20 and 50 nanometer for nano-size films. The stress measurement in micro-size films was made by X-ray radiation whereas the measurement of nano-size films was made by synchrotron radiation. Residual stress measurement revealed tensile stresses in all as-deposited films. Thermal stresses were measured in a series of heating- and cooling-stage. Thermal stress behavior of micro-size films revealed hysteresis loop during a heating and cooling process. The width of a hysteresis loop was larger in passivated film that unpassivated film. No hysteresis loops were observed in nano-size films with SiO 2 passivation. Strengthning mechanism in thin films was discussed on a passivation film and a film thickness

  18. The use of nano-sized eggshell powder for calcium fortification of cow?s and buffalo?s milk yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shibiny, Safinaze; El-Gawad, Mona Abd El-Kader Mohamed Abd; Assem, Fayza Mohamed; El-Sayed, Samah Mosbah

    2018-01-01

    Calcium is an essential element for the growth, activity, and maintenance of the human body. Eggshells are a waste product which has received growing interest as a cheap and effective source of dietary calcium. Yogurt is a food which can be fortified with functional additives, including calcium. The aim of this study was to produce yogurt with a high calcium content by fortification with nano-sized eggshell powder (nano-ESP). Nano-sized ESP was prepared from pre-boiled and dried eggshell, using a ball mill. Yogurt was prepared from cow’s milk supplemented with 3% skimmed milk powder, and from buffalo’s milk fortified with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% and 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% nano-ESP respectively. Electron microscopic transmission showed that the powder consisted of nano-sized crystalline struc- tures (~10 nm). Laser scattering showed that particles followed a normal distribution pattern with z-average of 590.5 nm, and had negative zeta-potential of –9.33 ±4.2 mV. Results regarding changes in yogurt composi- tion, acid development, calcium distribution, biochemical changes, textural parameters and sensory attributes have been presented and discussed. The addition of up to 0.3% nano-ESP made cow and buffalo high-calcium yogurts with an acceptable composition and quality. High-calcium yogurt may offer better health benefits, such as combating osteoporosis.

  19. Effect of ethanol fuel additive on diesel emissions.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.; Schaus, J. E.; McPartlin, P.

    2001-01-01

    Engine-out emissions from a Volkswagen model TDI engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 15% ethanol. The test matrix covered five speeds from 1,320 to 3,000 rpm, five torques from 15 Nm to maximum plus the 900-rpm idle condition, and most of the points in the FTP-75 and US-06 vehicle tests. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)), unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at each point, as were fuel consumption, exhaust oxygen, and carbon dioxide output. PM emissions were reduced up to 75% when ethanol-diesel blends were used instead of neat diesel fuel. Significant reductions in PM emissions occurred over one-half to two-thirds of the test matrix. NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Although the regions of reduced NO(sub x) emissions were much smaller than the regions of reduced PM emissions, there was considerable overlap between the two regions where PM emissions were reduced by up to 75% and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Such simultaneous reduction of both PM and NO(sub x) emissions would be difficult to achieve by any other means. HC and CO emissions were also reduced in the regions of reduced PM and NO(sub x) emissions that overlapped. Because the ethanol-diesel blends contain less energy on both a per-unit-mass basis and a per-unit-volume basis, there was a reduction in maximum torque of up to 10% and an increase in brake-specific fuel consumption of up to 7% when these blends were used

  20. A simple route for renewable nano-sized arjunolic and asiatic acids and self-assembly of arjuna-bromolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available While separating two natural nano-sized triterpenic acids via bromolactonization, we serendipitously discovered that arjuna-bromolactone is an excellent gelator of various organic solvents. A simple and efficient method for the separation of two triterpenic acids and the gelation ability and solid state 1D-helical self-assembly of nano-sized arjuna-bromolactone are reported.

  1. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Nancy N; Mohamed, Maha M

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO 2 -induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO 2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count. nTiO 2 -treated rats also exhibited prostatic and testicular altered glutathione levels, elevated TNF-α levels, up-regulated Fas, Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, down-regulated Bcl-2 gene expression and enhanced prostatic lipid peroxidation. Sperm malformation and elevated testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and malondialdehyde level, serum prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate specific antigen (PSA), gonadotrophin and estradiol levels occurred after the 2 and 3week regimens. Morin (30mg/kg/day administered intragastrically for 5weeks) mitigated nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury as evidenced by lowering serum PSA level, testicular γ-GT and ACP activities and TNF-α level, along with hampering both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, morin alleviated prostatic lipid peroxidation, raised prostatic glutathione level, and relieved testicular reductive stress. Additionally, morin increased testicular StAR and c-kit mRNA expression, raised the sperm count, reduced sperm deformities and modified the altered hormone profile. Histopathological evaluation supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, morin could ameliorate nTiO 2 -induced prostatic and testicular injury and the corresponding reproductive-related aberrations via redox regulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, promoting steroidogenesis and

  2. 76 FR 15855 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard..., published on March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14670), which amended the Renewable Fuel Standard Program pursuant to... renewable fuels to verify domestic crops and crop residues used to produce the renewable fuels complied with...

  3. Antifreeze polymeric additives for fuels; Aditivos polimericos anticongelantes para combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Aline S.; Carvalho, Agne Roani de; Sakae, George Hideki; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR - Departamento de Quimica - LABPOL-Laboratorio de Polimeros Sinteticos, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: mafco@ufpr.br, alinemuniz@ufpr.br

    2011-07-01

    Owing to the current interest in the reduction of environmental pollution, several researchers are seeking renewable sources of energy which can at least partially replace combustibles derived from petroleum. Diesel oil is the combustible that most seriously pollutes the environment and is thus the biodiesel that is being considered as a fuel which can be replaced by a renewable combustible; this can possibly be used in diesel engines without any modifications. However, certain problems have to be overcome with regard to the temperature at which the biodiesel should be stored and used, since there is a tendency for biodiesel to solidify at low temperatures. This suggests that there is a need for the use of anti-freeze additives. This work behind the main focus additives with only 25 ppm, were able to reduce the pour point of fuel, achieving significant results, for example, the additive M14A18 lowered the pour point (PP) of B20 to -20 degree C, showing that the use of increasing amounts of biodiesel to diesel can aggregate. The main focus of work behind the development of additives that with only 25 ppm, were able to reduce the pour point of fuel, producing significant results such as those obtained with the use of additive M14A18 which lowered the pour point of the B20 to -20 degree C, showing the possibility of using increasing amounts of biodiesel added to diesel. (author)

  4. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  5. Preparation of nano-sized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from oil shale ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Baichao; Wang, Wenying; Ji, Guijuan; Gan, Shucai; Gao, Guimei; Xu, Jijing; Li, Guanghuan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Oil shale ash (OSA), the residue of oil shale semi-coke roasting, was used as a raw material to synthesize nano-sized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Ultrasonic oscillation pretreatment followed by azeotropic distillation was employed for reducing the particle size of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The structural characterization at molecular and nanometer scales was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The interaction between alumina and n-butanol was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results revealed that the crystalline phase of alumina nanoparticles was regular and the well dispersed alumina nanoparticles had a diameter of 50-80 nm. In addition, the significant factors including injection rate of carbon oxide (CO{sub 2}), ultrasonic oscillations, azeotropic distillation and surfactant were investigated with respect to their effects on the size of the alumina particles. (author)

  6. Fuel additive improves plant`s air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratch, K.

    1995-07-01

    Employees of a major pulp and paper manufacturer complained to the Michigan Department of Public Health that emissions from liquefied petroleum gas-powered fork-lifts used in one of the facility`s warehouses were making them ill. The new and tight building was locking in carbon monoxide emissions, according to the plant`s vehicle maintenance supervisor. Although LPG is a clean-burning fuel, it absorbs impurities from pipelines, resulting in emissions problems. After the company introduced a fuel additive to the LPG, employees` symptoms disappeared. According to the maintenance supervisor, there have been no complaints since the additive was introduced five years ago. A major US auto manufacturer also found the additive helpful in reducing carbon monoxide emissions from forklift trucks in a large parts warehouse to levels within OSHA limits. The carmaker conducted a test of 10 forklifts at its Toledo, Ohio, plant to determine the additive`s effectiveness. Trucks were equipped with new or rebuilt vaporizers, and their carburetors were adjusted for the lowest carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions levels prior to the test. According to Advanced Technology, five trucks were filled with LPG and treated with CGX-4, and five used fuel from the same stock but without the additive. All were operated 16 hours a day, six days a week without further tuning or adjusting. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were measured at 30-, 45- and 65-day intervals. Test results show that all of the trucks using the additive maintained low levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions longer than trucks not using the additive.

  7. Multifunctional Fuel Additives for Reduced Jet Particulate Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Propulsion, Santiago , Chile , Mar. 8-11, 2005. Montgomery, C. J., Sarofim, A. F., Preciado, I., Marsh, N. D., Eddings, E. G., and Bozzelli, J. W...34Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid- fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering...injection pressure, and oxygen concentration . Additives were found to be most effective under highly oxidizing conditions. Soot reductions of over 90% were

  8. NANO-SIZED PIGMENT APPLICATIONS IN İZNİK TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin GÜNAY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional İznik tiles are known as “unproducable” due to its high quartz content. İznik tiles contain four different layers as “body, engobe (slip, decors and glaze” and each one has some different starting materials. Recent studies have showed that the production techniques and the particle size of pigments are important parameters in development of colours. TUBITAK MRC and İznik Foundation carried out an experimental work to improve and understand the effects of nanotechnology application to İznik tiles. High quartz content was kept as it is and pigments were applied in decorationas nano-sized pigments.İznik tiles were produced and comparison was carried out between traditional and modern İznik tiles in colour and brightness. Characterization techniques were used in order to understand andcompare the results and also the effects of nano-sized pigments to İznik tiles.

  9. 76 FR 38843 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories include: Examples... Feedstocks To Produce 1.28 Billion Gallons Of Biodiesel 3. Production Capacity 4. Consumption Capacity 5... 5. Transportation Fuel Cost 6. Deliverability And Transport Costs Of Materials, Goods, And Products...

  10. 77 FR 1319 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories include: NAICS \\1\\ Examples of... they are produced as well as the cost associated with transporting these fuels to the U.S. Of the... II.E, we believe that the 1.0 billion gallon standard can indeed be met. Since biodiesel has an...

  11. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Okuda

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug's effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm. We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents.

  12. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Keiji; Fu, Hai Ying; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Araki, Ryo; Tsuchida, Shota; Thanikachalam, Punniyakoti V; Fukuta, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiro; Yamato, Masaki; Sanada, Shoji; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asano, Yoshihiro; Asakura, Masanori; Hanawa, Haruo; Hao, Hiroyuki; Oku, Naoto; Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Sakata, Yasushi; Minamino, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug's effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm). We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents.

  13. Kinetic model for transformation from nano-sized amorphous $TiO_2$ to anatase

    OpenAIRE

    Madras, Giridhar; McCoy, Benjamin J

    2006-01-01

    We propose a kinetic model for the transformation of nano-sized amorphous $TiO_2$ to anatase with associated coarsening by coalescence. Based on population balance (distribution kinetics) equations for the size distributions, the model applies a first-order rate expression for transformation combined with Smoluchowski coalescence for the coarsening particles. Size distribution moments (number and mass of particles) lead to dynamic expressions for extent of reaction and average anatase particl...

  14. Reducing Fuel Volatility. An Additional Benefit From Blending Bio-fuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, R. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Koebl, B.S. [Utrecht University, Science Technology and Society, Budapestlaan 6, 3584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands); Sanders, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Oil price volatility harms economic growth. Diversifying into different fuel types can mitigate this effect by reducing volatility in fuel prices. Producing bio-fuels may thus have additional benefits in terms of avoided damage to macro-economic growth. In this study we investigate trends and patterns in the determinants of a volatility gain in order to provide an estimate of the tendency and the size of the volatility gain in the future. The accumulated avoided loss from blending gasoline with 20 percent ethanol-fuel estimated for the US economy amounts to 795 bn. USD between 2010 and 2019 with growing tendency. An amount that should be considered in cost-benefit analysis of bio-fuels.

  15. Nano-sized precipitation and properties of a low carbon niobium micro-alloyed bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Ma, X.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Shang, C.J., E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, X.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Subramanian, S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2015-08-12

    The present work focuses on microstructure evolution and precipitation strengthening during tempering at region of 550–680 °C to elucidate the structure–property relationship in the steel. The effect of tempering on the development of a 700 MPa grade high strength hot rolled cost-effective bainitic steel was studied for infrastructure applications. Granular bainite with dispersed martenisit–austenite (M–A) constituents in the bainitic ferrite matrix was obtained after hot rolling and air cooling to room temperature. The decomposition of M–A constituents to cementite carbides and the precipitation of nano-sized NbC carbides in bainitic matrix on tempering were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nano-sized precipitates of NbC precipitated during tempering were in average diameter of ~4.1–6.1 nm. There were ~86–173 MPa increases in yield strength after tempering at region of 550–680 °C. It is noticeable that those nano-sized NbC precipitates provide an effective way to significantly increase the strength of the low carbon bainitic steel. High yield strength of 716 MPa with high ductility (uniform elongation of 9.3% and total elongation of 22.4%), low yield to tensile ratio of 0.9 and good low temperature toughness of 47 J (half thickness) at –40 °C was obtained after tempering at 680 °C for 30 min.

  16. Characteristic of Water Pervaporation Using Hydrophilic Composite Membrane Containing Functional Nano Sized NaA zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Duckkyu; Lee, Yongtaek

    2013-01-01

    The NaA zeolite particles were dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to prepare a composite membrane. The nano sized zeolite particles of NaA were synthesized in the laboratory and the mean size was approximately 60 nm. Pervaporation characteristics such as a permeation flux and a separation factor were investigated using the membrane as a function of the feed concentration from 0.01 to 0.05 mole fraction and the weight % of NaA particles between 0 wt% and 5 wt% in the membrane. Also, the micro sized particles of 5 mm were dispersed in the membrane for a comparison purpose. When the ethanol concentration in the feed solution was 0.01 mole fraction, the flux of water significantly increased from 600 g/m 2 /hr to 2000 g/m 2 /hr as the content of the nano NaA particles in the membrane increased from 0 wt% to 5 wt%, while the NaA particles improved the separation factor from 1.5 to 7.9. When the flux of water through the membrane containing nano sized particles was roughly 15% increased compared to the micro sized particles, whereas the separation factor of water was found to be approximately 5% increased. It can be said that the role of the nano sized NaA particles is quite important since both the flux and the separation factor are strongly affected

  17. Biocidal properties of anti-icing additives for aircraft fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neihof, R A; Bailey, C A

    1978-04-01

    The biocidal and biostatic activities of seven glycol monoalkyl ether compounds were evaluated as part of an effort to find an improved anti-icing additive for jet aircraft fuel. Typical fuel contaminants, Cladosporium resinae, Gliomastix sp., Candida sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture containing sulfate-reducing bacteria were used as assay organisms. Studies were carried out over 3 to 4 months in two-phase systems containing jet fuel and aqueous media. Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, triethylene glycol monomethyl ether, triethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and 2-methoxyethanol were generally biocidal in aqueous concentrations of 10 to 17% for all organisms except Gliomastix, which required 25% or more. 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol were biocidal at progressively lower concentrations down to 1 to 2% for 2-butoxyethanol. The enhanced antimicrobial activity of these three compounds was attributed to cytoplasmic membrane damage because of the correlation between surface tension measurements and lytic activity with P. aeruginosa cells. The mechanism of action of the less active compounds appeared to be due to osmotic (dehydrating) effects. When all requirements are taken into account, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether appears to be the most promising replacement for the currently used additive, 2-methoxyethanol.

  18. Thermal shock behavior of nano-sized SiC particulate reinforced AlON composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ru, H.Q., E-mail: ruhq@smm.neu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Zhang, N.; Liang, B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Manufacturing Technology of Liaoning Province, Shenyang University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110044 (China)

    2012-03-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of nano-SiC particles enhances residual strength and critical temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Young's modulus decreases with increasing quenching temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear relationship between residual strength and thermal shock times is obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rougher fracture surfaces in the SiC-AlON composites are observed. - Abstract: Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) has been considered as a potential ceramic material for high-performance structural and advanced refractory applications. Thermal shock resistance is a major concern and an important performance index of high-temperature ceramics. While silicon carbide (SiC) particles have been proven to improve mechanical properties of AlON ceramic, the high-temperature thermal shock behavior was unknown. The aim of this investigation was to identify the thermal shock resistance and underlying mechanisms of AlON ceramic and 8 wt% SiC-AlON composites over a temperature range between 175 Degree-Sign C and 275 Degree-Sign C. The residual strength and Young's modulus after thermal shock decreased with increasing quenching temperature and thermal shock times due to large temperature gradients and thermal stresses caused by abrupt water-quenching. A linear relationship between the residual strength and thermal shock times was observed in both pure AlON and SiC-AlON composites. The addition of nano-sized SiC particles increased both residual strength and critical temperature from 200 Degree-Sign C in the monolithic AlON to 225 Degree-Sign C in the SiC-AlON composites due to the toughening effect, the lower coefficient of thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity of SiC. The enhancement of the thermal shock resistance in the SiC-AlON composites was directly related to the change of fracture mode from intergranular cracking along with cleavage-type fracture in the AlON to a rougher fracture surface with ridge

  19. A submerged ceramic membrane reactor for the p-nitrophenol hydrogenation over nano-sized nickel catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R Z; Sun, H L; Xing, W H; Jin, W Q; Xu, N P

    2009-02-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol over nano-sized nickel catalysts was carried out in a submerged ceramic membrane reactor. It has been demonstrated that the submerged ceramic membrane reactor is more suitable for the p-nitrophenol hydrogenation over nano-sized nickel catalysts compared with the side-stream ceramic membrane reactor, and the membrane module configuration has a great influence on the reaction rate of p-nitrophenol hydrogenation and the membrane treating capacity. The deactivation of nano-sized nickel is mainly caused by the adsorption of impurity on the surface of nickel and the increase of oxidation degree of nickel.

  20. 78 FR 49411 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...-AR55 Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass... Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume. DATES: EPA's denials of the petitions... requires that EPA determine the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel to be used in setting annual...

  1. Renewable Fuel Pathways II Final Rule to Identify Additional Fuel Pathways under Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule describes EPA’s evaluation of biofuels derived from biogas fuel pathways under the RFS program and other minor amendments related to survey requirements associated with ULSD program and misfueling mitigation regulations for E15.

  2. 40 CFR 80.592 - What records must be kept by entities in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? 80.592 Section 80.592... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? (a) Records that must be...

  3. Effect of nano size 3% wt TaC particles dispersion in two different metallic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, U.U.; Oliveira, L.A.; Souza, C.P.; Menezes, R.C.; Furukava, M.; Torres, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the characteristics of two different metallic matrixes composites, ferritic and austenitic steels, reinforced with 3% wt nano size tantalum carbide by powder metallurgy. The starting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the nano sized carbide dispersion on the matrix microstructures and its consequences on the mechanical properties were identified. The preliminary results showed that the sintering were influenced by morphology and the distribution of carbide and the alloys. (author)

  4. 75 FR 26049 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... comment period on this action. Any parties interested in commenting must do so at this time. For further... Technologies for Renewable Fuel Pathways The final RFS2 rule includes two corn ethanol pathways in Table 1 of... construction of the grandfathered facilities commenced would be contained in Sec. 80.1450(b)(vi), since Sec. 80...

  5. 75 FR 79964 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... renewable fuel facility to be considered biogas for purposes of Table 1 to Sec. 80.1426; --Sec. 80.1452(b... explained that many developers of ethanol facilities, including their own, sought to obtain construction permits without going through EPA's New Source Review (NSR) program, and were able to do so by obtaining...

  6. 76 FR 77828 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Modification to Octamix Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...-case basis, whether their fuel additive formulations are acceptable as alternatives to TOLAD MFA-10.\\7...-case basis to establish whether each formulation would be acceptable as an alternative to the... provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or...

  7. Nano-sized cosmetic formulations or solid nanoparticles in sunscreens: a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    Personal care products (PCP) often contain micron- or nano-sized formulation components, such as nanoemulsions or microscopic vesicles. A large number of studies suggest that such vesicles do not penetrate human skin beyond the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. Nano-sized PCP formulations may enhance or reduce skin absorption of ingredients, albeit at a limited scale. Modern sunscreens contain insoluble titanium dioxide (TiO₂) or zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP), which are efficient filters of UV light. A large number of studies suggest that insoluble NP do not penetrate into or through human skin. A number of in vivo toxicity tests, including in vivo intravenous studies, showed that TiO₂ and ZnO NP are non-toxic and have an excellent skin tolerance. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, photo-genotoxicity, general toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on TiO₂ and ZnO NP found no difference in the safety profile of micro- or nano-sized materials, all of which were found to be non-toxic. Although some published in vitro studies on insoluble nano- or micron-sized particles suggested cell uptake, oxidative cell damage or genotoxicity, these data are consistent with those from micron-sized particles and should be interpreted with caution. Data on insoluble NP, such as surgical implant-derived wear debris particles or intravenously administered magnetic resonance contrast agents suggest that toxicity of small particles is generally related to their chemistry rather than their particle size. Overall, the weight of scientific evidence suggests that insoluble NP used in sunscreens pose no or negligible risk to human health, but offer large health benefits, such as the protection of human skin against UV-induced skin ageing and cancer.

  8. Plasma-arc reactor for production possibility of powdered nano-size materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhiyski, V; Mihovsky, M; Gavrilova, R

    2011-01-01

    Nano-size materials of various chemical compositions find increasing application in life nowadays due to some of their unique properties. Plasma technologies are widely used in the production of a range of powdered nano-size materials (metals, alloys, oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, carbonitrides, etc.), that have relatively high melting temperatures. Until recently, the so-called RF-plasma generated in induction plasma torches was most frequently applied. The subject of this paper is the developments of a new type of plasma-arc reactor, operated with transferred arc system for production of disperse nano-size materials. The new characteristics of the PLASMALAB reactor are the method of feeding the charge, plasma arc control and anode design. The disperse charge is fed by a charge feeding system operating on gravity principle through a hollow cathode of an arc plasma torch situated along the axis of a water-cooled wall vertical tubular reactor. The powdered material is brought into the zone of a plasma space generated by the DC rotating transferred plasma arc. The arc is subjected to Auto-Electro-Magnetic Rotation (AEMR) by an inductor serially connected to the anode circuit. The anode is in the form of a water-cooled copper ring. It is mounted concentrically within the cylindrical reactor, with its lower part electrically insulated from it. The electric parameters of the arc in the reactor and the quantity of processed charge are maintained at a level permitting generation of a volumetric plasma discharge. This mode enables one to attain high mean mass temperature while the processed disperse material flows along the reactor axis through the plasma zone where the main physico-chemical processes take place. The product obtained leaves the reactor through the annular anode, from where it enters a cooling chamber for fixing the produced nano-structure. Experiments for AlN synthesis from aluminium power and nitrogen were carried out using the plasma reactor

  9. Characterisation and Treatment of Nano-sized Particles, Colloids and Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine

    such as pH, Total Suspended Solid(TSS), turbidity, and electrical conductivity.The five sites where stormwater was sampled from used two different methods of stormwater treatment: settling and filtration, and four different treatment techniques: detention ponds, stormwater pond, disc filter and combined...... sedimentation tanks. From all sites, inlet and outlet stormwater were collected,and pollutant concentrations were quantified as well as the removal efficiencies calculated. The colloidal and nano-sized particle-enhanced transportation of pollutants was also scrutinised in the stormwater.The μm-range PSD...

  10. Hydrodeoxygenation of fatty acid esters catalyzed by Ni on nano-sized MFI type zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Moritz W.; Rodriguez-Niño, Daniella; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of support morphology and composition on the intrinsic activity of Ni supported on MFI-type zeolite was explored in the hydrodeoxygenation of methyl stearate, tristearate, and algae oil (mixture of triglycerides). The nano-sized structure of the support (self-pillared nanosheets) is beneficial for the activity of the catalysts. Higher Ni dispersion and concomitant higher reaction rates were obtained on nano-structured supports than on zeolite with conventional morphology. Rates normalized to accessible Ni atoms (TOF), however, varied little with support morphology. Acidity of the support increases the rate of Ni-catalyzed C-O hydrogenolysis per surface metal site.

  11. Economic incentives for additional critical experimentation applicable to fuel dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincey, J.F.; Primm, R.T. III; Waltz, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel dissolution operations involving soluble absorbers for criticality control are among the most difficult to establish economical subcritical limits. The paucity of applicable experimental data can significantly hinder a precise determination of a bias in the method chosen for calculation of the required soluble absorber concentration. Resorting to overly conservative bias estimates can result in excessive concentrations of soluble absorbers. Such conservatism can be costly, especially if soluble absorbers are used in a throw-away fashion. An economic scoping study is presented which demonstrates that additional critical experimentation will likely lead to reductions in the soluble absorber (i.e., gadolinium) purchase costs for dissolution operations. The results indicate that anticipated savings maybe more than enough to pay for the experimental costs

  12. Improved moulding material for addition to nuclear fuel particles to produce nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miertschin, G.N.; Leary, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made to improve the moulding materials used to produce carbon-contained nuclear fuel particles by a coke-reducing added substance. The nuclear fuel particles are meant for the formation of fuel elements for gas-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactors. The moulding materials are above all for the formation of coated particles which are burnt in situ in nuclear fuel element chambers out of 'green' nuclear fuel bodies. The added substance improves the shape stability of the particles forming and prevents a stiding or bridge formation between the particles or with the surrounding walls. The following are named as added substances: 1) Polystyrene and styrene-butadiene-Co polymers (mol. wt. between 5oo and 1,000,000), 2) aromatic compounds (mol. wt. 75 to 300), 3) saturated hydrocarbon polymers (mol. wt. 5,000 to 1,000,000). Additional release agents further improve the properties in the same direction (e.g. alcohols, fatty acids, amines). (orig.) [de

  13. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagdale, Pravin, E-mail: pravin.jagdale@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy); Castellino, Micaela [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Marrec, Françoise [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), Amiens 80039 (France); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexicom (UNAM), Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tagliaferro, Alberto [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl{sub 3}) in acetone (CH{sub 3}-CO-CH{sub 3}). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  14. Vaccine delivery system for tuberculosis based on nano-sized hepatitis B virus core protein particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasooraj D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dhananjayan Dhanasooraj, R Ajay Kumar, Sathish MundayoorMycobacterium Research Group, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Kerala, IndiaAbstract: Nano-sized hepatitis B virus core virus-like particles (HBc-VLP are suitable for uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10 is an important vaccine candidate against tuberculosis. The purified antigen shows low immune response without adjuvant and tends to have low protective efficacy. The present study is based on the assumption that expression of these proteins on HBc nanoparticles would provide higher protection when compared to the native antigen alone. The cfp-10 gene was expressed as a fusion on the major immunodominant region of HBc-VLP, and the immune response in Balb/c mice was studied and compared to pure proteins, a mixture of antigens, and fusion protein-VLP, all without using any adjuvant. The humoral, cytokine, and splenocyte cell proliferation responses suggested that the HBc-VLP bearing CFP-10 generated an antigen-specific immune response in a Th1-dependent manner. By virtue of its self-adjuvant nature and ability to form nano-sized particles, HBc-VLPs are an excellent vaccine delivery system for use with subunit protein antigens identified in the course of recent vaccine research.Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, VLP, hepatitis B virus core particle, CFP-10, self-adjuvant, vaccine delivery

  15. Nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH: Synthesis and thermal transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Axel Norlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Bahl, Christian R.H.; DiMasi, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    An aqueous suspension of amorphous iron(III) hydroxide was kept at room temperature (298 K) for 23 years. During this period of time the pH of the liquid phase changed from 4.3 to 2.85, and nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH crystallised from the amorphous iron(III) hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, Moessbauer spectra, and powder X-ray diffraction using Co Kα radiation showed that the only iron containing crystalline phase present in the recovered product was α-FeOOH. The size of these nano particles range from 10 to 100 nm measured by TEM. The thermal decomposition of α-FeOOH was investigated by time-resolved in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and the data showed that the sample of α-FeOOH transformed to α-Fe 2 O 3 in the temperature range 444-584 K. A quantitative phase analysis shows the increase in scattered X-ray intensity from α-Fe 2 O 3 to follow the decrease of intensity from α-FeOOH in agreement with the topotactic phase transition. - Graphical abstract: Nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH formed from amorphous iron(III) hydroxide after 23 years, and transforms faster to α-Fe 2 O 3 upon heating

  16. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothmann, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces

  17. Lignin conversion to high-octane fuel additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Zmierczak, W.; Kadangode, S. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Chornet, E.; Johnson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Continuing previous studies on the conversion of lignin to reformulated gasoline compositions, new lignin upgrading processes were developed that allow preferential production of specific high-octane fuel additives of two distinct types: (1) C{sub 7}-C{sub 10} alkylbenzenes; and (2) aryl methyl ethers, where aryl mostly = phenyl, 2-methylphenyl, 4-methylphenyl, and dimethylphenyl. Process (1) comprises base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) and simultaneous partial ({approx} 50%) deoxygenation of lignin at 270 - 290{sup o}C, in the presence of supercritical methanol as reaction medium, followed by exhaustive hydrodeoxygenation and attendant mild hydrocracking of the BCD product with sulfided catalysts to yield C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} alkylbenzenes as main products. Process (2) involves mild BCD at 250 - 270{sup o}C with preservation of the lignin oxygen, followed by selective C-C hydrocracking with solid superacid catalysts. This method preferentially yields a mixture of alkylated phenols, which upon acid-catalyzed etherification with methanol are converted into corresponding aryl methyl ethers (see above) possessing blending octane numbers in the range of 142-166. In a recent extension of this work, a greatly advantageous procedure for performing the BCD stage of processes (1) and (2) in water as reaction medium was developed. (author)

  18. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. [69 FR 39171, June 29, 2004] ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment...

  19. A method for the preparation of a fuel, by the addition of one or more components to a base fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for the preparation of a fuel, by the addition of one or more components to a base fuel, wherein the method comprises the following steps: i) providing a base fuel; ii) withdrawing aromatic components from a styrene / propylene ox ide production plant; iii)

  20. Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seon Yong; Jung, Ho Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon, E-mail: heonlee@korea.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Polymer films are widely used as a substrate for displays and for solar cells since they are cheap, transparent and flexible, and their material properties are easy to design. Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) is especially useful for various applications requiring transparency, flexibility and good thermal and chemical resistance. In this study, nano-sized metal patterns were fabricated on flexible PET film by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Water-soluble poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) resin was used as a planarization and sacrificial layer for the lift-off process, as it does not damage the PET films and can easily be etched off by using oxygen plasma. NIL was used to fabricate the nano-sized patterns on the non-planar or flexible substrate. Finally, a nano-sized metal pattern was successfully formed by depositing the metal layer over the imprinted resist patterns and applying the lift-off process, which is economic and environmentally friendly, to the PET films.

  1. Superior high creep resistance of in situ nano-sized TiCx/Al-Cu-Mg composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Feng; Zhao, Qinglong; Zha, Min; Jiang, Qichuan

    2017-07-03

    The tensile creep behavior of Al-Cu-Mg alloy and its composite containing in situ nano-sized TiC x were explored at temperatures of 493 K, 533 K and 573 K with the applied stresses in the range of 40 to 100 MPa. The composite reinforced by nano-sized TiC x particles exhibited excellent creep resistance ability, which was about 4-15 times higher than those of the unreinforced matrix alloy. The stress exponent of 5 was noticed for both Al-Cu-Mg alloy and its composite, which suggested that their creep behavior was related to dislocation climb mechanism. During deformation at elevated temperatures, the enhanced creep resistance of the composite was mainly attributed to two aspects: (a) Orowan strengthening and grain boundary (GB) strengthening induced by nano-sized TiC x particles, (b) θ' and S' precipitates strengthening.

  2. Photocatalytic self-cleaning properties of cellulosic fibers modified by nano-sized zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah, E-mail: a.f.shojaie@guilan.ac.ir; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-03-31

    Nano-sized zinc oxide was synthesized and deposited onto cellulosic fibers using the sol-gel process at ambient temperature. The prepared materials were characterized using several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction studies of the ZnO-coated fiber indicate formation of the hexagonal crystal phase which was satisfactory crystallized on the fiber surface. The electron micrographs show formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles within 10-15 nm in size which have been homogeneously dispersed on the fiber surface. The prepared materials show significant photocatalytic self-cleaning activity, which was monitored by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoactivity was studied upon measuring the photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish under UV-Vis irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the treated fabrics was fully maintained performing several cycles of photodegradation.

  3. Photocatalytic self-cleaning properties of cellulosic fibers modified by nano-sized zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    Nano-sized zinc oxide was synthesized and deposited onto cellulosic fibers using the sol-gel process at ambient temperature. The prepared materials were characterized using several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction studies of the ZnO-coated fiber indicate formation of the hexagonal crystal phase which was satisfactory crystallized on the fiber surface. The electron micrographs show formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles within 10-15 nm in size which have been homogeneously dispersed on the fiber surface. The prepared materials show significant photocatalytic self-cleaning activity, which was monitored by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoactivity was studied upon measuring the photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish under UV-Vis irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the treated fabrics was fully maintained performing several cycles of photodegradation.

  4. Preclinical safety assessments of nano-sized constructs on cardiovascular system toxicity: A case for telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Hoay Yan; Kiew, Lik Voon; Lee, Hong Boon; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina; Vicent, Marίa J; Hoe, See Ziau; Chung, Lip Yong

    2017-11-01

    While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity. We conclude the review by outlining the merits of telemetry coupled with spectral analysis, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity analysis and echocardiography as an appropriate integrated strategy for the assessment of the acute and chronic impact of NSCs on the CVS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of nano-sized, elemental selenium supplement on the proteome of chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, G; Csosz, E; Prokisch, J; Javor, A; Mezes, M; Erdelyi, M; Balogh, K; Janaky, T; Szabo, Z; Simon, A; Czegledi, L

    2017-06-01

    The nano-sized (100-500 nm) selenium has higher bioavailability and relatively lower toxicity compared to other selenium forms. The objective of the present study was to compare liver proteome profiles of broiler chicken fed with control diet without Se supplementation and diet supplemented with nano-Se with 4.25 mg/kg DM. Differential proteome analyses were performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) followed by tryptic digestion and protein identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Seven hundred and eight spots were detected, and 18 protein spots showed significant difference in their intensity (p selenium supplementation induced a dietary stress. Selenium supplementation may influence the metabolism of fatty acids and carbohydrates and antioxidant system, and increase the quantity of cytoskeletal actin and the expression of actin regulatory protein as well. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Surface energy effect on free vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xue-Qian; Zhu, Chang-Song; Liu, Jin-Xi; Liu, Xiang-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Combining Goldenveizer-Novozhilov shell theory, thin plate theory and electro-elastic surface theory, the size-dependent vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures under simply supported boundary condition is presented, and the surface energy effect on the natural frequencies is discussed. The displacement components of the cylindrical nano-shells and annular nano-plates are expanded as the superposition of standard Fourier series based on Hamilton's principle. The total stresses with consideration of surface energy effect are derived, and the total energy function is obtained by using Rayleigh-Ritz energy method. The free vibration equation is solved, and the natural frequency is analyzed. In numerical examples, it is found that the surface elastic constant, piezoelectric constant and surface residual stress show different effects on the natural frequencies. The effect of surface piezoelectric constant is the maximum. The effect of dimensions of the double-shell under different surface material properties is also examined.

  7. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Giriraj, E-mail: grsharma@gmail.com [SRJ Government Girls’ College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Dad, R. C. [Government P G College, Mandsaur (M P) (India); Ghosh, S. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain, (M P) (India)

    2015-07-31

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.

  8. Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green Using Nano-sized cerium-iron Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Ameta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized cerium-iron oxide nanoparticles has been synthesized, characterized and explored as an efficient photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of malachite green. The effects of different variables on degradation of dye were optimized such as the pH of the dye solution, dye concentration, amount of photocatalyst and light intensity. About 91% degradation of dye of 2×10-5 M concentration was observed after 2 hours at 8.5 pH and 600 Wm-2 light intensity. The reason for the high catalytic activity of the synthesized nanoparticles is ascribed to the high surface area which determines the active sites of the catalyst and accelerates the photocatalytic degradation.

  9. Tailoring properties of porous Poly (vinylidene fluoride) scaffold through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Cijun; Huang, Wei; Feng, Pei; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Xiong; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of porous poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering were tailored through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass. The results showed that 58s bioactive glass distributed evenly in the PVDF matrix. There were some exposed particles on the surface which provided attachment sites for biological response. It was confirmed that the scaffolds had highly bioactivity by the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid. And the bone-like apatite became dense with the increase in 58s bioactive glass and culture time. Moreover, the scaffolds were suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation compared with the PVDF scaffolds without 58s bioactive glass. The research showed that the PVDF/58s bioactive glass scaffolds had latent application in bone tissue engineering.

  10. In vitro toxicity test of nano-sized magnesium oxide synthesized via solid-phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhou, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Nano-sized magnesium oxide (MgO) has been a promising potential material for biomedical pharmaceuticals. In the present investigation, MgO nanoparticles synthesized through in-situ solid-phase transformation based on the previous work (nano-Mg(OH)2 prepared by precipitation technique) using magnesium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. The phase structure and morphology of the MgO nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. In vitro hemolysis tests are adopted to evaluate the toxicity of the synthesized nano-MgO. The results evident that nano-MgO with lower concentration is slightly hemolytic, and with concentration increasing nano-MgO exhibit dose-responsive hemolysis.

  11. Internal distribution of micro- / nano-sized inorganic particles and their cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Shigeaki; Iwadera, Nobuki; Esaki, Mitsue; Kida, Ikuhiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Uo, Motohiro; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Watari, Fumio [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Mutoh, Mami [School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Morita, Manabu [Department of Oral Health, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentisity and Pharmaceutical Science, Okayama 700-8525 (Japan); Haneda, Koichi [Department of Information Technology and Electronics, Senshu University of Ishinomaki, Ishinomaki 986-8580 (Japan); Yonezawa, Tetsu, E-mail: sabe@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Nano-sized materials have received much attention lately, both in terms of their multiple applications and their biocompatibility. From both viewpoints, understanding the biodistribution of administered nano-materials is very important. In this study, we succeeded in visualizing the biodistribution of administered nano-materials using a scanning X-ray analytical microscope and magnetic resonance imaging method. Quantitative observation was carried out by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy. We observed that the administered nano-particles accumulated in the liver, lung and spleen of mice. To estimate their cytocompatibility, the nano-particles were exposed to human liver cells. The results suggested that the micro-/ nano- particles have good cytocompatibility, except for copper oxide nano-particles.

  12. Reflection characterization of nano-sized dielectric structure in Morpho butterfly wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong

    2017-10-01

    Morpho butterflies living in Central and South America are well-known for their structural-colored blue wings. The blue coloring originates from the interaction of light with nano-sized dielectric structures that are equipped on the external surface of scales covering over their wings. The high-accuracy nonstandard finite-difference time domain (NS-FDTD) method is used to investigate the reflection characterization from the nanostructures. In the NS-FDTD calculation, a computational model is built to mimic the actual tree-like multilayered structures wherever possible using the hyperbolic tangent functions. It is generally known that both multilayer interference and diffraction grating phenomena can occur when light enters the nano-sized multilayered structure. To answer the question that which phenomenon is mainly responsible for the blue coloring, the NS-FDTD calculation is performed under various incidence angles at wavelengths from 360 to 500 nm. The calculated results at one incident wavelength under different incidence angles are visualized in a two-dimensional mapping image, where horizontal and vertical axes are incidence and reflection angles, respectively. The images demonstrate a remarkable transition from a ring-like pattern at shorter wavelengths to a retro-reflection pattern at longer wavelengths. To clarify the origin of the pattern transition, the model is separated into several simpler parts and compared their mapping images with the theoretical diffraction calculations. It can be concluded that the blue coloring at longer wavelengths is mainly caused by the cooperation of multilayer interference and retro-reflection while the effect of diffraction grating is predominant at shorter wavelengths.

  13. The Effect of Nano sized Carbon Black on the Physical and Thermomechanical Properties of Al2O3-SiC-SiO2-C Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.H.; Ebrahimabadi, M.A.; Rahimipour, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of using nano sized carbon black in the range of 010 weight percentages on the physical and thermomechanical properties of Al 2 O 3 -Si C-SiO 2 graphite refractory composites were investigated. Nano sized carbon black addition improved the relative heat resistance and oxidation resistance of composites. The bulk density of the composites is reduced with increasing carbon black (CB) content. Increase in CB content first causes an increase in the apparent porosity, but at more than 3 wt % amount of CB, a decrease of apparent porosity was observed. The cold crushing strength (CCS) increased with increasing CB content in samples fired at 800 degree C and in samples fired at 1500 degree C when the content is increased to 3 wt %, but the CCS decreased with increasing CB content in samples fired at 1500 degree C when the CB content was less than 3 wt %. The composite without CB exhibits the highest value of CCS at firing temperature of 1500 degree C.

  14. Effects of micro-sized and nano-sized WO_3 on mass attenauation coefficients of concrete by using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, H.O.; Singh, V.P.; Manici, T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work the effect of tungsten oxide (WO_3) nanoparticles on mass attenauation coefficients of concrete has been investigated by using MCNPX (version 2.4.0). The validation of generated MCNPX simulation geometry has been provided by comparing the results with standard XCOM data for mass attenuation coefficients of concrete. A very good agreement between XCOM and MCNPX have been obtained. The validated geometry has been used for definition of nano-WO_3 and micro-WO_3 into concrete sample. The mass attenuation coefficients of pure concrete and WO_3 added concrete with micro-sized and nano-sized have been compared. It was observed that shielding properties of concrete doped with WO_3 increased. The results of mass attenauation coefficients also showed that the concrete doped with nano-WO_3 significanlty improve shielding properties than micro-WO_3. It can be concluded that addition of nano-sized particles can be considered as another mechanism to reduce radiation dose. - Highlights: • It was found that size of the WO_3 affected the mass attenuation coefficients of concrete in all photon energies.

  15. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Taconic Energy, Inc. TEA Fuel Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Greenhouse Gas Technology Center (GHG Center) is one of six verification organizations operating under EPA’s ETV program. One sector of significant interest to GHG Center stakeholders is transportation - particularly technologies that result in fuel economy improvements. Taco...

  16. Combustion Characterization of Bio-derived Fuels and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid

    Climate change has become a serious concern nowadays. The main reason is believed to be the high emission of greenhouse gases, namely CO2 which is mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. At the same time, energy demand has increased exponentially while the energy supply mainly depends...... on fossil fuels, especially for transportation. The practical strategy to address such problems in medium term is to increase the efficiency of combustion-propelled energy-production systems, as well as to reduce the net release of CO2 and other harmful pollutants, likely by using nonconventional fuels....... Modern internal combustion engines such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are more efficient and fuel-flexible compared to the conventional engines, making opportunities to reduce the release of greenhouse and other polluting gases to the environment. Combustion temperature...

  17. 76 FR 54932 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...-AK73 Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... regarding labeling of cars and trucks with fuel economy and environmental information in the Federal...

  18. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  19. Improving the Thermal Conductivity of UO2 Fuel with the Addition of Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Sohn, Dong Seong

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of fuel performances by increasing the fuel thermal conductivity using the BeO or W were reported elsewhere. In this paper, some major fuel performances of improved thermal conductivity oxide (ICO) nuclear fuel with the addition of 10 v/o graphene have been compared to those of standard UO 2 fuel. The fuel thermal conductivity affects many performance parameters and thus is an important parameter to determine the fuel performance. Furthermore, it also affects the performance of the fuel during reactor accidents. The improved thermal conductivity of the fuel would reduce the fuel temperature at the same power condition and would improve the fission gas release, rod internal pressure and fuel stored energy. Graphene is well known for its excellent electrical conductivity, strength and thermal conductivity. The addition of graphene to the UO 2 fuel could increase the thermal conductivity of the ICO fuel. Although the graphene material is extensively studied recently, the characteristics of the graphene material, especially the thermal properties, are not well-known yet. In this study, we used the Light Water Reactor fuel performance analysis code FRAPCON-3.2 to analyze the performance of standard UO 2 and ICO fuel

  20. Hybrid composites of nano-sized zero valent iron and covalent organic polymers for groundwater contaminant degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Byun, J.; Hwang, Yuhoon

    Zero valent iron is commonly used in a variety of treatment technologies (e.g. permeable reactive barriers), though recently a heavier focus has been placed on nano-sized zero valent iron (nZVI). Having superior reductive properties and large surface areas, nZVI is ideal for the degradation of ch...

  1. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  2. Influence of metallic based fuel additives on performance and exhaust emissions of diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Tarsus Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.t [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this experimental study, influence of the metallic-based additives on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engine were investigated. The metallic-based additives were produced by synthesizing of resin acid (abietic acid) with MnO{sub 2} or MgO. These additives were doped into diesel fuel at the rate of 8 {mu}mol/l and 16 {mu}mol/l for preparing test fuels. Both additives improved the properties of diesel fuel such as viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point. The fuels with and without additives were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. Maximum reduction of specific fuel consumption was recorded as 4.16%. CO emission and smoke opacity decreased by 16.35% and by 29.82%, respectively. NO{sub x} emission was measured higher and CO{sub 2} emission was not changed considerably with the metallic-based additives.

  3. Ductility Enhancement of Molybdenum Phase by Nano-sized Oxide Dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bruce

    2008-07-18

    The objective of this research is to understand and to remedy the impurity effects for room-temperature ductility enhancement of molybdenum (Mo) based alloys by the inclusion of nano-sized metal oxide dispersions. This research combines theoretical, computational, and experimental efforts. The results will help to formulate systematic strategies in searching for better composed Mo-based alloys with optimal mechanical properties. For this project, majority of the research effort was directed to atomistic modeling to identify the mechanisms responsible for the oxygen embrittling and ductility enhancement based on fundamental electronic structure analysis. Through first principles molecular dynamics simulations, it was found that the embrittling impurity species were attracted to the metal oxide interface, consistent with previous experiments. Further investigation on the electronic structures reveals that the presence of embrittling species degrades the quality of the metallic chemical bonds in the hosting matrix in a number of ways, the latter providing the source of ductility. For example, the spatial flexibility of the bonds is reduced, and localization of the impurity states occurs to pin the dislocation flow. Rice’s criterion has been invoked to explain the connections of electronic structure and mechanical properties. It was also found that when impurity species become attracted to the metal oxide interface, some of the detrimental effects are alleviated, thus explaining the observed ductility enhancement effects. These understandings help to develop predictive capabilities to facilitate the design and optimization of Mo and other high temperature alloys (e.g. ODS alloys) for fossil energy materials applications. Based on the theoretical and computational studies, the experimental work includes the preparation of Mo powders mixed with candidate nano-sized metal oxides, which were then vacuum hot-pressed to make the Mo alloys. Several powder mixing methods

  4. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jilin [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu, Yunle [School of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Zili [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Weimin, E-mail: wangwm@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fu, Zhengyi [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and KBH{sub 4} as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed.

  5. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jilin; Gu, Yunle; Li, Zili; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B 2 O 3 and KBH 4 as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed

  6. A Novel Approach of Using Ground CNTs as the Carbon Source to Fabricate Uniformly Distributed Nano-Sized TiCx/2009Al Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Feng; Ouyang, Licheng; Wang, Huiyuan; Zha, Min; Shu, Shili; Zhao, Qinglong; Jiang, Qichuan

    2015-12-17

    Nano-sized TiC x /2009Al composites (with 5, 7, and 9 vol% TiC x ) were fabricated via the combustion synthesis of the 2009Al-Ti-CNTs system combined with vacuum hot pressing followed by hot extrusion. In the present study, CNTs were used as the carbon source to synthesize nano-sized TiC x particles. An attempt was made to correlate the effect of ground CNTs by milling and the distribution of synthesized nano-sized TiC x particles in 2009Al as well as the tensile properties of nano-sized TiC x /2009Al composites. Microstructure analysis showed that when ground CNTs were used, the synthesized nano-sized TiC x particles dispersed more uniformly in the 2009Al matrix. Moreover, when 2 h-milled CNTs were used, the 5, 7, and 9 vol% nano-sized TiC x /2009Al composites had the highest tensile properties, especially, the 9 vol% nano-sized TiC x /2009Al composites. The results offered a new approach to improve the distribution of in situ nano-sized TiC x particles and tensile properties of composites.

  7. Bactericidal Effect of Lauric Acid-Loaded PCL-PEG-PCL Nano-Sized Micelles on Skin Commensal Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Quynh-Mai Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acne is the over growth of the commensal bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes on human skin. Lauric acid (LA has been investigated as an effective candidate to suppress the activity of P. acnes. Although LA is nearly insoluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO has been reported to effectively solubilize LA. However, the toxicity of DMSO can limit the use of LA on the skin. In this study, LA-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ɛ-caprolactone micelles (PCL-PEG-PCL were developed to improve the bactericidal effect of free LA on P. acnes. The block copolymers mPEG-PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL with different molecular weights were synthesized and characterized using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. In the presence of LA, mPEG-PCL diblock copolymers did not self-assemble into nano-sized micelles. On the contrary, the average particle sizes of the PCL-PEG-PCL micelles ranged from 50–198 nm for blank micelles and 27–89 nm for LA-loaded micelles. The drug loading content increased as the molecular weight of PCL-PEG-PCL polymer increased. Additionally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of free LA were 20 and 80 μg/mL, respectively. The MICs and MBCs of the micelles decreased to 10 and 40 μg/mL, respectively. This study demonstrated that the LA-loaded micelles are a potential treatment for acne.

  8. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass for sustainable aviation fuel/fuel additives

    OpenAIRE

    Subagyono, Dirgarini Julia Nurlianti

    2017-01-01

    Research in renewable energy is essential because of the limited supply of fossil fuel, particularly liquids, and the problem resulting from emissions of greenhouse gases, NOx and H₂S. For aviation/jet fuel, organic liquids cannot yet be replaced by electricity, solar cells, or gas. Currently, CO₂ emission from aviation fuels appears to be a small problem compared to that from road transport, but CO₂ emissions per passenger from fossil derived aviation fuel is actually higher than that from a...

  9. Compound Method to Disperse CaCO3 Nanoparticles to Nano-Size in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sui; Cai, Jihua; Wang, Jijun; Yuan, Ye; Chang, Dewu; Chikhotkin, Viktor F

    2015-12-01

    The invalidation of CaCO3 nanoparticles (nCaCO3) is often caused by the fact of agglomeration and inhomogeneous dispersion which limits its application into water-based drilling muds for low permeability reservoirs such as coalbed methane reservoir and shale gas/oil reservoir. Effective methods to disperse nCaCO3 to nano-size (≤ 100 nm) in water have seldom been reported. Here we developed a compound method containing mechanical stirring, ultrasonic treatment, the use of surfactant and stabilizer to disperse nCaCO3 in water. It comprises the steps adding 2% nCaCO3, 1% sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), 2% OP-10, 3% to 4% biopolymer (XC) in water successively, stirring it at a shear rate of 6000 to 8000 r/min for 15 minutes and treating it with ultrasonic at a frequency of 28 KHz for 30 to 40 minutes. The dispersed nCaCO3 was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution (PSD) tests. We found that nCaCO3 could be dispersed to below 100 nm in water and the medium value of nCaCO3 was below 50 nm. This method paved the way for the utilization of nCaCO3 in drilling fluid and completion fluid for low permeability reservoirs such as coal seams and shale gas/oil formations.

  10. Nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH: Synthesis and thermal transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Bahl, Christian R. H.; DiMasi, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    An aqueous suspension of amorphous iron(III) hydroxide was kept at room temperature (298 K) for 23 years. During this period of time the pH of the liquid phase changed from 4.3 to 2.85, and nano size crystals of goethite, α-FeOOH crystallised from the amorphous iron(III) hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, Mössbauer spectra, and powder X-ray diffraction using Co K α radiation showed that the only iron containing crystalline phase present in the recovered product was α-FeOOH. The size of these nano particles range from 10 to 100 nm measured by TEM. The thermal decomposition of α-FeOOH was investigated by time-resolved in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and the data showed that the sample of α-FeOOH transformed to α-Fe 2O 3 in the temperature range 444-584 K. A quantitative phase analysis shows the increase in scattered X-ray intensity from α-Fe 2O 3 to follow the decrease of intensity from α-FeOOH in agreement with the topotactic phase transition.

  11. Nano Size Crystals of Geothite, alpha-FeOOH: Synthesis and Thermal Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen,A.; Jensen, T.; Bahl, C.; DiMasi, E.

    2007-01-01

    An aqueous suspension of amorphous iron(III) hydroxide was kept at room temperature (298 K) for 23 years. During this period of time the pH of the liquid phase changed from 4.3 to 2.85, and nano size crystals of goethite, {alpha}-FeOOH crystallized from the amorphous iron(III) hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, Moessbauer spectra, and powder X-ray diffraction using Co K{alpha} radiation showed that the only iron containing crystalline phase present in the recovered product was {alpha}-FeOOH. The size of these nano particles range from 10 to 100 nm measured by TEM. The thermal decomposition of {alpha}-FeOOH was investigated by time-resolved in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and the data showed that the sample of {alpha}-FeOOH transformed to {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the temperature range 444--584 K. A quantitative phase analysis shows the increase in scattered X-ray intensity from {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to follow the decrease of intensity from {alpha}-FeOOH in agreement with the topotactic phase transition.

  12. Study of carbon-doped micro and nano sized alumina for radiation dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontainha, C. C. P.; Alves, N.; Ferraz, W. B.; Faria, L. O.

    2017-10-01

    New materials have been widely investigated for ionizing radiation dosimetry for medical procedures. Carbon-doped doped alumina (Al 2 O 3 :C) have been proposed as thermoluminescent and photo luminescent dosimeters. In the present study nano and micro-sized alumina doped with different percentages of carbon, sintered under different atmosphere conditions, at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1750 degrees Celsius, were sintered and their dosimetric characteristics for gamma fields were investigated. Among the investigated sample preparation methods, the micro-sized alumina doped with 0.01% of carbon and sintered at 1700 degrees Celsius under reducing atmosphere has presented the best Tl output, comparable to the best Tl sensitivities ever reported to alumina and better efficiency than the nano-sized alumina synthesized in this study. The influence of humidity in the Tl signal has been evaluated to be -4.0%. The micro-sized alumina obtained by the methodology used in this work is a suitable candidate for application in X and gamma radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  13. Photoluminescent nano-sized ternary and quaternary complexes of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, B.P.; Jain, A.K.; Varma, A.; Singh, A.K.; Fatma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Some ternary and quaternary complexes of thorium(IV) with the general formula [Th(OOCCH 3 ) 2-n (SB) n (OOCC 15 H 31 ) 2 ] (HSB=Schiff bases and n=1 or 2) have been synthesized by the stepwise substitutions of acetate ions from thorium(IV) acetate, first with straight chain carboxylic acid and then with Schiff bases. The complexes are characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (electronic, infrared, 1 H NMR, FAB mass, photoluminescence and powder XRD) and TEM studies. Conductance measurements indicated non-conducting behaviour of the complexes. Structural parameters from powder XRD data for complexes 5 and 6 which indicate poorly crystalline nano-sized triclinic particles. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes showed π → π * and n → π * charge transfer transitions. All complexes displayed fluorescence and a correlation was sought between luminescence spectra of complexes in solution at room temperature. On the basis of physico-chemical studies, coordination number 8 was assigned for thorium(IV) in the complexes. The morphology and microstructure of the complexes were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED). (orig.)

  14. Amplified CPEs enhancement of chorioamnion membrane mass transport by encapsulation in nano-sized PLGA particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagury, Aharon; Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Appel, Reut; Hallak, Mordechai; Kost, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) have long been used for mass transport enhancement across membranes. Many CPEs are used in a solution or gel and could be a solvent. The use of CPEs is mainly limited due to their toxicity/irritation levels. This study presents the evaluation of encapsulated CPEs in nano-sized polymeric particles on the chorioamnion (CA) membrane mass transport. CPEs' mass encapsulated in nanoparticles was decreased by 10,000-fold. Interestingly, this approach resulted in a 6-fold increase in mass transport across the CA. This approach may also be used with other CPEs' base applications necessitating lower CPE concentration. Applying Ultrasound (US) has shown to increase the release rate of and also the mass transport across the CA membrane. It is proposed that encapsulated CPEs penetrate into the CA membrane thus prolonging their exposure, possibly extending their penetration into the CA membrane, while insonation also deepens their penetration into the CA membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of soft-agglomerated nano-sized ceramic powders by sol-gel combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Q.; Ma, X.H.; Yan, Q.Z.; Ge, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The soft-agglomerated Gd 2 BaCuO 5 (Gd211) nano-powders were synthesized by sol-gel combustion process with binary ligand and the special pretreatment on gel. The mechanism of the formation of weakly agglomerated structure was studied in detail. The results showed that network structure in gelation process was found to be a decisive factor for preventing agglomeration of colloidal particles. The removal of free water, coordinated water, and most of hydroxyl groups during pretreatment further inhibited the formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent particles. The soft-agglomeration of the particles was confirmed by isolated particles in calcined Gd211 powders and in green compact, a narrow monomodal pore size distribution of the green compact and the low agglomeration coefficient of the calcined Gd211 powder. Extension this process to synthesis of BaCeO 3 , BaTiO 3 and Ce 0.8 Sm 0.2 O 1.9 powders, also led to weakly agglomerated nano-powders. It suggests that this method represents a powerful and facile method for the creation of doped and multi-component nano-sized ceramic powders.

  16. Spin-resolved magnetic studies of focused ion beam etched nano-sized magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Rau, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Scanning ion microscopy with polarization analysis (SIMPA) is used to study the spin-resolved surface magnetic structure of nano-sized magnetic systems. SIMPA is utilized for in situ topographic and spin-resolved magnetic domain imaging as well as for focused ion beam (FIB) etching of desired structures in magnetic or non-magnetic systems. Ultra-thin Co films are deposited on surfaces of Si(1 0 0) substrates, and ultra-thin, tri-layered, bct Fe(1 0 0)/Mn/bct Fe(1 0 0) wedged magnetic structures are deposited on fcc Pd(1 0 0) substrates. SIMPA experiments clearly show that ion-induced electrons emitted from magnetic surfaces exhibit non-zero electron spin polarization (ESP), whereas electrons emitted from non-magnetic surfaces such as Si and Pd exhibit zero ESP, which can be used to calibrate sputtering rates in situ. We report on new, spin-resolved magnetic microstructures, such as magnetic 'C' states and magnetic vortices, found at surfaces of FIB patterned magnetic elements. It is found that FIB milling has a negligible effect on surface magnetic domain and domain wall structures. It is demonstrated that SIMPA can evolve into an important and efficient tool to study magnetic domain, domain wall and other structures as well as to perform magnetic depth profiling of magnetic nano-systems to be used in ultra-high density magnetic recording and in magnetic sensors

  17. Prevention of dental erosion of a sports drink by nano-sized hydroxyapatite in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ji Hyun; Kwon, Ho Keun; Kim, Baek Il

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the inhibitory effects of the sports drink containing nano-sized hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) on dental erosion in situ. The study had a single-blind, two-treatment crossover design. The two treatment groups were a control group (CG; Powerade only) and an experimental group (EG; 0.25% wt/vol nano-HA was added to Powerade). Ten subjects wore removable palatal appliances containing bovine enamel specimens. The appliances were immersed in each drink for 10 mins, 4 times a day for 10 days. The tooth surface microhardness (SMH) was tested, and the erosion depth and the morphology of the tooth surface were observed. The data were analysed by repeated measures anova and t-test. Between the baseline and the 10th day, SMH was decreased by 80% in the specimens of the CG (P erosion depth of 12.70 ± 4.66 μm and an irregular tooth surface were observed on the 10th day in the specimens of the CG. No dental erosions, however, was observed in the specimens of the EG. The sports drink containing 0.25% nano-HA was effective in preventing dental erosion in situ. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Preparation of Natural Rubber (NR) Based Nano-Sized Materials Using Sol-Gel Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Mahathir Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to prepare nano-sized natural rubber-based hybrid coating material by sol-gel technique; to explore the possibility of producing ENR-Si (epoxidized natural rubber-silica) cramer with toughening effects; and to use it in radiation curing of surface coating. Since early 1960s Malaysia has introduced various forms of value-added natural rubber such as Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR), methylmethacrylate-grafted natural rubber (MG rubber), followed by liquid natural rubber and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Products such as liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) and thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) are still on-going research projects in Nuclear Malaysia. The former has strong possibility to be used as radiation-sensitive comparabilities in TPNR blends, besides its original purpose for example in radiation curing of surface coating. But earlier findings indicated that, to make it (as for surface coating) more effective, reinforcement system is needed to be introduced. Strong candidate is silica by sol-gel technique, since common reinforcement filler for example carbon black has drawbacks in this particular case. This technique was introduced in late 1960s to produce metal oxides such as silica and titanium oxides in solution. (author)

  19. Analysis of nano-sized irradiation-induced defects in Fe-base materials by means of small angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, G.

    2008-12-01

    Thermonuclear fusion of light atoms is considered since decades as an unlimited, safe and reliable source of energy that could eventually replace classical sources based on fossil fuel or nuclear fuel. Fusion reactor technology and materials studies are important parts of the fusion energy development program. For the time being, the most promising materials for structural applications in the future fusion power reactors are the Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels for which the greatest technology maturity has been achieved, i.e., qualified fabrication routes, welding technology and a general industrial experience are almost available. The most important issues concerning the future use of RAFM steels in fusion power reactors are derived from their irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons that are the product, together with 3.5 MeV helium ions, of the envisaged fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium nuclei. Indeed, exposure of metallic materials to intense fluxes of 14 MeV neutrons will result in the formation of severe displacement damage (about 20-30 dpa per year) and high amounts of helium, which are at the origin of significant changes in the physical and mechanical properties of materials, such as hardening and embrittlement effects. This PhD Thesis work was aimed at investigating how far the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique could be used for detecting and characterizing nano-sized irradiation-induced defects in RAFM steels. Indeed, the resolution limit of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is about 1 nm in weak beam TEM imaging, and it is usually thought that a large number of irradiation-induced effects have a size below 1 nm in RAFM steels and that these very small defects actually contribute to the irradiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of RAFM steels occurring at irradiation temperatures below about 400 °C. The aim of this work was achieved by combining SANS experiments on unirradiated and irradiated specimens

  20. Spectroscopic investigation on assisted sonocatalytic damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by metronidazole (MTZ) under ultrasonic irradiation combined with nano-sized ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingqun; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xudong; Jiang, Renzheng; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Baoxin; Xu, Yongnan

    2010-11-01

    The previous work proved that the bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be damaged under the combined action of ultrasonic irradiation and ZnO. In this work, the assisted sonocatalytic damage of BSA using metronidazole (MTZ) as a sensitizer was further investigated by means of UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results indicated that the adding of MTZ could obviously promote the sonocatalytic damage of BSA under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of nano-sized ZnO powder. Furthermore, it was found that the damage degree of BSA was aggravated by some influencing factors except ionic kind and strength. In addition, the damage site of BSA was also studied with synchronous fluorescence technology. It was found that the damage site was mainly at tryptophan (Trp) residue.

  1. Studies of jet fuel additives using the quartz crystal microbalance and pressure monitoring at 140 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabarnick, S.; Grinstead, R.R. [Univ. of Dayton Research Institute, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and pressure monitoring are used for the evaluation of jet fuel additives for the improvement of jet fuel thermal stability. The mechanisms of additive behavior are determined by measuring the time dependent deposition with the QCM and oxidation by pressure measurements. Studies at various additive concentrations permits the determination of optimum additive concentrations. Additive packages made of mixtures of antioxidants, detergent/dispersants, and metal deactivators are shown to yield good improvements in thermal stability over a wide range of jet fuel types.

  2. Evaluation of practicability of aluminosilicate additive fuel. Influence of aluminosilicate for reprocessing and corrosion of pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Junji; Kashibe, Shinji; Kinoshita, Mika; Ishimoto, Shinji; Harada, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Al-Si-O additive fuel is a modified pellet to improve the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) resistance. This practicability assessment concerns the effect of Al-Si-O addition on the reprocessing and steam corrosion behavior. To address these concerns, a fuel dissolution test in nitric acid and a pellet corrosion test in humidified gas were carried out using the irradiated Al-Si-O additive fuel. Regardless of the Al-Si-O concentration, the dissolution rates of all Al-Si-O additive fuels were faster than that of the standard fuel. The morphology of the insoluble residue obtained from the irradiated Al-Si-O additive fuel could be considered as acceptable for retrieval by the clarification process using a conventional precipitation model. The corrosion resistance of the irradiated Al-Si-O additive fuel to high-temperature (at 1273 K) humidified gas was comparable to or better than that of the standard fuel. The result was interpreted as being due to a large grain size effect by Al-Si-O addition. (author)

  3. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N. S. S., E-mail: narinderjit@petronas.com.my; Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: msmuthuvalu@gmail.com [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Asirvadam, V. S., E-mail: vijanth-sagayan@petronas.com.my [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  4. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N. S. S.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Asirvadam, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Sized Hexagonal and Spherical Nanoparticles of Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Moghri Moazzen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO plays an important role in many semiconductors technological aspects.  Here,  direct  precipitation  method  was  employed  for  the synthesis of nano-sized hexagonal ZnO particles, which is based on chemical  reactions between  raw materials used  in  the  experiment. ZnO  nanoparticles  were  synthesized  by  calcinations  of  the  ZnO precursor precipitates  at 250  ˚C  for 3hours. The particle  size  and structure of the products have been confirmed by XRD. The FT-IR study  confirms  the  presence  of  functional  groups.  Also,  the morphology  and  size  distribution  of  ZnO  nanoparticles  was analyzed by TEM images. The optical properties were investigated by UV–Visible  spectroscopy. The XRD  results  show  that  the  size of  the prepared nanoparticles  is  in  the  range  of 20–40 nm, which this value  is  in good agreement with  the TEM  results. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicates the formation of an interfacial chemical bond between Zn and O. Also  the UV absorption depends on  the particles  size  and morphology,  so  the  optical properties  enhances with  decreasing  nanoparticles  size.  Moreover  the  direct precipitation technique is a feasible method for production of ZnO nanopowders.

  6. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industry-sponsored or other independent brokering arrangements. (3) Manufacturers who enroll a fuel or fuel... Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel”, used to define the general characteristics of gasoline... shall be chemical-grade quality, at a minimum, and shall not contain a significant amount of other...

  7. Improvements in the preparation of nuclear fuel elements with addition of a molding mixture to fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miertschin, G.N.; Leary, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    An improved molting mixture to be added to nuclear fuel particles for the preparation of nuclear fuel elements is presented. It consists of carbon and pitch particles and contains an additive reducing the final coke yield of the fuel mass formed. This additive is chosen from: polystyrene and copolymers of styrene and butadiene of molecular weight between 500 and 1000000; aromatic compounds of molecular weight between 75 and 300; saturated hydrocarbon polymers of molecular weight between 500 and 1000000. The additive may be camphor, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dimethyl terephthalate or their mixtures and is present at a concentration of 5 to 50% by weight. The carbon particles used consist of powdered graphite. These fuel elements are intended for gas-cooled high-temperature reactors [fr

  8. Nano sized Particles of Silica and Its Derivatives for Applications in Various Branches of Food and Nutrition Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasaai, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Nano sized particles of silica and its derivatives have been identified as versatile for a broad range of science, technology, and engineering applications. In this paper, an effort has been made to provide a short review from the available literature information on their applications in various branches of food and nutrition sectors. The information provided in this paper describes various parameters affecting their performances and efficiencies. The properties and applications of nano silica and its derivatives have been compared with micro silica and bulk-silica for their performances. The use of nano sized particles of silica and its derivatives provides a number of advantages. Their efficiencies and performances are significantly higher than those of the traditional ones

  9. 77 FR 59458 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... gasoline and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories... of Biodiesel 1. Grease and Rendered Fats 2. Corn Oil 3. Soybean Oil 4. Effects on Food Prices 5.... Deliverability and Transport Costs of Materials, Goods, and Products Other Than Renewable Fuel 6. Wetlands...

  10. Origin of Capacity Fading in Nano-Sized Co3O4Electrodes: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jin-Gu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transition metal oxides have been suggested as innovative, high-energy electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries because their electrochemical conversion reactions can transfer two to six electrons. However, nano-sized transition metal oxides, especially Co3O4, exhibit drastic capacity decay during discharge/charge cycling, which hinders their practical use in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we prepared nano-sized Co3O4with high crystallinity using a simple citrate-gel method and used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method to examine the origin for the drastic capacity fading observed in the nano-sized Co3O4anode system. During cycling, AC impedance responses were collected at the first discharged state and at every subsequent tenth discharged state until the 100th cycle. By examining the separable relaxation time of each electrochemical reaction and the goodness-of-fit results, a direct relation between the charge transfer process and cycling performance was clearly observed.

  11. Nano-sized metabolic precursors for heterogeneous tumor-targeting strategy using bioorthogonal click chemistry in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Jung, Seulhee; Koo, Heebeom; Na, Jin Hee; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Shim, Man Kyu; Park, Jooho; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Ahn, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we developed nano-sized metabolic precursors (Nano-MPs) for new tumor-targeting strategy to overcome the intrinsic limitations of biological ligands such as the limited number of biological receptors and the heterogeneity in tumor tissues. We conjugated the azide group-containing metabolic precursors, triacetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine to generation 4 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer backbone. The nano-sized dendrimer of Nano-MPs could generate azide groups on the surface of tumor cells homogeneously regardless of cell types via metabolic glycoengineering. Importantly, these exogenously generated 'artificial chemical receptors' containing azide groups could be used for bioorthogonal click chemistry, regardless of phenotypes of different tumor cells. Furthermore, in tumor-bearing mice models, Nano-MPs could be mainly localized at the target tumor tissues by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, and they successfully generated azide groups on tumor cells in vivo after an intravenous injection. Finally, we showed that these azide groups on tumor tissues could be used as 'artificial chemical receptors' that were conjugated to bioorthogonal chemical group-containing liposomes via in vivo click chemistry in heterogeneous tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, overall results demonstrated that our nano-sized metabolic precursors could be extensively applied to new alternative tumor-targeting technique for molecular imaging and drug delivery system, regardless of the phenotype of heterogeneous tumor cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An understanding of anomalous capacity of nano-sized CoO anode materials for advanced Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Cheng, M.Y.; Ragavendran, K.; Hwang, B.J. [Nano-Electrochemistry Lab., Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 106 (China); Weng, J.H. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407 (China); Santhanam, R. [Solid State and Surface Sciences Lab., Department of Physics, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA-70808 (United States); Lee, J.F.; Chen, J.M.; Liu, D.G. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu (China)

    2010-03-15

    Nanostructured transition metal oxides are of great interest as a new generation of anode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. In this work, research has been focused on the nano-sized (grain size {proportional_to}7 nm) CoO anode material and this material delivers charge capacity of 900 mAh g{sup -1} that exceeds the theoretical value of 715 mAh g{sup -1}. Possible reason for this unaccounted and unexplained anomalous capacity of the nano-sized CoO material has been suggested by thermogravimetric analysis. A mechanism for this interesting behavior has been systematically evaluated by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The anomalous capacity is proposed to be associated with the formation of oxygen-rich CoO material. The results obtained from the nano-sized CoO material have been compared with relatively larger-sized material (grain size {proportional_to}32 nm). (author)

  13. Additives for rapeseed oil fuel. Influence on the exhaust gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastl, Johannes; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to fossil diesel fuel, the use of additives is not common in rapeseed oil fuel. In a preceding research project the efficacy of several additives, that are commercially available for the use in fossil diesel or FAME, has been investigated for rapeseed oil fuel in the lab. Four additives could be identified, which have a significant influence on the ignition delay or the low temperature flow behaviour of rapeseed oil fuel. To investigate whether there are negative effects of the additives on other fuel-related properties in practical use, a test series on an agricultural tractor capable of running on vegetable oils has been conducted. Attention is focused on the operating parameters like power, torque or fuel consumption as well as on regulated emissions (CO, HC, particulate matter or NOx) and non-regulated emissions like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the influence of the additives on the storage stability of rapeseed oil fuel is investigated in long term studies. No negative influence of the additives on the regulated emissions could be seen in the experiments, the data of the non-regulated emissions is still being analysed. This paper will focus on the emissions testing; results of the long term studies will be given in the presentation. (orig.)

  14. Effect of phosphorus addition in combustion of biomass fuels; Effekter av fosfortillsats vid foerbraenning av biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Alejandro; Skoglund, Nils; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bostroem, Dan; Oehman, Marcus

    2010-11-15

    The results from this project show that phosphorous-rich additives could be of interest to reduce fouling and high temperature corrosion without causing increase in slagging and/or bed agglomeration tendency for typical biofuels. General results in this series of experiments show that in order to achieve a good potassium-binding effect the calcium and magnesium content should be low in the phosphorous-rich fuel and additive. If the content of Ca and Mg is high in the final fuel mixture (including both P-fuel/additive and the bulk fuel) the K-binding effect is reduced and more P needs to be added. Of course, this also means that the additive of choice (fuel or chemical) should have a low content of calcium and magnesium. It is therefore probable that the best results will be obtained when using a fuel mix where the final blend has a molar ratio of P/(K+Na+2/3Ca+2/3Mg) approaching 1. For instance, using monoammonium phosphate, this would be equivalent to a cost (autumn 2009) of about 9-14, 10-15 and 30-40 SEK in P-additive cost per MWh of added fuel to achieve this molar ratio for typical logging residue, salix and wheat straw biofuels.

  15. Subsurface Transport of Hydrocarbon Fuel Additives and a Dense Chlorinated Solvent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guven, O

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a description of the work done at Auburn University for the research project 'Subsurface Transport of Hydrocarbon Fuel additives and a Chlorinated Solvent', supported by Armstrong...

  16. High energy density additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these...

  17. Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater — Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Strömvall, Ann-Margret

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution...

  18. Assessment of uranium dioxide fuel performance with the addition of beryllium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Abe, Alfredo; Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T., E-mail: romuniz@usp.br, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: danieldesouza@gmail.com, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LabRisco/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análise, Avaliação e Gerenciamento de Risco; Aguiar, Amanda A., E-mail: amanda.abati.aguiar@gmail.com [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011 pointed the problem related to the hydrogen generation under accident scenarios due to the oxidation of zirconium-based alloys widely used as fuel rod cladding in water-cooled reactors. This problem promoted research programs aiming the development of accident tolerant fuels (ATF) which are fuels that under accident conditions could keep longer its integrity enabling the mitigation of the accident effects. In the framework of the ATF program, different materials have been studied to be applied as cladding to replace zirconium-based alloy; also efforts have been made to improve the uranium dioxide thermal conductivity doping the fuel pellet. This paper evaluates the addition of beryllium oxide (BeO) to the uranium dioxide in order to enhance the thermal conductivity of the fuel pellet. Investigations performed in this area considering the addition of 10% in volume of BeO, resulting in the UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel, have shown good results with the improvement of the fuel thermal conductivity and the consequent reduction of the fuel temperatures under irradiation. In this paper, two models obtained from open literature for the thermal conductivity of UO{sub 2}- BeO fuel were implemented in the FRAPCON 3.5 code and the results obtained using the modified code versions were compared. The simulations were carried out using a case available in the code documentation related to a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rod irradiated under steady state condition. The results show that the fuel centerline temperatures decrease with the addition of BeO, when compared to the conventional UO{sub 2} pellet, independent of the model applied. (author)

  19. 75 FR 26121 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... standard at retail facilities. This alternative defense consists of a comprehensive program of quality... without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal..., import, sell, store or transport ULSD highway diesel fuel to meet the standards specified in the diesel...

  20. Biodiesel production from tall oil with synthesized Mn and Ni based additives: effects of the additives on fuel consumption and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali Keskin; Metin Guru; Duran Altiparmak [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Technical Education Faculty

    2007-05-15

    In this study, biodiesel fuel and fuel additives were produced from crude tall oil that is a by-product in the pulp manufacturing by craft or sulphate pulping process. Fatty acids and resinic acids were obtained from crude tall oil by distillation method. Tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel) was produced from fatty acids. Resinic acids were reacted with NiO and MnO{sub 2} stoichiometrically for production of metallic fuel additives. Each metallic fuel additive was added at the rate of 8 {mu}mol/l and 12 {mu}mol/l to make mixtures of 60% tall oil methyl ester/40% diesel fuel (TE60) for preparing test fuels. Metallic fuel additives improved properties of biodiesel fuels, such as pour point and viscosity values. Biodiesel fuels were tested in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. Specific fuel consumption of biodiesel fuels increased by 6.00%, however, in comparison with TE60, it showed trend of decreasing with adding of additives. Exhaust emission profile of biodiesel fuels improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased up to 64.28% and 30.91% respectively. Low NOx emission was also observed in general for the biodiesel fuels. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effect of additives on the formation of insolubles in a jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.D. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Jones, E.G.; Goss, L.P.; Balster, W.J. [Systems Research Laboratories, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Dynamic near-isothermal techniques have proven to be valuable in assessing the tendency of aviation fuels to form surface and bulk insolubles under thermal stress. These methods are applied in this study to the investigation of the neat Jet-A fuel POSF-2827 and changes introduced by a series of four candidate additives. In each case fuel is stressed while flowing through a heat exchanger under near-isothermal conditions at 185{degrees}C. The average surface deposition rate as a function of stress duration and the quantity of both surface and bulk insolubles have been determined after complete consumption of the dissolved oxygen. The additives, introduced individually, include a common antioxidant, a metal deactivator, a dispersant, and a combination detergent/dispersant. Of the four additives, only the dispersant-types are found to improve fuel thermal stability.

  2. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  3. Development of nano-sized α-Al2O3:C films for application in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edna C.

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic materials are widely used as sensors for ionizing radiation. In nuclear applications, the alpha-alumina doped with carbon (α-Al 2 O 3 :C) is the most widely ceramic used because of its excellent optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescent (TL) properties applied to detection of ionizing radiation. Another application of OSL and TL materials are in Digital Radiography, with ceramic/polymeric film composites. Recently, Computed Radiography (CR) devices based on OSL materials are replacing the old conventional film radiography. In this study we investigate the thermoluminescence of nano-sized α-Al 2 O 3 samples doped with different percentages of carbon, sintered in reducing atmospheres at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1750 deg C. The results indicate that the nano-sized α-Al 2 O 3 :C materials have a luminescent response that could be due to both OSL and RPL properties, but without application to radiation dosimetry. Moreover, the results indicate that micro-sized α-Al 2 O 3 :C, doped with 0.5% carbon, and nano-sized ones doped with 2% of carbon, present thermoluminescent signal around 30 to 100 times the TL output signal of commercial TLD-100, the most used TL dosimeter in the world. The results indicate that these ceramic nano-particles have great potential for use in Digital Radiography based on thermoluminescent film imaging, being able to provide image resolutions much higher than the micro-sized α-Al 2 O 3 :C, in view of their improved resolution provided by nano-particulates. (author)

  4. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  5. Novel processing of bioglass ceramics from silicone resins containing micro- and nano-sized oxide particle fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, L; Bernardo, E; Colombo, P; Cacciotti, I; Bianco, A; Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-08-01

    Highly porous scaffolds with composition similar to those of 45S5 and 58S bioglasses were successfully produced by an innovative processing method based on preceramic polymers containing micro- and nano-sized fillers. Silica from the decomposition of the silicone resins reacted with the oxides deriving from the fillers, yielding glass ceramic components after heating at 1000°C. Despite the limited mechanical strength, the obtained samples possessed suitable porous architecture and promising biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics, as testified by preliminary in vitro tests. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of titania addition on the thermal conductivity of UO2 fuel [Paper IIIB-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.K.; Kumar, A.; Arora, K.B.S.; Pandey, V.D.; Nair, M.R.; Kamath, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Pellet clad interaction in nuclear reactor fuel elements can be reduced by the use of higher grain size UO 2 fuel. This is achieved by the addition of dopant like titania, niobia etc. However, these dopants are considered as impurities which may affect the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the fuel. Thermal Conductivity which is one of the important properties controlling the inpile performance of the fuel has been measured for pure UO 2 and UO 2 containing 0.05wt per cent and 0.1wt per cent TiO 2 in the temperature range 900K to 1900K in vacuum. Thermal conductivity was obtained from thermal diffusivity data measured by laser flash method. The paper highlights the experimental results and discusses the effect of TiO 2 on the thermal conductivity of UO 2 fuel. (author)

  7. Effect of titania addition on the thermal conductivity of UO2 fuel (Paper IIIB-C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, A K; Kumar, A; Arora, K B.S.; Pandey, V D; Nair, M R; Kamath, H S

    1986-01-01

    Pellet clad interaction in nuclear reactor fuel elements can be reduced by the use of higher grain size UO2 fuel. This is achieved by the addition of dopant like titania, niobia etc. However, these dopants are considered as impurities which may affect the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the fuel. Thermal Conductivity which is one of the important properties controlling the inpile performance of the fuel has been measured for pure UO2 and UO2 containing 0.05wt per cent and 0.1wt per cent TiO2 in the temperature range 900K to 1900K in vacuum. Thermal conductivity was obtained from thermal diffusivity data measured by laser flash method. The paper highlights the experimental results and discusses the effect of TiO2 on the thermal conductivity of UO2 fuel. 5 figures.

  8. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Papastergiou, C.

    1992-01-01

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed

  9. Improvement in operating characteristics resulting from the addition of FLIP fuel to a standard TRIGA core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, J.D.; Feltz, D.E.; Godsey, T.A.; Schumacher, R.F.

    1974-01-01

    To overcome problems associated with fuel burnup the Nuclear Science Center of Texas A and M University decided to convert from standard TRIGA fuel to FLIP-TRIGA fuel. FLIP fuel, which incorporates erbium as a burnable poison and is enriched to 70 percent in U-235, has a calculated lifetime of 9/MW-years. Due to limited funds a core was designed with a central region of 35 FLIP elements surrounded by 63 standard elements. Calculations indicated that the core excess and neutron fluxes were satisfactory, but no prediction was made of the improvements in core lifetime. The reactivity loss due to burnup for a standard core was measured to be 1.54 cents/MW-day. The addition of 35 FLIP fuel elements has reduced this value to approximately 0.5 cents/MW-day. The incorporation of FLIP fuel has, therefore, increased the lifetime of the core by a factor of three using fuel that is only 20 percent more expensive. The mixed core has other advantages as well. The power coefficient is less, the effect of xenon is less, and the fluxes in experimental facilities are higher. Thus, the mixed core has significant advantages over standard TRIGA fuel. (U.S.)

  10. Quality improvement of biodiesel blends using different promising fuel additives to reduce fuel consumption and NO emission from CI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Shahin, M.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Rashedul, H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pentanol, EHN and DTBP are promising fuel additives for improving properties of biodiesel blends. • The utilization of additives improved the properties such as the cetane number, viscosity and oxidation stability. • BSFC, NO and smoke of the EHN and DTBP treated blends are improved by the addition of fuel additives. • Cylinder pressure and Heat Release Rate are enhanced with EHN and DTBP addition. - Abstract: Considering the low cetane number of biodiesel blends and alcohols, ignition promoter additives 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was used in this study at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Five carbon pentanol was used at a proportion of 10% with 20% jatropha biodiesel-70% diesel blends and engine testing was carried out in a single cylinder DI diesel engine. The fuel properties, engine performance, emission and combustion were studied and mainly the effects of two most widely used ignition promoter on the engine behaviour were compared and analyzed. Experimental results indicated that, the fuel properties like density (0.36–1.45%), viscosity (0.26–3.77%), oxidation stability (5.5–26.4%), cetane number (2–14.58%) are improved remarkably with a moderate change in calorific value for the pentanol and ignition promoter treated biodiesel blends depending on the proportion used and for different benchmark. The brake power (BP) is developed very slightly (0.66–1.52%), which is still below than that of diesel, however, the brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) decreased significantly (0.92–5.84%). Although mixing of pentanol increased the nitric oxide (NO) (2.15% than JB20) with reducing the hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke, however, the addition of EHN and DTBP reduced the NO (2–4.62%) and smoke (3.45–15.5%) emissions showing higher CO (1.3–9.15%) and HC (5.1–17.87%) emission based on percentage of ignition promoter used. The NO emission

  11. Bulk Fuel Pricing: DOD Needs to Take Additional Actions to Establish a More Reliable Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-19

    Page 1 GAO-16-78R Bulk Fuel Pricing 441 G St. N.W. Washington, DC 20548 November 19, 2015 The Honorable Ashton Carter The Secretary of...Defense Bulk Fuel Pricing : DOD Needs to Take Additional Actions to Establish a More Reliable Methodology Dear Secretary Carter: Each fiscal...year, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), in coordination with the Defense Logistics Agency, sets a standard price per barrel

  12. Nano-sized Fe2O3/Fe3O4 facilitate anaerobic transformation of hexavalent chromium in soil-water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxian; Li, Hua; Gong, Libo; Dong, Guowen; Shen, Liang; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of nano-sized or submicro Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 on the bioreduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and to evaluate the effects of nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 on the microbial communities from the anaerobic flooding soil. The results indicated that the net decreases upon Cr(VI) concentration from biotic soil samples amended with nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 (317.1±2.1mg/L) and Fe 3 O 4 (324.0±22.2mg/L) within 21days, which were approximately 2-fold of Cr(VI) concentration released from blank control assays (117.1±5.6mg/L). Furthermore, the results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and high-throughput sequencing indicated a greater variety of microbes within the microbial community in amendments with nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 than the control assays. Especially, Proteobacteria occupied a predominant status on the phylum level within the indigenous microbial communities from chromium-contaminated soils. Besides, some partial decrease of soluble Cr(VI) in abiotic nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 amendments was responsible for the adsorption of nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 to soluble Cr(VI). Hence, the presence of nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 could largely facilitate the mobilization and biotransformation of Cr(VI) from flooding soils by adsorption and bio-mediated processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of nano-sized Co-Sn alloy anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianchao; Zhao Hailei; Wang Jing; Wang Jie; Chen Jingbo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nano-sized Co-Sn alloys were synthesized by hydrothermal route. → Li 2 O and CoSn can buffer the large volume change associated with lithiation of Sn. → A two-step reaction mechanism of CoSn 2 alloy during cycling was confirmed. - Abstract: Nano-sized Co-Sn alloys with a certain amount of Sn oxides used as potential anode materials for lithium ion batteries were synthesized by hydrothermal route. The effects of hydrothermal conditions and post annealing on the phase compositions and the electrochemical properties of synthesized powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis and galvanostatic cycling tests. Prolonging the dwelling time at the same hydrothermal temperature can increase the content of Sn oxides, which will lead to a high initial irreversible capacity loss but a better cycling stability owing to the buffer effect of irreversible product Li 2 O. Heat-treatment can increase the crystallinity and cause the presence of a certain amount of inert CoSn component, which both have positive impact on the cycling stability of Co-Sn electrode. By comparison with the lithiation/delithiation processes of metal Sn, a two-step mechanism of CoSn 2 alloy during cycling was confirmed.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of surface-modified nano-sized core/shell tin particles for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuelling, Guido; Meyer, Hinrich-Wilhelm; Placke, Tobias; Winter, Martin; Oehl, Nikolas; Knipper, Martin; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Parisi, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Tin is able to lithiate and delithiate reversibly with a high theoretical specific capacity, which makes it a promising candidate to supersede graphite as the state-of-the-art negative electrode material in lithium ion battery technology. Nevertheless, it still suffers from poor cycling stability and high irreversible capacities. In this contribution, we show the synthesis of three different nano-sized core/shell-type particles with crystalline tin cores and different amorphous surface shells consisting of SnO x and organic polymers. The spherical size and the surface shell can be tailored by adjusting the synthesis temperature and the polymer reagents in the synthesis, respectively. We determine the influence of the surface modifications with respect to the electrochemical performance and characterize the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of the nano-sized tin particles by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical performance is investigated by constant current charge/discharge cycling as well as cyclic voltammetry. (paper)

  15. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic coatings fabricated by successive Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of micro-/nano-sized particles and surface silanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Szu; Yang, Yu-Min; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2007-11-21

    The present study demonstrates the creation of a stable, superhydrophobic surface by coupling of successive Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) depositions of micro- and nano-sized (1.5 µm/50 nm, 1.0 µm/50 nm, and 0.5 µm/50 nm) silica particles on a glass substrate with the formation of a self-assembled monolayer of dodecyltrichlorosilane on the surface of the particulate film. Particulate films, in which one layer of 50 nm particles was deposited over one to five sublayers of larger micro-sized particles, with hierarchical surface roughness and superhydrophobicity, were successfully fabricated. Furthermore, the present 'two-scale' (micro- and nano-sized particles) approach is superior to the previous 'one-scale' (micro-sized particles) approach in that both higher advancing contact angle and lower contact angle hysteresis can be realized. Experimental results revealed that the superhydrophobicity exhibited by as-fabricated particulate films with different sublayer particle diameters increases in the order of 0.5 µm>1.0 µm>1.5 µm. However, no clear trend between sublayer number and surface superhydrophobicity could be discerned. An explanation of superhydrophobicity based on the surface roughness introduced by two-scale particles is also proposed.

  16. Fabrication of nano-sized magnetic tunnel junctions using lift-off process assisted by atomic force probe tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ku Youl; Min, Byoung-Chul; Ahn, Chiyui; Choi, Gyung-Min; Shin, Il-Jae; Park, Seung-Young; Rhie, Kungwon; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2013-09-01

    We present a fabrication method for nano-scale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), employing e-beam lithography and lift-off process assisted by the probe tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). It is challenging to fabricate nano-sized MTJs on small substrates because it is difficult to use chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. The AFM-assisted lift-off process enables us to fabricate nano-sized MTJs on small substrates (12.5 mm x 12.5 mm) without CMP process. The e-beam patterning has been done using bi-layer resist, the poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)/ hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ). The PMMA/HSQ resist patterns are used for both the etch mask for ion milling and the self-aligned mask for top contact formation after passivation. The self-aligned mask buried inside a passivation oxide layer, is readily lifted-off by the force exerted by the probe tip. The nano-MTJs (160 nm x 90 nm) fabricated by this method show clear current-induced magnetization switching with a reasonable TMR and critical switching current density.

  17. USAGE OF METHYL ESTER PRODUCED FROM WASTE GRAPE AND MN ADDITIVE AS ALTERNATIVE DIESEL FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbey Hazar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methyl ester was produced from waste grape pulp sources. The produced methyl ester was mixed with diesel in different proportions, and was tested for engine performance and emission. It was found that with increasing biodiesel content, the specific fuel consumption and exhaust temperature have increased partially, while the CO, HC and smoke emissions decreased significantly. Additionally, in the scope of this study, dodecanol, propylene glycol and Mn based additives were added to fuel B50 to improve the emission and engine performance values. With the presence of additives, an increase in the exhaust temperature was observed, while a decrease in the specific fuel consumption, CO, HC, and smoke emissions were detected.

  18. Enhanced performance of nano-sized SiC reinforced Al metal matrix nanocomposites synthesized through microwave sintering and hot extrusion techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Penchal Reddy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nano-sized SiC (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vol% reinforced aluminum (Al metal matrix composites were fabricated by microwave sintering and hot extrusion techniques. The structural (XRD, SEM, mechanical (nanoindentation, compression, tensile and thermal properties (co-efficient of thermal expansion-CTE of the developed Al-SiC nanocomposites were studied. The SEM/EDS mapping images show a homogeneous distribution of SiC nanoparticles into the Al matrix. A significant increase in the strength (compressive and tensile of the Al-SiC nanocomposites with the addition of SiC content is observed. However, it is noticed that the ductility of Al-SiC nanocomposites decreases with increasing volume fraction of SiC. The thermal analysis indicates that CTE of Al-SiC nanocomposites decreases with the progressive addition of hard SiC nanoparticles. Overall, hot extruded Al 1.5 vol% SiC nanocomposites exhibited the best mechanical and thermal performance as compared to the other developed Al-SiC nanocomposites. Keywords: Al-SiC nanocomposites, Microwave sintering, Hot extrusion, Mechanical properties, Thermal expansion

  19. Comparative study of nano-sized particles CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} effects on superconducting properties of Y-123 and Y-358

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimani, Y.; Hannachi, E.; Ben Salem, M.K.; Hamrita, A. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials-Structures and Properties, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Varilci, A. [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Dachraoui, W. [CINaM-CNRS, Luminy Campus, 13288 Marseille (France); Ben Salem, M., E-mail: salemwiem2005@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Physics of Materials-Structures and Properties, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ben Azzouz, F. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials-Structures and Properties, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); College of Sciences-Girls, Department of Physics, University of Dammam (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nano-sized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles (10 nm) addition on the structural and the normal state resistivity of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (noted Y-123) and Y{sub 3}Ba{sub 5}Cu{sub 8}O{sub 18} (noted Y-358) polycrystalline were systematically studied. Samples were synthesized in oxygen atmosphere using a standard solid state reaction technique by adding CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} up to 2 wt%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical measurements ρ(T). XRD results reveal that the lattice parameters change for both Y-123 and Y-358 phases. SEM observations reveal that the grain size is reduced with increasing the content of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The measurements for the resistivity dependence of temperature show that the depression in superconducting temperature is more pronounced for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} addition in Y-358 compound than in Y-123 one. These results may be attributed to the existence of much more disorder due to a greater number of Cu sites to be substituted by Fe and Co in Y-358 compared to Y-123.

  20. Influence of dispersing additives and blend composition on stability of marine high-viscosity fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Митусова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a definition of the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel from the point of view of the colloid-chemical concept of oil dispersed systems. The necessity and importance of the inclusion in the current regulatory requirements of this quality parameter of high-viscosity marine fuel is indicated. The objects of the research are high-viscosity marine fuels, the basic components of which are heavy oil residues: fuel oil that is the atmospheric residue of oil refining and viscosity breaking residue that is the product of light thermal cracking of fuel oil. As a thinning agent or distillate component, a light gas oil was taken from the catalytic cracking unit. The stability of the obtained samples was determined through the xylene equivalent index, which characterizes the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel to lamination during storage, transportation and operation processes. To improve performance, the resulting base compositions of high-viscosity marine fuels were modified by introducing small concentrations (0.05 % by weight of stabilizing additives based on oxyethylated amines of domestic origin and alkyl naphthalenes of foreign origin.

  1. A study for providing additional storage spaces to ET-RR-1 spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, A.; Ashoub, N.; Saleh, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    The ET-RR-1 reactor spent fuel storage pool is a trapezoidal aluminum tank concrete shield and of capacity 10 m 3 . It can hold up to 60 fuel assemblies. The long operation history of the ET-RR-1 reactor resulted in a partially filled spent fuel storage with the remaining spaces not enough to host a complete load from the reactor. This work have been initiated to evaluate possible alternative solutions for providing additional storage spaces to host the available EK-10 fuel elements after irradiation and any foreseen fuel in case of reactor upgrading. Several alternate solutions have been reviewed and decision on the most suitable one is under study. These studies include criticality calculation of some suggested alternatives like reracking the present spent fuel storage pool and double tiering by the addition of a second level storage rack above the existing rack. The two levels may have different factor. Criticality calculation of the double tiering possible accident was also studied. (author)

  2. Corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent fuel in water. Additional information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    A large variety of research reactor spent fuel with different fuel meats, different geometries and different enrichments in 235 U are presently stored underwater in basins located around the world. More than 90% of these fuels are clad in aluminium or aluminium based alloys that are notoriously susceptible to corrosion in water of less than optimum quality. Some fuel is stored in the reactor pools themselves, some in auxiliary pools (or basins) close to the reactor and some stored at away-from-reactor pools. Since the early 1990s, when corrosion induced degradation of the fuel cladding was observed in many of the pools, corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel stored in light water filled basins has become a major concern, and programmes were implemented at the sites to improve fuel storage conditions. The IAEA has since then established a number of programmatic activities to address corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel in water. Of special relevance was the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water (Phase I) initiated in 1996, whose results were published in IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 418. At the end of this CRP it was considered necessary that a continuation of the CRP should concentrate on fuel storage basins that had demonstrated significant corrosion problems and would therefore provide additional insight into the fundamentals of localized corrosion of aluminium. As a consequence, the IAEA started a new CRP entitled Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water (Phase II), to carry out more comprehensive research in some specific areas of corrosion of aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel in water. In addition to this CRP, one of the activities under IAEA's Technical Cooperation Regional Project for Latin America Management of Spent Fuel from Research Reactors (2001-2006) was corrosion monitoring and surveillance of research

  3. Improvement in retention of solid fission products in HTGR fuel particles by ceramic kernel additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerthmann, R.; Groos, E.; Gruebmeier, H.

    1975-08-01

    Increased requirements concerning the retention of long-lived solid fission products in fuel elements for use in advanced High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors led to the development of coated particles with improved fission product retention of the kernel, which represent an alternative to silicon carbide-coated fuel particles. Two irradiation experiments have shown that the release of strontium, barium, and caesium from pyrocarbon-coated particles can be reduced by orders of magnitude if the oxide kernel contains alumina-silica additives. It was detected by electron microprobe analysis that the improved retention of the mentioned fission products in the fuel kernel is caused by formation of the stable aluminosilicates SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 , BaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 and CsAlSi 2 O 6 in the additional aluminasilica phase of the kernel. (orig.) [de

  4. A novel coating material that uses nano-sized SiO2 particles to intensify hydrophobicity and corrosion protection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, Sh.; Ramesh, K.; Vengadaesvaran, B.; Ramesh, S.; Arof, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid SiO 2 nanocomposite coatings were fabricated on mild steel. • Highest coating resistance were exhibited by coatings with 3 wt.% SiO 2 nanoparticles. • Long-term stability measurement, together with hydrophobic surface measurements, were obtained. - Abstract: The influence of SiO 2 nanoparticles on hydrophobicity and the corrosion protection capabilities of hybrid acrylic-silicone polymeric matrix have been investigated. Contact angle measurements (CA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to study the hydrophobicity, morphology, and topography of the coatings. In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray techniques were employed to evaluate the corrosion protection performance. A coating with 3 wt.% SiO 2 , AS 3, demonstrates significant improvement in corrosion resistance with the highest measured CA of 97.3°. Morphology and topography studies clarify the influence of nano-sized SiO 2 fillers on the surface topography and demonstrated the uniform and good distribution of the embedded SiO 2 nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix.

  5. Nano structural Features of Silver Nanoparticles Powder Synthesized through Concurrent Formation of the Nano sized Particles of Both Starch and Silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebeish, A.; El-Rafie, M.H.; El-Sheikh, M.A.; El-Naggar, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Green innovative strategy was developed to accomplish silver nanoparticles formation of starch-silver nanoparticles (St-AgNPs) in the powder form. Thus, St-AgNPs were synthesized through concurrent formation of the nano sized particles of both starch and silver. The alkali dissolved starch acts as reducing agent for silver ions and as stabilizing agent for the formed AgNPs. The chemical reduction process occurred in water bath under high-speed homogenizer. After completion of the reaction, the colloidal solution of AgNPs coated with alkali dissolved starch was cooled and precipitated using ethanol. The powder precipitate was collected by centrifugation, then washed, and dried; St-AgNPs powder was characterized using state-of-the-art facilities including UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), particle size analyzer (PS), Polydispersity index (PdI), Zeta potential (ZP), XRD, FT-IR, EDX, and TGA. TEM and XRD indicate that the average size of pure AgNPs does not exceed 20 nm with spherical shape and high concentration of AgNPs (30000 ppm). The results obtained from TGA indicates that the higher thermal stability of starch coated AgNPS than that of starch nanoparticles alone. In addition to the data obtained from EDX which reveals the presence of AgNPs and the data obtained from particle size analyzer and zeta potential determination indicate that the good uniformity and the highly stability of St-AgNPs).

  6. Effect of Different Nano-Sized Silica Sols as Supports on the Structure and Properties of Cu/SiO2 for Hydrogenation of Dimethyl Oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuancai Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cu/x-SiO2 catalysts with 4, 10, and 20 nm silica sols as supports was produced by ammonia evaporation method and characterized. Different nano-sized silica sols as supports significantly affected the structure and catalytic properties of the copper catalysts for ethylene glycol synthesis from dimethyl oxalate. Compared with Cu/20-SiO2 and Cu/4-SiO2 catalysts, the catalytic performance and stability of Cu/10-SiO2 catalyst were greatly enhanced. The Cu/10-SiO2 catalyst showed 99.9% conversion with 94% EG selectivity and a lifetime of over 3080 h if it is calculated by industrial weight liquid hourly space velocity (WLHSV of 0.5 h−1. The Cu/10-SiO2 catalyst has one of the longest lifetimes among the catalysts and is a good alternative catalyst for this reaction. Improvement in the catalytic performance and stability of Cu/10-SiO2 is attributed to the proper SBET, Dp and larger dispersion of copper. In addition, the supports of Cu/10-SiO2 catalyst have smaller particles than that of Cu/20-SiO2; thus, the migration and growth of copper species in catalysts are restrained during the reaction.

  7. Nervous System Injury in Response to Contact With Environmental, Engineered and Planetary Micro- and Nano-Sized Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Borisova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nerve cells take a special place among other cells in organisms because of their unique function mechanism. The plasma membrane of nerve cells from the one hand performs a classical barrier function, thereby being foremost targeted during contact with micro- and nano-sized particles, and from the other hand it is very intensively involved in nerve signal transmission, i.e., depolarization-induced calcium-dependent compound exocytosis realized via vesicle fusion following by their retrieval and calcium-independent permanent neurotransmitter turnover via plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters that utilize Na+/K+ electrochemical gradient as a driving force. Worldwide traveling air pollution particulate matter is now considered as a possible trigger factor for the development of a variety of neuropathologies. Micro- and nano-sized particles can reach the central nervous system during inhalation avoiding the blood–brain barrier, thereby making synaptic neurotransmission extremely sensitive to their influence. Neurosafety of environmental, engineered and planetary particles is difficult to predict because they possess other features as compared to bulk materials from which the particles are composed of. The capability of the particles to absorb heavy metals and organic neurotoxic molecules from the environment, and moreover, spontaneously interact with proteins and lipids in organisms and form biomolecular corona can considerably change the particles‘ features. The absorption capability occasionally makes them worldwide traveling particulate carriers for delivery of environmental neurotoxic compounds to the brain. Discrepancy of the experimental data on neurotoxicity assessment of micro- and nano-sized particles can be associated with a variability of systems, in which neurotoxicity was analyzed and where protein components of the incubation media forming particle biocorona can significantly distort and even eliminate factual particle

  8. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel additives from glycerol using green chemistry and supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    For every 3 moles of fatty acid esters produced, 1 mole of glycerol remains, ~11% of the biodiesel volume. One new method of glycerol use could be as a biodiesel fuel additive/extender using eco-friendly heterogeneous catalysts and supercritical fluids (SFs). SFs have advantages such as greater diff...

  9. 76 FR 39477 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are issuing a joint final rule establishing new requirements for the fuel economy and environment label that will be posted on the window sticker of all new automobiles sold in the U.S. The labeling requirements apply for model year 2013 and later vehicles with a voluntary manufacturer option for model year 2012. The labeling requirements apply to passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium duty passenger vehicles such as larger sport-utility vehicles and vans. The redesigned label provides expanded information to American consumers about new vehicle fuel economy and fuel consumption, greenhouse gas and smog-forming emissions, and projected fuel costs and savings, and also includes a smartphone interactive code that permits direct access to additional Web resources. Specific label designs are provided for gasoline, diesel, ethanol flexible fuel, compressed natural gas, electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This rulemaking is in response to provisions in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 that imposed several new labeling requirements and new advanced-technology vehicles entering the market. NHTSA and EPA believe that these changes will help consumers to make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, particularly as the future automotive marketplace provides more diverse vehicle technologies from which consumers may choose. These new label requirements do not affect the methodologies that EPA uses to generate consumer fuel economy estimates, or the automaker compliance values for NHTSA's corporate average fuel economy and EPA's greenhouse gas emissions standards. This action also finalizes a number of technical corrections to EPA's light-duty greenhouse gas emission standards program.

  10. Experimental Analysis of DI Diesel Engine Performance with Blend Fuels of Oxygenated Additive and COME Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    P. Venkateswara Rao; B.V. Appa Rao; D. Radhakrishna

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of using Triacetin (T) as an additive with biodiesel on direct injection diesel engine for performance and combustion characteristics. Normally in the usage of diesel fuel and neat biodiesel, knocking can be detected to some extent. By adding triacetin [C9H14O6] additive to biodiesel, this problem can be alleviated to some extent and the tail pipe emissions are reduced. Comparative study was conducted using petro-diesel, bio...

  11. A review of the performance and structural considerations of paraffin wax hybrid rocket fuels with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Kirsty; Adali, Sarp; Pitot, Jean; Brooks, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Paraffin wax as a hybrid rocket fuel has not been comprehensively characterised, especially regarding the structural feasibility of the material in launch applications. Preliminary structural testing has shown paraffin wax to be a brittle, low strength material, and at risk of failure under launch loading conditions. Structural enhancing additives have been identified, but their effect on motor performance has not always been considered, nor has any standard method of testing been identified between research institutes. A review of existing regression rate measurement techniques on paraffin wax based fuels and the results obtained with various additives are collated and discussed in this paper. The review includes 2D slab motors that enable visualisation of liquefying fuel droplet entrainment and the effect of an increased viscosity on the droplet entrainment mechanism, which can occur with the addition of structural enhancing polymers. An increased viscosity has been shown to reduce the regression rate of liquefying fuels. Viscosity increasing additives that have been tested include EVA and LDPE. Both these additives increase the structural properties of paraffin wax, where the elongation and UTS are improved. Other additives, such as metal hydrides, aluminium and boron generally offer improvements on the regression rate. However, very little consideration has been given to the structural effects these additives have on the wax grain. A 40% aluminised grain, for example, offers a slight increase in the UTS but reduces the elongation of paraffin wax. Geometrically accurate lab-scale motors have also been used to determine the regression rate properties of various additives in paraffin wax. A concise review of all available regression rate testing techniques and results on paraffin wax based hybrid propellants, as well as existing structural testing data, is presented in this paper.

  12. Propagation of electro-kinetic waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor with nano-sized ion colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Ajay [Government College, Garoth, Dist. Mandsaur (M P) (India); Sharma, Giriraj, E-mail: grsharma@gmail.com [SRJ Government Girls’ College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Jat, K. L. [Swami Vivekanand Government P G College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Rishi, M. P. [Shahid Bhagat Singh Government P G College, Jaora, Dist Ratlam (M P) (India)

    2015-07-31

    Based on hydrodynamic model of multi-component plasma, an analytical study on propagation of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves in wurtzite and zincblende structures of GaN is carried out. Nano-sized ion colloids (NICs) are embedded in the sample by the technique of ion-implantation. The implanted NICs are considered massive by an order as compared to the host lattice points and do not participate in Based LEK perturbations. Though, the NICs are continuously bombarded by the electrons as well as the holes yet, the former acquires a net negative charge owing to relatively higher mobility of electrons and consequently results into depletion of electron density in the medium. It i s found that the presence of charged NICs significantly modifies the dispersion and amplification characteristics of LEK waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor plasma and their role becomes increasingly effective as the fraction of charge on them increases.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hexagonal nano-sized nickel selenide by simple hydrothermal method assisted by CTAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davar, Fatemeh [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Nano-sized nickel selenide powders have been successfully synthesized via an improved hydrothermal route based on the reaction between NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, SeCl{sub 4} and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O) in water, in present of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant, at various conditions. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Effects of temperature, reaction time and reductant agent on the morphology, the particle sizes and the phase of the final products have been investigated. It was found that the phase and morphology of the products could be greatly influenced by these parameters. The synthesis procedure is simple and uses less toxic reagents than the previously reported methods. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

  14. Propagation of electro-kinetic waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor with nano-sized ion colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Ajay; Sharma, Giriraj; Jat, K. L.; Rishi, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on hydrodynamic model of multi-component plasma, an analytical study on propagation of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves in wurtzite and zincblende structures of GaN is carried out. Nano-sized ion colloids (NICs) are embedded in the sample by the technique of ion-implantation. The implanted NICs are considered massive by an order as compared to the host lattice points and do not participate in Based LEK perturbations. Though, the NICs are continuously bombarded by the electrons as well as the holes yet, the former acquires a net negative charge owing to relatively higher mobility of electrons and consequently results into depletion of electron density in the medium. It i s found that the presence of charged NICs significantly modifies the dispersion and amplification characteristics of LEK waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor plasma and their role becomes increasingly effective as the fraction of charge on them increases

  15. Phase constitution and interface structure of nano-sized Ag-Cu/AlN multilayers: Experiment and ab initio modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigozzi, Giancarlo; Janczak-Rusch, Jolanta; Passerone, Daniele; Antonio Pignedoli, Carlo; Patscheider, Joerg; Jeurgens, Lars P. H. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Antusek, Andrej [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Paulinska 16, 917 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); University of Rzeszow, Institute of Physics, ul. Rejtana 16a, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Bissig, Vinzenz [Kirsten Soldering AG, Hinterbergstrasse 32, CH-6330 Cham (Switzerland)

    2012-10-29

    Nano-sized Ag-Cu{sub 8nm}/AlN{sub 10nm} multilayers were deposited by reactive DC sputtering on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. Investigation of the phase constitution and interface structure of the multilayers evidences a phase separation of the alloy sublayers into nanosized grains of Ag and Cu. The interfaces between the Ag grains and the quasi-single-crystalline AlN sublayers are semi-coherent, whereas the corresponding Cu/AlN interfaces are incoherent. The orientation relationship between Ag and AlN is constant throughout the entire multilayer stack. These observations are consistent with atomistic models of the interfaces as obtained by ab initio calculations.

  16. Direct synthesis of nano-sized glass powders with spherical shape by RF (radio frequency) thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Ju, W.T.; Nam, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new route for obtaining very small, spheroid glass powders is demonstrated using an RF (radio frequency) thermal plasma system. During the process, four kinds of chemicals, here SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , BaCO 3 , and K 2 CO 3 , were mixed at pre-set weight ratios, spray-dried, calcined at 250 deg. C for 3 h, and crushed into fragments. Then, they were successfully reformed into nano-sized amorphous powders (< 200 nm) with spherical shape by injecting them along the centerline of an RF thermal plasma reactor at ∼ 24 kW. The as-synthesized powders show negligible (< 1%) composition changes when compared with the injected precursors of raw material compounds.

  17. Understanding dual precipitation strengthening in ultra-high strength low carbon steel containing nano-sized copper precipitates and carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaniraj, M. P.; Shin, Young-Min; Jung, Woo-Sang; Kim, Man-Ho; Choi, In-Suk

    2017-07-01

    Low carbon ferritic steel alloyed with Ti, Mo and Cu was hot rolled and interrupt cooled to produce nano-sized precipitates of copper and (Ti,Mo)C carbides. The steel had a tensile strength of 840 MPa, an increase in yield strength of 380 MPa over that of the plain carbon steel and reasonable ductility. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering were used to characterize size and volume fraction of the precipitates in the steels designed to form only copper precipitates and only (Ti,Mo)C carbides. The individual and combined precipitation strengthening contributions was calculated using the size and volume fraction of precipitates and compared with the measured values.

  18. Adhesion of nano-sized particles to the surface of bacteria: mechanistic study with the extended DLVO theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Geelsu; Ahn, Ik-Sung; Mhin, Byung Jin; Kim, Ju-Young

    2012-09-01

    Due to the increasing production and application of nanoparticles, their release into the environment would be inevitable, which requires a better understanding of their fate in the environment. When considering their toxic behavior or biodegradation as their fate, their adhesion to the cell surface must be the first step to be thoroughly studied. In this study, nano-sized polymeric particles of urethane acrylate with various hydrophobicity and ionic properties were synthesized as model nanoparticles, and their adhesion to Pseudomonas putida strains was monitored. The higher hydrophobicity and positive charge density on the particle surface exhibited the larger adhesion to the bacteria, whereas negative charge density on the particle hindered their adhesion to the bacteria, albeit high hydrophobicity of particle. These observations were successfully explained with the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nano-sized surface modifications induced by the impact of slow highly charged ions - A first review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; El-Said, A.S.; Meissl, W.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation of crystalline solid targets with swift heavy ions can lead to the formation of latent tracks in the solid and the creation of (mostly-hillock type) nanostructures on the surface. Recently similar surface modifications with nanometer dimensions have been demonstrated for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions on various surfaces. We will review the current state of this new field of research. In particular we will discuss the circumstances and conditions under which nano-sized features (hillocks or craters) on different surfaces due to impact of slow highly charged ions can be produced. The use of slow highly charged ions instead of swift heavy ions might be of considerable interest for some practical applications

  20. 40 CFR 80.591 - What are the product transfer document requirements for additives to be used in diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... content requirements for use in diesel motor vehicles and nonroad engines.”; or (2) For those additives... requirements for use in model year 2007 and newer diesel motor vehicles or model year 2011 and newer diesel...

  1. 78 FR 36041 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: RFS Pathways II and Technical Amendments to the RFS 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Production, Transport and Tailpipe Emissions for Renewable Diesel and Naphtha C. Proposed Regulatory... and diesel fuel, or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities...

  2. Development of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with addition of beryllium oxide for increasing of thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carolinne Mol; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto

    2011-01-01

    The CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear presents a project named 'Beryllium Project' viewing to increasing the thermal conductivity of UO 2 fuel pellets, increasing the lifetime of those pellets in the reactor, generating a greater economy. This increase of conductivity is obtained by means of Be O addition to the UO 2 fuel pellets, which is very used for the production of nuclear energy. The UO 2 pellets however present a thermal conductivity relatively low, generating a high temperature gradient between the center and his side surface. The addition of beryllium oxide, with higher thermal conductivity gives pellets which will present lower temperature gradient and, consequently, more durability and better utilization of energy potential of the pellet in the reactor. (author)

  3. Development of a Sensitive Electrochemical Enzymatic Reaction-Based Cholesterol Biosensor Using Nano-Sized Carbon Interdigitated Electrodes Decorated with Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepti; Lee, Jongmin; Seo, Junyoung; Shin, Heungjoo

    2017-09-15

    We developed a versatile and highly sensitive biosensor platform. The platform is based on electrochemical-enzymatic redox cycling induced by selective enzyme immobilization on nano-sized carbon interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Without resorting to sophisticated nanofabrication technologies, we used batch wafer-level carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) processes to fabricate 3D carbon IDEs reproducibly, simply, and cost effectively. In addition, AuNPs were selectively electrodeposited on specific carbon nanoelectrodes; the high surface-to-volume ratio and fast electron transfer ability of AuNPs enhanced the electrochemical signal across these carbon IDEs. Gold nanoparticle characteristics such as size and morphology were reproducibly controlled by modulating the step-potential and time period in the electrodeposition processes. To detect cholesterol selectively using AuNP/carbon IDEs, cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was selectively immobilized via the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium cation. The sensitivity of the AuNP/carbon IDE-based biosensor was ensured by efficient amplification of the redox mediators, ferricyanide and ferrocyanide, between selectively immobilized enzyme sites and both of the combs of AuNP/carbon IDEs. The presented AuNP/carbon IDE-based cholesterol biosensor exhibited a wide sensing range (0.005-10 mM) and high sensitivity (~993.91 µA mM -1 cm -2 ; limit of detection (LOD) ~1.28 µM). In addition, the proposed cholesterol biosensor was found to be highly selective for the cholesterol detection.

  4. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil: effect of non ionic surfactants and selected bacteria addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collina, Elena; Lasagni, Marina; Pitea, Demetrio; Franzetti, Andrea; Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2007-09-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate influence of two commercial surfactants and inoculum of selected bacteria on biodegradation of diesel fuel in different systems. Among alkyl polyethossilates (Brij family) and sorbitan derivates (Tween family) a first selection of surfactants was performed by estimation of Koc and Dafnia magna EC50 with molecular descriptor and QSAR model. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate soil sorption, biodegradability and toxicity. In the second part of the research, the effect of Brij 56, Tween 80 and selected bacteria addition on biodegradation of diesel fuel was studied in liquid cultures and in slurry and solid phase systems. The latter experiments were performed with diesel contaminated soil in bench scale slurry phase bioreactor and solid phase columns. Tween 80 addition increased the biodegradation rate of hydrocarbons both in liquid and in slurry phase systems. Regarding the effect of inoculum, no enhancement of biodegradation rate was observed neither in surfactant added nor in experiments without addition. On the contrary, in solid phase experiments, inoculum addition resulted in enhanced biodegradation compared to surfactant addition.

  5. Bioremediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Soil: Effect of Non Ionic Surfactants and Selected Bacteria Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collina, E.; Lasagni, M.; Pitea, D.; Franzetti, A.; Di Gennaro, P.; Bestetti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate influence of two commercial surfactants and inoculum of selected bacteria on biodegradation of diesel fuel in different systems. Among alkyl polyethossilates (Brij family) and sorbitan derivates (Tween family) a first selection of surfactants was performed by estimation of Koc and Dafnia magna EC 50 with molecular descriptor and QSAR model. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate soil sorption, biodegradability and toxicity. In the second part of the research, the effect of Brij 56, Tween 80 and selected bacteria addition on biodegradation of diesel fuel was studied in liquid cultures and in slurry and solid phase systems. The latter experiments were performed with diesel contaminated soil in bench scale slurry phase bioreactor and solid phase columns. Tween 80 addition increased the biodegradation rate of hydrocarbons both in liquid and in slurry phase systems. Regarding the effect of inoculum, no enhancement of biodegradation rate was observed neither in surfactant added nor in experiments without addition. On the contrary, in solid phase experiments, inoculum addition resulted in enhanced biodegradation compared to surfactant addition

  6. Effect of sunlight irradiation on photocatalytic pyrene degradation in contaminated soils by micro-nano size TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chien, S.W.; Chang, C.H.; Chen, S.H.; Wang, M.C.; Madhava Rao, M.; Satya Veni, S.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils by micro-nano size TiO 2 in the presence and absence of sunlight was investigated. The results showed that the synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 was more efficient on pyrene degradation in quartz sand and red and alluvial soils than the corresponding reaction system without sunlight irradiation. In the presence of sunlight irradiation, the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene was very pronounced in alluvial and red soils and especially in quartz sand. However, in the absence of sunlight irradiation, the catalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 and the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene were almost nil. This implicates that ultra-violet (UV) wavelength range of sunlight plays an important role in TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and in photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene. The percentages of photocatalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 in quartz sand, alluvial and red soils under sunlight irradiation were 78.3, 23.4, and 31.8%, respectively, at 5 h reaction period with a 5% (w/w) dose of the amended catalyst. The sequence of TiO 2 -enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils was quartz sand > red soil > alluvial soil, due to different texture and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the quartz sand and other two soils. The differential Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of degraded pyrene in alluvial soil corroborate that TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of degraded pyrene was much greater than photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) rate of degraded pyrene. Based on the data obtained, the importance for the application of TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and associated organic contaminants in contaminated soils was elucidated. - Highlights: → Synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 promoted degradation of pyrene. → Micro-nano size TiO 2 enhanced

  7. Preparation and characterization of nano-sized phase change emulsions as thermal energy storage and transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Zhang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The nano-sized phase change emulsions are prepared by using D-phase method. • The thermo-physical and transport properties are experimentally investigated. • The influence of surfactant on the melting temperature and latent heat of water is clarified. • The phase change emulsion can be used as the heat transfer fluid in a thermal energy storage system. - Abstract: Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a kind of two-phase heat transfer fluid with phase change material (PCM) dispersed in carrier fluid. It has received intensive attractions in recent years due to the fact that it can be used as both the thermal energy storage material and transport medium simultaneously in a thermal energy storage system. In the present study, nano-sized PCEs are prepared by the D-phase method with n-hexadecane and n-octadecane as PCMs. The thermo-physical and transport properties are characterized to facilitate the applications. The droplet size distribution of the PCE is measured by a Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, and the results show that the droplet size distributions are similar at different mass fractions. The rheological behavior and viscosity of the PCE are measured by a rheometer, which shows that the PCEs at mass fractions below 30.0 wt% are Newtonian fluids, and the viscosities are dependent on both the mass fraction and temperature. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is employed to analyze the phase change characteristics of the PCE, and the results indicate large supercooling degree of water and PCM in the PCE. The melting temperature and latent heat of water in the PCE are much smaller than those of pure water. The thermal conductivities of the PCE with different mass fractions at different temperatures are measured by the transient hot-wire method. Furthermore, the energy transport characteristics of the PCEs are evaluated on the basis of the measured thermo-physical and transport properties. The results suggest that the PCEs show a drastic

  8. Surface Modification, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of Nano-Sized Titania Modified with Silver and Bentonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Divya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In many textile industries dyes are used as coloring agents. Advanced oxidation processes are used for degrading or removing color from dye baths. Catalysts play a key role in these industries for the treatment of water. Solid catalysts are usually composed of metals that form supports onto the surface and create metal particles with high surface areas. TiO2 composites containing transition metal ions (silver and/or bentonite clay were prepared. Photocatalytic efficiencies have been investigated for the degradation of Orange G an azo dye. Various analytical techniques were used to characterize the surface properties of nano-sized titania modified using silver and/or bentonite clay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and FTIR analyses showed that TiO2 (10 ± 2 nm and Ag (2 to 3 nm particles were supported on the surface of the bentonite clay and the size was in the range of 100 ± 2 nm. The modified catalysts P-25 TiO2/Bentonite/Ag and P-25 TiO2/Ag were found to be very active for the photocatalytic decomposition of Orange G. The percent decolorization in 60 min was 98% with both P-25 TiO2/Ag and P-25 TiO2/Bentonite/Ag modified catalysts. Whereas mineralization achieved in 9 hr were 68% and 71% with P-25 TiO2/Bentonite/Ag and P-25 TiO2/Ag catalyst respectively. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 30 October 2009, Revised: 20 November 2009, Accepted: 21 November 2009][How to Cite: N. Divya, A. Bansal, A. K. Jana. (2009. Surface Modification, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of Nano-Sized Titania Modified with Silver and Bentonite Clay. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 43-53.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.1249.43-53][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.1249.43-53 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/1249

  9. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict CI engine parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  10. Improvement in retention of solid fission products in HTGR fuel particles by ceramic kernel additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerthmann, R.; Groos, E.; Gruebmeier, H.

    1975-08-15

    Increased requirements concerning the retention of long-lived solid fission products in fuel elements for use in advanced High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors led to the development of coated particles with improved fission product retention which represent an alternative to silicon carbide-coated fuel particles. Two irradiation experiments have shown that the release of strontium, barium, and caesium from pyrocarbon-coated particles can be reduced by orders of magnitude if the oxide kernel contains alumina-silica additives. It was detected by electron microprobe analysis that the improved retention of the mentioned fission products in the fuel kernel is caused by formation of the stable aluminosilicates SrAl2Si2O8, BaAl2Si2O8and CsAlSi2O6 in the additional alumina-silica phase of the kernel.

  11. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  12. Surface-engineered core-shell nano-size ferrites and their antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraliya, Jagdish D.; Joshi, Hiren H.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of biological study on core-shell structured MFe 2 O 4 (where M = Co, Mn, Ni) nanoparticles and influence of silica- DEG dual coating on their antimicrobial activity. Spherical MFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared via a Co-precipitation method. The microstructures and morphologies of these nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction and FTIR. The antimicrobial activity study carried out in nutrient agar medium with addition of antimicrobial synthesis compound which is tested for its activity against different types of bacteria

  13. Dynamic Behavior of Nano-Sized Particles in Novel Energetic Materials for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-11

    independent of direction); then I(rw,s) = Jwir^/ir, n • s > 0, (8) where Jw = enlb + pH (9) is the surface radiosity and the subscript w denotes a...of the surface radiosity yields G + 2q„ =4JW. (28) In addition to this relation, we require that the normal radiative heat flux is the sum of the...incident and reflected ( radiosity ) contributions: qn = Jw - H. (29) The incident radiation is eliminated in favor of the radiosity using (9) and the

  14. Polyol mediated nano size zinc oxide and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic nano ZnO particles have been synthesized in various diols (ethylene glycol – EG, 1,2 propane diol – PD, 1,4 butane diol – BD and tetra(ethylene glycol – TEG in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, p-TsOH, as an end capping agent. The addition of p-TsOH reduces the ZnO particle size and increases its crystallite size. With increasing diol main chain length the ZnO particle size increases (EG (32 nm < PD (33 nm < BD (72 nm < TEG (86 nm. Using the assynthesized and unmodified ZnO nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA, matrix have been prepared by the in-situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate, MMA. The addition of surface modifiers is avoided which is an advantage for the application since they can influence other properties of the material. ZnO particles, especially those with smaller particle sizes (EG – 32 nm, PD – 33 nm showed enhanced effect on the thermal stability of PMMA, ultraviolet, UV, absorption and transparency for visible light. Transparent materials with high UV absorption and with enhanced resistance to sunlight were obtained by optimizing the nanocomposite preparation procedure using ZnO particles of about 30 nm size in concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1 wt%. The reported nanocomposite preparation procedure is compatible with the industrial process of PMMA sheet production.

  15. Irradiation performance of coated fuel particles with fission product retaining kernel additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerthmann, R.

    1979-10-01

    The four irradiation experiments FRJ2-P17, FRJ2-P18, FRJ2-P19, and FRJ2-P20 for testing the efficiency of fission product-retaining kernel additives in coated fuel particles are described. The evaluation of the obtained experimental data led to the following results: - zirconia and alumina kernel additives are not suitable for an effective fission product retention in oxide fuel kernels, - alumina-silica kernel additives reduce the in-pile release of Sr 90 and Ba 140 from BISO-coated particles at temperatures of about 1200 0 C by two orders of magnitude, and the Cs release from kernels by one order of magnitude, - effective transport coefficients including all parameters which contribute to kernel release are given for (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide kernels and low enriched UO 2 kernels containing 5 wt.% alumina-silica additives: 10g sub(K)/cm 2 s -1 = - 36 028/T + 6,261 (Sr 90), 10g Dsub(K)/cm 2 c -2 = - 29 646/T + 5,826 (Cs 134/137), alumina-silica kernel additives are ineffective for retaining Ag 110 m in coated particles. However, also an intact SiC-interlayer was found not to be effective at temperatures above 1200 0 C, - the penetration of the buffer layer by fission product containing eutectic additive melt during irradiation can be avoided by using additives which consist of alumina and mullite without an excess of silica, - annealing of LASER-failed irradiated particles and the irradiation test FRJ12-P20 indicate that the efficiency of alumina-silica kernel additives is not altered if the coating becomes defect. (orig.) [de

  16. Rates and products of degradation for MTBE and other oxygenate fuel additives in the subsurface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Church, C.D.; Pankow, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The recent realization that oxygenated fuel additives such as MTBE are becoming widely distributed groundwater contaminants has created a sudden and pressing demand for data on the processes that control their environmental fate. Explaining and predicting the subsequent environmental fate of these compounds is going to require extrapolations over long time frames that will be very sensitive to the quality of input data on each compound. To provide such data, they have initiated a systematic study of the pathways and kinetics of fuel oxygenate degradation under subsurface conditions. Batch experiments in simplified model systems are being performed to isolate specific processes that may contribute to MTBE degradation. A variety of degradation pathways can be envisioned that lead to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary or secondary product. However, experiments to date with a facultative iron reducing bacteria showed no evidence for TBA formation. Continuing experiments include mixed cultures from a range of aquifer materials representative of NAWQA study sites

  17. Voltammetric determination of ultratrace levels of cerium(III) using a carbon paste electrode modified with nano-sized cerium-imprinted polymer and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Akhoundian, Maede; Norouzi, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode was modified with a Ce(III)-imprinted polymer (Ce-IP) and used for voltammetric determination of Ce(III) ions in real water samples. Precipitation polymerization was used for synthesis of the nano-sized Ce-IP from vinylpyridine and methacrylic acid (acting as the complexing ligands and functional monomers), divinylbenzene (cross-linker) and AIBN as the radical starter. The Ce-IP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and zeta potentials. A carbon paste electrode (CPE) was then impregnated with the Ce-IP and used for the extraction and subsequent determination of Ce(III). Oxidative square wave voltammetry showed the electrode to give a significantly better response than an electrode modified with the non-imprinted polymer. The addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the Ce-IP-modified electrode further improves the signal, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the method. The effects of electrode composition, extraction pH value, volume and time were optimized. The electrode, if operated at a voltage of 1.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), displays a linear response to Ce(III) in the 1.0 μM to 25 pM concentration range, and the detection limit is 10 pM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The relative standard deviation of 5 separate determinations is 3.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Ce(III) in the spiked samples of drinking water and sea water. (author)

  18. Effects of nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) on DDT degradation in soil and its toxicity to collembola and ostracods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Temsah, Yehia S; Joner, Erik J

    2013-06-01

    Nano-sized zero valent iron (nZVI) has been studied for in situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water. However, little is known about its effects on organisms in soil and aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the effect of nZVI on degradation of DDT and its ecotoxicological effects on collembola (Folsomia candida) and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens) were investigated. Two soils were used in suspension incubation experiments lasting for 7 and 30 d; a spiked (20 mg DDT kg(-1)) sandy soil and an aged (>50 years) DDT-polluted soil (24 mg DDT kg(-1)). These were incubated with 1 or 10 g nZVI kg(-1), and residual toxicity in soil and the aqueous phase tested using ecotoxicological tests with collembola or ostracods. Generally, addition of either concentration of nZVI to soil led to about 50% degradation of DDT in spiked soil at the end of 7 and 30 d incubation, while the degradation of DDT was less in aged DDT-polluted soil (24%). Severe negative effects of nZVI were observed on both test organisms after 7 d incubation, but prolonged incubation led to oxidation of nZVI which reduced its toxic effects on the tested organisms. On the other hand, DDT had significant negative effects on collembolan reproduction and ostracod development. We conclude that 1 g nZVI kg(-1) was efficient for significant DDT degradation in spiked soil, while a higher concentration was necessary for treating aged pollutants in soil. The adverse effects of nZVI on tested organisms seem temporary and reduced after oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental study of hydrogen as a fuel additive in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saanum, Inge

    2008-07-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines results in emissions that can be harmful both to human health and to the environment. Although the engine technology is improving, the emissions of NO{sub x}, PM and UHC are still challenging. Besides, the overall consumption of fossil fuel and hence the emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing because of the increasing number of vehicles. This has lead to a focus on finding alternative fuels and alternative technologies that may result in lower emissions of harmful gases and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. This thesis treats various topics that are relevant when using blends of fuels in different internal combustion engine technologies, with a particular focus on using hydrogen as a fuel additive. The topics addressed are especially the ones that impact the environment, such as emissions of harmful gases and thermal efficiency (fuel consumption). The thesis is based on experimental work performed at four different test rigs: 1. A dynamic combustion rig with optical access to the combustion chamber where spark ignited premixed combustion could be studied by means of a Schlieren optical setup and a high speed video camera. 2. A spark ignition natural gas engine rig with an optional exhaust gas recycling system. 3. A 1-cylinder diesel engine prepared for homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. 4. A 6-cylinder standard diesel engine The engine rigs were equipped with cylinder pressure sensors, engine dynamometers, exhaust gas analyzers etc. to enable analyses of the effects of different fuels. The effect of hydrogen blended with methane and natural gas in spark ignited premixed combustion was investigated in the dynamic combustion rig and in a natural gas engine. In the dynamic combustion rig, the effect of hydrogen added to methane on the flame speed and the flame structure was investigated at elevated pressure and temperature. A considerable increase in the flame speed was observed when adding 30 vol

  20. Effect of oxygenate additive on diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions operating with biodiesel-diesel blend at idling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, F. Y.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Yusri, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine but idling is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. Vehicles running with idling condition cause higher fuel supply and higher emission level due to being having fuel residues in the exhaust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additive on fuel consumption and emissions parameters under idling conditions when a multicylinder diesel engine operates with the diesel-biodiesel blend. The study found that using 5% butanol as an additive with B5 (5% Palm biodiesel + 95% diesel) blends fuel lowers brake specific fuel consumption and CO emissions by 38% and 20% respectively. But the addition of butanol increases NOx and CO2 emissions. Based on the result it can be said that 5% butanol can be used in a diesel engine with B5 without any engine modifications to tackle the idling problem.

  1. Thermal stability and filterability of jet fuels containing PDR additives in small-scale tests and realistic rig simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauldreay, J.M.; Clark, R.H.; Heins, R.J. [Shell Research, Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Specification, small-scale and realistic fuel simulation tests have addressed concerns about the impact of pipeline drag reducer (PDR) flow modifying additives on jet fuel handling and performance. A typical PDR additive tended to block filters which were similar to those used in the specification Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) and other thermal stability test apparatus. Blockages reduced flow rates and PDR concentrations downstream of the filters. Consequently two PDR additives (A&B) were tested in JFTOT apparatus without the usual in-line pre-filters as part of a Ministry of Defense (MoD) co-ordinated Round Robin exercise. Some fuel/PDR additive combinations caused decreases in JFTOT breakpoints. Effects were additive- (type, concentration and degree of shear) and fuel-dependent; most failures were caused by filter blockages and not by a failing lacquer rating. In further work at Thornton, the thermal stability characteristics of similar fuel/additive combinations have been examined in non-specification tests. In Flask Oxidation Tests, PDR additives caused no significant increase in the liquid phase oxidation rates of the fuels. Additives were tested in the Single Tube Heat Transfer Rig (STHTR) which duplicates many of the conditions of a heat exchanger element in an engine`s fuel supply system. B produced an average two-fold decrease in thermal stability in a Merox fuel; A had no significant effect. In hydrotreated fuel, B reduced the thermal stability up to five-fold. A had little effect below 205{degrees}C, while at higher temperatures there may have been a marginal improvement in thermal stability. Again, certain jet fuel/PDR combinations were seen to reduce thermal stability.

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Use of Waste Mineral Oils as a Fuel with Organic-Based Mn Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Özdalyan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste minerals oils as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12, and 16 ppm improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement was observed with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.

  3. Characterization of coke deposited on nano-sized Pt-Pd/H-beta spent during long-chain paraffin hydroisomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Einicke, W.D.; Ficht, K.; Glaeser, R. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Bertmer, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Experimental Physics II; Kuchling, T. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    The hydroisomerization of long-chain n-paraffins were studied in the temperature range 205- 230 C at p{sub H2}=50 bar using a bench scale trickle-bed continuous-flow reactor. The bimetallic catalysts consisted of mixtures of platinum and palladium supported on commercially available nano-sized zeolites Beta (n{sub Si}/n{sub Al} = 12 and 25) extruded with a binder ({gamma}-alumina). For hexadecane conversion, high yields to isomers (25 and 45 wt.% of mono- and multibranched isomers, respectively) without extensive cracking (>10 wt.%) were obtained at a conversion of 80 %. Long-term tests with C{sub 16}H{sub 34} and blends of solid n-paraffins for 30-60 days on stream clearly indicate that a minor loss in catalyst activity can easily be compensated by increasing the reaction temperature from 230 C to 235 C. The zeolite sample with a 'mild acidity' revealed low hydrocracking at isomerization yield up to 70 wt.% and high stability. Carbonaceous deposits formed during n-paraffin hydroisomerization were investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation, elemental analysis, ATR-FTIR and {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy showing the formation of low-temperature, hydrogen-rich coke. (orig.)

  4. Design and formulation of nano-sized spray dried efavirenz-part I: influence of formulation parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katata, Lebogang, E-mail: lebzakate@yahoo.com; Tshweu, Lesego; Naidoo, Saloshnee; Kalombo, Lonji; Swai, Hulda [Materials Science and Manufacturing, Centre of Polymers and Composites, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (South Africa)

    2012-11-15

    Efavirenz (EFV) is one of the first-line antiretroviral drugs recommended by the World Health Organisation for treating HIV. It is a hydrophobic drug that suffers from low aqueous solubility (4 {mu}g/mL), which leads to a limited oral absorption and low bioavailability. In order to improve its oral bioavailability, nano-sized polymeric delivery systems are suggested. Spray dried polycaprolactone-efavirenz (PCL-EFV) nanoparticles were prepared by the double emulsion method. The Taguchi method, a statistical design with an L{sub 8} orthogonal array, was implemented to optimise the formulation parameters of PCL-EFV nanoparticles. The types of sugar (lactose or trehalose), surfactant concentration and solvent (dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) were chosen as significant parameters affecting the particle size and polydispersity index (PDI). Small nanoparticles with an average particle size of less than 254 {+-} 0.95 nm in the case of ethyl acetate as organic solvent were obtained as compared to more than 360 {+-} 19.96 nm for dichloromethane. In this study, the type of solvent and sugar were the most influencing parameters of the particle size and PDI. Taguchi method proved to be a quick, valuable tool in optimising the particle size and PDI of PCL-EFV nanoparticles. The optimised experimental values for the nanoparticle size and PDI were 217 {+-} 2.48 nm and 0.093 {+-} 0.02.

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nano-Size Zirconium Carbide Dispersion Strengthened Tungsten Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhuoming; Liu Rui; Fang Qianfeng; Zhang Tao; Jiang Yan; Wang Xianping; Liu Changsong

    2015-01-01

    W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC alloys with a relative density above 97.5% were fabricated through the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The grain size of W-1.0wt% ZrC is about 2.7 μm, smaller than that of pure W and W-(0.2, 0.5)wt% ZrC. The results indicated that the W-ZrC alloys exhibit higher hardness at room temperature, higher tensile strength at high temperature, and a lower ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) than pure W. The tensile strength and total elongation of W-0.5wt% ZrC alloy at 700 °C is 535 MPa and 24.8%, which are respectively 59% and 114% higher than those of pure W (337 MPa, 11.6%). The DBTT of W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC materials is in the range of 500°C–600°C, which is about 100 °C lower than that of pure W. Based on microstructure analysis, the improved mechanical properties of the W-ZrC alloys were suggested to originate from the enhanced grain boundary cohesion by ZrC capturing the impurity oxygen in tungsten and nano-size ZrC dispersion strengthening. (paper)

  6. Toxicological evaluation of nano-sized colloidal silver in experiments on mice. behavioral reactions, morphology of internals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of toxicity studies of nano-sized colloidal silver (NCC, the most widely used in medicine, food and life, are given. When evaluating safe doses of silver NP (using commercially available NCC solution stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, with the size of silver NP at the range of 5-80 nm when orally administered to male mice, BALB/c mice at doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight per silver different effects from the motor and orienting-exploratory activity were revealed, for the part of them the dependence on the dose of the NCC was typical. The following peculiarities were found: reduction in motor activity to reduce the frequency of activities requiring physical effort, reduction of the execution time of these actions; increasing anxiety in terms of frequency and duration of attacks of orienting-investigative activity and animals washing. Morphological examination revealed a series of tissue changes of internal organs (especially liver and spleen, to a lesser extent – kidney, heart and colon with increase of the spectrum and severity of structural changes with increasing doses of the NCC. From the combination of the data the conclusion was made that maximal ineffective dose (NOAEL of this nanomaterial at subacute oral administration is no more than 0.1 mg/kg body weight.

  7. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  8. Magnetic high throughput screening system for the development of nano-sized molecularly imprinted polymers for controlled delivery of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Abd, Bashar H; Krakowiak, Agata S; Parmar, Anitha; Pink, Demi L; Wall, Katie S; Wharton, Luke; Moczko, Ewa; Whitcombe, Michael J; Karim, Kal; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2015-05-07

    Curcumin is a versatile anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent known for its low bioavailability, which could be improved by developing materials capable of binding and releasing drug in a controlled fashion. The present study describes the preparation of magnetic nano-sized Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (nanoMIPs) for the controlled delivery of curcumin and their high throughput characterisation using microtitre plates modified with magnetic inserts. NanoMIPs were synthesised using functional monomers chosen with the aid of molecular modelling. The rate of release of curcumin from five polymers was studied under aqueous conditions and was found to correlate well with the binding energies obtained computationally. The presence of specific monomers was shown to be significant in ensuring effective binding of curcumin and to the rate of release obtained. Characterisation of the polymer particles was carried out using dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to establish the relationship between irradiation time and particle size. The protocols optimised during this study could be used as a blueprint for the development of nanoMIPs capable of the controlled release of potentially any compound of interest.

  9. Micro-/Nano- sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhou, Gang; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-03-01

    Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials provides a new way for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. Nano-biomaterials are highlighted due to their advantageous features compared with conventional micro-materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite (μ/n-HA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). μ/n-HA were prepared by a microwave synthesizer and precipitation method, respectively. Different sizes of μ/n-HA were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and co-cultured with rBMSCs. It was shown that rBMSCs expressed higher levels of osteoblast-related markers by n-HA than μ-HA stimulation. The size of HA is an important factor for affecting the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. This provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated cells.

  10. Preparation of Nano-sized Bismuth-Doped Fe3O4 as an Excellent Magnetic Material for Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mustafa; Karimzadeh, Isa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2018-03-01

    Nano-sized Bi3+-doped iron oxide (n-Bi-IO) particles were prepared through a one-pot electrochemical procedure, and the product was evaluated using x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Based on the analyses, the average size of the n-Bi-IO was determined to be 10 nm. Galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) evaluations revealed that the specific capacitance of the material reached 235 F g-1 at a discharge condition of 0.2 A g-1. n-Bi-IO had a 94.2% capacity retention after 2000 GCD cycles. Further vibrating sample magnetometery analyses showed that the product has enhanced superparamagnetic qualities (i.e. M r = 0.15 emu g-1 and H Ci = 2.71 G) in comparison to iron oxide nanoparticles (i.e. M r = 0.95 emu g-1 and H Ci = 14.62 G). Given the results, the product is considered to be a promising material for developing high performance supercapacitor electrodes.

  11. Novel polyoxometalate silica nano-sized spheres: efficient catalysts for olefin oxidation and the deep desulfurization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucie S; Ribeiro, Susana; Granadeiro, Carlos M; Pereira, Eulália; Feio, Gabriel; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Balula, Salete S

    2014-07-07

    A novel method to prepare silica nano-sized particles incorporating polyoxometalates was developed leading to a new efficient heterogeneous oxidative catalyst. Zinc-substituted polyoxotungstate [PW11Zn(H2O)O39](5-) (PW11Zn) was encapsulated into silica nanoparticles using a cross-linked organic-inorganic core, performed through successive spontaneous reactions in water. The potassium salt of PW11Zn and the composite formed, PW11Zn-APTES@SiO2, were characterized by a myriad of solid-state methods such as FT-IR, FT-Raman, (31)P and (13)C CP/MAS solid-state NMR, elemental analysis and SEM-EDS, confirming the integrity of the PW11Zn structure immobilized in the silica nanoparticles. The new composite has shown to be a versatile catalyst for the oxidation of olefins and also to catalyze the desulfurization of a model oil using H2O2 as the oxidant and acetonitrile as the solvent. The novel composite material was capable of being recycled without significant loss of activity and maintaining its structural stability for consecutive desulfurization and olefin oxidative cycles.

  12. Thermal analyses to assess diffusion kinetics in the nano-sized interspaces between the growing crystals of a glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotheringham, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.fotheringham@schott.com [SCHOTT AG, 55014 Mainz (Germany); Wurth, Roman; Ruessel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Jena (Germany)

    2011-08-10

    Highlights: {yields} Macroscopic, routine laboratory methods of the 'Thermal Analysis' type (DSC, DMA) allow a rough description of the kinetics in the nano-sized interstitial spaces of glass ceramics. {yields} These macroscopic measurements support the idea of a rigid zone around the crystals which builds up during ceramization and is part of a negative feedback loop which finally stops crystal growth and Ostwald ripening within the time window of observation. {yields} Ostwald ripening may be provoked by thermally softening said rigid zone. Under certain conditions, this gives rise to a characteristic peak in the DSC. - Abstract: According to a hypothesis by Ruessel and coworkers, the absence of Ostwald ripening during isothermal crystallization of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) and other glass ceramics indicates the existence of a kinetic hindrance of atomic reorganization in the interstitial spaces between the crystals. Methods of Thermal Analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)) which are sensitive to the local atomic rearrangements in the interstitial spaces (including viscous flow) are applied to find support for the idea of kinetic hindrance and the formation of a core shell structure acting as diffusion barrier. Both the DSC-measured calorimetric glass transition and the DMA-measured viscoelastic properties indicate an increase in the time constants of atomic rearrangements and diffusion by at least two orders of magnitude during ceramization. This fits to the above idea. Based on these findings, thermo analytic studies have been performed in order to find out how Ostwald ripening may be provoked.

  13. Effect of microscopic structure on deformation in nano-sized copper and Cu/Si interfacial cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumigawa, Takashi, E-mail: sumigawa@cyber.kues.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nakano, Takuya; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the effect of microscopic structure on the mechanical properties of nano-sized components (nano-components). We developed a bending specimen with a substructure that can be observed by means of a transmission electron microscope (TEM). We examined the plastic behavior of a Cu bi-crystal and the Cu/Si interfacial cracking in a nano-component. TEM images indicated that an initial plastic deformation takes place near the interface edge (the junction between the Cu/Si interface and the surface) in the Cu film with a high critical resolved shear stress (400–420 MPa). The deformation developed preferentially in a single grain. Interfacial cracking took place at the intersection between the grain boundary and the Cu/Si interface, where a high stress concentration existed due to deformation mismatch. These results indicate that the characteristic mechanical behavior of a nano-component is governed by the microscopic stress field, which takes into account the crystallographic structure. - Highlights: ► A nano-component specimen including a bi-crystal copper layer was prepared. ► A loading test with in-situ transmission electron microscopy was conducted. ► The plastic and cracking behaviors were governed by microscopic stress. ► Stress defined under continuum assumption was still present in nano-components.

  14. Design and formulation of nano-sized spray dried efavirenz-part I: influence of formulation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katata, Lebogang; Tshweu, Lesego; Naidoo, Saloshnee; Kalombo, Lonji; Swai, Hulda

    2012-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is one of the first-line antiretroviral drugs recommended by the World Health Organisation for treating HIV. It is a hydrophobic drug that suffers from low aqueous solubility (4 μg/mL), which leads to a limited oral absorption and low bioavailability. In order to improve its oral bioavailability, nano-sized polymeric delivery systems are suggested. Spray dried polycaprolactone-efavirenz (PCL-EFV) nanoparticles were prepared by the double emulsion method. The Taguchi method, a statistical design with an L 8 orthogonal array, was implemented to optimise the formulation parameters of PCL-EFV nanoparticles. The types of sugar (lactose or trehalose), surfactant concentration and solvent (dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) were chosen as significant parameters affecting the particle size and polydispersity index (PDI). Small nanoparticles with an average particle size of less than 254 ± 0.95 nm in the case of ethyl acetate as organic solvent were obtained as compared to more than 360 ± 19.96 nm for dichloromethane. In this study, the type of solvent and sugar were the most influencing parameters of the particle size and PDI. Taguchi method proved to be a quick, valuable tool in optimising the particle size and PDI of PCL-EFV nanoparticles. The optimised experimental values for the nanoparticle size and PDI were 217 ± 2.48 nm and 0.093 ± 0.02.

  15. Controllable synthesis in a continuous mode of unsupported molybdenum catalysts with micro/nano size for heavy oil upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Hill, J.M.; Pereira Almao, P.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Heavy oils contain significant amounts of impurities compared to conventional oils, thereby posing a challenge for hydroprocessing operations at refineries. Hydrodesulfurization is one of the important reactions involved in hydroprocessing. Transition metal sulfides have excellent properties in terms of sulphur removal. Molybdenum based catalysts have been used extensively in the petroleum industry for hydrotreating heavy oil fractions. Supported molybdenum based catalysts suffer strong deactivation in the traditional hydrotreating process due to the deposition of carbonaceous components on the surface of the catalyst when they are used in conventional fixed bed reactors. Unsupported catalysts have higher catalytic activity with better metal dispersion. Laboratory experiments were conducted in which micro/nano size unsupported molybdenum catalysts were synthesized from a water/oil emulsion. The catalysts were prepared in a continuous mode for online application to hydroprocessing or in situ upgrading. Dispersed molybdenum catalysts are more suitable for processing heavier feeds because they are less prone to deactivation. Also, their submicron size ensure high activities due to a large specific surface area. They are also sufficiently small to be readily dispersed in the residual oil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. MSINDO quantum chemical modeling study of water molecule adsorption at nano-sized anatase TiO2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Hilal S.; Bredow, Thomas; Aliwi, Salah M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we studied the adsorption of water molecule onto the (1 0 0), (0 1 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces of nano-sized anatase TiO 2 with semiempirical SCF MO method, MSINDO. The anatase TiO 2 particles are modeled with free clusters (TiO 2 ) n, where n = 20-80. Whereas, the surfaces have been modeled with two saturated clusters, Ti 21 O 58 H 32 and Ti 36 O 90 H 36 . The surface lattice fivefold coordinated titanium atoms (Ti 5C ), which represent the Lewis acid sites, are selected as adsorption centers. We also investigated the effect of TiO 2 cluster size on the computed band gap energy. Results reveal that the electronic properties of a cluster in the lowest excited state differ from that of the ground state. Furthermore, the MSINDO band gap energies of 3.68-3.77 eV for the anatase TiO 2 are in a fair accordance with other literature data. In agreement with other computational and experimental studies, the dissociated form of water molecule adsorption on anatase TiO 2 surfaces is always more stabilized than the molecular form

  17. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-08-25

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  18. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  19. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction. PMID:26307983

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite and fluorhydroxyapatite nano-size powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazeri, Leila; Javadpour, Jafar; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin; Javadian, Sayfoddin

    2010-01-01

    Pure hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluoride-containing apatite powders (FHAp) were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. The powders were assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and F-selective electrode. X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of single phase apatite structure for all the compositions synthesized in this work. However, the addition of a fluoride ion led to a systematic shift in the (3 0 0) peak of the XRD pattern as well as modifications in the FTIR spectra. It was found that the efficiency of fluoride ion incorporation decreased with the increase in the fluoride ion content. Fluorine incorporation efficiency was around 60% for most of the FHAp samples prepared in the current study. Smaller and less agglomerated particles were obtained by fluorine substitution. The bioactivity of the powder samples with different fluoride contents was compared by performing cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red staining assays. Human osteoblast cells were used to assess the cellular responses to the powder samples in this study. Results demonstrated a strong dependence of different cell activities on the level of fluoridation.

  1. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  2. Nano-size metallic oxide particle synthesis in Fe-Cr alloys by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Delauche, L.; Arnal, B.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles are advanced structural materials for nuclear and thermonuclear reactors. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides can help in improving mechanical properties of ODS steels, with a strong impact for their commercialization. A perfect tool to study these mechanisms is ion implantation, where various precipitate synthesis parameters are under control. In the framework of this approach, high-purity Fe-10Cr alloy samples were consecutively implanted with Al and O ions at room temperature and demonstrated a number of unexpected features. For example, oxide particles of a few nm in diameter could be identified in the samples already after ion implantation at room temperature. This is very unusual for ion beam synthesis, which commonly requires post-implantation high-temperature annealing to launch precipitation. The observed particles were composed of aluminium and oxygen, but additionally contained one of the matrix elements (chromium). The crystal structure of aluminium oxide compound corresponds to non-equilibrium cubic γ-Al2O3 phase rather than to more common corundum. The obtained experimental results together with the existing literature data give insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides in ODS alloys.

  3. Increase of thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel pellets with beryllium oxide addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarano, D.M.; Mansur, F.A.; Santos, A.M.M. dos; Ferraz, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    The UO_2 fuel is one of the most used nuclear fuel in thermal reactors and has many advantages such as high melting point, chemical compatibility with cladding, etc. However, its thermal conductivity is relatively low, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel pellets due to a high radial temperature gradient during reactor operation. An alternative to avoid this problem is to increase the thermal conductivity of the fuel pellets, by adding beryllium oxide (BeO). Pellets of UO_2 and UO_2-BeO were obtained from a homogenized mixture of powders of UO_2 and BeO, containing 2% and 3% by weight of BeO and sintering at 1750 °C for 3 h under H_2 atmosphere after uniaxial pressing at 400 MPa. The pellet densities were obtained by xylol penetration-immersion method and the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined according to ASTM E-1461 at room temperature (25 deg C) and 100 deg C. The thermal diffusivity measurements were carried out employing the laser flash method. The thermal conductivity obtained at 25 deg C showed an increase with the addition of 2% and 3% of BeO corresponding to 19% and 28%, respectively. As for the measurements carried out at 100 deg C, there was an increase in the thermal conductivity for the same BeO contents of 20% and 31%. These values as a percentage of increased conductivity were obtained in relation to the UO_2 pellets. (author)

  4. NOx formation from the combustion of monodisperse n-heptane sprays doped with fuel-nitrogen additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarv, Hamid; Cernansky, Nicholas P.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments with simulated synthetic fuels were conducted in order to investigate the effect of droplet size on the conversion of fuel-nitrogen to NOx. Pyridine and pyrrole were added to n-heptane as nitrogen-containing additives and burned as monodisperse fuel droplets under various operating conditions in a spray combustion facility. The experimental results indicate that under stoichiometric and fuel-rich conditions, reducing the droplet size increases the efficiency of fuel-N conversion to NOx. This observation is associated with improved oxidation of the pyrolysis fragments of the additive by better oxygen penetration through the droplet flame zone. The dominant reactions by which fuel-N is transformed to NOx were also considered analytically by a premixed laminar flame code. The calculations are compared to the small droplet size results.

  5. Effects of experimental fuel additions on fire intensity and severity: unexpected carbon resilience of a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo M; Oliveria-Santos, Claudinei; Rocha, Wanderley; Cury, Roberta; Coe, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    Global changes and associated droughts, heat waves, logging activities, and forest fragmentation may intensify fires in Amazonia by altering forest microclimate and fuel dynamics. To isolate the effects of fuel loads on fire behavior and fire-induced changes in forest carbon cycling, we manipulated fine fuel loads in a fire experiment located in southeast Amazonia. We predicted that a 50% increase in fine fuel loads would disproportionally increase fire intensity and severity (i.e., tree mortality and losses in carbon stocks) due to multiplicative effects of fine fuel loads on the rate of fire spread, fuel consumption, and burned area. The experiment followed a fully replicated randomized block design (N = 6) comprised of unburned control plots and burned plots that were treated with and without fine fuel additions. The fuel addition treatment significantly increased burned area (+22%) and consequently canopy openness (+10%), fine fuel combustion (+5%), and mortality of individuals ≥5 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh; +37%). Surprisingly, we observed nonsignificant effects of the fuel addition treatment on fireline intensity, and no significant differences among the three treatments for (i) mortality of large trees (≥30 cm dbh), (ii) aboveground forest carbon stocks, and (iii) soil respiration. It was also surprising that postfire tree growth and wood increment were higher in the burned plots treated with fuels than in the unburned control. These results suggest that (i) fine fuel load accumulation increases the likelihood of larger understory fires and (ii) single, low-intensity fires weakly influence carbon cycling of this primary neotropical forest, although delayed postfire mortality of large trees may lower carbon stocks over the long term. Overall, our findings indicate that increased fine fuel loads alone are unlikely to create threshold conditions for high-intensity, catastrophic fires during nondrought years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project multi-canister overpack, additional NRC requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), established in the K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Regulatory Policy, dated August 4, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the Policy), the requirement for new Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities to achieve nuclear safety equivalency to comparable US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facilities. For activities other than during transport, when the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) is used and resides in the Canister Storage Building (CSB), Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility or Hot Conditioning System, additional NRC requirements will also apply to the MCO based on the safety functions it performs and its interfaces with the SNF Project facilities. An evaluation was performed in consideration of the MCO safety functions to identify any additional NRC requirements needed, in combination with the existing and applicable DOE requirements, to establish nuclear safety equivalency for the MCO. The background, basic safety issues and general comparison of NRC and DOE requirements for the SNF Project are presented in WHC-SD-SNF-DB-002

  7. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wiencek, T.; O' Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cheon, J.S.; Lee, B.O. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (∼50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  8. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O' Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (~50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  9. Analysis of blended fuel properties and cycle-to-cycle variation in a diesel engine with a diethyl ether additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Obed M.; Mamat, Rizalman; Masjuki, H.H.; Abdullah, Abdul Adam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Viability of diethyl ether additive to improve palm biodiesel–diesel blend. • Numerical analysis of engine cyclic variation at different additive ratios. • Physicochemical properties of the blends improved with diethyl ether additive. • Blended fuel heating value is significantly affected. • Blended fuel with 4% diethyl ether shows comparable engine cyclic variation to diesel. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of adding small portions of a diethyl ether additive to biodiesel–diesel blended fuel (B30) was investigated. This study includes an evaluation of the fuel properties and a combustion analysis, specifically, an analysis of the cyclic variations in diesel engines. The amount of additive used with B30 is 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume). The experimental engine test was conducted at 2500 rpm which produce maximum torque, and the in-cylinder pressure data were collected over 200 consecutive engine cycles for each test. The indicated mean effective pressure time series is analyzed using the coefficient of variation and the wavelet analysis method. The test results for the properties show a slight improvement in density and acid value with a significant decrease in the viscosity, pour point and cloud point of the blended fuel with an 8% additive ratio by 26.5%, 4 °C and 3 °C, respectively, compared with blended fuel without additive. However, the heating value is reduced by approximately 4% with increasing the additive ratio to 8%. From the wavelet power spectrum, it is observed that the intermediate and long-term periodicities appear in diesel fuel, while the short-period oscillations become intermittently visible in pure blended fuel. The coefficient of variation for B30 was the lowest and increased as the additive ratios increased, which agrees with the wavelet analysis results. Furthermore, the spectral power increased with an increase in the additive ratio, indicating that the additive has a noticeable effect on increasing the

  10. Process for the production of fuel combined articles for addition in block shaped high temperature fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L.

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a process for the production of fuel compacts consisting of an isotropic, radiation-resistant graphite matrix of good heat conductivity having embedded therein coated fuel and/or fertile particles for insertion into high temperature fuel elements by providing the coated fuel and/or fertile particles with an overcoat of molding mixture consisting of graphite powder and a thermoplastic resin binder. The particles after the overcoating are provided with hardener and lubricant only on the surface and subsequently are compressed in a die heated to a constant temperature of about 150 0 C, hardened and discharged therefrom as finished compacts

  11. 76 FR 17037 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ...-0007] RIN 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY... or the Commission) is proposing to amend its spent fuel storage cask regulations to add the HI-STORM...: June 13, 2011. SAR Submitted by: Holtec International, Inc. SAR Title: Safety Analysis Report on the HI...

  12. Nano-Sized Structurally Disordered Metal Oxide Composite Aerogels as High-Power Anodes in Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haijian; Wang, Xing; Tervoort, Elena; Zeng, Guobo; Liu, Tian; Chen, Xi; Sologubenko, Alla; Niederberger, Markus

    2018-03-27

    A general method for preparing nano-sized metal oxide nanoparticles with highly disordered crystal structure and their processing into stable aqueous dispersions is presented. With these nanoparticles as building blocks, a series of nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite aerogels are fabricated and directly used as high-power anodes for lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (Li-HSCs). To clarify the effect of the degree of disorder, control samples of crystalline nanoparticles with similar particle size are prepared. The results indicate that the structurally disordered samples show a significantly enhanced electrochemical performance compared to the crystalline counterparts. In particular, structurally disordered Ni x Fe y O z @rGO delivers a capacity of 388 mAh g -1 at 5 A g -1 , which is 6 times that of the crystalline sample. Disordered Ni x Fe y O z @rGO is taken as an example to study the reasons for the enhanced performance. Compared with the crystalline sample, density functional theory calculations reveal a smaller volume expansion during Li + insertion for the structurally disordered Ni x Fe y O z nanoparticles, and they are found to exhibit larger pseudocapacitive effects. Combined with an activated carbon (AC) cathode, full-cell tests of the lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors are performed, demonstrating that the structurally disordered metal oxide nanoparticles@rGO||AC hybrid systems deliver high energy and power densities within the voltage range of 1.0-4.0 V. These results indicate that structurally disordered nanomaterials might be interesting candidates for exploring high-power anodes for Li-HSCs.

  13. Radical change of Zn speciation in pig slurry amended soil: Key role of nano-sized sulfide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, Thiago Augusto; Legros, Samuel; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Pinheiro, Adilson; Le Bars, Maureen; Levard, Clément; Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; da Veiga, Milton; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects. Nevertheless, long-term field studies assessing Zn speciation in the organic waste matrix, as well as within the soil after manure application, are lacking. This study was designed to fill this gap. Using SEM-EDS and XAS analysis, we reported the following new results: (i) ZnS made up 100% of the Zn speciation in the pig slurry (the highest proportion of ZnS ever observed in organic waste); and (ii) ZnS aggregates were about 1-μm diameter (the smallest particle size ever reported in pig slurry). Moreover, the pig slurry containing ZnS was spread on the soil over an 11-year period, totaling 22 applications, and the resulting Zn speciation within the amended soil was analyzed. Surprisingly, ZnS, i.e. the only species responsible for a nearly 2-fold increase in the Zn concentration within the amended soil, was not detected in this soil. Based on SEM-EDS and XAS observations, we put forward the hypothesis that Zn in the pig slurry consisted of nano-sized ZnS crystallites that further aggregated. The low stability of ZnS nanoparticles within oxic and complex environments such as the studied soil was the key explanation for the radical change in pig slurry-borne Zn speciation after long-term amendments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of Additive-Powder Characteristics for Metallic Micro-Cell UO{sub 2} Fuel Pellet Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The improvement in the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet can enhance the fuel performance in various aspects. The mobility of the fission gases is reduced by the lower temperature gradient in the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet. That is to say, the capability of the fission gas retention of the fuel pellet can increase. In addition, the lower centerline temperature of the fuel pellet affects the accident tolerance for nuclear fuel as well as the enhancement of fuel safety and fuel pellet integrity under normal operation conditions. The nuclear reactor power can be uprated owing to the higher safety margin. Thus, many researches on enhancing the thermal conductivity of a nuclear fuel pellet for LWRs have been performed. Typically, an enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet can be obtained by the addition of a higher thermal conductive material in the fuel pellet. To maximize the effect of the thermal conductivity enhancement, a continuous and uniform channel of the thermal conductive material in the UO{sub 2} matrix must be formed. To enhance the thermal conductivity of a UO{sub 2} fuel pellet, the development of fabrication process of a Cr metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} pellet with a continuous and uniform channel of the Cr metallic phase was carried out. The formation of the Cr-oxide phases was prevented and the uniformity of the Cr-metal phase distribution was enhanced simultaneously, through the optimization of the additive-powder characteristics. In the results, the Cr metallic micro-cell pellet with continuous and uniform Cr metallic channel could be obtained.

  15. Microstructure and properties of SA 106B carbon steel after treatment of the melt with nano-sized TiC particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Ju; Hong, Sung-Mo; Park, Eun-Kwang; Kim, Kyeong-Yeol; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon steel dispersed with nano-sized TiC ceramic particles was fabricated using the liquid metal casting process by means of their ex-situ introduction. For this purpose, the nano-sized TiC powders with an initial average size of 40 nm were first mechanically activated with two metal powders (Fe, Ni) and then introduced externally into the molten carbon steel during the casting process. According to the chemical composition analysis, 90% of the initial TiC nanoparticles were discovered within the cast carbon steel. Compared to cast carbon steel without TiC nanoparticles, the grain size refinement and mechanical property enhancement were achieved. Atom probe tomographic analysis revealed that the TiC nanoparticles were approximately 30 nm in size in the carbon steel matrix with a number density of 1.49×10 21 m −3

  16. Nano-sized LiFePO4/C composite with core-shell structure as cathode material for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Li, Ying; Hu, Yemin; Zhu, Mingyuan; Jin, Hongming; Li, Wenxian

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized LiFePO4/C composite with core-shell structure was fabricated via a well-designed approach as cathode material forlithium ion battery. The nano-sized LiFePO4/C composite with whole carbon shell coating layer showed an excellent electrical performance. - Abstract: Nano-sized composite with LiFePO 4 -core and carbon-shell was synthesized via a facile route followed by heat treatment at 650 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the core is well crystallized LiFePO 4 . The electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) observations show that the core-shell structured LiFePO 4 /C composite coating with whole carbon shell layer of ∼2.8 nm, possesses a specific surface area of 51 m 2 g −1 . As cathode material for lithium ion battery, the core-shell LiFePO 4 /C composite exhibits high initial capacity of 161 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C, excellent high-rate discharge capacity of 135 mAh g −1 at 5 C and perfect cycling retention of 99.6% at 100 th cycle. All these promising results should be contributed to the core-shell nanostructure which prevents collapse of the particle structure in the long-term charge and discharge cycles, as well as the large surface area of the nano-sized LiFePO 4 /C composite which enhances the electronic conductivity and shortens the distance of lithium ion diffusion

  17. Development of computer code SIMPSEX for simulation of FBR fuel reprocessing flowsheets: II. additional benchmarking results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Koganti, S.B.

    2003-07-01

    Benchmarking and application of a computer code SIMPSEX for high plutonium FBR flowsheets was reported recently in an earlier report (IGC-234). Improvements and recompilation of the code (Version 4.01, March 2003) required re-validation with the existing benchmarks as well as additional benchmark flowsheets. Improvements in the high Pu region (Pu Aq >30 g/L) resulted in better results in the 75% Pu flowsheet benchmark. Below 30 g/L Pu Aq concentration, results were identical to those from the earlier version (SIMPSEX Version 3, code compiled in 1999). In addition, 13 published flowsheets were taken as additional benchmarks. Eleven of these flowsheets have a wide range of feed concentrations and few of them are β-γ active runs with FBR fuels having a wide distribution of burnup and Pu ratios. A published total partitioning flowsheet using externally generated U(IV) was also simulated using SIMPSEX. SIMPSEX predictions were compared with listed predictions from conventional SEPHIS, PUMA, PUNE and PUBG. SIMPSEX results were found to be comparable and better than the result from above listed codes. In addition, recently reported UREX demo results along with AMUSE simulations are also compared with SIMPSEX predictions. Results of the benchmarking SIMPSEX with these 14 benchmark flowsheets are discussed in this report. (author)

  18. Enhanced electrochemical performance of nano-sized LiFePO4/C synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Youyong; Cao Chuanbao

    2010-01-01

    A simple and effective method, the ultrasonic-assisted co-precipitation method, was employed to synthesize nano-sized LiFePO 4 /C. A glucose solution was used as the carbon source to produce in situ carbon to improve the conductivity of LiFePO 4 . Ultrasonic irradiation was adopted to control the size and homogenize the LiFePO 4 /C particles. The sample was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). FE-SEM and TEM show that the as-prepared sample has a reduced particle size with a uniform size distribution, which is around 50 nm. A uniform amorphous carbon layer with a thickness of about 4-6 nm on the particle surface was observed, as shown in the HRTEM image. The electrochemical performance was demonstrated by the charge-discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectra measurements. The results indicate that the nano-sized LiFePO 4 /C presents enhanced discharge capacities (159, 147 and 135 mAh g -1 at 0.1, 0.5 and 2 C-rate, respectively) and stable cycling performance. This study offers a simple method to design and synthesis nano-sized cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Effects of ultrasonic vibration on microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-sized SiC particles reinforced Al-5Cu composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyu; Lü, Shulin; Wu, Shusen; Gao, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic vibration (UV) treatment has been successfully applied to improve the particles distribution of nano-sized SiC particles (SiC p ) reinforced Al-5Cu alloy matrix composites which were prepared by combined processes of dry high energy ball milling and squeeze casting. When UV treatment is applied, the distribution of nano-sized SiC p has been greatly improved. After UV for 1 min, large particles aggregates are broken up into small aggregates due to effects of cavitation and the acoustic streaming. After UV for 5 min, all the particles aggregates are dispersed and the particles are uniformly distributed in the composites. Compared with the Al-5Cu matrix alloy, the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the 1 wt% nano-sized SiC p /Al-5Cu composites treated by UV for 5 min are 270 MPa, 173 MPa and 13.3%, which are increased by 7.6%, 6.8% and 29%, respectively. The improvements of mechanical properties after UV are attributed to the uniform distribution of nano particles, grain refinement of aluminum matrix alloy and reduction of porosity in the composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to nano-size titanium dioxide causes oxidative damages in human mesothelial cells: The crystal form rather than size of particle contributes to cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kenji; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Morii, Akane; Noguchi, Takumi; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-10-14

    Exposure to nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes has been shown to cause pleural mesothelioma similar to that caused by asbestos, and has become an environmental health issue. Not only is the percutaneous absorption of nano-size titanium dioxide particles frequently considered problematic, but the possibility of absorption into the body through the pulmonary route is also a concern. Nevertheless, there are few reports of nano-size titanium dioxide particles on respiratory organ exposure and dynamics or on the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we focused on the morphology as well as the size of titanium dioxide particles. In comparing the effects between nano-size anatase and rutile titanium dioxide on human-derived pleural mesothelial cells, the anatase form was shown to be actively absorbed into cells, producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to DNA. In contrast, we showed for the first time that the rutile form is not easily absorbed by cells and, therefore, does not cause oxidative DNA damage and is significantly less damaging to cells. These results suggest that with respect to the toxicity of titanium dioxide particles on human-derived mesothelial cells, the crystal form rather than the particle size has a greater effect on cellular absorption. Also, it was indicated that the difference in absorption is the primary cause of the difference in the toxicity against mesothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Furfural and other furane-derivates as diesel fuel additives. Furfural und andere Furanderivate als Zusatz zum Dieselkraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemling, O.

    1982-01-01

    Alternative energies such as fuel additives or fuel-substitutes are on their way upwards as they may help to reduce the dependency on crude and crude-based fuels. A number of solutions has already been indicated for carburettor engines whereas a lot more of research and development is needed to find a safe alternative to diesel fuels. Possibilities of using furfural, furfuralcohol and furan-2-carbonic acid-methylester as additives to diesel or as a substitute were investigated. A survey on the characteristic properties of these substances is given, then several tests are set up in order to describe the properties of diesel additive mixtures at low temperatures. Based on these tests two mixtures are proposed both with a furfural/butanole mixture. Furfural is suitable as diesel additive, a solubilizer is needed though.

  2. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  3. Toxicological aspects of photocatalytic degradation of selected xenobiotics with nano-sized Mn-doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Murat, E-mail: murat.ozmen@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Malatya (Turkey); Güngördü, Abbas [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Malatya (Turkey); Erdemoglu, Sema [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Malatya (Turkey); Ozmen, Nesrin [Inonu University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Teaching Program, Malatya (Turkey); Asilturk, Meltem [Akdeniz University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. • The photocatalytic efficiency of the photocatalysts was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. • Toxicity of photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products were determined. • Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality on X. laevis. • Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects. - Abstract: The toxic effects of two selected xenobiotics, bisphenol A (BPA) and atrazine (ATZ), were evaluated after photocatalytic degradation using nano-sized, Mn-doped TiO{sub 2}. Undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis-diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and BET surface area. The photocatalytic efficiency of the undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. The toxicity of the synthesized photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products of BPA and ATZ was determined using frog embryos and tadpoles, zebrafish embryos, and bioluminescent bacteria. Possible toxic effects were also evaluated using selected enzyme biomarkers. The results showed that Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles, but nonfiltered samples caused lethality in zebrafish. Furthermore, Mn-doping of TiO{sub 2} increased the photocatalytic degradation capability of nanoparticles, and it successfully degraded BPA and AZT, but degradation of AZT caused an increase of the lethal effects on both tadpoles and fish embryos. Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects, especially after 2–4 h of degradation. However, biochemical assays showed that both Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} and the degradation by-products caused a significant change of selected biomarkers on X. laevis tadpoles; thus, the ecological risks of Mn

  4. The influence of size on the toxicity of an encapsulated pesticide: a comparison of micron- and nano-sized capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Alicea N; Harper, Bryan; Harper, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation technology involves entrapping a chemical active ingredient (a.i.) inside a hollow polymeric shell and has been applied to commercial pesticide manufacturing for years to produce capsule suspension (CS) formulations with average particle sizes in the micron-scale. The few literature sources that investigate the environmental fate and toxicity to non-target organisms of encapsulated commercially available pesticide products with regard to capsule size report on average sizes between 20 and 50 μm. Here, we have identified a CS formulation with an average capsule size of approximately 2 μm with some capsules extending into the nanometer scale (~200 nm). Determining how carrier size influences toxicity is important to understanding if current pesticide risk assessments are sufficient to protect against products that incorporate encapsulation technology. Here, a commercial pyrethroid CS pesticide with lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-Cy) as the a.i. was separated into two suspensions, a fraction consisting of nano-sized capsules (~250 nm) and a fraction of micron-sized capsules (~2200 nm) in order to investigate the influence of capsule size on toxicity to embryonic zebrafish, Danio rerio. Toxicity was evaluated 24h after exposure to equivalent amounts of a.i. by the presence and severity of pyrethroid-specific tremors, 14 sublethal developmental impacts and mortality. Fish exposed to greater than 20 μg a.i. L(-1) technical λ-Cy or formulated product experienced curvature of the body axis, pericardial edema, craniofacial malformations, and mortality. Exposure to the unfractionated formulation, micro fraction, nano fraction and technical a.i. resulted in no significant differences in the occurrence of sublethal impacts or mortality; however, the technical a.i. exposure resulted in significantly less fish experiencing tremors and shorter tremors compared to any of the formulated product exposures. This suggests that the capsule size does not influence the toxic

  5. Co-optimization of diesel fuel biodegradation and N2 fixation through the addition of particulate organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehler, M.; Swistak, J.; Paerl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment is widespread and current bioremedial techniques are often not cost effective for small spills. The formulation of simple and inexpensive bioremedial methods could help reduce the impacts of frequent low volume spills in areas like marinas and ports. Particulate organic carbon (POC) was added to diesel fuel amended samples from inshore marine waters in the form of corn-slash (post-harvest leaves and stems), with and without inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). Biodegradation of diesel fuel ( 14 C hexadecane mineralization) and N 2 fixation were measured in response to the additions, The addition of POC was necessary for N 2 fixation and diesel fuel biodegradation to co-occur. The effects of diesel fuel and inorganic nutrient additions on N 2 fixation rates were not consistent, with both inhibitory and stimulatory responses to each addition observed. The highest observed diesel fuel biodegradation levels were in response to treatments that included inorganic nutrients. The addition of POC alone increased diesel fuel degradation levels above that observed in the control. In an attempt to determine the effect of the POC on the microbial community, the corn particles were observed microscopically using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy with tetrazolium salt additions. The corn particles were found to have abundant attached bacterial communities and microscale oxygen concentration gradients occurring on individual particles. The formation of oxygen replete microzones may be essential for the co-occurrence of aerobic diesel fuel biodegradation and oxygen inhibited N2 fixation. Mesocosm experiments are currently underway to further examine the structure and function of this primarily heterotrophic system and to explore the potential contribution of N 2 fixation to the N requirements of diesel fuel biodegradation

  6. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  7. Incidence of sulfur based additives to the microstructure of nuclear fuels. Elaboration and characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caranoni, L.

    2002-05-01

    Even though the global reactor working of MOX fuel is good, the fission gas emission now represents the limitative factor of its use at high burn-up. The increase of the average grain size promotes the diffusional length of fission gas inside the grain, slowing down their emission. In this respect, we have studied the influence of sulphur based additives on the crystal grain growth of nuclear oxide ceramics. The first part of this work concerns the preparation and characterisation of sulfur additives and especially the uranium oxy-sulphur, UOS. The study of its thermal behaviour has shown that the partial pressure ratio pH 2 O/pH 2 S controls the reaction kinetics between UOS and H 2 O vapour, which leads to SO 2 emission. After sintering at 1700 deg. C under reducing atmosphere, the UOS grains are strongly anisotropic. Their structure is characterised by (0,0,1) planar defects. The second part presents the study of the incorporation of these additives in UO 2 powder. We have shown that the sulphur has a very favourable action on crystal growth. After sintering at 1700 deg C during 4 hours under Ar-5% H 2 - 1000 ppm H 2 O atmosphere, the average grain size is about 25-30 microns. The samples present a local grain size gradient between a thick peripheral layer (usual grain size) and the core (large grains) which is in accordance with a local sulphur concentration gradient. The sulphur action suddenly appears during the thermal cycle between 1600 deg C and 1700 deg C, whereas its mass concentration is lower than 30 ppm. SIMS analysis have highlighted, in the core, the segregation of sulphur at the grain boundary. According to these observations, a mechanism has been proposed to explain the activation induced by sulphur. The experiences carried out on mixed oxide, especially (U, Pu)O 2 , confirm that the grain growth activation is induced by the presence of sulphur. (authors)

  8. Effect of limestone addition on chlorine compound emissions in grate and fluidized-bed combustion of recovered fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, R.; Ruuskanen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim was to verify the positive results of laboratory experiments concerning the reducing effect of limestone addition on emissions of organic chlorine compounds and acidifying compounds (HCl, HF, SO 2 ) in grate and fluidized-bed combustion of recovered fuels in commercial boilers. The final aim is to develop a cheap and practical way of reducing emissions of organic chlorine compounds in co-combustion of recovered fuels. Pellets produced from the mixture of recovered fuel and limestone is a product ready for use in plants without any need of additional employees or equipment for limestone feed. Pellets produced by Ewapower Oy are used as recovered fuel and Gotland limestone of Partek Nordkalk Oyj Abp as limestone. Ewapower Oy produces pellets by feeding a certain proportion of limestone among recovered fuel at the production stage. Experiments are carried out in one grate-combustion plant and in one or two fluidized-bed plants. The first experiments were carried out in a 3 MWth BioGrate boiler at the new heating station of Pielavesi municipality in autumn 1999. The flue gases are cleaned with a cyclone (FinCleaner). The main fuel was a mixture of bark and sawdust (3:1) from a sawmill. Ewapower pellets with an addition of Gotland limestone were used as recovered fuel. The experiments were carried out at about 2 MW boiler output. Temperatures of the furnace and flue gas, pressure and fuel gas composition were measured continuously. For determining the composition of gas, O 2 , CO, CO 2 , hydrocarbons and N 2 O(FTIR), NO x and SO 2 were measured continuously. HCl, heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols and PCB were measured as one-shot determinations. Fuel and ash samples were also collected during the experiments. The organic compounds were analyzed by the Department of Environmental Science of the University of Kuopio, which is

  9. Effectiveness of Additives in Improving Fuel Lubricity and Preventing Pump Failure at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    injector nozzle tests were performed in accordance with procedures set forth in an approved 6.5L diesel engine manual using diesel nozzle tester J...Results Fuel injector nozzle tests were performed in accordance with procedures set forth in an approved 6.5L diesel engine manual using diesel nozzle ...UNCLASSIFIED Fuel Injector Results Fuel injector nozzle tests were performed in accordance with procedures set forth in an approved 6.5L

  10. Effects of additives on the sintering of UO2.Gd2O3 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagano Junior, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    The addition of 0.5wt% TiO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 and Al(OH) 3 in the UO 2 ·7%Gd 2 O 3 nuclear fuel and the effect on its sintering kinetics under a 99.999% H 2 atmosphere were investigated by stepwise isothermal dilatometry. This fuel, used as burnable poison in nuclear power plants, presents a diffusion barrier around 1573 K that impairs densification. The aid of the sintering additives TiO 2 , Al(OH) 3 , Nb 2 O 5 and Fe 2 O 3 turned out to be effective to obtain the required final density, unlike the effect observed for the SiO 2 -doped composition. The activation energy for the intermediate sintering stage was calculated by stepwise isothermal dilatometry method and a positive correlation with the sintered body density was found. The method was valid for part of the intermediate sintering stage, in the range from 1200 K to 1700 K for the doped compositions and with no additive, except for the SiO 2 -doped one, whose validity range was between 1500 K and 1900 K. The energy-density correlation was not valid for the SiO 2 -doped composition, whose effect was to reduce the final density. This anomalous behavior may be attributed to the intense loss of Si mass, probably due to lower oxides volatilization, during the initial sintering stage at temperatures lower than 1173 K. Similar loss, but no so intense, was observed for the Al(OH) 3 -doped composition in the temperature interval from 1173 K to 1573 K. The Si concentration decrease to residual values of dozens of parts per million may explain its anomalous behavior. The positive correlation between activation energy and sintered body density may be explained by the inhibitor role played by the TiO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , Fe 2 O 3 and Al(OH) 3 additives on the diffusion mechanisms that enhance the coarsening regime. As a consequence, the densification mechanisms are favored in the competition for the surface free energy. The coarsening-densification transition temperature model, originally suggested for the UO 2

  11. 77 FR 75868 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to the Transmix Provisions Under the Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... provisions in today's rule will result in a reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO X ), volatile organic compounds... requirements under EPA's diesel sulfur program related to the sulfur content of locomotive and marine (LM... ability of locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced from transmix by transmix processors and pipeline...

  12. Characterization-Based Molecular Design of Bio-Fuel Additives Using Chemometric and Property Clustering Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Subin; Solvason, Charles C.; Eden, Mario R.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, multivariate characterization data such as infrared spectroscopy was used as a source of descriptor data involving information on molecular architecture for designing structured molecules with tailored properties. Application of multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis allowed capturing important features of the molecular architecture from enormous amount of complex data to build appropriate latent variable models. Combining the property clustering techniques and group contribution methods based on characterization (cGCM) data in a reverse problem formulation enabled identifying candidate components by combining or mixing molecular fragments until the resulting properties match the targets. The developed methodology is demonstrated using molecular design of biodiesel additive, which when mixed with off-spec biodiesel produces biodiesel that meets the desired fuel specifications. The contribution of this work is that the complex structures and orientations of the molecule can be included in the design, thereby allowing enumeration of all feasible candidate molecules that matched the identified target but were not part of original training set of molecules.

  13. Examination of microbial fuel cell start-up times with domestic wastewater and additional amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Yates, Matthew D; Cheng, Shaoan; Call, Douglas F; Sun, Dan; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-08-01

    Rapid startup of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioreactors is desirable when treating wastewaters. The startup time with unamended wastewater (118 h) was similar to that obtained by adding acetate or fumarate (110-115 h), and less than that with glucose (181 h) or Fe(III) (353 h). Initial current production took longer when phosphate buffer was added, with startup times increasing with concentration from 149 h (25 mM) to 251 h (50 mM) and 526 h (100 mM). Microbial communities that developed in the reactors contained Betaproteobacteria, Acetoanaerobium noterae, and Chlorobium sp. Anode biomass densities ranged from 200 to 600 μg/cm(2) for all amendments except Fe(Ш) (1650 μg/cm(2)). Wastewater produced 91 mW/m(2), with the other MFCs producing 50 mW/m(2) (fumarate) to 103mW/m(2) (Fe(III)) when amendments were removed. These experiments show that wastewater alone is sufficient to acclimate the reactor without the need for additional chemical amendments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of microbial fuel cell start-up times with domestic wastewater and additional amendments

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guangli

    2011-08-01

    Rapid startup of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioreactors is desirable when treating wastewaters. The startup time with unamended wastewater (118h) was similar to that obtained by adding acetate or fumarate (110-115h), and less than that with glucose (181h) or Fe(III) (353h). Initial current production took longer when phosphate buffer was added, with startup times increasing with concentration from 149h (25mM) to 251h (50mM) and 526h (100mM). Microbial communities that developed in the reactors contained Betaproteobacteria, Acetoanaerobium noterae, and Chlorobium sp. Anode biomass densities ranged from 200 to 600μg/cm2 for all amendments except Fe(Sh{cyrillic}) (1650μg/cm2). Wastewater produced 91mW/m2, with the other MFCs producing 50mW/m2 (fumarate) to 103mW/m2 (Fe(III)) when amendments were removed. These experiments show that wastewater alone is sufficient to acclimate the reactor without the need for additional chemical amendments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effect of hydrophobic additive on oxygen transport in catalyst layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunzhong; Li, Xiaohui; Wan, Zhaohui; Chen, Yanan; Tan, Jinting; Pan, Mu

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen transport resistance (OTR) is a critical factor influencing the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this paper, an effective method to reduce the OTR of catalyst layers (CLs) by introducing a hydrophobic additive into traditional CLs is proposed. A low-molecular-weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is selected for its feasibility to prepare an emulsion, which is mixed with a traditional catalyst ink to successfully fabricate the CL with PTFE of 10 wt%. The PTFE film exists in the mesopores between the carbon particles. The limiting current of the hydrophobic CL was almost 4000 mA/cm2, which is 500 mA/cm2 higher than that of the traditional CL. PTFE reduces the OTR of the CL in the dry region by as much as 24 s/m compared to the traditional CL and expands the dry region from 2000 mA/cm2 in the traditional CL to 2500 mA/cm2. Furthermore, the CL with the hydrophobic agent can improve the oxygen transport in the wet region (>2000 mA/cm2) more effectively than that in the dry region. All these results indicate that the CL with the hydrophobic agent shows a superior performance in terms of optimizing water management and effectively reduces the OTR in PEMFCs.

  16. Application of revised procedure on determining large excess reactivity of operating reactor. Fuel addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    The fuel addition method or the neutron absorption substitution method have been used for determination of large excess multiplication factor of large sized reactors. It has been pointed out, however, that all the experimental methods are possibly not free from the substantially large systematic error up to 20%, when the value of the excess multiplication factor exceeds about 15%Δk. Then, a basic idea of a revised procedure was proposed to cope with the problem, which converts the increase of multiplication factor in an actual core to that in a virtual core by calculation, because its value is in principle defined not for the former but the latter core. This paper proves that the revised procedure is able to be applicable for large sized research and test reactors through the theoretical analyses on the measurements undertaken at the JMTRC and JMTR cores. The values of excess multiplication factor are accurately determined utilizing the whole core calculation by the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. (author)

  17. Examination of microbial fuel cell start-up times with domestic wastewater and additional amendments

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guangli; Yates, Matthew D.; Cheng, Shaoan; Call, Douglas F.; Sun, Dan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid startup of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioreactors is desirable when treating wastewaters. The startup time with unamended wastewater (118h) was similar to that obtained by adding acetate or fumarate (110-115h), and less than that with glucose (181h) or Fe(III) (353h). Initial current production took longer when phosphate buffer was added, with startup times increasing with concentration from 149h (25mM) to 251h (50mM) and 526h (100mM). Microbial communities that developed in the reactors contained Betaproteobacteria, Acetoanaerobium noterae, and Chlorobium sp. Anode biomass densities ranged from 200 to 600μg/cm2 for all amendments except Fe(Sh{cyrillic}) (1650μg/cm2). Wastewater produced 91mW/m2, with the other MFCs producing 50mW/m2 (fumarate) to 103mW/m2 (Fe(III)) when amendments were removed. These experiments show that wastewater alone is sufficient to acclimate the reactor without the need for additional chemical amendments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Characterization-Based Molecular Design of Bio-Fuel Additives Using Chemometric and Property Clustering Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Subin; Solvason, Charles C.; Eden, Mario R., E-mail: edenmar@auburn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States)

    2014-06-10

    In this work, multivariate characterization data such as infrared spectroscopy was used as a source of descriptor data involving information on molecular architecture for designing structured molecules with tailored properties. Application of multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis allowed capturing important features of the molecular architecture from enormous amount of complex data to build appropriate latent variable models. Combining the property clustering techniques and group contribution methods based on characterization (cGCM) data in a reverse problem formulation enabled identifying candidate components by combining or mixing molecular fragments until the resulting properties match the targets. The developed methodology is demonstrated using molecular design of biodiesel additive, which when mixed with off-spec biodiesel produces biodiesel that meets the desired fuel specifications. The contribution of this work is that the complex structures and orientations of the molecule can be included in the design, thereby allowing enumeration of all feasible candidate molecules that matched the identified target but were not part of original training set of molecules.

  19. Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Richard [Waterbury, CT; Yuh, Chao-Yi [New Milford, CT; Farooque, Mohammad [Danbury, CT

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

  20. Characterisation of micro-sized and nano-sized tungsten oxide-epoxy composites for radiation shielding of diagnostic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor Azman, N.Z. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 Australia (Australia); School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Siddiqui, S.A. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 Australia (Australia); Low, I.M., E-mail: j.low@curtin.edu.au [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 Australia (Australia)

    2013-12-01

    Characteristics of X-ray transmissions were investigated for epoxy composites filled with 2–10 vol% WO{sub 3} loadings using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at 10–40 keV. The results obtained were used to determine the equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of mammography and radiology machines. The results confirmed the superior attenuation ability of nano-sized WO{sub 3}-epoxy composites in the energy range of 10–25 keV when compared to their micro-sized counterparts. However, at higher synchrotron radiation energies (i.e., 30–40 keV), the X-ray transmission characteristics were similar with no apparent size effect for both nano-sized and micro-sized WO{sub 3}-epoxy composites. The equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of the mammography unit (25–49 kV) were in the range of 15–25 keV. Similarly, for a radiology unit operating at 40–60 kV, the equivalent energy range was 25–40 keV, and for operating voltages greater than 60 kV (i.e., 70–100 kV), the equivalent energy was in excess of 40 keV. The mechanical properties of epoxy composites increased initially with an increase in the filler loading but a further increase in the WO{sub 3} loading resulted in deterioration of flexural strength, modulus and hardness. - Highlights: • Nano-sized WO{sub 3}-epoxy composites have superior x-ray shielding capability. • No size effect in x-ray attenuation was observed at 30–40 keV. • An optimum filler loading for improving the mechanical properties of WO{sub 3}-epoxy composites.

  1. Development of nano-sized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C films for application in digital radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edna C., E-mail: edca@cdtn.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Fontainha, Crissia C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Propedeutica Complemetar; Oliveira, Vitor H.; Ferraz, Wilmar B.; Faria, Luiz O. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Ceramic materials are widely used as sensors for ionizing radiation. In nuclear applications, the alpha-alumina doped with carbon ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) is the most widely ceramic used because of its excellent optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescent (TL) properties applied to detection of ionizing radiation. Another application of OSL and TL materials are in Digital Radiography, with ceramic/polymeric film composites. Recently, Computed Radiography (CR) devices based on OSL materials are replacing the old conventional film radiography. In this study we investigate the thermoluminescence of nano-sized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples doped with different percentages of carbon, sintered in reducing atmospheres at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1750 deg C. The results indicate that the nano-sized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C materials have a luminescent response that could be due to both OSL and RPL properties, but without application to radiation dosimetry. Moreover, the results indicate that micro-sized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, doped with 0.5% carbon, and nano-sized ones doped with 2% of carbon, present thermoluminescent signal around 30 to 100 times the TL output signal of commercial TLD-100, the most used TL dosimeter in the world. The results indicate that these ceramic nano-particles have great potential for use in Digital Radiography based on thermoluminescent film imaging, being able to provide image resolutions much higher than the micro-sized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, in view of their improved resolution provided by nano-particulates. (author)

  2. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the formation of nano-sized carbides and the wear behavior of D2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Kamran; Akhbarizadeh, Amin; Javadpour, Sirus

    2012-09-01

    The effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructure, hardness, and wear behavior of D2 tool steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness test, pin-on-disk wear test, and the reciprocating pin-on-flat wear test. The results show that deep cryogenic treatment eliminates retained austenite, makes a better carbide distribution, and increases the carbide content. Furthermore, some new nano-sized carbides form during the deep cryogenic treatment, thereby increasing the hardness and improving the wear behavior of the samples.

  3. 197Au Moessbauer study of nano-sized gold catalysts supported on Mg(OH)2 and TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Nasu, S.; Tsubota, S.; Haruta, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied nano-sized Au catalysts supported on Mg(OH) 2 and TiO 2 using 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. 197 Au Moessbauer spectra observed for Au/Mg(OH) 2 catalysts can be decomposed into one singlet with zero isomer shift and several doublets. One of the doublets shows an isomer shift that is typical for Au I , and other doublets are due to Au III . The relative area of the Au I component shows the maximum value for a specimen calcined at 523 K, which also shows the highest catalytic activity

  4. Beryllium Project: developing in CDTN of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with addition of beryllium oxide to increase the thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Miranda, Odair; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Andrade, Antonio Santos; Queiroz, Carolinne Mol; Gonzaga, Mariana de Carvalho Leal

    2013-01-01

    Although the nuclear fuel currently based on pellets of uranium dioxide be very safe and stable, the biggest problem is that this material is not a good conductor of heat. This results in an elevated temperature gradient between the center and its lateral surface, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel, which restricts the performance of the reactor, being necessary to change the fuel before its full utilization. An increase of only 5 to 10 percent in its thermal conductivity, would be a significant increase. An increase of 50 percent would be a great improvement. A project entitled 'Beryllium Project' was developed in CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, which aimed to develop fuel pellets made from a mixture of uranium dioxide microspheres and beryllium oxide powder to obtain a better heat conductor phase, filling the voids between the microspheres to increase the thermal conductivity of the pellet. Increases in the thermal conductivity in the range of 8.6% to 125%, depending on the level of addition employed in the range of 1% to 14% by weight of beryllium oxide, were obtained. This type of fuel promises to be safer than current fuels, improving the performance of the reactor, in addition to last longer, resulting in great savings. (author)

  5. Effect of additives in sintering UO2-7wt%Gd2O3 fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.R.; Riella, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    Gadolinium has been used as burnable poison for reactivity control in modern PWRs. The incorporation of Gd 2 O 3 powder directly into the UO 2 powder enables longer fuel cycles and optimized fuel utilization. Nevertheless, processing by this method leads to difficulties while obtaining sintered pellets with the minimum required density. The process for manufacturing UO 2 - Gd 2 O 3 generates scraps that should be reused. The main scraps are green and sintered pellets, which must be calcined to U 3 O 8 to return to the fabrication process. Also, the incorporation of Gd 2 O 3 in UO 2 requires the use of an additive to improve the sintering process, in order to achieve the physical properties specified for the mixed fuel, mainly density and microstructure. This paper describes the effect of the addition of fabrication scraps on the properties of the UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 fuel. Aluminum hydroxide Al(OH) 3 was also incorporated to the fuel as a sintering aid. The results shown that the use of 2000 ppm of Al(OH) 3 as additive allow to fabricate good pellets with up to 10 wt% of recycled scraps. (author)

  6. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-01-01

    The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...

  7. Effects of initial nitrogen addition on deep-soils bioventing at a fuel-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratz, J.W.; Guest, P.R.; Downey, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    A ruptured pipe at a Burlington Northern Railroad (BNRR) fueling pump house resulted in over 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel spilling onto the surrounding soil. An initial investigation of site conditions indicated that subsurface soils were contaminated with diesel fuel to ground water, which was observed approximately 70 feet below the ground surface. State regulatory agencies requested that BNRR develop and implement a remedial action plan to treat these diesel-contaminated soils and protect local ground waters. Engineering-Science, Inc. (ES) was retained for this work and, after evaluating a variety of remediation technologies recommended using soil venting methods to enhance the immediate volatilization and long-term biodegradation of fuel residuals. ES designed and implemented a ''bioventing'' pilot test to determine soil properties such as air permeability, and to assess the potential for partial volatilization and long-term biodegradation of diesel fuel residuals at the site. Hydrocarbon concentrations, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels were monitored at a vapor extraction well (VEW) and six vapor monitoring points (VMPs) to determine the rates of volatilization and biological degradation of fuel residuals. Pilot test results confirmed that full-scale bioventing was feasible for the remediation of this site

  8. Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan

    2018-03-21

    The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NO emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NO emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)—a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)—an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)—bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NO emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NO emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.

  9. Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan; Varuvel, Edwin Geo; Ganapathy, Saravanan; Vedharaj, S; Vallinayagam, R

    2018-06-01

    The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NO X emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NO X emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)-a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)-an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)-bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NO X emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NO X emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.

  10. Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan; Varuvel, Edwin Geo; Ganapathy, Saravanan; Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.

    2018-01-01

    The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NO emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NO emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)—a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)—an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)—bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NO emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NO emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.

  11. Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of nano-sized zinc(II coordination complex as a precursor for the preparation of pure-phase zinc(II oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In current study, nanoparticles and single crystals of a Zn(II coordination complex, [Zn(dmphI2](1, {dmph=2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline(neocuproine}, have been synthesized by the reaction of zinc(II acetate, KI and neocuproine as ligand in methanol using sonochemical and heat gradient methods, respectively. The nanostructure of 1 was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses, and the structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of nano-sized 1 has been studied by thermogravimetric (TG and differential thermal analyses (DTA. Structural determination of compound 1 reveals the Zn(II ion is four-coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral configuration by two N atoms from a 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-Phenanthroline ligand and two terminal I atoms. The effect of supercritical condition on stability, size and morphology of nano-structured compound 1 has also been studied. The XRD pattern of the residue obtained from thermal decomposition of nano-sized compound 1 at 600 °C under air atmosphere provided pure phase of ZnO with the average particles size of about 31 nm.

  12. Synthesis of Si, N co-Doped Nano-Sized TiO2 with High Thermal Stability and Photocatalytic Activity by Mechanochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisan Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Τhe photocatalytic activity in the range of visible light wavelengths and the thermal stability of the structure were significantly enhanced in Si, N co-doped nano-sized TiO2, and synthesized through high-energy mechanical milling of TiO2 and SiO2 powders, which was followed by calcination at 600 °C in an ammonia atmosphere. High-energy mechanical milling had a pronounced effect on the mixing and the reaction between the starting powders and greatly favored the transformation of the resultant powder mixture into an amorphous phase that contained a large number of evenly-dispersed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles as anatase seeds. The experimental results suggest that the elements were homogeneously dispersed at an atomic level in this amorphous phase. After calcination, most of the amorphous phase was crystallized, which resulted in a unique nano-sized crystalline-core/disordered-shell morphology. This novel experimental process is simple, template-free, and provides features of high reproducibility in large-scale industrial production.

  13. Improved Light Conversion Efficiency Of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell By Dispersing Submicron-Sized Granules Into The Nano-Sized TiO2 Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles and submicron-sized granules were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and spray pyrolysis, respectively. Submicron-sized granules were dispersed into the nano-sized TiO2 layer to improve the light conversion efficiency. Granules showed better light scattering, but lower in terms of the dye-loading quantity and recombination resistance compared with nanoparticles. Consequently, the nano-sized TiO2 layer had higher cell efficiency than the granulized TiO2 layer. When dispersed granules into the nanoparticle layer, the light scattering was enhanced without the loss of dye-loading quantities. The dispersion of granulized TiO2 led to increase the cell efficiency up to 6.51%, which was about 5.2 % higher than that of the electrode consisting of only TiO2 nanoparticles. Finally, the optimal hydrothermal temperature and dispersing quantity of granules were found to be 200°C and 20 wt%, respectively.

  14. Small angle neutron scattering study of nano sized microstructure in Fe-Cr ODS steels for gen IV in-core applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Soo; Mao, Xiadong; Jang, Jinsung

    2013-11-01

    The nano-sized microstructures in Fe-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel for Gen IV in-core applications were studied using small angle neutron scattering. The oxide dispersion strengthened steel was manufactured through hot isostatic pressing with various chemical compositions and fabrication conditions. Small angle neutron scattering experiments were performed using a 40 m small angle neutron scattering instrument at HANARO. Nano sized microstructures, namely, yttrium oxides and Cr-oxides were quantitatively analyzed by small angle neutron scattering. The yttrium oxides and Cr-oxides were also observed by transmission electron microscopy. The microstructural analysis results from small angle neutron scattering were compared with those obtained by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of the chemical compositions and fabrication conditions on the microstructure were investigated in relation to the quantitative microstructural analysis results obtained by small angle neutron scattering. The volume fraction of Y-oxide increases after fabrication, and this result is considered to be due to the formation of non-stochiometric Y-Ti-oxides.

  15. Manufacture of a UO2-Based Nuclear Fuel with Improved Thermal Conductivity with the Addition of BeO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chad B.; Brito, Ryan A.; Ortega, Luis H.; Malone, James P.; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2017-12-01

    The low thermal conductivity of oxide nuclear fuels is a performance-limiting parameter. Enhancing this property may provide a contribution toward establishing accident-tolerant fuel forms. In this study, the thermal conductivity of UO2 was increased through the fabrication of ceramic-ceramic composite forms with UO2 containing a continuous BeO matrix. Fuel with a higher thermal conductivity will have reduced thermal gradients and lower centerline temperatures in the fuel pin. Lower operational temperatures will reduce fission gas release and reduce fuel restructuring. Additions of BeO were made to UO2 fuel pellets in 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 vol pct concentrations with the goals of establishing reliable lab-scale processing procedures, minimizing porosity, and maximizing thermal conductivity. The microstructure was characterized with electron probe microanalysis, and the thermal properties were assessed by light flash analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Reliable, high-density samples were prepared using compaction pressure between 200 and 225 MPa and sintering times between 4 and 6 hours. It was found that the thermal conductivity of UO2 improved approximately 10 pct for each 1 vol pct BeO added over the measured temperature range 298.15 K to 523.15 K (25 °C to 250 °C) with the maximum observed improvement being ˜ 100 pct, or doubled, at 10 vol pct BeO.

  16. Effect of cetane improver addition into diesel fuel: Methanol mixtures on performance and emissions at different injection pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candan Feyyaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanol in ratios of 5-10-15% were incorporated into diesel fuel with the aim of reducing harmful exhaust gasses of Diesel engine, di-tertbutyl peroxide as cetane improver in a ratio of 1% was added into mixture fuels in order to reduce negative effects of methanol on engine performance parameters, and isobutanol of a ratio of 1% was used as additive for preventing phase separation of all mixtures. As results of experiments conducted on a single cylinder and direct injection Diesel engine, methanol caused the increase of NOx emission while reducing CO, HC, CO2, and smoke opacity emissions. It also reduced torque and power values, and increased brake specific fuel consumption values. Cetane improver increased torque and power values slightly compared to methanol-mixed fuels, and reduced brake specific fuel consumption values. It also affected exhaust emission values positively, excluding smoke opacity. Increase of injector injection pressure affected performances of methanol-mixed fuels positively. It also increased injection pressure and NOx emissions, while reducing other exhaust emissions.

  17. Effect of oxy-fuel combustion with steam addition on coal ignition and burnout in an entrained flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaza, J.; Alvarez, L.; Gil, M.V.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F.

    2011-01-01

    The ignition temperature and burnout of a semi-anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal were studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The results obtained under oxy-fuel atmospheres (21%O 2 -79%CO 2 , 30%O 2 -70% O 2 and 35%O 2 -65%CO 2 ) were compared with those attained in air. The replacement of CO 2 by 5, 10 and 20% of steam in the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres was also evaluated in order to study the wet recirculation of flue gas. For the 21%O 2 -79%CO 2 atmosphere, the results indicated that the ignition temperature was higher and the coal burnout was lower than in air. However, when the O 2 concentration was increased to 30 and 35% in the oxy-fuel combustion atmosphere, the ignition temperature was lower and coal burnout was improved in comparison with air conditions. On the other hand, an increase in ignition temperature and a worsening of the coal burnout was observed when steam was added to the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres though no relevant differences between the different steam concentrations were detected. -- Highlights: → The ignition temperature and the burnout of two thermal coals under oxy-fuel combustion conditions were determined. → The effect of the wet recirculation of flue gas on combustion behaviour was evaluated. → Addition of steam caused a worsening of the ignition temperature and coal burnout.

  18. 76 FR 33121 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct final... regulations to add the Holtec HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage... Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 72.214 to add the Holtec HI- STORM Flood/Wind cask...

  19. Influences of Fuel Additive, Crude Palm and Waste Cooking Oil on Emission Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Basharie, Mariam

    2017-08-01

    Major research has been conducted on the use of input products, such as rapeseed, canola, soybean, sunflower oil, waste cooking oil (WCO), crude palm oil (CPO) and crude jatropha oil as alternative fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated, where it can be easily adopted by current existing conventional diesel engine without any major modification of the engine. To meet the future performance and emission regulations, is urged to improve the performance and exhaust emissions from biodiesel fuels. Hence, further investigation have been carried out on the emission characteristics of small diesel engine that fuelled by variant blending ratio of WCO and CPO with booster additive. For each of the biodiesel blends ratio from 5 to 15 percent volume which are WCO5, WCO10 and WCO15 for WCO biodiesel and CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 for CPO biodiesel. The exhaust emissions were measured at engine speeds varied at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm with different booster additive volume DRA (biodiesel without additive), DRB (0.2 ml) and DRC (0.4 ml). Emissions characteristics that had been measured were Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity. The results showed that increased of blending ratio with booster additive volume significantly decreased the CO emission, while increased in NOx and CO2 due to changes of fuel characteristics in biodiesel fuel blends.

  20. NOx reduction in diesel fuel flames by additions of water and CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Natural gas has the highest heating value per unit mass (50.1 MJ/kg, LHV) of any of the hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., butane, liquid diesel fuel, gasoline, etc.). Since it has the lowest carbon content per unit mass, combustion of natural gas produces much less carbon dioxide, soot particles, and oxide of nitrogen than combustion of liquid diesel fuel. In view of anticipated strengthening of regulations on pollutant emissions from diesel engines, alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been experimentally introduced to replace the traditional diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks, transit buses, off-road vehicles, locomotives, and stationary engines. To help in applying natural gas in Diesel engines and increasing combustion efficiency, the emphasis of the present paper is placed on the detailed flame chemistry of methane-air combustion. The present work is the continued effort in finding better methods to reduce NO{sub x}. The goal is to identify a reliable chemical reaction mechanism for natural gas in both premixed and diffusion flames and to establish a systematic reduced mechanism which may be useful for large-scale numerical modeling of combustion behavior in natural gas engines.

  1. Functionalisation of mesoporous materials for application as additives in high temperature PEM fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Monir

    2012-03-06

    The presented thesis contains six original research articles dedicated to the preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic mesoporous materials as additives for polymer electroly1e membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The mesoporous materials Si-MCM-41 and benzene-PMO (periodic mesoporous organosilica) were chosen for the investigations. These materials were modified with functional groups for enhanced proton conductivity and water-keeping properties. In order to improve these materials Broenstedt acidic groups were introduced in the framework of mesoporous Si-MCM-41. Therefore, some silicium atoms in the framework were substituted by aluminium using different aluminium sources. Here NaAlO{sub 2} exhibits clearly the best results because the entire aluminium incorporated within the framework is tetragonally coordinated as observed by {sup 2}7AI MAS NMR. The increase of the proton conductivities results from an improved hydrophilicity, a decreased particle size, and newly introduced Broenstedt acidity in the mesoporous Al-MCM-41. However, mesoporous Si-MCM-41 materials functionalised by co-condensation with sulphonic acid groups exhibit the best results concerning proton conductivity, compared to those prepared by grafting. Hence, these materials where characterized in more detail by SANS and by MAS NMR measurements. The first one indicated that by co-condensation the entire inner pore surface is altered by functional groups which are, thus, distributed much more homogeneously than samples functionalised by grafting. This result explains the improved proton conductivities. Additionally, {sup 2}9Si NMR spectra proved that samples prepared by co-condensation lead to a successful and almost complete incorporation of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilan (MPMS) into the mesoporous framework. Furthermore, it was shown by {sup 1}3C MAS NMR spectroscopy that the majority of the organic functional groups remained intact after H{sub 2}0{sub 2}-oxidation. However, proton

  2. Proton transport in additives to the polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelle, Pia

    2011-03-21

    The enhancement of proton transport in polymer electrolyte membranes is an important issue for the development of fuel cell technology. The objective is a material providing proton transport at a temperature range of 350 K to 450 K independent from a purely water based mechanism. To enhance the PEM properties of standard polymer materials, a class of additives is studied by means of atomistic simulations consisting of functionalised mesoporous silicon dioxide particles. The functional molecules are imidazole or sulphonic acid, covalently bound to the surface via a carbon chain with a surface density of about 1.0 nm{sup -2} groups. At first, the proton transport mechanism is explored in a system of functional molecules in vacuum. The molecules are constrained by the terminal carbon groups according to the geometric arrangement in the porous silicon dioxide. The proton transport mechanism is characterised by structural properties obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations and consists of the aggregation of two or more functional groups, a barrier free proton transport between these groups followed by the separation of the groups and formation of new aggregates due to fluctuations in the hydrogen bond network and movement of the carbon chain. For the different proton conducting groups, i.e. methyl imidazole, methyl sulphonic acid and water, the barrier free proton transport and the formation of protonated bimolecular complexes were addressed by potential energy calculations of the density functional based tight binding method (DFTB). For sulphonic acid even at a temperature of 450 K, relatively stable aggregates are formed, while most imidazole groups are isolated and the hydrogen bond fluctuations are high. However, high density of groups and elevated temperatures enhance the proton transport in both systems. Besides the anchorage and the density of the groups, the influence of the chemical environment on the proton transport was studied. Therefore, the

  3. Effect of ethanol/water blends addition on diesel fuel combustion in RCM and DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, Mohamed; Kosaka, Hidenori; Sato, Susumu; Bady, Mahmoud; Abdel-Rahman, Ali K.; Uchida, Kenta

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of ethanol/water addition on diesel combustion studied using optical diagnostics. • The addition of water to ethanol improves engine combustion and soot oxidation. • Ethanol/water injection into exhaust manifold eliminates their endothermic effect. • Ethanol with high water content is recommended for better engine combustion. • Soot concentration reduced by 50% and NO x emissions reduced by 88%. - Abstract: The effect of ethanol/water blends addition on diesel fuel combustion and emissions is investigated experimentally in this study using optical diagnostics. Basic study is performed using rapid compression machine (RCM) under CI conditions. The tested ethanol energy fractions varied in the range of 10–40% of the total added fuel energy, while water volume ratios varied in the range of 10–40% of the injected ethanol. Ethanol and water were evaporated before entering the combustion chamber to eliminate their endothermic effect. Results reveal that addition of ethanol/water blends to diesel fuel results in longer ignition delay and promote the apparent heat release rate (AHRR) at the premixed combustion phase compared to absolute ethanol addition. Additionally, soot and NO x emissions are reduced with ethanol/water addition compared to absolute ethanol addition and neat diesel combustion. The basic study is then extended to investigate the effect ethanol/water blends addition on diesel fuel combustion using single cylinder diesel engine. Waste heat in exhaust manifold is utilized to vaporize ethanol/water blends before combustion. Results reveal that ethanol/water blends injection leads to increase in peak cylinder pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and AHRR at premixed combustion phase. Additionally, the ignition delay increased with ethanol/water addition. NO x emission is decreased up to 88% along with a reduction in soot by 50%. The lower ethanol to water volume ratios show better combustion efficiency, IMEP

  4. Near-Road Modeling and Measurement of Particles Generated by Nanoparticle Diesel Fuel Additive Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (n-Ce) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the ceria-doped diesel exhaust aerosols are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission mea...

  5. 75 FR 58077 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are conducting a joint rulemaking to redesign and add information to the current fuel economy label that is posted on the window sticker of all new cars and light- duty trucks sold in the U.S. The redesigned label will provide new information to American consumers about the fuel economy and consumption, fuel costs, and environmental impacts associated with purchasing new vehicles beginning with model year 2012 cars and trucks. This action will also develop new labels for certain advanced technology vehicles, which are poised to enter the U.S. market, in particular plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. NHTSA and EPA are proposing these changes because the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 imposes several new labeling requirements, because the agencies believe that the current labels can be improved to help consumers make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, and because the time is right to develop new labels for advanced technology vehicles that are being commercialized. This proposal is also consistent with the recent joint rulemaking by EPA and NHTSA that established harmonized federal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and pickup trucks for model years 2012-2016.

  6. Sodium borohydride as an additive to enhance the performance of direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lianqin; Fang, Xiang; Shen, Pei Kang [The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, The State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Bambagioni, Valentina; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Bianchini, Claudio; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Vizza, Francesco [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici (ICCOM-CNR), via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The effect of adding small quantities (0.1-1 wt.%) of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) to the anolyte solution of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) with membrane-electrode assemblies constituted by nanosized Pd/C anode, Fe-Co cathode and anion-exchange membrane (Tokuyama A006) was investigated by means of various techniques. These include cyclic voltammetry, in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry, a study of the performance of monoplanar fuel cells and an analysis of the ethanol oxidation products. A comparison with fuel cells fed with aqueous solutions of ethanol proved unambiguously the existence of a promoting effect of NaBH{sub 4} on the ethanol oxidation. Indeed, the potentiodynamic curves of the ethanol-NaBH{sub 4} mixtures showed higher power and current densities, accompanied by a remarkable increase in the fuel consumption at comparable working time of the cell. A {sup 13}C and {sup 11}B {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}NMR analysis of the cell exhausts and an in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemical study showed that ethanol is converted selectively to acetate while the oxidation product of NaBH{sub 4} is sodium metaborate (NaBO{sub 2}). The enhancement of the overall cell performance has been explained in terms of the ability of NaBH{sub 4} to reduce the PdO layer on the catalyst surface. (author)

  7. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Stachulak, Jozef S; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D; Cauda, Emanuele G

    2016-03-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  8. Effects of antioxidant additives on exhaust emissions reduction in compression ignition engine fueled with methyl ester of annona oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, biodiesel is a cleaner burning alternative fuel to the Neat diesel fuel. However, several studies are pointed out that increase in NOx emission for biodiesel when compared with the Neat diesel fuel. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of antioxidant (p-phenylenediamine on engine emissions of a Diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of annona oil. The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (0.010 to 0.040% (w/w with methyl ester of annona oil. Result shows that antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+P200 is effective in control of NOx and HC emission of methyl ester of annona oil fuelled engine without doing any engine modification.

  9. Support for the initial attachment, growth and differentiation of MG-63 cells: a comparison between nano-size hydroxyapatite and micro-size hydroxyapatite in composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filová E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elena Filová,1 Tomáš Suchý,2,3 Zbynek Sucharda,2 Monika Šupová,2 Margit Žaloudková,2 Karel Balík,2 Vera Lisá,1 Miroslav Šlouf,4 Lucie Bacáková11Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology, 2Department of Composite and Carbon Materials, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 3Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Mechanics, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CTU in Prague, 4Department of Morphology and Rheology of Polymer Materials, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA is considered to be a bioactive material that favorably influences the adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. To optimize the cell response on the hydroxyapatite composite, it is desirable to assess the optimum concentration and also the optimum particle size. The aim of our study was to prepare composite materials made of polydimethylsiloxane, polyamide, and nano-sized (N or micro-sized (M HA, with an HA content of 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% (v/v (referred to as N0–N25 or M0–M25, and to evaluate them in vitro in cultures with human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. For clinical applications, fast osseointegration of the implant into the bone is essential. We observed the greatest initial cell adhesion on composites M10 and N5. Nano-sized HA supported cell growth, especially during the first 3 days of culture. On composites with micro-size HA (2%–15%, MG-63 cells reached the highest densities on day 7. Samples M20 and M25, however, were toxic for MG-63 cells, although these composites supported the production of osteocalcin in these cells. On N2, a higher concentration of osteopontin was found in MG-63 cells. For biomedical applications, the concentration range of 5%–15% (v/v nano-size or micro-size HA seems to be optimum

  10. Formulation, Casting, and Evaluation of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic and Novel Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Desain, John D.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Borduin, Russell; Koo, Joseph H.; Brady, Brian B.; Curtiss, Thomas J.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    This investigation studied the inclusion of various additives to paraffin wax for use in a hybrid rocket motor. Some of the paraffin-based fuels were doped with various percentages of LiAlH4 (up to 10%). Addition of LiAlH4 at 10% was found to increase regression rates between 7 - 10% over baseline paraffin through tests in a gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor. Mass burn rates for paraffin grains with 10% LiAlH4 were also higher than those of the baseline paraffin. RDX was also cast into a paraffin sample via a novel casting process which involved dissolving RDX into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and then drawing a vacuum on the mixture of paraffin and RDX/DMF in order to evaporate out the DMF. It was found that although all DMF was removed, the process was not conducive to generating small RDX particles. The slow boiling generated an inhomogeneous mixture of paraffin and RDX. It is likely that superheating the DMF to cause rapid boiling would likely reduce RDX particle sizes. In addition to paraffin/LiAlH4 grains, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were cast in paraffin for testing in a hybrid rocket motor, and assorted samples containing a range of MWNT percentages in paraffin were imaged using SEM. The fuel samples showed good distribution of MWNT in the paraffin matrix, but the MWNT were often agglomerated, indicating that a change to the sonication and mixing processes were required to achieve better uniformity and debundled MWNT. Fuel grains with MWNT fuel grains had slightly lower regression rate, likely due to the increased thermal conductivity to the fuel subsurface, reducing the burning surface temperature.

  11. Biological and Health Effects of Exposure to Kerosene-Based Jet Fuels and Performance Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    applications, to fuels at 100ppm or directly to the water phase (water layer) to control colonization of bacteria and fungus . Presently, three commercial... fungus ≤ 100 colony-forming units (cfu)/L (range ə–2000cfu/L). The predominant fungi were Cladosporium resinae and Aspergillus fumigatus, although...levels. Using electrophoretic techniques ( proteomic assay), Witzmann et al. (2000a) determined that exposure of male rats to 1 g/m3 JP-8 vapor for 6h/d

  12. Dry additives-reduction catalysts for flue waste gases originating from the combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Hard coal is the basic energy generating raw material in Poland. In 1990, 60% of electricity and thermal energy was totally obtained from it. It means that 100 million tons of coal were burned. The second position is held by lignite - generating 38% of electricity and heat (67.3 million tons). It is to be underlined that coal combustion is particularly noxious to the environment. The coal composition appreciably influences the volume of pollution emitted in the air. The contents of incombustible mineral parts - ashes - oscillates from 2 to 30%; only 0.02 comes from plants that had once originated coal and cannot be separated in any way. All the rest, viz. the so-called external mineral substance enters the fuel while being won. The most indesirable hard coal ingredient is sulfur whose level depends on coal sorts and its origin. The worse the fuel quality, the more sulfur it contains. In the utilization process of this fuel, its combustible part is burnt: therefore, sulfur dioxide is produced. At the present coal consumption, the SO{sub 2} emission reaches the level of 3.2 million per year. The intensifies the pressure on working out new coal utilization technologies, improving old and developing of pollution limiting methods. Research is also directed towards such an adaptation of technologies in order that individual users may also make use thereof (household furnaces) as their share in the pollution emission is considerable.

  13. Nano-sized Mn3O4 and β-MnOOH from the decomposition of β-cyclodextrin-Mn: 2. The water-oxidizing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafalu, Ramin; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Ebrahimi, Foad; Kaboudin, Babak

    2015-11-01

    Nano-sized Mn oxides contain Mn3O4, β-MnOOH and Mn2O3 have been prepared by a previously reported method using thermal decomposition of β-cyclodextrin-Mn complexes. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these Mn oxides using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a chemical oxidant are studied. The turnover frequencies for β-MnO(OH) and Mn3O4 are 0.24 and 0.01-0.17 (mmol O2/mol Mns), respectively. Subsequently, water-oxidizing activities of these compounds are compared to the other previously reported Mn oxides. Important factors affecting water oxidation by these Mn oxides are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of γ-irradiation and ageing on surface and catalytic properties of nano-sized Cu O/Mg O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Molla, S. A.; Ismail, S. A.; Ibrahim, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    0.2 Cu O/Mg O system prepared by impregnation method was calcined at 350 and 450 C. The effects of γ-rays (0.2-1.6 MGy) on its structure, surface and catalytic properties were investigated by using XRD, N 2 -adsorption at -196 C and catalytic conversion of isopropanol at 150-275 C using a flow technique. The results revealed that the investigated solids consisted of nano-sized Mg O as a major phase besides Cu O and trace amount of Cu 2 O. γ-Irradiation of the solids investigated exerted measurable changes in their surface and catalytic properties dependent on the calcination temperature and dose of irradiation. The catalysts investigated acted as active dehydrogenation solids. The five years-ageing of different solids showed limited changes of their surface and catalytic properties indicating a good catalytic stability of the irradiated prepared solids. (Author)

  15. Effects of {gamma}-irradiation and ageing on surface and catalytic properties of nano-sized Cu O/Mg O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Molla, S. A. [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Education, Chemistry Deparment, Roxy, Heliopolis, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Ismail, S. A.; Ibrahim, M. M., E-mail: saharelmolla@yahoo.com [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, P.O. Box 29, 11731 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    0.2 Cu O/Mg O system prepared by impregnation method was calcined at 350 and 450 C. The effects of {gamma}-rays (0.2-1.6 MGy) on its structure, surface and catalytic properties were investigated by using XRD, N{sub 2}-adsorption at -196 C and catalytic conversion of isopropanol at 150-275 C using a flow technique. The results revealed that the investigated solids consisted of nano-sized Mg O as a major phase besides Cu O and trace amount of Cu{sub 2}O. {gamma}-Irradiation of the solids investigated exerted measurable changes in their surface and catalytic properties dependent on the calcination temperature and dose of irradiation. The catalysts investigated acted as active dehydrogenation solids. The five years-ageing of different solids showed limited changes of their surface and catalytic properties indicating a good catalytic stability of the irradiated prepared solids. (Author)

  16. Engineering and Scaling the Spontaneous Magnetization Reversal of Faraday Induced Magnetic Relaxation in Nano-Sized Amorphous Ni Coated on Crystalline Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Chen-Chen

    2016-05-28

    We report on the generation of large inverse remanent magnetizations in nano-sized core/shell structure of Au/Ni by turning off the applied magnetic field. The remanent magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before the switching off of the magnetic field. Spontaneous reversal in direction and increase in magnitude of the remanent magnetization in subsequent relaxations over time were found. All of the various types of temporal relaxation curves of the remanent magnetizations are successfully scaled by a stretched exponential decay profile, characterized by two pairs of relaxation times and dynamic exponents. The relaxation time is used to describe the reduction rate, while the dynamic exponent describes the dynamical slowing down of the relaxation through time evolution. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  17. Engineering and Scaling the Spontaneous Magnetization Reversal of Faraday Induced Magnetic Relaxation in Nano-Sized Amorphous Ni Coated on Crystalline Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Chen-Chen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the generation of large inverse remanent magnetizations in nano-sized core/shell structure of Au/Ni by turning off the applied magnetic field. The remanent magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before the switching off of the magnetic field. Spontaneous reversal in direction and increase in magnitude of the remanent magnetization in subsequent relaxations over time were found. All of the various types of temporal relaxation curves of the remanent magnetizations are successfully scaled by a stretched exponential decay profile, characterized by two pairs of relaxation times and dynamic exponents. The relaxation time is used to describe the reduction rate, while the dynamic exponent describes the dynamical slowing down of the relaxation through time evolution. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction. PMID:28773549

  18. Evaluation Tests of Select Fuel Additives for Potential Use in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Feasibility of Using Biodiesel Additives.” The technical monitor was Dr. Todd Bridges (CEERD- EM-D). The work was performed by the Coastal Engineering...analysis, quality assurance and control, and reporting was managed by Southern Research Institute’s Advanced Energy and Transportation Technologies...candidate conditions. The calculations were based on BTU contents found on the GREET Transportation Fuel Cycle Analyses Model (Argone National

  19. Design and synthesis of porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with 3D carbon network for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Peichao, E-mail: lianpeichao@126.com [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jingyi [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Cai, Dandan; Liu, Guoxue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Yingying [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material was designed and prepared. • The preparation method presented here can avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles. • The prepared Sn@C/graphene electrode material exhibits outstanding cyclability. - Abstract: Tin is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but it usually suffers from the problem of poor cycling stability due to the large volume change during the charge–discharge process. In this article, porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with three-dimensional carbon network was designed and prepared. Reducing the size of the Sn particles to nanoscale can mitigate the absolute strain induced by the large volume change during lithiation–delithiation process, and retard particle pulverization. The porous structure can provide a void space, which helps to accommodate the volume changes of the Sn nanoparticles during the lithium uptake-release process. The carbon shell can avoid the aggregation of the Sn nanoparticles on the same piece of graphene and detachment of the pulverized Sn particles during the charge–discharge process. The 3D carbon network consisted of graphene sheets and carbon shells can not only play a structural buffering role in minimizing the mechanical stress caused by the volume change of Sn, but also keep the overall electrode highly conductive during the lithium uptake-release process. As a result, the as-prepared Sn@C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibited outstanding cyclability. The reversible specific capacity is almost constant from the tenth cycle to the fiftieth cycle, which is about 600 mA h g{sup −1}. The strategy presented in this work may be extended to improve the cycle performances of other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations during charge–discharge processes.

  20. Characterisation of micro-sized and nano-sized tungsten oxide-epoxy composites for radiation shielding of diagnostic X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, N Z Noor; Siddiqui, S A; Low, I M

    2013-12-01

    Characteristics of X-ray transmissions were investigated for epoxy composites filled with 2-10 vol% WO3 loadings using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at 10-40 keV. The results obtained were used to determine the equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of mammography and radiology machines. The results confirmed the superior attenuation ability of nano-sized WO3-epoxy composites in the energy range of 10-25 keV when compared to their micro-sized counterparts. However, at higher synchrotron radiation energies (i.e., 30-40 keV), the X-ray transmission characteristics were similar with no apparent size effect for both nano-sized and micro-sized WO3-epoxy composites. The equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of the mammography unit (25-49 kV) were in the range of 15-25 keV. Similarly, for a radiology unit operating at 40-60 kV, the equivalent energy range was 25-40 keV, and for operating voltages greater than 60 kV (i.e., 70-100 kV), the equivalent energy was in excess of 40 keV. The mechanical properties of epoxy composites increased initially with an increase in the filler loading but a further increase in the WO3 loading resulted in deterioration of flexural strength, modulus and hardness. © 2013.

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization and selectively catalytic properties of metal-organic frameworks with nano-sized channels: A modular design strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Lingguang; Gu Lina; Hu Gang; Zhang Lide

    2009-01-01

    Modular design method for designing and synthesizing microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with selective catalytical activity was described. MOFs with both nano-sized channels and potential catalytic activities could be obtained through self-assembly of a framework unit and a catalyst unit. By selecting hexaaquo metal complexes and the ligand BTC (BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) as framework-building blocks and using the metal complex [M(phen) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2+ (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) as a catalyst unit, a series of supramolecular MOFs 1-7 with three-dimensional nano-sized channels, i.e. [M 1 (H 2 O) 6 ].[M 2 (phen) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2 .2(BTC).xH 2 O (M 1 , M 2 =Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), or Mn(II), phen=1,10-phenanthroline, BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate, x=22-24), were synthesized through self-assembly, and their structures were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These supramolecular microporous MOFs showed significant size and shape selectivity in the catalyzed oxidation of phenols, which is due to catalytic reactions taking place in the channels of the framework. Design strategy, synthesis, and self-assembly mechanism for the construction of these porous MOFs were discussed. - Grapical abstract: A modular design strategy has been developed to synthesize microporous metal-organic frameworks with potential catalytic activity by self-assembly of the framework-building blocks and the catalyst unit

  2. Effect of nitrate addition on biorestoration of fuel-contaminated aquifer: Field demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, S.R.; Downs, W.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Smith, G.B.; Kovacs, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    A spill of JP-4 jet fuel at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse City, Michigan, contaminated a water-table aquifer. An infiltration gallery (30 ft X 30 ft) was installed above a section of the aquifer containing 700 gal JP-4. Purge wells recirculated three million gallons of ground water per week through the infiltration gallery at a rate designed to raise the water table above the contaminated interval. Ground water containing ambient concentrations was first recirculated for 40 days. Concentrations of benzene in monitoring wells beneath the infiltration gallery were reduced from 760 to <1 micrograms/1. Concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were reduced from 4500 to 17,840 to 44,2600 to 490, and 1400 to 260 micrograms/1, respectively. Average core concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were reduced from 0.84 to 0.032, 33 to 0.13, 18 to 0.36, 58 to 7.4, and 26 to 3.2 mg/kg, respectively. Ground water amended with nitrate (10 mg/1 nitrate-nitrogen) and nutrients was then recirculated for 76 days. Final core concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene were 0.017, 0.036, 0.019, 0.059, and 0.27 mg/kg, respectively. Final aqueous concentrations were <1 micrograms/1 for benzene and toluene, 6 micrograms/1 for ethylbenzene, and 20 to 40 micrograms/1 for the xylene isomers, in good agreement with predicted values based on residual fuel content and partitioning theory. Although alkylbenzene concentrations have been substantially reduced, the test plot is still contaminated with the weathered fuel. Based on stoichiometry, approximately 10 times more nitrate was consumed than could be accounted for by BTX degradation alone, indicating that other compounds were also degraded under denitrifying conditions

  3. Improved performance of U-Mo dispersion fuel by Si addition in Al matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y S; Hofman, G L [Nuclear Engineering Division

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to collect in one publication and fit together work fragments presented in many conferences in the multi-year time span starting 2002 to the present dealing with the problem of large pore formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates first observed in 2002. Hence, this report summarizes the excerpts from papers and reports on how we interpreted the relevant results from out-of-pile and in-pile tests and how this problem was dealt with. This report also provides a refined view to explain in detail and in a quantitative manner the underlying mechanism of the role of silicon in improving the irradiation performance of U-Mo/Al.

  4. A potential study on clove oil, eugenol and eugenyl acetate as diesel fuel bio-additives and their performance on one cylinder engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kadarohman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the potency of essential oils as diesel fuel bio-additives has been reported. It also has been found out that clove oil has a better performance than turpentine oil on decreasing Break Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC and reduces the exhaust emissions of the engine. Clove oil is essential oil the content of which is made of eugenol acting as the main component. Eugenol has a bulky structure, two oxygen atoms and can form eugenyl acetate from ester reaction. Eugenyl acetate has a bulkier structure and higher oxygen content than eugenol which leads to optimizing the process of fuel combustion. This experiment can give information about the potency of the bio-additive based on clove oil and eugenol and about the influence of oxygen enrichment with eugenol on the performance of the diesel fuel bio-additive. In general, this experiment covered three stages. The first step is the characterization of the diesel fuel bio-additive using a GCMS and FTIR spectrophotometer. The second step is the characterization of the diesel fuel bio-additive and composition optimization. The final step is conducting a diesel fuel bio-additive performance test on one cylinder engine on a laboratory scale. The results of the carried out experiment show that clove oil, eugenol and eugenyl acetate can decrease Break Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC and reduce the exhaust emissions of the engine as well as oxygen enrichment can help in reaching optimal fuel combustion.

  5. Effect of nitrogen addition on the performance of microbial fuel cell anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Carbon cloth anodes were modified with 4(N,N-dimethylamino)benzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate to increase nitrogen-containing functional groups at the anode surface in order to test whether the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be improved by controllably modifying the anode surface chemistry. Anodes with the lowest extent of functionalization, based on a nitrogen/carbon ratio of 0.7 as measured by XPS, achieved the highest power density of 938mW/m2. This power density was 24% greater than an untreated anode, and similar to that obtained with an ammonia gas treatment previously shown to increase power. Increasing the nitrogen/carbon ratio to 3.8, however, decreased the power density to 707mW/m2. These results demonstrate that a small amount of nitrogen functionalization on the carbon cloth material is sufficient to enhance MFC performance, likely as a result of promoting bacterial adhesion to the surface without adversely affecting microbial viability or electron transfer to the surface. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Fuel and Fuel System Materials Compatibility Test Program for A JP-8+100 Fuel Additive. Volume 1: Thermal Stability Additive Package BetzDearborn Spec Aid(Registered) 8Q462

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    SAE Rings, Sealing, Butadiene-Acrylonitrile ( NBR ), Rubber Fuel and Low Temperature Resistant 60 - 70 MIL-R-83248C Rubber , Fluorocarbon...KAPTON/TEFLON (COMPOSITE) WIRE I.I.10 34 VI. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS Non-Metallics MIL-HDBK-149B Military Standardization Hand Book Rubber ...ASTM D-1414 Standard Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings ASTM D-412 Type II Standard Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic

  7. The electrorheological properties of nano-sized SiO2 particle materials doped with rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Liao Fuhui; Li Junran; Zhang Shaohua; Chen Shumei; Wei Chenguan; Gao Song

    2006-01-01

    Electrorheological (ER) materials of pure SiO 2 and SiO 2 doped with rare earths (RE = Ce, Gd, Y) (non-metallic glasses (silicates)) were prepared using Na 2 SiO 3 and RECl 3 as starting materials. The electrorheological properties are not enhanced by all rare earth additions. The material doped with Ce exhibits the best ER performance

  8. Synthesis of nano-sized MgO particle and thin film from diethanolamine-stabilized magnesium-methoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, J.-K.; Young Kim, J.; Hong, Kug Sun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of diethanolamine (DEA) addition on the crystallization behavior of magnesium methoxide and the stabilization behavior of the Mg-alkoxide were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. 20 mol% DEA additions to magnesium methoxide showed enhanced stability such that a time-dependent change in the sol was not observed in air. Moreover, the DEA addition enhanced the crystallization process. Crystalline MgO in the 20 mol% of DEA-added magnesium methoxide powder was observed at 300 deg. C for samples processed in O 2 and a high degree of crystallinity was observed at 400 deg. C when processed in O 2 . The enhanced crystallization of Mg-methoxide with added DEA in O 2 is discussed in terms of structural relaxation and heat generation during the ignition of an organic species of DEA. Using a DEA added sol, a MgO thin film with a high degree of crystallinity was prepared at 400 deg. C in O 2

  9. Synthesis of nano-sized arsenic-imprinted polymer and its use as As3+ selective ionophore in a potentiometric membrane electrode: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Rashedi, Mariyam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The first arsenic cation-selective membrane electrode was introduced. • A novel procedure was introduced for the preparation of As-imprinted polymer. • It was found that arsenic is recognized by the IIP as As 3+ species. • Nernstian response of 20.4 mV decade −1 and DL of 0.5 μM was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, a new strategy was proposed for the preparation of As (III)-imprinted polymer by using arsenic (methacrylate) 3 as template. Precipitation polymerization was utilized to synthesize nano-sized As (III)-imprinted polymer. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. In order to assembly functional monomers around As (III) ion, sodium arsenite and methacrylic acid were heated in the presence of hydroquinone, leading to arsenic (methacrylate) 3 . The nano-sized As (III) selective polymer was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). It was demonstrated that arsenic was recognized as As 3+ by the selective cavities of the synthesized IIP. Based on the prepared polymer, the first arsenic cation selective membrane electrode was introduced. Membrane electrode was constructed by dispersion of As (III)-imprinted polymer nanoparticles in poly(vinyl chloride), plasticized with di-nonylphthalate. The IIP-modified electrode exhibited a Nernstian response (20.4 ± 0.5 mV decade −1 ) to arsenic ion over a wide concentration range (7.0 × 10 −7 to 1.0 × 10 −1 mol L −1 ) with a lower detection limit of 5.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 . Unlike this, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based membrane electrode was not sensitive to arsenic in aqueous solution. The selectivity of the developed sensor to As (III) was shown to be satisfactory. The sensor was used for arsenic determination in some real samples

  10. High heat generation ability in AC magnetic field for nano-sized magnetic Y3Fe5O12 powder prepared by bead milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, Hiromichi; Ebara, Hiroki; Senba, Ryota; Naohara, Takashi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Nano-sized magnetic Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 ferrite having a high heat generation ability in an AC magnetic field was prepared by bead milling. A commercial powder sample (non-milled sample) of ca. 2.9 μm in particle size did not show any temperature enhancement in the AC magnetic field. The heat generation ability in the AC magnetic field improved with a decrease in the average crystallite size for the bead-milled Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 ferrites. The highest heat ability in the AC magnetic field was for the fine Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 powder with a 15-nm crystallite size (the samples were milled for 4 h using 0.1 mmφ beads). The heat generation ability of the excessively milled Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 samples decreased. The main reason for the high heat generation property of the milled samples was ascribed to an increase in the Néel relaxation of the superparamagnetic material. The heat generation ability was not influenced by the concentration of the ferrite powder. For the samples milled for 4 h using 0.1 mmφ beads, the heat generation ability (W g −1 ) was estimated using a 3.58×10 −4 fH 2 frequency (f/kHz) and the magnetic field (H/kA m −1 ), which is the highest reported value of superparamagnetic materials. - Highlights: ► The nano-sized Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 powder prepared by bead-milling has the highest heat generation ability in an AC magnetic field. ► The heat generation properties are ascribed to an increase in the Néel relaxation of the superparamagnetic material. ► The heat ability (W g −1 ) can be estimated using 3.58×10 −4 fH 2 (f=kHz, H=kA m −1 ). ► This is an expectable material for use in a drug delivery system for the thermal coagulation therapy of cancer tumors.

  11. Synthesis of nano-sized arsenic-imprinted polymer and its use as As{sup 3+} selective ionophore in a potentiometric membrane electrode: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Taher, E-mail: Alizadeh@uma.ac.ir; Rashedi, Mariyam

    2014-09-16

    Highlights: • The first arsenic cation-selective membrane electrode was introduced. • A novel procedure was introduced for the preparation of As-imprinted polymer. • It was found that arsenic is recognized by the IIP as As{sup 3+} species. • Nernstian response of 20.4 mV decade{sup −1} and DL of 0.5 μM was obtained. - Abstract: In this study, a new strategy was proposed for the preparation of As (III)-imprinted polymer by using arsenic (methacrylate){sub 3} as template. Precipitation polymerization was utilized to synthesize nano-sized As (III)-imprinted polymer. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. In order to assembly functional monomers around As (III) ion, sodium arsenite and methacrylic acid were heated in the presence of hydroquinone, leading to arsenic (methacrylate){sub 3}. The nano-sized As (III) selective polymer was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). It was demonstrated that arsenic was recognized as As{sup 3+} by the selective cavities of the synthesized IIP. Based on the prepared polymer, the first arsenic cation selective membrane electrode was introduced. Membrane electrode was constructed by dispersion of As (III)-imprinted polymer nanoparticles in poly(vinyl chloride), plasticized with di-nonylphthalate. The IIP-modified electrode exhibited a Nernstian response (20.4 ± 0.5 mV decade{sup −1}) to arsenic ion over a wide concentration range (7.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.0 × 10{sup −1} mol L{sup −1}) with a lower detection limit of 5.0 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}. Unlike this, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based membrane electrode was not sensitive to arsenic in aqueous solution. The selectivity of the developed sensor to As (III) was shown to be satisfactory. The sensor was used for arsenic determination in some real samples.

  12. A high gradient and strength bioseparator with nano-sized immunomagnetic particles for specific separation and efficient concentration of E. coli O157:H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jianhan; Li, Min; Li, Yanbin; Chen, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Sample pretreatment is a key to rapid screening of pathogens for prevention and control of foodborne diseases. Magnetic immunoseparation is a specific method based on antibody–antigen reaction to capture the target bacteria and concentrate them in a smaller-volume buffer. The use of nano-sized magnetic particles could improve the separation efficiency of bacteria but require much higher gradient and strength magnetic field. In this study, a strong magnetic bioseparator with a mean field strength of 1.35 T and a mean gradient of 90 T/m was developed with the use of the 30 nm and 180 nm magnetic particles to specifically separate and efficiently concentrate foodborne bacterial pathogens using Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. The polyclonal antibodies against E. coli were evaluated using Dot ELISA analysis for their good affinity with the target bacteria and then used to modify the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles by 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) method and streptavidin-biotin binding. The magnetic particle concentrations were optimized to be 40 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively, the immunoreaction time was optimized to be 45 min for both sizes of particles, and the separation times were optimized to be 60 min and 2 min for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively. The total magnetic separation time was 2 h and 1 h for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the bioseparator with the use of either 30 nm or 180 nm immunomagnetic particles could achieve a separation efficiency of >90% for E. coli O157:H7 at the concentrations ranging from 10 2 to 10 5 cfu/ml. No obvious interferences from non-target foodborne pathogens, such as SalmonellaTyphimurium and Listeria innocua, were found. For overall consideration of the consuming time, the cost, and the separation efficiency, the 180 nm magnetic particles are practical for

  13. A high gradient and strength bioseparator with nano-sized immunomagnetic particles for specific separation and efficient concentration of E. coli O157:H7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jianhan, E-mail: jianhan@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology (Beijing), 17 East Tsinghua Road, China Agricultural University, Mailbox 125, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Min [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Yanbin [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Chen, Qi [Modern Precision Agriculture System Integration Research Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Sample pretreatment is a key to rapid screening of pathogens for prevention and control of foodborne diseases. Magnetic immunoseparation is a specific method based on antibody–antigen reaction to capture the target bacteria and concentrate them in a smaller-volume buffer. The use of nano-sized magnetic particles could improve the separation efficiency of bacteria but require much higher gradient and strength magnetic field. In this study, a strong magnetic bioseparator with a mean field strength of 1.35 T and a mean gradient of 90 T/m was developed with the use of the 30 nm and 180 nm magnetic particles to specifically separate and efficiently concentrate foodborne bacterial pathogens using Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. The polyclonal antibodies against E. coli were evaluated using Dot ELISA analysis for their good affinity with the target bacteria and then used to modify the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles by 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) method and streptavidin-biotin binding. The magnetic particle concentrations were optimized to be 40 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively, the immunoreaction time was optimized to be 45 min for both sizes of particles, and the separation times were optimized to be 60 min and 2 min for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively. The total magnetic separation time was 2 h and 1 h for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the bioseparator with the use of either 30 nm or 180 nm immunomagnetic particles could achieve a separation efficiency of >90% for E. coli O157:H7 at the concentrations ranging from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 5} cfu/ml. No obvious interferences from non-target foodborne pathogens, such as SalmonellaTyphimurium and Listeria innocua, were found. For overall consideration of the consuming time, the cost, and the separation efficiency, the 180 nm magnetic particles are

  14. Structural elucidation and magnetic behavior evaluation of rare earth (La, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy) doped BaCoNi-X hexagonal nano-sized ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majeed, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajeed2276@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar, E-mail: azhar.khan@iub.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Raheem, Faseeh ur; Hussain, Altaf; Iqbal, F. [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Murtaza, Ghulam [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Deanship of Scientific Research, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)

    2016-06-15

    Rare-earth (RE=La{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}) doped Ba{sub 2}NiCoRE{sub x}Fe{sub 28−x}O{sub 46} (x=0.25) hexagonal ferrites were synthesized for the first time via micro-emulsion route, which is a fast chemistry route for obtaining nano-sized ferrite powders. These nanomaterials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis exhibited that all the samples crystallized into single X-type hexagonal phase. The crystalline size calculated by Scherrer's formula was found in the range 7–19 nm. The variations in lattice parameters elucidated the incorporation of rare-earth cations in these nanomaterials. FTIR absorption spectra of these X-type ferrites were investigated in the wave number range 500–2400 cm{sup −1.} Each spectrum exhibited absorption bands in the low wave number range, thereby confirming the X-type hexagonal structure. The enhancement in the coercivity was observed with the doping of rare-earth cations. The saturation magnetization was lowered owing to the redistribution of rare-earth cations on the octahedral site (3b{sub VI}). The higher values of coercivity (664–926 Oe) of these nanomaterials suggest their use in longitudinal recording media. - Graphical abstract: Nano-sized rare-earth (RE=La{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}) doped Ba{sub 2}NiCoRE{sub x}Fe{sub 28−x}O{sub 46} (x=0.25) hexagonal ferrites were synthesized for the first time via micro-emulsion route and the crystallite size was found in the range 7–19 nm. The enhancement in the coercivity was observed with the doping of rare-earth cations. The higher values of coercivity (664–926 Oe) of these nanomaterials suggest their use in longitudinal recording media. - Highlights: • Micro-emulsion route was used to synthesize Ba{sub 2}NiCoRE{sub x}Fe{sub 28−x}O{sub 46} ferrites. • The crystallite size was found

  15. Structural elucidation and magnetic behavior evaluation of rare earth (La, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy) doped BaCoNi-X hexagonal nano-sized ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, Abdul; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Raheem, Faseeh ur; Hussain, Altaf; Iqbal, F.; Murtaza, Ghulam; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Shakir, Imran; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Rare-earth (RE=La 3+ , Nd 3+ , Gd 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ ) doped Ba 2 NiCoRE x Fe 28−x O 46 (x=0.25) hexagonal ferrites were synthesized for the first time via micro-emulsion route, which is a fast chemistry route for obtaining nano-sized ferrite powders. These nanomaterials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis exhibited that all the samples crystallized into single X-type hexagonal phase. The crystalline size calculated by Scherrer's formula was found in the range 7–19 nm. The variations in lattice parameters elucidated the incorporation of rare-earth cations in these nanomaterials. FTIR absorption spectra of these X-type ferrites were investigated in the wave number range 500–2400 cm −1. Each spectrum exhibited absorption bands in the low wave number range, thereby confirming the X-type hexagonal structure. The enhancement in the coercivity was observed with the doping of rare-earth cations. The saturation magnetization was lowered owing to the redistribution of rare-earth cations on the octahedral site (3b VI ). The higher values of coercivity (664–926 Oe) of these nanomaterials suggest their use in longitudinal recording media. - Graphical abstract: Nano-sized rare-earth (RE=La 3+ , Nd 3+ , Gd 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ ) doped Ba 2 NiCoRE x Fe 28−x O 46 (x=0.25) hexagonal ferrites were synthesized for the first time via micro-emulsion route and the crystallite size was found in the range 7–19 nm. The enhancement in the coercivity was observed with the doping of rare-earth cations. The higher values of coercivity (664–926 Oe) of these nanomaterials suggest their use in longitudinal recording media. - Highlights: • Micro-emulsion route was used to synthesize Ba 2 NiCoRE x Fe 28−x O 46 ferrites. • The crystallite size was found in the range 7–19 nm. • The rare-earth incorporation enhanced the coercivity (664–926 Oe).

  16. Challenges for Incorporation of additional safeguards requirements in a fuel fabrication facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tadatsugu; Suzuki, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Recent introduction of strengthened SG measure (i.e.: SNRI (Short Notice Random Inspection)) necessitated semi-real-time reporting including non-prescribed data in the FA for vital processes. These requirements have been bet by endeavors of both Inspectorates and operators. Using the integrated databases it will also be possible to produce most of reports required for safeguards purposes on a semi-real time basis, albeit with additional investment for softwares. However, in order to fully enjoy the advancements of information technology it is necessary to streamline the legal and procedural platform in addition to technical matters, in particular what are 'must' for safeguards and abolish if they are not really needed anymore. (author)

  17. Influence of anti-corrosion additive on the performance, emission and engine component wear characteristics of an IDI diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraful, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Sajjad, H.; Abedin, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum engine performance was obtained at 2000 rpm for all fuel blends. • IRGALUBE 349 additive is enhances diesel engine performance. • Reduction of CO and NOx considerably using anti-corrosion additive except HC. • Engine wear decreases with using blended fuels with anti-corrosion additive. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of anti-corrosion additives such as 8% and 16% (vol.%) palm olein oil (PO) with ordinary diesel (OD) fuel on engine operation, emission behavior, engine part wear, and lubrication characteristics. This experiment was conducted on 4-cylinder and 4-stroke IDI diesel engine at different engine speed ranging from 1200 to 2800 RPM with 30% throttle setting under full load condition. The properties of the palm olein oil blends meet the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. At 2000 rpm, the experimental results revealed that the POD8A (0.2% Additive + 8% PO + 92% OD) and POD16A (0.2% Additive + 16% PO + 84% OD) blended fuels produced 0.5% and 0.51% higher brake power as well as 1.45% and 1.25% higher torque than same blends without additive, respectively. In comparison with ODF, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was found 1.8% and 3.1% higher for POD8A and POD16A blends, respectively. Anti-corrosion additive is found more effectual in enhancing the engine performance as such additive helps in timely ignition for complete burn in the combustion chamber. The results from engine emission indicated that POD8A and POD16A blended fuel reduced CO emissions by 11% and 6.6% and NOx emission by 2.5% and 1.09%, respectively in compared with OD fuel. Although HC emissions for all blended fuel and OD fuel increased at higher engine speed, the average HC emissions of all blended fuel were not higher than OD fuel. The application of anti-corrosion additives in POD blends reduced ferrous (Fe) wear debris concentration (WBC) by 17.3%. The reductions in WBC were about 16.1%, 10.8%, and 19.3%, 17.6% for copper (Cu) and aluminum

  18. Reduced PM2.5 Emissions for Military Gas Turbine Engines using Fuel Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-12

    COMPUTATIONAL 72 2.2.1 CHEMKIN 72 2.2.2 WSR MODELING USING CHEMKIN 74 2.2.3 UNICORN CODE 78 2.2.4 REACTION MECHANISMS 84 3. RESULTS 86 3.1 OXYGENATED...PREMIXED FLAME 275 3.5.5 COFLOW DIFFUSION FLAME 278 3.5.6 OPPOSED-FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME 284 3.5.7 CFM COMBUSTOR 294 3.5.8 JET-FLAMES, UNICORN ...constituents in the commercial additive, were identified as the likely constituents leading to soot reduction. Consequently , these compounds were investigated

  19. Mechanism behind the formation of self-assembled nano-sized clusters in diamond-like carbon nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Yuan Mei; Koh, Angel Ting Ting; Niu, Lifang; Chua, Daniel Hock Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have shown that Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with diversified material properties are obtainable through doping process but the presence of the dopants were reported to form independent nanoclusters within the carbon matrix. Using combined analysis from theoretical estimations (Saha's equation and coefficient of absorption, alpha(p)), Transport of Ions In Matter (TRIM) simulation and experimental results, this work examined the mechanism behind the formation of self-assembled nanoclusters in DLC nanocomposite. We showed that the presence of metal dopants increased the heat dissipation on DLC, which allowed the energetic metal species to diffuse and enhance the formation of nanoclusters that increased the surface roughness of the films. In addition, TRIM and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) hinted the presence of energetic species may force the carbon ions to react with the interface to form silicon carbide bonds, which may be a more dominant factor compared to internal stress reduction in improving the adhesion strength of DLC.

  20. Three-Dimensional Porous Particles Composed of Curved, Two-Dimensional, Nano-Sized Layers for Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushin, Gleb; Evanoff, Kara; Magasinski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Thin Si films coated on porous 3D particles composed of curved 2D graphene sheets have been synthesized utilizing techniques that allow for tunable properties. Since graphene exhibits specific surface area up to 100 times higher than carbon black or graphite, the deposition of the same mass of Si on graphene is much faster in comparison -- a factor which is important for practical applications. In addition, the distance between graphene layers is tunable and variation in the thickness of the deposited Si film is feasible. Both of these characteristics allow for optimization of the energy and power characteristics. Thicker films will allow higher capacity, but slower rate capabilities. Thinner films will allow more rapid charging, or higher power performance. In this innovation, uniform deposition of Si and C layers on high-surface area graphene produced granules with specific surface area (SSA) of 5 sq. m/g.

  1. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of nano-sized Ag_4Sn particles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuelling, Guido; Oehl, Nikolas; Fromm, Olga; Knipper, Martin; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Parisi, Jürgen; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, sub 10 nm sized intermetallic Ag_4Sn particles are prepared via an aqueous synthesis route in order to improve the electrochemical performance of pure Sn nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis are used to investigate the morphology, crystal structure and particle surface of the as prepared Ag_4Sn nanoparticles. In addition, galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements are carried out to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the particles. Upon lithiation and de-lithiation a phase transformation from Ag_4Sn to Ag_3Sn is observed, which has not been reported so far. The intermetallic nanoparticle-based anode delivers a specific de-lithiation capacity of 460 mAhg"−"1 for more than 150 cycles.

  2. Certain investigation in a compression ignition engine using rice bran methyl ester fuel blends with ethanol additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study and analysis, the physical properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash, and fire point temperatures of rice bran oil methyl ester were found. The rice bran oil biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification process from pure rice bran oil in the presence of methanol and NaOH. Moreover, property enhancement of rice bran oil methyl ester was also made by adding different additives such as ethanol in various proportions. Rice bran oil methyl ester with 1, 3, and 5% ethanol were analyzed for its fuel properties. The effects of diesel-B20ROME blends with ethanol additive of 1, 3, and 5% on a compression ignition engine were examined considering its emissions. It is found that the increase in biodiesel concentration in the fuel blend influences CO2 and NOx emissions. On the other hand CO and HC emissions are reduced. It is interesting to observe the emission as ethanol-B20ROME blends, reduces CO2 and NOx which are the major contributors to global warming. As the NOx and CO2 can be reduced drastically by the proposed blends, the global warming can be reduced considerably.

  3. A new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive: Catalyst screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Malaya R.; Yuan, Zhongshun; Qin, Wensheng; Ghaziaskar, Hassan S.; Poirier, Marc-Andre; Xu, Chunbao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A continuous-flow process for catalytic synthesis of solketal from glycerol. • Six different heterogeneous acid catalysts were studied in the process. • Glycerol conversion and solketal yield of 90% and 88% respectively were achieved. • The process has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial applications. - Abstract: A new continuous-flow reactor was designed for the conversion of glycerol to solketal, an oxygenated fuel additive, through ketalization with acetone. Six heterogeneous catalysts were investigated with respect to their catalytic activity and stability in a flow reactor. The acidity of the catalysts positively influences the catalyst’s activity. Among all the solid acid catalysts tested, the maximum solketal yield from experiments at 40 °C, 600 psi and WHSV of 4 h −1 attained 73% and 88% at the acetone/glycerol molar ratio of 2.0 and 6.0, respectively, with Amberlyst Wet. Based on the solketal yield and glycerol conversion results, the activity of all catalysts tested follows the following order of sequence: Amberlyst Wet ≈ Zeolite ≈ Amberlyst Dry > Zirconium Sulfate > Montmorillonite > Polymax. An increase in acetone/glycerol molar ratio or a decrease in WHSV enhanced the glycerol conversion as expected. This process offers an attractive route for converting glycerol, the main by-product of biodiesel, to solketal – a value-added green product with potential industrial applications as a valuable fuel additive or combustion promoter for gasoline engines

  4. QSAR analysis for nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxide in water oxidation: An application of chemometric methods in artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazy, Mohammad; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Water oxidation is among the most important reactions in artificial photosynthesis, and nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxides are efficient catalysts toward this reaction. Herein, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was constructed to predict the catalytic activities of twenty manganese-calcium oxides toward water oxidation using multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm (GA) for multivariate calibration and feature selection, respectively. Although there are eight controlled parameters during synthesizing of the desired catalysts including ripening time, temperature, manganese content, calcium content, potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese, the average manganese oxidation state and the surface of catalyst, by using GA only three of them (potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese and the average manganese oxidation state) were selected as the most effective parameters on catalytic activities of these compounds. The model's accuracy criteria such as R(2)test and Q(2)test in order to predict catalytic rate for external test set experiments; were equal to 0.941 and 0.906, respectively. Therefore, model reveals acceptable capability to anticipate the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectrum designation and effect of Al substitution on the luminescence of Cr3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nano-sized phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weiwei; Zhang Junying; Chen Ziyu; Wang Tianmin; Zheng Shukai

    2010-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescent spectra of ZnGa 2 O 4 :Cr 3+ nano-sized phosphors calcined at different temperatures were reported. The fine structure of the emission spectra has been designated to Cr 3+ ions in different sites including ideal octahedral, Zn-interstitial, Ga ZN 4 -Zn Ga 6 sites and Ga 2 O 3 impurity. The vibronic sidebands for both Stokes' and anti-Stokes' sides are related to the host lattice vibrations, which were confirmed by IR and Raman spectra. Al 3+ is substituted in Ga 3+ sites to form Zn(Ga 1-y Al y ) 2 O 4 :Cr 0.01 3+ (0≤y≤0.5). The blue shift and luminescent intensity variations of the charge transfer band and 3d-3d transitions in the spectra caused by Al substitution were related to larger band gap and stronger crystal field, respectively. The calculated crystal-field parameters indicated that Al incorporation enhanced the crystal field strength and induced more trigonal distortion due to different radii of Al 3+ and Ga 3+ .

  6. Nano-sized Fe-metal catalyst on ZnO-SiO2: (photo-assisted deposition and impregnation) Synthesis routes and nanostructure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.; Al-Rayyani, M.A.; Baeissa, E.S.; Mkhalid, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared Fe/ZnO-SiO 2 by two methods. → We tested photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue dye. → We controlled band gap and size. → We found activity of Fe/ZnO-SiO 2 prepared by PAD is hightest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A nano-sized Fe metal on ZnO-SiO 2 was synthesized using the photo-assisted deposition (PAD) and impregnation routes. The obtained samples were characterized by a series of techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Photocatalytic reactivity using Fe-ZnO-SiO 2 catalysts under visible-light condition on the degradation of methylene blue dye was evaluated. The results of characterization reveal, a notable photocatalytic activity of PAD:Fe-ZnO-SiO 2 which was about 9 and 12 times higher than that of Img:Fe-ZnO-SiO 2 and ZnO-SiO 2 , respectively.

  7. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4- associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals in hazardous ASR thermal residue in dry condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of bis- and tris(indolylmethanes catalyzed by an inorganic nano-sized catalyst followed by dehydrogenation to hyperconjugated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of bis- and tris(indolylmethanes were prepared and dehydrogenated to their hyperconjugated products in a one-pot fashion. Nano-sized-SO3H functionalized mesoporous KIT-6 coated on magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@KIT-6-OSO3H was used as an efficient catalyst in the first step of synthesis, and dehydrogenation was performed by using (NH42S2O8 after removal of the catalyst. The catalyst was fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, as well as nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The bis- and tris(indolylmethanes were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy before and after dehydrogenation, and effect of the ambient parameters on their spectra was investigated. It was found that bis- and tris(indolylmethanes have no considerable absorption in the visible range and what makes them colorful is partial dehydrogenation due to exposure to air. Our catalyst as a new combination of known materials, showed superiority in terms of yield, time, and mild reaction conditions in comparison with previous reports.

  9. The influence of pH and reaction time on the formation of FeSe{sub 2} upon selenite reduction by nano-sized pyrite-greigite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mingliang [Sun Yat-sen Univ., Zhuhai (China). Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Ma, Bin; Charlet, Laurent [Grenoble Univ. (France). Environmental Geochemistry Group; Chen, Fanrong; Yang, Yongqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials

    2016-11-01

    The influence of pH and reaction time on the formation of FeSe{sub 2} by reductive precipitation of Se(IV) with nano-sized pyrite-greigite was investigated. Reductive precipitation is an effective method of attenuating the mobility of {sup 79}Se, which is foreseen to be a dangerous radioisotope for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The results indicated that Se(0)was formed at pH <4.05, whereas, at pH > 6.07, considerable amount of FeSe{sub 2} was formed along with Se(0). These observations are in agreement with the thermodynamic predictions reported in this work. Furthermore, the formation of FeSe{sub 2} was found to continue by increasing the reaction time, indicating that the Se(0) formed in the early reaction stage is gradually transformed to FeSe{sub 2} upon the depletion of aqueous Se(IV). Since FeSe{sub 2} has a stronger reactivity than pyrite, it was proposed that greigite, rather than pyrite, was responsible for the formation of FeSe{sub 2}. The findings in this study are of interest for key geochemical processes governing the mobility of toxic {sup 79}Se in the environment in presence of iron sulfides.

  10. Ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) with nano-sized ceramic fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Prasanth; Zhao Xiaohui; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Manuel, James; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr; Nah, Changwoon [Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Duckjin-dong, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-30

    A series of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (NCPEs) comprising nanoparticles of BaTiO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiO{sub 2} were prepared by electrospinning technique. The nano-sized ceramic fillers were incorporated into poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HEP)] membranes during the electrospinning process. The resultant porous membranes are good absorbent of the liquid electrolyte and exhibit high electrolyte retention capacity. The presence of the ceramic nanoparticles has positive effect on the mechanical properties of the membranes. The ionic conductivity and the electrochemical stability window of the electrospun P(VdF-HFP)-based polymer are enhanced by the presence of the fillers. The cell Li/LiFePO{sub 4} based on the NCPE containing BaTiO{sub 3} delivers a discharge capacity of 164 mAh/g, which corresponds to 96.5% utilization of the active material. In comparison, the performance of Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells with NCPEs containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} was observed to be lower with respective discharge capacities of 153 and 156 mAh/g. The enhanced performance of the BaTiO{sub 3}-based-NCPE is attributed mainly to its better interaction with the host polymer and compatibility with lithium metal.

  11. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite: a histomorphometric study in rabbit bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Pär; Jimbo, Ryo; Naito, Yoshihito; Kjellin, Per; Currie, Fredrik; Wennerberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA) minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants in the rabbit femur were histologically evaluated at 3 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. Twelve of the 24 implants were HA coated (test), and the remaining 12 served as uncoated PEEK controls. At 3 weeks and 12 weeks, the mean bone-implant contact was higher for test compared to control (P<0.05). The bone area inside the threads was comparable in the two groups, but the perforating hole showed more bone area for the HA-coated implants at both healing points (P<0.01). With these results, we conclude that nano-sized HA coating on PEEK implants significantly improved the osteogenic properties, and in a clinical situation this material composition may serve as an implant where a rapid bone fusion is essential.

  12. Fabrication and anti-frosting performance of super hydrophobic coating based on modified nano-sized calcium carbonate and ordinary polyacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hao [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang Liming [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: tanglm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wu Xiaomin; Dai Wantian [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiu Yipeng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-09-15

    Nano-sized calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) particles were modified by heptadecafluorodecyl trimethoxysilane under acidic water condition. An ordinary polyacrylate prepared via radical copolymerization of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid and {beta}-hydroxyethyl methacrylate was used as the binder to form hydrophobic coatings with the modified CaCO{sub 3}. Super hydrophobic coating with water contact angle of 155{sup o} was obtained from modified CaCO{sub 3} and the polyacrylate at their weight ratio of 8/2 by a simple procedure. Based on surface analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the super hydrophobicity can be attributed to both the surface microstructure and surface enrichment of fluoroalkyl chains. Due to a low water sliding angle, carbon black powder on super hydrophobic surface was easily removed by rolling water droplet. Furthermore, the anti-frosting performance of different surfaces was investigated, which indicated that the frost formed on superhydrophobic surface was greatly retarded compared with that on bare copper surface. The surface kept super hydrophobicity even after freezing-thawing treatment for 10 times.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-sized NiCuZn ferrites synthesized by co-precipitation method with ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harzali, Hassen, E-mail: harzali@mines-albi.fr [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Saida, Fairouz; Marzouki, Arij; Megriche, Adel [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Baillon, Fabien; Espitalier, Fabienne [Université de Toulouse, Mines Albi, CNRS, Centre RAPSODEE, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi CT cedex 09 (France); Mgaidi, Arbi [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Taibah University, Faculty of Sciences & art, Al Ula (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-01

    Sonochemically assisted co-precipitation has been used to prepare nano-sized Ni–Cu–Zn-ferrite powders. A suspension of constituent hydroxides was ultrasonically irradiated for various times at different temperatures with high intensity ultrasound radiation using a direct immersion titanium horn. Structural and magnetic properties were investigated using X-diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nitrogen adsorption at 77 K (BET) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Preliminary experimental results relative to optimal parameters showed that reaction time t=2 h, temperature θ=90 °C and dissipated Power P{sub diss}=46.27 W. At these conditions, this work shows the formation of nanocrystalline single-phase structure with particle size 10–25 nm. Also, ours magnetic measurements proved that the sonochemistry method has a great influence on enhancing the magnetic properties of the ferrite. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation experiments were carried out with ultrasound. • The spinel ferrite NiCuZn was perfectly synthesized by ultrasound. • The saturation magnetization and crystals size are found to be correlated as the dissipated power was varied.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-sized NiCuZn ferrites synthesized by co-precipitation method with ultrasound irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harzali, Hassen; Saida, Fairouz; Marzouki, Arij; Megriche, Adel; Baillon, Fabien; Espitalier, Fabienne; Mgaidi, Arbi

    2016-01-01

    Sonochemically assisted co-precipitation has been used to prepare nano-sized Ni–Cu–Zn-ferrite powders. A suspension of constituent hydroxides was ultrasonically irradiated for various times at different temperatures with high intensity ultrasound radiation using a direct immersion titanium horn. Structural and magnetic properties were investigated using X-diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nitrogen adsorption at 77 K (BET) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Preliminary experimental results relative to optimal parameters showed that reaction time t=2 h, temperature θ=90 °C and dissipated Power P_d_i_s_s=46.27 W. At these conditions, this work shows the formation of nanocrystalline single-phase structure with particle size 10–25 nm. Also, ours magnetic measurements proved that the sonochemistry method has a great influence on enhancing the magnetic properties of the ferrite. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation experiments were carried out with ultrasound. • The spinel ferrite NiCuZn was perfectly synthesized by ultrasound. • The saturation magnetization and crystals size are found to be correlated as the dissipated power was varied.

  15. Low Thermal Conductivity of Bulk Amorphous Si1- x Ge x Containing Nano-Sized Crystalline Particles Synthesized by Ball-Milling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Omprakash; Nishino, Shunsuke; Ghodke, Swapnil; Inukai, Manabu; Sobota, Robert; Adachi, Masahiro; Kiyama, Makato; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro; Santhanakrishnan, Harish; Ikeda, Hiroya; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Amorphous Si0.65Ge0.35 powder containing a small amount of nano-sized crystalline particles was synthesized by means of the mechanical alloying process. Hot pressing for 24 h under the pressure of 400 MPa at 823 K, which is below the crystallization temperature, allowed us to obtain bulk amorphous Si-Ge alloy containing a small amount of nanocrystals. The thermal conductivity of the prepared bulk amorphous Si-Ge alloy was extremely low, showing a magnitude of less than 1.35 Wm-1 K-1 over the entire temperature range from 300 K to 700 K. The sound velocity of longitudinal and transverse waves for the bulk amorphous Si0.65Ge0.35 were measured, and the resulting values were 5841 m/s and 2840 m/s, respectively. The estimated mean free path of phonons was kept at the very small value of ˜ 4.2 nm, which was mainly due to the strong scattering limit of phonons in association with the amorphous structure.

  16. Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics of Cd2+ and Pb2+ by Micro and Nano-sized Biogenic CaCO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renlu; Guan, Yong; Chen, Liang; Lian, Bin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and mechanisms of adsorption and desorption for heavy metals by micro and nano-sized biogenic CaCO3 induced by Bacillus subtilis, and the pH effect on adsorption was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption characteristics of Cd2+ and Pb2+ are well described by the Langmuir adsorption isothermal equation, and the maximum adsorption amounts for Cd2+ and Pb2+ were 94.340 and 416.667 mg/g, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies were 97% for Cd2+, 100% for Pb2+, and the desorption rate was smaller than 3%. Further experiments revealed that the biogenic CaCO3 could maintain its high adsorption capability for heavy metals within wide pH ranges (3–8). The FTIR and XRD results showed that, after the biogenic CaCO3 adsorbed Cd2+ or Pb2+, it did not produce a new phase, which indicated that biogenic CaCO3 and heavy metal ions were governed by a physical adsorption process, and the high adsorptive capacity of biogenic CaCO3 for Cd2+ and Pb2+ were mainly attributed to its large total specific surface area. The findings could improve the state of knowledge about biogenic CaCO3 formation in the environment and its potential roles in the biogeochemical cycles of heavy metals. PMID:29434577

  17. Effect of nano-sized precipitates on the crystallography of ferrite in high-strength strip steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-jing Yang; Run Wu; Wen Liang; Meng-xia Tang

    2014-01-01

    For strip steel with the thickness of 1.6 mm, the yield and tensile strengths as high as 760 and 850 MPa, respectively, were achieved using the compact strip production technology. Precipitates in the steel were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate the strengthening mechanism. In addition, intragranular misorientation, Kernel average misorientation, and stored energy were measured using electron backscatter diffraction for crystallographic analysis of ferrite grains containing precipitates and their neighbors without precipitates. It is found that precipitates in specimens primarily consist of TiC and Ti4C2S2. Ferrite grains containing pre-cipitates exhibit the high Taylor factor as well as the crystallographic orientations with{012},{011},{112}, or{221}plane parallel to the rolling plane. Compared with the intragranular orientation of adjoining grains, the intragranular misorientation of grains containing precipi-tates fluctuates more frequently and more mildly as a function of distance. Moreover, the precipitates can induce ferrite grains to store a rela-tively large amount of energy. These results suggest that a correlation exists between precipitation in ferrite grains and grain crystallographic properties.

  18. Influence of polymethyl acrylate additive on the formation of particulate matter and NOX emission of a biodiesel-diesel-fueled engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Mohammad Abdul; Zulkifli, Nurin Wahidah Mohd; Shancita, Islam

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the polymethyl acrylate (PMA) additive on the formation of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emission from a diesel coconut and/or Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel-fueled engine. The physicochemical properties of 20% of coconut and/or C. inophyllum biodiesel-diesel blend (B20), 0.03 wt% of PMA with B20 (B20P), and diesel fuel were measured and compared to ASTM D6751, D7467, and EN 14214 standard. The test results showed that the addition of PMA additive with B20 significantly improves the cold-flow properties such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). The addition of PMA additives reduced the engine's brake-specific energy consumption of all tested fuels. Engine emission results showed that the additive-added fuel reduce PM concentration than B20 and diesel, whereas the PM size and NO X emission both increased than B20 fuel and baseline diesel fuel. Also, the effect of adding PMA into B20 reduced Carbon (C), Aluminum (Al), Potassium (K), and volatile materials in the soot, whereas it increased Oxygen (O), Fluorine (F), Zinc (Zn), Barium (Ba), Chlorine (Cl), Sodium (Na), and fixed carbon. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results for B20P showed the lower agglomeration than B20 and diesel fuel. Therefore, B20P fuel can be used as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines to lower the harmful emissions without compromising the fuel quality.

  19. Development of a novel nano-sized anti-VEGFA nanobody with enhanced physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhsh, Farnaz; Norouzian, Dariush; Vaziri, Behrouz; Ahangari Cohan, Reza; Sardari, Soroush; Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Behdani, Mahdi; Mansouri, Kamran; Mehdizadeh, Ardavan

    2017-08-25

    Since physiological and pathological processes occur at nano-environments, nanotechnology has considered as an efficient tool for designing of next generation specific biomolecules with enhanced pharmacodynamic and pharmacodynamic properties. In the current investigation, by control of the size and hydrodynamic volume at the nanoscale, for the first time, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of an anti-VEGFA nanobody was remarkably improved by attachment of a Proline-Alanine-Serine (PAS) rich sequence. The results elucidated unexpected impressive effects of PAS sequence on physicochemical properties especially on size, hydrodynamics radius, and even solubility of nanobody. CD analysis revealed an increment in random coil structure of the PASylated protein in comparison to native one without any change in charge state or binding kinetic parameters of nanobody assessed by isoelectric focusing and surface plasmon resonance measurements, respectively. In vitro biological activities of nanobody were not affected by coupling of the PAS sequence. In contrast, the terminal half-life was significantly increased by a factor of 14 for the nanobody-PAS after single dose IV injection to the mice. Our study demonstrated that the control of size in the design of small therapeutic proteins has a promising effect on the stability and solubility, in addition to their physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The designed new anti-VEGFA nanobody could promise a better therapeutic agent with a long administration intervals and lower dose, which in turn leads to a better patient compliance. Size adjustment of an anti-VEGF nanobody at the nanoscale by the attachment of a natural PAS polymer remarkably improves physicochemical properties, as well as a pharmacokinetic profile without any change in biological activity of the miniaturized antibody.

  20. Effect of nano-sized cerium-zirconium oxide solid solution on far-infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Yang, Liqing; Hu, Weijie; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Haojing

    2015-10-01

    Far-infrared functional nanocomposites were prepared by the co-precipitation method using natural tourmaline (XY3Z6Si6O18(BO3)3V3W, where X is Na+, Ca2+, K+, or vacancy; Y is Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Cr3+, Li+, or Ti4+; Z is Al3+, Mg2+, Cr3+, or V3+; V is O2-, OH-; and W is O2-, OH-, or F-) powders, ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate and zirconium(IV) nitrate pentahydrate as raw materials. The reference sample, tourmaline modified with ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate alone was also prepared by a similar precipitation route. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr has a better far-infrared emission property than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the mechanism for oxygen evolution during the heat process in the two composite materials was systematically studied. The XPS spectra show that Fe3+ ratio inside tourmaline modified with Ce alone can be raised by doping Zr. Moreover, it is showed that there is a higher Ce3+ ratio inside the tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. In addition, XRD results indicate the formation of CeO2 and Ce1-xZrxO2 crystallites during the heat treatment and further TEM observations show they exist as nanoparticles on the surface of tourmaline powders. Based on these results, we attribute the improved far-infrared emission properties of Ce-Zr doped tourmaline to the enhanced unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arisen from much more oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ inside the tourmaline caused by the change in the catalyst redox properties of CeO2 brought about by doping with Zr4+. In all samples, tourmaline modified with 7.14 wt.% Ce and 1.86 wt.% Zr calcined at 800∘C for 5 h has the best far-infrared emission property with the maximum emissivity value of 98%.

  1. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 °C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction.

  3. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production for fuel cells by using bio-ethanol steam reforming: Effect of carrier gas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Liliana; Kafarov, Viatcheslav [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Bucaramanga 678 (Colombia)

    2009-07-01

    Omitting the influence of the addition of carrier gas to the reaction system for hydrogen production by bio-ethanol steam reforming can lead to wrong conclusions, especially when it is going to be made to scale. The effect of carrier gas addition to produce hydrogen using bio-ethanol steam reforming to feed fuel cells was evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations in equilibrium conditions were made, however the analysis derived from them can also be applied to kinetic conditions. These calculations were made by using the Aspen-HYSYS software at atmospheric pressure and different values of temperature, water/ethanol molar ratios, and inert (argon)/(water/ethanol) molar ratios. The addition of inert carrier gas modifies the concentrations of the reaction products in comparison to those obtained without its presence. This behavior occurs because most of the reactions which take place in bio-ethanol steam reforming have a positive difference of moles. This fact enhances the system sensitivity to inert concentration at low and moderated temperatures (<700 C). At high values of temperature, the inert addition does not influence the composition of the reaction products because of the predominant effect of inverse WGS reaction. (author)

  4. Engine performance and exhaust emission analysis of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with water-diesel emulsion fuel blended with manganese metal additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin Ithnin, Ahmad; Jazair Yahya, Wira; Baun Fletcher, Jasmine; Kadir, Hasannuddin Abd

    2017-10-01

    Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is one of the alternative fuels that capable to reduce the exhaust emission of diesel engine significantly especially the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, the usage of W/D emulsion fuels contributed to higher CO emissions. Supplementing metal additive into the fuel is the alternate way to reduce the CO emissions and improve performance. The present paper investigates the effect of using W/D blended with organic based manganese metal additives on the diesel engine performance and exhaust emission. The test were carried out by preparing and analysing the results observed from five different tested fuel which were D2, emulsion fuel (E10: 89% D2, 10% - water, 1% - surfactant), E10Mn100, E10Mn150, E10Mn200. Organic based Manganese (100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm) used as the additive in the three samples of the experiments. E10Mn200 achieved the maximum reduction of BSFC up to 13.66% and has the highest exhaust gas temperature. Whereas, E10Mn150 achieved the highest reduction of CO by 14.67%, and slightly increased of NOx emissions as compared to other emulsion fuels. Organic based manganese which act as catalyst promotes improvement of the emulsion fuel performance and reduced the harmful emissions discharged.

  5. Emission Studies in CI Engine using LPG and Palm Kernel Methyl Ester as Fuels and Di-ethyl Ether as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Nagaraju; Jothi, T. J. Sarvoththama

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of using di-ethyl ether (DEE) as the fuel additive in engine performance and emissions. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at constant speed. Two different fuels namely liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and palm kernel methyl ester (PKME) are used as primary fuels with DEE as the fuel additive. LPG flow rates of 0.6 and 0.8 kg/h are considered, and flow rate of DEE is varied to maintain the constant engine speed. In case of PKME fuel, it is blended with diesel in the latter to the former ratio of 80:20, and DEE is varied in the volumetric proportion of 1 and 2%. Results indicate that for the engine operating in LPG-DEE mode at 0.6 kg/h of LPG, the brake thermal efficiency is lowered by 26%; however, NOx is subsequently reduced by around 30% compared to the engine running with only diesel fuel at 70% load. Similarly, results of PKME blended fuel showed a drastic reduction in the NOx and CO emissions. In these two modes of operation, DEE is observed to be significant fuel additive regarding emissions reduction.

  6. Structural and morphological changes in supramolecular-structured polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell on addition of phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrana, S.; Pryliana, R. F.; Natanael, C. L.; Rahayu, I.

    2018-03-01

    Phosphoric acid is one agents used in membrane fuel cell to modify ionic conductivity. Therefore, its distribution in membrane is a key parameter to gain expected conductivity. Efforts have been made to distribute phosphoric acid in a supramolecular-structured membrane prepared with a matrix. To achieve even distribution across bulk of the membrane, the inclusion of the polyacid is carried out under pressurized chamber. Image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows better phosphoric acid distribution for one prepared in pressurized state. It also leads in better performing in ionic conductivity. Moreover, data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicate that the addition of phosphoric acid is prominent in the change of membrane structure, while morphological changes are captured in SEM images.

  7. Characterization of a Neutron Beam Following Reconfiguration of the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD Core and Addition of New Fuel Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E. Craft

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The neutron radiography reactor (NRAD is a 250 kW Mark-II Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reactor at Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA. The East Radiography Station (ERS is one of two neutron beams at the NRAD used for neutron radiography, which sits beneath a large hot cell and is primarily used for neutron radiography of highly radioactive objects. Additional fuel elements were added to the NRAD core in 2013 to increase the excess reactivity of the reactor, and may have changed some characteristics of the neutron beamline. This report discusses characterization of the neutron beamline following the addition of fuel to the NRAD. This work includes determination of the facility category according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards, and also uses an array of gold foils to determine the neutron beam flux and evaluate the neutron beam profile. The NRAD ERS neutron beam is a Category I neutron radiography facility, the highest possible quality level according to the ASTM. Gold foil activation experiments show that the average neutron flux with length-to-diameter ratio (L/D = 125 is 5.96 × 106 n/cm2/s with a 2σ standard error of 2.90 × 105 n/cm2/s. The neutron beam profile can be considered flat for qualitative neutron radiographic evaluation purposes. However, the neutron beam profile should be taken into account for quantitative evaluation.

  8. Enhancement of reactivity in Li4SiO4-based sorbents from the nano-sized rice husk ash for high-temperature CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Zhao, Pengfei; Guo, Xin; Li, Yimin; Han, Dongtai; Chao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Li 4 SiO 4 sorbent from nano-sized rice husk ash was prepared and characterized. • The Aerosil and Quartz were comparably used for synthesized Li 4 SiO 4 . • The structure of sorbent was depended on the morphology of heated silicon materials. • The pretreatment sorbent showed increase in the CO 2 uptake and kinetic behavior. • This promising sorbent also maintained higher capacities during the multiple cycles. - Abstract: Using the cost-effective, renewable and nano-sized of citric acid pretreatment rice husk ash (CRHA) as silicon source, high efficient Li 4 SiO 4 (lithium orthosilicate)-based sorbents (CRHA-Li 4 SiO 4 ) for high-temperature CO 2 capture were prepared through the solid-state reaction at lower temperature (700 °C). Two typical raw materials (nano-structured Aerosil and crystalline Quartz powders) were used to synthesize Li 4 SiO 4 sorbents (Aerosil-Li 4 SiO 4 and Quartz-Li 4 SiO 4 ) for comparison purposes. The phase composition behavior, surface area, and morphology of the silicon sources, heat treated raw materials and as-received Li 4 SiO 4 sorbents were studied by analytical techniques. The CO 2 adsorption capacity and adsorption–desorption performance were tested by the thermo-gravimetric analyses (CO 2 atmosphere) and a fixed bed reactor, respectively. Compared with the case of its original samples, the morphology of heat treated raw materials had a greater effect on the phase composition, microstructure, special surface area and CO 2 adsorption properties of their resulting sorbents. Although the calcined Quartz sample maintained the structure of micron particles, its reactivity was not enough to react completely with Li 2 CO 3 . Due to the greater reactivity of nanoparticles, Aerosil-Li 4 SiO 4 presented pure of Li 4 SiO 4 whereas it obtained large particles with dense morphology, which was coming from the pronounced fusing of silica nanoparticles during the calcined process. Conversely, CRHA-Li 4 SiO 4

  9. Pr0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ electrocatalyst for solid oxide fuel cell cathode introduced via infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shiwoo; Miller, Nicholas; Staruch, Margo; Gerdes, Kirk; Jain, Menka; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → High electrocatalytic activity of Sr-doped PrCoO 3 for oxygen reduction reaction has been demonstrated. → 35-38% of power density enhancement has been achieved for a commercial cell by introducing Sr-doped PrCoO 3 via infiltration. → Fuel cells modified with nano-sized electrocatalyst have shown relatively stable performance for 200 h. → Reliable performance comparison has been realized by utilizing a parallel cell testing system. - Abstract: Effects of infiltrated Pr 0.6 Sr 0.4 CoO 3-δ (PSCo) electrocatalyst on SOFC cathode performance have been studied. Nano-sized particulate catalysts, deposited on surfaces of a composite cathode of Sm 2 O 3 doped CeO 2 (SDC) and La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-δ (LSCF), are assumed to effectively widen active sites, or triple phase boundaries, for the oxygen reduction reaction. Area specific resistance of commercially available cells has been decreased by 36-40% with the addition of 23 wt% PSCo electrocatalyst on cathode. Analysis of the impedance spectra demonstrates that PSCo electrocatalyst plays a significant role in dissociation of oxygen molecules and adsorption of oxygen atoms into the cathode. A total of 200 h operation of the cells demonstrated that catalytic activity of PSCo has not been significantly degraded. Simultaneous operations of multiple cells using a parallel-cell testing system have made it possible to compare the performance of several cells with high reliability.

  10. Highly selective solid phase extraction and preconcentration of Azathioprine with nano-sized imprinted polymer based on multivariate optimization and its trace determination in biological and pharmaceutical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Rezayati zad, Zeinab; Taheri, Ali Reza; Rahmatian, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, for first time selective separation and determination of Azathioprine is demonstrated using molecularly imprinted polymer as the solid-phase extraction adsorbent, measured by spectrophotometry at λ max 286 nm. The selective molecularly imprinted polymer was produced using Azathioprine and methacrylic acid as a template molecule and monomer, respectively. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was performed in column for the analyte from pharmaceutical and serum samples. The synthesized polymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In order to investigate the effect of independent variables on the extraction efficiency, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed. The analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy and linear working range were also determined in optimal experimental conditions and the proposed method was applied to analysis of Azathioprine. The linear dynamic range and limits of detection were 2.5–0.01 and 0.008 mg L ‐1 respectively. The recoveries for analyte were higher than 95% and relative standard deviation values were found to be in the range of 0.83–4.15%. This method was successfully applied for the determination of Azathioprine in biological and pharmaceutical samples. - Graphical abstract: A new-nano sized imprinted polymer was synthesized and applied as sorbent in SPE in order to selective recognition, preconcentration, and determination of Azathioprine with the response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design and was successfully investigated for the clean-up of human blood serum and pharmaceutical samples. - Highlights: • The nanosized-imprinted polymer has been synthesized by precipitation polymerization technique. • A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was performed for determination of Azathioprine. • The Azathioprine-molecular imprinting

  11. The role of stable interface in nano-sized FeNbO4 as anode electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Shaojun; Kong, Fanjun; Yang, Gang; Qian, Bin; Yin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: After dozens of charge/discharge cycles, the electrode of Nano-FNO remains the homogeneous combination with active material and conductive carbon, but the microcrystals in Micro-FNO electrode are cracked to small particles. The pulverization of Micro-FNO not only blocks the transfer of Li + and electrons due to the separation of the active material and conductive carbon, but also results in the falling of active material from the current collector. Nano-FNO can remain the excellent capacity after dozens of cycles. - Abstract: Nano-sized FeNbO 4 (Nano-FNO) with an average diameter of 120 nm is facilely prepared by co-precipitation method. Bulk FeNbO 4 (Micro-FNO) as a comparison synthesized by conventional solid-state synthesis has an average grain size of 3–10 μm. In the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, Nano-FNO reveals an ordered single crystal structure, but Mirco-FNO is composed of disordered crystallites with different crystal orientation. Nano-FNO as anode material delivers the initial capacity of 475 mAh g −1 which is much higher than Micro-FNO electrode of 250 mAh g −1 .After dozens of charge/discharge cycles, the electrode of Nano-FNO remains the homogeneous combination with active material and conductive carbon, but the microcrystals in Micro-FNO electrode are cracked to small particles. The pulverization of Micro-FNO not only blocks the transfer of Li + and electrons due to the separation between the active material and conductive carbon, but also results in the falling of active material from the current collector. Compared with the weakened electrochemical performances of Micro-FNO, Nano-FNO remains the excellent capacity after dozens of cycles. The charge transfer resistances of Nano-FNO and Micro-FNO after several cycles are further studied by fitting their electrochemical impedance spectra.

  12. Nano-Sized Secondary Organic Aerosol of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Impairs Olfactory-Based Spatial Learning Performance in Preweaning Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tin Win-Shwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of our present study were to establish a novel olfactory-based spatial learning test and to examine the effects of exposure to nano-sized diesel exhaust-origin secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a model environmental pollutant, on the learning performance in preweaning mice. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, diesel exhaust (DE, or DE-origin SOA (DE-SOA from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND 10 in exposure chambers. On PND 11, the preweaning mice were examined by the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After completion of the spatial learning test, the hippocampus from each mouse was removed and examined for the expressions of neurological and immunological markers using real-time RT-PCR. In the test phase of the study, the mice exposed to DE or DE-SOA took a longer time to reach the target as compared to the control mice. The expression levels of neurological markers such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, and of immunological markers such as TNF-α, COX2, and Iba1 were significantly increased in the hippocampi of the DE-SOA-exposed preweaning mice as compared to the control mice. Our results indicate that DE-SOA exposure in utero and in the neonatal period may affect the olfactory-based spatial learning behavior in preweaning mice by modulating the expressions of memory function–related pathway genes and inflammatory markers in the hippocampus.

  13. Activating antioxidant enzymes, hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis of Hyoscyamus niger L. plants with nano-sized titanium dioxide and bulk application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour GHORBANPOUR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Application of nanotechnology is now widely distributed overall the life, especially in agricultural systems. This study intended to indicate the impacts of nano-sized titanium dioxide particles (NT and bulk (BT on antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX and catalase (CAT, and variations of two major tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine (HYO and scopolamine (SCO in Hyoscyamus niger L. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NT and BT (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg l-1. Alkaloids extracted were identified by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results showed that SOD activity increased with increasing titanium dioxide concentration in both nano-particles and bulk treated plants. However, the highest and the lowest POX activity were observed in plants exposed to NT at 40 mg l-1 and control, respectively. Generally, all tested enzymes activities were higher in NT treated plants that those of BT except CAT activity at 80 mg l-1. The highest alkaloids content values, HYO: 0.286 g kg-1 and SCO: 0.126 g kg-1, were achieved in plants treated with NT at 80 and 20 mg l-1, respectively. The maximum and minimum plant biomass and subsequently total alkaloids yield were obtained in plants exposed to NT at 40 mg l-1 and controls, respectively. Our results suggest that NT in appropriate level (40 mg l-1 may act as an elicitor for biochemical responses and tropane alkaloids biosynthesis in H. niger plants. 

  14. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite: a histomorphometric study in rabbit bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pär Johansson,1 Ryo Jimbo,1 Yoshihito Naito,2 Per Kjellin,3 Fredrik Currie,3 Ann Wennerberg1 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Oral Implant Center, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan; 3Promimic AB, Stena Center, Göteborg, Sweden Abstract: Polyether ether ketone (PEEK possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants in the rabbit femur were histologically evaluated at 3 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. Twelve of the 24 implants were HA coated (test, and the remaining 12 served as uncoated PEEK controls. At 3 weeks and 12 weeks, the mean bone–implant contact was higher for test compared to control (P<0.05. The bone area inside the threads was comparable in the two groups, but the perforating hole showed more bone area for the HA-coated implants at both healing points (P<0.01. With these results, we conclude that nano-sized HA coating on PEEK implants significantly improved the osteogenic properties, and in a clinical situation this material composition may serve as an implant where a rapid bone fusion is essential. Keywords: HA, PEEK, osseointegration, histology, orthopedics, in vivo

  15. Potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for discrimination of nano-sized carbon materials. Insights on the optical characterization of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.; Cabalín, L.M.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J.J., E-mail: laserna@uma.es

    2014-07-01

    Since its invention in 2004, graphene has attracted considerable interest worldwide. Advances in the use of graphene in materials science and engineering require important increases in the quality of the final product for integration in photonic and electronic devices. To meet this demand, which will become increasingly strict in the future, analytical techniques capable of differentiating between the starting materials and graphene need to be developed. The interest in the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for this application rests on the rapid progress experienced by this technology for identification of carbon-based materials of close chemical composition. The potential of LIBS has been explored here by a careful investigation of the spectral properties of both multi-layer and few-layer graphene, graphite and graphene oxide. Results reveal significant differences in the specific optical emission responses of these materials, expressly reflected on the behavior of CN and C{sub 2} molecular emissions. These differences result from the particularities of the materials, such as the number of carbon layers and the carbon hybridization in the bonding structure, together with the post-ablation evolution of the concerned plasma plume. In short, this interconnection between ablation and emission events generated from each material allows its characterization and its differentiation from other materials with highly similar chemical composition. - Highlights: • The emitting behavior of nano-sized carbon lattices has been evaluated. • Laser fluence change impacts equally on optical emissions from pure carbon lattices. • Temporal profiles of molecular emissions reveal differences between carbon lattices. • Variable stacking of nano-carbon layers leads to difference in molecular emissions.

  16. Compression Properties and Electrical Conductivity of In-Situ 20 vol.% Nano-Sized TiCx/Cu Composites with Different Particle Size and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Bai, Fang; Sun, Liping; Wang, Yong; Wang, Jinguo

    2017-05-04

    The compression properties and electrical conductivity of in-situ 20 vol.% nano-sized TiC x /Cu composites fabricated via combustion synthesis and hot press in Cu-Ti-CNTs system at various particles size and morphology were investigated. Cubic-TiC x /Cu composite had higher ultimate compression strength (σ UCS ), yield strength (σ 0.2 ), and electric conductivity, compared with those of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite. The σ UCS , σ 0.2 , and electrical conductivity of cubic-TiC x /Cu composite increased by 4.37%, 20.7%, and 17.8% compared with those of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite (526 MPa, 183 MPa, and 55.6% International Annealed Copper Standard, IACS). Spherical-TiC x /Cu composite with average particle size of ~94 nm exhibited higher ultimate compression strength, yield strength, and electrical conductivity compared with those of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite with 46 nm in size. The σ UCS , σ 0.2 , and electrical conductivity of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite with average size of ~94 nm in size increased by 17.8%, 33.9%, and 62.5% compared with those of spherical-TiC x /Cu composite (417 MPa, 121 MPa, and 40.3% IACS) with particle size of 49 nm, respectively. Cubic-shaped TiC x particles with sharp corners and edges led to stress/strain localization, which enhanced the compression strength of the composites. The agglomeration of spherical-TiC x particles with small size led to the compression strength reduction of the composites.

  17. Using Radiochromic Films to Characterize the Dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} Nano-sized Grain Clusters in Protective Polymer Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C.C.P.; Nolasco, A.V. [Depto. de Engenharia Nuclear - DEN / UFMG - MG, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, A.P.; Faria, L.O. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, C.P. 941, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    . This result is discussed in terms of the high Z halides added to the sensitive layer of EB3 film, once the main components are C (42.3%), H (39.7%) and O (16.0%)1-2. Based on the above results, we have speculated about the abilities of XR-AQ films in the detection of the distribution of nano-sized particles that has high mass-energy attenuation coefficients for low energy x-rays, in polymer composites. In another investigation we tested the ability of XR-QA2 Gafchromic{sup R} films to evaluate the dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} nano-sized grain clusters in protective composites. The P(VDFTrFE)/ ZrO{sub 2} film was sandwiched between two XR-QA2 radiochromic films. In this setup, one radiochromic film is directly exposed to 100 mGy of the x-rays beam and another one measures the attenuated beam. After storage for 24 hours at room temperature under no light conditions, the irradiated radiochromic films were scanned under the same conditions in order to obtain a more reliable result. All films were scanned using the same size ROI in high resolution mode and saved as tagged image file format (TIFF). The untreated scanned image of the XR-AQ2 film directed exposed to the X-ray beam and the correspondent treated image with digital filters are shown. The untreated and treated image of the XR-AQ2 film that was exposed to the attenuated x-ray beam is shown. The image treated with digital filters seems to reproduce the dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} nano-sized grain clusters in the P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer matrix. This result is also discussed in terms of the high Z halides added to the sensitive layer of XR-AQ2 film and compared to the MEV images obtained from the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZrO{sub 2} composites. The results indicate a clear correlation between the 2D radiochromic image and the MEV photography.

  18. Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzofurans from o-Iodophenols and Terminal Alkynes with a Recyclable Palladium Catalyst Supported on Nano-sized Carbon Balls under Copper- and Ligand-Free Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Eul Kgun; Yang, Okkyung; Kim, Jieun; Park, Hee Jank [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    We have developed a one-step synthesis of benzofurans from o-iodophenol and various terminal alkynes, by using Pd catalyst supported on nano-sized carbon balls (NCB) under copper- and ligand free conditions. This recyclable catalyst could be reused more than 5 times in the same heteroannulation reaction. The results have demonstrated that diverse 2-substituted benzofurans with tolerant functional groups can be prepared simply and conveniently under these conditions.

  19. Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzofurans from o-Iodophenols and Terminal Alkynes with a Recyclable Palladium Catalyst Supported on Nano-sized Carbon Balls under Copper- and Ligand-Free Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, Eul Kgun; Yang, Okkyung; Kim, Jieun; Park, Hee Jank

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a one-step synthesis of benzofurans from o-iodophenol and various terminal alkynes, by using Pd catalyst supported on nano-sized carbon balls (NCB) under copper- and ligand free conditions. This recyclable catalyst could be reused more than 5 times in the same heteroannulation reaction. The results have demonstrated that diverse 2-substituted benzofurans with tolerant functional groups can be prepared simply and conveniently under these conditions

  20. Electrochemical characterization of Pt-Ru-Pd catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Han, C; Kim, I T; An, J C; Lee, J J; Lee, H K; Shim, J

    2011-01-01

    PtRuPd nanoparticles on carbon black were prepared and characterized as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells. Nano-sized Pd (2-4 nm) particles were deposited on Pt/C and PtRu/C (commercial products) by a simple chemical reduction process. The structural and physical information of the PtRuPd/C were confirmed by TEM and XRD, and their electrocatalytic activities were measured by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry. The catalysts containing Pd showed higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction than the other catalysts. This might be attributed to an increase in the electrochemical surface area of Pt, which is caused by the addition of Pd; this results in increased catalyst utilization.

  1. Effect of Biodiesel of Spent Cooking Oil Addition at Diesel Fuel to Opacity and Gas Emission Throw Away of CO, CO2 and HC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setyadji, Moch; Endang Susiantini

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of biodiesel spent cooking oil addition effect at diesel fuel to opacity and gas emission throw away on various engine rotation speed has been done. The variables observed were fuel specific used i.e. pure diesel fuel, biodiesel mix 5% (B5), mix 10% (B10), mix 15% (B15), mix 20% (B20) and engine rotation speed. Gas emission throw away observed were CO, CO 2 , HC and opacity. Opacity and gas emission throwaway were observed by Opacity Sagem apparatus and gas analyzer. Result of experiment showed that biodiesel addition at diesel fuel was very decreasing opacity and gas emission throw away. The opacity lowest on B20, gas emission throw away lowest of CO on B10, CO 2 on B10 and HC on B20. (author)

  2. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-25

    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  3. UO2-7%Gd2O3 fuel process development by mechanical blending with reprocessing of waste products and usage of densification additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Lauro Roberto dos

    2009-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, reprocessing and storage of 'burned' fuels, either temporary or permanent, demand high investments and, in addition, can potentially generate environmental problems. A strategy to decrease these problems is to adopt measures to reduce the amount of waste generated. The usage of integrated burnable poison based on gadolinium is a measure that contributes to achieve this goal. The reason to use burnable poison is to control the neutron population in the reactor during the early life of the fresh reactor core or the beginning of each recharging fuel cycle, extending its cycle duration. Another advantage of using burnable poison is to be able to operate the reactor with higher burning rate, optimizing the usage of the fuel. The process of manufacturing UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 integrated burnable fuel poison generates waste that, as much as possible, needs to be recycled. Blending of Gd 2 O 3 in UO 2 powder requires the usage of a special additive to achieve the final fuel pellet specified density. The objective of this work is to develop the process of obtaining UO 2 - 7% Gd 2 O 3 integrated burnable poison using densification additives, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), and reprocessing manufacturing waste products by mechanical blending. The content of 7%- Gd 2 O 3 is based on commercial PWR reactor fuels - Type Angra 2. The results show that the usage of Al(OH) 3 as an additive is a very effective choice that promotes the densification of fuel pellets with recycle up to 10%. Concentrations of 0,20 % of Al(OH) 3 were found to be the indicated amount on an 7 industrial scale, specially when the recycled products come from U 3 O 8 obtained by calcination of sintered pellets. This is particularly interesting because it is following the steps of sintering and rectifying of the pellets, which is generating the largest amounts of recycled material. (author)

  4. UO2-7%Gd2O3 fuel process development by mechanical blending with reprocessing of waste products and usage of densification additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Lauro Roberto dos

    2009-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, reprocessing and storage of 'burned' fuels, either temporary or permanent, demand high investments and, in addition, can potentially generate environmental problems. A strategy to decrease these problems is to adopt measures to reduce the amount of waste generated. The usage of integrated burnable poison based on gadolinium is a measure that contributes to achieve this goal. The reason to use burnable poison is to control the neutron population in the reactor during the early life of the fresh reactor core or the beginning of each recharging fuel cycle, extending its cycle duration. Another advantage of using burnable poison is to be able to operate the reactor with higher burning rate, optimizing the usage of the fuel. The process of manufacturing UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 integrated burnable fuel poison generates waste that, as much as possible, needs to be recycled. Blending of Gd 2 O 3 in UO 2 powder requires the usage of a special additive to achieve the final fuel pellet specified density. The objective of this work is to develop the process of obtaining UO 2 - 7% Gd 2 O 3 integrated burnable poison using densification additives, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), and reprocessing manufacturing waste products by mechanical blending. The content of 7%- Gd 2 O 3 is based on commercial PWR reactor fuels - Type Angra 2. The results show that the usage of Al(OH) 3 as an additive is a very effective choice that promotes the densification of fuel pellets with recycle up to 10%. Concentrations of 0,20 % of Al(OH) 3 were found to be the indicated amount on an industrial scale, specially when the recycled products come from U 3 O 8 obtained by calcination of sintered pellets. This is particularly interesting because it is following the steps of sintering and rectifying of the pellets, which is generating the largest amounts of recycled material. (author)

  5. Influence of Advanced Injection Timing and Fuel Additive on Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Running on Plastic Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalargaris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of engine optimisation when plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO is used as the primary fuel of a direct injection diesel engine. Our previous investigation revealed that PPO is a promising fuel; however the results suggested that control parameters should be optimised in order to obtain a better engine performance. In the present work, the injection timing was advanced, and fuel additives were utilised to overcome the issues experienced in the previous work. In addition, spray characteristics of PPO were investigated in comparison with diesel to provide in-depth understanding of the engine behaviour. The experimental results on advanced injection timing (AIT showed reduced brake thermal efficiency and increased carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides emissions in comparison to standard injection timing. On the other hand, the addition of fuel additive resulted in higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. Finally, the spray tests revealed that the spray tip penetration for PPO is faster than diesel. The results suggested that AIT is not a preferable option while fuel additive is a promising solution for long-term use of PPO in diesel engines.

  6. Evaluation of the magnetocaloric response of nano-sized La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 manganites synthesized by auto-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Adrián; Chavarriaga, Edgar; Supelano, Iván; Parra, Carlos Arturo; Morán, Oswaldo

    2018-05-01

    A systematic study of the dependence of the magnetization on the magnetic field around the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition temperature is carried out on La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 (x=0, 0.02, 0.07, and 1) samples synthesized by auto-combustion method. The successful substitution of Mn3+ ions by Ni2+ ions in the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 lattice is corroborated by X-ray diffraction technique. Banerjees criteria, Arrott plots, and the scaling hypothesis are used to analyze the experimental data. It is verified that the Ni-doping increases the operating temperature range for magnetocaloric effect through tuning of the magnetic transition temperature. Probably, the replacement of Mn3+ by Ni2+ ions in the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 lattice weakens the Mn3+-O-Mn4+ double exchange interaction, which leads to a decrease in the transition temperature and magnetic moment in the samples. The Arrott plots suggest that the phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic in the nano-sized manganite is of second order. The analysis of the magnetization results show that the maximum magnetic entropy changes observed for x=0, 0.02, 0.07, and 0.1 compositions are 0.85, 0.77, 0.63, and 0.59 J/kg K, under a magnetic field of 1.5 T. These values indicate that the magnetic entropy change achieved for La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 manganites synthesized by auto-combustion method is higher than those reported for other manganites with comparable Ni-doping levels but synthesized by standard solid state reaction. It is also observed that the addition of Ni2+ increases the value of the relative cooling power as compared to that of the parent compound. The highest value of this parameter (˜60 J/kg) is found for a Ni-doping level of 2 % around 230 K in a field of 1.5 T.

  7. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the heavy metals immobilization efficiencyof ASR dust/thermal residues after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 . - Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 for heavy metals immobilization in ASR residue. • Heavy metals immobilization in dry condition attained about 95–100%. • Remaining heavy metals were lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit. • The amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR dust surface decreased. • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 has a promising potential for heavy metal remediation. - Abstract: This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95–100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO 4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO 4 − associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO 4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle

  8. Highly selective solid phase extraction and preconcentration of Azathioprine with nano-sized imprinted polymer based on multivariate optimization and its trace determination in biological and pharmaceutical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny, E-mail: ss-hosseiny@cc.sbu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 19839-4716, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayati zad, Zeinab [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 19839-4716, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Ali Reza; Rahmatian, Nasrin [Islamic Azad University, Ilam Branch, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    In this research, for first time selective separation and determination of Azathioprine is demonstrated using molecularly imprinted polymer as the solid-phase extraction adsorbent, measured by spectrophotometry at λ{sub max} 286 nm. The selective molecularly imprinted polymer was produced using Azathioprine and methacrylic acid as a template molecule and monomer, respectively. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was performed in column for the analyte from pharmaceutical and serum samples. The synthesized polymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In order to investigate the effect of independent variables on the extraction efficiency, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed. The analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy and linear working range were also determined in optimal experimental conditions and the proposed method was applied to analysis of Azathioprine. The linear dynamic range and limits of detection were 2.5–0.01 and 0.008 mg L{sup ‐1} respectively. The recoveries for analyte were higher than 95% and relative standard deviation values were found to be in the range of 0.83–4.15%. This method was successfully applied for the determination of Azathioprine in biological and pharmaceutical samples. - Graphical abstract: A new-nano sized imprinted polymer was synthesized and applied as sorbent in SPE in order to selective recognition, preconcentration, and determination of Azathioprine with the response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design and was successfully investigated for the clean-up of human blood serum and pharmaceutical samples. - Highlights: • The nanosized-imprinted polymer has been synthesized by precipitation polymerization technique. • A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was performed for determination of Azathioprine. • The Azathioprine

  9. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mitoma, Yoshiharu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the heavy metals immobilization efficiencyof ASR dust/thermal residues after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} for heavy metals immobilization in ASR residue. • Heavy metals immobilization in dry condition attained about 95–100%. • Remaining heavy metals were lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit. • The amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR dust surface decreased. • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} has a promising potential for heavy metal remediation. - Abstract: This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} dispersion mixture immobilized 95–100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO{sub 4} mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO{sub 4}− associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO{sub 4} salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} as a simple, suitable and

  10. Efficient Production of N-Butyl Levulinate Fuel Additive from Levulinic Acid Using Amorphous Carbon Enriched with Oxygenated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an effective carbonaceous solid acid for synthesizing green fuel additive through esterification of lignocellulose-derived levulinic acid (LA and n-butanol. Two different sulfonated carbons were prepared from glucose-derived amorphous carbon (GC400 and commercial active carbon (AC400. They were contrastively studied by a series of characterizations (N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and NH3 temperature programmed desorption. The results indicated that GC400 possessed stronger acidity and higher –SO3H density than AC400, and the amorphous structure qualified GC400 for good swelling capacity in the reaction solution. Assessment experiments showed that GC400 displayed remarkably higher catalytic efficiency than AC400 and other typical solid acids (HZSM-5, Hβ, Amberlyst-15 and Nafion-212 resin. Up to 90.5% conversion of LA and 100% selectivity of n-butyl levulinate could be obtained on GC400 under the optimal reaction conditions. The sulfonated carbon retained 92% of its original catalytic activity even after five cycles.

  11. Ethanol addition enhances acid treatment to eliminate Lactobacillus fermentum from the fermentation process for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M A S; Cerri, B C; Ceccato-Antonini, S R

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the most critical steps of the fuel ethanol production and it is directly influenced by the fermentation system, selected yeast, and bacterial contamination, especially from the genus Lactobacillus. To control the contamination, the industry applies antibiotics and biocides; however, these substances can result in an increased cost and environmental problems. The use of the acid treatment of cells (water-diluted sulphuric acid, adjusted to pH 2·0-2·5) between the fermentation cycles is not always effective to combat the bacterial contamination. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanol addition to the acid treatment to control the bacterial growth in a fed-batch system with cell recycling, using the industrial yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2. When only the acid treatment was used, the population of Lactobacillus fermentum had a 3-log reduction at the end of the sixth fermentation cycle; however, when 5% of ethanol was added to the acid solution, the viability of the bacterium was completely lost even after the first round of cell treatment. The acid treatment +5% ethanol was able to kill L. fermentum cells without affecting the ethanol yield and with a low residual sugar concentration in the fermented must. In Brazilian ethanol-producing industry, water-diluted sulphuric acid is used to treat the cell mass at low pH (2·0) between the fermentative cycles. This procedure reduces the number of Lactobacillus fermentum from 10 7 to 10 4  CFU per ml. However, the addition of 5% ethanol to the acid treatment causes the complete loss of bacterial cell viability in fed-batch fermentation with six cell recycles. The ethanol yield and yeast cell viability are not affected. These data indicate the feasibility of adding ethanol to the acid solution replacing the antibiotic use, offering a low cost and a low amount of residue in the biomass. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. 40 CFR 80.620 - What are the additional requirements for diesel fuel or distillates produced by foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... audits of the foreign refinery. (i) Inspections and audits may be either announced in advance by EPA, or... diesel fuel or distillate was produced, assurance that the diesel fuel or distillate remained segregated...: (i) Be approved in advance by EPA, based on a demonstration of ability to perform the procedures...

  13. Synthesis of Glycerol Based Fuel Additives to Reduce NOx Emissions from Diesel Engines Operated on Diesel and Biodiesel fuels by SNCR

    OpenAIRE

    Tanugula, Shravan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The demand for energy around the world is dramatically increasing due to the constant growth in industry and the transportation of the industrially produced goods. In view of growing energy demand without irreparably damaging the environment is of the most primary concern. With the rising fuel prices and environmental concern and the new laws imposed by the government to reduce emissions, alternative fuels could fill in the gap of satisfying the need of renewable energy with low environmental...

  14. EMISSION REDUCTION FROM A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED BY CERIUM OXIDE NANO-ADDITIVES USING SCR WITH DIFFERENT METAL OXIDES COATED CATALYTIC CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. JOTHI THIRUMAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigations on the influence of the addition of cerium oxide in nanoparticle form on the major physiochemical properties and the performance of diesel. The fuel is modified by dispersing the catalytic nanoparticle by ultrasonic agitation. The physiochemical properties of sole diesel fuel and modified fuel are tested with ASTM standard procedures. The effects of the additive nanoparticles on the individual fuel properties, the engine performance, and emissions are studied, and the dosing level of the additive is optimized. Cerium oxide acts as an oxygen-donating catalyst and provides oxygen for the oxidation of CO during combustion. The active energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall which results in reduction in HC emission by 56.5%. Furthermore, a low-cost metal oxide coated SCR (selective catalyst reduction, using urea as a reducing agent, along with different types of CC (catalytic converter, has been implemented in the exhaust pipe to reduce NOx. It was observed that a reduction in NOx emission is 50–60%. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as an additive in diesel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  15. The estimated additional costs for combustion of agro fuel and the potential of farmers to influence fuel quality; Identifiering av energiverkens merkostnader vid foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen samt lantbrukarens moejlighet att paaverka braenslekvaliteten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myringer, Aase; Petersen, Martin; Olsson, Johanna; Roennbaeck, Marie; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya

    2009-05-15

    The main objectives of this study were to identify and calculate the additional costs to energy plants of combustion of agro fuels instead of wood chips, and to determine the potential farmers have to influence fuel quality and thus identify parameters that could be used for pricing in the future. The overall aim is to increase the volume of agro fuels produced. Four agro fuels were considered in this study: willow, straw, husks and reed canary grass. These four were selected because data were available on their combustion at energy plants and because they are representative of different categories of agro fuels: short rotation coppice, crop by-products, seeds and grass. Data were obtained through literature surveys, telephone interviews with farmers, researchers, advisors and contractors, and visits to six energy plants. Combustion properties for each crop and data on combustion were compared. Measures that could be taken by farmers to improve fuel quality today and perhaps in the future were estimated. Although information and experience proved to be lacking in this area, it was possible to identify some potential measures, which are listed below for each fuel. To promote expansion of the agro fuel market, issues concerning business contacts and forms of organisation were examined. The choices and preferences of farmers as regards sale and delivery are influenced by a number of different factors, which were investigated here by studies of the literature and interviews with farmers. There was little documentary evidence available on combustion of agro fuels. Short-term trials have been carried out on small amounts of a number of crop species without specific documentation of emissions, maintenance costs, ash handling, etc. The additional costs to energy plants for combustion of agro fuels compared with wood chips were investigated on visits to energy plants by collecting data directly and by interviewing plant personnel. The additional costs were then calculated

  16. Mechanical and Combustion Performance of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as an Additive to Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth, K.; Koo, Joseph H.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Paraffin-based solid fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications are recognized as a fastburning alternative to other fuel binders such as HTPB, but efforts to further improve the burning rate and mechanical properties of paraffin are still necessary. One approach that is considered in this study is to use multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as an additive to paraffin wax. Carbon nanotubes provide increased electrical and thermal conductivity to the solid-fuel grains to which they are added, which can improve the mass burning rate. Furthermore, the addition of ultra-fine aluminum particles to the paraffin/MWNT fuel grains can enhance regression rate of the solid fuel and the density impulse of the hybrid rocket. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes also present the possibility of greatly improving the mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength) of the paraffin-based solid-fuel grains. For casting these solid-fuel grains, various percentages of MWNT and aluminum particles will be added to the paraffin wax. Previous work has been published about the dispersion and mixing of carbon nanotubes.1 Another manufacturing method has been used for mixing the MWNT with a phenolic resin for ablative applications, and the manufacturing and mixing processes are well-documented in the literature.2 The cost of MWNT is a small fraction of single-walled nanotubes. This is a scale-up advantage as future applications and projects will require low cost additives to maintain cost effectiveness. Testing of the solid-fuel grains will be conducted in several steps. Dog bone samples will be cast and prepared for tensile testing. The fuel samples will also be analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM will allow for examination of the solid fuel grain for uniformity and consistency. The paraffin-based fuel grains will also be tested using two hybrid rocket test motors located at the Pennsylvania State University s High Pressure

  17. Effects of diesel fuel additives on engine performance and reliability. Part 2. Effects of lubricity additives; Keiyu tenkazai ga engine seino oyobi shinraisei ni ataeru eikyo. 2. Junkatsusei kojo ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, J; Okada, M; Naruse, H [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Many studies about the effects of lublicity additives for diesel fuel have been carried out and reported. These additives have already been used in Europe, north-America for couple of years and it has just started in Japanese market this July. This paper mainly describes the effects of lublicity additives on engine performance and reliability. At first, the effects on engine reliability were investigated during 30 thousand kms chasis dynamometer test. Secondary, the effects on piston ring corrosion, injection nozzle fouling and water separation were investigated. Furthermore, 70 thousand kms engine reliability test was conducted, and investigated some component parts. 2 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Effect of Additives and Fuel Blending on Emissions and Ash-Related Problems from Small-Scale Combustion of Reed Canary Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fournel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers are interested in using biomass available on farms to substitute fossil fuels for heat production. However, energy crops like reed canary grass contain high nitrogen (N, sulfur (S, potassium (K and other ash-forming elements which lead to increased emissions of gases and particulate matter (PM and ash-related operational problems (e.g., melting during combustion. To address these problematic behaviors, reed canary grass was blended with wood (50 wt% and fuel additives (3 wt% such as aluminum silicates (sewage sludge, calcium (limestone and sulfur (lignosulfonate based additives. When burned in a top-feed pellet boiler (29 kW, the four blends resulted in a 17%–29% decrease of PM concentrations compared to pure reed canary grass probably because of a reduction of K release to flue gas. Nitrogen oxides (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions varied according to fuel N and S contents. This explains the lower NOx and SO2 levels obtained with wood based products and the higher SO2 generation with the grass/lignosulfonate blend. The proportion of clinkers found in combustion ash was greatly lessened (27%–98% with the use of additives, except for lignosulfonate. The positive effects of some additives may allow agricultural fuels to become viable alternatives.

  19. 76 FR 17019 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... problems in accessing the documents located in ADAMS, contact the NRC's PDR Reference staff at 1-800-397... FW System provides the following: (1) The ability to store and transport Boiling Water Reactor (BWR... fuel to be stored in certain designated locations; (5) greater heat rejection capacity with lower peak...

  20. Optimization of Biodiesel-Diesel Blended Fuel Properties and Engine Performance with Ether Additive Using Statistical Analysis and Response Surface Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed M. Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fuel properties and engine performance of blended palm biodiesel-diesel using diethyl ether as additive have been investigated. The properties of B30 blended palm biodiesel-diesel fuel were measured and analyzed statistically with the addition of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume diethyl ether additive. The engine tests were conducted at increasing engine speeds from 1500 rpm to 3500 rpm and under constant load. Optimization of independent variables was performed using the desirability approach of the response surface methodology (RSM with the goal of minimizing emissions and maximizing performance parameters. The experiments were designed using a statistical tool known as design of experiments (DoE based on RSM.

  1. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW(th) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thin film assembly of nano-sized Zn(II)-8-hydroxy-5,7-dinitroquinolate by using successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique: characterization and optical-electrical-photovoltaic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A A M; Haggag, Sawsan M S; Mahmoud, Mohamed E

    2012-07-01

    A method is described for thin film assembly of nano-sized Zn(II)-8-hydroxy-5,7-dinitroquinolate complex, Zn[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)] by using successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. Highly homogeneous assembled nano-sized metal complex thin films with particle size distribution in the range 27-47nm was identified by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Zn[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)] and [(NO(2))(2)-8HQ] ligand were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Graphical representation of temperature dependence of the dark electrical conductivity produced two distinct linear parts for two activation energies at 0.377eV and 1.11eV. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient in the intrinsic absorption region reveals a direct allowed transition with a fundamental band gap of 2.74eV. The dark current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics showed the rectification effect due to the formation of junction barrier of Zn[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)] complex film/n-Si interface. The photocurrent in the reverse direction is strongly increased by photo-illumination and the photovoltaic characteristics were also determined and evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of NOx reducing antioxidant additive on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palash, S.M.; Kalam, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Arbab, M.I.; Masum, B.M.; Sanjid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental benefits of JB blends were found but adverse impact on NO x . • Addition of 0.15% (m) DPPD in JB20, average reduction in NO up to 16.54%. • In some cases, engine power is reduced with DPPD additive. • Emissions of HC and CO for JB blends with DPPD were lower compared to diesel. • Addition of DPPD in JB blends reduction of EGT was found. - Abstract: Energy requirements are increasing rapidly due to fast industrialization and the increased number of vehicles on the road. The use of biodiesel in diesel engines instead of diesel results in the proven reduction of harmful exhaust emissions. However, most researchers have reported that they produce higher NO x emissions compared to diesel, which is a deterrent to the expansion of the market for these fuels. Several proposed pathways try to account for NO x formation during the combustion process. Among them, the Fenimore mechanism explains that fuel radicals formed during the combustion process react with nitrogen from the air to form NO x . It could be proposed that if these radical reactions could be terminated, the NO x formation rate for biodiesel combustion would decrease. An experimental study was conducted on a four-cylinder diesel engine to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel blends (JB5, JB10, JB15 and JB20) with and without the addition of N,N′-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) antioxidant. For each tested fuel, the engine performance and emissions were measured at engine speeds 1000–4000 rpm at an interval of 500 rpm under the full throttle condition. The results showed that this antioxidant additive could reduce NO x emissions significantly with a slight penalty in terms of engine power and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) as well as CO and HC emissions. However, when compared to diesel combustion, the emissions of HC and CO with the addition of the DPPD additive were found to be nearly the same or lower. By the

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of Kerojet (trademark) Aquarius Water Scavenger Additive on the Thermal Stability of Jet A Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Morris Jr. Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division James R. Shardo, Ashil Kim Higgins , Rhonda Cook, Zachary West, and Sam Tanner...5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62203F 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert W. Morris Jr. (AFRL/RQTF) James R. Shardo, Ashil Kim Higgins , Rhonda...played a critical role in the completion of this work: • Chris Klenke, AFRL/RQTM for SEM analyses. • Dr. Paula Zard, Palox Ltd. - for sponsoring this

  5. Effect of graphite addition into mill scale waste as a potential bipolar plates material of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaerudini, D. S.; Prakoso, G. B.; Insiyanda, D. R.; Widodo, H.; Destyorini, F.; Indayaningsih, N.

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar plates (BPP) is a vital component of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), which supplies fuel and oxidant to reactive sites, remove reaction products, collects produced current and provide mechanical support for the cells in the stack. This work concerns the utilization of mill scale, a by-product of iron and steel formed during the hot rolling of steel, as a potential material for use as BPP in PEMFC. On the other hand, mill scale is considered a very rich in iron source having characteristic required such as for current collector in BPP and would significantly contribute to lower the overall cost of PEMFC based fuel cell systems. In this study, the iron reach source of mill scale powder, after sieving of 150 mesh, was mechanically alloyed with the carbon source containing 5, 10, and 15 wt.% graphite using a shaker mill for 3 h. The mixed powders were then pressed at 300 MPa and sintered at 900 °C for 1 h under inert gas atmosphere. The structural changes of powder particles during mechanical alloying and after sintering were studied by X-ray diffractometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness measurement. The details of the presence of iron, carbon, and iron carbide (Fe-C) as the products of reactions as well as sufficient mechanical strength of the sintered materials were presented in this report.

  6. The effects of CO addition on the autoignition of H-2, CH4 and CH4/H-2 fuels at high pressure in an RCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; Darmeveil, Harry; Levinsky, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Autoignition delay times of stoichiometric and fuel-lean (phi = 0.5) H-2, H-2/CO, CH4, CH4/CO, CH4/H-2 and CH4/CO/H-2 mixtures have been measured in an Rapid Compression Machine at pressures ranging from 20 to 80 bar and in the temperature range 900-1100K. The effects of CO addition on the ignition

  7. Effects of antioxidant additives on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl ester–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    İleri, Erol; Koçar, Günnur

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EHN synthetic antioxidants were employed in the study. • Antioxidant additives are a promising candidate for improving cetane number, oxidation stability and decreasing NO x emissions • Cetane number improving efficiency of the antioxidants was ordered as EHN>BHA>BHT>TBHQ. • Formation of CO emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. - Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20

  8. Analysis of burnup of Angra 2 PWR nuclear with addition of thorium dioxide fuel using ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Isadora C.; Wichrowski, Caio C.; Oliveira, Claudio L. de; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Baptista, Camila O., E-mail: isadora.goncalves@ime.eb.br, E-mail: wichrowski@ime.eb.br, E-mail: d7luiz@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vellozo@ime.eb.br, E-mail: camila.oliv.baptista@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    It is known that isotope {sup 232}thorium is a fertile nuclide with the ability to convert into {sup 233}uranium, a potentially fissile isotope, after absorbing a neutron. As there is a large stock of available thorium in the world, this element shows great promise in mitigate the world energy crisis, more particularly in the problem of uranium scarcity, besides being an alternative nuclear fuel for those currently used in reactors, and yet presenting advantages as an option for the non-proliferation movement, among others. In this study, the analysis of the remaining nuclides of burnup was carried out for the core configuration of a PWR (pressurized water reactor) reactor, specifically the Angra 2 reactor, using only uranium dioxide, its current configuration, and in different configurations including a mixed oxide of uranium and thorium in three concentrations, allowing a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of the modification of the fuel, the resulting production of {sup 233}uranium, the emergence of {sup 231}protactinium (an isotope that only occurs as a fission product of {sup 232}Th) resulting from burning. The study was carried out using data obtained from FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) of Angra 2, using the SCALE 6.1, a modeling and simulation nuclear code, especially its ORIGEN-ARP module, which analyzes the depletion of isotopes presents in a reactor. (author)

  9. Analysis of burnup of Angra 2 PWR nuclear with addition of thorium dioxide fuel using ORIGEN-ARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Isadora C.; Wichrowski, Caio C.; Oliveira, Claudio L. de; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Baptista, Camila O.

    2017-01-01

    It is known that isotope "2"3"2thorium is a fertile nuclide with the ability to convert into "2"3"3uranium, a potentially fissile isotope, after absorbing a neutron. As there is a large stock of available thorium in the world, this element shows great promise in mitigate the world energy crisis, more particularly in the problem of uranium scarcity, besides being an alternative nuclear fuel for those currently used in reactors, and yet presenting advantages as an option for the non-proliferation movement, among others. In this study, the analysis of the remaining nuclides of burnup was carried out for the core configuration of a PWR (pressurized water reactor) reactor, specifically the Angra 2 reactor, using only uranium dioxide, its current configuration, and in different configurations including a mixed oxide of uranium and thorium in three concentrations, allowing a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of the modification of the fuel, the resulting production of "2"3"3uranium, the emergence of "2"3"1protactinium (an isotope that only occurs as a fission product of "2"3"2Th) resulting from burning. The study was carried out using data obtained from FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) of Angra 2, using the SCALE 6.1, a modeling and simulation nuclear code, especially its ORIGEN-ARP module, which analyzes the depletion of isotopes presents in a reactor. (author)

  10. Fabrication of nano-structured UO2 fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kang, Ki Won; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Dong Joo; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Keon Sik; Song, Kun Woo

    2007-01-01

    Nano-structured materials have received much attention for their possibility for various functional materials. Ceramics with a nano-structured grain have some special properties such as super plasticity and a low sintering temperature. To reduce the fuel cycle costs and the total mass of spent LWR fuels, it is necessary to extend the fuel discharged burn-up. In order to increase the fuel burn-up, it is important to understand the fuel property of a highly irradiated fuel pellet. Especially, research has focused on the formation of a porous and small grained microstructure in the rim area of the fuel, called High Burn-up Structure (HBS). The average grain size of HBS is about 300nm. This paper deals with the feasibility study on the fabrication of nano-structured UO 2 pellets. The nano sized UO 2 particles are prepared by a combined process of a oxidation-reducing and a mechanical milling of UO 2 powder. Nano-structured UO 2 pellets (∼300nm) with a density of ∼93%TD can be obtained by sintering nano-sized UO 2 compacts. The SEM study reveals that the microstructure of the fabricated nano-structure UO 2 pellet is similar to that of HBS. Therefore, this bulk nano-structured UO 2 pellet can be used as a reference pellet for a measurement of the physical properties of HBS

  11. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, E. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crum, J. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, S. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gombert, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maio, V. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nenoff, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, G. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, P. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    with encapsulated nano-sized AgI crystals; Carbon-14 immobilized as a CaCO3 in a cement waste form; Krypton-85 stored as a compressed gas; An aqueous reprocessing high-level waste (HLW) raffinate waste immobilized by the vitrification process; An undissolved solids (UDS) fraction from aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel either included in the borosilicate HLW glass or immobilized in the form of a metal alloy or titanate ceramics; Zirconium-based LWR fuel cladding hulls and stainless steel (SS) fuel assembly hardware super-compacted for disposal or purified for reuse (or disposal as low-level waste, LLW) of Zr by reactive gas separations; Electrochemical process salt HLW incorporated into a glass bonded Sodalite waste form; and Electrochemical process UDS and SS cladding hulls melted into an iron based alloy waste form. Mass and volume estimates for each of the recommended waste forms based on the source terms from a representative flowsheet are reported. In addition to the above listed primary waste streams, a range of secondary process wastes are generated by aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel, metal SFR fuel fabrication, and electrochemical reprocessing of SFR fuel. These secondary wastes have been summarized and volumes estimated by type and classification. The important waste management data gaps and research needs have been summarized for each primary waste stream and selected waste process.

  12. Effect of Mo addition on the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Sn-Mo/C for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eungje; Murthy, Arun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-supported Pt-Sn-Mo electrocatalysts have been synthesized by a polyol reduction method and characterized for ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR). While the percent loading of the synthesized nanoparticles on the carbon support is higher than 35%, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the Mo contents in the nanoparticle catalysts are lower than the nominal value, indicating incomplete reduction of the Mo precursor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses reveal that the Sn and Mo exist as oxide phases at the surface layers of the nanoparticles and the degree of alloying is very low. The electrochemical properties of the electrocatalysts have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. The catalytic activity for EOR decreases in the order PtSnMo 0.6 /C > PtSnMo 0.4 /C > PtSn/C. Single cell direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) tests also confirm that the PtSnMo 0.6 /C anode catalyst exhibit better performance than the PtSn/C anode catalyst. An analysis of the electrochemical data suggests that the incorporation of Mo to Pt-Sn enhances further the catalytic activity for EOR.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Thiols in Fossil Fuels by Michael Addition Reaction Derivatization and Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhao, Suoqi; Liu, Xuxia; Shi, Quan

    2016-10-04

    Thiols widely occur in sediments and fossil fuels. However, the molecular composition of these compounds is unclear due to the lack of appropriate analytical methods. In this work, a characterization method for thiols in fossil fuels was developed on the basis of Michael addition reaction derivatization followed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS). Model thiol compound studies showed that thiols were selectively reacted with phenylvinylsulfone and transformed to sulfones with greater than 98% conversions. This method was applied to a coker naphtha, light and heavy gas oils, and crude oils from various geological sources. The results showed that long alkyl chain thiols are readily present in petroleum, which have up to 30 carbon atoms. Large DBE dispersity of thiols indicates that naphthenic and aromatic thiols are also present in the petroleum. This method is capable of detecting thiol compounds in the part per million range by weight. This method allows characterization of thiols in a complex hydrocarbon matrix, which is complementary to the comprehensive analysis of sulfur compounds in fossil fuels.

  14. Helium Ion Microscopy of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiriaev, Serguei; Dam Madsen, Nis; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2017-01-01

    electrode interface structure dependence on ionomer content, systematically studied by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM). A special focus was on acquiring high resolution images of the electrode structure and avoiding interface damage from irradiation and tedious sample preparation. HIM demonstrated its....... In the hot-pressed electrodes, we found more closed contact between the electrode components, reduced particle size, polymer coalescence and formation of nano-sized polymer fiber architecture between the particles. Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs); Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM...

  15. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  16. Synthesis and tribological studies of nanoparticle additives for pyrolysis bio-oil formulated as a diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yufu; Peng, Yubin; Zheng, Xiaojing; Dearn, Karl D.; Xu, Hongming; Hu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The tribological behaviour of pyrolysis bio-oil with a synthesized nano-Lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) additive was evaluated using a point contact four ball tribometer under different frictional conditions. Results were compared against a micro (μ)-La 2 O 3 additive and an un-additised bio-oil as a control. The results show that nano-La 2 O 3 impregnated bio-oil had better tribological properties than the control groups. Under the operating loads, the optimum nanoparticle concentration within the bio-oil was investigated. At these levels, the combined action of adsorbed bio-oil films on the worn surfaces and the bearing effects of the nano-La 2 O 3 minimized friction and wear. The tribo-mechanisms were ascribed to adhesive wear as a result of lubrication starvation under high loads, and abrasive wear at high rotational speeds as a result of combined deformation and aggregation of the nano-La 2 O 3 particles. - Highlights: • The tribological properties of pyrolysis bio-oil with (μ & n) La 2 O 3 were assessed. • Nano-La 2 O 3 was synthesized with diameters of approximately 20–1000 nm. • Bio-oil w. 1% nano-La 2 O 3 was the optimum additive & concentration for tribological properties. • 1% nano-La 2 O 3 reduced corrosive wear with stable lubrication film for test conditions. • Wear mechanisms were predominately adhesive for higher loads and abrasive for higher speeds

  17. Influence of reaction products of K-getter fuel additives on commercial vanadia-based SCR catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellino, Francesco; Jensen, Anker Degn; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2009-01-01

    , deactivation rates up to 3%/day have been measured. The spent catalysts have been characterized by bulk chemical analysis, Hg-porosimetry and SEM-EDX. NH3-chemisorption tests on the spent elements and activity tests on catalyst powders obtained by crushing the monoliths have also been carried out. The catalyst...... characterization has shown that poisoning by K is the main deactivation mechanism. The results show that binding K in K–P salts will not reduce the rate of catalyst deactivation....... as a K-getter additive. The formed aerosols have been characterized by using both a SMPS system and a low pressure cascade impactor, showing a dual-mode volume-based size distribution with a first peak at around 30 nm and a second one at diameters >1 μm. The different peaks have been associated...

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  19. Green acetylation of solketal and glycerol formal by heterogeneous acid catalysts to form a biodiesel fuel additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Jennifer R; Leite, Thays d C M; Pontes, Nathália S; Peres Pinto, Bianca; Mota, Claudio J A

    2014-09-01

    A glut of glycerol has formed from the increased production of biodiesel, with the potential to integrate the supply chain by using glycerol additives to improve biodiesel properties. Acetylated acetals show interesting cold flow and viscosity effects. Herein, a solventless heterogeneously catalyzed process for the acetylation of both solketal and glycerol formal to new products is demonstrated. The process is optimized by studying the effect of acetylating reagent (acetic acid and acetic anhydride), reagent molar ratios, and a variety of commercial solid acid catalysts (Amberlyst-15, zeolite Beta, K-10 Montmorillonite, and niobium phosphate) on the conversion and selectivities. High conversions (72-95%) and selectivities (86-99%) to the desired products results from using acetic anhydride as the acetylation reagent and a 1:1 molar ratio with all catalysts. Overall, there is a complex interplay between the solid catalyst, reagent ratio, and acetylating agent on the conversion, selectivities, and byproducts formed. The variations are discussed and explained in terms of reactivity, thermodynamics, and reaction mechanisms. An alternative and efficient approach to the formation of 100% triacetin involves the ring-opening, acid-catalyzed acetylation from solketal or glycerol formal with excesses of acetic anhydride. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. LOCA testing of high burnup PWR fuel in the HBWR. Additional PIE on the cladding of the segment 650-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Espeland, M.; Jenssen, H.K.

    2008-07-01

    IFA-650.5, a test with pre-irradiated fuel in the Halden Project LOCA test series, was conducted on October 23rd, 2006. The fuel rod had been used in a commercial PWR and had a high burnup, 83 MWd/kgU. Experimental arrangements of the fifth test were similar to the preceding LOCA tests. The peak cladding temperature (PCT) level was higher than in the third and fourth tests, 1050 C. A peak temperature close to the target was achieved and cladding burst occurred at approx. 750 C. Within the joint programme framework of the Halden Project PIE was done, consisting of gamma scanning, visual inspection, neutron-radiography, hydrogen analysis and metallography / ceramography. An additional extensive PIE including metallography, hydrogen analysis, and hardness measurements of cross-sections at seven axial elevations was done. It was completed to study the high burnup and LOCA induced effects on the Zr-4 cladding, namely the migration of oxygen into the cladding from the inside surface, the cladding distension, and the burst (author)(tk)

  1. Simulation, design and proof-of-concept of a two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor for synthesis of functionalized nano-sized inorganic composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Xu, Yu; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations were employed to evaluate several mixer geometries for a novel two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor. The addition of a second stage holds the promise of allowing the synthesis of functionalized nano-materials as for example core-shell...... or decorated particles. Based on the simulation results, a reactor system employing a confined jet mixer in the first and a counter-flow mixer in the second stage was designed and built. The two-stage functionality and synthesis capacity is shown on the example of single- and two-stage syntheses of pure...... and mixed-phase NiO and YSZ particles....

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Cu-Sn-Ti-Based Active Braze Alloy Containing In Situ Formed Nano-Sized TiC Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenbach, Christian; Transchel, Robert; Gorgievski, Klea; Kuster, Friedrich; Elsener, Hans Rudolf; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-05-01

    A Cu-Sn-Ti-based active brazing filler alloy was in situ reinforced with nanosized TiC particles by adding different amounts of a cellulose nitride-based binder. The TiC particles emanate from a reaction of the Ti within the filler alloy with the carbon from the binder that does not decompose completely during heating. The correlation between the microstructure and mechanical performance was studied. In addition, the effect of different binder amounts on the shear strength and cutting performance of brazed diamond grains was studied in shear tests and single grain cutting tests. The results clearly show that the mechanical performance of the brazed diamond grains can be improved by the formation of TiC particles. This is attributed to particle strengthening of the filler alloy matrix as well as to the decreasing grain size and more homogeneous distribution of the (Cu,Sn)3Ti5 phase with increasing amount of binder.

  3. A comparative study of the physical and chemical properties of nano-sized ZnO particles from multiple batches of three commercial products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Manufacturing Flagship (Australia); Coleman, Victoria A. [National Measurement Institute Australia, Nanometrology Section (Australia); Casey, Phil S., E-mail: Phil.Casey@csiro.au [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Manufacturing Flagship (Australia); Angel, Brad [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Land and Water Flagship (Australia); Catchpoole, Heather J. [National Measurement Institute Australia, Nanometrology Section (Australia); Waddington, Lynne [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Manufacturing Flagship (Australia); McCall, Maxine J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Food and Nutrition Flagship (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    Given the broad commercial applications for ZnO nanomaterials, accurate attribution of physicochemical characteristics that induce toxic effects is particularly important. We report on the physicochemical properties of three commercial nano-ZnO products: Z-COTE and Z-COTE HP1 from BASF, and Nanosun from Micronisers, and, for reference, “bulk” ZnO from Sigma-Aldrich. Z-COTE, Nanosun and “bulk” consist of uncoated particles with different sizes, while Z-COTE HP1 consists of nanoparticles with a hydrophobic coating. Specific batches of these ZnO products were included in the OECD Sponsorship Programme to test manufactured nanomaterials. In order to identify properties potentially susceptible to variations between production runs, three additional batches of Z-COTE and Nanosun and two additional batches of Z-COTE HP1 were also investigated here. In general, all products showed little variation between batches for properties measured from powdered samples, but batch variations in the amount of surface coating were evident for the coated Z-COTE HP1. Properties measured with samples dispersed in liquids (agglomeration, photocatalytic activity, dissolution) were highly dependent on dispersion protocols, and this made it difficult to differentiate between differences due to dispersion and due to batches. However, batch-sensitive properties did appear to be present in Z-COTE and Z-COTE HP1 (photocatalytic activity), and Nanosun (dissolution). Intra-batch time and/or storage-dependent changes in the applied surface coating, noted specifically for the OECD batch of Z-COTE HP1, highlight the need for best practice when storing and accessing stocks of nano products. Awareness of inter-batch and intra-batch variability is essential for commercial applications and for nanotoxicological studies aimed at identifying links between physicochemical properties and any adverse effects in biological systems.

  4. A comparative study of the physical and chemical properties of nano-sized ZnO particles from multiple batches of three commercial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Coleman, Victoria A.; Casey, Phil S.; Angel, Brad; Catchpoole, Heather J.; Waddington, Lynne; McCall, Maxine J.

    2015-02-01

    Given the broad commercial applications for ZnO nanomaterials, accurate attribution of physicochemical characteristics that induce toxic effects is particularly important. We report on the physicochemical properties of three commercial nano-ZnO products: Z-COTE and Z-COTE HP1 from BASF, and Nanosun from Micronisers, and, for reference, "bulk" ZnO from Sigma-Aldrich. Z-COTE, Nanosun and "bulk" consist of uncoated particles with different sizes, while Z-COTE HP1 consists of nanoparticles with a hydrophobic coating. Specific batches of these ZnO products were included in the OECD Sponsorship Programme to test manufactured nanomaterials. In order to identify properties potentially susceptible to variations between production runs, three additional batches of Z-COTE and Nanosun and two additional batches of Z-COTE HP1 were also investigated here. In general, all products showed little variation between batches for properties measured from powdered samples, but batch variations in the amount of surface coating were evident for the coated Z-COTE HP1. Properties measured with samples dispersed in liquids (agglomeration, photocatalytic activity, dissolution) were highly dependent on dispersion protocols, and this made it difficult to differentiate between differences due to dispersion and due to batches. However, batch-sensitive properties did appear to be present in Z-COTE and Z-COTE HP1 (photocatalytic activity), and Nanosun (dissolution). Intra-batch time and/or storage-dependent changes in the applied surface coating, noted specifically for the OECD batch of Z-COTE HP1, highlight the need for best practice when storing and accessing stocks of nano products. Awareness of inter-batch and intra-batch variability is essential for commercial applications and for nanotoxicological studies aimed at identifying links between physicochemical properties and any adverse effects in biological systems.

  5. Transcriptome Changes in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Induced by Exposure to Diesel Emissions Generated with CeO2 Nanoparticle Fuel Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    When cerium oxide nanoparticles are added to diesel fuel, fuel burning efficiency increases, producing emissions (DECe) with characteristics that differ from conventional diesel exhaust (DE). It has previously been shown that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects in rats on...

  6. Final Report of Project Nanometer Structures for Fuel Cells and Displays, etc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing

    2011-12-15

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment induced self-assembly has been used to form various periodic nano-size wave-ordered structures (WOS). Such WOS can be used as hard etching masks to produce nanowire arrays, trenches etc., on other materials by means of traditional etching or ion sputtering. These periodic nano-size structures have a wide range of applications, including flat panel displays, optical electronics, and clean energy technologies (solar and fuel cells, lithium batteries). In order to achieve high throughput of the above processes, a large area RF-driven multicusp nitrogen ion source has been developed for the application of nitrogen ion beam induced surface modification. An integrated ion beam system, which can house either a large area RF-driven multicusp ion source or a commercially available microwave ion source (Roth & Rau AG Tamiris 400-f) have been designed, manufactured, assembled, and tested.

  7. Spectrum designation and effect of Al substitution on the luminescence of Cr{sup 3+} doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-sized phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weiwei [Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang Junying, E-mail: zjy@buaa.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen Ziyu; Wang Tianmin [Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zheng Shukai [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071200 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Low-temperature photoluminescent spectra of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Cr{sup 3+} nano-sized phosphors calcined at different temperatures were reported. The fine structure of the emission spectra has been designated to Cr{sup 3+} ions in different sites including ideal octahedral, Zn-interstitial, Ga{sub ZN}{sup 4}-Zn{sub Ga}{sup 6} sites and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} impurity. The vibronic sidebands for both Stokes' and anti-Stokes' sides are related to the host lattice vibrations, which were confirmed by IR and Raman spectra. Al{sup 3+} is substituted in Ga{sup 3+} sites to form Zn(Ga{sub 1-y}Al{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 4}:Cr{sub 0.01}{sup 3+} (0{<=}y{<=}0.5). The blue shift and luminescent intensity variations of the charge transfer band and 3d-3d transitions in the spectra caused by Al substitution were related to larger band gap and stronger crystal field, respectively. The calculated crystal-field parameters indicated that Al incorporation enhanced the crystal field strength and induced more trigonal distortion due to different radii of Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+}.

  8. Hydrogen storage by organic chemical hydrides and hydrogen supply to fuel cells with superheated liquid-film-type catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoshima, S.; Shono, A.; Sato, K.; Saito, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Organic chemical hydrides, consisting of decalin / naphthalene and tetralin / naphthalene pairs, have been proposed as the storage medium of hydrogen for operating fuel cells in mobile and static modes. The target values in the DOE Hydrogen Plan, U.S., on storage ( 6.5 wt%, 62.0 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are met with decalin ( 7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ). In addition, existing gas stations and tank lorries are available for storage and supply of hydrogen by utilizing the decalin / naphthalene pair, suggesting that decalin is suitable for operating fuel-cell vehicles. Tetralin dehydrogenation proceeds quite rapidly, assuring a predominant power density, though its storage densities ( 3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are relatively low. Efficient hydrogen supply from decalin or tetralin by heating at 210-280 o C was attained only with the carbon-supported nano-size metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions, where coke formation over the catalyst surface was prevented. The catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film states gave high reaction rates and conversions, minimizing the evaporation loss under boiling conditions and exergy loss in hydrogen energy systems. (author)

  9. Nano-sized water-in-oil-in-water emulsion enhances intestinal absorption of calcein, a high solubility and low permeability compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Kenjiro; Takarada, Nobuo; Takada, Kanji

    2010-02-01

    Our goal was to develop safe and stable multilayer emulsions capable of enhancing intestinal absorption of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class III drugs. First, w/o emulsions were prepared using calcein as a model BCS class III compound and condensed ricinoleic acid tetraglycerin ester as a hydrophobic emulsifier. Then water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsions were prepared with shirasu porous glass (SPG) membranes. Particle size analyses and calcein leakage from oil droplets in w/o/w emulsions led us to select stearic acid hexaglycerin esters (HS-11) and Gelucire 44/14 as hydrophilic emulsifiers. Analyses of the absorption-enhancing effects of w/o/w emulsions on intestinal calcein absorption in rats showed that calcein bioavailability after intraduodenal (i.d.) administration of HS-11 or Gelucire 44/14+polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) w/o/w emulsions prepared with 0.1-microm pore-sized SPGs was significantly higher than that of the calcein control. However, serum calcein concentration vs. time profiles after i.d. administration of w/o/w emulsions prepared with 1.1-microm and 30-microm pore-sized SPGs and an emulsion prepared with a calcein-containing outer water phase were comparable to control profiles. These results suggested that HS-11 or Gelucire 44/14+PVA are safe outer water phase additives and that 0.1-microm pore-sized SPGs are important for preparing w/o/w emulsions that enhanced intestinal calcein absorption. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MTBE experts' discussion: Environmental pollution from MTBE fuel additives. Proceedings; MTBE-Fachgespraech: Umweltbelastungen durch die Nutzung von MTBE (Methyl-tertiaer-butylether) als Kraftstoffzusatz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    MTBE is a volatile, water-soluble, oxygen-containing liquid with a high octane rating. It hardly absorbs to the soil matrix, is hardly degradable by biological means, and moves in groundwater at practically the same speed as the groundwater itself. This makes it an important groundwater hazard. The main problem is the low taste and smell threshold concentration of MTBE, because of which contaminated water is unfit for drinking. MTBE has been used as a fuel additive in the USA since the seventies and in Germany since the eighties for a better antiknock rating. MTBE concentrations depend on the fuel quality, ranging from 0.3 percent in normal gasoline and 1.6 percent in super gasoline to 6-12 percent by volume in SuperPlus and Optimax fuels. At this conference, which comprised nine lectures and a round of detailed discussions, measured concentrations of MTBE in air, precipitations, surface water and groundwater were presented, and the possibilities of modelling were discussed. The attendants of the meeting agreed that in view of the available data and at the present state of knowledge concerning the sources and fate of MTBE in environmental media, MTBE cannot be excluded as a groundwater pollutant. (orig.) [German] MTBE ist eine leichtfluechtige, gut wasserloesliche, sauerstoffhaltige Fluessigkeit mit hoher Oktanzahl. Es sorbiert fast nicht an die Bodenmatrix, ist sehr schlecht biologisch abbaubar und bewegt sich im Grundwasser praktisch mit der gleichen Geschwindigkeit wie das Grundwasser selbst. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften stellt MTBE eine Gefahr fuer das Grundwasser dar. Problematisch aus Sicht der Wasserversorgung ist die niedrige Geruchs- und Geschmacksschwelle von MTBE, weshalb kontaminiertes Wasser nicht mehr als Trinkwasser brauchbar ist. MTBE wird seit Mitte der 70er Jahre in den USA und seit Anfang der 80er Jahre in Deutschland dem Benzin zugesetzt, um die Klopffestigkeit zu verbessern. Der MTBE-Gehalt haengt von der Benzin-Qualitaet ab: Waehrend

  11. Inhibition of ammonia poisoning by addition of platinum to Ru/α-Al2 O3 for preferential CO oxidation in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Yagi, Sho; Zaitsu, Shuhei; Kitayama, Godai; Kayada, Yuto; Teramura, Kentaro; Takita, Yusaku; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2014-12-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems, small amounts of ammonia (NH3 ) present in the reformate gas deactivate the supported ruthenium catalysts used for preferential oxidation (PROX) of carbon monoxide (CO). In this study, we investigated how the addition of a small amount of platinum to a Ru/α-Al2 O3 catalyst (Pt/Ru=1:9 w/w) affected the catalyst's PROX activity in both the absence and the presence of NH3 (130 ppm) under conditions mimicking the reformate conditions during steam reforming of natural gas. The activity of undoped Ru/α-Al2 O3 decreased sharply upon addition of NH3 , whereas Pt/Ru/α-Al2 O3 exhibited excellent PROX activity even in the presence of NH3 . Ruthenium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra indicated that in the presence of NH3 , some of the ruthenium in the undoped catalyst was oxidized in the presence of NH3 , whereas ruthenium oxidation was not observed with Pt/Ru/α-Al2 O3 . These results suggest that ruthenium oxidation is retarded by the platinum, so that the catalyst shows high activity even in the presence of NH3 . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The crystallinity of calcium phosphate powders influenced by the conditions of neutralized procedure with citric acid additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chengfeng

    2009-01-01

    Calcium phosphate powders with nano-sized crystallinity were synthesized by neutralization using calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid with the assistance of citric acid. The influence of processing parameters, such as free or additive citric acid, synthetic temperature and ripening time, on the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction and microstructure observations showed that the crystallinity and morphology of nano-sized hydroxyapatite particles were influenced by the presence or absence of citric acid. It was found that the crystallinities and crystallite sizes of hydroxyapatite powders prepared with the additive citric acid increased with increasing synthetic temperature and ripening time. Especially, the crystallinities of (h k 0) planes were raised and more homogeneously grown particles were obtained with increasing synthetic temperature

  13. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Luo, Huimin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toops, Todd J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookshear, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stump, Benjamin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Viola, Michael B. [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Zreik, Khaled [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Ahmed, Tasfia [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  14. Structural stability of nano-sized clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JTM; Palasantzas, G; Vystavel, T; Koch, S; Ovidko,; Pande, CS; Krishnamoorti, R; Lavernia, E; Skandan, G

    2004-01-01

    This contribution presents challenges to control the microstructure in nano-structured materials via a relatively new approach, i.e. using a so-called nanocluster source. An important aspect is that the cluster size distribution is monodisperse and that the kinetic energy of the clusters during

  15. Olefin metathesis in nano-sized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Méry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between olefin metathesis and dendrimers and other nano systems is addressed in this mini review mostly based on the authors’ own contributions over the last decade. Two subjects are presented and discussed: (i The catalysis of olefin metathesis by dendritic nano-catalysts via either covalent attachment (ROMP or, more usefully, dendrimer encapsulation – ring closing metathesis (RCM, cross metathesis (CM, enyne metathesis reactions (EYM – for reactions in water without a co-solvent and (ii construction and functionalization of dendrimers by CM reactions.

  16. Oxidation of nano-sized aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, A.B.; Lerner, M.; Rodkevich, N.; Nie, H.; Abraham, A.; Schoenitz, M.; Dreizin, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Weight gain measured in TG oxidation experiments was split between particles of different sizes. • Reaction kinetics obtained by isoconversion explicitly accounting for the effect of size distribution. • Activation energy is obtained as a function of oxide thickness for growth of amorphous alumina. • Oxidation mechanism for nanopowders remains the same as for coarser aluminum powders. - Abstract: Oxidation of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electro-exploded wires is studied. Particle size distributions are obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Thermo-gravimetric (TG) experiments are complemented by TEM and XRD studies of partially oxidized particles. Qualitatively, oxidation follows the mechanism developed for coarser aluminum powder and resulting in formation of hollow oxide shells. Sintering of particles is also observed. The TG results are processed to account explicitly for the particle size distribution and spherical shapes, so that oxidation of particles of different sizes is characterized. The apparent activation energy is obtained as a function of the reaction progress using model-free isoconversion processing of experimental data. A complete phenomenological oxidation model is then proposed assuming a spherically symmetric geometry. The oxidation kinetics of aluminum powder is shown to be unaffected by particle sizes reduced down to tens of nm. The apparent activation energy describing growth of amorphous alumina is increasing at the very early stages of oxidation. The higher activation energy is likely associated with an increasing homogeneity in the growing amorphous oxide layer, initially containing multiple defects and imperfections. The trends describing changes in both activation energy and pre-exponent of the growing amorphous oxide are useful for predicting ignition delays of aluminum particles. The kinetic trends describing activation energies and pre-exponents in a broader range of the oxide thicknesses are useful for prediction of aging behavior of aluminum powders.

  17. Effect of TiO2 additive on the sintering of nuclear fuel (U,Pu)O2. Contribution of surface diffusion to plutonium distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremier, Stephane

    1997-01-01

    This thesis has as objective the study of the effect of TiO 2 additive on the development of MOX fuel microstructure during sintering in reducing atmosphere. To understand better the mechanisms governing the evolution of microstructure, the behavior of UO 2 in the presence of TiO 2 has been established and the influence of the PuO 2 distribution in the initial state of the material was taken into account. The chapter II is devoted to the bibliographic study of the transport mechanisms responsible of the sintering in the ceramics UO 2 and UO 2 -PuO 2 . The results concerning the influence of TiO 2 upon density, grain size and homogenization are discussed. The following chapter describes the characteristics of initial powder, the procedures and installations of heat treatment, as well as the techniques of characterization used. Then the sintering features of UO 2 alone or in the presence of TiO 2 are presented. It appears that in the last case the surface diffusion becomes sufficient fast so that the distribution of the additive occurs naturally during a slow temperature increase. The fifth chapter treats the effect of UO 2 -PuO 2 preparation upon the initial microstructure of the materials and the role played by the PuO 2 grains in sintering. The potentiality of surface diffusion as a means of PuO 2 spreading in the UO 2 is evaluated and correlated with the reduced capacity of sintering the UO 2 ceramics containing PuO 2 . The last chapter deals with the influence of TiO 2 on the development of microstructure in UO 2 -PuO 2 ceramics. While at temperatures below 1500 deg.C the TiO 2 additive affects the surface diffusion and so the plutonium distribution, at values T≥ 1600 deg.C the additive gives rise to a dissolution-reprecipitation process taking place in a intergranular liquid phase appeared between UO 2 , PuO 2 and titanium oxide. Thus the objective is the optimizing the temperature conditions, the oxygen potential as sintering gas and the additive

  18. Helium Ion Microscopy of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Chiriaev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of composite materials with microscopy techniques is an essential route to understanding their properties and degradation mechanisms, though the observation with a suitable type of microscopy is not always possible. In this work, we present proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode interface structure dependence on ionomer content, systematically studied by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM. A special focus was on acquiring high resolution images of the electrode structure and avoiding interface damage from irradiation and tedious sample preparation. HIM demonstrated its advantages in surface imaging, which is paramount in studies of the interface morphology of ionomer covered or absorbed catalyst structures in a combination with electrochemical characterization and accelerated stress test. The electrode porosity was found to depend on the ionomer content. The stressed electrodes demonstrated higher porosity in comparison to the unstressed ones on the condition of no external mechanical pressure. Moreover, formation of additional small grains was observed for the electrodes with the low ionomer content, indicating Pt redeposition through Ostwald ripening. Polymer nanofiber structures were found in the crack regions of the catalyst layer, which appear due to the internal stress originated from the solvent evaporation. These fibers have fairly uniform diameters of a few tens of nanometers, and their density increases with the increasing ionomer content in the electrodes. In the hot-pressed electrodes, we found more closed contact between the electrode components, reduced particle size, polymer coalescence and formation of nano-sized polymer fiber architecture between the particles.

  19. Synthesis of nano-sized stereoselective imprinted polymer by copolymerization of (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of racemic propranolol and copper ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Taher, E-mail: talizadeh@ut.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagherzadeh, Azam; Shamkhali, Amir Nasser [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    A new chiral functional monomer of (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid was obtained by reaction of (L)-alanine with acryloyl chloride. The resulting monomer was characterized by FT-IR and HNMR and then utilized for the preparation of chiral imprinted polymer (CIP). This was carried out by copolymerization of (L)-alanine-derived chiral monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in the presence of racemic propranolol and copper nitrate, via precipitation polymerization technique, resulting in nano-sized networked polymer particles. The polymer obtained was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR. The non-imprinted polymer was also synthesized and used as blank polymer. Density functional theory (DFT) was also employed to optimize the structures of two diasterometric ternary complexes, suspected to be created in the pre-polymerization step, by reaction of optically active isomers of propranolol, copper ion and (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid. Relative energies and other characteristics of the described complexes, calculated by the DFT, predicted the higher stability of (S)-propranolol involved complex, compared to (R)-propranolol participated complex. Practical batch extraction test which employed CIP as solid phase adsorbent, indicated that the CIP recognized selectively (S)-propranolol in the racemic mixture of propranolol; whereas, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP) showed no differentiation capability between two optically active isomers of propranolol. - Highlights: • A new chiral functional monomer of (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid was synthesized. • (S)-propranolol-selective imprinted polymer was synthesized using the chiral monomer. • Racemic propranolol mixed with Cu(II) was used as template in the imprinting. • Density functional theory was employed to clarify the imprinting mechanism. • (S)-propranolol-Cu(II) complex was shown to conduct the imprinting process.

  20. The Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Laminar Burning Velocity of Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Fuel with Small Addition of n-Heptane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suarta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of mixed hydrous and anhydrous ethanol with up to 10% v n-heptane had been studied. The burning velocity was examined in a cylindrical explosion combustion chamber. The result showed that the burning velocity of hydrous ethanol is higher than anhydrous ethanol and n-heptane at stoichiometric, rich, and very rich mixtures. The burning velocity of hydrous ethanol with n-heptane drops drastically compared to the burning velocity of anhydrous ethanol with n-heptane. It is caused by two reasons. Firstly, there was a composition change of azeotropic hydrous ethanol molecules within the mixture of fuel. Secondly, at the same volume the number of ethanol molecules in hydrous ethanol was less than in anhydrous ethanol at the same composition of the n-heptane in the mixture. At the mixture of anhydrous ethanol with n-heptane, the burning velocity decreases proportionally to the addition of the n-heptane composition. The burning velocity is between the velocities of anhydrous ethanol and n-heptane. It shows that the burning velocity of anhydrous ethanol mixed with n-heptane is only influenced by the mixture composition.

  1. Nitrate addition to groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuel accelerates ethanol removal and mitigates the associated metabolic flux dilution and inhibition of BTEX biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier; Gomez, Diego E.; Schambeck, Cássio Moraes; Ramos, Débora Toledo; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2015-03-01

    A comparison of two controlled ethanol-blended fuel releases under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) versus nitrate biostimulation (NB) illustrates the potential benefits of augmenting the electron acceptor pool with nitrate to accelerate ethanol removal and thus mitigate its inhibitory effects on BTEX biodegradation. Groundwater concentrations of ethanol and BTEX were measured 2 m downgradient of the source zones. In both field experiments, initial source-zone BTEX concentrations represented less than 5% of the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) associated with the release, and measurable BTEX degradation occurred only after the ethanol fraction in the multicomponent substrate mixture decreased sharply. However, ethanol removal was faster in the nitrate amended plot (1.4 years) than under natural attenuation conditions (3.0 years), which led to faster BTEX degradation. This reflects, in part, that an abundant substrate (ethanol) can dilute the metabolic flux of target pollutants (BTEX) whose biodegradation rate eventually increases with its relative abundance after ethanol is preferentially consumed. The fate and transport of ethanol and benzene were accurately simulated in both releases using RT3D with our general substrate interaction module (GSIM) that considers metabolic flux dilution. Since source zone benzene concentrations are relatively low compared to those of ethanol (or its degradation byproduct, acetate), our simulations imply that the initial focus of cleanup efforts (after free-product recovery) should be to stimulate the degradation of ethanol (e.g., by nitrate addition) to decrease its fraction in the mixture and speed up BTEX biodegradation.

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  3. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  4. Electrochemical evaluation of electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications : a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, M.H. [General Motors R and D Technical Center, Warren, MI (United States); Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Various electrochemical techniques were used to investigate supported nano-size electrocatalysts during the oxidation of a specific fuel for fuel cell applications. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) on static and dynamic rotating disc electrodes (RDE) and fuel cell station tests demonstrated that the most active catalyst showed the most negative oxidation peak potential. A Tafel equation indicated that a low anodic/cathodic overpotential was a clear indication of higher catalytic activity. The lower overpotential was achieved for a specific current load by ensuring a low Tafel slope and as high an exchange current density as possible. The RDE and fuel cell station tests showed that the best performance was recorded for electrocatalysts with the Tafel slope values and exchange current densities that gave rise to the lowest overpotential. The study demonstrated that RDE and CV can be used to reliably assess electrocatalysts prior to full fuel cell testing. 52 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Status and trends of nuclear technologies - Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Additional information (Companion CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in the year 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO intends to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the 21st century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider, jointly, actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. This IAEA publication is part of Phase 1 of INPRO. It intends to provide an overview on history, present situation and future perspectives of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. While this overview focuses on technical issues, nevertheless, the aspects of economics, environment, and safety and proliferation resistance are important background issues for this study. After a brief description about the INPRO project and an evaluation of existing and future reactor designs the publication covers nuclear fuel cycle issues in detail. It is expected that this documentation will provide IAEA Member States and their nuclear engineers and designers, as well as policy makers with useful information on status and trends of future nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Due to the size of the full report it was decided to attach a CD-ROM in the back of the summary report

  6. Performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled by biodiesel-diesel mixtures with multi-walled carbon nanotubes additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Seesy, Ahmed I.; Abdel-Rahman, Ali K.; Bady, Mahmoud; Ookawara, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Considerable improvements in the combustion of JB20D50MWCNTs compared to pure JB20D. • p_m_a_x, dp/dθ_m_a_x and dQg/dθ_m_a_x increased by 7%, 4% and 4%, respectively. • Brake specific fuel consumption decreased by 15%. • NO_x, CO, and UHC reduced by 35%, 50%, and 60%, respectively. • Significant enhancement in all engine performance was achieved at a concentration of 40 mg/l. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of adding Multi-Walled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to Jojoba methyl ester-diesel blended fuel (JB20D) on performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression-ignition engine were experimentally investigated. The JB20D with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/l of MWCNTs were examined at different engine loads and speeds. Compared to pure diesel, the use of JB20D without MWCNTs caused a slight decrease in the engine performance and an increase in the engine emissions at most examined conditions. The MWCNTs–B20D blended fuel attained a maximum increase of 16% in the brake thermal efficiency and a decrease of 15% in the brake specific fuel consumption at the dose level of 50 mg/l compared to JB20D. The MWCNTs-JB20D blended fuel also brought about an enhancement in combustion characteristics where the peak cylinder pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and the peak heat release rate were increased by 7%, 4%, and 4%, respectively, at the same dose level. According to the measured emissions, a significant reduction of engine emissions was achieved at the dose level of 20 mg/l, where NO_x, CO, and UHC were reduced by 35%, 50%, and 60%, respectively. According to the obtained results, the recommended concentration of MWCNTs in JB20D was concluded to be 40 mg/l, which could give significant improvements in overall the parameters of engine performance and emissions with a good balance between them.

  7. Morphology Control of the Electrode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by Using Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Takehisa; Ohara, Satoshi; Naito, Makio; Nogi, Kiyoshi

    2001-01-01

    LSM(La(Sr)MnO 3 )/YSZ(Y 2 O 3 stabilized ZrO 2 ) composite cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) was fabricated by using the composite particle consisting of well-dispersed nano-size grains of LSM and YSZ. The composite cathode had a porous structure as well as uniformly dispersed fine LSM and YSZ grains. Such unique morphology of the composite cathode led high electrochemical activity at 800 deg. C. It suggests that the intermediate temperature (less than 800 o C) operation of SOFCs will be achieved by using composite particles

  8. Optimization of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plant (FUWAC). Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plants (FUWAC, 2006-2009). It provides an overview of the results of the investigations into the current state of water chemistry practice and concerns in the primary circuit of water cooled power reactors including: corrosion of primary circuit materials; deposit composition and thickness on the fuel; crud induced power shift; fuel oxide growth and thickness; radioactivity buildup in the reactor coolant system (RCS). The FUWAC CRP is a follow-up to the DAWAC CRP (Data Processing Technologies and Diagnostics for Water Chemistry and Corrosion Control in Nuclear Power Plants 2001-2005). The DAWAC project improved the data processing technologies and diagnostics for water chemistry and corrosion control in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the improved methods for controlling and monitoring water chemistry now available, it was felt that a review of the principles of water chemistry management should be undertaken in the light of new materials, more onerous operating conditions, emergent issues such as CIPS, also known as axial offset anomaly (AOA) and the ageing of operating power plant. In the framework of this CRP, water chemistry specialists from 16 nuclear utilities and research organizations, representing 15 countries, exchanged experimental and operational data, models and insights into water chemistry management. This CD-ROM attached to the printed IAEA-TECDOC includes the report itself, detailed progress reports of three Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) (Annexes I-III) and the reports and presentations made during the project by the participants.

  9. Cs2.5H0.5PWO40/SiO2 as addition self-humidifying composite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Yi, B.L.; Zhang, H.M.; Xing, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we first reported a novel self-humidifying composite membrane for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 /SiO 2 catalyst particles were dispersed uniformly into the Nafion (registered) resin, and then Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 -SiO 2 /Nafion composite membrane was prepared using solution-cast method. Compared with the H 3 PWO 40 (PTA) , the Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 /SiO 2 was steady due to the substitute of H + with Cs + and the interaction between the Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 and SiO 2 . And compared with the performance of the fuel cell with commercial Nafion (registered) NRE-212 membrane, the cell performance with the self-humidifying composite membrane was obviously improved under both humidified and dry conditions at 60 and 80 o C. The best performance under dry condition was obtained at 60 o C. The self-humidifying composite membrane could minimize membrane conductivity loss under dry conditions due to the presence of catalyst and hydrophilic Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 /SiO 2 particles

  10. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  11. 40 CFR 80.602 - What records must be kept by entities in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements... in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel additive production, importation, and...

  12. Initial in vitro screening approach to investigate the potential health and environmental hazards of Envirox™ – a nanoparticulate cerium oxide diesel fuel additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittingham Andrew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology is the new industrial revolution of the 21st Century as the various processes lead to radical improvements in medicine, manufacturing, energy production, land remediation, information technology and many other everyday products and applications. With this revolution however, there are undoubted concerns for health, safety and the environment which arise from the unique nature of materials and processes at the nanometre scale. The in vitro assays used in the screening strategy are all validated, internationally accepted protocols and provide a useful indication of potential toxicity of a chemical as a result of effects on various toxicological endpoints such as local site of contact (dermal irritation, general cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The initial in vitro screening strategy described in this paper to investigate the potential health implications, if any, which may arise following exposure to one specific application of nanoparticulate cerium oxide used as a diesel fuel borne catalyst, reflects a precautionary approach and the results will inform judgement on how best to proceed to ensure safe use.

  13. Conductive materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates made from PVDF, PET and co-continuous PVDF/PET filled with carbon additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, L.; Mighri, F.; Deyrail, Y. [CREPEC, Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, QC (Canada); Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, QC (Canada); Elkoun, S. [CREPEC, Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, QC (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sherbrooke University, QC (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and characterise electrically conductive materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and bipolar plates (BPPs). These BPPs were made from highly conductive blends of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), as matrix phase. The conductive materials were developed from carefully formulated blends composed of conductive carbon black (CB) powder and, in some cases, graphite synthetic flakes mixed with pure PET, PVDF or with PVDF/PET systems. They were first developed by twin-screw extrusion process then compression-molded to give BPP final shape. As the developed blends have to meet properties suitable for BPP applications, they were characterised for their rheological properties, electrical through-plane resistivity (the inverse of conductivity), oxygen permeability, flexural and impact properties. Results showed that lower resistivity was obtained with PVDF/CB blends due to the higher interfacial energy between the PVDF matrix and CB and also the higher density and crystallinity of PVDF, compared to those of PET. It was also observed that the lowest resistivity values were obtained with mixing PVDF and PET at controlled compositions to ensure PVDF/PET co-continuous morphology. Also, slow cooling rates helped to attain the lowest values of through-plane resistivity for all studied blends. This behaviour was related to the higher crystallinity obtained with low cooling rates leading to smaller amorphous regions in which carbon particles are much more concentrated. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  15. Materials for fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Sossina M

    2003-01-01

    Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cell...

  16. Isoprenoid based alternative diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek Soon; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-08-18

    Fuel compositions are provided comprising a hydrogenation product of a monocyclic sesquiterpene (e.g., hydrogenated bisabolene) and a fuel additive. Methods of making and using the fuel compositions are also disclosed. ##STR00001##

  17. Increase of thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel pellets with beryllium oxide addition; Condutividade termica de pastilhas de combustivel nuclear de UO{sub 2}-BeO nas temperaturas de 25 deg C e 100 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarano, D.M.; Mansur, F.A.; Santos, A.M.M. dos; Ferraz, W.B., E-mail: dmc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTM/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The UO{sub 2} fuel is one of the most used nuclear fuel in thermal reactors and has many advantages such as high melting point, chemical compatibility with cladding, etc. However, its thermal conductivity is relatively low, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel pellets due to a high radial temperature gradient during reactor operation. An alternative to avoid this problem is to increase the thermal conductivity of the fuel pellets, by adding beryllium oxide (BeO). Pellets of UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}-BeO were obtained from a homogenized mixture of powders of UO{sub 2} and BeO, containing 2% and 3% by weight of BeO and sintering at 1750 °C for 3 h under H{sub 2} atmosphere after uniaxial pressing at 400 MPa. The pellet densities were obtained by xylol penetration-immersion method and the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined according to ASTM E-1461 at room temperature (25 deg C) and 100 deg C. The thermal diffusivity measurements were carried out employing the laser flash method. The thermal conductivity obtained at 25 deg C showed an increase with the addition of 2% and 3% of BeO corresponding to 19% and 28%, respectively. As for the measurements carried out at 100 deg C, there was an increase in the thermal conductivity for the same BeO contents of 20% and 31%. These values as a percentage of increased conductivity were obtained in relation to the UO{sub 2} pellets. (author)

  18. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... require new agricultural sector modeling and involved relatively straightforward analyses that largely... fermentation [cir] Biochemical fermentation with catalytic upgrading [cir] Any other process that uses biogas... RFS2 of picking a surrogate use for modeling purposes in the mid-range of likely glycerin uses, and the...

  19. 78 FR 14190 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... [cir] Thermochemical gasification [cir] Biochemical direct fermentation [cir] Biochemical fermentation... approach used in the RFS of picking a surrogate use for modeling purposes in the mid-range of likely...

  20. 77 FR 462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... sources--qualifying as cellulosic biofuel: [cir] Thermochemical pyrolysis. [cir] Thermochemical... covercrops, algal oil, biogenic waste oils/fats/greases, non-food grade corn oil, Canola/rapeseed oil, and... from annual covercrops, algal oil, biogenic waste oils/fats/greases, or non- food grade corn oil using...

  1. 78 FR 41703 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities affected by this action include: Examples of... Impact Analysis Chapter 2, February 2010. 3. Crop Inputs and Feedstock Transport EPA also assessed the GHG impacts associated with planting, harvesting, and transporting giant reed and napier grass...

  2. Fuels Registration, Reporting, and Compliance Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the requirements for registration and health effects testing of new fuels or fuel additives and mandatory registration for fuels reporting and about mandatory reporting forms for parties regulated under EPA fuel programs.

  3. Additive effect of Ce, Mo and K to nickel-cobalt aluminate supported solid oxide fuel cell for direct internal reforming of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Bu Ho; Park, Jungdeok; Yoon, Heechul; Kim, Hyeon Hui; Kim, Lim; Chung, Jong Shik

    2014-01-01

    Direct internal reforming of methane (steam/carbon=0.031, 850 .deg. C) is tested using button cells of Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM in which the anode layer is supported either on Ni-YSZ or on Ni-CoAl 2 O 4 . The Ni-CoAl 2 O 4 supported cell shows little degradation with operating time, as a result of higher resistance against carbon deposition, whereas the Ni-YSZ supported cell deactivates quickly and suffers fracture in 50 h. Upon incorporation of additives such as K, Ce, or Mo into the Ni-CoAl 2 O 4 support, cells with 0.5 wt% CeO 2 exhibit the best stable performance as a result of reduced coke formation. Cells with 0.5 wt% Mo exhibit the lowest performance. Although no carbon deposit is detected in the cells with K 2 CO 3 additives, their performance is worse than that in the CeO 2 case, and, in constant-current mode, there is a sudden voltage drop to zero after a certain period of time; this time becomes shorter with increasing K content. The injection of potassium into the anode side facilitates the generation of OH - and CO 3 2- in the anode and promotes the diffusion of these ions to the cathode. Increased polarization resistance at the cathode and increased electrolyte resistance result in such a sudden failure

  4. Enhanced Hg{sup 2+} removal and Hg{sup 0} re-emission control from wet fuel gas desulfurization liquors with additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingmei Tang; Jiang Xu; Rongjie Lu; Jingjing Wo; Xinhua Xu [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0}. The present study employed three agents: Na{sub 2}S, 2,4,6-trimercaptotiazine, trisodium salt nonahydrate (TMT) and sodium dithiocarbamate (DTCR) to precipitate aqueous Hg{sup 2+} in simulated desulfurization solutions. The effects of the precipitator's dosing quantity, the initial pH value, the reaction temperature, the concentrations of Cl{sup -} and other metal ions (e.g. Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}) on Hg{sup 2+} removal were studied. A linear relationship was observed between Hg{sup 2+} removal efficiency and the increasing precipitator's doses along with initial pH. The addition of chloride and metal ions impaired the Hg{sup 2+} removal from solutions due to the complexation of Cl{sup -} and Hg{sup 2+} as well as the chelating competition between Hg{sup 2+} and other metal ions. Based on a comprehensive comparison of the treatment effects, DTCR was found to be the most effective precipitating agent. Moreover, all the precipitating agents were potent enough to inhibit Hg{sup 2+} reduction as well as Hg{sup 0} re-emission from FGD liquors. More than 90% Hg{sup 2+} was captured by precipitating agents while Hg{sup 2+} reduction efficiency decreased from 54% to just less than 3%. The additives could efficiently control the secondary Hg{sup 0} pollution from FGD liquors. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Additive effect of Ce, Mo and K to nickel-cobalt aluminate supported solid oxide fuel cell for direct internal reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Bu Ho; Park, Jungdeok; Yoon, Heechul; Kim, Hyeon Hui; Kim, Lim; Chung, Jong Shik [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Direct internal reforming of methane (steam/carbon=0.031, 850 .deg. C) is tested using button cells of Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM in which the anode layer is supported either on Ni-YSZ or on Ni-CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The Ni-CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} supported cell shows little degradation with operating time, as a result of higher resistance against carbon deposition, whereas the Ni-YSZ supported cell deactivates quickly and suffers fracture in 50 h. Upon incorporation of additives such as K, Ce, or Mo into the Ni-CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} support, cells with 0.5 wt% CeO{sub 2} exhibit the best stable performance as a result of reduced coke formation. Cells with 0.5 wt% Mo exhibit the lowest performance. Although no carbon deposit is detected in the cells with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} additives, their performance is worse than that in the CeO{sub 2} case, and, in constant-current mode, there is a sudden voltage drop to zero after a certain period of time; this time becomes shorter with increasing K content. The injection of potassium into the anode side facilitates the generation of OH{sup -} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} in the anode and promotes the diffusion of these ions to the cathode. Increased polarization resistance at the cathode and increased electrolyte resistance result in such a sudden failure.

  6. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  7. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  8. Cleaner emissions from a DI diesel engine fueled with waste plastic oil derived from municipal solid waste under the influence of n-pentanol addition, cold EGR, and injection timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodharan, Dillikannan; Sathiyagnanam, Amudhavalli Paramasivam; Rajesh Kumar, Babu; Ganesh, Kuttalam Chidambaradhanu

    2018-05-01

    Urban planning and development is a decisive factor that increases the automobile numbers which leads to increased energy demand across the globe. In order to meet the escalating requirements of energy, it is necessary to find viable alternatives. Waste plastic oil (WPO) is one such alternative which has dual benefits as it reduces the environmental pollution caused by plastic waste and it could possibly meet the energy requirement along with fossil fuels. The study attempted to reduce emissions from a DI diesel engine fueled with WPO using 30% by volume of n-pentanol with fossil diesel (WPO70P30). EGR (10, 20, and 30%) and injection timing modifications were made with the intention to find optimum engine operating conditions. The experimental results indicated that addition of renewable component like n-pentanol had improved the combustion characteristics by igniting WPO more homogeneously producing a higher premixed combustion phase. Smoke density for WPO70P30 was found to be twice lower than that of neat WPO at standard injection timing of 23°CA bTDC at any given EGR rate, NOx emissions were slightly on the higher side about 12% for WPO70P30 blend against WPO at same operating conditions. WPO70P30 showed lowest smoke and carbon monoxide emissions than diesel and WPO while delivering BTE's higher than WPO and closer to diesel at all EGR and injection timings. However NOx and HC emissions increased with n-pentanol addition. The use of EGR reduced NOx emissions but was found to aggravate other emissions. It was concluded WPO70P30 can be favorably used in a DI diesel engine at the engines advanced injection timing for better performance than diesel with a slight penalty in NOx emissions.

  9. On the potential of absorption and reactive adsorption for desulfurization of ultra low-sulfur commercial diesel in the liquid phase in the presence of fuel additive and bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Van Eijk, S.; Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Van den Brink, R.W. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Sorption of sulfur components in the liquid phase was used to desulfurize ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to below 1 ppmw S. Several concepts of sorption were considered by using both physisorption and chemisorption materials and conditions. Adsorption assisted by reaction with Ni sorbent was found to be most successful. Using a pre-commercial diesel representing a mature diesel on all aspects except for the absence of fuel stabilizers and bio-diesel, a sulfur breakthrough capacity of 2 mg S/g could be achieved using a Ni-sorbent at an acceptable LHSV of 0.7 h{sup -1} on average. However, successive experiments indicated that the desulfurization capacity depended strongly on the presence of fuel-additive and bio-diesel in commercial ULSD. The presence of the cetane improver 2-ethylhexylnitrate (2EHN) was shown to decrease the sulfur capacity by roughly 50%. The presence of bio-diesel (fatty acid methyl ester, abbreviated to FAME) was shown to completely disable the desulfurization process. This was confirmed by comparing BP Ultimate diesel with FAME (obtained in 2008) and without FAME (obtained in 2006). From this evaluation it turned out that the targeted breakthrough capacity of 1 mg S/g sorbent was within reach for commercial ULSD until late 2006 when adding bio-diesel to ULSD became common practice in Europe. Several attempts to remove the additives prior to desulfurization by using copper loaded zeolites, active carbon and silica gel proved unsuccessful to bring the sulfur adsorption capacity for current diesel to the level observed for 2EHN and FAME-free diesel. It is concluded that sorption in the liquid phase does not yet represent a viable desulfurization technology for ultra-low sulfur diesel.

  10. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  11. Product analyses and kinetic studies on gas phase oxidation of the fuel additive ethyl tert-butyl ether and its products; Produktanalysen und Kinetikuntersuchungen der Gasphasenoxidation des Kraftstoffadditivs Ethyl-tert-butylether und seiner Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K H; Thuener, L

    1997-04-01

    The widespread use of the additive ETBE in gasoline leads to an increased release of this compound into the atmosphere via evaporation or exhaust fumes. In order to determine the influence of this additive on trace gas cycles it is first necessary to carry out studies on the degradation mechanisms and pertinent kinetic properties of this substance. The aim of the present study was to examine the degradation mechanisms of the fuel additive t-butyl ethyl ether under atmospheric conditions. The reactions of the main degradation products (t-butyl formiate and t-butyl acetate, together ca. 80%) were also studied in order to obtain as complete a picture of the degradation paths as possible. This was to permit an assessment of the influence of ETBE and its products on tropospheric trace gas cycles and ozone formation. [Deutsch] Bei haeufigem Zusatz von ETBE in Benzin wird diese Verbindung durch Verdampfung oder als Abgas verstaerkt in die Atmosphaere abgegeben. Um den Einfluss des Additivs auf die Spurengas-Kreislaeufe zu bestimmen, sind daher Untersuchungen noetig, um die Abbau-Mechanismen und die zugehoerigen kinetischen Daten zu ermitteln. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der Abbaumechanismen des Kraftstoffadditivs t-Butylethylether unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen. Fuer eine moeglichst vollstaendige Analyse des Abbauweges werden auch die Reaktionen der Hauptabbauprodukte (t-Butylformiat und t-Butylacetat, zusammen etwa 80%) untersucht. Dadurch soll der Einfluss auf troposphaerische Spurengas-Kreislaeufe und auf die Ozonbildung von ETBE und seinen Produkten abgeschaetzt werden. (orig./SR)

  12. Fuel management and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendryes, G

    1972-11-01

    From international conference on nuclear solutions to world energy problems; Washington, District of Columbia, USA (12 Nov The low cost of the fuel cycle is the most attractive feature of the fast neutron breeder reactor. In order to achieve it a good fuel management is essential, with well balanced fixed investment and renewal fuel costs. In addition the designer can optimize the power station as a whole (fuel cycle and thermal characteristics). (auth)

  13. Additive Effectiveness Investigations in Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    refers to synthetic paraffinic kerosene generated through the Fischer-Tropsch process. Basically, a carbon source (coal, natural gas, biomass ) is...four cobalt FT process SPKs in that report, two from SASOL and one each from Shell and Syntroleum. SwRI had a good supply of the Shell FT SPK and...guidance material [9] warns that continuous use could result in an incurable biomass accumulation. The active components of this product are a mixture

  14. Additively Manufactured Main Fuel Valve Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was utilized to fabricate a liquid hydrogen valve housing typical of those found in rocket engines and main propulsion systems. The SLM process allowed for a valve geometry that would be difficult, if not impossible to fabricate by traditional means. Several valve bodies were built by different SLM suppliers and assembled with valve internals. The assemblies were then tested with liquid nitrogen and operated as desired. One unit was also burst tested and sectioned for materials analysis. The design, test results, and planned testing are presented herein.

  15. Fuel performance annual report for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preble, E.A.; Painter, C.L.; Alvis, J.A.; Berting, F.M.; Beyer, C.E.; Payne, G.A.; Wu, S.L.

    1993-11-01

    This annual report, the thirteenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1990 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience and trends, fuel problems high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided . References to additional, more detailed information, and related NRC evaluations are included where appropriate

  16. Fuel performance annual report for 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Tokar, M.

    1982-12-01

    This annual report, the fourth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1981 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel operating experience, fuel problems, fuel design changes and fuel surveillance programs, and high-burnup fuel experience are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included

  17. Carbon and Redox Tolerant Infiltrated Oxide Fuel-Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Blennow, P.

    2016-01-01

    To solve issues of coking and redox instability related to the presence of nickel in typical fuel electrodes in solid oxide cells,Gd-doped CeO2 (CGO) electrodes were studied using symmetriccells. These electrodes showed high electro-catalytic activity, butlow electronic conductivity. When...... infiltrated with Sr0.99Fe0.75Mo0.25O3-δ (SFM), the electronic conductivity wasenhanced. However, polarization resistance of the cells increased,suggesting that the infiltrated material is less electro-catalyticallyactive and was partly blocking the CGO surface reaction sites. Theactivity could be regained...... by infiltrating nano-sized CGO orNiCGO on top of SFM, while still sustaining the high electronicconductivity. Ohmic resistance of the electrodes was thuspractically eliminated and performance comparable to, or betterthan, state-of-the-art fuel electrodes was achieved. The Nicontaining cells were damaged by carbon...

  18. Effect of organo clay addition on thermal properties of poly lactide/ polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Zulaiha Hairaldin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Norazoma Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, melt blending technique was applied to prepare poly lactide/polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites with various blends. Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as an addition to the matrix. In this study, melt blending technique was applied to prepare poly lactide/polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites. Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as an addition to the matrix with various percentages. The other one is modified clay prepared by modifying the nature of montmorillonite with octadecylamine (ODA) to improve the characteristic of PLA/ PCL blends. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated intercalation of the PLA/ PCL into silicate nano size interlayers galleries of the nano composites. The presence of modified clays in nano composite was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. TGA and DTG results show addition of MMT and modified clay ODA-MMT improved the thermal stability of the PLA/ PCL blends. (author)

  19. Applications of Nano palm oil fuel ash and Nano fly ash in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hussein M.; Jokhio, Gul Ahmed; Mat Yahaya, Fadzil; Humada, Ali M.

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the applications of Nano waste materials including palm oil fuel ash and fly ash in the concrete production. The implementation of nanotechnology has been instrumental in the development of significant interest among the stakeholders to improve the mechanical and chemical properties of materials involved in the production of concrete. Although many researchers have shown the potential of nanomaterials to increase strength and durability of concrete and improve its physical and chemical properties, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the preparation of Nano waste materials from agricultural waste to use as cement replacement instead of non-renewable materials. Therefore, it should be focused on to study Nano- waste materials to benefit from these characteristics during preparation of concrete mixtures. Therefore, this paper highlights the potential of waste materials in the Nano size to partially replace cement in concrete and achieve the same or better result than the traditional concrete. This paper recommends to conduct further experimental works to improve the concrete material properties by investigating the properties of waste materials in Nano size.

  20. Stable and easily sintered BaCe0.5Zr0.3Y0.2O3−δ electrolytes using ZnO and Na2CO3 additives for protonic oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yong; Guo, Ruisong; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yu; Shao, Zongping; An, Jing; Liu, Chongwei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sintering temperature of BCZY-Z pellets was reduced by adding ZnO and Na 2 CO 3 . ► Chemical stability of BCZY-Z towards CO 2 was improved with Na 2 CO 3 addition. ► Good chemical stability against boiling water was observed for BCZY-Z-C2 sample. ► The electrical conductivity is 7.68 × 10 −3 S cm −1 for BCZY-Z-C2 sample at 700 °C. ► An anode-supported POFC delivered a peak output 302 mW cm 2 at 700 °C. -- Abstract: BaCe 0.5 Zr 0.3 Y 0.2 O 3−δ (BCZY) based composite electrolyte materials were fabricated with ZnO sintering aid (BCZY-Z). The effects of Na 2 CO 3 modification on sintering behavior, chemical stability and electrochemical performance were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the specimens with Na 2 CO 3 addition possessed a single perovskite structure after sintering at 1320 °C for 2 h. The linear shrinkage of 0.5 mol% Na 2 CO 3 -modified BCZY-Z sample (BCZY-Z-C2) was about 17.5%, higher than that without Na 2 CO 3 addition (14.9%). Energy dispersive spectrometer shows that Na and C elements still existed and mainly distributed along the grain boundaries. Reactivities with carbon dioxide and boiling water of BCZY-Z and Na 2 CO 3 -modified BCZY-Z samples were also evaluated and good chemical stability was observed for Na 2 CO 3 -modified BCZY-Z samples. A conductivity of 7.68 × 10 −3 S cm −1 for BCZY-Z-C2 was obtained at 700 °C in 3% wet hydrogen atmosphere. An anode-supported fuel cell with thin-film BCZY-Z-C2 as electrolyte was fabricated. The fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 302 mW cm 2 and interface resistance value of 0.08 Ω cm 2 at 700 °C

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