WorldWideScience

Sample records for nano-passive layer formation

  1. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  2. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; Reynolds, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability

  3. Formation and properties of porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanov, P.; Kamenova, M.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    1993-01-01

    Preparation, properties and application of porous silicon films are investigated. Porous silicon structures were formed by an electrochemical etching process resulting in selective dissolution of the silicon substrate. The silicon wafers used with a resistivity of 5-10Ω.cm were doped with B to concentrations 6x10 18 -1x10 19 Ω.cm -3 in the temperature region 950 o C-1050 o C. The density of each porous films was determined from the weight loss during the anodization and it depends on the surface resistivity of the Si wafer. The density decreases with decreasing of the surface resistivity. The surface of the porous silicon layers was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which indicates the presence of SiF 4 . The kinetic dependence of the anode potential and the porous layer thickness on the time of anodization in a galvanostatic regime for the electrolytes with various HF concentration were studied. In order to compare the properties of the resulting porous layers and to establish the dependence of the porosity on the electrolyte, three types of electrolytes were used: concentrated HF, diluted HF:H 2 O=1:1 and ethanol-hydrofluoric solutions HF:C 2 H 5 OH:H 2 O=2:1:1. High quality uniform and reproducible layers were formed using aqueous-ethanol-hydrofluoric electrolyte. Both Kikuchi's line and ring patterns were observed by TEM. The porous silicon layer was single crystal with the same orientation as the substrate. The surface shows a polycrystalline structure only. The porous silicon layers exhibit visible photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature under 480 nm Ar + laser line excitation. The peak of PL was observed at about 730 nm with FWHM about 90 nm. Photodiodes was made with a W-porous silicon junction. The current voltage and capacity voltage characteristics were similar to those of an isotype heterojunction diode. (orig.)

  4. Formation of amorphous layers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    When an ordered solid is irradiated with heavy energy particles, disorder is produced. When the irradiation dose exceeds a so-called critical dose, the irradiated area of the solid becomes uniformly disordered. Mention is first made of the nature, concentration and distribution of the defects created by a heavy energy particle. The description is then given -solely with respect to semiconductors- of the effect of the various parameters on the critical dose energy and nature of the ion, nature and temperature of the solid, irradiation flux. The physical properties (electronic and thermodynamic types) and the uniformly disordered areas are briefly discussed and these properties are compared with those of amorphous semiconductor layers fabricated by evaporation. It is concluded that the evaporated and irradiated layers are similar in nature. It is suggested that the transformation of an irradiated crystalline area into an amorphous one occurs when the Gibbs energy of the crystal become greater than the Gibbs energy of the amorphous one [fr

  5. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S., E-mail: virtanen@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO{sub 2}). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous

  6. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO_2). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous structures. The

  7. Formation of boride layers on steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stergioudis, G.

    2006-01-01

    Boronizing coatings were prepared by means of pack cementation technique. It was found that using the appropriate substrate and controlling parameters of the boribing process such as boron activity of the mixture, temperature and time of treatment, it is possible to obtain a structure predominantly consisting of the Fe 2 B phase. In the present study low alloy ferritic steels were chosen as substrates. Changing the boron carbide concentration in the mixture and the temperature and time of boronizing process the conditions of the boronizing were altered. As a result the formation of the Fe 2 B phase is enhanced. Characterization of the as-borided steels is discussed based on X-ray diffraction and Curie temperature measurements. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Mesoderm layer formation in Xenopus and Drosophila gastrulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklbauer, Rudolf; Müller, H-Arno J

    2011-01-01

    During gastrulation, the mesoderm spreads out between ectoderm and endoderm to form a mesenchymal cell layer. Surprisingly the underlying principles of mesoderm layer formation are very similar in evolutionarily distant species like the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the frog, Xenopus laevis, in which the molecular and the cellular basis of mesoderm layer formation have been extensively studied. Complementary expression of growth factors in the ectoderm and their receptors in the mesoderm act to orient cellular protrusive activities and direct cell movement, leading to radial cell intercalation and the spreading of the mesoderm layer. This mechanism is contrasted with generic physical mechanisms of tissue spreading that consider the adhesive and physical properties of the cells and tissues. Both mechanisms need to be integrated to orchestrate mesenchymal morphogenesis

  9. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, V; Virtanen, S

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO2). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37°C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous structures. The

  10. Vortex Formation During Unsteady Boundary-Layer Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1998-11-01

    Unsteady laminar boundary-layer separation is invariably accompanied by the formation of vortices. The aim of the present work is to study the vortex formation mechanism(s). An adverse pressure gradient causing a separation can be decomposed into a spatial component ( spatial variation of the velocity external to the boundary layer ) and a temporal component ( temporal variation of the external velocity ). Experiments were conducted in a piston driven 2-D water channel, where the spatial component could be be contolled by geometry and the temporal component by the piston motion. We present results for three divergent channel geometries. The piston motion consists of three phases: constant acceleration from start, contant velocity, and constant deceleration to stop. Depending on the geometry and piston motion we observe different types of unsteady separation and vortex formation.

  11. Circuit effects on pierce instabilities, and double-layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-11-01

    The role of the Pierce instability in the formation of double layers is considered and compared with that of the Buneman instability. Pierce instabilities have been identified in a double-layer experiment, where they lead to ion trapping. Here the effects of external circuit elements are considered. In the case of immobile ions the onset criteria are unaffected, but in the unstable range the growth rate is reduced by the external impedance. Required experimental values of the circuit elements are estimated. The possible relevance to computer simulations is noted. (Authors)

  12. Peculiar features in formation of diffusion layer properties during nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Konoval'tsev, V.I.; Nikitin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities of the formation of multiphase nitridated layer at samples of commercial iron, 20, 40Kh and 38KhMYu6A steels are studied with the help of high-temperature methods of investigation (X-ray diffraction analysis, hardening and thickness measuring). It is found out that during the saturation the solid solution oversaturated with nitrogen is formed; some increase in hardness in the process is a result of solid solution hardening and the increase of thickness of nitride zone; however the main growth of the layer hardness is achieved during the cooling as a result of α phase precipitating hardening

  13. New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.

  14. Insulator layer formation in MgB2 SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakage, H.; Tsujimoto, K.; Wang, Z.; Tonouchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of current-voltage characteristics on thin film deposition conditions was investigated using MgB 2 /AlN/NbN SIS junctions. By increasing the substrate temperature in AlN insulator deposition, the current density decreased and the normal resistance increased. The results indicated that an additional insulator layer between the MgB 2 and AlN formed, either before or during the AlN deposition. The thickness of the additional insulator layer was increased with an increase in the AlN deposition temperature. From the dependence of current density on the thickness of AlN in low temperature depositions, the thickness of the additional insulator layer was estimated to be 1-1.5 nm when the AlN insulator was deposited from 0.14 to 0.7 nm. Moreover, with the current density of MgB 2 /AlN/MgB 2 SIS junctions, further insulator layer formation was confirmed

  15. Formation of calcium phosphate layer on ceramics with different reactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, C.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Sepulveda, P.; Bressiani, J.C.; Bressiani, A.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Biphasic ceramic samples of different biological reactivity are prepared by using hydroxyapatite (HAp) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in various ratios. Different parameters for sintering in an air atmosphere furnace were defined after dilatometric studies. An increased densification with decreased TCP content was observed. The sintered bodies were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution kinetics and in vitro reactivity were investigated using simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C for a maximum period of 3 weeks. The surfaces of the ceramics were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SEM in order to observe the formation of a calcium phosphate layer, which indicates the samples bioactivity. Dissolution in SBF demonstrated that layers with different kinetics on the samples surface were formed during the immersion period. The biphasic ceramics show bioactive behavior, even if the resorbable TCP is incorporated

  16. Experimental Investigation of White Layer formation in Hard Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, D.; Rotella, G.; Crea, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hard turning with super hard cutting tools, like PCBN or Ceramics inserts, represents an interesting advance in the manufacturing industry, regarding the finishing of hardened steels. This innovative machining technique is considered an attractive alternative to traditional finish grinding operations because of the high flexibility, the ability to achieve higher metal removal rates, the possibility to operate without the use of coolants, and the capability to achieve comparable workpiece quality. However, the surface integrity effects of hard machining need to be taken into account due to their influence on the life of machined components. In particular, the formation of a usually undesirable white layer at the surface needs further investigation. Three different mechanisms have been proposed as main responsible of the white layer genesis: (i) microstructural phase transformation due to a rapid heating and quenching, (ii) severe plastic deformation resulting in a homogenous structure and/or a very fine grain size microstructure; (iii) surface reaction with the environment. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out and several experimental techniques were used in order to analyzed the machined surface and to understand which of the above mentioned theories is the main cause of the white layer formation when AISI 52100 hardened steel is machined by PCBN inserts. In particular, the topography characterization has obtained by means of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while microstructural phase composition and chemical characterization have been respectively detected using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results prove that the white layer is the result of microstructural alteration, i.e. the generation of a martensitic structure.

  17. Reversibility of temperature driven discrete layer-by-layer formation of dioctyl-benzothieno-benzothiophene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohr, M; Ehmann, H M A; Jones, A O F; Salzmann, I; Shen, Q; Teichert, C; Ruzié, C; Schweicher, G; Geerts, Y H; Resel, R; Sferrazza, M; Werzer, O

    2017-03-22

    Film forming properties of semiconducting organic molecules comprising alkyl-chains combined with an aromatic unit have a decisive impact on possible applications in organic electronics. In particular, knowledge on the film formation process in terms of wetting or dewetting, and the precise control of these processes, is of high importance. In the present work, the subtle effect of temperature on the morphology and structure of dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) films deposited on silica surfaces by spin coating is investigated in situ via X-ray diffraction techniques and atomic force microscopy. Depending on temperature, bulk C8-BTBT exhibits a crystalline, a smectic A and an isotropic phase. Heating of thin C8-BTBT layers at temperatures below the smectic phase transition temperature leads to a strong dewetting of the films. Upon approaching the smectic phase transition, the molecules start to rewet the surface in the form of discrete monolayers with a defined number of monolayers being present at a given temperature. The wetting process and layer formation is well defined and thermally stable at a given temperature. On cooling the reverse effect is observed and dewetting occurs. This demonstrates the full reversibility of the film formation behavior and reveals that the layering process is defined by an equilibrium thermodynamic state, rather than by kinetic effects.

  18. Domain Wall Formation in Ferromagnetic Layers: An Ab Initio Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herper, Heike C.

    Domain walls are an inherent feature of ferromagnetic (FM) films consisting of layers with different magnetic orientations. Since FM films are used in electrical devices the question of the influence of domain walls on, e.g., the magnetoresistance has attracted much interest. Besides discussing the resistance contribution of domain walls, it is appropriate to study different types of domain walls and their energy of formation. The behaviour of domain walls is usually discussed within model calculations. In the present paper it is done within an ab initio Green's function technique for layered systems, i.e., the fully relativistic, spin-polarized screened Korringa-Kohn Rostoker method. Results are presented for fcc Co layers covered by two semi-infinite fcc Pt(001) bulk systems or by bulk fcc Co(001), respectively. The resistance, which is caused by the different types of domain walls is discussed within a Kubo-Greenwood approach considering Co(001)/Co24/Co(001) as an example.

  19. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained-Layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    potential; bulk materials; total energy calculations; entropy; strained- layer superlattice (SLS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0217 FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES (POSTPRINT) Zhi-Gang Yu...2016 Interim 11 September 2013 – 5 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES

  20. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafouresse, M.C., E-mail: mlafouresse@gmail.co [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Fukunaka, Y. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, Shinjuku Ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); ISS Science Project Office, JAXA, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Schwarzacher, W. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. {yields} The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. {yields} Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. {yields} Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. {yields} No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  1. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafouresse, M.C.; Fukunaka, Y.; Matsuoka, T.; Schwarzacher, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. → The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. → Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. → Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. → No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  2. THE FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SUSTAINABLE LAYERED FILMS INCORPORATING MICROFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE (MFC)

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Rodionova,; Solenne Roudot; , Øyvind Eriksen,; Ferdinand Männle,; Øyvind Gregersen

    2012-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), TEMPO-pretreated MFC, and hybrid polymer/MFC mix were used for the production of layered films with interesting properties for application in food packaging. The series of samples were prepared from MFC (base layers) using a dispersion-casting method. The same procedure as well as a bar coating technique was applied to form top layers of different basis weights. The barrier properties and formation of the layered films were investigated in relationship to the...

  3. Visualization and characterization of interfacial polymerization layer formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yali; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a microfluidic platform to visualize the formation of free-standing films by interfacial polymerization. A microfluidic device is fabricated, with an array of micropillars to stabilize an aqueous–organic interface that allows a direct observation of the films formation process via optical

  4. Electrophoretic formation of semiconductor layers with adjustable band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindrov, Alexander; Yuvchenko, Sergey; Vikulova, Maria; Tretyachenko, Elena; Zimnyakov, Dmitry; Gorokhovsky, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ceramic layers of the potassium polytitanates modified by transition metal salts were electrophoretically deposited onto the surface of glassy substrate coated with indium-tin oxide. The deposition allows obtaining a dense ceramic layer formed by composite agglomerates consisting of nanoscale particles with average size of 130-190 nm. The optical absorption spectra of the coatings modified in the mixtures of aqueous solutions of different transition metal salts were investigated. It was recognized that a bandgap value of these composites can be adjusted in a range from 1.4 to 2.3 eV depending the chemical composition of layered double hydroxide obtained during modification. This might be very promising for optoelectronic applications of such coatings due to an explicit control of optical properties.

  5. Nanoparticle layer deposition for highly controlled multilayer formation based on high-coverage monolayers of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yue; Williams, Mackenzie G.; Miller, Timothy J.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a strategy for chemical deposition of functionalized nanoparticles onto solid substrates in a layer-by-layer process based on self-limiting surface chemical reactions leading to complete monolayer formation within the multilayer system without any additional intermediate layers — nanoparticle layer deposition (NPLD). This approach is fundamentally different from previously established traditional layer-by-layer deposition techniques and is conceptually more similar to well-known atomic and molecular layer deposition processes. The NPLD approach uses efficient chemical functionalization of the solid substrate material and complementary functionalization of nanoparticles to produce a nearly 100% coverage of these nanoparticles with the use of “click chemistry”. Following this initial deposition, a second complete monolayer of nanoparticles is deposited using a copper-catalyzed “click reaction” with the azide-terminated silica nanoparticles of a different size. This layer-by-layer growth is demonstrated to produce stable covalently-bound multilayers of nearly perfect structure over macroscopic solid substrates. The formation of stable covalent bonds is confirmed spectroscopically and the stability of the multilayers produced is tested by sonication in a variety of common solvents. The 1-, 2- and 3-layer structures are interrogated by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy and the thickness of the multilayers formed is fully consistent with that expected for highly efficient monolayer formation with each cycle of growth. This approach can be extended to include a variety of materials deposited in a predesigned sequence on different substrates with a highly conformal filling. - Highlights: • We investigate the formation of high-coverage monolayers of nanoparticles. • We use “click chemistry” to form these monolayers. • We form multiple layers based on the same strategy. • We confirm the formation of covalent bonds

  6. Formation of an ascorbate-apatite composite layer on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Atsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, Central 6, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Sogo, Yu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, Central 6, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Ebihara, Yuko [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Onoguchi, Masahiro [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Oyane, Ayako [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nanotechnology Research Institute, Central 4, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Ichinose, Noboru [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    An ascorbate-apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 {sup 0}C for 48 h. The supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions used have chemical compositions attainable by mixing infusion fluids officially approved for clinical use. The amount of immobilized L-ascorbic acid phosphate ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 {mu}g mm{sup -2}, which is most likely to be sufficient for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium. Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate-apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute.

  7. Formation of an ascorbate-apatite composite layer on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Ebihara, Yuko; Onoguchi, Masahiro; Oyane, Ayako; Ichinose, Noboru

    2007-01-01

    An ascorbate-apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 0 C for 48 h. The supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions used have chemical compositions attainable by mixing infusion fluids officially approved for clinical use. The amount of immobilized L-ascorbic acid phosphate ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 μg mm -2 , which is most likely to be sufficient for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium. Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate-apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute

  8. On the mechanism of Venusian atmosphere cloud layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhulanov, Yu.V.; Mukhin, L.M.; Nenarokov, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Results of investigations into the aerosol component of Venusian atmosphere using a photoelectric counter in the 63-47 km range of heights at the Vega-1 and Vega-2 interplanetary stations are presented. The experiment was carried out in June, 11, 15, 1985 on the night-time side of the planet. Both devices were switched in at the height of 63 km, and data on the quantity of detected particles >=0.5 μm in diameter were transmitted every 0.43 s (that corresponds to 8-20 m spatial resolution). Study of particle concentration profiles obtained at the interval of 4 days (one period of rotation of Venusian atmosphere) permits to make the following conclusions on the structure of Venusian atmosphere cloud layer on the night side: 1) the cloud layer includes two distinct cloud strata: the upper- 56-60 km height range and the lower- 49.5-46.5 km height range separated by the zone of low particle concentrations ( -3 ); 2) the mentioned structure of the cloud layer is rather stable; concentration profiles obtained at the interval of 4 days well agree with each other; 3) concentration profiles, particularly, in the lower cloud-stratum are subjected to heavy fluctuations, that indicates essential spatial field heterogeneity of particle concentrations

  9. Formation mechanism of the protective layer in a blast furnace hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Xu, Meng; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A variety of techniques, such as chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were applied to characterize the adhesion protective layer formed below the blast furnace taphole level when a certain amount of titanium- bearing burden was used. Samples of the protective layer were extracted to identify the chemical composition, phase assemblage, and distribution. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of the protective layer was determined after clarifying the source of each component. Finally, a technical strategy was proposed for achieving a stable protective layer in the hearth. The results show that the protective layer mainly exists in a bilayer form in the sidewall, namely, a titanium-bearing layer and a graphite layer. Both the layers contain the slag phase whose major crystalline phase is magnesium melilite (Ca2MgSi2O7) and the main source of the slag phase is coke ash. It is clearly determined that solid particles such as graphite, Ti(C,N) and MgAl2O4 play an important role in the formation of the protective layer, and the key factor for promoting the formation of a stable protective layer is reasonable control of the evolution behavior of coke.

  10. Further insight into the mechanism of hydrocarbon layer formation below the divertor of ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M; Rohde, V

    2006-01-01

    The surface loss probability of hydrocarbon radicals was measured below the roof baffle of the ASDEX Upgrade divertor using the cavity technique. Hydrocarbon layers are mainly formed by sticking of hydrocarbon radicals with high surface loss probabilities of about 0.2 and close to unity. In addition to sticking, re-erosion by atomic hydrogen plays an important role in layer formation. The temperature dependence of layer formation was measured with heated and cooled long term samples from 77 to 475 K. The layer growth rate is larger by a factor of about 40 at 77 K compared with room temperature, while it is lower by a factor of about 70 at 475 K than at room temperature due to enhanced re-erosion. Implications of the results for predictions of tritium retention in future fusion devices and hydrocarbon layer formation on mirror surfaces are discussed

  11. MHD flow layer formation at boundaries of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiaqi Dong; Yongxing Long; Zongze Mou; Jinhua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Non-linear development of double tearing modes induced by electron viscosity is numerically simulated. MHD flow layers are demonstrated to merge in the development of the modes. The sheared flows are shown to lie just at the boundaries of the magnetic islands, and to have sufficient levels required for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation. Possible correlation between the layer formation and triggering of experimentally observed ITBs, preferentially formed in proximities of rational flux surfaces of low safety factors, is discussed. (author)

  12. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.

    2011-01-01

    the atmospheric boundary layer during nucleation event days shows a highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated the suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing the most important characteristics of particle dynamics...... within the boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles...

  13. Studies of phase formation in CoSi2 buried layers fabricated using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaev, A.A.; Parkhomenko, Yu.N.; Podgornyi, D.A.; Shcherbachev, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    The processes of the formation of cobalt disilicide buried layers in silicon are studied under different conditions of implantation with Co. In particular, the effects of the implantation dose and the postimplantation annealing temperature on the state of the Co-implanted layer are considered. Two types of heteroepitaxial Si/CoSi 2 /Si structures are obtained with the conducting layers of thicknesses 70 and 90 nm buried at the depths 80 and 10 nm, respectively

  14. Formation of Degenerate Band Gaps in Layered Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Vinogradov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the review, peculiarities of spectra of one-dimensional photonic crystals made of anisotropic and/or magnetooptic materials are considered. The attention is focused on band gaps of a special type—the so called degenerate band gaps which are degenerate with respect to polarization. Mechanisms of formation and properties of these band gaps are analyzed. Peculiarities of spectra of photonic crystals that arise due to the linkage between band gaps are discussed. Particularly, it is shown that formation of a frozen mode is caused by linkage between Brillouin and degenerate band gaps. Also, existence of the optical Borrmann effect at the boundaries of degenerate band gaps and optical Tamm states at the frequencies of degenerate band gaps are analyzed.

  15. Formation of carbon containing layers on tungsten test limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, M.; Philipps, V.; Huber, A.; Tanabe, T.

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten test limiters of mushroom shape and a plasma facing area of approximately 100 cm 2 were exposed at the TEXTOR-94 tokamak to a number of deuterium fuelled discharges performed under various operation conditions. Two types of limiters were tested: a sole tungsten limiter and a twin limiter consisting of two halves, one made of tungsten and another of graphite. The exposed surfaces were examined with ion beam analysis methods and laser profilometry. The formation of some deposition zones was observed near the edges of the limiters. The deuterium-to-carbon concentration ratio was in the range from 0.04 to 0.11 and around 0.2 for the sole tungsten and the twin limiter, respectively. Significant amounts of the co-deposited tungsten and silicon atoms were found on the graphite part of the twin limiter indicating the formation of mixed W-C-Si compounds. (orig.)

  16. On contribution of horizontal and intra-layer convection to the formation of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chubarenko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cascades down the coastal slopes and intra-layer convection are considered as the two additional mechanisms contributing to the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer (CIL formation along with conventional seasonal vertical mixing. Field measurements are presented, reporting for the first time the possibility of denser water formation and cascading from the Baltic Sea underwater slopes, which take place under fall and winter cooling conditions and deliver waters into intermediate layer of salinity stratified deep-sea area. The presence in spring within the CIL of water with temperature below that of maximum density (Tmd and that at the local surface in winter time allows tracing its formation: it is argued that the source of the coldest waters of the Baltic CIL is early spring (March–April cascading, arising due to heating of water before reaching the Tmd. Fast increase of the open water heat content during further spring heating indicates that horizontal exchange rather than direct solar heating is responsible for that. When the surface is covered with water, heated above the Tmd, the conditions within the CIL become favorable for intralayer convection due to the presence of waters of Tmd in intermediate layer, which can explain its well-known features – the observed increase of its salinity and deepening with time.

  17. Abscission Layer Formation as a Resistance Response of Peruvian Apple Cactus Against Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang-Hyung

    2002-09-01

    ABSTRACT Stem disks from 2-year-old cacti Cereus tetragonus (susceptible) and C. peruvianus (resistant) were inoculated in the center (pith) with Glomerella cingulata isolated from Colletotrichum stem rot in three-angled cacti. The susceptible cactus became extensively colonized, whereas colonization was limited to a small area in the resistant cactus. The resistant cactus formed prominent abscission layers (ALs) in parenchyma internal to the inoculation site. Ethanol extracts of the fungal culture also stimulated AL formation in the resistant cactus. Initial cell division followed at 2 to 4 days after treatment, and layering of multiple cells at 7 days after treatment. After 10 days, the outer layers were sometimes sloughed from the inner layers. No AL formation was induced in susceptible C. tetragonus treated with ethanol extract or in untreated control cacti. Light and electron microscopy revealed that initial cell division occurred by cell wall formation, and that an additional cell wall was layered in pre-existing parenchyma cells without ordinary cell division. Later, separation layers formed in ALs where inner cell walls appeared to be thickened secondarily, and the cell walls and middle lamella within the layer dissolved. These results suggest that AL formation in the resistant cactus is induced by fungal metabolites, and that it serves as a histological barrier against anthracnose pathogens.

  18. The effect of inducing uniform Cu growth on formation of electroless Cu seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Taeho; Kim, Myung Jun; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kwang Hwan; Choe, Seunghoe; Lee, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The uniformity of Cu growth on Pd nanocatalysts was controlled by using organic additives in the formation of electroless Cu seed layers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw. 8000) not only reduced the deposition rate but also improved the uniformity of Cu growth on each Pd nanocatalyst during the seed layer formation. The stronger suppression effect of PEG on Cu than on Pd reduced the difference in the deposition rate between the two surfaces, resulting in the uniform deposition. Meanwhile, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide degraded the uniformity by strong and nonselective suppression. The sheet resistance measurement and atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that the uniform Cu growth by PEG was more advantageous for the formation of a thin and smooth Cu seed layer than the non-uniform growth. The uniform Cu growth also had a positive influence on the subsequent Cu electrodeposition: the 60-nm-thick electrodeposited Cu film on the Cu seed layer showed low resistivity (2.70 μΩ·cm), low surface roughness (6.98 nm), and good adhesion strength. - Highlights: • Uniform Cu growth on Pd was achieved in formation of electroless Cu seed layer. • PEG addition to electroless bath improved the uniformity of Cu growth on Pd. • A thin, smooth and continuous Cu seed layer was obtained with PEG. • Adhesion strength of the Cu seed layer was also improved with PEG. • The uniformity improvement positively affected subsequent Cu electrodeposition

  19. Water Transfer Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Formation Processes in Layered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Deng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrate formation processes in porous media are always accompanied by water transfer. To study the transfer characteristics comprehensively, two kinds of layered media consisting of coarse sand and loess were used to form methane hydrate in them. An apparatus with three PF-meter sensors detecting water content and temperature changes in media during the formation processes was applied to study the water transfer characteristics. It was experimentally observed that the hydrate formation configurations in different layered media were similar; however, the water transfer characteristics and water conversion ratios were different.

  20. Lithium implantation at low temperature in silicon for sharp buried amorphous layer formation and defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviero, E.; David, M. L.; Beaufort, M. F.; Barbot, J. F.; Fichtner, P. F. P.

    2013-01-01

    The crystalline-to-amorphous transformation induced by lithium ion implantation at low temperature has been investigated. The resulting damage structure and its thermal evolution have been studied by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy channelling (RBS/C) and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Lithium low-fluence implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature is shown to produce a three layers structure: an amorphous layer surrounded by two highly damaged layers. A thermal treatment at 400 °C leads to the formation of a sharp amorphous/crystalline interfacial transition and defect annihilation of the front heavily damaged layer. After 600 °C annealing, complete recrystallization takes place and no extended defects are left. Anomalous recrystallization rate is observed with different motion velocities of the a/c interfaces and is ascribed to lithium acting as a surfactant. Moreover, the sharp buried amorphous layer is shown to be an efficient sink for interstitials impeding interstitial supersaturation and {311} defect formation in case of subsequent neon implantation. This study shows that lithium implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature can be suitable to form a sharp buried amorphous layer with a well-defined crystalline front layer, thus having potential applications for defects engineering in the improvement of post-implantation layers quality and for shallow junction formation.

  1. Modeling the influence of interaction layer formation on thermal conductivity of U–Mo dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Huber, Tanja K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hsu equation provides best thermal conductivity estimate of U–Mo dispersion fuel. • Simple model considering interaction layer formation was coupled with Hsu equation. • Interaction layer thermal conductivity is not the most important attribute. • Effective thermal conductivity is mostly influenced by interaction layer formation. • Fuel particle distribution also influences the effective thermal conductivity. - Abstract: The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program continues to develop existing and new test reactor fuels to achieve the maximum attainable uranium loadings to support the conversion of a number of the world’s remaining high-enriched uranium fueled reactors to low-enriched uranium fuel. Currently, the program is focused on assisting with the development and qualification of a fuel design that consists of a uranium–molybdenum (U–Mo) alloy dispersed in an aluminum matrix. Thermal conductivity is an important consideration in determining the operational temperature of the fuel and can be influenced by interaction layer formation between the dispersed phase and matrix, porosity that forms during fabrication of the fuel plates or rods, and upon the concentration of the dispersed phase within the matrix. This paper develops and validates a simple model to study the influence of interaction layer formation, dispersed particle size, and volume fraction of dispersed phase in the matrix on the effective conductivity of the composite. The model shows excellent agreement with results previously presented in the literature. In particular, the thermal conductivity of the interaction layer does not appear to be as important in determining the effective conductivity of the composite, while formation of the interaction layer and subsequent consumption of the matrix reveals a rather significant effect. The effective thermal conductivity of the composite can be influenced by the dispersed particle distribution by minimizing interaction

  2. New-particle formation events in a continental boundary layer: first results from the SATURN experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stratmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.

  3. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Osmotically driven membrane processes have the potential to treat impaired water sources, desalinate sea/brackish waters, and sustainably produce energy. The development of a membrane tailored for these processes is essential to advance the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation. By systematically varying the conditions used during the casting of the polysulfone layer, an array of support layers with differing structures was produced. The role that solvent quality, dope polymer concentration, fabric layer wetting, and casting blade gate height play in the support layer structure formation was investigated. Using a 1M NaCl draw solution and a deionized water feed, water fluxes ranging from 4 to 25Lm-2h-1 with consistently high salt rejection (>95.5%) were produced. The relationship between membrane structure and performance was analyzed. This study confirms the hypothesis that the optimal forward osmosis membrane consists of a mixed-structure support layer, where a thin sponge-like layer sits on top of highly porous macrovoids. Both the active layer transport properties and the support layer structural characteristics need to be optimized in order to fabricate a high performance forward osmosis membrane. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Discrete element simulation of charging and mixed layer formation in the ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Saxén, Henrik

    2016-11-01

    The burden distribution in the ironmaking blast furnace plays an important role for the operation as it affects the gas flow distribution, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions in the shaft. This work studies certain aspects of burden distribution by small-scale experiments and numerical simulation by the discrete element method (DEM). Particular attention is focused on the complex layer-formation process and the problems associated with estimating the burden layer distribution by burden profile measurements. The formation of mixed layers is studied, and a computational method for estimating the extent of the mixed layer, as well as its voidage, is proposed and applied on the results of the DEM simulations. In studying a charging program and its resulting burden distribution, the mixed layers of coke and pellets were found to show lower voidage than the individual burden layers. The dynamic evolution of the mixed layer during the charging process is also analyzed. The results of the study can be used to gain deeper insight into the complex charging process of the blast furnace, which is useful in the design of new charging programs and for mathematical models that do not consider the full behavior of the particles in the burden layers.

  5. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  6. Formation of anodic layers on InAs (111)III. Study of the chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valisheva, N. A., E-mail: valisheva@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Tereshchenko, O. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Prosvirin, I. P.; Kalinkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Goljashov, V. A. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Levtzova, T. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Bukhtiyarov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15

    The chemical composition of {approx}20-nm-thick anodic layers grown on InAs (111)III in alkaline and acid electrolytes containing or not containing NH{sub 4}F is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is shown that the composition of fluorinated layers is controlled by the relation between the concentrations of fluorine and hydroxide ions in the electrolyte and by diffusion processes in the growing layer. Fluorine accumulates at the (anodic layer)/InAs interface. Oxidation of InAs in an acid electrolyte with a low oxygen content and a high NH{sub 4}F content brings about the formation of anodic layers with a high content of fluorine and elemental arsenic and the formation of an oxygen-free InF{sub x}/InAs interface. Fluorinated layers grown in an alkaline electrolyte with a high content of O{sup 2-} and/or OH{sup -} groups contain approximately three times less fluorine and consist of indium and arsenic oxyfluorides. No distinction between the compositions of the layers grown in both types of fluorine-free electrolytes is established.

  7. Stochastic layers of magnetic field lines and formation of ITB in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, E.D.; Bererzhnyi, V.L.; Bondarenko, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    The results of local measurements of RF discharge plasma parameters in the process of ITB formation in the vicinity of rational magnetic surfaces in the Uragan-3M torsatron are presented. The next phenomena were observed in the process of ITB formation: the widening of the radial density distribution, the formation of pedestals on radial density and electron temperature distributions, the formation of regions with high shear of poloidal plasma rotation velocity and radial electric field in the vicinity of stochastic layers of magnetic field lines, the decrease of density fluctuations and their radial correlation length, the decorrelation of density fluctuations, the increase of the bootstrap current. After the ITB formation, the transition to the improved plasma confinement regime takes place. The transition moves to the beginning of the discharge with the increase of heating power. The possible mechanism of ITB formation near rational surfaces is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Formation mechanism of the graphite-rich protective layer in blast furnace hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Feng; Liang, Li-sheng

    2016-01-01

    A long campaign life of blast furnaces is heavily linked to the existence of a protective layer in their hearths. In this work, we conducted dissection studies and investigated damage in blast furnace hearths to estimate the formation mechanism of the protective layer. The results illustrate that a significant amount of graphite phase was trapped within the hearth protective layer. Furthermore, on the basis of the thermodynamic and kinetic calculations of the graphite precipitation process, a precipitation potential index related to the formation of the graphite-rich protective layer was proposed to characterize the formation ability of this layer. We determined that, under normal operating conditions, the precipitation of graphite phase from hot metal was thermodynamically possible. Among elements that exist in hot metal, C, Si, and P favor graphite precipitation, whereas Mn and Cr inhibit this process. Moreover, at the same hot-face temperature, an increase of carbon concentration in hot metal can shorten the precipitation time. Finally, the results suggest that measures such as reducing the hot-face temperature and increasing the degree of carbon saturation in hot metal are critically important to improve the precipitation potential index.

  9. Mechanism for the formation of sporadic-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, M.N.; Mishin, E.V.; Telegin, V.A.

    1980-09-01

    A model of the collective interaction of precipitating electrons and the ionospheric plasma is used to explain the formation of short-duration sporadic-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere. The changes produced in electron density by this collective interaction mechanism are considered.

  10. Does electrical double layer formation lead to salt exclusion or to uptake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    When electric double layers are formed, cases have been reported where this formation nvolves expulsion of electrolyte into the solution and cases in which electrolyte is absorbed from the solution. Both situations are experimentally and theoretically documented, but they cannot be simultaneously

  11. Evidence of the layer structure formation of chitosan microtubes by the Liesegang ring mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicheva, T. S.; Gegel, N. O.; Shipovskaya, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    In the work, an experiment was performed to simulate the process of chitosan microtube formation through the interphase polysalt -> polybase chemical reaction, on the one hand, and the formation of spatially separated structures under the conditions of reactive diffusion of one of the components, on the other hand. The formation of alternating dark and light bands or concentric rings of the chitosan polybase as a result of the polymer-analogous transformation is visualized by optical microscopy. The results obtained confirm our assumption that the layered structure of our chitosan microtubes is formed according to the Liesegang reaction mechanism.

  12. Hydrogen blister formation on cold-worked tungsten with layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Dai; Sugimoto, Takanori; Takamura, Shuichi; Ye, Minyou; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2005-01-01

    Low-energy ( 10 21 m -2 s -1 ) hydrogen plasma exposures were performed on cold-worked powder metallurgy tungsten (PM-W), recrystallized cold-worked PM-W and hot-worked PM-W. Large blisters with a diameter of approximately 100-200 μm were observed only on the surface of cold-worked PM-W. The blister formation mechanism has not been clarified thus far. PM-W has a consisting of 1-μm-thick layers, which is formed by press-roll processing. A detailed observation of the cross section of those blisters shows for the first time that the blisters are formed by cleaving the upper layer along the stratified layer. These experimental results indicate that the manufacturing process of tungsten material is one of the key factors for blister formation on the tungsten surface. (author)

  13. Radiation damage and redeposited-layer formation on plasma facing materials in the TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Yoshida, Naoaki; Itoh, Satoshi

    1997-01-01

    As an aim to obtain some informations of material damage at long time discharge and redeposited-layer formed by scrape off layer (SOL), two collector probe experiments were conducted by using Tokamak of Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (TRIAM-IM). As a result, radiation damage due to charge exchange neutral particles of more than 2 MeV high energy component flying from plasma was observed. And in either experiment, redeposited-layer formation due to deposite of impurity atoms in the plasma could be observed. In the first experiment, a redeposited-layer with fine crystalline particles was observed, which was formed to contain multi-component system of Fe, Cr and Ni and light elements O and C. And, in the second experiment, a redeposited-layer grain-grown in which main component was Mo was observed. Surface modification of plasma facing material such as above-mentioned damage induction, redeposited-layer formation, and so on, was thought to much affect deterioration of materials and recycling of hydrogen. (G.K.)

  14. The formation of multiple layers of ice particles in the polar summer mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional theoretical model to study the formation process of multiple layers of small ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere as measured by rockets and associated with polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE. The proposed mechanism primarily takes into account the transport processes induced by gravity waves through collision coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ice particles. Numerical solutions of the model indicate that the dynamic influence of wind variation induced by gravity waves can make a significant contribution to the vertical and horizontal transport of ice particles and ultimately transform them into thin multiple layers. Additionally, the pattern of the multiple layers at least partially depends on the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave, the ice particle size and the wind velocity. The results presented in this paper will be helpful to better understand the occurrence of multiple layers of PMSE as well as its variation process.

  15. Formation and Characterization of Stacked Nanoscale Layers of Polymers and Silanes on Silicon Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosie; Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Complete and consistent formation of nanoscale layers of silanes and polymers is a necessary first step for chemical patterning. We explored methods of silanizing silicon substrates for the purpose of functionalizing the surfaces. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was characterized by use of ellipsometry, water contact angle, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We found that forming the highest quality functionalized surfaces was accomplished through use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Specifically, surfaces were plasma cleaned and hydrolyzed before the silane was applied. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was also characterized for the polymer layer using ellipsometry, water contact angle, and AFM.

  16. Formation of CuxS Layers on Polypropylene Sulfurized by Molten Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa ALABURDAITĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of formation of electrically conductive layers of copper sulfides CuxS by the sorption-diffusion method on polypropylene (PP using molten sulfur as sulfurizing agent was investigated. The amount of sorbed sulfur increased with the increase of the duration of treatment. Copper sulfide layers were formed on the surface of polypropylene after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Cu(II/I salt solution. The amount of copper sulfide in layer increased with the increase of treatment duration in copper salt solution. XRD spectra of PP films treated for 3 min with molten sulfur and then with Cu(II/I salt solution for the different time showed that the copper sulfide phases, mostly digenite, Cu2-xS and a-chalcocite, Cu2S were formed in the layers. Electromotive force measurement results confirmed the composition of formed CuxS layers on PP. The phase composition of layers also changed after the annealing. The value of electrical resistance of copper sulfide layers on PP varied from 20 W/cm2 to 80 W/cm2 and after annealing at 80 °C - in the interval of 10 W/cm2 - 60 W/cm2.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.776

  17. Toward an understanding of surface layer formation, growth, and transformation at the glass-fluid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, J.; Eskelsen, J. R.; Chiu, M.; Ievlev, A. V.; Ovchinnikova, O. S.; Leonard, D.; Pierce, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Silicate glass is a metastable and durable solid that has application to a number of energy and environmental challenges (e.g., microelectronics, fiber optics, and nuclear waste storage). If allowed to react with water over time silicate glass develops an altered layer at the solid-fluid interface. In this study, we used borosilicate glass (LAWB45) as a model material to develop a robust understanding of altered layer formation (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products). Experiments were conducted at high surface area-to-volume ratio (∼200,000 m-1) and 90 °C in the pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) apparatus for 1.5-years to facilitate the formation of thick altered layers and allow for the effluent solution chemistry to be monitored continuously. A variety of microscopy techniques were used to characterize reacted grains and suggest the average altered layer thickness is 13.2 ± 8.3 μm with the hydrated and clay layer representing 74.8% and 25.2% of the total altered layer, respectively. The estimate of hydrated layer thickness is within the experimental error of the value estimated from the B release rate data (∼10 ± 1 μm/yr) over the 1.5-year duration. PeakForce® quantitative nanomechanical mapping results suggest the hydrated layer has a modulus that ranges between ∼20 and 40 GPa, which is in the range of porous silica that contains from ∼20 to ∼50% porosity, yet significantly lower than dense silica (∼70-80 GPa). Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images confirm the presence of pores and an analysis of a higher resolution image provides a qualitative estimate of ≥22% porosity in the hydrated layer with variations in void volume with increasing distance from the unaltered glass. Chemical composition analyses, based on a combination of time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and STEM-EDS, clearly show

  18. Electron spectroscopy of the interface carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the layered semiconductor In4Se3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiy, P.V.; Musyanovych, A.V.; Nenchuk, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of the interface carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the layered semiconductor In 4 Se 3 crystals are presented. The carbon coating formation occurs as the result of interaction of the air and residual gases atmosphere in ultra high vacuum (UHV) Auger spectrometer chamber with atomic clean interlayer cleavage surfaces of the crystals. The kinetics and peculiarities of interfacial carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the crystals, elemental and phase composition of the interface have been studied by quantitative XPS, AES and mass-spectroscopy

  19. Formation of Lamellar Structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthening Layers in Zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Dong-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Yang, Jae-Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yoon-Soo [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is one of the leading organizations for developing ATF claddings. One concept is to form an oxidation-resistant layer on Zr cladding surface. The other is to increase high-temperature mechanical strength of Zr tube. The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) zirconium was proposed to increase the strength of the Zr-based alloy up to high temperatures. According to our previous investigations, the tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 was increased by up to 20% with the formation of a thin dispersed oxide layer with a thickness less than 10% of that of the Zircaloy-4 substrate. However, the tensile elongation of the samples decreased drastically. The brittle fracture was a major concern in development of the ODS Zircaloy-4. In this study, a lamellar structure of ODS layer was formed to increase ductility of the ODS Zircaloy-4. The mechanical properties were varied depending on the structure of ODS layer. For example, the partial formation of ODS layer with the thickness of 10% to the substrate thickness induced the increase in tensile strength up to about 20% than fresh Zircaloy-4.

  20. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers of broadleaved tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Callusing and root induction in air layering was evaluated aiming at evolution of procedure for mass clonal propagation of mature ortets of five tropical broadleaf species differing in their potential for adventitious root formation in shoot cuttings as: Anogiessus latifolia < Boswellia serrata < Dalbergia latifolia < Gmelina arborea < Dalbergia sissoo. Two experiments were conducted in rainy season during consecutive years; without application of growth regulators in the first year and with growth regulators (T1 - water, T2- 100 ppm indole-3-acetic acid, T3-100 ppm thiamine-HCl and T4 -combination of T2 + T3 in the next year. Air layered branches were detached from the trees to record percentage of alive airlayers, callusing and rooting (% as well as root number and root length. Response to air layering was found to be highly variable in five tree species but appeared to be feasible procedure for clonal propagation of mature ortets of B. serrata and D. sissoo with 100% (in auxin + thiamine treatment and 83.3% (in auxin treatment success, respectively. Maximum callusing (% was found in D. latifolia while no callusing was observed in D. sissoo, which is most easy-to-root among all five species. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers as significant negative correlation of callusing (% and adventitious root formation was recorded in air layers of five tropical broadleaved tree species. Application of exogenous auxin alone or in combination with thiamine circumvents callusing to ensure direct development of roots for successful air layering.

  1. Experimental formation of a fractional vortex in a superconducting bi-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Yamamori, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Nishio, T.; Arisawa, S.

    2018-05-01

    We report the experimental formation of a fractional vortex generated by using a thin superconducting bi-layer in the form of a niobium bi-layer, observed as a magnetic flux distribution image taken by a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope. Thus, we demonstrated that multi-component superconductivity can be realized by an s-wave conventional superconductor, because, in these superconductors, the magnetic flux is no longer quantized as it is destroyed by the existence of an inter-component phase soliton (i-soliton).

  2. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  3. Influence of carbon on the formation of the surface layer in the process of electroerosion alloying of steel with tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, E. V.; Bochkov, V. E.; Mikheev, É. A.; Lyakishev, V. A.; Afanas'eva, T. N.

    1983-10-01

    With an increase in carbon content in the steel being treated, the thickness of the alloyed layer increases and its microhardness also increases. The carbon exerts a deoxidizing action on the layer being formed and promotes a reduction in the threshold of deerosion and also additional strengthening of the layer as the result of the formation of binary η-carbides.

  4. Progress in the production of intense ion beams and the formation of proton layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Marsh, S.J.; Mahaffey, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results on ion sources and the application of ion beams to the formation of proton layers and rings are presented. Ion beams have been produced on three different generators. Some results from the experiments performed on the Gamble 2 generator are presented. The Gamble 2 generator with coaxial anode-cathode configuration, hollow beam cross-section produces power levels of 0.6-1.2 MV with peak ion current of 200 kA. The number of protons in the beam 4x10 16 . Peak ion currents is excess 200 kA, energy 1 MeV, ion current density 1 kA/cm 2 . Magnetic field configuration to provide formation of strong proton layers is shown

  5. Current limitation and formation of plasma double layers in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, R.; Teichmann, J.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    Formation of strong double layers has been observed experimentally in a magnetised plasma column maintained by a plasma source. The magnetic field is approximately axially homogenous except in a region at the anode where the electric current flows into a magnetic mirror. The double layer has a stationary position only in the region of non-uniform magnetic field or at the aperture separating the source and the plasma column. It is characterized by a negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device. The parameter space,where the double layer exists, has been studied as well as the corresponding potential profiles and fluctuation spectra. The electric current and the axial electric field are oppositely directed between the plasma source and a potential minimum which is formed in the region of inhomogeneous magnetic field. Electron reflection by the resulting potential barrier is found to be an important current limitation mechanism. (authors)

  6. Formation of periodic and localized patterns in an oscillating granular layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranson, I.; Tsimring, L. S.; Materials Science Division; Bar Ilan Univ.; Univ. of California at San Diego

    1998-02-01

    A simple phenomenological model for pattern formation in a vertically vibrated layer of granular particles is proposed. This model exhibits a variety of stable cellular patterns including standing rolls and squares as well as localized excitations (oscillons and worms), similar to recent experimental observations (Umbanhowar et al., 1996). The model is an order parameter equation for the parametrically excited waves coupled to the mass conservation law. The structure and dynamics of the solutions resemble closely the properties of patterns observed in the experiments.

  7. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS for Monitoring the Formation of Hydroxyapatite Porous Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is applied to characterize the formation of porous hydroxyapatite layers on the surface of 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO42 biocompatible eutectic glass immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF. Compositional and structural characterization analyses were also conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Monitoring the Formation of Hydroxyapatite Porous Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Sola, Daniel; Paulés, Daniel; Grima, Lorena; Anzano, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to characterize the formation of porous hydroxyapatite layers on the surface of 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 biocompatible eutectic glass immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). Compositional and structural characterization analyses were also conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonka, Lukas; Kubart, Tomas; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Abedin, Ahmad; Hellström, Per-Erik; Östling, Mikael; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Lavoie, Christian; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-03-01

    The authors have studied the reaction between a Ge (100) substrate and thin layers of Ni ranging from 2 to 10 nm in thickness. The formation of metal-rich Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 was found to precede that of the monogermanide NiGe by means of real-time in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp-annealing and ex situ x-ray pole figure analyses for phase identification. The observed sequential growth of Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 and NiGe with such thin Ni layers is different from the previously reported simultaneous growth with thicker Ni layers. The phase transformation from Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 to NiGe was found to be nucleation-controlled for Ni thicknesses <5 nm<5 nm, which is well supported by thermodynamic considerations. Specifically, the temperature for the NiGe formation increased with decreasing Ni (rather Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3) thickness below 5 nm. In combination with sheet resistance measurement and microscopic surface inspection of samples annealed with a standard rapid thermal processing, the temperature range for achieving morphologically stable NiGe layers was identified for this standard annealing process. As expected, it was found to be strongly dependent on the initial Ni thickness

  10. Effect of ablation geometry on the formation of stagnation layer in laterally colliding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Alamgir; Singh, Rajesh K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between two parallel propagating plasma plumes have been investigated in two different ablation schemes e.g. laser-blow-off (LBO) of thin film and conventional laser ablation (LPP). Fast imagine technique is used to study the dynamical and geometrical aspect of seed plasmas and induced stagnation layer in between the two expanding seed plasmas. Interaction between the energetic particles, coming from the seed plasmas are responsible for formation of stagnation layer. It has been found that geometrical shape, size, kinetic energy and divergence of plasma plumes are highly dependent on the ablation geometry. These variations in seed plasmas initiate the significant differences in the stagnation layer formed by LBO and LPP geometry. In this presentation, characteristic feature of stagnation layer which includes density, initiation time, emissive life time and geometry in both LBO and LPP geometry are briefly discussed. A comparative study of present results suggests that the plume composition and directionality of seed plasma play crucial role in mechanistic aspect of stagnation layer. (author)

  11. Ultrathin Co3O4 Layers Realizing Optimized CO2 Electroreduction to Formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Jiao, Xingchen; Sun, Zhongti; Zhang, Wenhua; Sun, Yongfu; Wang, Chengming; Hu, Qitao; Zu, Xiaolong; Yang, Fan; Yang, Shuyang; Liang, Liang; Wu, Ju; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-11

    Electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons could contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming. However, conventional electrocatalysts usually suffer from low energetic efficiency and poor durability. Herein, atomic layers for transition-metal oxides are proposed to address these problems through offering an ultralarge fraction of active sites, high electronic conductivity, and superior structural stability. As a prototype, 1.72 and 3.51 nm thick Co3O4 layers were synthesized through a fast-heating strategy. The atomic thickness endowed Co3O4 with abundant active sites, ensuring a large CO2 adsorption amount. The increased and more dispersed charge density near Fermi level allowed for enhanced electronic conductivity. The 1.72 nm thick Co3O4 layers showed over 1.5 and 20 times higher electrocatalytic activity than 3.51 nm thick Co3O4 layers and bulk counterpart, respectively. Also, 1.72 nm thick Co3O4 layers showed formate Faradaic efficiency of over 60% in 20 h. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. An experimental study of low Re cavity vortex formation embedded in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sashank; Lang, Amy; Wilroy, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    Laminar boundary layer flow across a grooved surface leads to the formation of vortices inside rectangular cavities. The nature and stability of the vortex inside any single cavity is determined by the Re and cavity geometry. According to the hypothesis, under low Re and stable vortex conditions a single cavity vortex leads to a roller-bearing effect which results in a decrease in drag as quantified by velocity profiles measured within the boundary layer. At higher Re once the vortex becomes unstable, drag should increase due to the mixing of low-momentum fluid within the cavity and the outer boundary layer flow. The primary objective of this experiment is to document the phenomenon using DPIV in a tow tank facility. This study focuses on the transition of the cavity flow from a steady to an unsteady state as the Re is increased above a critical value. The change in boundary layer momentum and cavity vortex characteristics are documented as a function of Re and boundary layer thickness. Funding from NSF CBET fluid dynamics Grant 1335848 is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Rain-on-snow and ice layer formation detection using passive microwave radiometry: An arctic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Johnson, C. A.; Brucker, L.; Dolant, C.; Richards, A.; Roy, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the current changes observed in the Arctic, an increase in occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events has been reported in the Arctic (land) over the past few decades. Several studies have established that strong linkages between surface temperatures and passive microwaves do exist, but the contribution of snow properties under winter extreme events such as rain-on-snow events (ROS) and associated ice layer formation need to be better understood that both have a significant impact on ecosystem processes. In particular, ice layer formation is known to affect the survival of ungulates by blocking their access to food. Given the current pronounced warming in northern regions, more frequent ROS can be expected. However, one of the main challenges in the study of ROS in northern regions is the lack of meteorological information and in-situ measurements. The retrieval of ROS occurrence in the Arctic using satellite remote sensing tools thus represents the most viable approach. Here, we present here results from 1) ROS occurrence formation in the Peary caribou habitat using an empirically developed ROS algorithm by our group based on the gradient ratio, 2) ice layer formation across the same area using a semi-empirical detection approach based on the polarization ratio spanning between 1978 and 2013. A detection threshold was adjusted given the platform used (SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E), and initial results suggest high-occurrence years as: 1981-1982, 1992-1993; 1994-1995; 1999-2000; 2001-2002; 2002-2003; 2003-2004; 2006-2007; 2007-2008. A trend in occurrence for Banks Island and NW Victoria Island and linkages to caribou population is presented.

  14. Aging promotes todorokite formation from layered manganese oxide at near-surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Haojie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Key Lab. of Urban Environment and Health; Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Tan, Wenfeng [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Wang, Ming Kuang [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry

    2010-12-15

    Todorokite is one common manganese oxide in soils and sediments and is commonly formed from layered Na-buserite. Aging processes can alter the physicochemical properties of freshly formed Na-buserite in natural environments. However, it is not clear whether and how aging affects the formation of todorokites. In the present paper, Na-buserite with aging treatment was employed to prepare todorokite at atmospheric pressure to investigate the effects of aging treatment of Na-buserite on the formation of todorokite. Four aged Na-buserite samples, which are produced through oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} in concentrated NaOH medium by O{sub 2} with aging for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, were employed to investigate the effects of aging processes on the transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite by Mg{sup 2+}-templating reaction at atmospheric pressure. The manganese oxides were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, determinations of the average manganese oxidation number, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD, IR, and elemental analyses indicate that aging treatment can alter the substructure of the freshly synthesized Na-buserite. During the aging process, some of the Mn(III) may migrate into the interlayer region or disproportionate to form Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} from the layer of Na-buserite and the concomitant formation of layer vacancies. The interlayer Mn{sup 3+} or Mn{sup 2+} occupied above or below the layer vacancy sites and become corner-sharing octahedral. XRD analyses and TEM clearly show that the transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite was promoted by aging treatments. The alterations of substructure of aged Na-buserites can promote the rearrangement of manganese to construct a tunnel structure during the transformation from layered manganese oxides to tunnel-structure todorokite at atmospheric pressure. The transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite was promoted by aging treatments at

  15. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry

  16. Comparison of Polythionates as Precursors for the Formation of Thallium Sulfide Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalijus JANICKIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of obtaining layers of thallium, sulfides, TlxSy, by the sorption-diffusion method on polyamide 6 using solutions of lower polythionates - sodium trithionate and tetrathionate, Na2S3O6, Na2S4O6, potassium pentathionate, K2S5O6, and of dodecathionic acid, H2S12O6, as precursors of sulfur are compared. The concentration of sorbed sulfur increases with increasing the duration of treatment, the concentration and temperature of precursor solution. It rather significantly also depends on the nature - sulfurity of polythionate, i. e. on the number of sulfur atoms in the polythionate anion: effectiveness of sulfurization using solutions of dodecathionic acid is significantly higher than that of lower polythionates. Thallium sulfide layers are formed on the surface of polyamide after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Tl(I salt solution. The concentration of thallium in the layer increases with the increase of initial sulfurization duration and in case of H2S12O6 solution used - on the temperature of this process. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of thallium sulfide layers in the surface of polyamide 6. The phase composition of layer changes depending on the conditions of initial treatment in a H2S12O6 solution. Five thallium sulfide phases, two forms of TlS, Tl2S2, Tl4S3 and Tl2S5 were identified in the composition of the layers treated for different time with a solution of dodecathionic acid at the temperature of 20 °C and 30 °C and then with Tl(I salt solution by X-ray diffraction but the maxima of TlS and Tl2S5 phases predominate in the diffractograms.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.774

  17. Experimental Analysis of Hydraulic Fracture Growth and Acoustic Emission Response in a Layered Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Shicheng, Zhang; Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Shan, Wu; Yinuo, Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Microseismic/acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is an essential technology for understanding hydraulic fracture (HF) geometry and stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) during hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs. To investigate HF growth mechanisms and features of induced microseismic/AE events in a layered formation, laboratory fracturing experiments were performed on shale specimens (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm) with multiple bedding planes (BPs) under triaxial stresses. AE monitoring was used to reveal the spatial distribution and hypocenter mechanisms of AE events induced by rock failure. Computerized tomography scanning was used to observe the internal fracture geometry. Experimental results showed that the various HF geometries could be obviously distinguished based on injection pressure curves and AE responses. Fracture complexity was notably increased when vertically growing HFs connected with and opened more BPs. The formation of a complex fracture network was generally indicated by frequent fluctuations in injection pressure curves, intense AE activity, and three-dimensionally distributed AE events. Investigations of the hypocenter mechanisms revealed that shear failure/event dominated in shale specimens. Shear and tensile events were induced in hydraulically connected regions, and shear events also occurred around BPs that were not hydraulically connected. This led to an overestimation of HF height and SRV in layered formations based on the AE location results. The results also showed that variable injection rate and using plugging agent were conducive in promoting HF to penetrate through the weak and high-permeability BPs, thereby increasing the fracture height.

  18. Formation of high aspect ratio polyamide-6 nanofibers via electrically induced double layer during electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmala, R.; Nam, Ki Taek; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yu-Shik; Navamathavan, R.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the formation of high aspect ratio nanofibers in polyamide-6 was investigated as a function of applied voltage ranging from 15 to 25 kV using electrospinning technique. All other experimental parameters were kept constant. The electrospun polyamide-6 nanofibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). FE-SEM images of polyamide-6 nanofibers showed that the diameter of the electrospun fiber was decreased with increasing applied voltage. At the critical applied voltage, the polymer solution was completely ionized to form the dense high aspect ratio nanofibers in between the main nanofibers. The diameter of the polyamide-6 nanofibers was observed to be in the range of 75-110 nm, whereas the high aspect ratio structures consisted of regularly distributed very fine nanofibers with diameters of about 9-28 nm. Trends in fiber diameter and diameter distribution were discussed for the high aspect ratio nanofibers. TEM results revealed that the formation of double layers in polyamide-6 nanofibers and then split-up into ultrafine fibers. The electrically induced double layer in combination with the polyelectrolytic nature of solution is proposed as the suitable mechanisms for the formation of high aspect ratio nanofibers in polyamide-6.

  19. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, Peter W. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Nelson, Andrew R.J. [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia); Williams, David E. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand); McGillivray, Duncan J., E-mail: d.mcgillivray@auckland.ac.nz [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  20. Formation of mixed organic layers by stepwise electrochemical reduction of diazonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luis; Ghilane, Jalal; Lacroix, Jean Christophe

    2012-03-28

    This work describes the formation of a mixed organic layer covalently attached to a carbon electrode. The strategy adopted is based on two successive electrochemical reductions of diazonium salts. First, bithiophene phenyl (BTB) diazonium salt is reduced using host/guest complexation in a water/cyclodextrin (β-CD) solution. The resulting layer consists of grafted BTB oligomers and cyclodextrin that can be removed from the surface. The electrochemical response of several outer-sphere redox probes on such BTB/CD electrodes is close to that of a diode, thanks to the easily p-dopable oligo(BTB) moieties. When CD is removed from the surface, pinholes are created and this diode like behavior is lost. Following this, nitrophenyl (NP) diazonium is reduced to graft a second component. Electrochemical study shows that upon grafting NP insulating moieties, the diode-like behavior of the layer is restored which demonstrates that NP is grafted predominately in the empty spaces generated by β-CD desorption. As a result, a mixed BTB/NP organic layer covalently attached to a carbon electrode is obtained using a stepwise electrochemical reduction of two diazonium compounds.

  1. Selenopentathionic and Telluropentathionic Acids as Precursors for Formation of Semiconducting Layers on the Surface of Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skirma Zalenkiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The layers of copper chalcogenides, which were formed on the surface of semihydrophilic polymer—polyamide 6 (PA using monoselenopentathionic H2SeS4O6 and monotelluropentathionic H2TeS4O6 acids as precursors of chalcogens, were characterized. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV spectroscopy were used to monitor the effect of chalcogens on the changes in structure of PA corresponding to the concentration of the precursor's solution and an exposure time. The IR spectra of modified PA were completely different from that of the initial PA. Further interaction of chalcogenized PA with copper (II/I salt solution leads to the formation of CuxS, CuxSe, CuxTe, and mixed –CuxS–CuySe and CuxS–CuyTe layers which have different electric transport properties. The surface properties of PA after treatment are studied using AFM and XRD. The electrical resistances of layers with various composition formed over a wide concentration range 0.01–0.5 mol⋅dm−3 of precursor's solution were measured. Variation in the conductivity of layers of Cu–Se–S and Cu–Te–S on the surface of PA shows an evident increase with the increasing of the mass fraction of selenium or tellurium.

  2. Formation of a highly doped ultra-thin amorphous carbon layer by ion bombardment of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotr Michałowski, Paweł; Pasternak, Iwona; Ciepielewski, Paweł; Guinea, Francisco; Strupiński, Włodek

    2018-07-01

    Ion bombardment of graphene leads to the formation of defects which may be used to tune properties of the graphene based devices. In this work, however, we present that the presence of the graphene layer on a surface of a sample has a significant impact on the ion bombardment process: broken sp2 bonds react with the incoming ions and trap them close to the surface of the sample, preventing a standard ion implantation. For an ion bombardment with a low impact energy and significant dose (in the range of 1014 atoms cm‑2) an amorphization of the graphene layer is observed but at the same time, most of the incoming ions do not penetrate the sample but stop at the surface, thus forming a highly doped ultra-thin amorphous carbon layer. The effect may be used to create thin layers containing desired atoms if no other technique is available. This approach is particularly useful for secondary ion mass spectrometry where a high concentration of Cs at the surface of a sample significantly enhances the negative ionization probability, allowing it to reach better detection limits.

  3. Modelling of fast jet formation under explosion collision of two-layer alumina/copper tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Balagansky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Under explosion collapse of two-layer tubes with an outer layer of high-modulus ceramics and an inner layer of copper, formation of a fast and dense copper jet is plausible. We have performed a numerical simulation of the explosion collapse of a two-layer alumina/copper tube using ANSYS AUTODYN software. The simulation was performed in a 2D-axis symmetry posting on an Eulerian mesh of 3900x1200 cells. The simulation results indicate two separate stages of the tube collapse process: the nonstationary and the stationary stage. At the initial stage, a non-stationary fragmented jet is moving with the velocity of leading elements up to 30 km/s. The collapse velocity of the tube to the symmetry axis is about 2 km/s, and the pressure in the contact zone exceeds 700 GPa. During the stationary stage, a dense jet is forming with the velocity of 20 km/s. Temperature of the dense jet is about 2000 K, jet failure occurs when the value of effective plastic deformation reaches 30.

  4. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, Peter W.; Nelson, Andrew R.J.; Williams, David E.; McGillivray, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  5. Irreversible fouling of membrane bioreactors due to formation of a non-biofilm gel layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorasgari, Eskandar; Larsen, Poul; Zheng, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), known to contribute to fouling in membrane bio-reactors (MBRs), are generally divided into bound and free EPS. The free EPS are able to form a gel layer on the membrane active surface. The mechanisms involved in formation of such layer and its effects...... on performance of the MBR membranes were studied. The free EPS, extracted by centrifugation and microfiltration, contained a significant amount of humic-like substances. Under static contact to the membrane, adsorption of humic-like substances to the membrane occurred and could be explained by conventional...... adsorption kinetics. Due to static adsorption, surface roughness of the membrane declined significantly, indicating that adsorbed matters to the membranefilled the cavities of the membrane surface. Filtration of the free EPS caused 50% waterflux decline. The fouling resistance linearly increased...

  6. Surface crack formation on rails at grinding induced martensite white etching layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten Jørn; Fæster, Søren; Dhar, Somrita

    2017-01-01

    The connection between profile grinding of rails, martensite surface layers and crack initiation has been investigated using visual inspection, optical microscopy and 3D X-ray computerized tomography. Newly grinded rails were extracted and found to be covered by a continuous surface layer...... of martensite with varying thickness formed by the grinding process. Worn R350HT and R200 rails were extracted from the Danish rail network as they had transverse bands resembling grinding marks on the running surface. The transverse bands were shown to consist of martensite which had extensive crack formation...... at the martensite/pearlite interface. The cracks in R350HT propagated down into the rail while those in the soft R200 returned to the surface causing only very small shallow spallation. The transverse bands had the same shape, size, orientation, location and periodicity which would be expected from grinding marks...

  7. BOREAS Forest Cover Data Layers of the NSA in Raster Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David; Tuinhoff, Manning

    2000-01-01

    This data set was processed by BORIS staff from the original vector data of species, crown closure, cutting class, and site classification/subtype into raster files. The original polygon data were received from Linnet Graphics, the distributor of data for MNR. In the case of the species layer, the percentages of species composition were removed. This reduced the amount of information contained in the species layer of the gridded product, but it was necessary in order to make the gridded product easier to use. The original maps were produced from 1:15,840-scale aerial photography collected in 1988 over an area of the BOREAS NSA MSA. The data are stored in binary, image format files and they are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. Deposits of the Peruvian Pisco Formation compared to layered deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowe, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Walter, S.

    2013-09-01

    Deposits of the Peruvian Pisco Formation are morphologically similar to the mounds of Juventae Chasma at the equatorial region on Mars (Fig. 1). By analyzing these deposits, we hope to gain information about the environmental conditions that prevailed during sediment deposition and erosion, hence conditions that might be applicable to the Martian layered and hydrated deposits. Mariner 9 data of the Martian mid-latitudes have already shown evidence of the wind-sculptured landforms that display the powerful prevailing eolian regime [1]. In addition, [2] reported on similarities between Martian erosional landforms and those of the rainless coastal desert of central Peru from the Paracas peninsula to the Rio Ica. As indicated by similar erosional patterns, hyper-arid conditions and unidirectional winds must have dominated at least after deposition of the sediments, which are intermixed volcaniclastic materials and evaporate minerals at both locations. Likewise, variations in composition are displayed by alternating layers of different competence. The Pisco formation bears yardangs on siltstones, sandstones and clays with volcaniclastic admixtures [3] whereas the presence of sulphate minerals and the omnipresent mafic mineralogy has been reported for the layered mounds of Juventae Chasma equally [4]. Likewise, a volcanic airfall deposition and lacustrine formation have been proposed for the sulphate-rich deposits of Juventae Chasma [5,6]. In order to find out about potential spectral similarities, we performed a detailed spectral analysis of the surface by using LANDSAT and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) VNIR/ SWIR data (visible to near-infrared and shortwave infrared region).

  9. Kinetics of the electric double layer formation modelled by the finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Dynamics of the elctric double layer formation in 100 mM NaCl solution for sudden potentail steps of 10 and 20 mV was simulated using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory and VLUGR2 solver for partial differential equations. The used approach was verified by comparing the obtained steady-state solution with the available exact solution. The simulations allowed for detailed analysis of the relaxation processes of the individual ions and the electric potential. Some computational aspects of the problem were discussed.

  10. Enhanced formation of Ge nanocrystals in Ge : SiO2 layers by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I V; Volodin, V A; Marin, D M; Skuratov, V A; Smagulova, S A; Janse van Vuuren, A; Neethling, J; Jedrzejewski, J; Balberg, I

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the ability of swift heavy Xe ions with an energy of 480 MeV and a fluence of 10 12 cm -2 to enhance the formation of Ge nanocrystals within SiO 2 layers with variable Ge contents. These Ge-SiO 2 films were fabricated by the co-sputtering of Ge and quartz sources which followed various annealing procedures. In particular, we found that the irradiation of the Ge : SiO 2 films with subsequent annealing at 500 °C leads to the formation of a high concentration of nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 2-5 nm, whereas without irradiation only amorphous inclusions were observed. This effect, as evidenced by Raman spectra, is enhanced by pre-irradiation at 550 °C and post-irradiation annealing at 600 °C, which also leads to the observation of room temperature visible photoluminescence. (paper)

  11. On formation of silicon nanocrystals under annealing SiO2 layers implanted with Si ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G.A.; Yanovskaya, S.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Lejer, A.F.; Ruault, M.-O.

    2002-01-01

    Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the formation of silicon nanocrystals in SiO 2 implanted with Si ions. Si clusters have been formed at once in the postimplanted layers, providing the excessive Si concentration more ∼ 3 at. %. Si segregation with Si-Si 4 bonds formation is enhanced as following annealing temperature increase, however, the Raman scattering by Si clusters diminishes. The effect is explained by a transformation of the chain-like Si clusters into compact phase nondimensional structures. Segregation of Si nanoprecipitates had ended about 1000 deg C, but the strong photoluminescence typical for Si nanocrystals manifested itself only after 1100 deg C [ru

  12. Sheared flow layer formation in tokamak plasmas with reversed magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Long, Y.X.; Mou, Z.Z.; Zhang, J.H.; Li, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Sheared flow layer (SFL) formation due to magnetic energy release through tearing-reconnections in tokamak plasmas is investigated. The characteristics of the SFLs created in the development of double tearing mode, mediated by electron viscosity in configurations with non-monotonic safety factor q profiles and, therefore, two rational flux surfaces of same q value, are analyzed in detail as an example. Quasi-linear simulations demonstrate that the sheared flows induced by the mode have desirable characteristics (lying at the boundaries of the magnetic islands), and sufficient levels required for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation. A possible correlation of the SFLs with experimental observations, that double transport barrier structures are preferentially formed in proximity of the two rational surfaces, is also proffered. (author)

  13. Formation of the outer layer of the Dictyostelium spore coat depends on the inner-layer protein SP85/PsB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Talibah; Kelley, Karen; Erdos, Gregory W; Kaplan, Lee; West, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    The Dictyostelium spore is surrounded by a 220 microm thick trilaminar coat that consists of inner and outer electron-dense layers surrounding a central region of cellulose microfibrils. In previous studies, a mutant strain (TL56) lacking three proteins associated with the outer layer exhibited increased permeability to macromolecular tracers, suggesting that this layer contributes to the coat permeability barrier. Electron microscopy now shows that the outer layer is incomplete in the coats of this mutant and consists of a residual regular array of punctate electron densities. The outer layer is also incomplete in a mutant lacking a cellulose-binding protein associated with the inner layer, and these coats are deficient in an outer-layer protein and another coat protein. To examine the mechanism by which this inner-layer protein, SP85, contributes to outer-layer formation, various domain fragments were overexpressed in forming spores. Most of these exert dominant negative effects similar to the deletion of outer-layer proteins, but one construct, consisting of a fusion of the N-terminal and Cys-rich C1 domain, induces a dense mat of novel filaments at the surface of the outer layer. Biochemical studies show that the C1 domain binds cellulose, and a combination of site-directed mutations that inhibits its cellulose-binding activity suppresses outer-layer filament induction. The results suggest that, in addition to a previously described early role in regulating cellulose synthesis, SP85 subsequently contributes a cross-bridging function between cellulose and other coat proteins to organize previously unrecognized structural elements in the outer layer of the coat.

  14. Hydraulic Fracture Growth in a Layered Formation based on Fracturing Experiments and Discrete Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Tong, Zhou; Ning, Li; Ming, Chen; Sihai, Li; Yinuo, Zhang; Han, Li

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) height containment tends to occur in layered formations, and it significantly influences the entire HF geometry or the stimulated reservoir volume. This study aims to explore the influence of preexisting bedding planes (BPs) on the HF height growth in layered formations. Laboratory fracturing experiments were performed to confirm the occurrence of HF height containment in natural shale that contains multiple weak and high-permeability BPs under triaxial stresses. Numerical simulations were then conducted to further illustrate the manner in which vertical stress, BP permeability, BP density(or spacing), pump rate, and fluid viscosity control HF height growth using a 3D discrete element method-based fracturing model. In this model, the rock matrix was considered transversely isotropic and multiple BPs can be explicitly represented. Experimental and numerical results show that the vertically growing HF tends to be limited by multi-high-permeability BPs, even under higher vertical stress. When the vertically growing HF intersects with the multi-high-permeability BPs, the injection pressure will be sharply reduced. If a low pumping rate or a low-viscosity fluid is used, the excess fracturing fluid leak-off into the BPs obviously decreases the rate of pressure build up, which will then limit the growth of HF. Otherwise, a higher pumping rate and/or a higher viscosity will reduce the leak-off time and fluid volume, but increase the injection pressure to drive the HF to grow and to penetrate through the BPs.

  15. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process-Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Fabian; Hanft, Dominik; Gujar, Tanaji P; Kahle, Frank-Julian; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Köhler, Anna; Moos, Ralf

    2016-04-08

    We present the successful fabrication of CH₃NH₃PbI₃ perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM). The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  16. Localization of excitons by molecular layer formation in a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Datta, A.

    2005-01-01

    Spin coated films of atactic polystyrene of two different molecular weights have been studied with uv spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity, the film thickness (d) varying from ∼2R g to ∼12R g where R g is the unperturbed radius of gyration of the polymer. uv extinction due to the pure electronic singlet 1 A 1g → 1 E 1u is seen to increase with d -1 for 4R g ≤d≤12R g (region 1). This suggests excitonic interaction along d. The variation of total exciton energy (E) of the A 1g →E 1u singlet with d in region 1 can be well explained by formation of linear J-aggregates of polystyrene molecules, in a lattice with spacing 'a' (in A) R g g , along d. Atomic force microscopic images of the films show the presence of 'spheres' distributed randomly on film surfaces with in-plane dimensions matching a. From the variation of E with d -2 the effective mass (m eff ) of the exciton is also determined. For R g g (region 2) the extinction and E become essentially independent of d, indicating exciton localization along d, and the value of m eff becomes very large. This enhancement in the effective mass maybe used to quantify localization. The variations of electron density (ρ) with d, i.e., the electron density profiles (EDPs) of the films extracted from x-ray reflectivity studies, indicate formation of layers with period 'b' (in A), R g g parallel to substrate surface in region 2 and a constant ρ film in region 1. On raising the temperature of a typical film to 60 deg. C, the layering was seen to almost vanish, as obtained from both the EDP and the Patterson function of the reflectivity profile. The close correspondence between 'a' and 'b' indicates that the molecules forming the J-aggregates form the layers, too. The average difference in ρ between successive extrema in the EDPs in region 2, denoted by δ, can be used as the order parameter for the layering transition. For PS-5, δ>0 at d≅4R g , where the exciton is still delocalized. Layering reduces the Hamaker

  17. Oxygen-implanted induced formation of oxide layer enhances blood compatibility on titanium for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Wei-Chiang [School of Oral Hygiene, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Chang, Fang-Mo [School of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tzu-Sen [Master Program in Graduate Institute of Nanomedicine and Medical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Ou, Keng-Liang [School of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University-Shuang-Ho Hospital, Taipei 235, Taiwan (China); Lin, Che-Tong [School of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layers were prepared on a Ti substrate by using oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (oxygen PIII). The surface chemical states, structure, and morphology of the layers were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties, such as the Young's modulus and hardness, of the layers were investigated using nanoindentation testing. The Ti{sup 4+} chemical state was determined to be present on oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces, which consisted of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} with a rutile structure. Compared with Ti substrates, the oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces exhibited decreased Young's moduli and hardness. Parameters indicating the blood compatibility of the oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces, including the clotting time and platelet adhesion and activation, were studied in vitro. Clotting time assays indicated that the clotting time of oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces was longer than that of the Ti substrate, which was associated with decreased fibrinogen adsorption. In conclusion, the surface characteristics and the blood compatibility of Ti implants can be modified and improved using oxygen PIII. - Highlights: • The Ti{sup 4+} chemical state was determined to be present on oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces. • The nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} with a rutile structure was formed on titanium surfaces. • A nanoporous TiO{sub 2} layer in the rutile phase prepared using oxygen PIII treatment can be used to prolong blood clot formation.

  18. Interfacial micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation between water- and solvent-based dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Geneviève L; Akon, Bernadette A; Millas, Arlette

    2002-06-01

    Many dentin bonding systems of different compositions, and in particular containing different solvents, have been introduced to the market. Their effect on the quality of the interface requires clarification by means of comparative trials. This study investigated micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation with a variety of commercially available water- or solvent-based dentin bonding products and their recommended compomers. Five bonding systems were used on groups of 10 teeth each as follows: group I, acetone-based system used with 36% phosphoric acid; group II, a different acetone-based system containing nano-sized particles for filler loading and used with a non-rinsing conditioner containing maleic acid; group III, the acetone-based system of group II used with 36% phosphoric acid (the only difference in the treatment for groups II and III was the acid etching system); group IV, a mixed-solvent-based system (water/ethanol) used with 37% phosphoric acid; and group V, a water-based system used with 37% phosphoric acid. Each bonding system was covered with the recommended compomer. Class I occlusal preparations were made in extracted teeth and restored with one of the above systems. Five specimens of each group were studied with optical microscopy after staining. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the interface of the bonding system/dentin of the other 5 teeth in each group. The optical microscopy measurements were made with a 10 x 10 reticle. A micron mark with scale was used for the scanning electron microscope. All measurements were made in microm. The following criteria were used to define a good interface: absence of voids between the different parts of the interface, uniformity of the hybrid layer, good opening of the tubuli orifices, and tag adherence to the tubuli walls. Morphological differences were found at the interface depending on dentin treatment and adhesive composition. The acetone-containing systems were associated

  19. New positive feedback mechanism between boundary layer meteorology and secondary aerosol formation during severe haze events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Jia, Xingcan; Quan, Jiannong; Li, Jiayun; Li, Xia; Wu, Yongxue; Chen, Dan; Wang, Zifa; Liu, Yangang

    2018-04-17

    Severe haze events during which particulate matter (PM) increases quickly from tens to hundreds of microgram per cubic meter in 1-2 days frequently occur in China. Although it has been known that PM is influenced by complex interplays among emissions, meteorology, and physical and chemical processes, specific mechanisms remain elusive. Here, a new positive feedback mechanism between planetary boundary layer (PBL), relative humidity (RH), and secondary PM (SPM) formation is proposed based on a comprehensive field experiment and model simulation. The decreased PBL associated with increased PM increases RH by weakening the vertical transport of water vapor; the increased RH in turn enhances the SPM formation through heterogeneous aqueous reactions, which further enhances PM, weakens solar radiation, and decreases PBL height. This positive feedback, together with the PM-Radiation-PBL feedback, constitutes a key mechanism that links PM, radiation, PBL properties (e.g. PBL height and RH), and SPM formation, This mechanism is self-amplifying, leading to faster PM production, accumulation, and more severe haze pollution.

  20. Tool Wear and Formation Mechanism of White Layer When Hard Milling H13 Steel under Different Cooling/Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at revealing the formation mechanism of white layer and understanding the effects of tool wear and cooling/lubrication condition on white layer when hard milling H13 steel with coated cutting tools. Hard milling experiments were carried out, and tool wear and its effect on formation of white layer were investigated. Compared to dry cutting condition, CMQL (cryogenic minimum quantity lubrication technique can obviously reduce tool wear and prolong tool life owing to its good cooling and lubrication properties. The optical images of the subsurface materials indicate that the formation of white layer is related to tool wear; moreover, the thickness of white layer increases with the increase of tool wear. SEM (scanning electron microscope images and XRD (X-ray diffraction analysis confirm that the formation of white layer is mainly due to the mechanical effect rather than the thermal effect. It also proves that white layer is partly decreased or can be totally eliminated by optimizing process parameters under CMQL cutting condition. CMQL technique has the potential to be used for achieving prolonged tool life and enhanced surface integrity.

  1. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process—Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Panzer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the successful fabrication of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM. The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  2. Formation of double layers: shocklike solutions of an mKdV-equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Chanteur, G.

    1985-10-01

    Small amplitude double layers (DLs) in a plasma with a suitable electron distribution may be identified with shocklike solutions of a modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equation. A thought experiment for the formation of such DLs is specified to clarify the physical constraints and to demonstrate the emergence of a DL from an initial disturbance. A scattering formulation of the mKdV initial value problem may be diagonalised to give a pair of Schroedinger equations with a scattering potential satisfying the ordinary KdV equation. The initial value problem can then be treated using Khruslov's generalisation of the inverse scattering method which allows a difference in the asymptotic values of the potential. A necessary and sufficient condition for the emergence of a shocklike soliton (wave) train and of a finite number of isolated solitons may also be determined from the scattering properties of the initial potential. With 26 refs and 5 figures. (Author)

  3. Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Microstructural examination of reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has shown that there is often a region adjacent to the as-nitrided surfaces that is even more porous than the interior of this already quite porous material. Because this layer of large porosity is considered detrimental to both the strength and oxidation resistance of RBSN, a study was undertaken to determine if its formation could be prevented during processing. All test bars studied were made from a single batch of Si powder which was milled for 4 hours in heptane in a vibratory mill using high density alumina cylinders as the grinding media. After air drying the powder, bars were compacted in a single acting die and hydropressed.

  4. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase transitions during formation of Ag nanoparticles on In{sub 2}S{sub 3} precursor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@helmholtz-berlin.de; Fu, Yanpeng; Dittrich, Thomas; Sáez-Araoz, Rodrigo; Schmid, Martina; Hinrichs, Volker; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Fischer, Christian-Herbert

    2015-09-01

    Phase transitions have been investigated for silver deposition onto In{sub 2}S{sub 3} precursor layers by spray chemical vapor deposition from a trimethylphosphine (hexafluoroacetylacetonato) silver (Ag(hfacac)(PMe{sub 3})) solution. The formation of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on top of the semiconductor layer set on concomitant with the formation of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8}. The increase of the diameter of Ag NPs was accompanied by the evolution of orthorhombic AgInS{sub 2}. The formation of Ag{sub 2}S at the interface between Ag NPs and the semiconductor layer was observed. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy indicated charge separation and electronic transitions in the ranges of corresponding band gaps. The phase transition approach is aimed to be applied for the formation of plasmonic nanostructures on top of extremely thin semiconducting layers. - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were deposited onto In{sub 2}S{sub 3} precursor layer by spray pyrolysis. • The silver nanoparticle size and density could be controlled by deposition time. • Phase transitions during deposition and material properties were investigated. • The layers still show semiconducting properties after phase transitions. • Plasmonic absorption enhancement has been demonstrated.

  6. Study on the formation of heterogeneous structures in leached layers during the corrosion process of glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien Anaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Le verre, corrodé dans des conditions naturelles, montre souvent des hétérogénéités dans la couche lixiviée, comme une structure lamellaire ou des inclusions de MnO2 ou Ca3(PO42. La formation de ces hétérogénéités n’est pas encore bien comprise. Des structures de ce type ont été produites artificiellement en laboratoire en immergeant des échantillons de verre dans des solutions riches en métaux. Les résultats expérimentaux ont été comparés avec des théories décrivant la corrosion du verre.Glass that corrodes under natural conditions often shows heterogeneities in the leached layer, such as a lamellar structure or inclusions of MnO2 or Ca3(PO42. The formation of these heterogeneities is still not well understood. By means of experiments under laboratory conditions, our aim was to artificially generate specific structures. Therefore, glass samples were immersed in metal-rich solutions. The experimental results were compared with theories describing glass corrosion from a molecular point of view.

  7. The formation of sporadic E layers by a vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal wind shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Didebulidze

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the mid-latitude sporadic E layers (Es layers by an atmospheric vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal shear flow (horizontal wind with a horizontal linear shear is investigated. A three-dimensional atmospheric vortical perturbation (atmospheric shear waves, whose velocity vector is in the horizontal plane and has a vertical wavenumber kz≠0, can provide a vertical shear of the horizontal wind. The shear waves influence the vertical transport of heavy metallic ions and their convergence into thin and dense horizontal layers. The proposed mechanism takes into account the dynamical influence of the shear wave velocity in the horizontal wind on the vertical drift velocity of the ions. It also can explain the multi-layer structure of Es layers. The pattern of the multi-layer structure depends on the value of the shear-wave vertical wavelength, the ion-neutral collision frequency and the direction of the background horizontal wind. The modelling of formation of sporadic E layers with a single and a double peak is presented. Also, the importance of shear wave coupling with short-period atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs on the variations of sporadic E layer ion density is examined and discussed.

  8. The deep chlorophyll layer in Lake Ontario: Extent, mechanisms of formation, and abiotic predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Anne E.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2017-01-01

    Epilimnetic production has declined in Lake Ontario, but increased production in metalimnetic deep chlorophyll layers (DCLs) may compensate for these losses. We investigated the spatial and temporal extent of DCLs, the mechanisms driving DCL formation, and the use of physical variables for predicting the depth and concentration of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) during April–September 2013. A DCL with DCM concentrations 2 to 3 times greater than those in the epilimnion was present when the euphotic depth extended below the epilimnion, which occurred primarily from late June through mid-August. In situ growth was important for DCL formation in June and July, but settling and photoadaptation likely also contributed to the later-season DCL. Supporting evidence includes: phytoplankton biovolume was 2.4 × greater in the DCL than in the epilimnion during July, the DCL phytoplankton community of July was different from that of May and the July epilimnion (p = 0.004), and there were concurrences of DCM with maxima in fine particle concentration and dissolved oxygen saturation. Higher nutrient levels in the metalimnion may also be a necessary condition for DCL formation because July metalimnetic concentrations were 1.5 × (nitrate) and 3.5 × (silica) greater than in the epilimnion. Thermal structure variables including epilimnion depth, thermocline depth, and thermocline steepness were useful for predicting DCM depth; the inclusion of euphotic depth only marginally improved these predictions. However, euphotic depth was critical for predicting DCM concentrations. The DCL is a productive and predictable feature of the Lake Ontario ecosystem during the stratified period.

  9. Boundary layer new particle formation over East Antarctic sea ice – possible Hg-driven nucleation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol observations above the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice are scarce. Measurements of aerosols and atmospheric composition were made in East Antarctic pack ice on board the Australian icebreaker Aurora Australis during the spring of 2012. One particle formation event was observed during the 32 days of observations. This event occurred on the only day to exhibit extended periods of global irradiance in excess of 600 W m−2. Within the single air mass influencing the measurements, number concentrations of particles larger than 3 nm (CN3 reached almost 7700 cm−3 within a few hours of clouds clearing, and grew at rates of 5.6 nm h−1. Formation rates of 3 nm particles were in the range of those measured at other Antarctic locations at 0.2–1.1 ± 0.1 cm−3 s−1. Our investigations into the nucleation chemistry found that there were insufficient precursor concentrations for known halogen or organic chemistry to explain the nucleation event. Modelling studies utilising known sulfuric acid nucleation schemes could not simultaneously reproduce both particle formation or growth rates. Surprising correlations with total gaseous mercury (TGM were found that, together with other data, suggest a mercury-driven photochemical nucleation mechanism may be responsible for aerosol nucleation. Given the very low vapour pressures of the mercury species involved, this nucleation chemistry is likely only possible where pre-existing aerosol concentrations are low and both TGM concentrations and solar radiation levels are relatively high (∼ 1.5 ng m−3 and ≥ 600 W m−2, respectively, such as those observed in the Antarctic sea ice boundary layer in this study or in the global free troposphere, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Effect of layer number and layer stacking registry on the formation and quantification of defects in graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    da Costa, Sara; Ek Weis, Johan; Frank, Otakar; Kalbáč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 98, MAR 2016 (2016), s. 592-598 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13022 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Multi-layered graphene * Applied research * Plasma applications Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  11. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubert, M; Adamska, K; Szybowicz, M; Jesionowski, T; Buchwald, T; Voelkel, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37°C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. © 2013.

  12. Formation of an Anti-Core–Shell Structure in Layered Oxide Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hanlei [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast; Omenya, Fredrick [NorthEast; Whittingham, M. Stanley [NorthEast; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental; Zhou, Guangwen [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast

    2017-10-20

    The layered → rock-salt phase transformation in the layered dioxide cathodes for Li-ion batteries is believed to result in a “core-shell” structure of the primary particles, in which the core region maintains as the layered phase while the surface region undergoes the phase transformation to the rock-salt phase. Using transmission electron microscopy, here we demonstrate the formation of an “anti-core-shell” structure in cycled primary particles with a formula of LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, in which the surface and subsurface regions remain as the layered structure while the rock-salt phase forms as domains in the bulk with a thin layer of the spinel phase between the rock-salt core and the skin of the layered phase. Formation of this anti-core-shell structure is attributed to the oxygen loss at the surface that drives the migration of oxygen from the bulk to the surface, thereby resulting in localized areas of significantly reduced oxygen levels in the bulk of the particle, which subsequently undergoes the phase transformation to the rock-salt domains. The formation of the anti-core-shell rock-salt domains is responsible for the reduced capacity, discharge voltage and ionic conductivity in cycled cathode.

  13. Formation of accessory mineral bed layers during erosion of bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, Timothy; Kanerva, Noora

    2012-01-01

    (kaolin, quartz sand, chromatographic silica). The resulting mixtures were compacted into dense sample tablets with effective montmorillonite dry densities between 1.4 to 1.6 g/cm 3 . The fracture erosion tests were performed using a Grimsel groundwater simulant (relative to Na + and Ca 2+ concentration only) contact solution at an average flow rate of 0.09 ml/min through the system. In colloid filtration theories, the filter bed is modelled as an assemblage of single or unit collectors having a known geometry. According to Richards [2010], the particle size distribution of the accessory minerals in MX-80 bentonite consists of particles with sizes less than 30 μm. Of the additive materials used in this study, the kaolin material consists of particles with sizes less than 20 μm showing a peak size of 6 μm, the chromatographic silica consists of particles with sizes narrowly distributed between 10 to 14 μm, and the sand consists of particles with sizes between 160 to 550 μm at a peak size of 280 μm. The tests were designed to lead to the development of erosive conditions (i.e., sodium montmorillonite against a dilute solution) and, in every case, the formation of an accessory mineral bed layer near the extrusion/erosion interface was observed. Moreover, these layers grew progressively in thickness over the course of the tests. These results provide evidence that, following erosive loss of colloidal montmorillonite through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface, accessory phases (within bentonite) remain behind and form bed layers

  14. Few-layer bismuth selenides exfoliated by hemin inhibit amyloid-β1–42 fibril formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Xiong, Yunjing; Lin, Zhiqin; Sun, Liping; Weng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting amyloid-β (Aβ) fibril formation is the primary therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Several small molecules and nanomaterials have been used to inhibit Aβ fibril formation. However, insufficient inhibition efficiency or poor metabolization limits their further applications. Here, we used hemin to exfoliate few-layer Bi2Se3 in aqueous solution. Then we separated few-layer Bi2Se3 with different sizes and thicknesses by fractional centrifugation, and used them to attempt to inhibit Aβ1-42 aggregation. The results show that smaller and thinner few-layer Bi2Se3 had the highest inhibition efficiency. We further investigated the interaction between few-layer Bi2Se3 and Aβ1-42 monomers. The results indicate that the inhibition effect may be due to the high adsorption capacity of few-layer Bi2Se3 for Aβ1−42 monomers. Few-layer Bi2Se3 also decreased Aβ-mediated peroxidase-like activity and cytotoxicity according to in vitro neurotoxicity studies under physiological conditions. Therefore, our work shows the potential for applications of few-layer Bi2Se3 in the biomedical field. PMID:26018135

  15. Formation and properties of the buried isolating silicon-dioxide layer in double-layer “porous silicon-on-insulator” structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotov, V. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Ponomareva, I. V.; Kan, V. E., E-mail: kan@obisp.oscsbras.ru; Davletkildeev, N. A.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The oxidation of mesoporous silicon in a double-layer “macroporous silicon–mesoporous silicon” structure is studied. The morphology and dielectric properties of the buried insulating layer are investigated using electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements. Specific defects (so-called spikes) are revealed between the oxidized macropore walls in macroporous silicon and the oxidation crossing fronts in mesoporous silicon. It is found that, at an initial porosity of mesoporous silicon of 60%, three-stage thermal oxidation leads to the formation of buried silicon-dioxide layers with an electric-field breakdown strength of E{sub br} ~ 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} V/cm. Multilayered “porous silicon-on-insulator” structures are shown to be promising for integrated chemical micro- and nanosensors.

  16. Formation of Pentacene wetting layer on the SiO2 surface and charge trap in the wetting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chaeho; Jeon, D.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the early-stage growth of vacuum-evaporated pentacene film on a native SiO 2 surface using atomic force microscopy and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Pentacene deposition prompted an immediate change in the ellipsometry spectra, but atomic force microscopy images of the early stage films did not show a pentacene-related morphology other than the decrease in the surface roughness. This suggested that a thin pentacene wetting layer was formed by pentacene molecules lying on the surface before the crystalline islands nucleated. Growth simulation based on the in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra supported this conclusion. Scanning capacitance microscopy measurement indicated the existence of trapped charges in the SiO 2 and pentacene wetting layer

  17. Effective self-purification of polynary metal electroplating wastewaters through formation of layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji Zhi; Wu, Yue Ying; Liu, Chong; Orpe, Ajay; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Zhi Ping; Qian, Guang Ren; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Heavy metal ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+)) can be effectively removed from real polynary metal ions-bearing electroplating wastewaters by a carbonation process, with ∼99% of metal ions removed in most cases. The synchronous formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) precipitates containing these metal ions was responsible for the self-purification of wastewaters. The constituents of formed polynary metals-LDHs mainly depended on the Ni(2+):Zn(2+):Cr(3+) molar ratio in wastewaters. LDH was formed at pH of 6.0-8.0 when the Ni(2+)/Zn(2+) molar ratio ≥ 1 where molar fraction of trivalent metal in the wastewaters was 0.2-0.4, otherwise ZnO, hydrozincite, or amorphous precipitate was observed. In the case of LDH formation, the residual concentration of Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+) in the treated wastewaters was very low, about 2-3, ∼2, and ∼1 mg/L, respectively, at 20-80 °C and pH of 6.0-8.0, indicating the effective incorporation of heavy metal ions into the LDH matrix. Furthermore, the obtained LDH materials were used to adsorb azoic dye GR, with the maximum adsorption amount of 129-134 mg/g. We also found that the obtained LDHs catalyzed more than 65% toluene to decompose at 350 °C under ambient pressure. Thus the current research has not only shown effective recovery of heavy metal ions from the electroplating wastewaters in an environmentally friendly process but also demonstrated the potential utilization of recovered materials.

  18. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szubert, M., E-mail: mm.szubert@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Adamska, K. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Szybowicz, M. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Jesionowski, T. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Buchwald, T. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Voelkel, A. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. - Highlights: • Surface modification of HA and β-TCP was performed by PHB grafting. • The growth of apatite layer on materials was examined in simulated body fluid (SBF). • The bioactivity of obtained materials was proved. • The replacement of SBF solution plays an important role in the process of apatite formation.

  19. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szubert, M.; Adamska, K.; Szybowicz, M.; Jesionowski, T.; Buchwald, T.; Voelkel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. - Highlights: • Surface modification of HA and β-TCP was performed by PHB grafting. • The growth of apatite layer on materials was examined in simulated body fluid (SBF). • The bioactivity of obtained materials was proved. • The replacement of SBF solution plays an important role in the process of apatite formation

  20. The influence of tidal winds in the formation of blanketing sporadic e-layer over equatorial Brazilian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Laysa Cristina Araujo; Batista, Inez Staciarini; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Batista, Paulo Prado; Carrasco, Alexander José; Andrioli, Vânia Fátima; Moro, Juliano

    2018-06-01

    This work analysis the blanketing sporadic layers (Esb) behavior over São Luís, Brazil (2° 31‧ S, 44° 16‧ W, dip: -4.80) which is classified as a transition region between equatorial and low-latitude. Hence, some peculiarities can appear as Esb occurrence instead of the common Esq, which is a non-blanketing irregularity layer. The analysis presented here was obtained using a modified version of a theoretical model for the E region (MIRE), which computes the densities of the metallic ions (Fe+ and Mg+) and the densities of the main molecular ions (NO+, O2+, N2+) by solving the continuity and momentum equations for each one of them. In that model, the Es layer physics driven by both diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are taken into account and it was extended in height coverage by adding a novel neutral wind model derived from the all-sky meteor radar measurements. Thus, we provide more trustworthy results related to the Es layer formation in the equatorial region. We verified the contribution of each tidal wind component to the Esb layer formation in this equatorial region. Additionally, we compared the Es layer electron density computed by MIRE with the data obtained by using the blanketing frequency parameter (fbEs) deduced from ionograms. The results show that the diurnal component of the tidal wind is more important in the Esb layer formation whereas the semidiurnal component has a little contribution in our simulations. Finally, it was verified that the modified MIRE presented here can be used to study the Esb layers occurrence over the equatorial region in the Brazilian sector.

  1. Forward modelling of multi-component induction logging tools in layered anisotropic dipping formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jie; Xu, Chenhao; Xiao, Jiaqi

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component induction logging provides great assistance in the exploration of thinly laminated reservoirs. The 1D parametric inversion following an adaptive borehole correction is the key step in the data processing of multi-component induction logging responses. To make the inversion process reasonably fast, an efficient forward modelling method is necessary. In this paper, a modelling method has been developed to simulate the multi-component induction tools in deviated wells drilled in layered anisotropic formations. With the introduction of generalized reflection coefficients, the analytic expressions of magnetic field in the form of a Sommerfeld integral were derived. The fast numerical computation of the integral has been completed by using the fast Fourier–Hankel transform and fast Hankel transform methods. The latter is so time efficient that it is competent enough for real-time multi-parameter inversion. In this paper, some simulated results have been presented and they are in excellent agreement with the finite difference method code's solution. (paper)

  2. Analysis of heat transfer and frost layer formation on a cryogenic tank wall exposed to the humid atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hoon; Ko, Hyung-Jong; Kim, Kyoungjin; Kim, Yong-Wook; Cho, Kie-Joo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper heat transfer characteristics and frost layer formation are investigated numerically on the surface of a cryogenic oxidizer tank for a liquid propulsion rocket, where a frost layer could be a significant factor in maintaining oxidizer temperature within a required range. Frost formation is modeled by considering mass diffusion of water vapor in the air into the frost layer and various heat transfer modes such as natural and forced convection, latent heat, solar radiation of short wavelength, and ambient radiation of long wavelength. Computational results are first compared with the available measurements and show favorable agreement on thickness and effective thermal conductivity of the frost layer. In the case of the cryogenic tank, a series of parametric studies is presented in order to examine the effects of important parameters such as temperature and wind speed of ambient air, air humidity, and tank wall temperature on the frost layer formation and the amount of heat transfer into the tank. It is found that the heat transfer by solar radiation is significant and also that heat transfer strongly depends on air humidity, ambient air temperature, and wind speed but not tank wall temperature.

  3. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of minocycline-loaded chitosan/alginate multilayer on titanium substrates to inhibit biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongbin; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Xiaoping; Cen, Lian; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation are primary causes of implant associated infection. The biofilm makes the bacteria highly resistant to the host defense and antimicrobial treatment. Antibacterial coatings on the surface of titanium implant can prevent biofilm formation effectively, but it is still a challenge to accomplish relatively long lasting antibacterial effects before wound healing or formation of biological seal. The purpose of our work was to construct antibacterial multilayer coatings loaded with minocycline on surface of Ti substrates using chitosan and alginate based on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. In this study, the surfaces of Ti substrates were first hydroxylated and then treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) to obtain amino-functionalized Ti substrates. Next, the precursor layer of chitosan was covalently conjugated to amino-functionalized Ti substrates. The following alternately coating alginate loaded with minocycline and chitosan onto the precursor layer of chitosan was carried out via LbL self-assembly technique to construct the multilayer coatings on Ti substrates. The multilayer coatings loaded more minocycline and improved sustainability of minocycline release to kill planktonic and adherent bacteria. Moreover, surface charge and hydrophilicity of the coatings and antibacterial ability of chitosan itself also played roles in the antibacterial performance, which can keep the antibacterial ability of the multilayer coatings after minocycline release ceases. In conclusion, LbL self-assembly method provides a promising strategy to fabricate long-term antibacterial surfaces, which is especially effective in preventing implant associated infections in the early stage. Loading minocycline on the surface of implants based on LbL self-assembly strategy can endow implants with sustained antibacterial property. This can inhabit the immediate colonization of bacteria onto the surface of implants in the

  4. Dual active layer a-IGZO TFT via homogeneous conductive layer formation by photochemical H-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Ki; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Seo, Hyungtak; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, InGaZnO (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) with a dual active layer (DAL) structure are fabricated by inserting a homogeneous embedded conductive layer (HECL) in an amorphous IGZO (a-IGZO) channel with the aim of enhancing the electrical characteristics of conventional bottom-gate-structure TFTs. A highly conductive HECL (carrier concentration at 1.6 × 10(13) cm(-2), resistivity at 4.6 × 10(-3) Ω∙cm, and Hall mobility at 14.6 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature) is fabricated using photochemical H-doping by irradiating UV light on an a-IGZO film. The electrical properties of the fabricated DAL TFTs are evaluated by varying the HECL length. The results reveal that carrier mobility increased proportionally with the HECL length. Further, a DAL TFT with a 60-μm-long HECL embedded in an 80-μm-long channel exhibits comprehensive and outstanding improvements in its electrical properties: a saturation mobility of 60.2 cm(2)/Vs, threshold voltage of 2.7 V, and subthreshold slope of 0.25 V/decade against the initial values of 19.9 cm(2)/Vs, 4.7 V, and 0.45 V/decade, respectively, for a TFT without HECL. This result confirms that the photochemically H-doped HECL significantly improves the electrical properties of DAL IGZO TFTs.

  5. Melt front propagation in dielectrics upon femtosecond laser irradiation: Formation dynamics of a heat-affected layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-25

    Several studies in dielectrics have reported the presence of a thin heat-affected layer underneath the ablation crater produced by femtosecond laser irradiation. In this work, we present a time-resolved microscopy technique that is capable of monitoring the formation dynamics of this layer and apply it to the study of a phosphate glass exposed to single pulses below the ablation threshold. A few nanoseconds after laser excitation, a melt front interface can be detected, which propagates into the bulk, gradually slowing down its speed. By means of image analysis combined with optical modeling, we are able to determine the temporal evolution of the layer thickness and its refractive index. Initially, a strong transient decrease in the refractive index is observed, which partially recovers afterwards. The layer resolidifies after approximately 1 μs after excitation, featuring a maximum thickness of several hundreds of nanometers.

  6. Melt front propagation in dielectrics upon femtosecond laser irradiation: Formation dynamics of a heat-affected layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in dielectrics have reported the presence of a thin heat-affected layer underneath the ablation crater produced by femtosecond laser irradiation. In this work, we present a time-resolved microscopy technique that is capable of monitoring the formation dynamics of this layer and apply it to the study of a phosphate glass exposed to single pulses below the ablation threshold. A few nanoseconds after laser excitation, a melt front interface can be detected, which propagates into the bulk, gradually slowing down its speed. By means of image analysis combined with optical modeling, we are able to determine the temporal evolution of the layer thickness and its refractive index. Initially, a strong transient decrease in the refractive index is observed, which partially recovers afterwards. The layer resolidifies after approximately 1 μs after excitation, featuring a maximum thickness of several hundreds of nanometers.

  7. Corrosion inhibition performance of imidazolium ionic liquids and their influence on surface ferrous carbonate layer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongrui

    Corrosion inhibitors as effective anti-corrosion applications were widely studied and drawn much attention in both academe and industrial area. In this work, a systematic work, including inhibitors selection, anti-corrosion property and characterization, influence on scale formation, testing system design and so on, were reported. The corrosion inhibition performance of four imidazolium ionic liquids in carbon dioxide saturated NaCl solution was investigated by using electrochemical and surface analysis technologies. The four compounds are 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (a), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (b), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (c), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (d). Under the testing conditions, compound d showed the highest inhibition efficiency and selected as the main object of further study. As a selected representative formula, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was studied in detail about its corrosion inhibition performance on mild steel in carbon dioxide saturated NaCl brine at pH 3.8 and 6.8. Electrochemical and surface analysis techniques were used to characterize the specimen corrosion process during the immersion in the blank and inhibiting solutions. The precorrosion of specimen surface showed significant and different influences on the anti-corrosion property of DMICL at pH 3.8 and 6.8. The corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE) was calculated based on parameters obtained from electrochemical techniques; the achieved IE was higher than 98% at the 25th hour for the steel with a well-polished surface at pH 3.8. The fitting parameters obtained from electrochemical data helped to account for the interfacial changes. As proved in previous research, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride could be used as good corrosion inhibitors under certain conditions. However, under other conditions, such chemicals, as well as other species in oil transporting system, could be a factor influencing the evolution of protective surface

  8. Selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP by anodic etching combined with scratching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Masahiro; Yamaya, Tadafumi

    2005-01-01

    The selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP (001) surface was investigated by using scratching with a diamond scriber followed by anodic etching in deaerated 0.5M HCl. Since the InP specimen was highly doped, the anodic etching proceeded in the dark. The potentiodynamic polarization showed the anodic current shoulder in the potential region between 0.8 and 1.3V (SHE) for the scratched area in addition to the anodic current peak at 1.7V (SHE) for the intact area. The selective formation of porous layer on the scratched are was brought by the anodic etching at a constant potential between 1.0 and 1.2V (SHE) for a certain time. The nucleation and growth of etch pits on intact area, however, took place when the time passed the critical value. The cross section of porous layer on the scratched area perpendicular to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a V-shape, while the cross section of porous layer on the scratched area parallel to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a band structure with stripes oriented to the [1-bar 11] or [11-bar 1] direction. Moreover, nano-scratching at a constant normal force in the micro-Newton range followed by anodic etching showed the possibility for selective formation of porous wire with a nano-meter width

  9. Selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP by anodic etching combined with scratching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Masahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Jo, Nishi-8 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: seo@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamaya, Tadafumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Jo, Nishi-8 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-11-10

    The selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP (001) surface was investigated by using scratching with a diamond scriber followed by anodic etching in deaerated 0.5M HCl. Since the InP specimen was highly doped, the anodic etching proceeded in the dark. The potentiodynamic polarization showed the anodic current shoulder in the potential region between 0.8 and 1.3V (SHE) for the scratched area in addition to the anodic current peak at 1.7V (SHE) for the intact area. The selective formation of porous layer on the scratched are was brought by the anodic etching at a constant potential between 1.0 and 1.2V (SHE) for a certain time. The nucleation and growth of etch pits on intact area, however, took place when the time passed the critical value. The cross section of porous layer on the scratched area perpendicular to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a V-shape, while the cross section of porous layer on the scratched area parallel to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a band structure with stripes oriented to the [1-bar 11] or [11-bar 1] direction. Moreover, nano-scratching at a constant normal force in the micro-Newton range followed by anodic etching showed the possibility for selective formation of porous wire with a nano-meter width.

  10. Effect of negative ions on the formation of weak ion acoustic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, M.K.; Bujarbarua, S.

    1985-01-01

    Using kinetic theory, small amplitude double layers associated with ion acoustic waves in a plasma containing negative species of ions were investigated. Analytic solution for the double layer potential was carried out. The limiting values of the negative ion density for the existence of this type of DL were calculated and the application of this result to space plasmas is discussed. (author)

  11. Spontaneous nano-gap formation in Ag film using NaCl sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungchan; Jeon, Wook Jin; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Jae-Young; Yu, Hak Ki

    2018-03-01

    We report the method of fabrication of nano-gaps (known as hot spots) in Ag thin film using a sodium chloride (NaCl) sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement. The Ag thin film (20-50 nm) on the NaCl sacrificial layer undergoes an interfacial reaction due to the AgCl formed at the interface during water molecule intercalation. The intercalated water molecules can dissolve the NaCl molecules at interfaces and form the ionic state of Na+ and Cl-, promoting the AgCl formation. The Ag atoms can migrate by the driving force of this interfacial reaction, resulting in the formation of nano-size gaps in the film. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of Ag films with nano-size gaps has been investigated using Raman reporter molecules, Rhodamine 6G (R6G).

  12. Thermally oxidized formation of new Ge dots over as-grown Ge dots in the Si capping layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Tianxiao; Lin Jinhui; Shao Yuanmin; Wu Yueqin; Yang Xinju; Fan Yongliang; Jiang Zuimin; Chen Zhigang; Zou Jin

    2011-01-01

    A Si-capped Ge quantum dot sample was self-assembly grown via Stranski-Krastanov mode in a molecular beam epitaxy system with the Si capping layer deposited at 300 deg. C. After annealing the sample in an oxygen atmosphere at 1000 deg. C, a structure, namely two layers of quantum dots, was formed with the newly formed Ge-rich quantum dots embedded in the oxidized matrix with the position accurately located upon the as-grown quantum dots. It has been found that the formation of such nanostructures strongly depends upon the growth temperature and oxygen atmosphere. A growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the nanostructure based on the Ge diffusion from the as-grown quantum dots, Ge segregation from the growing oxide, and subsequent migration/agglomeration.

  13. Formation and effect of orientation domains in layered oxide cathodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, Karalee A.; Wang, Chih-Chieh; Knight, James C.; Rabenberg, Lew; Manthiram, Arumugam; Ferreira, Paulo J.

    2016-01-01

    We show that in layered oxides that are employed as cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, the cation layers can order on different {111} NaCl planes within a single particle, which makes the lithium layer discontinuous across a particle. The findings challenge previous assertions that lithium undergoes 2-D diffusion in layered oxides and the data provide new insights into the decrease in rate capabilities for some layered oxides. Therefore, it is critically important to understand how these discontinuities form and how the loss of 2-D diffusion impacts the overall performance of the layered oxide cathode materials. Employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we find that as the material transitions from a disordered to an ordered state, it forms four orientation variants corresponding to the four {111} NaCl planes. This transition is not intrinsic to all layered oxides and appears to be more strongly affected by nickel. Furthermore, with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), we show that there is an increase in the nickel concentration at the interface between each orientation variant. This reduces the rate of lithium diffusion, negatively affects the rate capability, and could be contributing to the overall capacity fade.

  14. A unified description of adsorption on real surfaces from the Henry Range to the formation of the liquid layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerofolini, G F

    1977-01-01

    A unified description of adsorption on real surfaces from the Henry Range to the formation of the liquid layer was developed on the basis of the BET theory and the assumption that sites on real surfaces are not energetically homogeneous. The model describes the successive Henry, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Freundlich, and multilayer BET behavior of the adsorbed phase as the pressure increases. An analysis of isotherms over the whole coverage range showed that the heterogeneous surface character decreases with increasing number of adsorbed layers; that adsorption into the first and higher layers may be competitive, which produces a new isotherm resembling a mixed type II and III isotherm as proposed by Cerofolini and coworkers.

  15. Heterogeneous distribution of plankton within the mixed layer and its implications for bloom formation in tropical seas

    KAUST Repository

    Calbet, Albert; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Kaartvedt, Stein; Mø hl, Malene; Mø ller, Eva Friis; Enghoff-Poulsen, Sø ren; Paulsen, Maria Lund; Solberg, Ingrid; Tang, Kam W.; Tonnesson, Kajsa; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2015-01-01

    Intensive sampling at the coastal waters of the central Red Sea during a period of thermal stratification, prior to the main seasonal bloom during winter, showed that vertical patches of prokaryotes and microplankton developed and persisted for several days within the apparently density uniform upper layer. These vertical structures were most likely the result of in situ growth and mortality (e.g., grazing) rather than physical or behavioural aggregation. Simulating a mixing event by adding nutrient-rich deep water abruptly triggered dense phytoplankton blooms in the nutrient-poor environment of the upper layer. These findings suggest that vertical structures within the mixed layer provide critical seeding stocks that can rapidly exploit nutrient influx during mixing, leading to winter bloom formation.

  16. Heterogeneous distribution of plankton within the mixed layer and its implications for bloom formation in tropical seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, Albert; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Intensive sampling at the coastal waters of the central Red Sea during a period of thermal stratification, prior to the main seasonal bloom during winter, showed that vertical patches of prokaryotes and microplankton developed and persisted for several days within the apparently density uniform...... upper layer. These vertical structures were most likely the result of in situ growth and mortality (e.g., grazing) rather than physical or behavioural aggregation. Simulating a mixing event by adding nutrient-rich deep water abruptly triggered dense phytoplankton blooms in the nutrient-poor environment...... of the upper layer. These findings suggest that vertical structures within the mixed layer provide critical seeding stocks that can rapidly exploit nutrient influx during mixing, leading to winter bloom formation...

  17. Heterogeneous distribution of plankton within the mixed layer and its implications for bloom formation in tropical seas

    KAUST Repository

    Calbet, Albert

    2015-06-11

    Intensive sampling at the coastal waters of the central Red Sea during a period of thermal stratification, prior to the main seasonal bloom during winter, showed that vertical patches of prokaryotes and microplankton developed and persisted for several days within the apparently density uniform upper layer. These vertical structures were most likely the result of in situ growth and mortality (e.g., grazing) rather than physical or behavioural aggregation. Simulating a mixing event by adding nutrient-rich deep water abruptly triggered dense phytoplankton blooms in the nutrient-poor environment of the upper layer. These findings suggest that vertical structures within the mixed layer provide critical seeding stocks that can rapidly exploit nutrient influx during mixing, leading to winter bloom formation.

  18. Formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes in an estuarine turbidity zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Marius; Schrottke, Kerstin; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    25 g/L below the lutocline to 70 g/L at the river bed, whereas the gelling concentration was below 70 g/L. Sites of fluid mud formation coincided with the location of the estuarine turbidity zone during slack water. On average, near-bed density gradients were initially observed in dune troughs 1.2 h...... before slack water, and all fluid mud layers were entrained 2.3 h after slack water. No shear instabilities occurred until 1.8 h after slack water. While the flow was oriented in the dune direction, rapid entrainment was related to the development of the turbulent flow field behind dunes and is explained...... to be induced by advection of strong turbulence during accelerating currents. Fluid mud layers in dune troughs were entrained at an earlier point in time after slack water, compared to adjacent layers formed on a comparatively flat bed, where dune crests did not protrude from the lutocline....

  19. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  20. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  1. Effects of soot formation on shape of a nonpremixed laminar flame established in a shear boundary layer in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H Y; Merino, J L Florenciano; Dagaut, P

    2011-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to give a quantitative description of a heavily sooting, nonpremixed laminar flame established in a shear boundary layer in microgravity. Controlling mechanisms of three dimensional flow, combustion, soot and radiation are coupled. Soot volume fraction were predicted by using three approaches, referred respectively to as the fuel, acetylene and PAH inception models. It is found that the PAH inception model, which is based on the formation of two and three-ringed aromatic species, reproduces correctly the experimental data from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame. The PAH inception model serves later to better understand flame quenching, flame stand-off distance and soot formation as a function of the dimensionless volume coefficient, defined as C q = V F /V ox where V F is the fuel injection velocity, and V ox air stream velocity. The present experiments showed that a blue unstable flame, negligible radiative feedback, may change to a yellow stable flame, significant radiative loss with an increase of C q ; this experimental trend was numerically reproduced. The flame quenching occurs at the trailing edge due to radiative heat loss which is significantly amplified by increasing V F or decreasing V ox , favouring soot formation. Along a semi-infinite fuel zone, the ratio, d f /d b , where d f is the flame standoff distance, and d b the boundary layer thickness, converges towards a constant value of 1.2, while soot resides always within the boundary layer far away from the flame sheet.

  2. Tephrostratigraphy and potassium-argon age determinations of seven volcanic ash layers in the Muddy Creek formation of southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Seven silicic tephra layers occur in alluvial deposits of the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations at three localities in southern Nevada. Chemical and petrographic characterization indicate the tephra were derived from seven different volcanic eruptions and do not represent any previously known tephra layers. K-Ar age determinations on minerals or glass from each layer yielded 6 to 12 m.y. ages. Discordant ages were obtained on multiple mineral phases due to incorporation of detrital contaminants. The tephra are sufficiently distinctive to constitute stratigraphic marker horizons in the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations. Derivation from the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, active 16 to 6 m.y., is highly likely for some of the tephra. The K-Ar results suggest substantial parts of the Muddy Creek Formation and equivalent basin-fill are 6 to 12 m.y., indicating basin-range faulting began prior to 12 m.y. Little tectonic deformation or physiographic change has occurrred in the past 6 m.y

  3. Formation of Ti-N graded bioceramic layer by DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-lin

    2004-01-01

    Ti-N graded ceramic layer was formed on titanium by using DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding technique. The structure of Ti-N layer was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry(XRD) with Cu Kα radiation, and the microhardness( HV0.1) was measured from the surface to inner along the cross section of Ti-N layer. The results indicate that the Ti-N graded layer is composed of ε-Ti2 N, δ-TiN and α-Ti(N) phases. Mechanism discussion shows that hollow-cathode discharge can intensify gas ionization, increase current density and enhance the nitriding potential, which directly increases the thickness of the diffusion coatings compared with traditional nitriding methods.

  4. Passivation layer breakdown during laser-fired contact formation for photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, A.; DebRoy, T.; Palmer, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Low resistance laser-fired ohmic contacts (LFCs) can be formed on the backside of Si-based solar cells using microsecond pulses. However, the impact of these longer pulse durations on the dielectric passivation layer is not clear. Retention of the passivation layer during processing is critical to ensure low recombination rates of electron-hole pairs at the rear surface of the device. In this work, advanced characterization tools are used to demonstrate that although the SiO 2 passivation layer melts directly below the laser, it is well preserved outside the immediate LFC region over a wide range of processing parameters. As a result, low recombination rates at the passivation layer/wafer interface can be expected despite higher energy densities associated with these pulse durations.

  5. The formation and evolution of layered structures in porous media: effects of porosity and mechanical dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoofs, Stan; Trompert, Ron A.; Hansen, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Horizontally layered structures can develop in porous or partially molten environments, such as hydrothermal systems, magmatic intrusions and the early Earth's mantle. The porosity f of these natural environments is typically small. Since dissolved chemical elements unlike heat cannot diffuse

  6. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Yip, Ngai Yin; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide

  7. Smooth Interfacial Scavenging for Resistive Switching Oxide via the Formation of Highly Uniform Layers of Amorphous TaOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Ryosuke; Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2018-02-14

    We demonstrate that the inclusion of a Ta interfacial layer is a remarkably effective strategy for forming interfacial oxygen defects at metal/oxide junctions. The insertion of an interfacial layer of a reactive metal, that is, a "scavenging" layer, has been recently proposed as a way to create a high concentration of oxygen defects at an interface in redox-based resistive switching devices, and growing interest has been given to the underlying mechanism. Through structural and chemical analyses of Pt/metal/SrTiO 3 /Pt structures, we reveal that the rate and amount of oxygen scavenging are not directly determined by the formation free energies in the oxidation reactions of the scavenging metal and unveil the important roles of oxygen diffusibility. Active oxygen scavenging and highly uniform oxidation via scavenging are revealed for a Ta interfacial layer with high oxygen diffusibility. In addition, the Ta scavenging layer is shown to exhibit a highly uniform structure and to form a very flat interface with SrTiO 3 , which are advantageous for the fabrication of a steep metal/oxide contact.

  8. Formation of macroscopic surface layers on Fe(0) electrocoagulation electrodes during an extended field trial of arsenic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, Case M; Bandaru, Siva R S; Surorova, Elena; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-06-01

    Extended field trials to remove arsenic (As) via Fe(0) electrocoagulation (EC) have demonstrated consistent As removal from groundwater to concentrations below 10 μg L(-1). However, the coulombic performance of long-term EC field operation is lower than that of laboratory-based systems. Although EC electrodes used over prolonged periods show distinct passivation layers, which have been linked to decreased treatment efficiency, the spatial distribution and mineralogy of such surface layers have not been investigated. In this work, we combine wet chemical measurements with sub-micron-scale chemical maps and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine the chemical composition and mineral phase of surface layers formed during long-term Fe(0) EC treatment. We analyzed Fe(0) EC electrodes used for 3.5 months of daily treatment of As-contaminated groundwater in rural West Bengal, India. We found that the several mm thick layer that formed on cathodes and anodes consisted of primarily magnetite, with minor fractions of goethite. Spatially-resolved SAED patterns also revealed small quantities of CaCO3, Mn oxides, and SiO2, the source of which was the groundwater electrolyte. We propose that the formation of the surface layer contributes to decreased treatment performance by preventing the migration of EC-generated Fe(II) to the bulk electrolyte, where As removal occurs. The trapped Fe(II) subsequently increases the surface layer size at the expense of treatment efficiency. Based on these findings, we discuss several simple and affordable methods to prevent the efficiency loss due to the surface layer, including alternating polarity cycles and cleaning the Fe(0) surface mechanically or via electrolyte scouring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitride alloy layer formation of duplex stainless steel using nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Lailatul, P. H.; Fathaen, A. A.; Norinsan, K.; Haider, J.

    2018-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) shows a good corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties. However, DSS performance decrease as it works under aggressive environment and at high temperature. At the mentioned environment, the DSS become susceptible to wear failure. Surface modification is the favourable technique to widen the application of duplex stainless steel and improve the wear resistance and its hardness properties. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to nitride alloy layer on the surface of duplex stainless steel by the nitriding process temperature of 400°C and 450°C at different time and ammonia composition using a horizontal tube furnace. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyzer are used to analyse the morphology, composition and the nitrided alloy layer for treated DSS. The micro hardnesss Vickers tester was used to measure hardness on cross-sectional area of nitrided DSS. After nitriding, it was observed that the hardness performance increased until 1100 Hv0.5kgf compared to substrate material of 250 Hv0.5kgf. The thickness layer of nitride alloy also increased from 5μm until 100μm due to diffusion of nitrogen on the surface of DSS. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the nitride layer consists of iron nitride, expanded austenite and chromium nitride. It can be concluded that nitride alloy layer can be produced via nitriding process using tube furnace with significant improvement of microstructural and hardness properties.

  10. Adaptive panoramic tomography with a circular rotational movement for the formation of multifocal image layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. S.; Cho, H. S.; Park, Y. O.; Je, U. K.; Hong, D. K.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Panoramic radiography with which only structures within a certain image layer are in focus and others out of focus on the panoramic image has become a popular imaging technique especially in dentistry. However, the major drawback to the technique is a mismatch between the structures to be focused and the predefined image layer mainly due to the various shapes and sizes of dental arches and/or to malpositioning of the patient. These result in image quality typically inferior to that obtained using intraoral radiographic techniques. In this paper, to overcome these difficulties, we suggest a new panoramic reconstruction algorithm, the so-called adaptive panoramic tomography (APT), capable of reconstructing multifocal image layers with no additional exposure. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies with a circular rotational movement and investigated the image performance.

  11. Rule of formation of aluminum electroplating layer on Q235 steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhimin; Feng, Qiuyuan; Shen, Changbin; Gao, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum electroplating layer on Q235 steel in AlCl3-NaCl-KCl molten salt was obtained, and the rule of its nucleation and growth were investigated. The results showed that aluminum electroplating layer formed through nucleating and growing of aluminum particles, and thickened by delaminating growth pattern. At low current density, the morphology of aluminum particles took on flake-like, while at high current density they changed to spherical. The thickness of plating layer increases with increasing current density and electroplating time. The relationship between the plating thickness (δ) and electroplating time (t) or current density (i) can be expressed as δ = 0.28f(137), and δ = 1.1i(1-39). Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein Adsorption and Layer Formation at the Stainless Steel-Solution Interface Mediates Shear-Induced Particle Formation for an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, Cavan K; Heinrich, Frank; Curtis, Joseph E; Raman, Sid; Miller, Maria A; Hudson, Steven D

    2018-03-05

    Passage of specific protein solutions through certain pumps, tubing, and/or filling nozzles can result in the production of unwanted subvisible protein particles (SVPs). In this work, surface-mediated SVP formation was investigated. Specifically, the effects of different solid interface materials, interfacial shear rates, and protein concentrations on SVP formation were measured for the National Institute of Standards and Technology monoclonal antibody (NISTmAb), a reference IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). A stainless steel rotary piston pump was used to identify formulation and process parameters that affect aggregation, and a flow cell (alumina or stainless steel interface) was used to further investigate the effect of different interface materials and/or interfacial shear rates. SVP particles produced were monitored using flow microscopy or flow cytometry. Neutron reflectometry and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring were used to characterize adsorption and properties of NISTmAb at the stainless steel interface. Pump/shear cell experiments showed that the NISTmAb concentration and interface material had a significant effect on SVP formation, while the effects of interfacial shear rate and passage number were less important. At the higher NISTmAb concentrations, the adsorbed protein became structurally altered at the stainless steel interface. The primary adsorbed layer remained largely undisturbed during flow, suggesting that SVP formation at high NISTmAb concentration was caused by the disruption of patches and/or secondary interactions.

  13. Formation of protein/surfactant adsorption layer at the air/water interface as studied by dilational surface rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovskaya, A A; Noskov, B A; Lin, S-Y; Loglio, G; Miller, R

    2011-08-25

    The dynamic dilatational surface elasticity of mixed solutions of globular proteins (β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) with cationic (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)) and anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) surfactants was measured as a function of the surfactant concentration and surface age. If the cationic surfactant concentration exceeds a certain critical value, the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity of BLG/DTAB and BSA/DTAB solutions become nonmonotonous and resemble those of mixed solutions of proteins with guanidine hydrochloride. This result indicates not only the destruction of the protein tertiary structure in the surface layer of mixed solution but also a strong perturbation of the secondary structure. The corresponding kinetic dependencies for protein solutions with added anionic surfactants are always monotonous, thereby revealing a different mechanism of the adsorption layer formation. One can assume that the secondary structure is destroyed to a lesser extent in the latter case and hinders the formation of loops and tails at the interface. The increase of the solution's ionic strength by the addition of sodium chloride results in stronger changes of the protein conformations in the surface layer and the appearance of a local maximum in the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity in a relatively narrow range of SDS concentration. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Theory of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A A

    2015-02-21

    This work aims to extend the study of the formation of the electric double layer at the interface defined by a solution and an ion-exchange membrane on the basis of the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations, including different values of the counter-ion diffusion coefficient and the dielectric constant in the solution and membrane phases. The network simulation method is used to obtain the time evolution of the electric potential, the displacement electric vector, the electric charge density and the ionic concentrations at the interface between a binary electrolyte solution and a cation-exchange membrane with total co-ion exclusion. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the interfacial electric potential and the surface electric charge are compared with analytical solutions derived in the limit of the shortest times by considering the Poisson equation for a simple cationic diffusion process. The steady-state results are justified from the Gouy-Chapman theory for the diffuse double layer in the limits of similar and high bathing ionic concentrations with respect to the fixed-charge concentration inside the membrane. Interesting new physical insights arise from the interpretation of the process of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface on the basis of a membrane model with total co-ion exclusion.

  15. Influence of layering on the formation and growth of solution pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine ePetrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In karst systems, hydraulic conduits called solution pipes (or wormholes are formed as a result of the dissolution of limestone rocks by the water surcharged with CO2. The solution pipes are the end result of a positive feedback between spatial variations in porosity in the rock matrix and the local dissolution rate. Here, we investigate numerically the effect of rock stratification on the solution pipe growth, using a simple model system with a number of horizontal layers, which are less porous than the rest of the matrix. Stratification is shown to affect the resulting piping patterns in a variety of ways. First of all, it enhances the competition between the pipes, impeding the growth of the shorter ones and enhancing the flow in the longer ones, which therefore grow longer. This is reflected in the change of the pipe length distribution, which becomes steeper as the porosity contrast between the layers is increased. Additionally, stratification affects the shapes of individual solution pipes, with characteristic widening of the profiles in between the layers and narrowing within the layers. These results are in qualitative agreement with the piping morphologies observed in nature.

  16. Formation of Layered Double Hydroxides on Alumina Surface in Aqueous Solutions Containing Divalent Metal Cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Mašátová, P.; Novotná, P.; Jirátová, Květa

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2009), s. 425-432 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deposition * layered double hydroxides * supported mixed oxides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2009

  17. A mechanical model for surface layer formation on self-lubricating ceramic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jiupeng; Valefi, Mahdiar; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    To predict the thickness of a self-lubricating layer on the contact surface of ceramic composite material containing a soft phase during dry sliding test, a mechanical model was built to calculate the material transfer of the soft second phase in the composite to the surface. The tribological test,

  18. Formation of a nanocrystalline layer on the surface of stone wool fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Korsgaard, Martin; Kirkegaard, Lise Frank

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we report a simple approach for creating a nanocrystalline layer on the surface of stone wool fibers (SWFs) with a basalt-like composition. The approach is based on a preoxidation process of the SWFs in atmospheric air at a temperature around the glass transition temperature...

  19. Formation of layered microstructure in the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, S.; Kammlott, G.W.; Tiefel, T.H.; Chen, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The layered grain microstructure is essential for overcoming the weak link problem and ensuring high transport critical currents in the cuprate superconductors. In this paper we discuss the processing and the mechanisms for layer information in Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. In melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O, sympathetic nucleation on previously nucleated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ plates during solidification appears to be dominant mechanism for the formation of parallel plate-shaped grains. In the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ribbons, the interface reaction between the superconductor layer and the silvers substrate seems to be the main mechanism for the c-axis texturing of the layered grains. The drastically different critical current behavior in the c-axis textured Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ribbons is discussed in terms of possible differences in the nature of the twist and tilt grain boundaries. (orig.)

  20. Argon-ion-induced formation of nanoporous GaSb layer: Microstructure, infrared luminescence, and vibrational properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, D. P.; Som, T., E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 005 (India); Kanjilal, A. [Department of Physics, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India); Satpati, B. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Dhara, S. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Das, T. D. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, APC Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2014-07-21

    Room temperature implantation of 60 keV Ar{sup +}-ions in GaSb to the fluences of 7 × 10{sup 16} to 3 × 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup −2} is carried out at two incidence angles, viz 0° and 60°, leading to formation of a nanoporous layer. As the ion fluence increases, patches grow on the porous layer under normal ion implantation, whereas the porous layer gradually becomes embedded under a rough top surface for oblique incidence of ions. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the existence of nanocrystallites embedded in the ion-beam amorphized GaSb matrix up to the highest fluence used in our experiment. Oxidation of the nanoporous layers becomes obvious from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman mapping. The correlation of ion-beam induced structural modification with photoluminescence signals in the infrared region has further been studied, showing defect induced emission of additional peaks near the band edge of GaSb.

  1. Irreversible fouling of membrane bioreactors due to formation of a non-biofilm gel-like layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorasgari, Eskandar; Larsen, Poul; Zheng, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), known to contribute to fouling in membrane bio-reactors (MBR)s, are generally divided into bound and free EPS. The free EPS are able to form a gel-like layer on the membrane active surface. The mechanisms involved in formation of such layer and its effects...... on performance of the MBR membranes were studied. The free EPS, extracted by centrifugation and microfiltration, contained a significant amount of humic-like substances. Under static contact to the membrane, adsorption of humic-like substances to the membrane occurred and could be explained by conventional...... adsorption kinetics. Due to static adsorption, surface roughness of the membrane declined significantly indicating that adsorbed matters to the membrane filled the cavities of the membrane surface. Filtration of the free EPS caused 50% water flux decline. The fouling resistance linearly increased...

  2. Effects of Fermented Sumach on the Formation of Slime Layer of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Kırmusaoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens in hospitals, and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial staphylococcal foreign-body infections related to biofilm formation are a serious threat, demanding new therapeutic and preventive strategies. Implantation of intravenous catheters and surgical implantation of prosthetic implants carry a risk of infection. In order to prevent all these effects of biofilms, a study was designed to observe the possible antibacterial effect of sumach (Rhus coriaria on the biofilm formation of S. aureus. Material and Methods: The influence of varying concentrations of sumach on the formation of biofilms by 13 strains of Staphylococcus aureus was tested by a microelisa assay. Results: The significant differences between varying concentrations of sumach (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µl/ml were observed in four methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and nine methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (p<0.05. In bacteria, a dose-related decrease in the formation of slime, which is a major virulence factor of staphylococcal infections, was observed. Conclusion: In our study, using 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µl/ml of sumach, thirteen strains lost, 17%, 22%, 28% and 48% respectively of their capacity to produce biofilms. Sumach, which is a herbal product, can decrease the formation of biofilm, which is a major virulence factor in staphylococcal infections.

  3. INVESTIGATING THE fFORMATION OF INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS AND THE VARIATION OF BOND STRENGTH BETWEEN Al-Cu LAYERS AFTER ANNEALING IN PRESENCE OF NICKEL BETWEEN LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of post-rolling annealing heat treatment on the formation of intermetallic compounds between Al-Cu strips, in the presence of nickel coating on the Cu strips, was investigated. In addition, the effect of post-rolling annealing and intermetallic compounds on the bond strength of Al-Cu strips was evaluated. In order to prepare samples, Cu strips were coated with nickel by electroplating process. After surface preparing, Cu strips were placed between two Al strips and roll bonded. This method is used for producing Al-Ni-Cu composites. Then the samples were annealed at 773K for 2 h. The formation of intermetallic compounds was studied using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Also, in order to investigate bond strength of Al-Cu after post-rolling annealing heat treatment, samples were produced using nickel powder and nickel coating. Then bond strength of strips was investigated using peeling test. The results revealed that by post-rolling annealing of layers, the bond strength between Al-Cu strips decreases dramatically.

  4. Formation and preservation of greigite (Fe3S4) in a thick sediment layer from the central South Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxing; Mei, Xi; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Yanguang; Ge, Shulan

    2018-04-01

    Sediments from continental shelves are sensitive to changes in both oceanic and terrestrial conditions, and, therefore, magnetic minerals in such sediments are affected strongly by depositional and diagenetic processes. Here, we investigated systematically an N-S transect of three sediment cores from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS) muddy area. Magnetic data indicate the presence of a horizontally distributed thick greigite-bearing layer. From an age model based on published magnetostratigraphy, accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating ages, sedimentary characteristics and foraminiferal analysis, this layer was deposited within marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-13, following an enhanced sulphidic period over MIS 21-19 when the YS Warm Current and the associated YS Cold Water Mass were strong and where underlying sediments have higher total organic carbon, total sulphur and trace element molybdenum contents. Trace element cadmium enrichment in the greigite-bearing layers is documented for the first time, which indicates that weakly sulphidic (i.e. with trace levels of free H2S) conditions existed before greigite formed in a sulphidic environment during early diagenesis. It also indicates that subsequent conditions free of oxygen and H2S after greigite formation are more favourable for its preservation. We propose that organic matter supply was controlled over an extended period by moderate primary productivity. The combined effects of palaeoclimate and local tectonic subsidence were crucial for the formation and preservation of the identified greigite. In brief, our study improves understanding of the formation and preservation mechanisms of greigite in continental shelf sediments and reveals mid-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changes in the SYS.

  5. Immiscibility of Fluid Phases at Magmatic-hydrothermal Transition: Formation of Various PGE-sulfide Mineralization for Layered Basic Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, L.; Borisenko, A.; Morgunov, K.; Zhukova, I.

    2007-12-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the Chineisky Pluton (Transbaikal Region, Russia) were studied using cryometry, microthermometry, Raman-spectroscopy, LA ICP- MS, scanning electronic microscopy, gas-chromatography and isotopic methods. This allowed us to document some examples of fluid phase separation resulting in formation of different types of PGE-sulfide mineralization for layered basic intrusions. The results obtained show at least three generations of fluid separated from boiling residual alumosilicate intercumulus liquid of the Merensky Reef. The earliest fluid phase composed of homogenous high-dense methane and nitrogen gas mixture was identified in primary gas and co-existing anomalous fluid inclusions from symplectitic quartz. The next generation, heterophase fluid, composed of brines containing a free low-dense (mostly of carbon dioxide) gas phase, was observed in primary multiphase and coexisting gas-rich inclusions of miarolitic quartz crystals. The latest generation was also a heterophase fluid (low salinity water-salt solution and free low-dense methane gas phase) found in primary water-salt and syngenetic gas inclusions from peripheral zones of miarolitic quartz crystals. For the Chineisky Pluton reduced endocontact magmatogene fluids changed to oxidized low salinity hydrothermal fluids in exocontact zone. This resulted in formation of sulfide-PGE enrichment marginal zones of intrusion. The results obtained give us a possibility to suggest that: 1) Fluid phase separation is a typical feature of magmatogene fluids for layered basic intrusions. 2) Reduced fluids can extract and transport substantial PGE and sulfide concentrations. 3) Oxidation of reduced fluids is one of the most important geochemical barriers causing abundant PGE minerals and sulfides precipitation. This in turn results in both formation of PGE reefs or enriched contact zones of layered basic intrusions. This work was supported by

  6. Colonization and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus on endothelial cell layers under flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnemose, Rasmus Birkholm; Antoinette Asferg, Cecilie; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and known for causing vascular infections such as sepsis and infective endocarditis. It has previously been proposed that S. aureus succeed in colonization of the endothelial wall by specific surface attachment likely followed by biofilm formation....... Furthermore, S. aureus is known to invade human cells, which has been proposed to promote persistence through immune and antibiotic evasion. In the current study, we sought to investigate endothelial colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation by S. aureus using a newly developed in vitro flow chamber model....... We show that under physiological shear rates, S. aureus utilizes cellular invasion to enable the following surface colonization and biofilm formation. These observations might help explain the success of S. aureus as a bloodstream pathogen and guide further studies in S. aureus pathogenesis...

  7. Formation of presheath and current-free double layer in a two-electron-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio

    1992-02-01

    Development of the steady-state potential in a two-temperature-electron plasma in contact with the wall is investigated analytically. It is shown that if the hot- to cold electron temperature ratio is greater than ten, the potential drop in the presheath, which is allowed to have either a small value characterized by the cold electrons or a large value by the hot electrons, discontinuously changes at a critical value for the hot- to total electron density ratio. It is also found that the monotonically decreasing potential structure which consists of the first presheath, a current-free double layer, the second presheath, and the sheath can be steadily formed in a lower range of the hot- to total electron density ratio around the critical value. The current-free double layer is set up due to existence of the two electron species and cold ions generated by ionization so as to connect two presheath potentials at different levels. (author)

  8. Syllabic discrimination in premature human infants prior to complete formation of cortical layers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Fournier, Marc; Kongolo, Guy; Goudjil, Sabrina; Dubois, Jessica; Grebe, Reinhard; Wallois, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of linguistic functions in the human brain remains elusive. Although some auditory capacities are described before term, whether and how such immature cortical circuits might process speech are unknown. Here we used functional optical imaging to evaluate the cerebral responses to syllables at the earliest age at which cortical responses to external stimuli can be recorded in humans (28- to 32-wk gestational age). At this age, the cortical organization in layers is not completed. ...

  9. Transition layers formation on the boundaries carbon fiber-copper dependence on the active additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlosinski, W.; Pietrzak, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic problem connected with fabrication of carbon fiber-copper composites is to overcome the problem of low wettability of carbon fiber by copper. One of the possible solutions of that problem is to use the copper doped with active metals. The investigation results of transition layer forming on the phase boundary in the system have been discussed in respect of the kind and content of active elements added to the copper. 5 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Formation of convective cells in the scrape-off layer of the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Adamek, J.; Brotankova, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Duran, I.; Panek, R.; Stejskal, P.; Zacek, F.; Devynck, P.; Gunn, J.; Martines, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Van Oost, G.; Hansen, T.; Gorler, T.; Svoboda, V.

    2004-01-01

    We describe experiments with a biased electrode inserted into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the CASTOR tokamak. The resulting radial and poloidal electric field and plasma density modification are measured by means of Langmuir probe arrays with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Poloidally and radially localized stationary structures of the electric field (convective cells) are identified and a related significant modification of the particle transport in the SOL is observed. (authors)

  11. Direct insight into grains formation in Si layers grown on 3C-SiC by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaka, Rami; Portail, Marc; Vennéguès, Philippe; Alquier, Daniel; Michaud, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated the influence of the 3C-SiC layer on the subsequent growth of Si epilayers. We were able to give a direct evidence that the rotation in the Si epilayer of 90° around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of an antiphase boundary in the 3C-SiC layer as shown in the figure above. Thus, increasing the layer thickness of the 3C-SiC leads to a direct improvement of the crystalline quality of the subsequent Si epilayer. (a) Cross-section bright-field TEM image of the Si/3C-SiC layer stack along two 3C-SiC zone axes [1 −1 0] and [1 1 0] (equivalent to [1 −1 1] and [1 1 2] in Si, respectively), (b) dark field image selecting a (2 0 −2) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset, (c) dark field image selecting a (−1 1 −1) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset. The dotted white line in the images show the position of the defect in the 3C-SiC layer. - Abstract: This work presents a structural study of silicon (Si) thin films grown on cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) by chemical vapor deposition. The presence of grains rotated by 90° around the growth direction in the Si layer is directly related to the presence of antiphase domains on the 3C-SiC surface. We were able to provide a direct evidence that the 90° rotation of Si grains around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of antiphase boundaries (APBs) in 3C-SiC layer. Increasing the 3C-SiC thickness reduces the APBs density on 3C-SiC surface leading to a clear improvement of the uppermost Si film crystal quality. Furthermore, we observed by high resolution plan-view TEM images the presence of hexagonal Si domains limited to few nm in size. These hexagonal Si domains are inclusions in small Si grains enclosed in larger ones rotated by 90°. Finally, we propose a model of grains formation in the Si layer taking into consideration the effect

  12. Growth and microstructure of iron nitride layers and pore formation in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, C.; Mader, W. [Univ. Bonn, Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie, Bonn (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Layers of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N and {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N on ferrite were produced by nitriding iron single crystals or rolled sheets of iron in flowing ammonia at 520 C. The nitride layers were characterised using X-ray diffraction, light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The compound layer consists of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N at the surface and of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N facing the ferrite. After 4 h of nitriding, pores develop in the near surface region of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N showing more or less open porosity. Growth of the entire compound layer as well as of the massive and the porous {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N sublayer is diffusion-controlled and follows a parabolic growth rate. The {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N layer is formed as a transition phase within a narrow interval of nitrogen activity, and it shows little growth in thickness. The transformation of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N to {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N is topotactic, where the orientation of the closed-packed iron layers of the crystal structures is preserved. Determination of lattice plane spacings was possible by X-ray diffraction, and this was correlated to the nitrogen content of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N. While the porous layer exhibits an enhanced nitrogen content corresponding to the chemical composition Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.1}, the massive e Fe{sub 3}N layer corresponds to Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.0}. The pore formation in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.1} is concluded to be the result of excess nitrogen atoms on non-structural sites, which have a high mobility. Therefore, recombination of excess nitrogen to molecular N{sub 2} at lattice defects is preferred in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N with high nitrogen content compared to stoichiometric {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.0} with nitrogen on only structural sites. (orig.)

  13. Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A.; Benassi, A.; Tosatti, E.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic approach under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

  14. Diagnostic study of multiple double layer formation in expanding RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Paul, Manash Kumar; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Nath, Aparna

    2018-03-01

    Intensely luminous double layers develop and then expand in size in a visibly glowing RF discharge produced using a plasma source consisting of a semi-transparent cylindrical mesh with a central electrode, in a linear plasma chamber. Although RF discharge is known to be independent of device geometry in the absence of magnetic field, the initiation of RF discharge using such a plasma source results in electron drift and further expansion of the plasma in the vessel. The dynamics of complex plasma structures are studied through electric probe diagnostics in the expanding RF plasma. The measurements made to study the parametric dependence of evolution of double layer structures are analyzed and presented here. The plasma parameter measurements suggest that the complex potential structures initially form with low potential difference between the layers and then gradually expand producing burst oscillations. The present study provides interesting information about the stability of plasma sheath and charge particle dynamics in it that are important to understand the underlying basic sheath physics along with applications in plasma acceleration and propulsion.

  15. A radar study of emigratory flight and layer formation by insects at dawn over southern Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, D R; Smith, A D; Chapman, J W

    2008-02-01

    Radar observations have consistently shown that high-altitude migratory flight in insects generally occurs after mass take-off at dusk or after take-off over a more extended period during the day (in association with the growth of atmospheric convection). In this paper, we focus on a less-studied third category of emigration - the 'dawn take-off' - as recorded by insect-monitoring radars during the summer months in southern England. In particular, we describe occasions when dawn emigrants formed notable layer concentrations centred at altitudes ranging from ca. 240 m to 700 m above ground, very probably due to the insects responding to local temperature maxima in the atmosphere, such as the tops of inversions. After persisting for several hours through the early morning, the layers eventually merged into the insect activity building up later in the morning (from 06.00-08.00 h onwards) in conjunction with the development of daytime convection. The species forming the dawn layers have not been positively identified, but their masses lay predominantly in the 16-32 mg range, and they evidently formed a fauna quite distinct from that in flight during the previous night. The displacement and common orientation (mutual alignment) characteristics of the migrants are described.

  16. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  17. Formation and electrical characteristics of silicon dioxide layers by use of nitric acid oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imal, S.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuba, K.; Asuha; Ishikawa, Y.; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2005-01-01

    SiO 2 /Si structure can be formed at low temperatures by use of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) oxidation of Si (NAOS) method. When Si wafers are immersed in ∼ 40 wt% HNO 3 solutions at 108 deg C, ∼ 1 nm SiO 2 layers are formed. The subsequent immersion in 68 wt% HNO 3 (i.e., azeotropic mixture of HNO 3 with water) at 121 deg C increases the SiO 2 thickness. The 3,5 nm-thick SiO 2 layers produced by this two-step NAOS method possess a considerably low leakage current density (e.g. 1 x 10 2 A/cmi 2 at the forward gate bias, V G , of 1.5 V), in spite of the low temperature oxidation, and further decreased (e.g., 8 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at V G = 1.5 V) by post-metallization annealing at 250 deg C in hydrogen atmosphere. In order to increase the SiO 2 thickness, a bias voltage is applied during the NAOS method. When 10 V is applied to Si with respect to a Pt counter electrode both immersed in 1 M HNO 3 solutions at 25 deg C, SiO 2 layers with 8 nm thickness can be formed for 1 h(Authors)

  18. Study the formation of porous surface layer for a new biomedical titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib Mohammed, Mohsin; Diwan, Abass Ali; Ali, Osamah Ihsan

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, chemical treatment using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation and subsequent thermal treatment was applied to create a uniform porous layer over the surface of a new metastable β-Ti alloy. The results revealed that this oxidation treatment can create a stable ultrafine porous film over the oxidized surface. This promoted the electrochemical characteristics of H2O2-treated Ti-Zr-Nb (TZN) alloy system, presenting nobler corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) comparing with untreated sample.

  19. High-permeance crosslinked PTMSP thin-film composite membranes as supports for CO2 selective layer formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan D. Bazhenov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the development of the composite gas separation membranes for post-combustion CO2 capture, little attention is focused on the optimization of the membrane supports, which satisfy the conditions of this technology. The primary requirements to the membrane supports are concerned with their high CO2 permeance. In this work, the membrane supports with desired characteristics were developed as high-permeance gas separation thin film composite (TFC membranes with the thin defect-free layer from the crosslinked highly permeable polymer, poly[1-(trimethylsilyl-1-propyne] (PTMSP. This layer is insoluble in chloroform and can be used as a gutter layer for the further deposition of the СО2-selective materials from the organic solvents. Crosslinking of PTMSP was performed using polyethyleneimine (PEI and poly (ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE as crosslinking agents. Optimal concentrations of PEI in PTMSP and PEGDGE in methanol were selected in order to diminish the undesirable effect on the final membrane gas transport characteristics. The conditions of the kiss-coating technique for the deposition of the thin defect-free PTMSP-based layer, namely, composition of the casting solution and the speed of movement of the porous commercial microfiltration-grade support, were optimized. The procedure of post-treatment with alcohols and alcohol solutions was shown to be crucial for the improvement of gas permeance of the membranes with the crosslinked PTMSP layer having thickness ranging within 1–2.5 μm. The claimed membranes showed the following characteristics: CO2 permeance is equal to 50–54 m3(STP/(m2 h bar (18,500–20,000 GPU, ideal CO2/N2 selectivity is 3.6–3.7, and their selective layers are insoluble in chloroform. Thus, the developed high-permeance TFC membranes are considered as a promising supports for further modification by enhanced CO2 selective layer formation. Keywords: Thin-film composite membrane

  20. Effects of Fermented Sumach on the Formation of Slime Layer of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kırmusaoğlu, Sahra; Yurdugül, Seyhun; Koçoğlu, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens in hospitals, and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial staphylococcal foreign-body infections related to biofilm formation are a serious threat, demanding new therapeutic and preventive strategies. Implantation of intravenous catheters and surgical implantation of prosthetic implants carry a risk of infection. In order to prevent all these effects of biofilms, a study ...

  1. Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.

    monsoon, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8018, doi:10.1029/2001JC000831, 2002. 1. Introduction [2] Several monsoon lows and depressions, that contrib- ute substantially to the summer monsoon rainfall of the Indian subcontinent, form over the Bay of Bengal... August–September, 1990,Murtyetal.[1996]foundthatthemixedlayerbasedon a temperature criterion is deeper than that using density. The regionwithrelativelyfreshwaterwithhighSSTappearstobe an excellent breeding ground for the formation of monsoon depressions...

  2. Durability of simulated waste glass: effects of pressure and formation of surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Mosley, W.C.; Whitkop, P.G.; Saturday, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    The leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste glass was studied at elevated pressures and anticipated storage temperatures. An integrated approach, which combined leachate solution analyses with both bulk and surface studies, was used to study the corrosion process. Compositions of leachates were evaluated by colorimetry and atomic absorption. Used in the bulk and surface analyses were optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray, diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, infrared reflectance spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results from this study show that there is no significant adverse effect of pressure, up to 1500 psi and 90 0 C, on the chemical durability of simulated SPR waste glass leached for one month in deionized water. In addition, the leached glass surface layer was characterized by an adsorbed film rich in minor constituents from the glass. This film remained on the glass surface even after leaching in relatively alkaline solutions at elevated pressures at 90 0 C for one month. The sample surface area to volume of leachant ratios (SA/V) was 10:1 cm -1 and 1:10 cm -1 . The corrosion mechanisms and surface and subsurface layers produced will be discussed along with the potential importance of these results to repository storage

  3. In situ monitoring of structure formation in the active layer of polymer solar cells during roll-to-roll coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea H. Rossander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The active layer crystallization during roll-to-roll coating of organic solar cells is studied in situ. We developed an X-ray setup where the coater unit is an integrated part of the small angle X-ray scattering instrument, making it possible to control the coating process while recording scattering measurements in situ, enabling us to follow the crystal formation during drying. By varying the distance between the coating head and the point where the X-ray beam hits the film, we obtained measurements of 4 different stages of drying. For each of those stages, the scattering from as long a foil as possible is summed together, with the distance from coating head to scattering point kept constant. The results are average crystallographic properties for the active layer coated on a 30 m long foil. With this insight into the dynamics of crystallization in a roll-coated polymer film, we find that the formation of textured and untextured crystallites seems uncorrelated, and happens at widely different rates. Untextured P3HT crystallites form later in the drying process than expected which may explain previous studies speculating that untextured crystallization depends on concentration. Textured crystallites, however, begin forming much earlier and steadily increases as the film dries, showing a development similar to other in situ studies of these materials.

  4. Multilayered Films Produced by Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Chitosan and Alginate as a Potential Platform for the Formation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of multilayered films with tunable properties could offer new routes to produce biomaterials as a platform for 3D cell cultivation. In this study, multilayered films produced with five bilayers of chitosan and alginate (CHT/ALG were built using water-soluble modified mesyl and tosyl–CHT via layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly. NMR results demonstrated the presences of mesyl (2.83 ppm and tosyl groups (2.39, 7.37 and 7.70 ppm in the chemical structure of modified chitosans. The buildup of multilayered films was monitored by quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM-D and film thickness was estimated using the Voigt-based viscoelastic model. QCM-D results demonstrated that CHT/ALG films constructed using mesyl or tosyl modifications (mCHT/ALG were significantly thinner in comparison to the CHT/ALG films constructed with unmodified chitosan (p < 0.05. Adhesion analysis demonstrated that human adipose stem cells (hASCs did not adhere to the mCHT/ALG multilayered films and formed aggregates with sizes between ca. 100–200 µm. In vitro studies on cell metabolic activity and live/dead staining suggested that mCHT/ALG multilayered films are nontoxic toward hACSs. Multilayered films produced via LbL assembly of ALG and off-the-shelf, water-soluble modified chitosans could be used as a scaffold for the 3D aggregates formation of hASCs in vitro.

  5. Self-lubricating layer consist of polytetrafluoroethylene micropowders and fluorocarbon acrylate resin formation on surface of geotextile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiaoyun; He, Lifen; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Mingqiao

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the self-lubricating layer consist of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowders and two types fluorocarbon acrylate resin were formed on the surface of geotextile, to improves the evenness and decreases the frictional angle value of geotextile surface. The surface and cross section morphology of geotextile were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was determined that composite resin emulsion was evenly coated on the surface of geotextile, to form a even and complete self-lubricating layer, and it was strongly combined with the geotextile due to formation of the transition layer. The tensile fracture stress and strain values of samples were evaluated by mechanical properties measurement, the tensile fracture stress of the untreated and treated sample was approximately 5329 kN/m and 5452 kN/m while the elongation at the yield of them was approximately 85% to 83.9%, respectively. In addition, the frictional angle values of municipal solid waste (MSW)/geotextile interface was measured by the tilt table test, the values of untreated sample was 28.1° and 24.2° under the dry and moist condition, the values of treated sample was 16.2° and 9.8°, respectively.

  6. Calcium dependent formation of tubular assemblies by recombinant S-layer proteins in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Nuriye; Ostermann, Kai; Rödel, Gerhard

    2011-03-01

    Surface layer proteins have the appealing property to self-assemble in nanosized arrays in solution and on solid substrates. In this work, we characterize the formation of assembly structures of the recombinant surface layer protein SbsC of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATTC 12980, which was tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tubular structures formed by the protein in vivo are retained upon bursting the cells by osmotic shock; however, their average length is decreased. During dialysis, monomers obtained by treatment with chaotropic chemicals recrystallize again to form tube-like structures. This process is strictly dependent on calcium (Ca2 + ) ions, with an optimal concentration of 10 mM. Further increase of the Ca2 + concentration results in multiple non-productive nucleation points. We further show that the lengths of the S-layer assemblies increase with time and can be controlled by pH. After 48 h, the average length at pH 9.0 is 4.13 µm compared to 2.69 µm at pH 5.5. Successful chemical deposition of platinum indicates the potential of recrystallized mSbsC-eGFP structures for nanobiotechnological applications.

  7. Super-resolution by elliptical bubble formation with PtOx and AgInSbTe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jooho; Hwang, Inoh; Yoon, Duseop; Park, Insik; Shin, Dongho; Kikukawa, Takashi; Shima, Takayuki; Tominaga, Junji

    2003-01-01

    The recording and retrieval of signals below 100 nm mark length were attempted with elliptical bubble-type super-resolution technology with platinum oxide (PtO x ) and ductile AgInSbTe layers, using the same optical system as that of a digital versatile disk (a 635 nm wavelength red laser system). The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of over 47 dB for 100 nm mark length signals (over 43 dB for 80 nm mark length signals) was obtained, which can be considered as a commercially acceptable level of CNR. The recording mechanism of the sample disk was shown through the transmission electron microscopy cross-section image observation to be by rigid elliptical bubble formation at the PtO x layer located between the AgInSbTe layers. The results of this report represent the potential for a much higher-density storage using the red laser system and a subterabyte optical storage using the blue laser system

  8. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  9. Formation of electrostatic double-layers and electron-holes in a low pressure mercury plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraconi, G; Maciel, Homero S

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies of the formation of electrostatic double layers (DLs) and electron-holes (e-holes) are reported. The measurements were performed in the positive column of a mercury arc discharge operating in the low-pressure range of (2.0-14.0) x 10 -2 Pa with current density in the range of (3.0-8.0) x 10 3 A m -2 . Stable and unstable modes of the discharge were identified as the current was gradually increased, keeping constant the vapour pressure. The discharge remains stable until a critical current from which a slight increase of the current leads to an unstable regime characterized by high discharge impedance and strong oscillations. This mode ceased after a DL was formed in the plasma column. To induce the DL formation and to transport it smoothly along the discharge column, a low intensity B-field (7-10) x 10 -3 T produced by a movable single coil was used. The B-field locally increases the electron current density and makes the DL form at the centre of the magnetic constriction where it remained at rest. Electrostatic potential structures compatible with ordinary DLs and multiple-layers could be formed in the plasma column by dealing with the combined effects of the operational parameters of the discharge. It is noticeable that a pure e-hole, which is a symmetric triple-layer having a bell shape potential profile, could easily be formed by means of this experimental technique. A partial kinetic description, based on the space charge structure derived from an experimental e-hole, is presented in order to infer the charged particle populations that could contribute to the space charge of the e-hole. Evidence is shown that strong e-hole formation might be driven by an ion beam, therefore it could not be formed in isolation since its formation requires a nearby ion accelerating potential structure. Probe measurements of the plasma properties, at various radial positions of the stable positive column, are also presented. In the stable mode, prior to

  10. Formation of an interface layer in thermionic oxide cathodes for CRT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A A; Barratt, D S; Ray, A K; Hassan, A K

    2004-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic techniques were employed to study the surface morphological changes of oxide cathodes and nickel caps as a result of cathode activation extending over periods of 1-12 h. Elemental analysis of barium, strontium, tungsten, magnesium and aluminium was performed using energy dispersion x-ray spectroscopy. An abrupt change was observed after activation longer than 3 h. Conduction through well activated cathode assemblies was found to be due to intergranular electron tunnelling at low temperatures (T ≤ 500 K), while trapping and detrapping at grain boundaries becomes the dominant mechanism at high temperatures (T ≥ 500 K). The contribution of the interfacial layer to conductivity was found to be significant for cathodes activated for smaller periods

  11. Formation of Silver Nanoplates Layer on Amino Group Grafted Silica Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis PILIPAVICIUS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the self-arrangement of Ag nanoplates on (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES silanized silica coatings was investigated. Silica coatings were made by sol-gel method and silanized in two different ways. The first one includes silanization in acidic 2-propanol solution, the other one – in dry toluene. Coatings were silanized by using different amounts of APTES in case of silanization in 2-propanol. Silver nanoplates layer of functionalized silica coatings was obtained via self-assembly. Coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM, water contact angle measurements (CA, FT-IR analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Research showed that dense Ag nanoplates arrangement occurs when there is a high amount of amino groups on the surface.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.8405

  12. Femtosecond laser patterning, synthesis, defect formation, and structural modification of atomic layered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Eunpa; Hwang, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes recent research on laser-based processing of twodimensional (2D) atomic layered materials, including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Ultrafast lasers offer unique processing routes that take advantage of distinct interaction mechanisms with 2D materials to enable extremely localized energy deposition. Experiments have shown that ablative direct patterning of graphene by ultrafast lasers can achieve resolutions of tens of nanometers, as well as single-step pattern transfer. Ultrafast lasers also induce non-thermal excitation mechanisms that are useful for the thinning of TMDCs to tune the 2D material bandgap. Laser-assisted site-specific doping was recently demonstrated where ultrafast laser radiation under ambient air environment could be used for the direct writing of high-quality graphene patterns on insulating substrates. This article concludes with an outlook towards developing further advanced laser processing with scalability, in situ monitoring strategies and potential applications.

  13. Dry air effects on the copper oxides sensitive layers formation for ethanol vapor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, A.; Bejaoui, A.; Ouali, H.; Akkari, F. Chaffar; Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M.; Kanzari, M.; Bessais, B.; Maaref, M.

    2011-01-01

    The copper oxide films have been deposited by thermal evaporation and annealed under ambient air and dry air respectively, at different temperatures. The structural characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. They showed the presences of two hydroxy-carbonate minerals of copper for annealing temperatures below 250 deg. C. Above this temperature the conductivity measurements during the annealing process, show a transition phase from metallic copper to copper oxides. The copper oxides sensitivity toward ethanol were performed using conductivity measurements at the working temperature of 200 deg. C. A decrease of conductivity was observed under ethanol vapor, showing the p-type semi-conducting characters of obtained copper oxide films. It was found that the sensing properties of copper oxide toward ethanol depend mainly on the annealing conditions. The best responses were obtained with copper layers annealed under dry air.

  14. Dry air effects on the copper oxides sensitive layers formation for ethanol vapor detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labidi, A., E-mail: Ahmed_laabidi@yahoo.fr [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Bejaoui, A.; Ouali, H. [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Akkari, F. Chaffar [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs, ENIT, Universite de Tunis el Manar, BP 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis (Tunisia); Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et de technologies de l' energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs, ENIT, Universite de Tunis el Manar, BP 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis (Tunisia); Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et de technologies de l' energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Maaref, M. [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2011-09-15

    The copper oxide films have been deposited by thermal evaporation and annealed under ambient air and dry air respectively, at different temperatures. The structural characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. They showed the presences of two hydroxy-carbonate minerals of copper for annealing temperatures below 250 deg. C. Above this temperature the conductivity measurements during the annealing process, show a transition phase from metallic copper to copper oxides. The copper oxides sensitivity toward ethanol were performed using conductivity measurements at the working temperature of 200 deg. C. A decrease of conductivity was observed under ethanol vapor, showing the p-type semi-conducting characters of obtained copper oxide films. It was found that the sensing properties of copper oxide toward ethanol depend mainly on the annealing conditions. The best responses were obtained with copper layers annealed under dry air.

  15. Experience-driven formation of parts-based representations in a model of layered visual memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia Jitsev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character modulated by an oscillatory rhythm. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units and their synaptic connections. Choosing human face recognition as a test task, we show that, under the condition of open-ended, unsupervised incremental learning, the system is able to form memory traces for individual faces in a parts-based fashion. On a lower memory layer the synaptic structure is developed to represent local facial features and their interrelations, while the identities of different persons are captured explicitly on a higher layer. An additional property of the resulting representations is the sparseness of both the activity during the recall and the synaptic patterns comprising the memory traces.

  16. Soil surface organic layers in Arctic Alaska: spatial distribution, rates of formation, and microclimatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Carson; Mann, Daniel H.; Verbyla, David L.; Kunz, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Organic layers of living and dead vegetation cover the ground surface in many permafrost landscapes and play important roles in ecosystem processes. These soil surface organic layers (SSOLs) store large amounts of carbon and buffer the underlying permafrost and its contained carbon from changes in aboveground climate. Understanding the dynamics of SSOLs is a prerequisite for predicting how permafrost and carbon stocks will respond to warming climate. Here we ask three questions about SSOLs in a representative area of the Arctic Foothills region of northern Alaska: (1) What environmental factors control the thickness of SSOLs and the carbon they store? (2) How long do SSOLs take to develop on newly stabilized point bars? (3) How do SSOLs affect temperature in the underlying ground? Results show that SSOL thickness and distribution correlate with elevation, drainage area, vegetation productivity, and incoming solar radiation. A multiple regression model based on these correlations can simulate spatial distribution of SSOLs and estimate the organic carbon stored there. SSOLs develop within a few decades after a new, sandy, geomorphic surface stabilizes but require 500–700 years to reach steady state thickness. Mature SSOLs lower the growing season temperature and mean annual temperature of the underlying mineral soil by 8 and 3°C, respectively. We suggest that the proximate effects of warming climate on permafrost landscapes now covered by SSOLs will occur indirectly via climate's effects on the frequency, extent, and severity of disturbances like fires and landslides that disrupt the SSOLs and interfere with their protection of the underlying permafrost.

  17. Electrochemistry of metal complexes applications from electroplating to oxide layer formation

    CERN Document Server

    Survila, Arvydas

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to sequentially cover all the major stages of electrochemical processes (mass transport, adsorption, charge transfer), with a special emphasis on their deep interrelation. Starting with general considerations on equilibria in solutions and at interfaces as well as on mass transport, the text acquaints readers with the theory and common experimental practice for studying electrochemical reactions of metals complexes. The core part of the book deals with all important aspects of electroplating, including a systematic discussion of co-deposition of metals and formation of alloys.

  18. Enhanced corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy by a silane-based solution treatment after an in-situ formation of the Mg(OH)2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fubao; Shen, Jun; Gao, Runhua; Xie, Xiong; Luo, Xiong

    2016-03-01

    A novel organic-inorganic Mg(OH)2/silane surface layer has been developed for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the immersion tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and sellotape tests showed that the Mg(OH)2/silane-based composite surface layer possessed excellent corrosion resistance and very good adhesion due to the formation of Si-O-Mg bond between Mg(OH)2 layer and silane layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests results indicated that for the long-term corrosion protection of AZ31 the increase of the curing temperature improved the impedance of the composited layer when the curing temperature was lower than 130 °С. However, the impedance of the composited layer deceased when the curing temperature was more than 130 °С due to the carbonization of the silane layer.

  19. Study on the formation of heterogeneous structures in leached layers during the corrosion process of glass

    OpenAIRE

    Willemien Anaf

    2010-01-01

    Le verre, corrodé dans des conditions naturelles, montre souvent des hétérogénéités dans la couche lixiviée, comme une structure lamellaire ou des inclusions de MnO2 ou Ca3(PO4)2. La formation de ces hétérogénéités n’est pas encore bien comprise. Des structures de ce type ont été produites artificiellement en laboratoire en immergeant des échantillons de verre dans des solutions riches en métaux. Les résultats expérimentaux ont été comparés avec des théories décrivant la corrosion du verre.Gl...

  20. On possible mechanisms of rim-layer formation in the high-burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovskii, V.; Likhanskii, V.

    2006-01-01

    Two models determining threshold conditions for onset of UO 2 fuel restructuring are developed. In the first model the conditions for fuel restructuring are related with development of the Kinoshita instability. The second model is based upon attainment of critical values by radius of over pressurised bubbles. Possibility of large bubbles formation on dislocation lines is considered with account of Xe atoms drift in the field of mechanical strain of dislocation and irradiation-induced Xe drift in vacancy concentration gradient. Computer simulations of behaviour of point defects and Xe atoms near dislocation core are carried out, results are compared with experimental data. The computer program is developed which consistently calculates point defects and Xe atoms distributions inside fuel grain with account of their behaviour near dislocation core

  1. Atomic layer deposition of Pd and Pt nanoparticles for catalysis: on the mechanisms of nanoparticle formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackus, Adriaan J M; Weber, Matthieu J; Thissen, Nick F W; Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Vervuurt, René H J; Assali, Simone; Bol, Ageeth A; Verheijen, Marcel A; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of Pd and Pt nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been studied extensively in recent years for the synthesis of nanoparticles for catalysis. For these applications, it is essential to synthesize nanoparticles with well-defined sizes and a high density on large-surface-area supports. Although the potential of ALD for synthesizing active nanocatalysts for various chemical reactions has been demonstrated, insight into how to control the nanoparticle properties (i.e. size, composition) by choosing suitable processing conditions is lacking. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the reaction mechanisms during the nucleation stage of metal ALD. In this work, nanoparticles synthesized with four different ALD processes (two for Pd and two for Pt) were extensively studied by transmission electron spectroscopy. Using these datasets as a starting point, the growth characteristics and reaction mechanisms of Pd and Pt ALD relevant for the synthesis of nanoparticles are discussed. The results reveal that ALD allows for the preparation of particles with control of the particle size, although it is also shown that the particle size distribution is strongly dependent on the processing conditions. Moreover, this paper discusses the opportunities and limitations of the use of ALD in the synthesis of nanocatalysts. (paper)

  2. Formation of apatite layers on modified canasite glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C A; Kokubo, T; Reaney, I M; Hatton, P V; James, P F

    2002-03-05

    Canasite glass-ceramics were modified by either increasing the concentration of calcium in the glass, or by the addition of P2O5. Samples of these novel materials were placed in simulated body fluid (SBF), along with a control material (commercial canasite), for periods ranging from 12 h to 28 days. After immersion, surface analysis was performed using thin film X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, silicon, and phosphorus in the SBF solution were measured using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. No apatite was detected on the surface of commercial canasite, even after 28 days of immersion in SBF. A crystalline apatite layer was formed on the surface of a P2O5-containing canasite after 5 days, and after 3 days for calcium-enriched canasite. Ion release data suggested that the mechanism for apatite deposition was different for P2O5 and non-P2O5-containing glass-ceramics. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Anomalous or regular capacitance? The influence of pore size dispersity on double-layer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, N.; Rodner, M.; Schreiber, A.; Jeongwook, J.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-09-01

    The energy storage mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors is governed by ion electrosorption at the electrode surface. This process requires high surface area electrodes, typically highly porous carbons. In common organic electrolytes, bare ion sizes are below one nanometer but they are larger when we consider their solvation shell. In contrast, ionic liquid electrolytes are free of solvent molecules, but cation-anion coordination requires special consideration. By matching pore size and ion size, two seemingly conflicting views have emerged: either an increase in specific capacitance with smaller pore size or a constant capacitance contribution of all micro- and mesopores. In our work, we revisit this issue by using a comprehensive set of electrochemical data and a pore size incremental analysis to identify the influence of certain ranges in the pore size distribution to the ion electrosorption capacity. We see a difference in solvation of ions in organic electrolytes depending on the applied voltage and a cation-anion interaction of ionic liquids in nanometer sized pores.

  4. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Moody, G.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2015-06-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ˜2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with "ab initio" theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A1 ' phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal.

  5. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Karaiskaj, D.; Moody, G.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ∼2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A 1 ′ phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal

  6. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: karaiskaj@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Moody, G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colarado 80305 (United States); Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R. [Chernivtsi Department, Frantsevich Institute of Material Sciences Problems, The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5, Iryna Vilde St., 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Romero, A. H. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P.O. Box 2205, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ∼2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A{sub 1}{sup ′} phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal.

  7. Formation of a Molecular Wire Using the Chemically Adsorbed Monomolecular Layer Having Pyrrolyl Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Ogawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular wire containing polypyrrolyl conjugate bonds has been prepared by a chemical adsorption technique using 1,1,1-trichloro-12-pyrrolyl-1-siladodecane (PNN and an electrooxidative polymerization technique, and the conductivity of the molecular wire without any dopant has been measured by using AFM/STM at room temperature. When sample dimension measured was about 0.3 nm (thickness of the conductive portion in the PNN monomolecular layer ×100 μm (the average width of an electric path ×2 mm (the distance between Pt positive electrode and the AFM tip covered with Au, the conductivity of the polymerized PNN molecular wire at room temperature was larger than 1.6 × 105 S/cm both in an atmosphere and in a vacuum chamber of 10−5 Torr. The activation energy obtained by Arrhenius' plots was almost zero in the temperature range between 320 and 450 K.

  8. Protoporphyrin IX formation and photobleaching in different layers of normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Idorn, Luise W; Philipsen, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    human skin was tape-stripped and incubated with 20% methylaminolevulinate (MAL) or 20% hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) for 3 h. Fluorescence microscopy quantified PpIX accumulation in epidermis, superficial, mid and deep dermis, down to 2 mm. PpIX photobleaching by light-emitting diode (LED, 632 nm, 18......Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for various skin disorders, and selective targeting of specific skin structures is desirable. The objective was to assess accumulation of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching within skin layers using different photosensitizers and light sources. Normal...... and 37 J/cm(2)), intense pulsed light (IPL, 500-650 nm, 36 and 72 J/cm(2)) and long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL, 595 nm, 7.5 and 15 J/cm(2)) was measured using fluorescence photography and microscopy. We found higher PpIX fluorescence intensities in epidermis and superficial dermis in HAL-incubated skin than...

  9. Germ-layer commitment and axis formation in sea anemone embryonic cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Anastasia; Genikhovich, Grigory; Pukhlyakova, Ekaterina; Demilly, Adrien; Kraus, Yulia; Technau, Ulrich

    2018-02-20

    Robust morphogenetic events are pivotal for animal embryogenesis. However, comparison of the modes of development of different members of a phylum suggests that the spectrum of developmental trajectories accessible for a species might be far broader than can be concluded from the observation of normal development. Here, by using a combination of microsurgery and transgenic reporter gene expression, we show that, facing a new developmental context, the aggregates of dissociated embryonic cells of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis take an alternative developmental trajectory. The self-organizing aggregates rely on Wnt signals produced by the cells of the original blastopore lip organizer to form body axes but employ morphogenetic events typical for normal development of distantly related cnidarians to re-establish the germ layers. The reaggregated cells show enormous plasticity including the capacity of the ectodermal cells to convert into endoderm. Our results suggest that new developmental trajectories may evolve relatively easily when highly plastic embryonic cells face new constraints. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Single track and single layer formation in selective laser melting of niobium solid solution alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling GUO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM was employed to fabricate Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si (at% alloy, using pre-alloyed powders prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP. A series of single tracks and single layers under different processing parameters was manufactured to evaluate the processing feasibility by SLM, including laser power, scanning speed, and hatch distance. Results showed that continuous single tracks could be fabricated using proper laser powers and scanning velocities. Both the width of a single track and its penetration depth into a substrate increased with an increase of the linear laser beam energy density (LED, i.e., an increase of the laser power and a decrease of the scanning speed. Nb, Ti, Si, Cr, and Al elements distributed heterogeneously over the melt pool in the form of swirl-like patterns. An excess of the hatch distance was not able to interconnect neighboring tracks. Under improper processing parameters, a balling phenomenon occurred, but could be eliminated with an increased LED. This work testified the SLM-processing feasibility of Nb-based alloy and promoted the application of SLM to the manufacture of niobium-based alloys. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Melt pool, Niobium alloy, Powder metallurgy, Selective laser melting

  11. Deformation-phase transformation coupling mechanism of white layer formation in high speed machining of FGH95 Ni-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jin [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250353 (China); Liu, Zhanqiang, E-mail: melius@sdu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Shandong (China); Lv, Shaoyu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Ni-based superalloy represents a significant metal portion of the aircraft critical structural and engine components. When these critical structural components in aerospace industry are manufactured with the objective to reach high reliability levels and excellent service performance, surface integrity is one of the most relevant parameter used for evaluating the quality of finish machined surfaces. In the study of surface integrity, the formation white layer is a very important research topic. The formation of white layer on the Ni-based superalloy machined surface will reduce the machined parts service performance and fatigue life. This paper was conducted to determine the effects of cutting speed on white layer formation in high speed machining of FGH95 Ni-based superalloy. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to analyze the elements and microstructures of white layer and bulk materials. The statistical analysis for grain numbers was executed to study the influence of cutting speed on the grain refinement in the machined surface. The investigation results showed that white layer exhibits significantly different microstructures with the bulk materials. It shows densification, no obvious structural features characteristic. The microstructure and phase of Ni-based solid solution changed during cutting process. The increase of cutting speed causes the increase of white layer thickness when the cutting speed is less than 2000 m/min. However, white layer thickness reduces with the cutting speed further increase. The higher the cutting speed, the more serious grains refinement in machined surface. 2-D FEM for machining FGH95 were carried out to simulate the cutting process and obtained the cutting temperature field, cutting strain field and strain rate field. The impact mechanisms of cutting temperature, cutting strain and strain rates on white layer formation were analyzed. At last, deformation-phase transformation

  12. Formation of organic layer on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumaru, Naoki, E-mail: yasuma@fukui-nct.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Sentoku, Eisuke [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Kiuchi, Junsuke [Eyetec Co., Ltd., Sabae, Fukui 916-0016 (Japan)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surface analyses of two types of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on titanium were conducted. • The parallel-oriented ultrafine LIPSS showed the almost same roughness and chemical states as the non-irradiated Ti surface. • The well-known perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were typically covered with an organic layer similar to a cellulose derivative. - Abstract: Two types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formed on titanium by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, τ = 180 fs, ν = 1 kHz) in air were investigated experimentally. At a laser fluence F above the ablation threshold, LIPSS with a minimum mean spacing of D < λ⁄2 were observed perpendicular to the laser polarization direction. In contrast, for F slightly below than the ablation threshold, ultrafine LIPSS with a minimum value of D < λ/10 were formed parallel to the polarization direction. The surface roughness of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was almost the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, unlike the high roughness of the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS. In addition, although the surface state of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were covered with an organic thin film similar to a cellulose derivative that cannot be easily formed by conventional chemical synthesis. The results of these surface analyses indicate that these two types of LIPSS are formed through different mechanisms. This fs-laser processing technique may become a new technology for the artificial synthesis of cellulose derivatives.

  13. Long-wave-instability-induced pattern formation in an evaporating sessile or pendent liquid layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Duan, Fei

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics and stability of an evaporating liquid layer subject to vapor recoil, capillarity, thermocapillarity, ambient cooling, viscosity, and negative or positive gravity combined with buoyancy effects in the lubrication approximation. Using linear theory, we identify the mechanisms of finite-time rupture, independent of thermocapillarity and direction of gravity, and predict the effective growth rate of an interfacial perturbation which reveals competition among the mechanisms. A stability diagram is predicted for the onset of long-wave (LW) evaporative convection. In the two-dimensional simulation, we observe well-defined capillary ridges on both sides of the valley under positive gravity and main and secondary droplets under negative gravity, while a ridge can be trapped in a large-scale drained region in both cases. Neglecting the other non-Boussinesq effects, buoyancy does not have a significant influence on interfacial evolution and rupture time but makes contributions to the evaporation-driven convection and heat transfer. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with a stronger buoyancy effect. The flow field and interface profile jointly manifest the LW Marangoni-Rayleigh-Bénard convection under positive gravity and the LW Marangoni convection under negative gravity. In the three-dimensional simulation of moderate evaporation with a random perturbation, the rupture patterns are characterized by irregular ridge networks with distinct height scales for positive and negative gravity. A variety of interfacial and internal dynamics are displayed, depending on evaporation conditions, gravity, Marangoni effect, and ambient cooling. Reasonable agreement is found between the present results and the reported experiments and simulations. The concept of dissipative compacton also sheds light on the properties of interfacial fractalization.

  14. Formation of titanium nitride layers on titanium metal: Results of XPS and AES investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.; Pfennig, G.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Sirch, M.; Willin, E.

    1988-09-01

    The reaction of titanium metal with gaseous nitrogen and ammonia at temperatures of 890 0 C leads to the formation of nitridic overlayers on the metallic substrate. The thicknesses of the overlayers increase with increasing reaction time. Under comparable conditions ammonia reacts much slower than nitrogen. XPS and AES depth profile analyses show continuous changes of the in-depth compositions of the overlayers. This can be interpreted in terms of a very irregular thickness of the overlayers, an assumption which is substantiated by local AES analyses and by the observation of a pronounced crystalline structure of the substrate after annealing pretreatment, which can give rise to locally different reaction rates. The depth profile is also influenced by the broad ranges of stability of the titanium nitride phases formed during the reaction. The quantitative analysis of the titanium/nitrogen overlayers by AES is difficult because of the overlap of titanium and nitrogen Auger peaks. In quantitative XPS analysis problems arise due to difficulties in defining Ti 2p peak areas. This work presents practical procedures for the quantitative evaluation by XPS and AES of nitridic overlayers with sufficient accuracy. (orig.) [de

  15. SiC formation for a solar cell passivation layer using an RF magnetron co-sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of amorphous silicon carbide film formation for a solar cell passivation layer. The film was deposited on p-type silicon (100) and glass substrates by an RF magnetron co-sputtering system using a Si target and a C target at a room-temperature condition. Several different SiC [Si1-xCx] film compositions were achieved by controlling the Si target power with a fixed C target power at 150 W. Then, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Si1-xCx films were studied. The structural properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The optical properties were achieved by UV-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The performance of Si1-xCx passivation was explored by carrier lifetime measurement. PMID:22221730

  16. Microstructures and phase formations in the surface layer of an AISI D2 steel treated with pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, J.X.; Grosdidier, T.; Zhang, K.M.; Gao, B.; Hao, S.Z.; Dong, C.

    2007-01-01

    The nanostructures and metastable phase transformations in the surface layer of an AISI D2 steel treated with high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) were investigated. The surface structure is marked by two distinct features, i.e. the formation of sub-micrometer fine austenite γ grains (50-150 nm), and the disappearance of carbides via dissolution and crater eruption. The γ phase directly grows from the melt and is retained down to room temperature. Although the cooling rate is as high as 10 7 K/s in our case, the martensitic transformation could completely be suppressed. Such an effect is due to the increased stability of the austenite phase through grain refinement and chemistry modification

  17. Interaction of single and multi-layer graphene oxide with fetal bovine serum: assessing the protein corona formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Farias, Marcelo Alexandre de; Portugal, Rodrigo Villares; Costa, Carlos Alberto; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro, E-mail: lidiane.franqui@pos.ft.unicamp.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Coluci, Vitor Rafael [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: When in contact with biological systems, nanomaterials surface adsorbs biomolecules present in the biological medium, mainly proteins, yielding a molecular coating 'protein corona' which affects the biological response and toxicity of the nanomaterials. Several factors can influence the protein corona formation, such as nanomaterial physicochemical properties and the nature of biological medium. In this work, we have performed a comparative study between the single and multi-layer graphene oxide nanomaterials (SL-GO and ML-GO, respectively) after their interaction with DMEM cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). Bare GOs and FBS protein corona-coated GOs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The protein corona composition was characterized by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results showed that, after interaction with FBS, GO particle size increased due to the protein corona formation. Besides, the presence of proteins also has significantly increased the dispersion stability of SLGO and ML-GO over time. Whereas the main proteins have been identified in both SL-GO and ML-GO, SL-GO has adsorbed larger amounts of proteins than ML-GO. Finally, the number of GO layers influences its interactions with FBS proteins and dispersion stability in DMEM medium. These results point out implications for in vitro cytotoxicity assessment and biomedical applications of these promising carbon nanomaterials. (author)

  18. Interaction of single and multi-layer graphene oxide with fetal bovine serum: assessing the protein corona formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Farias, Marcelo Alexandre de; Portugal, Rodrigo Villares; Costa, Carlos Alberto; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Coluci, Vitor Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Full text: When in contact with biological systems, nanomaterials surface adsorbs biomolecules present in the biological medium, mainly proteins, yielding a molecular coating 'protein corona' which affects the biological response and toxicity of the nanomaterials. Several factors can influence the protein corona formation, such as nanomaterial physicochemical properties and the nature of biological medium. In this work, we have performed a comparative study between the single and multi-layer graphene oxide nanomaterials (SL-GO and ML-GO, respectively) after their interaction with DMEM cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). Bare GOs and FBS protein corona-coated GOs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The protein corona composition was characterized by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results showed that, after interaction with FBS, GO particle size increased due to the protein corona formation. Besides, the presence of proteins also has significantly increased the dispersion stability of SLGO and ML-GO over time. Whereas the main proteins have been identified in both SL-GO and ML-GO, SL-GO has adsorbed larger amounts of proteins than ML-GO. Finally, the number of GO layers influences its interactions with FBS proteins and dispersion stability in DMEM medium. These results point out implications for in vitro cytotoxicity assessment and biomedical applications of these promising carbon nanomaterials. (author)

  19. Mechanisms of oxide layer formation and destruction on a chromia former nickel base alloy in HTR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouillard, F.

    2007-10-01

    Haynes 230 alloy which contains 22 wt.% chromium could be a promising candidate material for structures and heat exchangers (maximum operating temperature: 850-950 C) in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). The feasibility demonstration involves to valid its corrosion resistance in the reactor specific environment namely impure helium. The alloys surface reactivity was investigated at temperatures between 850 and 1000 C. We especially focused on the influence of different parameters such as concentrations of impurities in the gas phase (carbon monoxide and methane, water vapour/hydrogen ratio), alloy composition (activities of Cr and C, alloying element contents) and temperature. Two main behaviours have been revealed: the formation of a Cr/Mn rich oxide layer at 900 C and its following reduction at higher temperatures. At 900 C, the water vapour is the main oxidizing gas. However in the initial times, the carbon monoxide reacts at the metal/oxide interface which involves a gaseous transport through the scale; CO mainly oxidizes the minor alloying elements aluminium and silicon. Above a critical temperature TA, the carbon in solution in the alloy reduces chromia. To ascribe the scale destruction, a model is proposed based on thermodynamic interfacial data for the alloy, oxide layer morphology and carbon monoxide partial pressure in helium; the model is then validated regarding experimental results and observations. (author)

  20. A Study on Characterization of Light-Induced Electroless Plated Ni Seed Layer and Silicide Formation for Solar Cell Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaloo, Ashkan Vakilipour; Joo, Seung Ki; Es, Firat; Turan, Rasit; Lee, Doo Won

    2018-03-01

    Light-induced electroless plating (LIEP) is an easy and inexpensive method that has been widely used for seed layer deposition of Nickel/Copper (Ni/Cu)-based metallization in the solar cell. In this study, material characterization aspects of the Ni seed layer and Ni silicide formation at different bath conditions and annealing temperatures on the n-side of a silicon diode structure have been examined to achieve the optimum cell contacts. The effects of morphology and chemical composition of Ni film on its electrical conductivity were evaluated and described by a quantum mechanical model. It has been found that correlation exists between the theoretical and experimental conductivity of Ni film. Residual stress and phase transformation of Ni silicide as a function of annealing temperature were evaluated using Raman and XRD techniques. Finally, transmission line measurement (TLM) technique was employed to determine the contact resistance of Ni/Si stack after thermal treatment and to understand its correlation with the chemical-structural properties. Results indicated that low electrical resistive mono-silicide (NiSi) phase as low as 5 mΩ.cm2 was obtained.

  1. Using quantitative magnetic resonance methods to understand better the gel-layer formation on polymer-matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikac, Urša; Kristl, Julijana; Baumgartner, Saša

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful, non-invasive technique that can help improve our understanding of the hydrogel layer formed on swellable, polymer-matrix tablets, as well as the layer's properties and its influence on drug release. In this paper, the authors review the NMR and MRI investigations of hydrophilic, swellable polymers published since 1994. The review covers NMR studies on the properties of water and drugs within hydrated polymers. In addition, MRI studies using techniques for determining the different moving-front positions within the swollen tablets, the polymer concentration profiles across them, the influence of the incorporated drug, and so on, are presented. Some complementary methods are also briefly presented and discussed. Using MRI, the formation of a hydrogel along with simultaneous determination of the drug's position within it can be observed non-invasively. However, the MRI parameters can influence the signal's intensity and therefore they need to be considered carefully in order to prevent any misinterpretation of the results. MRI makes possible an in situ investigation of swollen-matrix tablets and provides valuable information that can lead, when combined with other techniques, to a better understanding of polymeric systems and a more effective development of optimal dosage forms.

  2. Nano-beta-tricalcium phosphates synthesis and biodegradation: 2. Biodegradation and apatite layer formation on nano-{beta}-TCP synthesized via microwave treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Elkhooly, Tarek A, E-mail: nrcfifi@yahoo.co [Department of Biomaterials, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-06-01

    The degradation and/or apatite layer precipitation ability of porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) samples treated and untreated with microwave radiation during synthesis is investigated. Microwave heating was used to accelerate the formation of CDHA with the Ca/P ratio 1.5 in a shorter processing time which later forms {beta}-TCP at around 650 {sup 0}C. Soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for several periods (4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h) is performed in a cumulative manner. The deposition of an apatite layer is followed through diffuse reflected FT-IR, SEM and EDS. A microwave-treated sample having a smaller particle size than its parent induces the formation of a homogeneous carbonated apatite layer on its surface. On the other hand, the parent {beta}-TCP sample exhibited less ability to induce Ca-P formation after being soaked in SBF. The formation of an apatite layer is attributed to the increase in surface area consequent to reduced particle and grain sizes besides the presence of a minor amount of hydroxyapatite phase in the microwave-treated {beta}-TCP sample. The results prove that it is possible to control the biodegradation and apatite layer formation on sintered {beta}-TCP porous disks through controlling the particle size.

  3. Formation of edge transport barrier in the ergodic field layer of helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K; Ohdachi, S; Watanabe, F; Narihara, K; Morisaki, T; Sakakibara, S; Morita, S; Goto, M; Ida, K; Masuzaki, S; Miyazawa, K; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K W; Yoshinuma, M

    2006-01-01

    On the Large Helical Device (LHD), low to high confinement (L-H) transition and edge transport barrier (ETB) formation were observed in the low beta regime ((β dia ) dia ): volume-averaged beta derived from diamagnetic measurement) as well as in relatively high beta regime (>1.5%). In most of ETB plasmas electron density preferentially increases in the edge region without a substantial rise of the edge electron temperature. The ETB zone develops inside the ergodic field layer calculated in the vacuum field. The ETB formation strongly destabilizes edge coherent modes such as m/n = 2/3 or 1/2 (m, n: poloidal and toroidal mode numbers), because the plasma edge region is in the magnetic hill. The ETB is partially destroyed by the combination of these edge MHD modes and ELM-like activities. For a particular experimental condition, the forced generation of a sizable m/n = 1/1 magnetic island near the edge by application of external field perturbations facilitates the L-H transition at a lower electron density and suppresses edge MHD modes and ELM-like activities to lower levels

  4. A novel Eulerian approach for modelling cyanobacteria movement: Thin layer formation and recurrent risk to drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen Quang, Tri; Kahawita, René; Hamilton, David; de Boutray, Marie Laure; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2017-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms are being reported in an increasing number of water bodies worldwide. As drinking water (DW) treatment can be disrupted by CB, in addition to long term management plans, short term operational decision-making tools are needed that enable an understanding of the temporal variability of CB movement in relation to drinking water intakes. In this paper, we propose a novel conservative model based on a Eulerian framework and compare results with data from CB blooms in Missisquoi Bay (Québec, Canada). The hydrodynamic model considered the effects of wind and light intensity, demonstrated that current understanding of cell buoyancy in relation to light intensity in full-scale systems is incomplete and some factors are yet to be fully characterized. Factors affecting CB buoyancy play a major role in the formation of a thin surface layer that could be of ecological importance with regards to cell concentrations and toxin production. Depending on velocities, wind contributes either to the accumulation or to the dispersion of CB. Lake recirculation effects have a tendency to create zones of low CB concentrations in a water body. Monitoring efforts and future research should focus on short-term variations of CB throughout the water column and the characterization of factors other than light intensity that affect cell buoyancy. These factors are critical for understanding the risk of breakthrough into treatment plants as well as the formation of surface scums and subsequent toxin production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Double-layer model of the venus night-side ionosphere formation from the radio occultation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmolovskij, I.K.; Savich, N.A.; Samoznaev, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the radio occultation experiments performed with the Venera space probes - 9, 10(1975) and Pioneer - Venus satellite (1978) have shown that in most of the cases the electron concentration distribution in the Venus night-side ionosphere in the low solar activity years has two maxima (double-layer profile) whereas in the high activity years - one maximum. The two-component (O + and O 2 + ) diffusion model is suggested that describes naturally the formation of one or two maxima depending on physical conditions in the Venus upper atmosphere. At initial hypothesis accepted is the well-known hypothesis of the night-side ionosphere formation for account of the O + plasma overflow from the day side to the night one. The main idea of the study consists in finding conditions when the upper maximum formed in the O + ion downward current is spaced by height at a certain distance from the lower current caused by the O 2 + ions being formed as a result of O + ion chemical reactions with CO 2 molecules

  6. Effect of Annealed Oxides on the Formation of Inhibition Layer During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of 590Mpa Trip Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Huh, Joo Youl; Lee, Suk Kyu; Park, Rho Bum; Kim, Jong Sang

    2011-01-01

    The selective surface oxidation of a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel containing 1.6 wt.% Mn and 1.5 wt.% Si during annealing at 800 .deg. C was investigated for its influence on the formation of an inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing. The selective oxidation of the alloying elements and the oxide morphology were significantly influenced by the annealing atmosphere. The pure N 2 atmosphere with a dew point -40 .deg. C promoted the selective oxidation of Mn as a crystalline Mn 2 SiO 4 phase, whereas the N 2 + 10% H 2 atmosphere with the same dew point -40 .deg. C promoted the selective oxidation of Si as an amorphous Si-rich oxide phase. During hot-dip galvanizing, the Mn 2 SiO 4 phase was reduced more readily by Al in the Zn bath than the Si-rich oxide phase. Consequently, the pure N 2 atmosphere resulted in a higher formation rate of Fe 2 Al 5 particles at the Zn/steel interface and better galvanizability than the N 2 + 10% H 2 atmosphere

  7. Formation Dynamics of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Following Two-Step Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay B; Milot, Rebecca L; Wright, Adam D; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2016-01-07

    Hybrid metal-halide perovskites have emerged as a leading class of semiconductors for optoelectronic devices because of their desirable material properties and versatile fabrication methods. However, little is known about the chemical transformations that occur in the initial stages of perovskite crystal formation. Here we follow the real-time formation dynamics of MAPbI3 from a bilayer of lead iodide (PbI2) and methylammonium iodide (MAI) deposited through a two-step thermal evaporation process. By lowering the substrate temperature during deposition, we are able to initially inhibit intermixing of the two layers. We subsequently use infrared and visible light transmission, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence lifetime measurements to reveal the room-temperature transformations that occur in vacuum and ambient air, as MAI diffuses into the PbI2 lattice to form MAPbI3. In vacuum, the transformation to MAPbI3 is incomplete as unreacted MAI is retained in the film. However, exposure to moist air allows for conversion of the unreacted MAI to MAPbI3, demonstrating that moisture is essential in making MAI more mobile and thus aiding perovskite crystallization. These dynamic processes are reflected in the observed charge-carrier lifetimes, which strongly fluctuate during periods of large ion migration but steadily increase with improving crystallinity.

  8. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Epitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on face-centered cubic (FCC) crystalline conducting substrate surfaces under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast diffusion direction. For larger than critical island sizes on {110} and {100} FCC substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including void-containing islands, mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The analysis reveals that the pattern formation kinetics follows a universal scaling relation. Division of Materials Sciences & Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (Award No.: DE-FG02-07ER46407).

  9. Effect of Annealed Oxides on the Formation of Inhibition Layer During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of 590Mpa Trip Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Huh, Joo Youl [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk Kyu; Park, Rho Bum; Kim, Jong Sang [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The selective surface oxidation of a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel containing 1.6 wt.% Mn and 1.5 wt.% Si during annealing at 800 .deg. C was investigated for its influence on the formation of an inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing. The selective oxidation of the alloying elements and the oxide morphology were significantly influenced by the annealing atmosphere. The pure N{sub 2} atmosphere with a dew point -40 .deg. C promoted the selective oxidation of Mn as a crystalline Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phase, whereas the N{sub 2} + 10% H{sub 2} atmosphere with the same dew point -40 .deg. C promoted the selective oxidation of Si as an amorphous Si-rich oxide phase. During hot-dip galvanizing, the Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phase was reduced more readily by Al in the Zn bath than the Si-rich oxide phase. Consequently, the pure N{sub 2} atmosphere resulted in a higher formation rate of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} particles at the Zn/steel interface and better galvanizability than the N{sub 2} + 10% H{sub 2} atmosphere.

  10. 3D Voronoi grid dedicated software for modeling gas migration in deep layered sedimentary formations with TOUGH2-TMGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonduà, Stefano; Battistelli, Alfredo; Berry, Paolo; Bortolotti, Villiam; Consonni, Alberto; Cormio, Carlo; Geloni, Claudio; Vasini, Ester Maria

    2017-11-01

    As is known, a full three-dimensional (3D) unstructured grid permits a great degree of flexibility when performing accurate numerical reservoir simulations. However, when the Integral Finite Difference Method (IFDM) is used for spatial discretization, constraints (arising from the required orthogonality between the segment connecting the blocks nodes and the interface area between blocks) pose difficulties in the creation of grids with irregular shaped blocks. The full 3D Voronoi approach guarantees the respect of IFDM constraints and allows generation of grids conforming to geological formations and structural objects and at the same time higher grid resolution in volumes of interest. In this work, we present dedicated pre- and post-processing gridding software tools for the TOUGH family of numerical reservoir simulators, developed by the Geothermal Research Group of the DICAM Department, University of Bologna. VORO2MESH is a new software coded in C++, based on the voro++ library, allowing computation of the 3D Voronoi tessellation for a given domain and the creation of a ready to use TOUGH2 MESH file. If a set of geological surfaces is available, the software can directly generate the set of Voronoi seed points used for tessellation. In order to reduce the number of connections and so to decrease computation time, VORO2MESH can produce a mixed grid with regular blocks (orthogonal prisms) and irregular blocks (polyhedron Voronoi blocks) at the point of contact between different geological formations. In order to visualize 3D Voronoi grids together with the results of numerical simulations, the functionality of the TOUGH2Viewer post-processor has been extended. We describe an application of VORO2MESH and TOUGH2Viewer to validate the two tools. The case study deals with the simulation of the migration of gases in deep layered sedimentary formations at basin scale using TOUGH2-TMGAS. A comparison between the simulation performances of unstructured and structured

  11. Effect of strip temperature on the formation of an Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Monojit [R and D Division, Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur 831001 (India)], E-mail: monoron@yahoo.com; Singh, Shiv Brat [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The theory of nucleation has been employed to derive expressions for the formation of an Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} layer during commercial strip galvanizing. This is then used to show the effect of the strip entry temperature on the nucleation of the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} layer. An attempt was also made to verify this effect through controlled experiments in a hot-dip galvanizing simulator and electron microscopic characterization of a few samples.

  12. The footprints of Saharan air layer and lightning on the formation of tropical depressions over the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno Delgado, Diana C.; Chiao, Sen

    2015-02-01

    The roles of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and lightning during genesis of Tropical Depression (TD) 8 (2006) and TD 12 (2010) were investigated in relation to the interaction of the dust outbreaks with each system and their surrounding environment. This study applied data collected from the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis and 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes projects. Satellite observations from METEOSAT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were also employed for the study of the dust content. Lightning activity data from the Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system were used as another parameter to correlate moist convective overturning and a sign of cyclone formation. The AOD and lightning analysis for TD 8 demonstrated the time-lag connection through their positive contribution to TC-genesis. TD 12 developed without strong dust outbreak, but with lower wind shear (2 m s-1) and an organized Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Overall, the results from the combination of various data analyses in this study support the fact that both systems developed under either strong or weak dust conditions. From these two cases, the location (i.e., the target area) of strong versus weak dust outbreaks, in association with lightning, were essential interactions that impacted TC-genesis. While our dust footprints hypothesis applied under strong dust conditions (i.e., TD 8), other factors (e.g., vertical wind shear, pre-existing vortex and trough location, thermodynamics) need to be evaluated as well. The results from this study suggest that the SAL is not a determining factor that affects the formation of tropical cyclones (i.e., TD 8 and TD 12).

  13. Formation of Long-Lived Color Centers for Broadband Visible Light Emission in Low-Dimensional Layered Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Edward P; Thomas, Tudor H; Quarti, Claudio; Stanton, Michael R; Dashwood, Cameron D; Gillett, Alexander J; Richter, Johannes M; Pearson, Andrew J; Davis, Nathaniel J L K; Sirringhaus, Henning; Price, Michael B; Greenham, Neil C; Beljonne, David; Dutton, Siân E; Deschler, Felix

    2017-12-27

    We investigate the origin of the broadband visible emission in layered hybrid lead-halide perovskites and its connection with structural and photophysical properties. We study ⟨001⟩ oriented thin films of hexylammonium (HA) lead iodide, (C 6 H 16 N) 2 PbI 4 , and dodecylammonium (DA) lead iodide, (C 12 H 28 N) 2 PbI 4 , by combining first-principles simulations with time-resolved photoluminescence, steady-state absorption and X-ray diffraction measurements on cooling from 300 to 4 K. Ultrafast transient absorption and photoluminescence measurements are used to track the formation and recombination of emissive states. In addition to the excitonic photoluminescence near the absorption edge, we find a red-shifted, broadband (full-width at half-maximum of about 0.4 eV), emission band below 200 K, similar to emission from ⟨110⟩ oriented bromide 2D perovskites at room temperature. The lifetime of this sub-band-gap emission exceeds that of the excitonic transition by orders of magnitude. We use X-ray diffraction measurements to study the changes in crystal lattice with temperature. We report changes in the octahedral tilt and lattice spacing in both materials, together with a phase change around 200 K in DA 2 PbI 4 . DFT simulations of the HA 2 PbI 4 crystal structure indicate that the low-energy emission is due to interstitial iodide and related Frenkel defects. Our results demonstrate that white-light emission is not limited to ⟨110⟩ oriented bromide 2D perovskites but a general property of this class of system, and highlight the importance of defect control for the formation of low-energy emissive sites, which can provide a pathway to design tailored white-light emitters.

  14. Formation of crystalline Zn-Al layered double hydroxide precipitates on γ-alumina: the role of mineral dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Livi, Kenneth J T; Xu, Wenqian; Siebecker, Matthew G; Wang, Yujun; Phillips, Brian L; Sparks, Donald L

    2012-11-06

    To better understand the sequestration of toxic metals such as nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) as layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases in soils, we systematically examined the presence of Al and the role of mineral dissolution during Zn sorption/precipitation on γ-Al(2)O(3) (γ-alumina) at pH 7.5 using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), synchrotron-radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), and (27)Al solid-state NMR. The EXAFS analysis indicates the formation of Zn-Al LDH precipitates at Zn concentration ≥0.4 mM, and both HR-TEM and SR-XRD reveal that these precipitates are crystalline. These precipitates yield a small shoulder at δ(Al-27) = +12.5 ppm in the (27)Al solid-state NMR spectra, consistent with the mixed octahedral Al/Zn chemical environment in typical Zn-Al LDHs. The NMR analysis provides direct evidence for the existence of Al in the precipitates and the migration from the dissolution of γ-alumina substrate. To further address this issue, we compared the Zn sorption mechanism on a series of Al (hydr)oxides with similar chemical composition but differing dissolubility using EXAFS and TEM. These results suggest that, under the same experimental conditions, Zn-Al LDH precipitates formed on γ-alumina and corundum but not on less soluble minerals such as bayerite, boehmite, and gibbsite, which point outs that substrate mineral surface dissolution plays an important role in the formation of Zn-Al LDH precipitates.

  15. Atomic layer deposition and post-growth thermal annealing of ultrathin MoO3 layers on silicon substrates: Formation of surface nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Yang, Ren Bin; Yang, Weifeng; Jin, Yunjiang; Lee, Coryl J. J.

    2018-05-01

    Ultrathin MoO3 layers have been grown on Si substrates at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] and ozone (O3) as the Mo- and O-source precursors, respectively. The ultrathin films were further annealed in air at Tann = 550-750 °C for 15 min. Scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been employed to evaluate the morphological and elemental properties as well as their evolutions upon annealing of the thin films. They revealed an interfacial SiOx layer in between the MoO3 layer and the Si substrate; this SiOx layer converted into SiO2 during the annealing; and the equivalent thickness of the MoO3 (SiO2) layer decreased (increased) with the increase in Tann. Particles with diameters smaller than 50 nm emerged at Tann = 550 °C and their sizes (density) were reduced (increased) by increasing Tann to 650 °C. A further increase of Tann to 750 °C resulted in telephone-cord-like MoO3 structures, initiated from isolated particles on the surface. These observations have been discussed and interpreted based on temperature-dependent atomic interdiffusions, surface evaporations, and/or melting of MoO3, which shed new light on ALD MoO3 towards its electronic applications.

  16. Chlorine-Incorporation-Induced Formation of the Layered Phase for Antimony-Based Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangyuan; Yang, Dongwen; Jiang, Youyu; Liu, Tiefeng; Zhao, Xingang; Ming, Yue; Luo, Bangwu; Qin, Fei; Fan, Jiacheng; Han, Hongwei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhou, Yinhua

    2018-01-24

    The environmental toxicity of Pb in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells remains an issue, which has triggered intense research on seeking alternative Pb-free perovskites for solar applications. Halide perovskites based on group-VA cations of Bi 3+ and Sb 3+ with the same lone-pair ns 2 state as Pb 2+ are promising candidates. Herein, through a joint experimental and theoretical study, we demonstrate that Cl-incorporated methylammonium Sb halide perovskites (CH 3 NH 3 ) 3 Sb 2 Cl X I 9-X show promise as efficient solar absorbers for Pb-free perovskite solar cells. Inclusion of methylammonium chloride into the precursor solutions suppresses the formation of the undesired zero-dimensional dimer phase and leads to the successful synthesis of high-quality perovskite films composed of the two-dimensional layered phase favored for photovoltaics. Solar cells based on the as-obtained (CH 3 NH 3 ) 3 Sb 2 Cl X I 9-X films reach a record-high power conversion efficiency over 2%. This finding offers a new perspective for the development of nontoxic and low-cost Sb-based perovskite solar cells.

  17. Morphological effects of single-layer graphene oxide in the formation of covalently bonded polypyrrole composites using intermediate diisocyanate chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitby, Raymond L. D.; Korobeinyk, Alina; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Maekawa, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer graphene oxide (SLGO) possesses carboxylic and hydroxyl groups suitable for reactions with aliphatic or aromatic diisocyanate molecules. TEM analysis reveals that aliphatic diisocyanate molecules caused SLGO to scroll into star-like formations, whereas aromatic diisocyanate molecules retained SGLO in a flat-sheet morphology. TGA confirms the stabilisation of the formed urea and urethane groups on SLGO, but the onset of sheet pyrolysis occurs at a lower temperature due to isocyanate reactions with anhydride and epoxide groups embedded in the sheet. Pendant isocyanate groups act as bridging units to facilitate the attachment of pyrrole molecules, which are then used as anchor sites for the covalent polymerisation of pyrrole to polypyrrole (PPy). The use of FeCl 3 as the polymerisation catalyst generated both covalent and free PPy, but also iron hydroxide nanoparticles were observed decorating the SLGO surface. When using ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and dodecylbenzenesulfonate as a dopant, free PPy could be removed under treatment with solvents to leave a purely covalent system. Discrete regions of SLGO were observed decorated with nanoparticles of PPy along the edge or across the surface of individual sheets. It was found that the flexibility of the SLGO sheet and the type of diisocyanate used directly affected the electrical resistance of the final composite.

  18. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Homoepitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on surfaces of face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline conducting substrates under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast edge diffusion direction. For larger-than-critical island sizes on {110 } and {100 } fcc substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including not-simply-connected void-containing islands mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The evolution of the average island size follows a universal power-law scaling relation, and the evolution of the total edge length of the islands in the complex pattern follows Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics. Our study makes a strong case for the use of electric fields, as precisely controlled macroscopic forcing, toward surface patterning involving complex nanoscale features.

  19. Wetting-layer formation mechanisms of surface-directed phase separation under different quench depths with off-critical compositions in polymer binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Tang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2007-02-01

    Focusing on the off-critical condition, the quench depth dependence of surface-directed phase separation in the polymer binary mixture is numerically investigated by combination of the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook theory and the Flory-Huggins-de Gennes theory. Two distinct situations, i.e., for the wetting, the minority component is preferred by the surface and the majority component is preferred by the surface, are discussed in detail. The simulated results show that the formation mechanism of the wetting layer is affected by both the quench depth and the off-critical extent. Moreover, a diagram, illustrating the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer with various quench depths and compositions, is obtained on the basis of the simulated results. It is found that, when the minority component is preferred by the surface, the growth of the wetting layer can exhibit pure diffusion limited growth law, logarithmic growth law, and Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law. However, when the majority component is preferred by the surface, the wetting layer always grows logarithmically, regardless of the quench depth and the off-critical extent. It is interesting that the surface-induced nucleation can be observed in this case. The simulated results demonstrate that the surface-induced nucleation only occurs below a certain value of the quench depth, and a detailed range about it is calculated and indicated. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer are theoretically analyzed in depth by the chemical potential gradient.

  20. In situ TEM observation of the Boudouard reaction: Multi-layered graphene formation from CO on cobalt nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, G.M.; Zacharaki, E.; Sjåstad, A.O.; Navarro, V.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Kooyman, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Using a MEMS nanoreactor in combination with a specially designed in situ Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) holder and gas supply system, we imaged the formation of multiple layers of graphene encapsulating a cobalt nanoparticle, at 1 bar CO:N2 (1:1) and 500 °C. The cobalt nanoparticle was

  1. Optimal topotactic conversion of layered octosilicate to RWR-type zeolite by separating the formation stages of interlayer condensation and elimination of organic guest molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yusuke; Osada, Shimon; Hosaka, Nami; Terasawa, Taichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate that the separation of two stages of interlayer condensation under refluxing and elimination of organic guests provides the optimal conditions for the formation of RWR-type zeolite from layered octosilicate. The obtained RWR-type zeolite has higher quality than any other RWR-type zeolite reported previously.

  2. Cube Texture Formation of Cu-33at.%Ni Alloy Substrates and CeO2 Buffer Layer for YBCO Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Li, Suo Hong; Ru, Liang Ya

    2014-01-01

    Cube texture formation of Cu-33 at.%Ni alloy substartes and CeO2 buffer layer prepared by chemical solution deposition on the textured substrate were investigated by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and XRD technics systematically. The results shown that a strong cube textured Cu-33at...

  3. Contributions of the wall boundary layer to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets

    KAUST Repository

    SCHLEGEL, FABRICE; WEE, DAEHYUN; MARZOUK, YOUSSEF M.; GHONIEM, AHMED F.

    2011-01-01

    generation along the channel wall, captures unsteady interactions between the wall boundary layer and the jet - in particular, the separation of the wall boundary layer and its transport into the interior. For comparison, we also implement a reduced boundary

  4. Formation mechanisms of neutral Fe layers in the thermosphere at Antarctica studied with a thermosphere-ionosphere Fe/Fe+ (TIFe) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xinzhao; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-06-01

    With a thermosphere-ionosphere Fe/Fe+ (TIFe) model developed from first principles at the University of Colorado, we present the first quantitative investigation of formation mechanisms of thermospheric Fe layers observed by lidar in Antarctica. These recently discovered neutral metal layers in the thermosphere between 100 and 200 km provide unique tracers for studies of fundamental processes in the space-atmosphere interaction region. The TIFe model formulates and expands the TIFe theory originally proposed by Chu et al. that the thermospheric Fe layers are produced through the neutralization of converged Fe+ layers. Through testing mechanisms and reproducing the 28 May 2011 event at McMurdo, we conceive the lifecycle of meteoric metals via deposition, transport, chemistry, and wave dynamics for thermospheric Fe layers with gravity wave signatures. While the meteor injection of iron species is negligible above 120 km, the polar electric field transports metallic ions Fe+ upward from their main deposition region into the E-F regions, providing the major source of Fe+ (and accordingly Fe) in the thermosphere. Atmospheric wave-induced vertical shears of vertical and horizontal winds converge Fe+ to form dense Fe+ layers. Direct electron-Fe+ recombination is the major channel to neutralize Fe+ layers to form Fe above 120 km. Fe layer shapes are determined by multiple factors of neutral winds, electric field, and aurora activity. Gravity-wave-induced vertical wind plays a key role in forming gravity-wave-shaped Fe layers. Aurora particle precipitation enhances Fe+ neutralization by increasing electron density while accelerating Fe loss via charge transfer with enhanced NO+ and O2+ densities.Plain Language SummaryThe discoveries of neutral metal layers reaching near 200 km in the thermosphere have significant scientific merit because such discoveries challenge the current understandings of upper atmospheric composition, chemistry, dynamics, electrodynamics, and

  5. Effects of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L L; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Chen, P; Le, L C; Li, L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, S M; Zhu, J J; Wang, H; Zhang, B S; Yang, H

    2013-01-01

    The growth condition of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer and its effect on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN were investigated. It is confirmed that the excessive Mg doping can effectively enhance the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN after annealing at 550 °C. When the flow rate ratio between Mg and Ga gas sources is 6.4% and the layer width is 25 nm, the capping layer grown at 850 °C exhibits the best ohmic contact properties with respect to the specific contact resistivity (ρ c ). This temperature is much lower than the conventional growth temperature of Mg-doped GaN, suggesting that the deep-level-defect induced band may play an important role in the conduction of capping layer. (paper)

  6. Rare earth elements as a tool for studying the formation of cemented layers in an area affected by acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawunder, Anja; Lonschinski, Martin; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Spatially resolved analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) by LA-ICP-MS. • Positive correlation of Mn contents and (positive) Ce anomalies. • Linkage of the two cemented layer’s formation to soil solution and groundwater. - Abstract: In a profile with two cemented layers sampled in an area affected by acid mine drainage, both have rare earth element (REE) signatures with positive Ce anomalies in the Post Archean Australian Shale-normalised patterns. Both cemented layers have higher contents of environmentally relevant metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, U, and Zn) than the over- and underlying unconsolidated Quaternary sediments and are depleted of Al, Ca, K, and Mg. The cemented layers are enriched in middle and heavy REE, but only the bulk pattern of the lower cemented layer reveals a positive Ce anomaly. For the upper cemented layer, this positive Ce anomaly was only determined by spatially resolved laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) studies only for segments with a high abundance of Mn, occurring as Mn phases as proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Mn phases are formed secondarily to the ferric cement and are especially enriched in Ce and Co. The Ce anomaly of the lower cemented layer most probably is inherited from groundwater to the ferric cement, whereas the Ce anomaly of the upper cemented layer is the result of preferential scavenging of Ce onto the Mn phases compared to other REE

  7. Sediment transport and fluid mud layer formation in the macro-tidal Chikugo river estuary during a fortnightly tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhikodan, Gubash; Yokoyama, Katsuhide

    2018-03-01

    The erosion and deposition dynamics of fine sediment in a highly turbid estuarine channel were successfully surveyed during the period from August 29 to September 12, 2009 using an echo sounder in combination with a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler. Field measurements were conducted focusing on the tide driven dynamics of suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and fluid mud at the upstream of the macrotidal Chikugo river estuary during semidiurnal and fortnightly tidal cycles. Morphological evolution was observed especially during the spring tide over a period of two weeks. The elevation of the channel bed was stable during neap tide, but it underwent fluctuations when the spring tide occurred owing to the increase in the velocity and shear stress. Two days of time lag were observed between the maximum SSC and peak tidal flow, which resulted in the asymmetry between neap-to-spring and spring-to-neap transitions. During the spring tide, a hysteresis loop was observed between shear stress and SSC, and its direction was different during flood and ebb tides. Although both fine sediments and flocs were dominant during flood tides, only fine sediments were noticed during ebb tides. Hence, the net elevation change in the bed was positive, and sedimentation took place during the semilunar tidal cycle. Finally, a bed of consolidated mud was deposited on the initial bed, and the height of the channel bed increased by 0.9 m during the two-week period. The observed hysteretic effect between shear stress and SSC during the spring tides, and the asymmetrical neap-spring-neap tidal cycle influenced the near-bed sediment dynamics of the channel, and led to the formation of a fluid mud layer at the bottom of the river.

  8. Effects of electrolytes variation on formation of oxide layers of 6061 Al alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai WANG; Bon-Heun KOO; Chan-Gyu LEE; Young-Joo KIM; Sung-Hun LEE; Eungsun BYON

    2009-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation(PEO) processes were carried out to produce ceramic layers on 6061 aluminum substrates in four kinds of electrolytes such as silicate and aluminate solution with and without sodium fluorosilicate. The PEO processes were carried out under a hybrid voltage (260 V DC combined with 200 V, 60 Hz AC amplitude) at room temperature for 5 min. The composition, microstructure and element distribution analyses of the PEO-treated layers were carried out by XRD and SEM & EDS. The effect of the electrolyte contents on the growth mechanism, element distribution and properties of oxide layers were studied. It is obvious that the layers generated in aluminate solutions show smoother surfaces than those in silicate solutions. Moreover, an addition of fluorine ion can effectively control the layer porosity; therefore, it can enhance the properties of the layers.

  9. Formation mechanism of Al-depleted bands in MOVPE-AlGaN layer on GaN template with trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Noriyuki [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ezaki, Tetsuya; Kurogi, Takuya [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    A microstructure in an AlGaN/GaN layer was analyzed in detail by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with special attention to the formation of steps on the surface. The AlGaN layer was grown by MOVPE on a GaN template with periodic trenches. It was revealed that there formed were Al-depleted bands in the AlGaN layer. These bands were generated from rather lower regions in the AlGaN layer or those above the trenches, and run upwards. Some of them reached the top surface to connect a macro step. The formation mechanism of the Al-depleted region is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. If the total bonding energy of atoms on the macro step of surface is assumed to be smaller than that of atoms on a flat surface, the Al-depletion can be explained provided that the local equilibrium in concentration is conserved during the growth of AlGaN layer. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. About the effect of melted zinc mass additives on the formation on layers during hot galvanizing; Zur Wirkung von Zusaetzen zur Zinkschmelze auf die Schichtbildung beim Feuerverzinken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, P.; Schulz, W.D. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz Dresden GmbH, Gostritzer Str. 61-63, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of various melted zinc mass additives on the galvanizing behaviour of steels is examined by way of comparison. The mechanisms influencing the formation of layers are very different. In case tin is added, a material barrier of enriched tin develops in the zinc coating, which inhibits the iron transport. The mechanisms of Ni, Ti and Al in the melted zinc mass are explained by means of a new theory on the formation of layers, which is based on the influence of the growth of layers via hydrogen escaping from the steel surface during hot galvanizing. This behaviour makes it clear why the single melted mass additives only have a layer-thickness reducing effect on steels with very definite Si contents. The different inhibitions of the growth of the layer during hot galvanizing are discussed. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Einfluss unterschiedlicher Zinkschmelzezusaetze auf das Verzinkungsverhalten der Staehle wird vergleichend untersucht. Die Mechanismen der Einflussnahme auf die Schichtbildung sind sehr unterschiedlich. Bei Zusatz von Zinn entsteht im Zinkueberzug eine Materialbarriere aus angereichertem Zinn, die den Eisentransport hemmt. Die Wirkungsweise von Ni, Ti und Al in der Zinkschmelze wird mit Hilfe einer neuen Theorie der Schichtbildung erklaert. Diese beruht auf der Beeinflussung des Schichtwachstums durch Wasserstoff, der waehrend des Feuerverzinkens aus der Stahloberflaeche austritt. Diese Erklaerung macht verstaendlich, warum die einzelnen Schmelzezusaetze nur bei Staehlen mit ganz bestimmten Si-Gehalten schichtdickenreduzierend wirken. Die unterschiedlichen Hemmungen des Schichtwachstums beim Feuerverzinken werden diskutiert. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Formation of thick stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers in layered intrusion and frequent replenishment of fractionated mafic magma: Evidence from the Panzhihua intrusion, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xie-Yan; Qi, Hua-Wen; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Chen, Lie-Meng; Yu, Song-Yue; Zhang, Jia-Fei

    2013-03-01

    Panzhihua intrusion is one of the largest layered intrusions that hosts huge stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers in the central part of the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. Up to 60 m thick stratiform massive Fe-Ti oxide layers containing 85 modal% of magnetite and ilmenite and overlying magnetite gabbro compose cyclic units of the Lower Zone of the intrusion. The cyclic units of the Middle Zone consist of magnetite gabbro and overlying gabbro. In these cyclic units, contents of Fe2O3(t), TiO2 and Cr and Fe3+/Ti4+ ratio of the rocks decrease upward, Cr content of magnetite and forsterite percentage of olivine decrease as well. The Upper Zone consists of apatite gabbro characterized by enrichment of incompatible elements (e.g., 12-18 ppm La, 20-28 ppm Y) and increasing of Fe3+/Ti4+ ratio (from 1.3 to 2.3) upward. These features indicate that the Panzhihua intrusion was repeatedly recharged by more primitive magma and evolved magmas had been extracted. Calculations using MELTS indicate that extensive fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene in deep level resulted in increasing Fe and Ti contents in the magma. When these Fe-Ti-enriched magmas were emplaced along the base of the Panzhihua intrusion, Fe-Ti oxides became an early crystallization phase, leading to a residual magma of lower density. We propose that the unusually thick stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers resulted from coupling of gravity settling and sorting of the crystallized Fe-Ti oxides from Fe-Ti-enriched magmas and frequent magma replenishment along the floor of the magma chamber.

  12. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ( 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and A1 phosphates, quartz that luminescences in the blue color range, and euhedral to subhedral pyroxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in teh orange color range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. ?? 1993.

  13. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L F; Moore, T A [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). National Center

    1993-02-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ([lt] 5 cm) and high in ash ([gt] 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and Al phosphates, quartz that luminesces in the blue colour range, and euhedral to subhedral pyrooxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in the organic colour range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Formation of scandium nitride (ScN) layer on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate using a combined technique of e-beam evaporator and ammonia annealing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Shee Meng, Alvin; Zainal, Norzaini; Hassan, Zainuriah; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Forming ScN layer using electron e-beam evaporator with successive NH_3 annealing thermal has been successfully demonstrated. • NH_3 annealing played the role in changing the grain structure of the ScN layer. • The existence of Sc−N bonds was confirmed by XPS measurement. • The 900 °C annealed ScN layer showed the best structural and optical characteristics. • ScN layer annealed at 980 °C exhibited poor structural and optical characteristics. - Abstract: A demonstration on a new technique of growing ScN using electron beam (e-beam) evaporator, coupled with successive ammonia (NH_3) annealing treatment is presented in this paper. The annealing temperature was varied at 750, 800, 850, 900 and 980 °C in order to obtain the best ScN layer. It was found that as the annealing temperature increased, the surface morphology of the ScN layer changed and ScN grains formed abundantly on the surface. The best surface of ScN layer was found in the 900 °C annealed sample. However, the roughness of the ScN increased with temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the near-to-band-edge (NBE) of ScN was observable in all samples and its intensity was the highest in the 900 °C annealed sample. Note that when the annealing treatment was conducted at 980 °C, the GaN PL peak is observable. Raman peaks of TO(X) of ScN were much evident at the annealing temperature above 900 °C. The formation of Sc−N bonds was confirmed by X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) measurement. In the end of this work, we propose that the formation of ScN using the above techniques was successful, with thermal annealing at the temperature of 900 °C.

  15. Contribution of natural analogues to the choice of constraints for the long term modelling. Formation, properties and aging of surficial gel layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The study of palagonite layers formed on basaltic glasses can help to built and develop models applicable to R7T7 glass. Sub-glacial hyaloclastites from Iceland with ages ranging from 2 ka to 2.2 Ma have been studied from a mineralogical and geochemical standpoint. It has been shown that the chemical composition of palagonite layers and intergranular clays is similar but changes with increasing reaction progress. As a consequence both palagonitic gel layers and clays minerals have not to be distinguished during modeling of basaltic glass alteration. The formation of well crystallized intergranular clay minerals results of the aging of the palagonitic poorly crystalline layers. During this evolution REE (rare earth elements) are loosed due to a decrease of the specific area of clayey particles. The comparison with the alteration layers formed on R7T7 glass is difficult, due to a relative lake of data concerning nuclear waste form glasses. In particular, the structural and chemical evolution of the gel layer with time is poorly documented. (author)

  16. Formation of Zn-rich phyllosilicate, Zn-layered double hydroxide and hydrozincite in contaminated calcareous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquat, Olivier; Voegelin, Andreas; Villard, Andre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-10-15

    Recent studies demonstrated that Zn-phyllosilicate- and Zn-layered double hydroxide-type (Zn-LDH) precipitates may form in contaminated soils. However, the influence of soil properties and Zn content on the quantity and type of precipitate forming has not been studied in detail so far. In this work, we determined the speciation of Zn in six carbonate-rich surface soils (pH 6.2 to 7.5) contaminated by aqueous Zn in the runoff from galvanized power line towers (1322 to 30090 mg/kg Zn). Based on 12 bulk and 23 microfocused extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, the number, type and proportion of Zn species were derived using principal component analysis, target testing, and linear combination fitting. Nearly pure Zn-rich phyllosilicate and Zn-LDH were identified at different locations within a single soil horizon, suggesting that the local availabilities of Al and Si controlled the type of precipitate forming. Hydrozincite was identified on the surfaces of limestone particles that were not in direct contact with the soil clay matrix. With increasing Zn loading of the soils, the percentage of precipitated Zn increased from {approx}20% to {approx}80%, while the precipitate type shifted from Zn-phyllosilicate and/or Zn-LDH at the lowest studied soil Zn contents over predominantly Zn-LDH at intermediate loadings to hydrozincite in extremely contaminated soils. These trends were in agreement with the solubility of Zn in equilibrium with these phases. Sequential extractions showed that large fractions of soil Zn ({approx}30% to {approx}80%) as well as of synthetic Zn-kerolite, Zn-LDH, and hydrozincite spiked into uncontaminated soil were readily extracted by 1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} followed by 1 M NH{sub 4}-acetate at pH 6.0. Even though the formation of Zn precipitates allows for the retention of Zn in excess to the adsorption capacity of calcareous soils, the long-term immobilization potential of these precipitates is limited.

  17. Computer simulation for the formation of the insulator layer of silicon-on-insulator devices by N sup + and O sup + Co-implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Qing; Xie Xin Yun; Lin Chenglu; Liu Xiang Hua

    2002-01-01

    A buried sandwiched layer consisting of silicon dioxide (upper part), silicon oxynitride (medium part) and silicon nitride (lower part) is formed by N sup + and O sup + co-implantation in silicon wafers at a constant temperature of 550 degree C. The microstructure is performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. To predict the quality of the buried sandwiched layer, the authors study the computer simulation for the formation of the SIMON (separated by implantation of oxygen and nitrogen) structure. The simulation program for SIMOX (separated by implantation of oxygen) is improved in order to be applied in O sup + and N sup + co-implantation on the basis of different formation mechanism between SIMOX and SIMNI (separated by implantation of nitrogen) structures. There is a good agreement between experiment and simulation results verifying the theoretical model and presumption in the program

  18. A study of the formation of Cr-surface alloyed layer on structural alloy steel by Co2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Han, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to improve wear and erosion-resistances of a structural alloy steel (SNCM 8) during heat-cycling, chromium-alloyed layers were produced on the surface by irradiating Co 2 laser. Specimens were prepared either by electroplating of hard-chromium or coating of chromium powders on the steel followed by the laser treatment. Index values, which related the depth and the width of the alloyed layers to the scanning speed of laser, for both samples are experimentally measured. At a fixed scanning speed, while both samples resulted in a similar depth of the alloyed layers, the chromium powder coated specimen showed larger width of the alloyed layer than the chromium electroplated one. The hardness values of the alloyed layers in both samples were slightly lower than that of the martensitic region beneath the alloyed layers. But they are considerably higher than those of steel matrices. Regardless of the prior treatments before laser irradiation, distributions of chromium were fairly uniform throughout the alloyed layers. (Author)

  19. Differential erosion and the formation of layered yardangs in the Loulan region (Lop Nur), eastern Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongchong; Xu, Lishuai; Mu, Guijin

    2018-02-01

    Yardangs are a type of wind-sculpted landform which generally form in hyper-arid regions. Several factors affect the development of yardangs, and the relative importance of these factors likely varies with differences in regional environmental factors. In the Loulan region of Lop Nur, wind dynamics are the principal factor affecting the development of yardangs. However, layered yardangs, which have undergone a unique form of differential erosion, are common in the region. These erosional landforms differ from typical yardangs which are eroded solely by abrasion and deflation. We conducted field and laboratory investigations of layered yardangs to determine their origin. The results indicate that there are two types of strata comprising the yardangs: uncompacted sand-silt layers, with a lower carbonate content; and compacted clay-silt layers, with a higher carbonate content. Both types of strata are horizontal and occur in alternating layers. This type of structure enables the wind to more easily erode the less resistant sand-silt layers at different heights, leaving the more resistant compacted clay-silt layers relatively intact. Eventually the undercut remnant clay-silt layers collapse once the weight of the suspended strata exceeds their elastic resistance (more than 90% of the fallen blocks have length/thickness ratios between 1.2 and 2.5). Therefore, in addition to wind dynamics, the lithology and structure of the strata are important factors affecting the development of the layered yardangs. This type of differential erosion accelerates the development of the yardangs in the Loulan region.

  20. Formation of layer-by-layer assembled titanate nanotubes filled coating on flexible polyurethane foam with improved flame retardant and smoke suppression properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2015-01-14

    A fire blocking coating made from chitosan, titanate nanotubes and alginate was deposited on a flexible polyurethane (FPU) foam surface by a layer-by-layer assembly technique in an effort to reduce its flammability. First, titanate nanotubes were prepared by a hydrothermal method. And then the coating growth was carried out by alternately submerging FPU foams into chitosan solution, titanate nanotubes suspension and alginate solution. The mass gain of coating on the surface of FPU foams showed dependency on the concentration of titanate nanotubes suspension and the trilayers's number. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that titanate nanotubes were distributed well on the entire surface of FPU foam and showed a randomly oriented and entangled network structure. The cone calorimeter result indicated that the coated FPU foams showed reduction in the peak heat release rate (peak HRR), peak smoke production rate (peak SPR), total smoke release (TSR) and peak carbon monoxide (CO) production compared with those of the control FPU foam. Especially for the FPU foam with only 5.65 wt % mass gain, great reduction in peak HRR (70.2%), peak SPR (62.8%), TSR (40.9%) and peak CO production (63.5%) could be observed. Such a significant improvement in flame retardancy and the smoke suppression property for FPU foam could be attributed to the protective effect of titanate nanotubes network structure formed, including insulating barrier effect and adsorption effect.

  1. Silver nanoparticle formation in thin oxide layer on silicon by silver-negative-ion implantation for Coulomb blockade at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Arai, Nobutoshi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Ueno, Kazuya; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Adachi, Kouichiro; Kotaki, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2004-01-01

    Formation of silver nanoparticles formed by silver negative-ion implantation in a thin SiO 2 layer and its I-V characteristics were investigated for development single electron devices. In order to obtain effective Coulomb blockade phenomenon at room temperature, the isolated metal nanoparticles should be in very small size and be formed in a thin insulator layer such as gate oxide on the silicon substrate. Therefore, conditions of a fine particles size, high particle density and narrow distribution should be controlled at their formation without any electrical breakdown of the thin insulator layer. We have used a negative-ion implantation technique with an advantage of 'charge-up free' for insulators, with which no breakdown of thin oxide layer on Si was obtained. In the I-V characteristics with Au electrode, the current steps were observed with a voltage interval of about 0.12 V. From the step voltage the corresponded capacitance was calculated to be 0.7 aF. In one nanoparticle system, this value of capacitance could be given by a nanoparticle of about 3 nm in diameter. This consideration is consistent to the measured particle size in the cross-sectional TEM observation. Therefore, the observed I-V characteristics with steps are considered to be Coulomb staircase by the Ag nanoparticles

  2. Visible light activity of pulsed layer deposited BiVO{sub 4}/MnO{sub 2} films decorated with gold nanoparticles: The evidence for hydroxyl radicals formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzciński, Konrad, E-mail: trzcinskikonrad@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Szkoda, Mariusz [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Sawczak, Mirosław [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk (Poland); Karczewski, Jakub [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The BiVO{sub 4} + MnO{sub 2} photoactive layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition method. • Prepared layers can act as photoanodes for water splitting. • The thin BiVO{sub 4} + MnO{sub 2} film can be used as photocatalyst for methylene blue degradation. • The formation of hydroxyl radicals during photocatalys illumination has been proved. • The dropcasted GNP improved significantly photocatalytic properties of tested layers. - Abstract: Thin films containing BiVO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2} deposited on FTO and modified by Au nanoparticles were studied towards their photoelectrochemical and photocatalytical activities in an aqueous electrolyte. Electrodes were prepared by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The surfactant-free ablation process was used for preparation of the gold nanoparticles (GNP) water suspension. Obtained layers of varied thicknesses (27–115 nm) were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear voltammetry and chronoamperometry under visible light illumination and in the dark were applied to characterize layers as photoanodes. Simple modification of the BiVO{sub 4} + MnO{sub 2} layer by drop-casting of small amount of colloidal gold (1.5 × 10{sup −14} mol of GNP on 1 cm{sup 2}) leads to enhancement of the generated photocurrent recorded at E = 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl (0.1 M KCl) from 63 μA/cm{sup 2} to 280 μA/cm{sup 2}. Photocatalytical studies were also exploited towards decomposition of methylene blue (MB). A possible mechanism of MB photodegradation was proposed. The formation of hydroxyl radicals was detected by photoluminescence spectra using terephthalic acid as the probe molecule.

  3. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  4. Layered zinc hydroxide salts: Delamination, preferred orientation of hydroxide lamellae, and formation of ZnO nanodiscs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Pleštil, Josef; Bezdička, Petr; Janda, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 2 (2011), s. 532-539 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09058; GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : layered zinc hydroxide * delamination * exfoliation * hydroxide layer * ZnO Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  5. Formation of zeolite-like zinc 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonate open-frameworks by topotactic pillaring of anionic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takamatsu, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Miki; Kawawa, Kanako; Kondo, Atsushi

    2013-08-07

    An ab initio powder X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that layered zinc 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates containing interlayer tetramethylammonium (ZBP-TMA) or 4,4'-bipyridinium cations (ZBP-bpy) are transformed to novel isomorphous 3D open-framework compounds ZBP-M (M: K, Rb, and Cs) by treatment in aqueous alkali metal chloride solutions. ZBP-Ms have a pillared layer-type of anionic framework containing 2D zigzag channels connected with cage-like spaces. The potassium atoms in ZBP-K are located near 8MR windows in the 2D zigzag channels, and the potassium cations are successfully exchanged with ammonium cations retaining the open-framework structure. The ammonium form (ZBP-NH4) showed remarkable cation exchange selectivity for Rb(+) and Cs(+) in a mixture of alkali metal cations. It is assumed that zinc ions partially dissolved from the starting layered ZBP precursors are intercalated in ZBP layers to form pillared layered 3D open-frameworks. These results clearly show that topotactic pillared layer approaches are applicable not only to zeolite-related materials but also to novel open-framework metal organophosphonates.

  6. Contributions of the wall boundary layer to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets

    KAUST Repository

    SCHLEGEL, FABRICE

    2011-04-08

    Using high-resolution 3-D vortex simulations, this study seeks a mechanistic understanding of vorticity dynamics in transverse jets at a finite Reynolds number. A full no-slip boundary condition, rigorously formulated in terms of vorticity generation along the channel wall, captures unsteady interactions between the wall boundary layer and the jet - in particular, the separation of the wall boundary layer and its transport into the interior. For comparison, we also implement a reduced boundary condition that suppresses the separation of the wall boundary layer away from the jet nozzle. By contrasting results obtained with these two boundary conditions, we characterize near-field vortical structures formed as the wall boundary layer separates on the backside of the jet. Using various Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics, it is demonstrated that several near-wall vortical structures are formed as the wall boundary layer separates. The counter-rotating vortex pair, manifested by the presence of vortices aligned with the jet trajectory, is initiated closer to the jet exit. Moreover tornado-like wall-normal vortices originate from the separation of spanwise vorticity in the wall boundary layer at the side of the jet and from the entrainment of streamwise wall vortices in the recirculation zone on the lee side. These tornado-like vortices are absent in the case where separation is suppressed. Tornado-like vortices merge with counter-rotating vorticity originating in the jet shear layer, significantly increasing wall-normal circulation and causing deeper jet penetration into the crossflow stream. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  7. Structural and technological formation of surface nanostructured Ti-Ni-Mo layers by high-speed gas-flame spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blednova Zhesfina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a complex method of forming surface-modified layers using materials with shape memory effect (SME based on TiNiMo including pre-grinding and mechanical activation of the coating material, high-speed gas-flame spraying of Ni adhesive layer and subsequent TiNiMo spraying with molybdenum content up to 2%, thermal and thermomechanical processing in a single technological cycle. This allowed forming nanostructured surface layers with a high level of functional mechanical and performance properties. We defined control parameters of surface steel modification using material with shape memory effect based on TiNiMo, which monitor the structural material state, both at the stage of spraying, and during subsequent combined treatment, which allows affecting purposefully on the functional properties of the SME surface layer. Test results of samples before coating and after surface modification with TiNiMo in the seawater indicate that surface modification brings to a slower damage accumulation and to increase of steel J91171 endurance limit in seawater by 45%. Based on complex metallophysical research of surface layers we obtained new data about nano-sized composition “steel - Ni - TiNiMo”.

  8. Picosecond kinetics of the electron-hole layers formation in wide-bandgap II-VI type-II heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filatov, E.V.; Zaitsev, S.V.; Tartakovskii, I.I.; Maksimov, A.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, D.R. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Experimentelle Physik II, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig Technical University, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Considerable slowdown of luminescence kinetics of the direct optical transition was discovered in ZnSe/BeTe type-II heterostructures under high levels of optical pumping. The effect is attributed to forming of a potential barrier for holes in the ZnSe layer due to band bending at high densities of spatially separated carriers. That results in a longer time of the photoexcited holes energy relaxation to their ground state in the BeTe layer. The decrease of overlapping of electron and hole wavefunctions in the ZnSe layer in thick ZnSe/BeTe structures at high levels of optical excitation reveals an additional important effect, that leads to sufficient retardation of radiative recombination time for photoexcited carriers (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Zr-based conversion layer on Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheets: insights into the formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lostak, Thomas; Maljusch, Artjom; Klink, Björn; Krebs, Stefan; Kimpel, Matthias; Flock, Jörg; Schulz, Stephan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Zr-based conversion layers are considered as environmentally friendly alternatives replacing trication phosphatation in the automotive industry. Based on excellent electronic barrier properties they provide an effective corrosion protection of the metallic substrate. In this work, thin protective layers were grown on novel Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheets by increasing the local pH-value at the sample surface leading to deposition of a Zr-based conversion layer. For this purpose Zn-Al-Mg alloy (ZM) coated steel sheets were treated in an aqueous model conversion solution containing well-defined amounts of hexafluorozirconic acid (H 2 ZrF 6 ) and characterized after different immersion times with SKPFM and field emission SEM (FE-SEM)/EDX techniques. A deposition mechanism of Zr-based conversion coatings on microstructural heterogeneous Zn-Al-Mg alloy surfaces was proposed

  10. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenaers, A., E-mail: aleenaer@sckcen.be [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V. [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK• CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% {sup 235}U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL–matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium–Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)–matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  11. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V.; Detavernier, C.

    2015-03-01

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK•CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% 235U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL-matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium-Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)-matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  12. Layer-by-Layer Formation of Block-Copolymer-Derived TiO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan

    2011-12-15

    Morphology control on the 10 nm length scale in mesoporous TiO 2 films is crucial for the manufacture of high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells. While the combination of block-copolymer self-assembly with sol-gel chemistry yields good results for very thin films, the shrinkage during the film manufacture typically prevents the build-up of sufficiently thick layers to enable optimum solar cell operation. Here, a study on the temporal evolution of block-copolymer-directed mesoporous TiO 2 films during annealing and calcination is presented. The in-situ investigation of the shrinkage process enables the establishment of a simple and fast protocol for the fabrication of thicker films. When used as photoanodes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, the mesoporous networks exhibit significantly enhanced transport and collection rates compared to the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based devices. As a consequence of the increased film thickness, power conversion efficiencies above 4% are reached. Fabrication of sufficiently thick mesoporous TiO 2 photoelectrodes with morphology control on the 10 nm length scale is essential for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSC). This study of the temporal evolution of block-copolymer-directed mesoporous TiO 2 films during annealing and calcination enables the build-up of sufficiently thick films for high-performance ssDSC devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Beneath the Minerals, a Layer of Round Lipid Particles Was Identified to Mediate Collagen Calcification in Compact Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shaohua; Yu, Jianqing J.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1–2% of their bone minerals per month during space flights. A systematic search for a countermeasure relies on a good understanding of the mechanism of bone formation at the molecular level. How collagen fibers, the dominant matrix protein in bones, are mineralized remains mysterious. Atomic force microscopy was carried out, in combination with immunostaining and Western blotting, on bovine tibia to identify unrecognized building blocks involved in bone formation and for an el...

  14. On the formation of dense understory layers in forests worldwide: consequences and implications for forest dynamics, biodiversity, and succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2006-01-01

    The mechanistic basis underpinning forest succession is the gap-phase paradigm in which overstory disturbance interacts with seedling and sapling shade tolerance to determine successional trajectories. The theory, and ensuing simulation models, typically assume that understory plants have little impact on the advance regeneration layer's composition. We challenge...

  15. Formation of scandium nitride (ScN) layer on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate using a combined technique of e-beam evaporator and ammonia annealing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong Shee Meng, Alvin [Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), sains@usm, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang (Malaysia); Zainal, Norzaini, E-mail: norzaini@usm.my [Nano Optoelectronics Research and Laboratory, Universiti Sains Malaysia, sains@usm, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900, Bayan Lepas, Penang (Malaysia); Hassan, Zainuriah; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi [Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), sains@usm, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Forming ScN layer using electron e-beam evaporator with successive NH{sub 3} annealing thermal has been successfully demonstrated. • NH{sub 3} annealing played the role in changing the grain structure of the ScN layer. • The existence of Sc−N bonds was confirmed by XPS measurement. • The 900 °C annealed ScN layer showed the best structural and optical characteristics. • ScN layer annealed at 980 °C exhibited poor structural and optical characteristics. - Abstract: A demonstration on a new technique of growing ScN using electron beam (e-beam) evaporator, coupled with successive ammonia (NH{sub 3}) annealing treatment is presented in this paper. The annealing temperature was varied at 750, 800, 850, 900 and 980 °C in order to obtain the best ScN layer. It was found that as the annealing temperature increased, the surface morphology of the ScN layer changed and ScN grains formed abundantly on the surface. The best surface of ScN layer was found in the 900 °C annealed sample. However, the roughness of the ScN increased with temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the near-to-band-edge (NBE) of ScN was observable in all samples and its intensity was the highest in the 900 °C annealed sample. Note that when the annealing treatment was conducted at 980 °C, the GaN PL peak is observable. Raman peaks of TO(X) of ScN were much evident at the annealing temperature above 900 °C. The formation of Sc−N bonds was confirmed by X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) measurement. In the end of this work, we propose that the formation of ScN using the above techniques was successful, with thermal annealing at the temperature of 900 °C.

  16. FORMATION AND RESEARCH OF MULTI-LAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA OXIDE COATINGS BASED ON ELEMENTS OF SCREEN METEROID PTOTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research for influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, plasmasupporting nitrogen gas consumption, fractional composition of an initial powder and cooling degree by compressed air on characteristics of anti-meteorite coatings, subsequent processing modes by pulsed plasma. Properties of the obtained coatings and results of ballistic tests have been given in the paper. The proposed methodology has been based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of anti-meteorite aluminum oxide coating. Optimization of air plasma spraying parameters for NiAl and Al2O3 materials has been carried out in the paper. The spraying parameters optimization has been executed on the basis of obtaining maximum materials utilization factor. Surface treatment of model screen elements with a double-layer composite coating (adhesive metal NiAl layer and hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 layer has been fulfilled while using compression plasma stream. Nitrogen has been used as working gas. Composite hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 coating is represented by porous structure consisting of 10–15 µm-size fused Al2O3 particles. Metallic inclusions formed due to erosion of plasmatron electrodes have been observed in the space between the particles. Surface of bilayer composite coatings has been processed by a compression plasma stream and due to nonsteady processes of melting and recrystallization high strength polycrystalline layer has been formed on their surface. In this context, those areas of the polycrystalline layer which had metal inclusions have appeared to be painted in various colors depending on chemical composition of the inclusions.

  17. Formation and investigation of multilayer nanostructured coatings TiN/MoN for different layers thicknesses with c-pvd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnyak, A.D.; Bondar, O.V.; Postol'nyj, B.A.; Andreev, A.A.; Abadias, G.; Beresnev, V.M.; Sobol', O.B.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings based on TiN/MoN were obtained using the vacuum arc evaporation cathode method (C-PVD). Multilayers thickness was in the range 6,7 ÷ 8,7 μm and monolayers thickness was 2, 10, 20 and 40 nm. Vacuum-arc unit Bulat 6 was used for depositions. For the analysis of multilayer structures and properties of nanostructured coatings XRD analysis method was used (D8 ADVANCE, Bruker). For elemental composition and morphology investigation of the surface layers and multilayered coatings SEM (JEOL-7001F) with EDX attachment was used. Also HRTEM method was used to analyze the phase composition. In addition, this article provides investigation of hardness by Micro-Hardness Tester CSM (Switzerland). AFM was used for additional analysis of the topography and surface roughness of these coatings. This investigation have revealed the relationship between the layers thicknesses, substrate potential, the annealing process, physical and mechanical properties of samples. (authors)

  18. On the mechanical stress of Zr, Zry, and other materials due to the formation of oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1977-06-01

    Several mechanisms are indicated which during oxidation of sheets, tubes, and cylinders of pure metals and alloys might lead to plastic deformation of the remaining uncorroded cross section. Some experimental methods are described which allow evaluation of stresses occurring in oxide layers. The main reason for the creep deformation of flat and tubular specimens made of Zr and Zr alloys lies in the stresses that arise from volume increase due to the growth of oxide layers. Plastic deformations of the sheet metal specimens can be up to 100% and are anisotropic. In tubular specimens the changes in geometry (axial, radial) are much smaller in the course of oxidation and attain 2% at the maximum for Zr- or Zry-tubes and go up to 10% for Ta-tubes when no differential pressure is applied simultaneously. (orig.) [de

  19. Formation of BaSi2 heterojunction solar cells using transparent MoOx hole transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W.; Takabe, R.; Baba, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Hara, K. O.; Toko, K.; Usami, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2015-03-01

    Heterojunction solar cells that consist of 15 nm thick molybdenum trioxide (MoOx, x < 3) as a hole transport layer and 600 nm thick unpassivated or passivated n-BaSi2 layers were demonstrated. Rectifying current-voltage characteristics were observed when the surface of BaSi2 was exposed to air. When the exposure time was decreased to 1 min, an open circuit voltage of 200 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 were obtained under AM1.5 illumination. The photocurrent density under a reverse bias voltage of -1 V reached 25 mA/cm2, which demonstrates the significant potential of BaSi2 for solar cell applications.

  20. Analysis of physical layer performance of data center with optical wavelength switches based on advanced modulation formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Chughtai, Mohsan Niaz

    2018-05-01

    In this paper the IRIS (Integrated Router Interconnected spectrally), an optical domain architecture for datacenter network is analyzed. The IRIS integrated with advanced modulation formats (M-QAM) and coherent optical receiver is analyzed. The channel impairments are compensated using the DSP algorithms following the coherent receiver. The proposed scheme allows N2 multiplexed wavelengths for N×N size. The performance of the N×N-IRIS switch with and without wavelength conversion is analyzed for different Baud rates over M-QAM modulation formats. The performance of the system is analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER) vs OSNR curves.

  1. Electrochemical studies of iron/carbonates system applied to the formation of thin layers of siderite on inert substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ithurbide, A.; Peulon, S.; Mandin, Ph.; Beaucaire, C.; Chausse, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the complex mechanisms of the reactions occurring, a methodology is developed. It is based on the use of compounds electrodeposited under the form of thin layers and which are used then as electrodes to study their interactions with the toxic species. It is in this framework that is studied the electrodeposition of siderite on inert substrates. At first, have been studied iron electrochemical systems in carbonated solutions. These studies have been carried out with classical electrochemical methods (cyclic voltametry, amperometry) coupled to in-situ measurements: quartz microbalance, pH. Different compounds have been obtained under the form of homogeneous and adherent thin layers. The analyses of these depositions, by different ex-situ characterizations (XRD, IR, SEM, EDS..) have revealed particularly the presence of siderite. Then, the influence of several experimental parameters (substrate, potential, medium composition, temperature) on the characteristics of siderite thin layers has been studied. From these experimental results, models have been proposed. (O.M.)

  2. Overturn of magma ocean ilmenite cumulate layer: Implications for lunar magmatic evolution and formation of a lunar core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, P. C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    We explore a model for the chemical evolution of the lunar interior that explains the origin and evolution of lunar magmatism and possibly the existence of a lunar core. A magma ocean formed during accretion differentiates into the anorthositic crust and chemically stratified cumulate mantle. The cumulative mantle is gravitationally unstable with dense ilmenite cumulate layers overlying olivine-orthopyroxene cumulates with Fe/Mg that decreases with depth. The dense ilmenite layer sinks to the center of the moon forming the core. The remainder of the gravitationally unstable cumulate pile also overturns. Any remaining primitive lunar mantle rises to its level of neutral buoyancy in the cumulate pile. Perhaps melting of primitive lunar mantle due to this decompression results in early lunar Mg-rich magmatism. Because of its high concentration of incompatible heat producing elements, the ilmenite core heats the overlying orthopyroxene-bearing cumulates. As a conductively thickening thermal boundary layer becomes unstable, the resulting mantle plumes rise, decompress, and partially melt to generate the mare basalts. This model explains both the timing and chemical characteristics of lunar magmatism.

  3. SF{sub 6} decomposition and layer formation due to excimer laser photoablation of SiO{sub 2} surface at gas-solid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajad, Batool [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parvin, Parviz [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bassam, Mohamad Amin [Excimer Laser Lab, Emam Hussain University, PO Box 16575-4347, Tehrann (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-12-21

    In this work, the effect of an excimer laser has been studied for presenting a method for SF{sub 6} decomposition and simultaneous formation of a SiF{sub 2} layer on amorphous SiO{sub 2}. Though the excimer laser did not establish a gas phase photodissociation, we have shown that UV photoablation leads strongly to molecular decomposition in the SF{sub 6}-SiO{sub 2} system. Moreover, the dependence of the decomposition process on the exposure parameters such as the wavelength and intensity as well as the gas pressure and the focal point distance from the gas-solid interface has been investigated.

  4. The influence of solder mask and hygroscopic flux residues on water layer formation on PCBA surface and corrosion reliability of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    was described in terms of their varying hygroscopicity defined by chemical structure and test temperature. The climatic testing of two acids was performed under relative humidity (RH) conditions varying from 30% to ~99% at 25˚C and 40˚C using gravimetric water vapour sorption/desorption and electrochemical...... impedance methods. The corrosivity of WOAs was evaluated via leakage current measurements using surface insulation resistance (SIR) comb patterns. The corrosion studies were correlated with the hygroscopicity studies. The results show that the water layer formation depends on the PCBA surface topography...

  5. Study in electron microscopy of the formation of the hybrid layer using adhesive systems One Coat and Experimental (EXL 759), at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria Guzman, S. Marcela; Guevara Lopez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the hybrid layer is observed in dental pieces in vitro, utilizing conventional adhesives systems and of self etching with different times of acid etching, by applying of electron microscopy. Samples of dental pieces are prepared utilizing conventional adhesive systems as Single Bond 2 of 3M, One Coat of Coltene and the adhesive self etching Experimental (EXL 759) of 3M. Samples of dental pieces collected have been molars recently extracted and later stored in jars with water. Samples prepared with the adhesive systems are observed in the electron microscope to obtain images of the hybrid layers formed. The hybrid layers formed are compared observing the photographs of the images obtained in the electron microscope. The adhesive system that has allowed the formation of a hybrid layer more convenient is determined. The time of acid etching is determined and has interfered in the formation of a hybrid layer more stable [es

  6. In-situ confined formation of NiFe layered double hydroxide quantum dots in expanded graphite for active electrocatalytic oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinxue; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yanfang; Liu, Qingyun; Quan, Zhenlan; Zhang, Xiao

    2018-06-01

    Development of noble-metal-free catalysts towards highly efficient electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical but challenging in the renewable energy area. Herein, we firstly embed NiFe LDHs quantum dots (QDs) into expanded graphite (NiFe LDHs/EG) via in-situ confined formation process. The interlayer spacing of EG layers acts as nanoreactors for spatially confined formation of NiFe LDHs QDs. The QDs supply huge catalytic sites for OER. The in-situ decoration endows the strong affinity between QDs with EG, thus inducing fast charge transfer. Based on the aforementioned benefits, the designed catalyst exhibits outstanding OER properties, in terms of small overpotential (220 mV required to generate 10 mA cm-2), low Tafel slope, and good durable stability, making it a promising candidate for inexpensive OER catalyst.

  7. The Key Enzyme of the Sialic Acid Metabolism Is Involved in Embryoid Body Formation and Expression of Marker Genes of Germ Layer Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Thate

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The bi-functional enzyme UDP-N-acetyl-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE is the key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis. Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon amino sugars and are found on most glycoproteins and many glycolipids in terminal positions, where they are involved in a variety of biological important molecular interactions. Inactivation of the GNE by homologous recombination results in early embryonic lethality in mice. Here, we report that GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells express less differentiation markers compared to wild-type embryonic stem cells. As a result, GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells fail to form proper embryoid bodies (EB within the first day of culture. However, when culturing these cells in the presence of sialic acids for three days, also GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells form normal EBs. In contrast, when culturing these cells in sialic acid reduced medium, GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells proliferate faster and form larger EBs without any change in the expression of markers of the germ layers.

  8. FST-formation of cryogenic layer inside spherical shells of HiPER-class. Results of mathematical modeling and mock-ups testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belolipetskiy, A.A.; Lalinina, E.A.; Panina, L.V.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Current stage in the IFE research has passed to a closing stage: creation of the experimental reactor and realization of electric power generation. HiPER is a proposed European High Power laser Energy Research facility dedicated to demonstrating the feasibility of laser driven fusion for IFE reactor. The HiPER facility operation requires the formation and delivery of spherical shock ignition cryogenic targets with a rate of several Hz. The targets must be free-standing, or un-mounted. At the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), significant progress has been made in the technology development based on rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets which refers to as FST layering method. It allows one to form cryogenic targets with a required rate. In this report, we present the results of a feasibility study on high rep-rate formation of HiPER-class targets by FST. We consider two types of the baseline target for shock ignition. The first one (BT-2) is a 2.094-mm diameter compact polymer shell with a 3 μm thick wall. The solid layer thickness is 211 μm. The second (BT-2a) consists of a 2.046-mm diameter compact polymer shell (3 μm thick also) having a DT-filled CH foam (70 μm) on its inner surface, and then a 120 μm thick solid layer of pure DT. The work addresses the physical concept, and the modeling results of the major stages of FST technologies for different shell materials: Filling stage optimization (computation): optimal filling of a target batch up to ∼ 1000 atm at 300 K requires minimizing the diffusion fill time due to using the ramp filling method for both BT-2 and BT-2a; Depressurization stage optimization (computation and experiments): it requires providing the shell container leak proofness during the process of its cooling down to a depressurization temperature. This allows one to fulfill the technical requirements on the risks minimization associated with the damage of the HiPER-class targets

  9. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  10. Surface cleaning and adsorbate layer formation: Dual role of alkylamines in the formation of self-assembled monolayers on cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.E.; Murray, W.R.; Kershan, K.; Diaz, V.; Tran, L.; McDevitt, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The development of monolayer adsorption chemistry for superconductor surfaces is particularly important for a number of practical and fundamental reasons. As high-T c superconductors begin to approach the marketplace in areas of communications, power industries, medical applications, and scientific instrumentation, the development of new soft chemistry approaches for the surface modification of these technologically relevant electronic materials becomes increasingly important. Monolayer adsorption chemistry has been developed extensively for electronic materials such as metals, semiconductors, and insulators. These methodologies have been expanded recently to include a variety of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs). The authors describe a series of new X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), four-point conductivity, critical current, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), grazing angle infrared spectroscopy, and GE--MS experiments, which lead the suggestion that an entirely different mechanism is involved in the formation of HTSC-localized monolayers. According to the new model, the amine reagents serve two chemically distinct roles. In the initial phase, the degraded superconductor exteriors is etched away with the help of the amine compounds. The etching process proceeds to the point where fresh YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 is exposed, and only at this point do the amines adsorb and remain at the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 surface. As the adsorption process continues, there is an accumulation of an organized monolayer at the surface, which prevents further etching of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 material

  11. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  12. XPS and STEM study of the interface formation between ultra-thin Ru and Ir OER catalyst layers and perylene red support whiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasoska Ljiljana L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interface formation between nano-structured perylene red (PR whiskers and oxygen evolution reaction (OER catalysts ruthenium and iridium has been studied systematically by XPS and STEM. The OER catalyst over-layers with thicknesses ranging from ~0.1 to ~50 nm were vapor deposited onto PR ex-situ. STEM images demonstrate that, with increasing thickness, Ru and Ir transform from amorphous clusters to crystalline nanoparticles, which agglomerate with increased over-layer thickness. XPS data show a strong interaction between Ru and PR. Ir also interacts with PR although not to the extent seen for Ru. At low coverages, the entire Ru deposit is in the reacted state while a small portion of the deposited Ir remains metallic. Ru and Ir bonding occur at the PR carbonyl sites as evidenced by the attenuation of carbonyl photoemission and the emergence of new peak assigned to C-O single bond. The curve fitting analysis and the derived stoichiometry indicates the formation of metallo-organic bonds. The co-existence of oxide bonds is also apparent.

  13. Multi-layer porous fiber-reinforced composites for implants: in vitro calcium phosphate formation in the presence of bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga, Sara; Zhang, Di; Moritz, Niko; Vallittu, Pekka K; Hupa, Leena

    2012-11-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), based on bifunctional methacrylate resin, have recently shown their potential for use as durable cranioplasty, orthopedic and oral implants. In this study we suggest a multi-component sandwich implant structure with (i) outer layers out of porous FRC, which interface the cortical bone, and (ii) inner layers encompassing bioactive glass granules, which interface with the cancellous bone. The capability of Bioglass(®) 45S5 granules (100-250μm) to induce calcium phosphate formation on the surface of the FRC was explored by immersing the porous FRC-Bioglass laminates in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 28d. In both static (agitated) and dynamic conditions, bioactive glass granules induced precipitation of calcium phosphate at the laminate surfaces as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The proposed dynamic flow system is useful for the in vitro simulation of bone-like apatite formation on various new porous implant designs containing bioactive glass and implant material degradation. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effective Duration of Gas Nitriding Process on AISI 316L for the Formation of a Desired Thickness of Surface Nitrided Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassan R. S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas nitriding performed on AISI 316L at the temperature of 1200°C. The microstructure of treated AISI 316L samples were observed to identify the formation of the microstructure of nitrided surface layer. The grain size of austenite tends to be enlarged when the nitriding time increases, but the austenite single phase structure is maintained even after the long-time solution nitriding. Using microhardness testing, the hardness values drop to the center of the samples. The increase in surface hardness is due to the high nitrogen concentration at or near the surface. At 245HV, the graph of the effective duration of nitriding process was plotted to achieve the maximum depth of nitrogen diffuse under the surface. Using Sigma Plot software best fit lines of the experimental result found and plotted to find out effective duration of nitriding equation as Y=1.9491(1-0.7947x, where Y is the thickness of nitrided layer below the surface and X is duration of nitriding process. Based on this equation, the duration of gas nitriding process can be estimated to produce desired thickness of nitrided layer.

  15. Low-temperature interface reactions in layered Au/Sb films: In situ investigation of the formation of an amorphous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, H.-G.; Cossy-Favre, A.; Oelhafen, P.; Siber, A.; Ziemann, P.; Lauinger, C.; Moser, T.; Häussler, P.; Baumann, F.

    1995-01-01

    Photoelectron-spectroscopy methods combined with electrical-resistance measurements were employed to study the effects of intermixing at Au/Sb interfaces at low temperatures. For the purpose of characterizing the growth processes of the intermixed phase on a ML scale, Au/Sb bilayers (layer thicknesses DAu=0.5-75 ML and DSb=150 ML) were evaporated at 77 K and the different in situ techniques allowed a comparison to vapor-quenched amorphous AuxSb100-x alloys. For Au thicknesses between 0.5 and 0.9 ML, a change from a semiconducting to a metallic behavior of the samples has been detected, as indicated by the development of a steplike photoelectron intensity at the Fermi level. Evidence has been found that for Au coverages quenched amorphous alloys. Variation of the deposition temperature Ts revealed that an amorphous interface layer is only formed for Ts<= 220 K. This is consistent with the fact that for multilayers with large modulation lengths containing unreacted polycrystalline Au and Sb layers, long-range interdiffusion is found to set in at temperatures above 230 K. This interdiffusion, however, results in the formation of polycrystalline Au-Sb alloys.

  16. Mechanical intermixing of components in (CoMoNi)-based systems and the formation of (CoMoNi)/WC nanocomposite layers on Ti sheets under ball collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romankov, S.; Park, Y. C.; Shchetinin, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni) components were simultaneously introduced onto titanium (Ti) surfaces from a composed target using ball collisions. Tungsten carbide (WC) balls were selected for processing as the source of a cemented carbide reinforcement phase. During processing, ball collisions continuously introduced components from the target and the grinding media onto the Ti surface and induced mechanical intermixing of the elements, resulting in formation of a complex nanocomposite structure onto the Ti surface. The as-fabricated microstructure consisted of uniformly dispersed WC particles embedded within an integrated metallic matrix composed of an amorphous phase with nanocrystalline grains. The phase composition of the alloyed layers, atomic reactions, and the matrix grain sizes depended on the combination of components introduced onto the Ti surface during milling. The as-fabricated layer exhibited a very high hardness compared to industrial metallic alloys and tool steel materials. This approach could be used for the manufacture of both cemented carbides and amorphous matrix composite layers.

  17. Formation of InAs/GaAs quantum dots from a subcritical InAs wetting layer: A reflection high-energy electron diffraction and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H. Z.; Usuki, T.; Nakata, Y.; Yokoyama, N.; Sasakura, H.; Muto, S.

    2006-01-01

    InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) are formed by postgrowth annealing of an InAs wetting layer thinner than the critical thickness for the transition from two- (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) growth mode. Reflection high energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the QD formation. Based on a mean-field theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 897 (1997)], the time evolution of total QD's volume, first increasing and finally saturating, is well explained by precursors forming during wetting layer growth and converting into nucleated QD's after growth stop. Both the saturation QD's volume and the QD nucleation rate depend exponentially on the InAs coverage. These behaviors and their temperature and InAs growth rate dependences are essentially understandable in the frame of the mean-field theory. Similar analysis to conventional QD growth suggests that the often observed significant mass transport from wetting layer to QD's can be ascribed to the precursors existing before 2D-3D growth mode transition

  18. Spectral evidence for inherent 'dead layer' formation at La1-ySryFeO3 /La1-xSrxMnO3 heterointerface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, R.; Chikamatsu, A.; Kumigashira, H.; Oshima, M.; Nakagawa, N.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Wadati, H.; Fujimori, A.; Ono, K.; Kawasaki, M.; Koinuma, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We have investigated the electronic structure of a La 0.6 Sr 0.4 FeO 3 (LSFO)/La 0.6 Sr 0.4 MnO 3 (LSMO) heterointerface using Mn 2p-3d resonant photoemission spectroscopy. The strong enhancement of Mn 3d partial density of states (PDOS) at Mn 2p-3d threshold enables us to extract true Mn 3d PDOS of LSMO layers in the vicinity of interface with the LSFO overlayer. The LSFO / LSMO multilayers have been successfully grown on single-crystal (001) SrTiO 3 substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. Figure 1 shows the Mn 2p-3d resonant spectra near the Fermi level (E F ) of LSMO layers. We clearly found that the spectral intensity of e g states near E F is gradually reduced with increasing the LSFO overlayer thickness and finally saturated at 5-7 ML. In the inset, we plotted the spectral intensity of e g states of Mn 3d as a function of the LSFO overlayer thickness. These results indicate the formation of the charge transfer layer with the decay length of about 2 ML at the heterointerface

  19. Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine mediated particle formation in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Murray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. These ultra-fine particles may then grow through the condensation of other materials to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of the initially nucleated particles. In laboratory simulations, hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5·H2O. In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH. On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass. Water retention in amorphous material at low RH is important for understanding the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and uptake of other condensable material. Subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only 6%, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the

  20. Optimizing the dual elemental thermal reactive deposition time in carbide layer formation on SUJ2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochtar, Myrna Ariati; Putra, Wahyuaji Narottama; Mahardika, Bayu

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents developments contributing to the improvement of thermo-reactive deposition (TRD) process in producing hard carbide layers, on automotive components application. The problem in using FeV powder as a coating material that has been applied in the industries is it is high cost. In this study, FeCr powder coating material was mixed into FeV powder with a ratio of 35:65 weight percent. The SUJ2 steel pins components are processed at 980° C, with varying TRD time was 4,6,8 and 10 hours. Scanning Electron microscope (SEM), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were applied to analyze the coating layers. The thickness of the carbide layer formed will increase with the longer processing time, which thickness at 4-10 hours is increase from 22.7 to 29.7 micron. The gained thickness tends to be homogeneous. Increasing the TRD process holding time results in a higher hardness of the carbide layerwith hardness at 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours is 2049, 2184, 2175 and 2343 HV. The wear rate at TRD holding time of 4-10 hours with the Ogoshi method was reduced from 5.1 × 10-4 mm3/m to 2.5 × 10-4 mm3/m. Optical microscope observations shows that substrate phases consisting of pearlite and cementite and grains that tend to enlarge with the addition of time. Carbide compounds that are formed are vanadium carbide (V8C7, V6C5, V2C) and chromium carbide (Cr3C2, Cr23C7, Cr3C7). While EDS-Linescan results show complex phase (Fe, V, Cr) xC formed. The research shows that addition of FeCr into FeV powder in TRD process in 980°C with optimum time of 10 hours processing meet the mechanical properties requirement of automotive components.

  1. Controlling the formation of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Wen Hui

    2011-08-01

    The initiation and development of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear displacements are investigated. The dependence of the wavelength and amplitude of wrinkles on the applied shear displacements is explicitly obtained with molecular mechanics simulations. A continuum model is developed for the characteristics of the wrinkles which show that the wrinkle wavelength decreases with an increase in shear loading, while the amplitude of the wrinkles is found to initially increase and then become stable. The propagation and growth process of the wrinkles in the sheet is elucidated. It is expected that the research could promote applications of graphenes in the transportation of biological systems, separation science, and the development of the fluidic electronics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Step-height standards based on the rapid formation of monolayer steps on the surface of layered crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonov, A.I. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Prinz, V.Ya., E-mail: prinz@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, V.A. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kokh, K.A. [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGM SB RAS), pr. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (NIIC SB RAS), pr. Lavrentieva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Easily reproducible step-height standard for SPM calibrations was proposed. • Step-height standard is monolayer steps on the surface of layered single crystal. • Long-term change in surface morphology of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} was investigated. • Conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals appropriate for calibrating STM. • Ability of robust SPM calibrations under ambient conditions were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metrology is essential for nanotechnology, especially for structures and devices with feature sizes going down to nm. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) permits measurement of nanometer- and subnanometer-scale objects. Accuracy of size measurements performed using SPMs is largely defined by the accuracy of used calibration measures. In the present publication, we demonstrate that height standards of monolayer step (∼1 and ∼0.6 nm) can be easily prepared by cleaving Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} layered single crystals. It was shown that the conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals offers height standard appropriate for calibrating STMs and for testing conductive SPM probes. Our AFM study of the morphology of freshly cleaved (0001) Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} surfaces proved that such surfaces remained atomically smooth during a period of at least half a year. The (010) surfaces of ZnWO{sub 4} crystals remained atomically smooth during one day, but already two days later an additional nanorelief of amplitude ∼0.3 nm appeared on those surfaces. This relief, however, did not further grow in height, and it did not hamper the calibration. Simplicity and the possibility of rapid fabrication of the step-height standards, as well as their high stability, make these standards available for a great, permanently growing number of users involved in 3D printing activities.

  3. Influence of geometrical and electrical parameters of masking layers on the electrochemical etching of silicon for single trench formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G; Ventura, L; Jerisian, R

    2005-01-01

    Deep single trenches can be produced at the edge of apertures of protective films masking the surface of silicon samples. This macropore formation, from polarized HF based solutions, is electrically activated depending on the mask geometrical and physical parameters whatever the silicon type or the electrolyte composition. The mask thickness increase is known to induce deeper trenches. In this paper, we show that we can predict and localize this phenomenon by simulating two dimensional hole current distributions below the mask. We demonstrate also the influence of the material permittivity on trench depth. These 2D simulation results are correlated with experimental results

  4. Parametric Study of Solder Flux Hygroscopicity: Impact of Weak Organic Acids on Water Layer Formation and Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Ud Din, Rameez; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2018-01-01

    °C, 40°C, and 60°C. Water absorption levels were determined using the gravimetric method, and the influence on reliability was assessed using electrochemical impedance and leak current measurements performed on the surface insulation resistance comb patterns. The corrosion studies were correlated...... the critical RH level for water vapour absorption towards lower RH range, accelerating the formation of a conductive electrolyte and the occurrence of ion transport-induced electrochemical migration. The overall ranking of flux activators with the increasing order of aggressivity is: palmitic

  5. Influences of the Saharan Air Layer on the Formation and Intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003): Analysis of AIRS data and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Braun, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past two decades, little advance has been made in prediction of tropical cyclone intensity while substantial improvements have been made in forecasting hurricane tracks. One reason is that we don't well understand the physical processes that govern tropical cyclone intensity. Recent studies have suggested that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) may be yet another piece of the puzzle in advancing our understanding of tropical cyclone intensity change in the Atlantic basin. The SAL is an elevated mixed layer, forming as air moves across the vast Sahara Desert, in particular during boreal summer months. The SAL contains warm, dry air as well as a substantial amount of mineral dust, which can affect radiative heating and modify cloud processes. Using the retrieved temperature and humidity profiles from the AIRS suite on the NASA Aqua satellite, the SAL and its influences on the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003) are analyzed and simulated with MM5. When the warmth and dryness of the SAL (the thermodynamic effect) is considered by relaxing the model thermodynamic state to the AIRS profiles, MM5 can well simulate the large-scale flow patterns and the activity of Hurricane Isabel in terms of the timing and location of formation and the subsequent track. Compared with the experiment without nudging the AIRS data, it is suggested that the simulated SAL effect may delay the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel. This case study generally confirms the argument by Dunion and Velden (2004) that the SAL can suppress Atlantic tropical cyclone activity by increasing the vertical wind shear, reducing the mean relative humidity, and stabilizing the environment at lower levels.

  6. The S-layer homology domain-containing protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is important for swarming and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesch, Bettina; Koerdt, Andrea; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB). Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH) domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA. This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T).

  7. The S-layer homology domain-containing protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is important for swarming and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Janesch

    Full Text Available Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB.Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA.This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T.

  8. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  9. Iodine-mediated coastal particle formation: an overview of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe Roscoff coastal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a summary of the measurements made during the heavily-instrumented Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe coastal study in Roscoff on the North West coast of France throughout September 2006. It was clearly demonstrated that iodine-mediated coastal particle formation occurs, driven by daytime low tide emission of molecular iodine, I2, by macroalgal species fully or partially exposed by the receding waterline. Ultrafine particle concentrations strongly correlate with the rapidly recycled reactive iodine species, IO, produced at high concentrations following photolysis of I2. The heterogeneous macroalgal I2 sources lead to variable relative concentrations of iodine species observed by path-integrated and in situ measurement techniques.

    Apparent particle emission fluxes were associated with an enhanced apparent depositional flux of ozone, consistent with both a direct O3 deposition to macroalgae and involvement of O3 in iodine photochemistry and subsequent particle formation below the measurement height. The magnitude of the particle formation events was observed to be greatest at the lowest tides with the highest concentrations of ultrafine particles growing to the largest sizes, probably by the condensation of anthropogenically-formed condensable material. At such sizes the particles should be able to act as cloud condensation nuclei at reasonable atmospheric supersaturations.

  10. The part of the solar spectrum with the highest influence on the formation of SOA in the continental boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between nucleation events and spectral solar irradiance was analysed using two years of data collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, Finland. We analysed the data in two different ways. In the first step we calculated ten nanometer average values from the irradiance measurements between 280 and 580 nm and explored if any special wavelengths groups showed higher values on event days compared to a spectral reference curve for all the days for 2 years or to reference curves for every month. The results indicated that short wavelength irradiance between 300 and 340 nm is higher on event days in winter (February and March compared to the monthly reference graph but quantitative much smaller than in spring or summer. By building the ratio between the average values of different event classes and the yearly reference graph we obtained peaks between 1.17 and 1.6 in the short wavelength range (300--340 nm. In the next step we included number concentrations of particles between 3 and 10 nm and calculated correlation coefficients between the different wavelengths groups and the particles. The results were quite similar to those obtained previously; the highest correlation coefficients were reached for the spectral irradiance groups 3--5 (300--330 nm with average values for the single event classes around 0.6 and a nearly linear decrease towards higher wavelengths groups by 30%. Both analyses indicate quite clearly that short wavelength irradiance between 300 and 330 or 340 nm is the most important solar spectral radiation for the formation of newly formed aerosols. In the end we introduce a photochemical mechanism as one possible pathway how short wavelength irradiance can influence the formation of SOA by calculating the production rate of excited oxygen. This mechanism shows in which way short wavelength irradiance can influence the formation of new particles even though the

  11. Formation of pyroxenite layers in the Totalp ultramafic massif (Swiss Alps) - Insights from highly siderophile elements and Os isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Acken, David; Becker, Harry; Walker, Richard J.; McDonough, William F.; Wombacher, Frank; Ash, Richard D.; Piccoli, Phil M.

    2010-01-01

    Pyroxenitic layers are a minor constituent of ultramafic mantle massifs, but are considered important for basalt generation and mantle refertilization. Mafic spinel websterite and garnet-spinel clinopyroxenite layers within Jurassic ocean floor peridotites from the Totalp ultramafic massif (eastern Swiss Alps) were analyzed for their highly siderophile element (HSE) and Os isotope composition. Aluminum-poor pyroxenites (websterites) display chondritic to suprachondritic initial γOs (160 Ma) of -2 to +27. Osmium, Ir and Ru abundances are depleted in websterites relative to the associated peridotites and to mantle lherzolites worldwide, but relative abundances (Os/Ir, Ru/Ir) are similar. Conversely, Pt/Ir, Pd/Ir and Re/Ir are elevated. Aluminum-rich pyroxenites (clinopyroxenites) are characterized by highly radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os with initial γOs (160 Ma) between +20 and +1700. Their HSE composition is similar to that of basalts, as they are more depleted in Os, Ir and Ru compared to Totalp websterites, along with even higher Pt/Ir, Pd/Ir and Re/Ir. The data are most consistent with multiple episodes of reaction of mafic pyroxenite precursor melts with surrounding peridotites, with the highest degree of interaction recorded in the websterites, which typically occur in direct contact to peridotites. Clinopyroxenites, in contrast, represent melt-dominated systems, which retained the precursor melt characteristics to a large extent. The melts may have been derived from a sublithospheric mantle source with high Pd/Ir, Pt/Ir and Re/Os, coupled with highly radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os compositions. Modeling indicates that partial melting of subducted, old oceanic crust in the asthenosphere could be a possible source for such melts. Pentlandite and godlevskite are identified in both types of pyroxenites as the predominant sulfide minerals and HSE carriers. Heterogeneous HSE abundances within these sulfide grains likely reflect subsolidus processes. In contrast, large grain

  12. Solvent Role in the Formation of Electric Double Layers with Surface Charge Regulation: A Bystander or a Key Participant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E.; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N.

    2016-01-01

    The charge formation at interfaces involving electrolyte solutions is due to the chemical equilibrium between the surface reactive groups and the potential determining ions in the solution (i.e., charge regulation). In this Letter we report our findings that this equilibrium is strongly coupled to the precise molecular structure of the solution near the charged interface. The neutral solvent molecules dominate this structure due to their overwhelmingly large number. Treating the solvent as a structureless continuum leads to a fundamentally inadequate physical picture of charged interfaces. We show that a proper account of the solvent effect leads to an unexpected and complex system behavior that is affected by the molecular and ionic excluded volumes and van der Waals interactions.

  13. Formation of light-emitting nanostructures in layers of stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} irradiated with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachurin, G. A., E-mail: kachurin@isp.nsc.ru; Cherkova, S. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation); Skuratov, V. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Volodin, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    Thermally grown SiO{sub 2} layers have been irradiated with 700-MeV Bi ions with doses of (3-10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. It is found that, even after a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, a photoluminescence band in the region of 600 nm appears. Its intensity levels off at a dose of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. The nature of the emission centers is studied by the methods of infrared transmission, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and the reaction to passivating low-temperature anneals. It is established that irradiation brings about a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds with a relevant increase in the Si-Si bonds. It is assumed that the photoluminescence is caused by nanostructures containing an excess Si and/or having a deficit of O. The reaction of reduction of SiO{sub 2} proceeds in ion tracks due to high levels of ionization and heating within these tracks. The dose dependence is used to estimate the diameter of a track at 8-9 nm.

  14. Formation of light-emitting nanostructures in layers of stoichiometric SiO2 irradiated with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G. A.; Cherkova, S. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Volodin, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally grown SiO 2 layers have been irradiated with 700-MeV Bi ions with doses of (3–10) × 10 12 cm −2 . It is found that, even after a dose of 3 × 10 12 cm −2 , a photoluminescence band in the region of 600 nm appears. Its intensity levels off at a dose of ∼5 × 10 12 cm −2 . The nature of the emission centers is studied by the methods of infrared transmission, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and the reaction to passivating low-temperature anneals. It is established that irradiation brings about a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds with a relevant increase in the Si-Si bonds. It is assumed that the photoluminescence is caused by nanostructures containing an excess Si and/or having a deficit of O. The reaction of reduction of SiO 2 proceeds in ion tracks due to high levels of ionization and heating within these tracks. The dose dependence is used to estimate the diameter of a track at 8–9 nm.

  15. A novel strategy for high-stability lithium sulfur batteries by in situ formation of polysulfide adsorptive-blocking layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liming; Li, Gaoran; Liu, Binhong; Li, Zhoupeng; Zheng, Junsheng; Zheng, Jim P.

    2017-07-01

    Lithium sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries are one of the most promising energy storage devices owing to their high energy and power density. However, the shuttle effect as a key barrier hinders its practical application by resulting in low coulombic efficiency and poor cycling performance. Herein, a novel design of in situ formed polysulfide adsorptive-blocking layer (PAL) on the cathode surface was developed to tame the polysulfide shuttling and promote the cycling stability for Lisbnd S batteries. The PAL is consisted of La2S3, which is capable to chemically adsorb polysulfide via the strong interaction of Lasbnd S bond and Ssbnd S bond, and build an effective barrier against sulfur escaping. Moreover, the La2S3 is capable to suppress the crystallization of Li2S and promote the ion transfer, which contributes to the reduced internal resistance of batteries. Furthermore, the by-product LiNO3 simultaneously forms a stable anode solid and electrolyte interface to further inhibit the polysulfide shuttle. By this simple and convenient method, the resultant Lisbnd S batteries achieved exceptional cycling stability with an ultralow decay rate of 0.055% since the 10th cycle.

  16. Influence of Different Defects in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on TiO2 Nanoparticle Formation through Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acauan, Luiz; Dias, Anna C; Pereira, Marcelo B; Horowitz, Flavio; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2016-06-29

    The chemical inertness of carbon nanotubes (CNT) requires some degree of "defect engineering" for controlled deposition of metal oxides through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The type, quantity, and distribution of such defects rules the deposition rate and defines the growth behavior. In this work, we employed ALD to grow titanium oxide (TiO2) on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT). The effects of nitrogen doping and oxygen plasma pretreatment of the CNT on the morphology and total amount of TiO2 were systematically studied using transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The induced chemical changes for each functionalization route were identified by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The TiO2 mass fraction deposited with the same number of cycles for the pristine CNT, nitrogen-doped CNT, and plasma-treated CNT were 8, 47, and 80%, respectively. We demonstrate that TiO2 nucleation is dependent mainly on surface incorporation of heteroatoms and their distribution rather than structural defects that govern the growth behavior. Therefore, selecting the best way to functionalize CNT will allow us to tailor TiO2 distribution and hence fabricate complex heterostructures.

  17. The impact of porosity on the formation of manganese based copper diffusion barrier layers on low-κ dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, A P; Bogan, J; Walsh, L; Byrne, C; O’Connor, R; Hughes, G; Woicik, J C

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the impact of porosity in low-κ dielectric materials on the chemical and structural properties of deposited Mn thin films for copper diffusion barrier layer applications. X-ray photoelectron spectrscopy (XPS) results highlight the difficulty in distinguishing between the various Mn oxidation states which form at the interlayer dielectric (ILD)/Mn interface. The presence of MnSiO 3 and MnO were identified using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements on both porous and non-porous dielectric materials with evidence of Mn 2 O 3 and Mn 3 O 4 in the deposited film on the latter surface. It is shown that a higher proportion of deposited Mn converts to Mn silicate on an ILD film which has 50% porosity compared with the same dielectric material with no porosity, which is attributed to an enhanced chemical interaction with the effective larger surface area of porous dielectric materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data shows that the Mn overlayer remains predominately surface localised on both porous and non-porous materials. (paper)

  18. Geochemical prerequisites of petroleum-gas formation in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary layer of the world's oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotsyuk, V Ya

    1979-05-01

    A summarization is given of the latest material on the geochemistry of trace organic matter of Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits of the world's oceans, obtained as a result of deep-sea drilling. Trace organic matter was found to be present in the sedimentary layers of the ocean outskirts in amounts near that found in the continental stratosphere, but that content was five times less in the interior region of the oceans. The trace organic matter of deposits in the marginal region of the oceans was found to have a significant petroleum-gas matrix potential with respect to the level of content and composition characteristics. The distribution of organic carbon was found to be uneven in variously aged horizons of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The maximum content of organic carbon was noted in the Neogene-Quaternary and lower Cretaceous deposits. An elevated content of trace organic matter was found to be characteristic of the oceanic stratisphere in lithological mixed sediments: terrigenous-carbonate and terrigenous-silicons was 1.5 times greater than the trace organic matter in clays. Fundamental geochemical propagation laws were formulated, possibly for petroleum-gas-bearing sediment basins under the ocean bottom and beyond the shelf. 18 references, 3 figures.

  19. Compositional effects on the formation of a calcium phosphate layer and the response of osteoblast-like cells on polymer-bioactive glass composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H; Tang, Amy; Oh, Seong Cheol; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Dionisio, Kathie

    2005-11-01

    Biodegradable polymer-ceramic composites are attractive systems for bone tissue engineering applications. These composites have the combined advantages of the component phases, as well as the inherent ease in optimization where desired material properties can be tailored in a well-controlled manner. This study focuses on the optimization of a polylactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) composite for bone tissue engineering. The first objective is to examine the effects of composition or overall BG content on the formation of a Ca-P layer on the PLAGA-BG composite. It is expected that with increasing BG content (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% by weight), the required incubation time in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for the composite to form a detectable surface Ca-P layer will decrease. Both the kinetics and the chemistry will be determined using SEM+EDAX, FTIR, and mu-CT methods. Solution phosphorous and calcium concentrations will also be measured. The second objective of the study is to determine the effects of BG content on the maturation of osteoblast-like cells on the PLAGA-BG composite. It is hypothesized that mineralization will increase with increasing BG content, and the composite will support the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Specifically, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization will be monitored as a function of BG content (0%, 10%, 50% by weight) and culturing time. It was found that the kinetics of Ca-P layer formation and the resulting Ca-P chemistry were dependent on BG content. The response of human osteoblast-like cells to the PLAGA-BG composite was also a function of BG content. The 10% and 25% BG composite supported greater osteoblast growth and differentiation compared to the 50% BG group. The results of this study suggest that there is a threshold BG content which is optimal for osteoblast growth, and the interactions between PLAGA and BG may modulate the kinetics of Ca-P formation and the

  20. Interaction of amines with native aluminium oxide layers in non-aqueous environment: Application to the understanding of the formation of epoxy-amine/metal interphases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, D.; Rouchaud, J.-C.; Barthes-Labrousse, M.-G.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction of propylamine (PA), 1,2-diaminoethane (DAE) or 3-aminomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexylamine (isophorone diamine, IPDA) with native aluminium oxide layers in non-aqueous environment has been studied using time-resolved inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation of several surface complexes has been evidenced. Monodentate and bidentate metal-bond surface complexes (MBSC) result from interactions between the amine terminations of the molecule and aluminium cations by donation of the N lone electron pair to the metal ion (Lewis-like mechanism leading to O-Al...N bonds). Monodentate and bidentate hydrogen-bond surface complexes (HBSC) are due to interaction of the amino group with surface hydroxyl groups by protonation of the amine termination (Bronsted-like mechanism leading to the formation of Al-OH...N bonds) or interaction with carbonaceous contamination (C x O y H z ...N bonds). Diamines can also form mixed complexes with one amino group forming an O-Al...N bond and the other group forming an Al-OH...N or C x O y H z ...N bond. Al-OH...N and C x O y H z ...N bonds are less stable under vacuum than O-Al...N bonds, leading to partial desorption of the DAE molecules in vacuum and modification of the interaction modes. Only DAE and IPDA can lead to partial dissolution of the aluminium native (hydr)oxide films. A detailed mechanism of dissolution has been proposed based on the formation of mononuclear bidentate (chelate) MBSC by ligand exchange between the terminal η 1 -OH and bridged μ 2 -OH surface sites and the amino terminations of the molecule. The detachment of this complex from the surface is likely to be the precursor step to the formation of the interphase in epoxy-amine/metal systems

  1. Crustal layering and gravity highs in the Midcontinent of North America - implications for the formation of the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H. J.; Boschelli, J.; Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.; Marshak, S.; Chen, C.; Yang, X.; DeLucia, M. S.; Larson, T. H.; Rupp, J.

    2017-12-01

    The emerging picture of crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the North American cratonic platform resulting from recent increases in the resolution of seismic studies is revealing a scale of complexity and heterogeneity not previously recognized. Examples of novel images of the lithosphere allowed by this increased sampling come from the results of the OIINK project, an EarthScope FlexArray experiment. OIINK data provides new insight into tectonic relationships among the Reelfoot Rift, Ozark Plateau, Rough Creek Graben, and Illinois Basin. Making use of ambient-noise tomography from data recorded by the OIINK Array and surrounding stations we produced a new shear-wave velocity model of the region. This model indicates detailed variations in crustal wavespeeds align with the regional tectonic features. Beyond corroborating previous observations of high-speed material in the mid- to lower crust of the southern Illinois Basin, this new model demonstrates that these anomalous velocities extend continuously from the Reelfoot, beneath the Mississippi Embayment, into southern Indiana. This model also includes a separate area characterized by a similarly thickened layer of increased velocities in the middle and lower crust beneath the LaSalle Deformation Belt, a north-south band of faults and folds that runs along the axis of the Illinois Basin. At depths of about 20 km, the top of these areas of thickened high-velocity crust align with a midcrustal discontinuity identified by receiver functions. Additionally, the lateral extent of these structures correlates with regions of increased Bouguer gravity. If the high-velocity structures contain high-density material, this configuration provides an explanation for the source of these positive gravity anomalies. These observations support a model in which Late Proterozoic rifting beneath the region of the Illinois Basin provided an opportunity for high-density material to enter the crust as residuum from melt extraction

  2. Study of the formation process and the characteristics of tantalum layers electrodeposited on Nitinol plates in the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maho, A.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tantalum electrodeposition on Nitinol plates in the [BMP]Tf 2 N ionic liquid at room temperature. ► Generation of intrinsically nanostructured porous tantalum layers in “soft” cathodic current conditions. ► Important impact of substrate nature, working solution composition and electrodeposition duration. ► Primary assessment of surface corrosion resistance and bioactivity. -- Abstract: Thanks to excellent mechanical and biochemical properties, the nickel–titanium shape memory alloy (Nitinol) constitutes an increasingly praised platform material in dental, cardiovascular and orthopedic biomedical devices. In order to strengthen their protective abilities toward corrosion, to reinforce their biocompatibility and to confer them specific osseointegrative capacities, Nitinol plates are covered with a thin tantalum layer by electrodeposition in the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid. XPS and SEM/EDX analyses highlight the chemical and morphological characteristics of the deposits: notably, these present an intrinsic dimpled nanometric structuration which is particularly remarkable considering the “soft” experimental conditions and very interesting for fundamental and applied bioactive perspectives. The present study investigates the specific and synergic effects of the Ni occurrence on the surface of the Nitinol substrates, the presence of fluorine species in the working bath, and the electrodeposition duration on the resulting formation process, morphology and chemical composition of the tantalum coating. Finally, samples are submitted to electrochemical characterizations and in vitro hydroxyapatite growth tests for a primary assessment of their corrosion resistance and osseoinductive features

  3. Flux Growth of Highly Crystalline Photocatalytic BaTiO3 Particle Layers on Porous Titanium Sponge Substrate and Insights into the Formation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Li, B.

    2017-09-01

    A unique architecture of idiomorphic and highly crystalline BaTiO3 particle layers directly grown on a porous titanium sponge substrate was successfully achieved for the first time using a facile molten salt method at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C. Specifically, the low-melting KCl-NaCl eutectic salts and barium hydroxide octahydrate were employed as the reaction medium and barium source, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry were used to characterize the structure, morphology and optical property of the obtained samples. The results revealed that the flux-grown tetragonal BaTiO3 products had well-defined and uniform morphology with an average size of 300 nm and a band gap of ∼3.16 eV. Based on XRD, EDS, SEM, and TEM, the possible formation mechanism responsible for the well-developed architecture of BaTiO3 particle layers was proposed and discussed. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the flux-grown BaTiO3 products for organic pollutant degradation under simulated sunlight irradiation was also investigated.

  4. Morphology transition of raft-model membrane induced by osmotic pressure: Formation of double-layered vesicle similar to an endo- and/or exocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Teruaki; Hirai, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The effect of osmotic pressure on the structure of large uni-lamellar vesicle (LUV) of the lipid mixtures of monosialoganglioside (G M1 )-cholesterol-dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) was studies by using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) method. The molar ratios of the mixtures were 0.1/0.1/1, 0/0.1/1, and 0/0/1. The ternary lipid mixture is a model of lipid rafts. The value of osmotic pressure was varied from 0 to 4.16x10 5 N/m 2 by adding the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the range from 0 to 25 % w/v. In the case of the mixtures without G M1 , the rise of the osmotic pressure just enhances the multi-lamellar stacking with deceasing the inter-lamellar spacing. On the other hand, the mixture containing G M1 shows the structural transition from a uni-lamellar vesicle to a double-layered vesicle (a liposome including a smaller one inside) by the rise of osmotic pressure. In this morphology transition the total surface area of the double-layered vesicle is mostly as same as that of the LUV at the initial state. The polar head region of G M1 is bulky and highly hydrophilic due to the oligosaccharide chain containing a sialic acid residue. Then, the present results suggest that the existence of G M1 in the outer-leaflet of the LUV is essentially important for such a double-layered vesicle formation. Alternatively, a phenomenon similar to an endo- and/or exocytosis in cells can be caused simply by a variation of osmotic pressure.

  5. Mechanisms of oxide layer formation and destruction on a chromia former nickel base alloy in HTR environment; Mecanismes de formation et de destruction de la couche d'oxyde sur un alliage chrominoformeur en milieu HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, F

    2007-10-15

    Haynes 230 alloy which contains 22 wt.% chromium could be a promising candidate material for structures and heat exchangers (maximum operating temperature: 850-950 C) in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). The feasibility demonstration involves to valid its corrosion resistance in the reactor specific environment namely impure helium. The alloys surface reactivity was investigated at temperatures between 850 and 1000 C. We especially focused on the influence of different parameters such as concentrations of impurities in the gas phase (carbon monoxide and methane, water vapour/hydrogen ratio), alloy composition (activities of Cr and C, alloying element contents) and temperature. Two main behaviours have been revealed: the formation of a Cr/Mn rich oxide layer at 900 C and its following reduction at higher temperatures. At 900 C, the water vapour is the main oxidizing gas. However in the initial times, the carbon monoxide reacts at the metal/oxide interface which involves a gaseous transport through the scale; CO mainly oxidizes the minor alloying elements aluminium and silicon. Above a critical temperature TA, the carbon in solution in the alloy reduces chromia. To ascribe the scale destruction, a model is proposed based on thermodynamic interfacial data for the alloy, oxide layer morphology and carbon monoxide partial pressure in helium; the model is then validated regarding experimental results and observations. (author)

  6. The effect of composition on the formation of light-emitting Si nanostructures in SiOx layers on irradiation with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G. A.; Cherkova, S. G.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Cherkov, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SiO x layers different in composition (0 14 cm −2 to stimulate the formation of light-emitting Si nanostructures. The irradiation gives rise to a photoluminescence band with the parameters dependent on x. As the Si content is increased, the photoluminescence is first enhanced, with the peak remaining arranged near the wavelength λ ≈ 600 nm, and then the peak shifts to λ ≈ 800 nm. It is concluded that the emission sources are quantum-confined nanoprecipitates formed by disproportionation of SiO x in ion tracks due to profound ionization losses. Changes in the photoluminescence spectrum with increasing x are attributed firstly to the increase in the probability of formation of nanoprecipitates and then to the increase in their dimensions; the latter effect is accompanied with a shift of the emission band to longer wavelengths. The subsequent quenching of photoluminescence is interpreted as a result of the removal of quantum confinement in nanoprecipitates and their coagulation.

  7. The effect of composition on the formation of light-emitting Si nanostructures in SiO{sub x} layers on irradiation with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachurin, G. A., E-mail: kachurin@isp.nsc.ru; Cherkova, S. G.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Skuratov, V. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Cherkov, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The SiO{sub x} layers different in composition (0 < x < 2) are irradiated with Xe ions with the energy 167 MeV and the dose 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} to stimulate the formation of light-emitting Si nanostructures. The irradiation gives rise to a photoluminescence band with the parameters dependent on x. As the Si content is increased, the photoluminescence is first enhanced, with the peak remaining arranged near the wavelength {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 600 nm, and then the peak shifts to {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 800 nm. It is concluded that the emission sources are quantum-confined nanoprecipitates formed by disproportionation of SiO{sub x} in ion tracks due to profound ionization losses. Changes in the photoluminescence spectrum with increasing x are attributed firstly to the increase in the probability of formation of nanoprecipitates and then to the increase in their dimensions; the latter effect is accompanied with a shift of the emission band to longer wavelengths. The subsequent quenching of photoluminescence is interpreted as a result of the removal of quantum confinement in nanoprecipitates and their coagulation.

  8. Influence of layer compositions and annealing conditions on complete formation of ternary PdAgCu alloys prepared by sequential electroless and electroplating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumrunronnasak, Sarocha [Graduate Program of Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tantayanon, Supawan, E-mail: supawan.t@chula.ac.th [Green Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Kiatgamolchai, Somchai [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-01-01

    PdAgCu ternary alloy membranes were synthesized by the sequential electroless plating of Pd following by electroplating of Ag and Cu onto stainless steel substrate. The composition of the composite was varied by changing the deposition times. The fabricated layers were annealed at the temperatures between 500 and 600 °C for 20–60 h. The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to investigate the element distribution in the membrane which provided the insight on membrane alloying process. Complete formation of the alloy could be obtained when the Pd composition was greater than a critical value of 60 wt%, and Ag and Cu contents were in the range of 18–30 wt% and 2–13 wt%, respectively. Deposition times of Ag and Cu were found to affect the completion of alloy formation. Excess amount of the deposited Cu particularly tended to segregate on the surface of the membrane. - Highlights: • Ternary PdAgCu alloy membranes were successfully prepared by the sequential electroless and electroplating methods. • The average Pd composition required to form alloy was found to be approximately at least 60%wt. • The alloy region was achieved for f Pd 60–73 wt%, Cu 18–30 wt% and Ag 2–13 wt%. • Suitable annealing temperature in the range of 500–600 °C for an adequate period of treating time (20–60 h).

  9. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  10. Investigation into the formation of the scrape-off layer density shoulder in JET ITER-like wall L-mode and H-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, A.; Lipschultz, B.; Cziegler, I.; Harrison, J.; Jaervinen, A.; Matthews, G. F.; Schmitz, J.; Tal, B.; Brix, M.; Guillemaut, C.; Frigione, D.; Huber, A.; Joffrin, E.; Kruzei, U.; Militello, F.; Nielsen, A.; Walkden, N. R.; Wiesen, S.; Contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The low temperature boundary layer plasma (scrape-off layer or SOL) between the hot core and the surrounding vessel determines the level of power loading, erosion and implantation of material surfaces, and thus the viability of tokamak-based fusion as an energy source. This study explores mechanisms affecting the formation of flattened density profiles, so-called ‘density shoulders’, in the low-field side (LFS) SOL, which modify ion and neutral fluxes to surfaces—and subsequent erosion. We find that increases in SOL parallel resistivity, Λdiv (=[L || ν eiΩi]/c sΩe), postulated to lead to shoulder growth through changes in SOL turbulence characteristics, correlates with increases in SOL shoulder amplitude, A s, only under a subset of conditions (D2-fuelled L-mode density scans with outer strike point on the horizontal target). Λdiv fails to correlate with A s for cases of N2 seeding or during sweeping of the strike point across the horizontal target. The limited correlation of Λdiv and A s is also found for H-mode discharges. Thus, while it may be necessary for Λdiv to be above a threshold of ~1 for shoulder formation and/or growth, another mechanism is required. More significantly, we find that in contrast to parallel resistivity, outer divertor recycling, as quantified by the total outer divertor Balmer D α emission, I-D α , does scale with A s where Λdiv does and even where Λdiv does not. Divertor recycling could lead to SOL density shoulder formation through: (a) reducing the parallel to the field flow (loss) of ions out of the SOL to the divertor; and (b) changes in radial electric fields which lead to E  ×  B poloidal flows as well as potentially affecting SOL turbulence birth characteristics. Thus, changes in divertor recycling may be the sole process involved in bringing about SOL density shoulders or it may be that it acts in tandem with parallel resistivity.

  11. Pseudo steady states of HONO measured in the nocturnal marine boundary layer: a conceptual model for HONO formation on aqueous surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wojtal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the formation mechanism of nitrous acid (HONO in the ambient atmosphere is complicated by a lack of understanding of processes occurring when aqueous water is present. We report nocturnal measurements of HONO, SO2 and NO2 by differential optical absorption spectroscopy over the ocean surface in a polluted marine environment. In this aqueous environment, we observed reproducible pseudo steady states (PSS of HONO every night, that are fully formed shortly after sunset, much faster than seen in urban environments. During the PSS period, HONO is constant with time, independent of air mass source and independent of the concentration of NO2. The independence of HONO on the concentration of NO2 implies a 0° order formation process, likely on a saturated surface, with reversible partitioning of HONO to the gas phase, through vaporization and deposition to the surface. We observed median HONO/NO2 ratios starting at 0.13 at the beginning of the PSS period (with an apparent lower bound of 0.03, rising to median levels of ~0.30 at the end of the PSS period (with an upper bound >1.0. The implication of these numbers is that they suggest a common surface mechanism of HONO formation on terrestrial and aqueous surfaces, with an increase in the HONO/NO2 ratio with the amount of water available at the surface. The levels of HONO during the nocturnal PSS period are positively correlated with temperature, consistent with a partitioning of HONO from the surface to the gas phase with an apparent enthalpy of vaporization of ΔHSNL (HONO=55.5±5.4 kJ mol−1. The formation mechanism on aqueous surfaces is independent of relative humidity (RH, despite observation of a negative HONO-RH correlation. A conceptual model for HONO formation on ambient aqueous surfaces is presented, with the main elements being the presence of a surface nanolayer (SNL

  12. Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.

    2010-05-01

    There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

  13. Metal-silicate fractionation in the surface dust layers of accreting planetesimals: Implications for the formation of ordinary chondrites and the nature of asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoxiong; Akridge, Glen; Sears, Derek W. G.

    Some of the most primitive solar system materials available for study in the laboratory are the ordinary chondrites, the largest meteorite class. The size and distribution of the chondrules (silicate beads) and metal, which leads to the definition of the H, L, and LL classes, suggest sorting before or during aggregation. We suggest that meteorite parent bodies (probably asteroids) had thick dusty surfaces during their early evolution that were easily mobilized by gases evolving from their interiors. Density and size sorting would have occurred in the surface layers as the upward drag forces of the gases (mainly water) acted against the downward force of gravity. The process is analogous to the industrially important process of fluidization and sorting in pyroclastic volcanics. We calculate that gas flow velocities and gas fluxes for the regolith of an asteroid-sized object heated by the impact of accreting objects or by 26Al would have been sufficient for fluidization. It can also explain, quantitatively in some cases, the observed metal-silicate sorting of ordinary chondrites, which has long been ascribed to processes occurring in the primordial solar nebula. Formation of the chondrites in the thick dynamic regolith is consistent with the major properties of chondritic meteorites (i.e., redox state, petrologic type, cooling rate, matrix abundance). These ideas have implications for the nature of asteroid surfaces and the virtual lack of asteroids with ordinary chondrite-like surfaces.

  14. Low temperature formation of higher-k cubic phase HfO{sub 2} by atomic layer deposition on GeO{sub x}/Ge structures fabricated by in-situ thermal oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R., E-mail: zhang@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, P.-C.; Taoka, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S. [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We have demonstrated a low temperature formation (300 °C) of higher-k HfO{sub 2} using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on an in-situ thermal oxidation GeO{sub x} interfacial layer. It is found that the cubic phase is dominant in the HfO{sub 2} film with an epitaxial-like growth behavior. The maximum permittivity of 42 is obtained for an ALD HfO{sub 2} film on a 1-nm-thick GeO{sub x} form by the in-situ thermal oxidation. It is suggested from physical analyses that the crystallization of cubic phase HfO{sub 2} can be induced by the formation of six-fold crystalline GeO{sub x} structures in the underlying GeO{sub x} interfacial layer.

  15. Low temperature formation of higher-k cubic phase HfO2 by atomic layer deposition on GeOx/Ge structures fabricated by in-situ thermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.; Huang, P.-C.; Taoka, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a low temperature formation (300 °C) of higher-k HfO 2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on an in-situ thermal oxidation GeO x interfacial layer. It is found that the cubic phase is dominant in the HfO 2 film with an epitaxial-like growth behavior. The maximum permittivity of 42 is obtained for an ALD HfO 2 film on a 1-nm-thick GeO x form by the in-situ thermal oxidation. It is suggested from physical analyses that the crystallization of cubic phase HfO 2 can be induced by the formation of six-fold crystalline GeO x structures in the underlying GeO x interfacial layer

  16. The role of volatile-saturation and adiabatic ascent of moderately hydrous melts on the formation of orbicules and comb layers in shallow subvolcanic conduits (Fisher Lake, Sierra Nevada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, A. J.; Müntener, O.

    2016-12-01

    Orbicules and comb layers are enigmatic features found sparsely distributed along plutonic contacts in a wide range of igneous environments. We provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the formation of these features by studying the spatial distribution, mineralogy and geochemistry of comb layers and orbicules from the Northern Sierra Nevada, Fisher Lake (USA). Over a range of studied comb textured layering, we show that the large majority of comb layers are cumulates formed by the initiation of plagioclase growth as a comb textured mineral. Plagioclase fractionation is followed by pyroxenes + oxides fractionation. Continuous crystal fractionation and conductive cooling from the host rock leads to amphibole saturation and the formation of late stage comb textured amphibole, leading to the formation of plagioclase- and plagioclase-amphibole comb textures. The lack of amphibole comb textures on orbicule rims as opposed to their widespread occurrence in comb layers, suggests that the presence of a thermal gradient plays an important role in diversifying comb textures. We propose that comb layers and orbicules are unique features which are controlled by the volatile content of ascending melts and ascent mechanisms. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that near-adiabatic decompression of water-undersaturated melts (ca. 4wt% H2O) through the crust will lead to superheating and dissolution of pre-existing minerals. Upon saturation of volatiles at shallow depth, degassing-induced undercooling of the decompressing melt will trigger heterogeneous nucleation of plagioclase on host rocks and remobilized xenoliths. The rarity of orbicules and comb layers in volcanic and plutonic rocks worldwide suggests that adiabatic decompression of moderately hydrous melts leading to superheating is a rare phenomena, with most arc melts ascending and cooling in small reservoirs throughout the crust, prior to emplacement at shallow depth as crystal-bearing magmas.

  17. Role of the SiO2 buffer layer thickness in the formation of Si/SiO2/nc-Ge/SiO2 structures by dry oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, A.; Ortiz, M.I.; Prieto, A.C.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Jimenez, J.; Ballesteros, C.; Soares, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nanomemories, containing Ge-nanoparticles in a SiO 2 matrix, can be produced by dry thermal oxidation of a SiGe layer deposited onto a Si-wafer with a barrier SiO 2 layer on its top. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry has been used to characterize the kinetics of the oxidation process, the composition profile of the growing oxide, the Ge-segregation and its diffusion into the barrier oxide in samples with thin and thick barrier oxide layers. The Ge segregated during the oxidation of the SiGe layer diffuses into the barrier oxide. In the first case the diffusion through the thin oxide is enhanced by the proximity of the substrate that acts as a sink for the Ge, resulting in the formation of a low Ge concentration SiGe layer in the surface of the Si-wafer. In the second case, the Ge-diffusion progresses as slowly as in bulk SiO 2 . Since barrier oxide layers as thin as possible are favoured for device fabrication, the structures should be oxidized at lower temperatures and the initial SiGe layer thickness reduced to minimize the Ge-diffusion

  18. The Dynamics of Eddy Fluxes and Jet-Scale Overturning Circulations and its Impact on the Mixed Layer Formation in the Indo-Western Pacific Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Q.; Lee, S.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) jets and eddy fluxes in the Indo-western Pacific Southern Ocean (90°E-145°E) is investigated using an eddy-resolving model. In this region, transient eddy momentum flux convergence occurs at the latitude of the primary jet core, whereas eddy buoyancy flux is located over a broader region that encompasses the jet and the inter-jet minimum. In a small sector (120°E-144°E) where jets are especially zonal, a spatial and temporal decomposition of the eddy fluxes further reveals that fast eddies act to accelerate the jet with the maximum eddy momentum flux convergence at the jet center, while slow eddies tend to decelerate the zonal current at the inter-jet minimum. Transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) diagnostics reveals that the eddy momentum contribution accelerates the jets at all model depths, whereas the buoyancy flux contribution decelerates the jets at depths below 600 m. In ocean sectors where the jets are relatively well defined, there exist jet-scale overturning circulations (JSOC) with sinking motion on the equatorward flank, and rising motion on the poleward flank of the jets. The location and structure of these thermally indirect circulations suggest that they are driven by the eddy momentum flux convergence, much like the Ferrel cell in the atmosphere. This study also found that the JSOC plays a significant role in the oceanic heat transport and that it also contributes to the formation of a thin band of mixed layer that exists on the equatorward flank of the Indo-western Pacific ACC jets.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from in situ formation of few-layered MoS2/CdS nanosheet-based van der Waals heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Pan, Ziwei; Zhou, Kebin

    2017-05-25

    Here we report for the first time that the H 2 bubbles generated by photocatalytic water splitting are effective in the layer-by-layer exfoliation of MoS 2 nanocrystals (NCs) into few layers. The as-obtained few layers can be in situ assembled with CdS nanosheets (NSs) into van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) of few-layered MoS 2 /CdS NSs which, in turn, are effective in charge separation and transfer, leading to enhanced photocatalytic H 2 production activity. The few-layered MoS 2 /CdS vdWHs exhibited a H 2 evolution rate of 140 mmol g (CdS) -1 h -1 and achieved an apparent quantum yield of 66% at 420 nm.

  20. Study in electron microscopy the formation of the hybrid layer using adhesive systems One Coat and Single Bond Universal, at the Facultad de Medicina of the Universidad de Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Barillas, Adriana; Montoya, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the hybrid layer is observed in dental pieces in vitro, using systems of conventional adhesives (Single Bond 2 of 3M and One Coat of Coltene), with different times of acid etching, through the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The images of the hybrid layer obtained from samples prepared with adhesive systems are analyzed by AFM. Samples collected have been of dental pieces (molars and premolars) recently extracted and later placed in water. The pieces used have provided more surface to be observed under the microscope, greater accessibility to the be cut for its study, and to the great pieces have facilitated their placement on the Isomet low speed saw. The differences are evaluated between hybrid layers according the adhesive system used and the mode of application of the images obtained in the atomic force microscope. The adhesive system that has allowed the formation of a hybrid layer more appropriate between the adhesive system One Coat and the adhesive system Single Bond Universal is determined. The time of acid etching as variable of procedure is determined and has interfered with the formation of a hybrid layer more stable. The images evaluated that were provided by the atomic force microscope and compared with the images of electron microscopy of other studies, have determined that the AFM is without providing detailed information, as well as the appropriate images to evaluate the hybrid layer of the adhesive systems Single Bond 2 and One Coat of Coltene, or the different times of acid etching. Therefore, for this type of study, the image of choice must be of an electron microscope [es

  1. Formation of a Refracted Electromagnetic Wave at the Output from a Plane-Parallel Dielectric Layer and Interference Nature of Fermat's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that a transition layer representing a spatial region in which field propagation is analogous to refraction in an inhomogeneous medium exists after a dielectric layer. In this region located within the near field zone the direction of the wave vector of the transmitted field varies smoothly, and with increasing distance from the layer, approaches to that of the wave incident on the layer. It is shown that such behavior of the field and occurrence of the transition layer are caused by the interference of the incident wave field and the fields of secondary sources excited in the dielectric by the incident wave field. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.

  2. Formation of double-layered TiO2 structures with selectively-positioned molecular dyes for efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Yi; Yu, Sora; Moon, Jeong Hoon; Yoo, Seon Mi; Kim, Chulhee; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Lee, Wan In

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel flexible tandem dye-sensitized solar cell, selectively loading different dyes in discrete layers, was successfully formed on a plastic substrate by transferring the high-temperature-processed N719/TiO 2 over an organic dye-adsorbed TiO 2 film by a typical compression process at room temperature. -- Highlights: • A novel flexible dye-sensitized solar cell, selectively loading two different dyes in discrete layers, was successfully formed on a plastic substrate. • η of the flexible tandem cell obtained by transferring the high-temperature-processed TiO 2 layer was enhanced from 2.91% to 6.86%. • Interface control between two TiO 2 layers is crucial for the efficient transport of photo-injected electrons from the top to bottom TiO 2 layer. -- Abstract: To fabricate flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) utilizing full solar spectrum, the double-layered TiO 2 films, selectively loading two different dyes in discrete layers, were formed on a plastic substrate by transferring the high-temperature-processed N719/TiO 2 over an organic dye (TA-St-CA)-sensitized TiO 2 film by a typical compression process at room temperature. It was found that interface control between two TiO 2 layers is crucial for the efficient transport of photo-injected electrons from the N719/TiO 2 to the TA-St-CA/TiO 2 layer. Electron impedance spectra (EIS) and transient photoelectron spectroscopic analyses exhibited that introduction of a thin interfacial TiO 2 layer between the two TiO 2 layers remarkably decreased the resistance at the interface, while increasing the electron diffusion constant (D e ) by ∼10 times. As a result, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) of the flexible tandem DSC was 6.64%, whereas that of the flexible cell derived from the single TA-St-CA/TiO 2 layer was only 2.98%. Another organic dye (HC-acid), absorbing a short wavelength region of solar spectrum, was also applied to fabricate flexible tandem DSC. The η of the cell

  3. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  4. Raman evidence of the formation of LT-LiCoO 2 thin layers on NiO in molten carbonate at 650°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; Baddour-Hadjean, R.; Cassir, M.; Pereira-Ramos, J. P.

    2004-03-01

    The structural evolution of thin layers of Co 3O 4 elaborated on nickel-based substrates in the Li 2CO 3-Na 2CO 3 carbonate eutectic at 650 °C as a function of time immersion is reported. Raman microspectrometry has been applied in order to provide more information on the nature of the protective cobalt oxide layers. The typical Raman fingerprint of the LT-LiCoO 2 compound has been obtained, with four well defined bands at 449, 484, 590 and 605 cm -1, while XRD data are unable to distinguish the layered phase (HT) from the spinel one (LT). The mechanical stability of such films does not exceed 10 h in direct contact with the molten carbonate bulk at 650 °C; nevertheless, these conditions are much more corrosive than in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC).

  5. Concept Formation in Environmental Education: 14-Year Olds' Work on the Intensified Greenhouse Effect and the Depletion of the Ozone Layer. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlind, Karolina

    2005-01-01

    A case study is presented describing the work of three pupils in the upper level of compulsory school. The pupils were learning about the intensified greenhouse effect and the depletion of the ozone layer. In their work, the need for certain domain-specific knowledge becomes apparent; for example, understanding such concepts as photosynthesis,…

  6. Two novel homologous proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans are involved in the formation of the rodlet layer and mediate attachment to a hydrophobic surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Dennis; Wösten, Han A.B.; Keulen, Geertje van; Faber, Onno G.; Alves, Alexandra M.C.R.; Meijer, Wim G.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    The filamentous bacteria Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans exhibit a complex life cycle. After a branched submerged mycelium has been established, aerial hyphae are formed that may septate to form chains of spores. The aerial structures possess several surface layers of unknown

  7. Formation and Role of Gel Fractions in the Corrosion Layer of Zirconium Cladding as the First-stage Protection of the Nuclear Power Plant Fuel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Vrtílková, V.; Bláhová, O.; Maixner, J.

    -, č. 16 (2007), s. 29-38 ISSN 1214-9691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/0043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : zirconium alloys * corrosion layer * hydrated ZrO2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Formation and maintenance of high-nitrate, low pH layers in the eastern Indian Ocean and the role of nitrogen fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Waite

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biogeochemistry of low dissolved oxygen high-nitrate (LDOHN layers forming against the backdrop of several interleaving regional water masses in the eastern Indian Ocean, off northwest Australia adjacent to Ningaloo Reef. These water masses, including the forming Leeuwin Current, have been shown directly to impact the ecological function of Ningaloo Reef and other iconic coastal habitats downstream. Our results indicate that LDOHN layers are formed from multiple subduction events of the Eastern Gyral Current beneath the Leeuwin Current (LC; the LC originates from both the Indonesian Throughflow and tropical Indian Ocean. Density differences of up to 0.025 kg m−3 between the Eastern Gyral Current and the Leeuwin Current produce sharp gradients that can trap high concentrations of particles (measured as low transmission along the density interfaces. The oxidation of the trapped particulate matter results in local depletion of dissolved oxygen and regeneration of dissolved nitrate (nitrification. We document an associated increase in total dissolved carbon dioxide, which lowers the seawater pH by 0.04 units. Based on isotopic measurements (δ15N and δ18O of dissolved nitrate, we determine that ~ 40–100% of the nitrate found in LDOHN layers is likely to originate from nitrogen fixation, and that, regionally, the importance of N-fixation in contributing to LDOHN layers is likely to be highest at the surface and offshore.

  9. In situ monitoring of structure formation in the active layer of polymer solar cells during roll-to-roll coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossander, Lea Hildebrandt; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2014-01-01

    The active layer crystallization during roll-to-roll coating of organic solar cells is studied in situ. We developed an X-ray setup where the coater unit is an integrated part of the small angle X-ray scattering instrument, making it possible to control the coating process while recording...

  10. Two-Step Physical Deposition of a Compact CuI Hole-Transport Layer and the Formation of an Interfacial Species in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibzadeh, Saba; Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Moshaii, Ahmad; Mohammadian, Nasim; Alizadeh, Amir Hossein; Mohammadpour, Rahele; Ahmadi, Vahid; Alizadeh, Abdolali

    2016-08-09

    A simple and practical approach is introduced for the deposition of CuI as an inexpensive inorganic hole-transport material (HTM) for the fabrication of low cost perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by gas-solid phase transformation of Cu to CuI. The method provides a uniform and well-controlled CuI layer with large grains and good compactness that prevents the direct connection between the contact electrodes. Solar cells prepared with CuI as the HTM with Au electrodes displays an exceptionally high short-circuit current density of 32 mA cm(-2) , owing to an interfacial species formed between the perovskite and the Cu resulting in a long wavelength contribution to the incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.4 %. The growth of crystalline and uniform CuI on a low roughness perovskite layer leads to remarkably high charge extraction in the cells, which originates from the high hole mobility of CuI in addition to a large number of contact points between CuI and the perovskite layer. In addition, the solvent-free method has no damaging side effect on the perovskite layer, which makes it an appropriate method for large scale applications of CuI in perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Plasma nitriding of CA-6NM steel: effect of H2 + N2 gas mixtures in nitride layer formation for low N2 contents at 500 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nardelli Allenstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to characterize the phases, thickness, hardness and hardness profiles of the nitride layers formed on the CA-6NM martensitic stainless steel which was plasma nitrided in gas mixtures containing different nitrogen amounts. Nitriding was performed at 500 ºC temperature, and 532 Pa (4 Torr pressure, for gas mixtures of 5% N2 + 95% H2, 10% N2 + 90% H2, and 20% N2 + 80% H2, and 2 hours nitriding time. A 6 hours nitriding time condition for gas mixture of 5% N2 + 95% H2 was also studied. Nitrided samples results were compared with non-nitrided condition. Thickness and microstructure of the nitrided layers were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, using Villela and Nital etchants, and the phases were identified by X-ray diffraction. Hardness profiles and hardness measured on surface steel were determined using Vickers hardness and nanoindentation tester, respectively. It was verified that nitrided layer produced in CA-6NM martensitc stainless steel is constituted of compound layer, being that formation of the diffusion zone was not observed for the studied conditions. The higher the nitrogen amounts in gas mixture the higher is the thickness of the nitrided layer and the probability to form different nitride phases, in the case γ'-Fe4N, ε-Fe2-3N and CrN phases. Intrinsic hardness of the nitrided layers produced in the CA-6NM stainless steel is about 12-14 GPa (~1200-1400 HV.

  12. Influence of double- and triple-layer antireflection coatings on the formation of photocurrents in multijunction III–V solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musalinov, S. B.; Anzulevich, A. P.; Bychkov, I. V. [Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation); Gudovskikh, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University (Russian Federation); Shvarts, M. Z., E-mail: shvarts@scell.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The results of simulation by the transfer-matrix method of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer and TiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} triple-layer antireflection coatings for multijunction InGaP/GaAs/Ge heterostructure solar cells are presented. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer antireflection coating is experimentally developed and optimized. The experimental spectral dependences of the external quantum yield of the InGaP/GaAs/Ge heterostructure solar cell and optical characteristics of antireflection coatings, obtained in the simulation, are used to determine the photogenerated current densities of each subcell in the InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell under AM1.5D irradiation conditions (1000 W/m{sup 2}) and for the case of zero reflection loss. It is shown in the simulation that the optimized TiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} triple-layer antireflection coating provides a 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2} gain in the photocurrent density for the Ge subcell under AM1.5D conditions in comparison with the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double-layer antireflection coating under consideration. This thereby provides an increase in the fill factor of the current–voltage curve and in the output electric power of the multijunction solar cell.

  13. Tin surface segregation, desorption, and island formation during post-growth annealing of strained epitaxial Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer on Ge(0 0 1) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Zhou, Qian [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Zheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085} was grown on Ge (0 0 1) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). • The impact of annealing on surface morphology and Sn composition was studied. • Sn is found to preferentially segregate towards the surface at 200 °C. • A Sn-rich layer would form on the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} surface after annealing at 300 °C. • Sn desorption and formation of Sn-rich islands were found when T > 300 °C. - Abstract: Annealing of strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layers grown on Ge(0 0 1) substrate results in two distinctive regimes marked by changes in composition and morphology. Annealing at low temperatures (200–300 °C or Regime-I) leads to surface enrichment of Sn due to Sn segregation, as indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, while the bulk Sn composition (from X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and the surface morphology (from atomic force microscopy (AFM)) do not show discernible changes as compared to the as-grown sample. Annealing at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 500 °C (Regime-II) leads to a decrease in the surface Sn composition. While the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer remains fully strained, a reduction in the bulk Sn composition is observed when the annealing temperature reaches 500 °C. At this stage, surface roughening also occurs with formation of 3D islands. The island size increases as the annealing temperature is raised to 600 °C. The decrease in the Sn composition at the surface and in the bulk in Regime-II is attributed to additional thermally activated kinetic processes associated with Sn desorption and formation of Sn-rich 3D islands on the surface.

  14. Finite-time compressibility as an agent of frequent spontaneous patch formation in the surface layer: A case study for the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Andrea; Soomere, Tarmo

    2014-12-15

    We explore the possibilities for spontaneous formation of surface patches with high concentrations of contaminants through time correlations of the convergence field and the Lagrangian transport. The test area is the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, where surface velocity fields show extensive convergence. The flow properties are extracted from 3D velocity fields simulated for 1987-1991 using the OAAS model with a resolution of 1 mile. The focus is on the spatial distribution of the areas in which the values of finite-time flow compressibility of surface velocity fields exceed the threshold for clustering of floats. The distribution of such areas is asymmetric, with likely areas of patch formation located predominantly in the southern and eastern regions of the gulf. Out of nine areas of likely patch formation, six are located along the coast in regions of frequent downwelling, while three are identified in the central region of the gulf. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of Micro- and Nanostructures on the Nanotitanium Surface by Chemical Etching and Deposition of Titania Films by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Nazarov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated approach was used for the preparation of a nanotitanium-based bioactive material. The integrated approach included three methods: severe plastic deformation (SPD, chemical etching and atomic layer deposition (ALD. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the nature of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions and the etching time have a significant qualitative impact on the nanotitanium surface structure both at the nano- and microscale. The etched samples were coated with crystalline biocompatible TiO2 films with a thickness of 20 nm by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. Comparative study of the adhesive and spreading properties of human osteoblasts MG-63 has demonstrated that presence of nano- and microscale structures and crystalline titanium oxide on the surface of nanotitanium improve bioactive properties of the material.

  16. Secondary phase formation and the microstructural evolution of surface layers during vapor phase alteration of the French SON 68 nuclear waste glass at 200 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.L.; Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The SON 68 inactive open-quotes R7T7close quotes composition is the French reference glass for the LWR nuclear waste glass. Vapor phase alteration was used to accelerate the reaction progress of glass corrosion and to develop the characteristic suite of secondary, alteration phases. Extensive solid-state characterization (AEM/SEM/HRTEM) was completed on six inactive R7T7 waste glasses which were altered in the presence of saturated water vapor (200 degrees C) for 91, 241, 908, 1000, 1013, and 1021 days. The AEM samples were examined in cross-section (lattice-fringe imaging, micro-diffraction, and quantitative thin-film EDS analysis). The glass monoliths were invariably covered with a thin altered rind. The layer became thicker with time: 0.5 μm for 22 days; 4 μm for 91 days; 6 μm for 241 days; 10 μm for 908 days; 26 μm for 1013 days; and 2 TeO 3 and (Ca,Sr)Mo 3 O 9 (OH) 2 , were found within the inner zones of surface layers, and they must have nucleated in situ, indicating that Ag, Te, Sr, and Mo can be retained within the surface layer. The majority of the surface layer volume is composed of two morphologically and chemically different structures: one consists of well-crystallized fibrous smectite aggregates occurring along with cavities, the A-domain; and the other consists of poorly-crystallized regions containing needle-like smectite (montmorillonite) crystallites, a silica-rich amorphous matrix, and possibly ZrO 2 particles, the B-domain

  17. Formation process and superparamagnetic properties of (Mn,Ga)As nanocrystals in GaAs fabricated by annealing of (Ga,Mn)As layers with low Mn content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadowski, Janusz; Domagala, Jaroslaw Z.; Mathieu, Roland

    2011-01-01

    °C) annealing of (Ga,Mn)As layers with Mn concentrations between 0.1% and 2%, grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 270°C. Decomposition of (Ga,Mn)As is already observed at the lowest annealing temperature of 400°C for layers with initial Mn content of 1% and 2%. Both cubic and hexagonal (Mn......,Ga)As nanocrystals, with similar diameters of 7-10 nm, are observed to coexist in layers with an initial Mn content of 0.5% and 2% after higher-temperature annealing. Measurements of magnetization relaxation in the time span 0.1-10 000 s provide evidence for superparamagnetic properties of the (Mn,Ga)As nanocrystals......X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements are employed to study the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-rich (Mn,Ga)As nanocrystals embedded in GaAs. These nanocomposites are obtained by moderate-temperature (400°C) and high-temperature (560°C and 630...

  18. Effect of aqueous solution and load on the formation of DLC transfer layer against Co-Cr-Mo for joint prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feifei; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hua, Meng; Dong, Guangneng

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating exhibits excellent mechanical properties such as high hardness, low friction and wear, which offer a promising solution for the metal-on-metal hip joint implants. In the study, the hydrogen-free DLC coating with the element Cr as the interlay addition was deposited on the surface of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy by a unbalanced magnetron sputtering method. The coating thickness was controlled as 2 µm. Nano-indentation test indicated the hardness was about 13 GPa. DLC coated Co-Cr-Mo alloy disc against un-coated Co-Cr-Mo alloy pin (spherical end SR9.5) comprised the friction pairs in the pin-on-disc tribotest under bovine serum albumin solution (BSA) and physiological saline(PS).The tribological behavior under different BSA concetrations(2-20 mg/ml), and applied load (2-15N) was investigated.DLC transfer layer did not form under BSA solution, even though different BSA concetration and applied load changed. The coefficient of friction(COF) under 6 mg/ml BSA at 10 N was the lowest as 0.10. A higher COF of 0.13 was obtained under 20 mg/ml BSA. The boundary absorption layer of protein is the main factor for the counterparts. However, the continous DLC transfer layer was observed under PS solution, which make a lower COF of 0.08. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical studies of iron/carbonates system applied to the formation of thin layers of siderite on inert substrates; Etudes electrochimiques du systeme fer/carbonates appliquees a la formation de couches minces de siderite sur des substrats inertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ithurbide, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC/SECR/L3MR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Peulon, S. [Univ. d' Evry-val-d' Essonne, UMR 8587, CNRS, 91 - Evry (France); Mandin, Ph. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP), UMR 7575, 75 - Paris (France); Beaucaire, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC/SECR/L3MR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chausse, A. [Univ. d' Evry-val-d' Essonne, UMR 8587, CNRS, 91 - Evry (France)

    2007-07-01

    In order to understand the complex mechanisms of the reactions occurring, a methodology is developed. It is based on the use of compounds electrodeposited under the form of thin layers and which are used then as electrodes to study their interactions with the toxic species. It is in this framework that is studied the electrodeposition of siderite on inert substrates. At first, have been studied iron electrochemical systems in carbonated solutions. These studies have been carried out with classical electrochemical methods (cyclic voltametry, amperometry) coupled to in-situ measurements: quartz microbalance, pH. Different compounds have been obtained under the form of homogeneous and adherent thin layers. The analyses of these depositions, by different ex-situ characterizations (XRD, IR, SEM, EDS..) have revealed particularly the presence of siderite. Then, the influence of several experimental parameters (substrate, potential, medium composition, temperature) on the characteristics of siderite thin layers has been studied. From these experimental results, models have been proposed. (O.M.)

  20. Room temperature oxidative intercalation with chalcogen hydrides: Two-step method for the formation of alkali-metal chalcogenide arrays within layered perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranmohotti, K.G. Sanjaya; Montasserasadi, M. Dariush; Choi, Jonglak; Yao, Yuan; Mohanty, Debasish; Josepha, Elisha A.; Adireddy, Shiva; Caruntu, Gabriel; Wiley, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Topochemical reactions involving intercalation allow construction of metal chalcogenide arrays within perovskite hosts. ► Gaseous chalcogen hydrides serve as effect reactants for intercalation of sulfur and selenium. ► New compounds prepared by a two-step intercalation strategy are presented. -- Abstract: A two-step topochemical reaction strategy utilizing oxidative intercalation with gaseous chalcogen hydrides is presented. Initially, the Dion-Jacobson-type layered perovskite, RbLaNb 2 O 7 , is intercalated reductively with rubidium metal to make the Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, Rb 2 LaNb 2 O 7 . This compound is then reacted at room-temperature with in situ generated H 2 S gas to create Rb-S layers within the perovskite host. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data (tetragonal, a = 3.8998(2) Å, c = 15.256(1) Å; space group P4/mmm) shows the compound to be isostructural with (Rb 2 Cl)LaNb 2 O 7 where the sulfide resides on a cubic interlayer site surrounded by rubidium ions. The mass increase seen on sulfur intercalation and the refined S site occupation factor (∼0.8) of the product indicate a higher sulfur content than expected for S 2− alone. This combined with the Raman studies, which show evidence for an H-S stretch, indicate that a significant fraction of the intercalated sulfide exists as hydrogen sulfide ion. Intercalation reactions with H 2 Se (g) were also carried out and appear to produce an isostructural selenide compound. The utilization of such gaseous hydride reagents could significantly expand multistep topochemistry to a larger number of intercalants.

  1. Room temperature oxidative intercalation with chalcogen hydrides: Two-step method for the formation of alkali-metal chalcogenide arrays within layered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranmohotti, K.G. Sanjaya; Montasserasadi, M. Dariush; Choi, Jonglak; Yao, Yuan; Mohanty, Debasish; Josepha, Elisha A.; Adireddy, Shiva; Caruntu, Gabriel [Department of Chemistry and the Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148-2820 (United States); Wiley, John B., E-mail: jwiley@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry and the Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148-2820 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Topochemical reactions involving intercalation allow construction of metal chalcogenide arrays within perovskite hosts. ► Gaseous chalcogen hydrides serve as effect reactants for intercalation of sulfur and selenium. ► New compounds prepared by a two-step intercalation strategy are presented. -- Abstract: A two-step topochemical reaction strategy utilizing oxidative intercalation with gaseous chalcogen hydrides is presented. Initially, the Dion-Jacobson-type layered perovskite, RbLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}, is intercalated reductively with rubidium metal to make the Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, Rb{sub 2}LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}. This compound is then reacted at room-temperature with in situ generated H{sub 2}S gas to create Rb-S layers within the perovskite host. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data (tetragonal, a = 3.8998(2) Å, c = 15.256(1) Å; space group P4/mmm) shows the compound to be isostructural with (Rb{sub 2}Cl)LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} where the sulfide resides on a cubic interlayer site surrounded by rubidium ions. The mass increase seen on sulfur intercalation and the refined S site occupation factor (∼0.8) of the product indicate a higher sulfur content than expected for S{sup 2−} alone. This combined with the Raman studies, which show evidence for an H-S stretch, indicate that a significant fraction of the intercalated sulfide exists as hydrogen sulfide ion. Intercalation reactions with H{sub 2}Se{sub (g)} were also carried out and appear to produce an isostructural selenide compound. The utilization of such gaseous hydride reagents could significantly expand multistep topochemistry to a larger number of intercalants.

  2. BIG1 is required for the survival of deep layer neurons, neuronal polarity, and the formation of axonal tracts between the thalamus and neocortex in developing brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jie Teoh

    Full Text Available BIG1, an activator protein of the small GTPase, Arf, and encoded by the Arfgef1 gene, is one of candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy. To know the involvement of BIG1 in epileptic encephalopathy, we analyzed BIG1-deficient mice and found that BIG1 regulates neurite outgrowth and brain development in vitro and in vivo. The loss of BIG1 decreased the size of the neocortex and hippocampus. In BIG1-deficient mice, the neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs and the interneurons were unaffected. However, Tbr1+ and Ctip2+ deep layer (DL neurons showed spatial-temporal dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis gradually progressed from the piriform cortex (PIR, peaked in the neocortex, and then progressed into the hippocampus from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5 to E17.5. The upper layer (UL and DL order in the neocortex was maintained in BIG1-deficient mice, but the excitatory neurons tended to accumulate before their destination layers. Further pulse-chase migration assay showed that the migration defect was non-cell autonomous and secondary to the progression of apoptosis into the BIG1-deficient neocortex after E15.5. In BIG1-deficient mice, we observed an ectopic projection of corticothalamic axons from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN. The thalamocortical axons were unable to cross the diencephalon-telencephalon boundary (DTB. In vitro, BIG1-deficient neurons showed a delay in neuronal polarization. BIG1-deficient neurons were also hypersensitive to low dose glutamate (5 μM, and died via apoptosis. This study showed the role of BIG1 in the survival of DL neurons in developing embryonic brain and in the generation of neuronal polarity.

  3. A modelling study of the inter-diffusion layer formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates at high power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, B.; Hofman, G. L.; Leenaers, A.; Bergeron, A.; Kuzminov, V.; Van den Berghe, S.; Kim, Y. S.; Wallin, H.

    2018-02-01

    Post irradiation examinations of full-size U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates fabricated with ZrN- or Si- coated U-Mo particles revealed that the reaction rate of irradiation-induced U-Mo-Al inter-diffusion, an important microstructural change impacting the performance of this type of fuel, transited at a threshold temperature/fission rate. The existing inter-diffusion layer (IL) growth correlation, which does not describe the transition behavior of IL growth, was modified by applying a temperature-dependent multiplication factor that transits around a threshold fission rate. In-pile irradiation data from four tests in the BR2 reactors, including FUTURE, E-FUTURE, SELEMIUM, and SELEMIUM-1a, were utilized to determine and validate the updated IL growth correlation. Irradiation behavior of the plates was simulated with the DART-2D computational code. The general agreement between the calculated and measured fuel meat swelling and constituent volume fractions as a function of fission density demonstrated the plausibility of the updated IL growth correlation. The simulation results also suggested the temperature dependence of the IL growth rate, similar to the temperature dependence of the inter-mixing rate in ion-irradiated bi-layer systems.

  4. Suppression of interfacial voids formation during silane (SiH4)-based silicon oxide bonding with a thin silicon nitride capping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Yue; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Seng Tan, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The material properties and bonding behavior of silane-based silicon oxide layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine the chemical composition of the silicon oxide films. The incorporation of hydroxyl (-OH) groups and moisture absorption demonstrates a strong correlation with the storage duration for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. It is observed that moisture absorption is prevalent in the silane-based silicon oxide film due to its porous nature. The incorporation of -OH groups and moisture absorption in the silicon oxide films increase with the storage time (even in clean-room environments) for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. Due to silanol condensation and silicon oxidation reactions that take place at the bonding interface and in the bulk silicon, hydrogen (a byproduct of these reactions) is released and diffused towards the bonding interface. The trapped hydrogen forms voids over time. Additionally, the absorbed moisture could evaporate during the post-bond annealing of the bonded wafer pair. As a consequence, defects, such as voids, form at the bonding interface. To address the problem, a thin silicon nitride capping film was deposited on the silicon oxide layer before bonding to serve as a diffusion barrier to prevent moisture absorption and incorporation of -OH groups from the ambient. This process results in defect-free bonded wafers.

  5. Influence of HEPES buffer on the local pH and formation of surface layer during in vitro degradation tests of magnesium in DMEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naddaf Dezfuli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a buffered environment where pH is effectively maintained. HEPES is a biological buffer often used to mimic the buffering activity of the body in in vitro studies on the degradation behavior of magnesium. However, the influence of HEPES on the degradation behavior of magnesium in the DMEM pseudo-physiological solution has not yet been determined. The research aimed at elucidating the degradation mechanisms of magnesium in DMEM with and without HEPES. The morphologies and compositions of surface layers formed during in vitro degradation tests for 15–3600 s were characterized. The effect of HEPES on the electrochemical behavior and corrosion tendency was determined by performing electrochemical tests. HEPES indeed retained the local pH, leading to intense intergranular/interparticle corrosion of magnesium made from powder and an increased degradation rate. This was attributed to an interconnected network of cracks formed at the original powder particle boundaries and grain boundaries in the surface layer, which provided pathways for the corrosive medium to interact continuously with the internal surfaces and promoted further dissolution. Surface analysis revealed significantly reduced amounts of precipitated calcium phosphates due to the buffering activity of HEPES so that magnesium became less well protected in the buffered environment.

  6. A modelling study of the inter-diffusion layer formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates at high power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, B.; Hofman, G. L.; Leenaers, A.; Bergeron, A.; Kuzminov, V.; Van den Berghe, S.; Kim, Y. S.; Wallin, H.

    2018-02-01

    Post irradiation examinations of full-size U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates fabricated with ZrN- or Sicoated U-Mo particles revealed that the reaction rate of irradiation-induced U-Mo-Al inter-diffusion, an important microstructural change impacting the performance of this type of fuel, is temperature and fission-rate dependent. In order to simulate the U-Mo/Al inter-diffusion layer (IL) growth behavior in full-size dispersion fuel plates, the existing IL growth correlation was modified with a temperaturedependent multiplication factor that transits around a threshold fission rate. In-pile irradiation data from four tests in the BR2 reactors, including FUTURE, E-FUTURE, SELEMIUM, and SELEMIUM-1a, were utilized to determine and validate the updated IL growth correlation. Irradiation behavior of the plates was simulated with the DART-2D computational code. The general agreement between the calculated and measured fuel meat swelling and constituent volume fractions as a function of fission density demonstrated the plausibility of the updated IL growth correlation. The simulation results also suggested the temperature dependence of the IL growth rate, similar to the temperature dependence of the intermixing rate in ion-irradiated bi-layer systems.

  7. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN THE INNER LAYERS OF CLUMPY CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPES: FORMATION OF WATER IN C-RICH OBJECTS AND OF C-BEARING MOLECULES IN O-RICH OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agundez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, Jose; Guelin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism based on the penetration of interstellar ultraviolet photons into the inner layers of clumpy circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) around asymptotic giant branch stars is proposed to explain the non-equilibrium chemistry observed in such objects. We show through a simple modeling approach that in CSEs with a certain degree of clumpiness or with moderately low mass loss rates (a few 10 -7 M sun yr -1 ) a photochemistry can take place in the warm and dense inner layers, inducing important changes in the chemical composition. In carbon-rich objects water vapor and ammonia would be formed with abundances of 10 -8 -10 -6 relative to H 2 , while in oxygen-rich envelopes ammonia and carbon-bearing molecules such as HCN and CS would form with abundances of 10 -9 -10 -7 relative to H 2 . The proposed mechanism would explain the recent observation of warm water vapor in the carbon-rich envelope IRC+10216 with the Herschel Space Observatory and predict that H 2 O should be detectable in other carbon-rich objects.

  8. Formation and reconstruction of Se nanoislands at the surface of thin epitaxial ZnSe layers grown on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlovskiy, V. I.; Krivobok, V. S., E-mail: krivobok@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, P. I.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Onistchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Temiryazev, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Strained epitaxial ZnSe layers are grown on GaAs substrates by the method of vapor-phase epitaxy from metal-organic compounds. It is found that Se nanoislands with a density of 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} cm{sup –2} are formed at the surface of such layers. It is established that an increase in the size of Se islands and a decrease in their density take place after completion of growth. Annealing in a H{sub 2} atmosphere at a temperature higher than 260°C leads to the disappearance of Se islands and to a decrease in the surface roughness. It is shown that annealing does not lead to deterioration of the structural perfection of the epitaxial ZnSe films; rather, annealing gives rise to a decrease in the intensity of impurity–defect luminescence and to an increase in the intensity of intrinsic radiation near the bottom of the exciton band.

  9. The role of nitrogen in luminescent Si nanoprecipitate formation during annealing of Si ion-implanted SiO sub 2 layers

    CERN Document Server

    Kachurin, G A; Zhuravlev, K S; Ruault, M O

    2001-01-01

    SiO sub 2 layers were implanted with 25 keV Si sup + and 13 keV N sup + ions with the doses of (1-4) x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 2 and (0.2-2) x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 2 , respectively. Then the samples were annealed at 900-1100 deg C to form luminescent silicon nanoprecipitates. The nitrogen effect on the process is controlled by photoluminescence spectra. It is found out that the photoluminescence intensity increases considerably at the appropriate ratio between silicon and nitrogen. It has been concluded that the interaction of nitrogen with excessive silicon results in increasing the number of precipitation centers. This raises the nanocrystals number and reduces their mean size

  10. In Situ Formation of Decavanadate-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Films on AA2024 and their Anti-Corrosive Properties when Combined with Hybrid Sol Gel Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A layered double hydroxide (LDH film was formed in situ on aluminum alloy 2024 through a urea hydrolysis method, and a decavanadate-intercalated LDH (LDH-V film fabricated through the dip coating method. The microstructural and morphological characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The corrosion-resistant performance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM, and a salt-spray test (SST.The SEM results showed that a complete and defect-free surface was formed on the LDH-VS film. The anticorrosion results revealed that the LDH-VS film had better corrosion-resistant properties than the LDH-S film, especially long-term corrosion resistance. The mechanism of corrosion protection was proposed to consist of the self-healing effect of the decavanadate intercalation and the shielding effect of the sol-gel film.

  11. Theory of aurora formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira.

    1975-04-01

    A new theory of aurora formation is presented based on Alfven wave-electron interaction. The theory explains consistently 1) the electron acceleration process, 2) the formation of auroral layers and 3) the long wave formation in the longitudinal direction. (auth.)

  12. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  13. Single-droplet evaporation kinetics and particle formation in an acoustic levitator. Part 1: evaporation of water microdroplets assessed using boundary-layer and acoustic levitation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffter, Heiko; Lee, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    The suitability of a single droplet drying acoustic levitator as a model for the spray drying of aqueous, pharmaceutically-relevant solutes used to produce protein-loaded particles has been examined. The acoustic levitator was initially evaluated by measuring the drying rates of droplets of pure water in dependence of drying-air temperature and flow rate. The measured drying rates were higher than those predicted by boundary layer theory because of the effects of primary acoustic streaming. Sherwood numbers of 2.6, 3.6, and 4.4 at drying-air temperatures of 25 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 60 degrees C were determined, respectively. Acoustic levitation theory could predict the measured drying rates and Sherwood numbers only when a forced-convection drying-air stream was used to neuralize the retarding effect of secondary acoustic streaming on evaporation rate. At still higher drying-air flow rates, the Ranz-Marshall correlation accurately predicts Sherwood number, provided a stable droplet position in the standing acoustic wave is maintained. The measured Sherwood numbers and droplet Reynolds numbers show that experiments performed in the levitator in still air are taking place effectively under conditions of substantial forced convection. The similitude of these values to those occurring in spray dryers is fortuitous for the suitability of the acoustic levitator as a droplet evaporation model for spray drying. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Amphiphilic Quantum Dots with Asymmetric, Mixed Polymer Brush Layers: From Single Core-Shell Nanoparticles to Salt-Induced Vesicle Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Coleman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A mixed micelle approach is used to produce amphiphilic brush nanoparticles (ABNPs with cadmium sulfide quantum dot (QD cores and surface layers of densely grafted (σ = ~1 chain/nm2 and asymmetric (fPS = 0.9 mixed polymer brushes that contain hydrophobic polystyrene (PS and hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate (PMAA chains (PS/PMAA-CdS. In aqueous media, the mixed brushes undergo conformational rearrangements that depend strongly on prior salt addition, giving rise to one of two pathways to fluorescent and morphologically disparate QD-polymer colloids. (A In the absence of salt, centrosymmetric condensation of PS chains forms individual core-shell QD-polymer colloids. (B In the presence of salt, non-centrosymmetric condensation of PS chains forms Janus particles, which trigger anisotropic interactions and amphiphilic self-assembly into the QD-polymer vesicles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an ABNP building block that can form either discrete core-shell colloids or self-assembled superstructures in water depending on simple changes to the chemical conditions (i.e., salt addition. Such dramatic and finely tuned morphological variation could inform numerous applications in sensing, biolabeling, photonics, and nanomedicine.

  15. A 2-d modeling approach for studying the formation, maintenance, and decay of Tropical Tropopause Layer Cirrus associated with Deep Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, D. R.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Smith, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    This study is being conducted to examine the distribution, variability, and formation-decay processes of TTL cirrus associated with tropical deep convection using the University of Wisconsin Non-Hydrostatic modeling system (NMS). The experimental design is based on Tripoli, Hack and Kiehl (1992) which explicitly simulates the radiative-convective equilibrium of the tropical atmosphere over extended periods of weeks or months using a 2D periodic cloud resolving model. The experiment design includes a radiation parameterization to explicitly simulate radiative transfer through simulated crystals. Advanced Microphysics Prediction System (AMP) will be used to simulate microphysics by employing SHIPS (Spectral Habit Ice Prediction System) for ice, SLiPS (Spectral Liquid Prediction System) for droplets, and SAPS (Spectral Aerosol Prediction System) for aerosols. The ice scheme called SHIPS is unique in that ice particle properties (such as size, particle density, and crystal habitats) are explicitly predicted in a CRM (Hashino and Tripoli, 2007, 2008). The Advanced Microphysics Prediction System (AMPS) technology provides a particularly strong tool that effectively enables the explicit modeling of the TTL cloud microphysics and dynamical processes which has yet to be accomplished by more traditional bulk microphysics approaches.

  16. Quasi-adiabatic particle acceleration in a magnetic field reversals and the formation of the plasma sheet boundary layer in the earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyi, L.M.; Vogin, D.V.; Buechner, J.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of regularity exist for the particle motion in the two-dimensional magnetic field reversals (MFR) with the strongly curves magnetic field lines - the usual adiabatic and another one which we called 'quasiadiabatic'. Here we consider the acceleration of MFR particles in stationary and homogeneous electric field induced by the motion of MFR through the ambient plasma (i.e. solar wind). Assuming that the time scale of acceleration is slow in comparison with the period of orbital motion we introduce the new longitudinal invariant I κ . This enables to describe the process of acceleration in a closed form and to obtain for the first time the laws governing the quasiadiabatic ion acceleration in the Earth's mangetotail. The similarities and differences in adiabatic and quasiadiabatic acceleration mechanisms are discussed. The obtained results give and important insights to the problem of the particle heating in hte Earth's magnetotail and to the formation of accelerated plasma streams along the edges of the plasma sheet. (author). 17 refs.; 7 figs

  17. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  18. Effect of alkali earth oxides on hydroxy-carbonated apatite nano layer formation for SiO2-BaO-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, P.; Ramakrishna, V.; Shashikala, H. D.; Udayashankar, N. K.

    2017-11-01

    Barium soda lime phosphosilicate [(58SiO2-(32 - x)BaO- xCao-6Na2O-4P2O5 (where x = 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol%)] samples were synthesised using conventional sol-gel method at 700 °C sintering temperature. Thermal, structural properties were studied using thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Using Raman spectra non-bridging oxygen concentrations were estimated. The hydroxy-carbonated apatite (HCA) layer formation on samples was analysed for 7 days using simulated body fluid (SBF) soaked samples. The growth of HCA layers self-assembled on the sample surface was discussed as a function of NBO/BO ratio. Results indicated that the number of Ca2+ ions released into SBF solution in dissolution process and weight loss of SB-treated samples vary with NBO/BO ratio. The changes in NBO/BO ratios were observed to be proportional to HCA forming ability of barium soda lime phosphosilicate glasses.

  19. Formation of hemoglobin (Hb)-octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film by spreading Hb solution directly onto subphase covered with a layer of ODA and its electrochemical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Fan; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The formation of hemoglobin (Hb)-octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blotgett (LB) film by spreading Hb solution directly onto subphase covered with a layer of ODA and its electrochemical properties were studied in this paper. This method ensured better electrode activity because almost no protein was adsorbed onto electrode surface before depositing Hb-ODA monolayer onto electrode surface. The optimum equilibrium time of Hb interacted with ODA layer, the optimum protein amount spread onto subphase's interface and the optimum ionic strength and pH of subphase were obtained from the experimental results. The compressibility analyses of Hb-ODA films showed that the surface pressure of this film from liquid-expanded to liquid-condensed state ranged between 16 and 40 mN/m. Direct electron transfer of Hb immobilized on gold electrode by LB technique was observed by cyclic voltammetry. Results showed that Hb molecules still kept their electrochemical activity. The electrode with Hb-ODA LB film displayed the fastest electron transfer rate when the film transferred under the surface pressure of 35 mN/m

  20. Formation of hemoglobin (Hb)-octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film by spreading Hb solution directly onto subphase covered with a layer of ODA and its electrochemical property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Fan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu, 215500 (China); Shin, Hoon-Kyu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Soo [Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yskwon@daunet.donga.ac.kr

    2006-03-21

    The formation of hemoglobin (Hb)-octadecylamine (ODA) Langmuir-Blotgett (LB) film by spreading Hb solution directly onto subphase covered with a layer of ODA and its electrochemical properties were studied in this paper. This method ensured better electrode activity because almost no protein was adsorbed onto electrode surface before depositing Hb-ODA monolayer onto electrode surface. The optimum equilibrium time of Hb interacted with ODA layer, the optimum protein amount spread onto subphase's interface and the optimum ionic strength and pH of subphase were obtained from the experimental results. The compressibility analyses of Hb-ODA films showed that the surface pressure of this film from liquid-expanded to liquid-condensed state ranged between 16 and 40 mN/m. Direct electron transfer of Hb immobilized on gold electrode by LB technique was observed by cyclic voltammetry. Results showed that Hb molecules still kept their electrochemical activity. The electrode with Hb-ODA LB film displayed the fastest electron transfer rate when the film transferred under the surface pressure of 35 mN/m.

  1. Evidence for Kinetic Limitations as a Controlling Factor of Ge Pyramid Formation: a Study of Structural Features of Ge/Si(001) Wetting Layer Formed by Ge Deposition at Room Temperature Followed by Annealing at 600 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhevykh, Mikhail S; Arapkina, Larisa V; Yuryev, Vladimir A

    2015-12-01

    The article presents an experimental study of an issue of whether the formation of arrays of Ge quantum dots on the Si(001) surface is an equilibrium process or it is kinetically controlled. We deposited Ge on Si(001) at the room temperature and explored crystallization of the disordered Ge film as a result of annealing at 600 °C. The experiment has demonstrated that the Ge/Si(001) film formed in the conditions of an isolated system consists of the standard patched wetting layer and large droplike clusters of Ge rather than of huts or domes which appear when a film is grown in a flux of Ge atoms arriving on its surface. We conclude that the growth of the pyramids appearing at temperatures greater than 600 °C is controlled by kinetics rather than thermodynamic equilibrium whereas the wetting layer is an equilibrium structure. Primary 68.37.Ef; 68.55.Ac; 68.65.Hb; 81.07.Ta; 81.16.Dn.

  2. Molecular orbital calculations for the formation of GaN layers on ultra-thin AlN/6H-SiC surface using alternating pulsative supply of gaseous trimethyl gallium (TMG) and NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, See Yearl; Hwang, Jin Soo

    2001-01-01

    The steps for the generation of very thin GaN films on ultrathin AlN/6H-SiC surface by alternating a pulsative supply (APS) of trimethyl gallium and NH 3 gases have been examined by ASED-MO calculations. We postulate that the gallium clusters was formed with the evaporation of CH 4 gases via the decomposition of trimethyl gallium (TMG), dimethyl gallium (DMG), and monomethyl gallium (MMG). During the injection of NH 3 gas into the reactor, the atomic hydrogens were produced from the thermal decomposition of NH 3 molecule. These hydrogen gases activated the Ga-C bond cleavage. An energetically stable GaN nucleation site was formed via nitrogen incorporation into the layer of gallium cluster. The nitrogen atoms produced from the thermal degradation of NH 3 were expected to incorporate into the edge of the gallium cluster since the galliums bind weakly to each other (0.19 eV). The structure was stabilized by 2.08 eV, as an adsorbed N atom incorporated into a tetrahedral site of the Ga cluster. This suggests that the adhesion of the initial layer can be reinforced by the incorporation of nitrogen atom through the formation of large grain boundary GaN crystals at the early stage of GaN film growth

  3. Enthalpies of formation of layered LiNixMnxCo1-2xO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) compounds as lithium ion battery cathode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, Maryam; Cupid, Damian M.; Reichmann, Thomas L.; Seifert, Hans J.; Chang, Keke; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2017-01-01

    Layer-structured mixed transition metal oxides with the formula LiNi x Mn x Co 1-2x O 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) are considered as important cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In an effort to evaluate the relative thermodynamic stabilities of individual compositions in this series, the enthalpies of formation of selected stoichiometries are determined by high temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry and verified by ab-initio calculations. The measured and calculated data are in good agreement with each other, and the results show that LiCoO 2 -LiNi 0.5 Mn 0.5 O 2 solid solution approaches ideal behavior. By increasing x, i.e. by equimolar substitution of Mn 4+ and Ni 2+ for Co 3+ , the enthalpy of formation of LiNi x Mn x Co 1-2x O 2 from the elements becomes more exothermic, implying increased energetic stability. This conclusion is in agreement with the literature results showing improved structural stability and cycling performance of Ni/Mn-rich LiNi x Mn x Co 1-2x O 2 compounds cycled to higher cut-off voltages.

  4. Enthalpies of formation of layered LiNi{sub x}Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1-2x}O{sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) compounds as lithium ion battery cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoumi, Maryam; Cupid, Damian M.; Reichmann, Thomas L.; Seifert, Hans J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics; Chang, Keke; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Materials Chemistry

    2017-11-15

    Layer-structured mixed transition metal oxides with the formula LiNi{sub x}Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1-2x}O{sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) are considered as important cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In an effort to evaluate the relative thermodynamic stabilities of individual compositions in this series, the enthalpies of formation of selected stoichiometries are determined by high temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry and verified by ab-initio calculations. The measured and calculated data are in good agreement with each other, and the results show that LiCoO{sub 2}-LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} solid solution approaches ideal behavior. By increasing x, i.e. by equimolar substitution of Mn{sup 4+} and Ni{sup 2+} for Co{sup 3+}, the enthalpy of formation of LiNi{sub x}Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1-2x}O{sub 2} from the elements becomes more exothermic, implying increased energetic stability. This conclusion is in agreement with the literature results showing improved structural stability and cycling performance of Ni/Mn-rich LiNi{sub x}Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1-2x}O{sub 2} compounds cycled to higher cut-off voltages.

  5. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-04-25

    A method is patented for developing thick sloping coal formations in 3 inclined layers. It includes conducting developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins the last one and extraction of the layers. In order to improve effectivess and extraction operation safety one first carried out preliminary development of a formation in thin strips beneath protected objects when extracting formation which contain alot of gas. Then one removes the gas of a formation through boreholes that have been drilled into the formation from the indicated workings. Then one works the upper layer in thin strips in a sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer. The one strengthens roof rock of the formation by pumping in a quickly hardening solution into the boreholes which have been drilled into the roof of the formation after processing the upper layer. The middle layer is worked in thin strips in the sequence from the roof to the ground of the middle layer, then the lower layer of the formation is strengthened by pumping in quickly hardening solution into the formation along degasified boreholes and it is worked in thin strips in sequence from the ground of the lower to its roof. Workings are shaped respectively for the middle and lower layers by deepening workings of the upper and middle layers. The layers are worked respectively after finishing displacement of the roof in front of the extraction face of each subsequent extraction of a layer in alternating fashion.

  6. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  7. Some theoretical aspects of electrostatic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1978-11-01

    A review is presented of the main results of the theoretical work on electrostatic double layers. The general properties of double layers are first considered. Then the time-independent double layer is discussed. The discussion deals with the potential drop, the thickness, and some necessary criteria for the existence and stability of the layer. As a complement to the study of the timeindependent double layer a few remarks are also made upon the timedependent double layer. Finally the question of how double layers are formed and maintained is treated. Several possible formation mechanisms are considered. (author)

  8. Exchanges in boundary layer and low troposphere and consequences on pollution of Fos-Berre-Marseille area (ESCOMPTE experiment); Les aerosols: emissions, formation d'aerosols organiques secondaires, transport longue distance. Zoom sur les aerosols carbones en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, B

    2006-01-15

    formation, involving enlarged set of volatile organic compounds, (precursors of the SOA) and more elaborated modelling of SOA hygroscopic properties (hydrophilic/hydrophobic SOA); - first estimations of aerosol complex radiative properties on the basis of ORISAM-TM4 aerosol concentrations and assuming a 3 layer internally-mixed aerosol (RAD module). (author)

  9. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  10. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-02-15

    A method of developing thick sloping coal formations in three inclined layers includes carrying out developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins development of the last one and extraction of layers. It is characterized in that in order to improve efficiency and safety of an operation of formation development there is first extraction of the upper layer and then slits in sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer and beneath protected objects. Then the lower layer is workedin thin strips in sequence from the floor of the formation to the roof of the lower layer. Next there is extraction of a slit at the roof of the middle layer and delivery of a plasticized hardening mixture into the worked out space of the indicated slot. The middle layer is worked in thin layers beneath the protection of the formed artificial roof in a sequence from the artificial roof to the floor of the middle layer. Workings of the middle layer are formed by joining of the combined workings of the upper and lower layers during extraction of pillars of coal between them. The layers are respectively worked following completion of roof advance in front of the working face of each subsequent extraction layer in alternating fashion.

  11. Intermetallics Synthesis in the Fe–Al System via Layer by Layer 3D Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floran Missemer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallide phase formation was studied in a powdered Fe–Al system under layer by layer laser cladding with the aim of fabricating the gradient of properties by means of changing the Fe–Al concentration ratio in the powder mixture from layer to layer. The relationships between the laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures in the consecutively cladded layers were determined. In order to study the structure formation an optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, measurement of microhardness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy analysis were used after the laser synthesis of intermetallic compounds.

  12. Formation of conductive spontaneous via holes in AlN buffer layer on n+Si substrate by filling the vias with n-AlGaN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and application to vertical deep ultraviolet photo-sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kurose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have grown conductive aluminum nitride (AlN layers using the spontaneous via holes formation technique on an n+-Si substrate for vertical-type device fabrication. The size and density of the via holes are controlled through the crystal growth conditions used for the layer, and this enables the conductance of the layer to be controlled. Using this technique, we demonstrate the fabrication of a vertical-type deep ultraviolet (DUV photo-sensor. This technique opens up the possibility of fabrication of monolithically integrated on-chip DUV sensors and DUV light-emitting devices (LEDs, including amplifiers, controllers and other necessary functional circuits, on a Si substrate.

  13. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  14. Dynamics of the Marine Cloud Layers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chi, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Goals of this research have been to identify physical processes that determine the dynamics of marine cloud layers and to quantify roles of turbulence, convection and thermal radiation that play in formation...

  15. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Leveque, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation

  16. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  17. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side.......Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...

  18. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  19. Global effects of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raad, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Locally the formation of an electrostatic double layer in a current carrying plasma leads to a direct acceleration of particles which may penetrate far into the surrounding medium. The potential across the double layer, giving this acceleration, must be maintained by the external system and is a basic parameter for the local to global coupling. The double layer potential is associated with an electric field parallel to the magnetic field. In general this leads to a magnetohydrodynamic relaxation of the surrounding medium providing the influx of energy which is dissipated by the double layer. The double layer potential is limited as is the maximum possible rate of energy influx. If the global response of the external medium can be represented by an external circuit and if an equivalent circuit element can be found to represent the double layer, for example a negative resistance for intermediate time scales, it is possible to give a description of the dynamics and stability of the whole system. (Author)

  20. Role of Al in Zn bath on the formation of the inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing for a 1.2Si-1.5Mn transformation-induced plasticity steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Hsu, Chiung-Wen; Chang, Liuwen; Gan, Dershin; Yang, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the interaction between the Al in the Zn bath and the surface oxides formed by selective oxidation on a 1.2Si-1.5Mn TRIP steel during hot-dip galvanizing. XPS and TEM were employed for characterization. The results indicated that the amorphous xMnO·SiO2 oxide could react with Al to form a Si-Mn-Al-containing oxide. The crystalline MnSiO3 and Mn2SiO4 oxides could be largely reduced by Al to form holes in the oxide film. Consequently, the steel covered by a layer of mixed xMnO·SiO2 and MnSiO3 could form a continuous Fe2Al5 inhibition layer and showed the highest galvanizability among the three samples examined.

  1. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Saar, E.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Galaxies and Galaxy congestions in the southern galactic hemisphere is studied. The rich galaxy congestions, containing many elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies, are linked with each other by chains of scanty congestions with moderate content of elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies. The flat formation, linking the density pikes and the intermediate chains, can reasonably be called supercongestion. In the central region of supercongestions there is a thin layer of Galaxies consisting of only spiral Galaxies. The neighbouring supercongestions touch each other, while the intersupercongestion space contains no Galaxy congestions and almost no Galaxies. It is shown that such a structure was, apparently, formed before the formation of Galaxies

  2. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  3. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  4. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  5. Formation of definite GaN p-n junction by Mg-ion implantation to n--GaN epitaxial layers grown on a high-quality free-standing GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Takuya; Saijo, Yusuke; Kato, Shigeki; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Nakamura, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    P-type conversion of n--GaN by Mg-ion implantation was successfully performed using high quality GaN epitaxial layers grown on free-standing low-dislocation-density GaN substrates. These samples showed low-temperature PL spectra quite similar to those observed from Mg-doped MOVPE-grown p-type GaN, consisting of Mg related donor-acceptor pair (DAP) and acceptor bound exciton (ABE) emission. P-n diodes fabricated by the Mg-ion implantation showed clear rectifying I-V characteristics and UV and blue light emissions were observed at forward biased conditions for the first time.

  6. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. A protective layer formation in saturated solution of sulfohydric acid in water at pH = 4.43. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzoni, P.; Burkart, A.L.; Garavaglia, R.N.

    1985-04-01

    As complement to the experiences on carbon steel passivation for its use in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water production plants, the results herein obtained are given, processing the material with a saturated solution at 2.3 MPa of full pressure and 125 temperature degree of H 2 S in NaOH 5 x 10 -3 M, which, at an equilibrium point, the pH is 4.43. The characteristics, the composition and adherence to the layer formed and the corrosion velocity data are analyzed. (Author) [es

  7. Double Layer Dynamics in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    and propagation of a double layer. The period of the oscillations is determined by the propagation length of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation of the double layer by a growing negative potential barrier formed on the low potential tail. Similar phenomena appear when a potential......An experimental investigation of the dynamics of double layers is presented. The experiments are performed in a Q-machine plasma and the double layers are generated by applying a positive step potential to a cold collector plate terminating the plasma column. The double layer is created...... at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied and it propagates towards the collector with a speed around the ion acoustic speed. When the collector is biased positively, large oscillations are obserced in the plasma current. These oscillations are found to be related to a recurring formation...

  8. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of constant-coeffcient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coeffcients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

  9. Experiments on ion acoustic typed double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Cho, M.H.; Intrator, T.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of small amplitude double layers with potential drops the order of the electron temperature, was examined experimentally by pulsing a grid and thereby changing the electron drift across the target chamber of a triple plasma device. The rarefactive part of a long wavelength, low frequency ion wave grew in amplitude due to the presence of slowly drifting electrons. The corresponding current limitation led to the formation of the double layers. Depending on the plasma conditions, the asymmetric double layers either transform into a weak monotonic layer, a propagating shock, or a series of rarefactive solitary pulses. The rarefactive pulses propagate with Mach number less than one and resemble solitary plasma holes with density cavities in both the electron and the ion density profiles

  10. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  11. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  12. Single-layer versus double-layer laparoscopic intracorporeally sutured gastrointestinal anastomoses in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Azine; Bakhtiari, Jalal; Khalaj, Ali Reza; Gharagozlou, Mohammad Javad; Veshkini, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the gross and histopathologic changes following 1- versus 2-layer hand-sewn suture techniques in laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis in dogs. This was an experimental prospective study of 16 healthy mixed breed male and female dogs. Animals were randomly divided into 2 groups. Two-layer side-to-side hand-sewn laparoscopic gastrojejunostomies were performed in group A, so that simple interrupted sutures were placed in the outer layer and simple continuous suture was used in the inner layer. The 1-layer simple continuous anastomosis between the stomach and jejunum was done in group B precisely. Specimen were collected from the sites of anastomosis, and H&E statining was performed for light microscopic studies. All animals survived the surgery. There was no gross inflammation, ischemia, apparent granulation tissue, abscess or fistula formation, leakage or stricture formation, and all sites of anastomosis were patent. Several adhesion formations were found in the abdomen with the higher incidence in the control group. Mean scores of leukocyte infiltration and granulation tissue formation at the sites of anastomosis were statistically insignificant between groups (P>0.05). Gross and histopathologic findings revealed that hand-sewn laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis with the 1-layer suture technique is comparable to the 2-layer suture technique.

  13. Molecular orbital calculations for the formation of GaN layers on ultra-thin AlN/6H-SiC surface using alternating pulsative supply of gaseous trimethyl gallium (TMG) and NH sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Seong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The steps for the generation of very thin GaN films on ultrathin AlN/6H-SiC surface by alternating a pulsative supply (APS) of trimethyl gallium and NH sub 3 gases have been examined by ASED-MO calculations. We postulate that the gallium clusters was formed with the evaporation of CH sub 4 gases via the decomposition of trimethyl gallium (TMG), dimethyl gallium (DMG), and monomethyl gallium (MMG). During the injection of NH sub 3 gas into the reactor, the atomic hydrogens were produced from the thermal decomposition of NH sub 3 molecule. These hydrogen gases activated the Ga-C bond cleavage. An energetically stable GaN nucleation site was formed via nitrogen incorporation into the layer of gallium cluster. The nitrogen atoms produced from the thermal degradation of NH sub 3 were expected to incorporate into the edge of the gallium cluster since the galliums bind weakly to each other (0.19 eV). The structure was stabilized by 2.08 eV, as an adsorbed N atom incorporated into a tetrahedral site of the Ga cluster...

  14. Blistering and bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.

    1976-01-01

    Blister formation in metals has been observed during bombardment with inert-gas ions in the energy range between 1 and 2000 keV at doses of about 10 17 to 10 19 cm -2 . The changes in surface topography and the erosion yields were mainly studied in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Additionally the release of the implanted gas during blister formation was observed. Recently measurements on single crystals were performed determining simultaneously the implantation profile, the total amount of trapped ions, the depth distribution of the induced lattice damage and the thickness of the covers of the blisters. In several stages of the formation process of blisters the implanted layer was observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showing the formation of gas bubbles. Using the results of all these measurements in this review an attempt is made to develop a model of blister formation combining the effects of hydrostatic pressure in the gas bubbles and lateral stress due to volume swelling. (author)

  15. Selenium implantation in epitaxial gallium arsenide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Taka, S.; Yuge, Y.; Kohzu, H.

    1981-01-01

    Selenium implantation at room temperature in S-doped epitaxial GaAs layers as a means of the formation of n + layers has been investigated. Doping profiles for Se-implanted layers have been examined by a C-V technique and/or a differential Hall effect method. It has been shown that n + layers with a maximum carrier concentration of approx. equal to1.5 x 10 18 cm -3 can be formed by implantation followed by a 15 min annealing at 950 0 C. Contact resistance of ohmic electrodes is reduced by use of the Se-implanted n + layers, resulting in the improvement on GaAs FET performance. Measured minimum noise figure of the Se-implanted GaAs FETs is 0.74 dB at 4 GHz. (orig.)

  16. Stochastic Models of Molecule Formation on Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven; Wirstroem, Eva

    2011-01-01

    We will present new theoretical models for the formation of molecules on dust. The growth of ice mantles and their layered structure is accounted for and compared directly to observations through simulation of the expected ice absorption spectra

  17. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyimide precursor/layered double hydroxide ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dan; Huang Shu; Zhang Chao; Wang Weizhi; Liu Tianxi

    2010-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly has been extensively used as a simple and effective method for the preparation of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. In this work, we utilized this unique method to prepare polyimide precursor/layered double hydroxide (LDH) ultrathin films. Well-crystallized Co-Al-CO 3 LDH and subsequent anion exchanged Co-Al-NO 3 LDH were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). By vigorous shaking of the as-prepared Co-Al-NO 3 LDH, positively charged and exfoliated LDH nanosheets were obtained. Atomic force microscopy and XRD investigations indicated the delamination of LDH nanosheets. The precursor of polyimide, poly(amic acid) tertiary amine salt (PAS) was prepared by the polycondensation of dianhydride and diamine, and subsequent amine salt formation. By using the LBL method, heterogeneous ultrathin films of PAS and LDH were prepared. The formation of the ordered nanostructured assemblies was confirmed by the progressive enhancement of UV absorbance and the XRD results.

  18. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  19. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  20. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  1. Spontaneous layering of porous silicon layers formed at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhutik, Vitali; Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Millan, Mari-Carmen [R and D Center MTM, Technical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Albella, Jose [Institute of Materials Science (ICMM CSIC) Madrid (Spain)

    2005-06-01

    We report here a curious effect of spontaneous fracturing of the silicon layers formed in galvanostatic conditions at medium and high current densities. Instead of formation of homogeneous p-Si layer as at low currents, a stack of thin layers is formed. Each layer is nearly separated from others and possesses rather flat interfaces. The effects is observed using p{sup +}-Si wafers for the p-Si formation and starts being noticeable at above 100 mA/cm{sup 2}. We interpret these results in terms of the porous silicon growth model where generation of dynamic mechanical stress during the p-Si growth causes sharp changes in Si dissolution mechanism from anisotropic etching of individual needle-like pores in silicon to their branching and isotropic etching. At this moment p-Si layer loses its adhesion to the surface of Si wafer and another p-Si layer starts growing. One of the mechanisms triggering on the separation of p-Si layers from one another is a fluctuation of local anodic current in the pore bottoms associated with gas bubble evolution during the p-Si formation. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  3. Aggregate formation in 3D turbulent-like flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez, A.; Aartrijk, van M.; Castello, Del L.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, B.; Clercx, H

    2006-01-01

    Aggregate formation is an important process in industrial and environ mental turbulent flows. Two examples in the environmental area, where turbulent aggregate formation takes place, are raindrop formation in clouds and Marine Snow (aggregate) formation in the upper layer in the oceans. The

  4. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  5. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  6. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  7. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  8. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  9. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  10. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  11. Textured strontium titanate layers on platinum by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, T.; Anttila, J.; Haukka, S.; Tuominen, M.; Lukosius, M.; Wenger, Ch.; Saukkonen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Formation of textured strontium titanate (STO) layers with large lateral grain size (0.2–1 μm) and low X-ray reflectivity roughness (∼ 1.36 nm) on Pt electrodes by industry proven atomic layer deposition (ALD) method is demonstrated. Sr(t-Bu 3 Cp) 2 , Ti(OMe) 4 and O 3 precursors at 250 °C were used to deposit Sr rich STO on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si ∅200 mm substrates. After crystallization post deposition annealing at 600 °C in air, most of the STO grains showed a preferential orientation of the {001} plane parallel to the substrate surface, although other orientations were also present. Cross sectional and plan view transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis revealed more than an order of magnitude larger lateral grain sizes for the STO compared to the underlying multicrystalline {111} oriented platinum electrode. The combination of platinum bottom electrodes with ALD STO(O 3 ) shows a promising path towards the formation of single oriented STO film. - Highlights: ► Amorphous strontium titanate (STO) on platinum formed a textured film after annealing. ► Single crystal domains in 60 nm STO film were 0.2–1 μm wide. ► Most STO grains were {001} oriented.

  12. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1993-01-01

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties

  13. Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors which may be the next generation of band-gap engineered, large format infrared detector...

  14. Production and Preservation of Sulfide Layering in Mercury's Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukare, C.-E.; Parman, S. W.; Parmentier, E. M.; Anzures, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mercury's magma ocean (MMO) would have been sulfur-rich. At some point during MMO solidification, it likely became sulfide saturated. Here we present physiochemical models exploring sulfide layer formation and stability.

  15. Black layers on historical architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Lucia; Zerbi, Carlotta M; Bugini, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    The external surface of any building in urban polluted environment is unavoidably destined to be covered with layers that assume a grey to black colour and are generally called 'black crusts'. These, according to standard protocols and glossary, are deteriorated surface layers of stone material; they can have variable thickness, are hard and fragile and can detach spontaneously from the substrate, which, in general, is quite decayed. Plain visual examination may lead to consider 'black crusts' all similar, whilst only a careful diagnostic investigation can distinguish 'black crusts' and the consequences of their formation on stone substrates. In this paper, various black layers on marble are studied and compared and the morphological and compositional characteristics discussed according to the related mechanisms of formation. Differences between old (hundred years) and recent crusts (30 years) are investigated and pointed out. Samples of black crusts collected from the Milan Cathedral façade (Candoglia Marble) have been studied and compared with the careful and synergic employ of traditional techniques: optical (transmission and reflected VIS light) and electron microscopy, X-ray spectrometry and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Visual examination of loose fragments does not allow to point out outstanding differences amongst the various samples; black layers have similar main mineral components, gypsum and airborne particles, with different spatial distribution. The microscopic studies allowed to point out the porosity differences, the gypsum crystallisation habit, different amount of embedded particles, level and progress of marble decay. The observations lead to define three main types of black crusts: black crust deriving from marble sulphation, compact deposit and encrustation due to exogenic materials deposition. Black crusts show evidence of sulphation in progress, without a clear continuity solution between crust and marble; the lack of

  16. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Satoru; Michelsen, P.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Schrittwieser, R.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources. (author)

  17. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large...... oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double...... layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources...

  18. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  19. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  20. Charge state of oxide layer of SIMOX-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Askinazi, A Y; Dmitriev, V A; Miloglyadova, L V

    2001-01-01

    The charge state of the oxide layer of the SIMOX-structures, obtained in the course of forming the oxide layers, bricked up in the silicon volume, through the oxygen ions implantation into the Si, is studied. The charge state of the given structures is studied through the method of the layer-by-layer profiling, which makes it possible to obtain the dependence of the plane zones potential on the oxide layer thickness. It is established, that during the process of the SIMOX-structures formation in the oxide layer near the boundary with the Si there appear defects, responsible for the charge. The radiation from the near-the-ultraviolet (NUV) area without the applied electric field neutralizes the given charge. The simultaneous impact of the NUV-radiation and electric field leads to the formation of significantly positive charge

  1. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  2. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  3. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  4. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  5. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  6. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  7. Origin of the outer layer of martian low-aspect ratio layered ejecta craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Wilson, Lionel; Barlow, Nadine G.

    2015-01-01

    Low-aspect ratio layered ejecta (LARLE) craters are one of the most enigmatic types of martian layered ejecta craters. We propose that the extensive outer layer of these craters is produced through the same base surge mechanism as that which produced the base surge deposits generated by near-surface, buried nuclear and high-explosive detonations. However, the LARLE layers have higher aspect ratios compared with base surge deposits from explosion craters, a result of differences in thicknesses of these layers. This characteristics is probably caused by the addition of large amounts of small particles of dust and ice derived from climate-related mantles of snow, ice and dust in the areas where LARLE craters form. These deposits are likely to be quickly stabilized (order of a few days to a few years) from eolian erosion by formation of duricrust produced by diffusion of water vapor out of the deposits.

  8. The effect of the phase composition of compound layer on the growth kinetics of the nitrided layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratajski, J.; Olik, R.; Suszko, T.; Tacikowski, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a part of research work on the kinetics of formation and growth of nitrided layers on 40HM steel that was conducted within the research project devoted to the control of gaseous nitriding processes. The purpose of the research was to find answers to still opened questions connected with the optimization of the growth kinetics of nitrided layer. It has been demonstrated in particular how important in diffusion layer kinetics of growth on steel is the role-played by compound layer phase composition. Mainly, this refers to designing changes of parameters in processes where accurate formation of layer on precise parts with required tolerance of size changes is demanded. It comes out of the presented research that proper diffusion layer growth kinetics can be achieved when phase ε dominates in the compound layer. This domination of the phase ε influences speed of growth of the compound layer and first of all growth of diffusion layer. The obtained results are also a starting point of for working-out of good functional relations which could create good basis for design of algorithms of potential values changes in the function of the process time which provides the optimal kinetics of the growth of the layers. In this respect it has been achieved very good qualitative relation between the simulated distribution of nitrogen concentration in the layer and experimentally established distribution of hardness. (author)

  9. Multi-layer monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Caspar, D.L.D.

    1975-01-01

    This invention provides an artificial monochromator crystal for efficiently selecting a narrow band of neutron wavelengths from a neutron beam having a Maxwellian wavelength distribution, by providing on a substrate a plurality of germanium layers, and alternate periodic layers of a different metal having tailored thicknesses, shapes, and volumetric and neutron scattering densities. (U.S.)

  10. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  11. Skin layer mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human skin is composed of several layers, each with an unique structure and function. Knowledge about the mechanical behavior of these skin layers is important for clinical and cosmetic research, such as the development of personal care products and the understanding of skin diseases. Until

  12. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  13. Establishment of the Vertebrate Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chia; Munisha, Mumingjiang; Gutierrez, Juan B; Dougan, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The process of germ layer formation is a universal feature of animal development. The germ layers separate the cells that produce the internal organs and tissues from those that produce the nervous system and outer tissues. Their discovery in the early nineteenth century transformed embryology from a purely descriptive field into a rigorous scientific discipline, in which hypotheses could be tested by observation and experimentation. By systematically addressing the questions of how the germ layers are formed and how they generate overall body plan, scientists have made fundamental contributions to the fields of evolution, cell signaling, morphogenesis, and stem cell biology. At each step, this work was advanced by the development of innovative methods of observing cell behavior in vivo and in culture. Here, we take an historical approach to describe our current understanding of vertebrate germ layer formation as it relates to the long-standing questions of developmental biology. By comparing how germ layers form in distantly related vertebrate species, we find that highly conserved molecular pathways can be adapted to perform the same function in dramatically different embryonic environments.

  14. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  15. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  16. Boosting water oxidation layer-by-layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Acosta, Jonnathan C; Scanlon, Micheál D; Méndez, Manuel A; Amstutz, Véronique; Vrubel, Heron; Opallo, Marcin; Girault, Hubert H

    2016-04-07

    Electrocatalysis of water oxidation was achieved using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with layer-by-layer deposited films consisting of bilayers of negatively charged citrate-stabilized IrO2 NPs and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer. The IrO2 NP surface coverage can be fine-tuned by controlling the number of bilayers. The IrO2 NP films were amorphous, with the NPs therein being well-dispersed and retaining their as-synthesized shape and sizes. UV/vis spectroscopic and spectro-electrochemical studies confirmed that the total surface coverage and electrochemically addressable surface coverage of IrO2 NPs increased linearly with the number of bilayers up to 10 bilayers. The voltammetry of the modified electrode was that of hydrous iridium oxide films (HIROFs) with an observed super-Nernstian pH response of the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) and Ir(IV)-Ir(IV)/Ir(IV)-Ir(V) redox transitions and Nernstian shift of the oxygen evolution onset potential. The overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was essentially pH independent, varying only from 0.22 V to 0.28 V (at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2)), moving from acidic to alkaline conditions. Bulk electrolysis experiments revealed that the IrO2/PDDA films were stable and adherent under acidic and neutral conditions but degraded in alkaline solutions. Oxygen was evolved with Faradaic efficiencies approaching 100% under acidic (pH 1) and neutral (pH 7) conditions, and 88% in alkaline solutions (pH 13). This layer-by-layer approach forms the basis of future large-scale OER electrode development using ink-jet printing technology.

  17. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  18. Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Morris

    2018-04-01

    Modern observational techniques are still not powerful enough to directly view planet formation, and so it is necessary to rely on theory. However, observations do give two important clues to the formation process. The first is that the most primitive form of material in interstellar space exists as a dilute gas. Some of this gas is unstable against gravitational collapse, and begins to contract. Because the angular momentum of the gas is not zero, it contracts along the spin axis, but remains extended in the plane perpendicular to that axis, so that a disk is formed. Viscous processes in the disk carry most of the mass into the center where a star eventually forms. In the process, almost as a by-product, a planetary system is formed as well. The second clue is the time required. Young stars are indeed observed to have gas disks, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, surrounding them, and observations tell us that these disks dissipate after about 5 to 10 million years. If planets like Jupiter and Saturn, which are very rich in hydrogen and helium, are to form in such a disk, they must accrete their gas within 5 million years of the time of the formation of the disk. Any formation scenario one proposes must produce Jupiter in that time, although the terrestrial planets, which don't contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium, could have taken longer to build. Modern estimates for the formation time of the Earth are of the order of 100 million years. To date there are two main candidate theories for producing Jupiter-like planets. The core accretion (CA) scenario supposes that any solid materials in the disk slowly coagulate into protoplanetary cores with progressively larger masses. If the core remains small enough it won't have a strong enough gravitational force to attract gas from the surrounding disk, and the result will be a terrestrial planet. If the core grows large enough (of the order of ten Earth masses), and the disk has not yet dissipated, then

  19. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smolyar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for “layer thickness vs. layer number” and “layer area vs. layer number”. These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting “layer thickness vs. layer number” and “layer area vs. layer number”, which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones.

  20. Textured strontium titanate layers on platinum by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, T., E-mail: tom.blomberg@asm.com [ASM Microchemistry Ltd., Vaeinoe Auerin katu 12 A, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Anttila, J.; Haukka, S.; Tuominen, M. [ASM Microchemistry Ltd., Vaeinoe Auerin katu 12 A, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Lukosius, M.; Wenger, Ch. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Saukkonen, T. [Aalto University, Puumiehenkuja 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2012-08-31

    Formation of textured strontium titanate (STO) layers with large lateral grain size (0.2-1 {mu}m) and low X-ray reflectivity roughness ({approx} 1.36 nm) on Pt electrodes by industry proven atomic layer deposition (ALD) method is demonstrated. Sr(t-Bu{sub 3}Cp){sub 2}, Ti(OMe){sub 4} and O{sub 3} precursors at 250 Degree-Sign C were used to deposit Sr rich STO on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si Empty-Set 200 mm substrates. After crystallization post deposition annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C in air, most of the STO grains showed a preferential orientation of the {l_brace}001{r_brace} plane parallel to the substrate surface, although other orientations were also present. Cross sectional and plan view transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis revealed more than an order of magnitude larger lateral grain sizes for the STO compared to the underlying multicrystalline {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented platinum electrode. The combination of platinum bottom electrodes with ALD STO(O{sub 3}) shows a promising path towards the formation of single oriented STO film. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous strontium titanate (STO) on platinum formed a textured film after annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal domains in 60 nm STO film were 0.2-1 {mu}m wide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most STO grains were {l_brace}001{r_brace} oriented.

  1. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  2. Synthesis of single-crystalline Al layers in sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, W.; Lindner, J.K.N.; Zeitler, M.; Stritzker, B.

    1999-01-01

    Single-crystalline, buried aluminium layers were synthesized by 180 keV high-dose Al + ion implantation into sapphire at 500 deg. C. The approximately 70 nm thick Al layers exhibit in XTEM investigations locally abrupt interfaces to the single-crystalline Al 2 O 3 top layer and bulk, while thickness and depth position are subjected to variations. The layers grow by a ripening process of oriented Al precipitates, which at low doses exist at two different orientations. With increasing dose, precipitates with one out of the two orientations are observed to exist preferentially, finally leading to the formation of a single-crystalline layer. Al outdiffusion to the surface and the formation of spherical Al clusters at the surface are found to be competing processes to buried layer formation. The formation of Al layers is described by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies as a function of dose, temperature and substrate orientation

  3. Topologically nontrivial quantum layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, G.; Exner, P.; Krejcirik, D.

    2004-01-01

    Given a complete noncompact surface Σ embedded in R 3 , we consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in the layer Ω that is defined as a tubular neighborhood of constant width about Σ. Using an intrinsic approach to the geometry of Ω, we generalize the spectral results of the original paper by Duclos et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 223, 13 (2001)] to the situation when Σ does not possess poles. This enables us to consider topologically more complicated layers and state new spectral results. In particular, we are interested in layers built over surfaces with handles or several cylindrically symmetric ends. We also discuss more general regions obtained by compact deformations of certain Ω

  4. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Graphene Double Layer Formed by a Double Transfer of Graphene Single Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jun; Bae, Gi Yoon; Chun, Sungwoo; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate formation of double layer graphene by means of a double transfer using two single graphene layers grown by a chemical vapor deposition method. It is observed that shiftiness and broadness in the double-resonance of Raman scattering are much weaker than those of bilayer graphene formed naturally. Transport characteristics examined from transmission line measurements and field effect transistors show the similar behavior with those of single layer graphene. It indicates that interlayer separation, in electrical view, is large enough to avoid correlation between layers for the double layer structure. It is also observed from a transistor with the double layer graphene that molecules adsorpted on two inner graphene surfaces in the double layered structure are isolated and conserved from ambient environment.

  5. The Transient Intermediate Plexiform Layer, a Plexiform Layer-like Structure Temporarily Existing in the Inner Nuclear Layer in Developing Rat Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Hong-Lim; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, In-Beom

    2018-02-01

    The retina is a highly specialised part of the brain responsible for visual processing. It is well-laminated; three layers containing five different types of neurons are compartmentalised by two synaptic layers. Among the retinal layers, the inner nuclear layer (INL) is composed of horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cell types. Bipolar cells form one sublayer in the distal half of the IPL, while amacrine cells form another sublayer in the proximal half, without any border-like structure. Here, we report that a plexiform layer-like structure exists temporarily in the border between the bipolar and amacrine sublayers in the INL in the rat retina during retinal development. This transient intermediate plexiform layer (TIPL) appeared at postnatal day (PD) 7 and then disappeared around PD 12. Most apoptotic cells in the INL were found near the TIPL. These results suggest that the TIPL may contribute to the formation of sublayers and the cell number limit in the INL.

  6. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  7. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  8. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  9. Habit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  10. Medusae Fossae Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  11. Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M; Motta, P

    2008-01-01

    There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry

  12. Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, University of Alabama, Box 870280, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Motta, P [Biology Department, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: alang@eng.ua.edu

    2008-12-01

    There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry.

  13. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  14. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  15. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  16. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  17. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  18. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. Self-organization in circular shear layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, K.; Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1996-01-01

    Experiments on forced circular shear layers performed in both magnetized plasmas and in rotating fluids reveal qualitatively similar self-organization processes leading to the formation of patterns of coherent vortical structures with varying complexity. In this paper results are presented from...... both weakly nonlinear analysis and full numerical simulations that closely reproduce the experimental observations. Varying the Reynolds number leads to bifurcation sequences accompanied by topological changes in the distribution of the coherent structures as well as clear transitions in the total...

  20. THE LYCHEE TREE PROPAGATION BY LAYERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA CRISTINA ROSA LINS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the influence of season and different substrates on rooting of air layers of lychee (Litchi chinensisSonn. for the production of seedlings to ensure the formation of uniform and productive orchards. Air layers were done in plants of the Bengal cultivar using leafy and healthy woody branches, with about 0.010 to 0.015 m in diameter, in which were performed complete girdling with 0.020 m wide at a distance of 0.30 to 0.40 m below the apex. Then the branches were wrapped in moistened substrate. The layering was made at six times of theyear (January, March, May, July, September and November and two substrates were used (coconut fiber and sphagnum in a 6 x 2 factorial design in a randomized block with ten replicates. After 90 days, layers were separated from the matrix plant and evaluated for rooting and callus formation, root number, considering only the primary roots, length, area and volume of the roots, beyond the dry weight of roots and calluses. The months of January, March, September and November showed the best results for all analyzed variables related to rooting. With respect to the substrates, the only difference was in January and March to the root number and dry weight of roots, where the sphagnum showed the best results. The month of July was more conducive to the formation of calluses. The period between September and March was more suitable to the propagation of lychee, when there were rooting percentages above 90%, in addition to the formation of large amount of roots.

  1. Endocytosis and Enamel Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Dat Pham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enamel formation requires consecutive stages of development to achieve its characteristic extreme mineral hardness. Mineralization depends on the initial presence then removal of degraded enamel proteins from the matrix via endocytosis. The ameloblast membrane resides at the interface between matrix and cell. Enamel formation is controlled by ameloblasts that produce enamel in stages to build the enamel layer (secretory stage and to reach final mineralization (maturation stage. Each stage has specific functional requirements for the ameloblasts. Ameloblasts adopt different cell morphologies during each stage. Protein trafficking including the secretion and endocytosis of enamel proteins is a fundamental task in ameloblasts. The sites of internalization of enamel proteins on the ameloblast membrane are specific for every stage. In this review, an overview of endocytosis and trafficking of vesicles in ameloblasts is presented. The pathways for internalization and routing of vesicles are described. Endocytosis is proposed as a mechanism to remove debris of degraded enamel protein and to obtain feedback from the matrix on the status of the maturing enamel.

  2. Nitrite reduction on a multimetallic porphyrin/polyoxotungstate layer-by-layer modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Macarena; Honores, Jessica; Quezada, Diego; Díaz, Carlos; Dreyse, Paulina; Celis, Freddy; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Canzi, Gabriele; Guzmán, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Electro and photoelectrochemical reduction of nitrite in aqueous solution was studied using a multielectrocatalysts modified ITO electrode. ITO modification was carried out using the layer-by-layer (LBL) method, where sequential electrostatic assemblies were formed using a μ-(meso-5,10,15,20-tetra(pirydil)porphyrin)tetrakis{bis(bipyridine)chloride ruthenium (II)} [MTRP] n+ , coordinated in its central cavity with Mn(III), Zn(II) or Ni(II) as a cationic layer, and polyoxotungstate [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− as the anionic layer. Electrochemical measurements and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to monitor the modification process. Optimal results were obtained when three layers were deposited onto the ITO surface and were stable in aqueous solution. The order of the multilayer formation was explored by comparing a modified electrode where [Zn(II)TRP] 4+ was the outermost layer with an electrode where [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− was the outer layer. Results show that the best performing electrode is one with [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− as the outer layer. Nitrite reduction on these electrode surfaces was studied in dark conditions and under light irradiation. Potential controlled electrolysis experiments were also performed, finding hydroxylamine, hydrazine and ammonia as the reduction products in dark conditions. Under light irradiation, only hydrazine and ammonia were found and, we observed an increase in the amount of obtained product. In this case, the electrolysis was carried out 150 mV less and half of time than in dark conditions. These results show that the combination of light and potential give rise to an improvement in the electrocatalytic properties of the modified electrodes. Continuous photolysis and IR spectroelectrochemical experiments were carried out to determinate the nature of this phenomena, evidencing the formation of an intermediary species between nitrite and [Mn(III)TRP] 5+.

  3. Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

    2001-12-01

    The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

  4. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  5. Fabrication of Polymer Solar Cells Using Aqueous Processing for All Layers Including the Metal Back Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Helgesen, Martin; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of printing all layers in polymer solar cells from aqueous solution are met by design of inks for the electron-, hole-, active-, and metallic back electrode-layers. The conversion of each layer to an insoluble state after printing enables multilayer formation from the same solvent...

  6. Stability of mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  7. Reducing interface recombination for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} by atomic layer deposited buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultqvist, Adam; Bent, Stacey F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Li, Jian V.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Dippo, Patricia; Contreras, Miguel A.; Levi, Dean H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Partial CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cell stacks with different atomic layer deposited buffer layers and pretreatments were analyzed by photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance voltage (CV) measurements to investigate the buffer layer/CIGS interface. Atomic layer deposited ZnS, ZnO, and SnO{sub x} buffer layers were compared with chemical bath deposited CdS buffer layers. Band bending, charge density, and interface state density were extracted from the CV measurement using an analysis technique new to CIGS. The surface recombination velocity calculated from the density of interface traps for a ZnS/CIGS stack shows a remarkably low value of 810 cm/s, approaching the range of single crystalline II–VI systems. Both the PL spectra and its lifetime depend on the buffer layer; thus, these measurements are not only sensitive to the absorber but also to the absorber/buffer layer system. Pretreatment of the CIGS prior to the buffer layer deposition plays a significant role on the electrical properties for the same buffer layer/CIGS stack, further illuminating the importance of good interface formation. Finally, ZnS is found to be the best performing buffer layer in this study, especially if the CIGS surface is pretreated with potassium cyanide.

  8. Three-layer magnetoconvection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.-K.; Silvers, L.J.; Proctor, M.R.E.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that some stars have two or more convection zones in close proximity near to the stellar photosphere. These zones are separated by convectively stable regions that are relatively narrow. Due to the close proximity of these regions it is important to construct mathematical models to understand the transport and mixing of passive and dynamic quantities. One key quantity of interest is a magnetic field, a dynamic vector quantity, that can drastically alter the convectively driven flows, and have an important role in coupling the different layers. In this Letter we present the first investigation into the effect of an imposed magnetic field in such a geometry. We focus our attention on the effect of field strength and show that, while there are some similarities with results for magnetic field evolution in a single layer, new and interesting phenomena are also present in a three layer system

  9. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  10. Superfluid Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, G W; Parker, N G; Barenghi, C F

    2017-03-31

    We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

  11. On the photon annealing of silicon-implanted gallium-nitride layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seleznev, B. I.; Moskalev, G. Ya.; Fedorov, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    The conditions for the formation of ion-doped layers in gallium nitride upon the incorporation of silicon ions followed by photon annealing in the presence of silicon dioxide and nitride coatings are analyzed. The conditions of the formation of ion-doped layers with a high degree of impurity activation are established. The temperature dependences of the surface concentration and mobility of charge carriers in ion-doped GaN layers annealed at different temperatures are studied.

  12. Chitosan-Recombinamer Layer-by-Layer Coatings for Multifunctional Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Prasaad Govindharajulu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main clinical problems for dental implants are (1 formation of biofilm around the implant—a condition known as peri-implantitis and (2 inadequate bone formation around the implant—lack of osseointegration. Therefore, developing an implant to overcome these problems is of significant interest to the dental community. Chitosan has been reported to have good biocompatibility and anti-bacterial activity. An osseo-inductive recombinant elastin-like biopolymer (P-HAP, that contains a peptide derived from the protein statherin, has been reported to induce biomineralization and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, chitosan/P-HAP bi-layers were built on a titanium surface using a layer-by-layer (LbL assembly technique. The difference in the water contact angle between consecutive layers, the representative peaks in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and the changes in the topography between surfaces with a different number of bi-layers observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, all indicated the successful establishment of chitosan/P-HAP LbL assembly on the titanium surface. The LbL-modified surfaces showed increased biomineralization, an appropriate mouse pre-osteoblastic cell response, and significant anti-bacterial activity against Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of tissues in the oral environment

  13. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  14. Tube Formation in Nanoscale Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chenglin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of tubular nanostructures normally requires layered, anisotropic, or pseudo-layered crystal structures, while inorganic compounds typically do not possess such structures, inorganic nanotubes thus have been a hot topic in the past decade. In this article, we review recent research activities on nanotubes fabrication and focus on three novel synthetic strategies for generating nanotubes from inorganic materials that do not have a layered structure. Specifically, thermal oxidation method based on gas–solid reaction to porous CuO nanotubes has been successfully established, semiconductor ZnS and Nb2O5nanotubes have been prepared by employing sacrificial template strategy based on liquid–solid reaction, and an in situ template method has been developed for the preparation of ZnO taper tubes through a chemical etching reaction. We have described the nanotube formation processes and illustrated the detailed key factors during their growth. The proposed mechanisms are presented for nanotube fabrication and the important pioneering studies are discussed on the rational design and fabrication of functional materials with tubular structures. It is the intention of this contribution to provide a brief account of these research activities.

  15. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  16. Thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickert, H.; Fehsenfeld, P.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of industrial equip ment is substantially influenced by wear and corrosion; monitoring can prevent accidents and avoid down-time. One powerful tool is thin layer activation analysis (TLA) using accelerator systems. The information is used to improve mechanical design and material usage; the technology is used by many large companies, particularly in the automotive industry, e.g. Daimler Benz. A critical area of a machine component receives a thin layer of radioactivity by irradiation with charged particles from an accelerator - usually a cyclotron. The radioactivity can be made homogeneous by suitable selection of particle, beam energy and angle of incidence. Layer thickness can be varied from 20 microns to around 1 mm with different depth distributions; the position and size of the wear zone can be set to within 0.1 mm. The machine is then reassembled and operated so that wear can be measured. An example is a combustion engine comprising piston ring, cylinder wall, cooling water jacket and housing wall, where wear measurements on the cylinder wall are required in a critical zone around the dead-point of the piston ring. Proton beam bombardment creates a radioactive layer whose thickness is known accurately, and characteristic gamma radiation from this radioactive zone penetrates through the engine and is detected externally. Measurements can be made either of the activity removed from the surface, or of the (reduced) residual activity; wear measurement of the order of 10 -9 metres is possible

  17. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  18. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  19. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  20. Layered compression for high-precision depth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Dan; Fu, Jingjing; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2015-12-01

    With the development of depth data acquisition technologies, access to high-precision depth with more than 8-b depths has become much easier and determining how to efficiently represent and compress high-precision depth is essential for practical depth storage and transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a layered high-precision depth compression framework based on an 8-b image/video encoder to achieve efficient compression with low complexity. Within this framework, considering the characteristics of the high-precision depth, a depth map is partitioned into two layers: 1) the most significant bits (MSBs) layer and 2) the least significant bits (LSBs) layer. The MSBs layer provides rough depth value distribution, while the LSBs layer records the details of the depth value variation. For the MSBs layer, an error-controllable pixel domain encoding scheme is proposed to exploit the data correlation of the general depth information with sharp edges and to guarantee the data format of LSBs layer is 8 b after taking the quantization error from MSBs layer. For the LSBs layer, standard 8-b image/video codec is leveraged to perform the compression. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed coding scheme can achieve real-time depth compression with satisfactory reconstruction quality. Moreover, the compressed depth data generated from this scheme can achieve better performance in view synthesis and gesture recognition applications compared with the conventional coding schemes because of the error control algorithm.